WorldWideScience

Sample records for systematic tire pressure

  1. Improvement of wheel skidder tractive performance by tire inflation pressure and tire chains

    Stoilov, Stanimir

    2007-01-01

    The motion resistance ratio, gross traction ratio and net traction ratio of a wheel cable skidder were determined and mathematical models derived for three tire inflation pressure values with or without tire chains on forest road in mountainous conditions. The motion resistance ratio increases with the increase of tire inflation pressure. On the contrary, the gross traction ratio increases with the decrease of tire inflation pressure. However, when the tires are equipped with tire chains t...

  2. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  3. Full-scale aicraft tire pressure tests

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests focus on pressures from 15 to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of current ai...

  4. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the tire pressure influence on the lateral forces that occur between tire and road

    Cordoş, N.; Todoruţ, A.; Barabás, I.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to capture the behavior of a vehicle on a race circuit, depending on the different inflation pressures of the tires (underpressure and overpressure). Taking into account that in the cornering the forces and the moments of inertia rise due the vehicle mass, and an inertial force decomposes in two components, one in the longitudinal plane and one in the transverse plane, the work aims the assessing the lateral forces that appear, to the contact between the tires and the tread, depending on the inflation pressure. The results have a graphic interpretation, enabling a comparative study of them. Results have been obtained regarding the lateral tire forces that occur between the tire and the road. The differences between these forces were particularly noticeable in cornering, and the differences between these forces were interpreted according to the tire inflation pressure.

  6. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks

  7. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  8. Tires

    2015-12-15

    measure heat from the casing. Tread surface temperature. Tread (surface) infrared temperature can be inconsistent since the measurements are...have any adverse effect on rubber products. b. Avoid areas that are wet, humid, oily, greasy, or in direct sunlight. Do not store tires in the...used, from sticking to the tire. Do not let soapstone accumulate in the tire. Inspect and clean the tire beads to remove corrosion or residual rubber

  9. Tire

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  10. Effect of Tire Pressure to Physical Workload at Operating a Manual Wheelchair.

    Booka, Masayuki; Yoneda, Ikuo; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Lee, Hokyoo; Oku, Hidehisa; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    It is often experienced that low tire pressure of the wheelchair not only increases running resistance, but also reduces parking brake performance. In this study, the required driving forces for different tire pressures were experimentally measured and evaluated. It was indicated from the result that the wheelchair with proper tire pressure could be run with less workload of wheelchair-user. Then it was also indicated that the wheelchair with a lower tire pressure needed more workload of wheelchair-user even on hard level surface.

  11. Development and applicability estimation of the tire contact pressure measurement system; Tire secchiatsukei no kaihatsu to oyosei hyoka

    Mizutani, Y.; Amago, T.; Takahashi, T.; Sakuma, S.; Mori, N. [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Aichi (Japan); Nagae, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Yasuoka, M. [Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    A pressure sensor more reliable than the conventional types and a tire pressure measurement system using a plurality of sensors of the said reliable type have been developed. The sensor is an inverted T in shape, the upper surface of the vertical beam thereof receives the pressure, and the two ends of the horizontal beam are fixed. The load per unit area imposed on the pressure receiving surface is separated into three components, the X and Y components in the tangential direction are sensed by the vertical beam while the Z component in the vertical direction is sensed by a distortion gauge attached to the horizontal beam. For the measurement of the contact pressure distribution for the entire contact surface, a measuring device was developed, comprising a multiple point contact pressure gauge with 30 sensors of the reliable type discussed here embedded therein, a tire rolling tester, and a data processing unit. A tire wear estimation test was conducted using this pressure sensor and a contact probe type slip sensor, and it was found that a tire of a greater friction energy ratio is easier to experience abnormal abrasion and that the new pressure sensor is useful in estimating abnormal abrasion. Further, it was indicated that the present measuring device is applicable to the analysis of the mechanism wherein shaft force results from contact pressure on the soil. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Assessment of wheel propeller contact pressure upon soil with use of tire universal performance

    Z. A. Godzhaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A maximum contact pressure is a key parameter characterizing a level of ecological impact of tractor propellers on the soil. The maximum pressure upon the soil varies with internal pressure in tires and vertical load of a wheel. An universal tire performance can be used at an assessment of change of contact pressure of a wheel propeller upon the soil. The authors offered a technique of definition and regulation of the maximum contact pressure of the wheel propeller upon the basic basis. This technique allows to set parameters for monitoring systems and regulation of the maximum pressure upon the soil by measurement of a tire deflection and change of pressure in tires. At statistical tests for determination of the maximum contact pressure it is necessary to consider the universal performance of the tire nomographically. This nomogram allows to consider visually influence of loading and internal pressure in the tire on a size of the maximum contact pressure. An internal pressure decrease in the tire makes it possible to reduce the maximum pressure upon the soil at constant loading. The authors investigated universal performances of the tires in the range of change of internal air pressure from 160 to 90 kPas. Change of internal pressure from 150 to 100 kPas reduce for the tire 15,5R38 the maximum contact pressure upon 13 kPas (9,6 percent: from 135 to 122 kPas. That corresponds to the admissible level of pressure upon the soil at its humidity in a layer of 0-30 cm: 0,5-0,6 minimum moisture-holding capacity during the spring period and 0,6-0,7 minimum moisture-holding capacity during the autumn period. In case of use of the tire 16,9R38 the maximum pressure upon the soil decreases from 84 to 75 kPas, that is by 10,4 percent.

  13. Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire Pressure Monitoring System

    Kai-Ying Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis, the results indicate a significant positive relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the protection afforded them by using TPMS.

  14. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  15. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... following statement in English: Each tire, including the spare (if provided), should be checked monthly when... level to trigger illumination of the TPMS low tire pressure telltale. [The following paragraph is.... If necessary, drive the vehicle until the telltale has extinguished. (o) The test may be repeated...

  16. Tire-rim interface pressure of a commercial vehicle wheel under radial loads: theory and experiment

    Wan, Xiaofei; Shan, Yingchun; Liu, Xiandong; He, Tian; Wang, Jiegong

    2017-11-01

    The simulation of the radial fatigue test of a wheel has been a necessary tool to improve the design of the wheel and calculate its fatigue life. The simulation model, including the strong nonlinearity of the tire structure and material, may produce accurate results, but often leads to a divergence in calculation. Thus, a simplified simulation model in which the complicated tire model is replaced with a tire-wheel contact pressure model is used extensively in the industry. In this paper, a simplified tire-rim interface pressure model of a wheel under a radial load is established, and the pressure of the wheel under different radial loads is tested. The tire-rim contact behavior affected by the radial load is studied and analyzed according to the test result, and the tire-rim interface pressure extracted from the test result is used to evaluate the simplified pressure model and the traditional cosine function model. The results show that the proposed model may provide a more accurate prediction of the wheel radial fatigue life than the traditional cosine function model.

  17. Load and inflation pressure effects on soil compaction of forwarder tires

    Tim McDonald; Tom Way; Bjorn Lofgren; Fernando Seixas; Mats Landstrom

    1996-01-01

    A standard forwarder tire (600/55-26.5) was tested to determine its range of soil compaction with various inflation pressures and dynamic loads. Past research has shown that compaction of heavier equipment can be somewhat mitigated by operating with lower inflation pressures. Results indicated a significant effect of both load and inflation pressure on bulk density,...

  18. Piezoelectric power generation for sensor applications: design of a battery-less wireless tire pressure sensor

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-06-01

    An in-wheel wireless and battery-less piezo-powered tire pressure sensor is developed. Where conventional battery powered Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) are marred by the limited battery life, TPMS based on power harvesting modules provide virtually unlimited sensor life. Furthermore, the elimination of a permanent energy reservoir simplifies the overall sensor design through the exclusion of extra circuitry required to sense vehicle motion and conserve precious battery capacity during vehicle idling periods. In this paper, two design solutions are presented, 1) with very low cost highly flexible piezoceramic (PZT) bender elements bonded directly to the tire to generate power required to run the sensor and, 2) a novel rim mounted PZT harvesting unit that can be used to power pressure sensors incorporated into the valve stem requiring minimal change to the presently used sensors. While both the designs eliminate the use of environmentally unfriendly battery from the TPMS design, they offer advantages of being very low cost, service free and easily replaceable during tire repair and replacement.

  19. Measurement of Vehicle-Bridge-Interaction force using dynamic tire pressure monitoring

    Chen, Zhao; Xie, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The Vehicle-Bridge-Interaction (VBI) force, i.e., the normal contact force of a tire, is a key component in the VBI mechanism. The VBI force measurement can facilitate experimental studies of the VBI as well as input-output bridge structural identification. This paper introduces an innovative method for calculating the interaction force by using dynamic tire pressure monitoring. The core idea of the proposed method combines the ideal gas law and a basic force model to build a relationship between the tire pressure and the VBI force. Then, unknown model parameters are identified by the Extended Kalman Filter using calibration data. A signal filter based on the wavelet analysis is applied to preprocess the effect that the tire rotation has on the pressure data. Two laboratory tests were conducted to check the proposed method's validity. The effects of different road irregularities, loads and forward velocities were studied. Under the current experiment setting, the proposed method was robust to different road irregularities, and the increase in load and velocity benefited the performance of the proposed method. A high-speed test further supported the use of this method in rapid bridge tests. Limitations of the derived theories and experiment were also discussed.

  20. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  1. Investigation of the impact of noise exposure on blood pressure in tire manufacturing workers

    Mohammad Reza Baneshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Noise can cause serious health problems. Regular use of personal health equipments can reduce such problems. This study has been designed to compare the blood pressure of tire manufacturing workers, who were exposed to noise (> 85 db and used personal health equipment, with a control group without noise exposure.    METHODS: In this case-control study, 70 workers who were exposed to noise (case group and 220 workers who were not (control group were recruited. Regular use of personal health equipment was compulsory. LEQ was calculated for both groups. To analyse the data, chi-square test and t-test were implemented. Finally multivariate regression model was developed.    RESULTS: No difference was seen between the groups in terms of basic characteristics (age, years of working, and BMI. Mean systolic blood pressure in case and control groups was 116.6 and 117.5, respectively; giving a P-value of 0.50. Mean diastolic blood pressure in case and control groups was 76.7 and 77.4, respectively; giving a P-value of 0.47. Results indicate no significant difference between blood pressure of cases and control groups.    CONCLUSION: We did not see any significant difference between the blood pressure of those exposed to noise, and regularly using personal health equipment, and those in the control group without noise exposure. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of such equipments.       Keywords: Tires Factory, Blood Pressure, Noise Exposure

  2. Improving mechanical grip on winter tires. Finite element analysis on pressure profile of airless tire compared to conventional tire using ANSYS workbench

    Ludvigsen, Sondre

    2017-01-01

    The harsh climate of the arctic has always been one of the most difficult areas to drive cars in. The severe loss in traction due to snow and icing on the roads, has led to an increased risk of collisions. The winter tires for cars has developed through the years after their introduction in the 1930’s. There have been three revolutionary changes made since then; implement of studs, changing in tread pattern and optimizing rubber characteristics. The implementation of studs is being shied away...

  3. Tire Log™

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    The Tire Log™ is a patented innovation made from waste tires with a unique and energy efficient approach to recycling tires. Re-Tread Products (RTP) process takes full advantage of the embedded energy in tires that is wasted in conventional tire recycling that primarily involves the grinding, burying or burning of waste tires.

  4. Tyre noise predictions from computed road surface texture induced contact pressure; Romen no outotsu ni kiinsuru sesshoku atsuryoku ni yoru tire soon no suitei

    Mikami, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A method for tire/road noise prediction is studied based on the result of road surface profile measurement (horizontal direction measurement interval 3mm, horizontal direction measurement accuracy 8{mu}m, distance measured 1655m, using a laser-aided profile meter). The obtained road surface profile is used for the calculation of contact pressure that occurs between the tire tread and road surface (using the 2-dimensional calculation model of Clapp et al.). For the examination of the relationship between the contact pressure and generated noise, tire noise is measured using a microphone array provided near the tire circumference. The frequency spectral ratio between the generated noise and contact pressure is determined as a transmission function. It may be said that the transmission function is unique to the tire, not dependent on the road surface profile. The road surface profile is determined by use of the transmission function, and this enables the prediction of the noise from the tire. Noises were measured on several kinds of road surfaces different in coarseness for a passenger car and truck, and the values from these actual measurements are compared with the predicted values, and then it is found that the prediction model is valid. (NEDO)

  5. Design optimization under uncertainty and speed variability for a piezoelectric energy harvester powering a tire pressure monitoring sensor

    Toghi Eshghi, Amin; Lee, Soobum; Kazem Sadoughi, Mohammad; Hu, Chao; Kim, Young-Cheol; Seo, Jong-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Energy harvesting (EH) technologies to power small sized electronic devices are attracting great attention. Wasted energy in a vehicle’s rotating tire has a great potential to enable self-powered tire pressure monitoring sensors (TPMS). Piezoelectric type energy harvesters can be used to collect vibrational energy and power such systems. Due to the presence of harsh acceleration in a rotating tire, a design tradeoff needs to be studied to prolong the harvester’s fatigue life as well as to ensure sufficient power generation. However, the design by traditional deterministic design optimization (DDO) does not show reliable performance due to the lack of consideration of various uncertainty factors (e.g., manufacturing tolerances, material properties, and loading conditions). In this study, we address a new EH design formulation that considers the uncertainty in car speed, dimensional tolerances and material properties, and solve this design problem using reliability-based design optimization (RBDO). The RBDO problem is formulated to maximize compactness and minimize weight of a TPMS harvester while satisfying power and durability requirements. A transient analysis has been done to measure the time varying response of EH such as power generation, dynamic strain, and stress. A conservative design formulation is proposed to consider the expected power from varied speed and stress at higher speed. When compared to the DDO, the RBDO results show that the reliability of EH is increased significantly by scarifying the objective function. Finally, experimental test has been conducted to demonstrate the merits of RBDO design over DDO.

  6. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  7. Spring Tire

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  8. Pressão de insuflagem dos pneus no desempenho do conjunto trator-grade de discos Tire inflation pressure effects on tractor disc harrow performance

    João Manuel Pereira Ramalho Serrano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pressão de insuflagem dos pneus nos parâmetros de desempenho do conjunto trator-grade de discos. As pressões avaliadas foram: 100 kPa nos pneus da frente e 70 kPa nos pneus atrás; 140 kPa nos quatro pneus; 190 kPa nos quatro pneus. Os testes de um trator com grades de discos foram desenvolvidos em condições de campo, em solos de textura franca, mobilizados e secos. Os parâmetros de avaliação foram: o patinamento, a velocidade, a capacidade de trabalho, a eficiência energética global e o consumo de combustível por hectare. Entre as situações de pressão de insuflagem dos pneus indicadas pelo fabricante do trator e a pressão de insuflagem indicada pelo fabricante dos pneus, não se verificam diferenças significativas, tanto na capacidade de trabalho como no consumo de combustível por hectare. A utilização de elevadas pressões de insuflagem dos pneus conduz a uma redução da ordem de 3 a 5% na capacidade de trabalho e um aumento significativo entre 10 e 25% do consumo de combustível por hectare, mesmo em condições de boa aderência dos pneus, refletidas no intervalo de 7 a 15% de patinamento registrados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the tire inflation pressure effects on tractor disc harrow performance. The pressures tested were: 100 kPa in front tires and 70 kPa in rear tires; 140 kPa in the tires of both axles; 190 kPa in the tires of both axles. Field tests with disc harrow in secondary tillage were performed under real working conditions, in tilled and dry medium textured soils. The evaluation parameters were: the slip, the actual forward speed, the work capacity, the overall energy efficiency and the fuel consumption per hectare. Concerning the situations of tire inflation pressure specified by the tractor manufacturer and the inflation pressure specified by the tire manufacturer, there were no significant differences, both in work capacity and in fuel

  9. Influence of tire inflating pressure at dynamic forces acting on articulated trolleybus

    Polach Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ŠKODA VÝZKUM s.r.o. cooperated on the development of the NEOPLAN DMA low-floor articulated trolleybus intended for the Boston city. Multibody models and finite element models of the trolleybus were utilized in the stage of the vehicle design. At the end of the stage of computer modelling and testing of the trolleybus prototype a decision to reduce tire inflating of vehicles in serial production (together with the change the type of shock absorbers used in trolleybus suspension was made. The impact of this change on forces acting in the trolleybus suspension elements (i.e. in air springs and shock absorbers and radius rods on the trolleybus chassis when running on an uneven test track was investigated using multibody simulations. Time histories of the forces calculated utilising multibody models were used as input data of the trolleybus finite element models.

  10. Configurations Of Tire Pressure On The Pavement For Commercial Vehicles: Calculation Of The ‘N’ Number And The Consequences On Pavement Performance

    Paulo Boulos Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic has a high variety of types of vehicles and cargo transported. One of the main difficulties in pavement design is forecasting the changes in traffic over time and evaluating the comparative deterioration power of the various loads with axle and tire settings and different levels of repetition. The road environment in Brazil, as we know, is the main means of the country's cargo transportation. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s the road modal accounted for over 60% of the total cargo transported in the country leaving the unbalanced Brazilian transport matrix with almost exclusive investments in such means of transportation. According to CNT 2012, which conducted a survey in approximately 45% of the paved network, evaluating the pavement functional conditions, traffic signs and geometry, 46% of the country’s road network has some type of deficiency in the pavement. The goal of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the complex influence of traffic in the design and service life of the pavement. The load pressure of commercial vehicle tires over the pavement has increased in recent decades. A more apparent effect of this increase in tire pressure would be the change in the pavement- tire contact area which in turn may result in an increase in the contact load between tire and pavement and other harmful effects on the structure. This study aims to determine the effect on the calculation of the N number, or the number of solicitations of the standard axle on the road pavement, measuring the overload as a percentage of the legal load indicated by a scale. In short, we calculate how an increase in the overload percentage in comparison with the allowable load will influence the decrease of the calculated durability of the pavement designed for the highway.

  11. Investigation of the Effects of Tire Inflation Pressure and Forward Speed of Driven Wheel on Horizontal Impact of Passing Rectangular Obstacle

    H Mohammadzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tire-mechanics models have been developed for the study of wheel movement on the road or soil surface while these models are unlikely to describe the motion of wheels on uneven surfaces. Due to dynamical complexity of this phenomena and the importance of this subject for farm conditions and the wheel carrier devices, the present research aimed to investigate the effects of several parameters on the wheel passing the obstacle. The experiments were carried out using single wheel tester in soil bin condition. The results indicated a relatively linear relationship between the impact force applied on tire and forward speed of wheel and also the height of rectangular obstacle. The effect of inflation pressure was inversed in the range of complete formed tire’s body on impact force and in low levels of tire inflation pressure; tire’s body damps the maximum impact forces. The medium levels of pressure (about 150-200 kPa resulted in less horizontal force that applied on the wheel for different levels of forward speed and obstacle’s height. Tractive force for passing obstacle was increased by raising forward speed and the obstacle’s height.

  12. Tire Recycling

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  13. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    2010-10-01

    ... without interruption. (e) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire inflation...) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire inflation pressure. Remove the tire... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor...

  14. Performance of an agricultural tractor in no tillage as a function of displacement speed and the seeders' tire inflation pressure

    Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli; Cortez, Jorge Wilson; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Toledo, Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlani@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    The performance of an agricultural tractor under field conditions results from the tire wheel interaction together with its displacement speed. This work was developed to assess the performance of an agricultural tractor under the (75, 70, and 60 psi) tire inflation pressure conditions of a seeder and in two different gears providing speeds of 3.0 and 6.0 km h{sup -1}. The experiment took place at Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), at the Jaboticabal Campus, and was conducted by Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization (LAMMA) at the Department of Rural Engineering. The delineation used was entirely randomized in a 2-factor factorial scheme (3 x 2) with 4 repetitions. We also observed that fuel consumption was influenced only by the tractor gear. Energy consumption was greater as speed increased, caused by gear shifting. The displacement speed was greater for the 75-psi pressure due to a lesser slippage in the seeder when under this pressure. Tractor slippage and initial stand did not change with the tested factors. (author)

  15. Riding on air: critical safety information for you and your tires

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This booklet is issued for public distribution by Transport Canada. It provides a few simple tips concerning automobile tire safety which, if followed, is expected to result in increased personal and vehicle safety, improved fuel economy, prolonged tire life, energy savings and reduced environmental pollution. The information provided include tips about tire pressure, tire inspection for damage and wear, rotation of tires for more even wear, replacing worn tires, the advantages of using snow tires in winter and an explanation of the meaning of the information found on the tire sidewall.

  16. Mechanical Properties Experimental Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The vehicle refurbished tire test system was constructed, got load-deformation, load-stiffness, and load-compression ratio property laws of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact, and built radial direction loading deformation mathematics model of 26.5R25 engineering vehicle refurbished tire. The test results show that radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. The radial-direction stiffness and compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire were greatly influenced by radial-direction load and air inflation pressure. When load was certain, radial-direction stiffness would increase with air inflation pressure increasing. When air inflation pressure was certain, compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire would enlarge with radial-direction load increasing, which was a little less than that of the new and the same type tire. Aging degree of old car-case would exert a great influence on deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire, thus engineering vehicle refurbished tires are suitable to the working condition of low tire pressure and less load.

  17. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  18. Analysis of Tire Contact Parameters Using Visual Processing

    Valentin Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the results of experimental estimation of the contact patch area depending on the normal wheel load and inflation pressure for different car tires. The data were obtained for test bench conditions on the basis of the visual processing of tread footprint. Further, the contact length in the cohesion area during wheel rolling for single points on the tire profile has been chosen as a benchmark criterion. This paper has analyzed the influence of the wheel normal load and tire inflation pressure on the contact length with small rolling velocities. The results of the investigations are given for winter and racing tires with different grades of wear.

  19. Tire Shred Backfill in Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall Applications

    Balunaini, Umashankar; Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Salgado, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Tire shred-soil mixture backfill for use in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls has several advantages over traditional backfill materials: 1) good drainage, 2) high shear strength, 3) low compacted unit weight and 4) low lateral pressure exerted on retaining structures. This work presents the results of laboratory tests performed on tire shred-sand mixtures focusing on determining the properties required for their use as backfill in MSE wall applications. Three sizes of tire shreds are...

  20. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  1. Static tests of constructive tires using hydraulic press on the soil

    Machado,Thiago M.; Lanças,Kléber P.; Oliveira Junior,Mauro B. de; Artioli,José A.; Marasca,Indiamara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The power consumption and load capacity of agricultural machines have grown and the effects of pressure on the soil by tires have been still little investigated. In concern with sustainable development, the relationship machine-tire-soil must be in balance to give more consistency on the best use of tires for a given load. This study aimed to evaluate four tires of two constructive types, the bias belted tires and radial tires, both with respective rim diameters of 22.5 and 26.5 inch...

  2. Tire safety : everything rides on it

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents a comprehensive overview of tire safety, including information on the following topics: basic tire maintenance; Uniform Tire Quality Grading System; fundamental characteristics of tires; and tire safety tips.

  3. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  4. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    2015-08-21

    1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system

  5. Evaluation of Tire/Surfacing/Base Contact Stresses and Texture Depth

    W.J.vdM. Steyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire rolling resistance has a major impact on vehicle fuel consumption. Rolling resistance is the loss of energy due to the interaction between the tire and the pavement surface. This interaction is a complicated combination of stresses and strains which depend on both tire and pavement related factors. These include vehicle speed, vehicle weight, tire material and type, road camber, tire inflation pressure, pavement surfacing texture etc. In this paper the relationship between pavement surface texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress and area is investigated. Texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress were measured for a range of tire inflation pressures on five different pavement surfaces. In the analysis the relationship between texture and the generated contact stresses as well as the contact stress between the surfacing and base layer are presented and discussed, and the anticipated effect of these relationships on the rolling resistance of vehicles on the surfacings, and subsequent vehicle fuel economy discussed.

  6. 77 FR 11190 - Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2012-02-24

    ..., endurance and low inflation pressure performance. The tires also meet all of the physical dimension...-0115; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance...: Yokohama Tire Company (YTC),\\1\\ has determined that certain P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger car...

  7. 75 FR 51524 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2010-08-20

    ... low inflation pressure performance. The tires also meet all of the physical dimension, resistance to...-0115; Notice 1] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Yokohama Tire Corporation (YTC) \\1\\ has determined that certain P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger...

  8. Low vs Standard Pressures in Gynecologic Laparoscopy: a Systematic Review.

    Kyle, Esther B; Maheux-Lacroix, Sarah; Boutin, Amélie; Laberge, Philippe Y; Lemyre, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    The optimal intraperitoneal pressure during laparoscopy is not known. Recent literature found benefits of using lower pressures, but the safety of doing abdominal surgery with low peritoneal pressures needs to be assessed. This systematic review compares low with standard pneumoperitoneum during gynecologic laparoscopy. We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing intraperitoneal pressures during gynecologic laparoscopy. Two authors reviewed references and extracted data from included trials. Risk ratios, mean differences, and standard mean differences were calculated and pooled using RevMan5. Of 2251 studies identified, three were included in the systematic review, for a total of 238 patients. We found a statistically significant but modest diminution in postoperative pain of 0.38 standardized unit based on an original 10-point scale (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.67 to -0.08) during the immediate postoperative period when using low intraperitoneal pressure of 8 mm Hg compared with ≥ 12 mm Hg and of 0.50 (95% CI, -0.80 to -0.21) 24 hours after the surgery. Lower pressures were associated with worse visualization of the surgical field (risk ratio, 10.31; 95% CI, 1.29-82.38). We found no difference between groups over blood loss, duration of surgery, hospital length of stay, or the need for increased pressure. Low intraperitoneal pressures during gynecologic laparoscopy cannot be recommended on the behalf of this review because improvement in pain scores is minimal and visualization of the surgical field is affected. The safety of this intervention as well as cost-effectiveness considerations need to be further studied.

  9. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  10. Vibration Analysis of a Tire in Ground Contact under Varied Conditions

    Karakus Murat; Cavus Aydin; Colakoglu Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The effect of three different factors, which are inflation pressure, vertical load and coefficient of friction on the natural frequencies of a tire (175/70 R13) has been studied. A three dimensional tire model is constructed, using four different material properties and parts in the tire. Mechanical properties of the composite parts are evaluated. After investigating the free vibration, contact analysis is carried out. A concrete block and the tire are modelled together, using three different...

  11. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  12. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  13. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    Kotchon, A; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  14. Studless Winter Tires

    1976-01-01

    Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company developed a material for Johnson Space Center used as parachute shrouds to soft land the Vikings through the tenuous Martian atmosphere and has been adapted to new radial tire five times stronger than steel. Fiber has a chain-like molecular structure that gives it incredible strength in proportion to its weight. Material is expected to increase tread life by 10,000 miles.

  15. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  16. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  17. Evaluation of substitution monopole models for tire noise sound synthesis

    Berckmans, D.; Kindt, P.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the considerable efforts in engine noise reduction, tire noise has become one of the major sources of passenger car noise nowadays and the demand for accurate prediction models is high. A rolling tire is therefore experimentally characterized by means of the substitution monopole technique, suiting a general sound synthesis approach with a focus on perceived sound quality. The running tire is substituted by a monopole distribution covering the static tire. All monopoles have mutual phase relationships and a well-defined volume velocity distribution which is derived by means of the airborne source quantification technique; i.e. by combining static transfer function measurements with operating indicator pressure measurements close to the rolling tire. Models with varying numbers/locations of monopoles are discussed and the application of different regularization techniques is evaluated.

  18. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  19. Dietary protein and blood pressure: a systematic review.

    Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure (BP, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, including protein from various sources, in relation to human BP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a MEDLINE search and a manual search to identify English language studies on the association between protein and blood pressure, published before June 2010. A total of 46 papers met the inclusion criteria. Most observational studies showed no association or an inverse association between total dietary protein and BP or incident hypertension. Results of biomarker studies and randomized controlled trials indicated a beneficial effect of protein on BP. This beneficial effect may be mainly driven by plant protein, according to results in observational studies. Data on protein from specific sources (e.g. from fish, dairy, grain, soy, and nut were scarce. There was some evidence that BP in people with elevated BP and/or older age could be more sensitive to dietary protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of protein on BP, especially for plant protein. A blood pressure lowering effect of protein may have important public health implications. However, this warrants further investigation in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, more data are needed on protein from specific sources in relation to BP, and on the protein-BP relation in population subgroups.

  20. The influence of the tire inflation on pull properties of agriculture tractors

    Jakub Katrenčík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural tractors are robust and versatile machines, which must comply with the basic requirements of users under various conditions. The main requirements include economical and reliable operation and high performance. Fuel economy could be improved using multiple methods, for example a well trained operator, adequate farming conditions and optimal tire inflation. Tractor tires transmit engine power to the surface and as such they are crucial to tractor operation. In the first part of the field measurement, all tires were inflated to 180kPa, while in the second part of the field measurements the tire pressure was set to 75kPa in front tires and to 65 kPa in rear tires. The results of the field measurement of the John Deere 6920S tractor with different tire inflation shows that pull performance increased by 9.9% and wheel slip decreased by 9.7%.

  1. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Anzabi, R Vaghar; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  2. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  3. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Shengze Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.

  4. Studies Comparing Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Home Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Shimbo, Daichi; Abdalla, Marwah; Falzon, Louise; Townsend, Raymond R.; Muntner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is more commonly recommended for assessing out-of-clinic blood pressure than home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM). We conducted a systematic review to examine whether ABPM or HBPM is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease events and/or mortality. Of 1,007 abstracts published through July 20, 2015, nine articles, reporting results from seven cohorts, were identified. After adjustment for blood pressure on HBPM, blood pressure on ABPM was associated with an increased risk of outcomes in two of four cohorts for systolic blood pressure and two of three cohorts for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for blood pressure on ABPM, systolic blood pressure on HBPM was associated with outcomes in zero of three cohorts; an association was present in one of two cohorts for diastolic blood pressure on HBPM. There is a lack of strong empiric evidence supporting ABPM or HBPM over the other approach for predicting cardiovascular events or mortality. PMID:26822864

  5. Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure: a systematic review of definitional criteria.

    Rose, Louise; Hawkins, Martyn

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the definitional criteria for the pressure-limited and time-cycled modes: airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) available in the published literature. Systematic review. Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases (1982-2006) were searched using the following terms: APRV, BIPAP, Bilevel and lung protective strategy, individually and in combination. Two independent reviewers determined the paper eligibility and abstracted data from 50 studies and 18 discussion articles. Of the 50 studies, 39 (78%) described APRV, and 11 (22%) described BIPAP. Various study designs, populations, or outcome measures were investigated. Compared to BIPAP, APRV was described more frequently as extreme inverse inspiratory:expiratory ratio [18/39 (46%) vs. 0/11 (0%), P = 0.004] and used rarely as a noninverse ratio [2/39 (5%) vs. 3/11 (27%), P = 0.06]. One (9%) BIPAP and eight (21%) APRV studies used mild inverse ratio (>1:1 to branding may further add to confusion. Generic naming of modes and consistent definitional parameters may improve consistency of patient response for a given mode and assist with clinical implementation.

  6. Social support and nocturnal blood pressure dipping: a systematic review.

    Fortmann, Addie L; Gallo, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality than resting BP measurements. Studies have reported associations between social support, variously defined, and BP dipping. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to investigate associations of functional and structural social support with nocturnal BP dipping assessed over a minimum of 24 hours. A total of 297 articles were identified. Of these, 11 met criteria for inclusion; all studies were cross-sectional in design and included adult participants only (mean age = 19 to 72 years). Evidence was most consistent for an association between functional support and BP dipping, such that 5 of 7 studies reported statistically (or marginally) significant positive associations with BP dipping. Statistically significant functional support-BP dipping associations were moderate (standardized effect size (d) = 0.41) to large (d = 2.01) in magnitude. Studies examining structural support were fewer and relatively less consistent; however, preliminary evidence was observed for associations of marital status and social contact frequency with BP dipping. Statistically significant structural support findings were medium (d = 0.53) to large (d = 1.13) in magnitude. Overall, findings suggest a link between higher levels of functional support and greater nocturnal BP dipping; preliminary evidence was also observed for the protective effects of marriage and social contact frequency. Nonetheless, the relatively small number of studies conducted to date and the heterogeneity of findings across meaningful subgroups suggest that additional research is needed to substantiate these conclusions.

  7. SIMULATION AND INVESTIGATION OF TIRE TREAD BLOCKS INTERACTION WITH ICE

    Andrius Ružinskas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The car tire is an essential subject analysing its interaction with the road. From tire’s tread condition, geometry and rubber compound depends grip and vehicle stability. This is especially relevant in winter time, when roads are covered with the layer of snow or ice. Generally, new tires are tested in real traffic conditions using vehicles. However, ensuring these conditions requires many resources and sometimes it could be a big challenge. For this reason, simulation of the tire interaction with the road becomes more important in nowadays tire researches. Since the tire is a complex engineering subject, the tire tread blocks could be separated for individual analysis. The interaction between the dry ice and the tread block with sipes was analysed using finite element analysis. The tread block was described using hyperelastic Mooney­Rivlin material model. The deformations, distribution of the contact pressure and shear stresses were obtained for the soft and hard rubber compounds with different vertical load conditions. Also a solid tread block interaction was analysed and it was found that values of contact pressure and shear stresses are much lower comparing to siped tread block.

  8. Tire deflation device

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  9. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  10. Michelin tire baby syndrome

    Rita V Vora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS, is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by generalized folding of excess skin and may be associated with various phenotypic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. Various congenital anomalies can be associated with it. It may be a clinical finding associated with various syndromes. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, and skin folds gradually diminish and disappear with age without any intervention. Here, we report a case of MTBS associated with convergent squint and hydrocephaly.

  11. Blood pressure and hypertension in athletes: a systematic review.

    Berge, H M; Isern, C B; Berge, E

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is reported to be the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in elite athletes. We aimed to review blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension in different elite athletes, and study whether there was an association between high BP and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A systematic review of studies reporting BP in athletes using search strategies developed for PubMed and EMBASE, including only studies with ≥100 participants. We collected data on BP, prevalence of hypertension, LVH and methods of BP measurement. Of 3723 records identified, 51 met the inclusion criteria. These included men and women (n=138,390), aged mostly between 18 and 40 years, from varied sports disciplines. Mean systolic BP varied from 109±11 to 138±7 mm Hg and mean diastolic BP from 57±12 to 92±10 mm Hg. Strength-trained athletes had higher BP than endurance-trained athletes (131.3±5.3/77.3±1.4 vs 118.6±2.8/71.8±1.2 mm Hg, phypertension varied from 0% to 83%. Some studies showed an association between high BP and LVH. Measurement methods were poorly standardised. BP and prevalence of hypertension in athletes varied considerably partly because of variations in methodology, but type and intensity of training may contribute towards higher BP. High BP may be associated with LVH. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  13. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2012-02-22

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0054; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper) \\1\\, has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car...

  14. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner...

  15. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2011-05-17

    ...-0054; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car replacement tires manufactured between January 23, 2011 and March 26, 2011, do not fully comply...

  16. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a systematic review

    Maryam Alinezhad-Namaghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims and fasting in this month is the rule for any healthy matured person. Nutritional and behavioral changes occurred during Ramadan fasting may lead to several physiological change, such as blood pressure (2. Studies evaluated the effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients, are scarce and reported inadequate results. In this paper a systematic review was performed to accumulate the results of published literature designed to evaluate blood pressure changes in hypertensive patients due to Ramadan fasting. All prospective, English studies which evaluated the effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients and measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure twice at least ( before Ramadan and during last week of Ramadan or after Ramadan fasting were included in systematic review . Five studies reported the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in full text. Although significant reduction in systolic blood pressure during Ramadan fasting were seen in 3 studies (3-5, other 3 studies reported no significant difference between systolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan fasting (6, 7. Among 6 studies that reviewed in this paper, 4 studies reported no significant changes in diastolic blood pressure (4, 6, 7. While 2 other studies reported significant reduction in systolic blood pressure after Ramadan fasting (3, 5. This systematic review suggested that Ramadan fasting can be safe in treated essential hypertensive patients with continuation of previous medications. Also it can improve systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

  17. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  18. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  20. Airplane tire inspection by image processing techniques

    Jovancevic , Igor; Arafat , Al; Orteu , Jean-José; Sentenac , Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect and inspect airplane tires. We use normalized correlation based template matching to detect tires and GrabCut segmentation method to extract them from the background. We inspect the tires condition by investigating the tire treads. Ridge based intensity profiling gives satisfying inspection results.

  1. NUMERICAL MODELLING AND EXPERIMENTAL INFLATION VALIDATION OF A BIAS TWO-WHEEL TIRE

    CHUNG KET THEIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric study on the development of a computational model for bias two-wheel tire through finite element analysis (FEA. An 80/90- 17 bias two-wheel tire was adopted which made up of four major layers of rubber compound with different material properties to strengthen the structure. Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model was applied to represent the behaviour of incompressible rubber compound. A 3D tire model was built for structural static finite element analysis. The result was validated from the inflation analysis. Structural static finite element analysis method is suitable for evaluation of the tire design and improvement of the tire behaviour to desired performance. Experimental tire was inflated at various pressures and the geometry between numerical and experimental tire were compared. There are good agreements between numerical simulation model and the experiment results. This indicates that the simulation model can be applied to the bias two-wheel tire design in order to predict the tire behaviour and improve its mechanical characteristics.

  2. Optimization of an Optical Test Bench for Tire Properties Measurement and Tread Defects Characterization

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire characteristics and behavior are of great importance in vehicle dynamics since the forces transmitted in the tire-road contact are the main contributors to global vehicle performance. Several research groups have focused on the study and modeling of tires. Some of the most important factors that need to be known are tread characteristics and pressure distribution in the tire-ground contact patch. In this work, a test bench has been used to adequately determine the aforementioned factors. The measurement principle of the test bench is the frustration of total internal reflection (FTIR of light. It makes use of a laterally illuminated glass on which the tire leans. An interposed plastic interface between them causes the reflection of light. Finally, a video camera captures the bright image formed through the glass. The brightness level in each pixel of the image is related to existing normal pressure. A study of the parameters that affect the test bench calibration such as type of interface material used, diffuse light, hysteresis, creep and transverse light absorption is performed. Experimental tests are conducted to relate tire inflation pressure and camber angle to the pressure distribution. Furthermore, the test bench is used to detect and evaluate the influence of defects in the tire on the contact pressures.

  3. Clinical use of interface pressure to predict pressure ulcer development: A systematic review

    Reenalda, Jasper; Jannink, M.J.A.; Nederhand, Marcus Johannes; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2009-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a large problem in subjects who use a wheelchair for their mobility. These ulcers originate beneath the bony prominences of the pelvis and progress outward as a consequence of prolonged pressure. Interface pressure is used clinically to predict and prevent pressure ulcers.

  4. Reference Values for Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Systematic Review

    Isabela MB Sclauser Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement.

  5. Systematic impact of institutional pressures on safety climate in the construction industry.

    He, Qinghua; Dong, Shuang; Rose, Timothy; Li, Heng; Yin, Qin; Cao, Dongping

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores how three types of institutional pressure (i.e., coercive, mimetic and normative pressures) systematically impact on the safety climate of construction projects. These impacts are empirically tested by survey data collected from 186 questionnaires of construction companies operating in Shanghai, China. The results, obtained by partial least squares analysis, show that organizational management commitment to safety and employee involvement is positively related to all three institutional pressures, while the perception of responsibility for safety and health is significantly influenced by coercive and mimetic pressure. However, coercive and normative pressures have no significant effect on the applicability of safety rules and work practices, revealing the importance of external organizational pressures in improving project safety climate from a systematic view. The findings also provide insights into the use of institutional forces to facilitate the improvement of safety climate in the construction industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  7. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  8. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    Miao Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systematic dynamics of tire-pavement contact, and analysis of the tire-road coupled friction mechanism and the effect of enlarging the tire-pavement contact area, road skid resistance was investigated by altering the elastic modulus of asphalt pavement. First, this research constructed the kinetic contact model to simulate tire-pavement friction. Next, the following aspects of contact behaviors were studied when braking: tread deformation in the tangential pavement interface, actual tire-pavement contact in the course, and the frictional braking force transmitted from the pavement to the tires. It was observed that with improvements in pavement elasticity, the actual tire-pavement contact area increased, which gives us the ability to effectively strengthen the frictional adhesion of the tire to the pavement. It should not be overlooked that the improvement in skid resistance was caused by an increase in pavement elasticity. This research approach provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the anti-skid research of asphalt pavements.

  9. Method and apparatus for inspecting tires

    Fox, R.L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting tires by the use of x-rays is disclosed in which a tire is advanced to an inspection station, engaged along opposite bead rims and inflated to axially spread the bead rims and side walls. An x-ray source is advanced axially into the tire and the tire is eccentrically rotated relative to the x-ray source to enable radial positioning of the source relative to the tire near the tire bead rim diameter without requiring radial movement of the x-ray source. The x-ray source produces an x-ray beam which sweeps about the interior of the expanded tire from bead rim to bead rim while the tire is rotated about its centerline. An x-ray detection system detects x-rays which have penetrated the wall and produces inspection information concerning the tire construction. (Patent Office Record)

  10. Grip Analysis of Road Surface and Tire Footprint Using FEM

    Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-02-01

    Road grip involve a touch between road pavement and the tire tread pattern. The load bearing surface, which depends on pavement roughness and local pressures in the contact patch. This research conducted to develop a Finite element model for simulating the experimentally testing of asphalt in Jl. AH Nasution Medan, North Sumatera Indonesia base on the value of grip coefficient from various tire loads and the various speed of the vehicle during contact to the road. A tire model and road pavement are developed for the analyses the geometry of tire footprint. The results showed that the greater the mass of car will increase grip coefficient. The coefficient of grip on the road surface contact trough the tire footprint strongly influence the kinetic coefficient of friction at certain speeds. Experimentally show that Concrete road grip coefficient of more than 34% compared to the asphalt road at the same IRI parameters (6-8). Kinetic friction coefficient more than 0.33 was obtained in a asphalt path at a speed of 30-40 Km/hour.

  11. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  12. Temperature and pressure effects on 40Ar-39Ar systematics

    Ozima, M.; Kaneoka, I.; Yanagisawa, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of thermal and compressional treatment on 40 Ar- 39 Ar systematics have been investigated on three artificially heated biotite samples (heated for 1 hour at 700 0 C and 860 0 C in air and 700 0 C in vacuum respectively) and uniaxially compressed granite (p=1400 bar) and basalt samples (p=1660 bar). The 40 Ar- 39 Ar results for the disturbed samples are compared with those for undisturbed samples. Except for the vacuum-heating case, the effects of the disturbances may be interpreted as the combined effect of a partial loss of radiogenic 40 Ar from the sample and an incorporation of air Ar into the sample. Common diagnostic effects are (1) reduction of the total fusion age, (2) distortion of the age spectrum and, if the degree of the partial Ar loss is small (3) approximate preservation of the isochron age, and (4) reduction of the intercept value ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) in the isochron plot. The features observed in the age spectra of artificially disturbed samples are rather common in geologically disturbed samples, suggesting that the artificial disturbances simulate the effects of geological disturbances on 40 Ar- 39 Ar systematics. (Auth.)

  13. Loading Effect on Tire Noise Radiation

    Cao, Rui; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Noise radiated by tires is a prominent noise pollution source and it is affected by many different parameters. Here, the effect of static load on tire noise radiation in a laboratory environment was investigated. The measurement was conducted by using the Tire Pavement Testing Apparatus (TPTA), on which a loaded tire can be run at speeds up to 50 km/hr; the tire noise was measured using a nearfield microphone method. The tire loading was varied from 500 to 900 pounds, and several different co...

  14. 3rd symposium on tires and chassis; 3. Symposium Reifen und Fahrwerk

    Geringer, B.; Stumpf, H. (comps.)

    2005-07-01

    The present volume contains the talks, which were held at the 3rd symposium on ''Tires and chassis'' at the Institute for combustion machines at the Technical University Vienna on 26th September 2005 in cooperation with UAMTTC and Semperit Reifen Ges.m.H. Apart from technical improvements on chassis, tires and carriageway the overall perspective will get more important in the future, which also includes the driver, the neighbour, the environment and the traffic policy. Due to an increasing number of international participants, discussions can be expected, which will take into consideration extraordinary and manifold perspectives. The third symposium on ''Tires and chassis'' discusses the following developments, of which some are evolutionary. (a) Tire engineering; environmental aspects of tires, roll resistance of tires, driving comfort of tires, winter tires for passenger vehicles and trucks. (b) vehicle engineering, engineering of a race car chassis by means of telemetric measuring data acquisition; simulation of steering wheel vibrations on a complete vehicle test stand. (c) Vehicle steering; chassis of tracklaying vehicles; automatic air pressure control. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of automotive tire construction. Jidosha tire no kozo kaiseki

    Ishihara, K. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper introduces features and trends of analyzing performance and construction of automotive tires. Tires are demanded of high durability, high motion performance, good comfort performance for vibration and noise, and low fuel consumption performance. A feature of analyzing the construction is to execute a modelling assuming that a tire has air-rigid flexible structure and rubber materials show hyperelastic behavior, hypothesizing a strain energy density function. In addition, a tire is highly incompressible. Visco elasticity and anti-friction performance are also important points. Rubber and cord layers have elastic characteristic of three-dimensional perpendicular anisotropy as well as non-linearity with which characteristics change according to transformation. A structural analysis must cover from static analysis to steady dynamic analysis, non-steady dynamic analysis, and eigenvalue analysis. Thermal analysis of tires simulates phenomena by combining dynamical analysis with thermal analysis. Super-computers have now come to be used for formulating equilibrium equations using finite element methods, developing finite elements, and performing heat or visco elasticity analysis and applied analysis. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a systematic review

    Maryam Alinezhad-Namaghi; Maryam Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims and fasting in this month is the rule for any healthy matured person. Nutritional and behavioral changes occurred during Ramadan fasting may lead to several physiological change, such as blood pressure (2). Studies evaluated the effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients, are scarce and reported inadequate results. In this paper a systematic review was performed to accumulate the results of published literature designed to evaluat...

  17. Tire-soil interaction model for turning (steered) tires

    Karafiath, L. L.

    1985-07-01

    A review of the experimental information on the development of lateral forces on tires traveling at an angle to their center plane is presented and the usefulness of the consideration of the lateral forces for the development of an analytical model is evaluated. Major components of the lateral force have been identified as the forces required to balance the tractive force and the drawbar pull vectorially. These are the shear stresses developing in the contact area and the horizontal component of the normal stresses acting on the in-ground portion or the curved side walls of the tire. The tire-soil interaction model for steady state straight travel has been expanded to include the necessary algorithms for the calculation of these lateral forces. The pattern of tractive force-slip and longitudinal-lateral force relationships is in general agreement with experiments.

  18. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  19. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  20. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  1. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  2. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  3. Pneumatic Tire Performance on Ice

    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anudeep

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of vehicle safety systems, from the earliest brakes to today's accident avoidance systems, has led vehicles to have very high passenger safety. Driving on ice, though, still happens to be one of the driving conditions of low safety. A multitude of factors were identified by various studies to contribute to the complex frictional mechanism at the tire-ice interface. The tire is only force transmitting element of the vehicle, to the surface. Thus it is very essential to have in de...

  4. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  5. Measurement of whole tire profile

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  6. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  7. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  8. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  9. Influence of Tire Characteristics of Interurban Taxis on Exposure Level to Drivers Whole-Body Vibrations

    Milad Derakhshanjazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taxi drivers’ exposure to repeat whole-body vibrations can cause back pain and digestive disorders. Since this type of vibration depends on the car components, this study was carried out to determine the influence of tire characteristics on the amount of whole-body vibrations transmitted to the Peugeot 405 taxi drivers. Methods: In this experimental study, vibration characteristics were measured according to the ISO2631-1 with each of the statuses: tubeless tires fixed and fluid in it (normal air or nitrogen and also the fluid in the tires fixed with tubes or tubeless on asphalt-paved road. Other variables including tire pressure, engine speed, road gradient, number of passengers, springs, and shock absorbers were kept constant. Then the effect of changes was analyzed using an appropriate statistical test. Results: After changing nitrogen to normal air and tubeless tires to tube, the average of RMS in Z-axis, eight-hour equivalent acceleration A(8 and crest factor were reduced (P 0.9 m/s2 to caution zone (0.45-0.9 m/s2 with a value of 0.8 m/s2. Conclusions: The amount of vibration transmitted to the whole body is sensitive to existence of tubes and tires inflation so that we can reduce the amount of whole-body vibration to lower than the upper limit of the health risk by changing the characteristics of the tire

  10. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  11. Systematic approach to development of pressure sensors using dielectric electro-active polymer membranes

    York, A; Seelecke, S; Dunn, J

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric electro-active polymers (DEAPs) have become attractive materials for various actuation and sensing applications due to their high energy and power density, high efficiency, light weight, and fast response speed. However, commercial development has been hindered due to a variety of constraints such as reliability, non-linear behavior, cost of driving electronics, and form factor requirements. This paper presents the systematic development from laboratory concept to commercial readiness of a novel pressure sensing system using a DEAP membrane. The pressure sensing system was designed for in-line pressure measurements for low pressure applications such as health systems monitoring. A first generation sensor was designed, built and tested with a focus on the qualitative capabilities of EAP membranes as sensors. Experimental measurements were conducted that demonstrated the capability of the sensor to output a voltage signal proportional to a changing pressure. Several undesirable characteristics were observed during these initial tests such as strong hysteresis, non-linearity, very limited pressure range, and low fatigue life. A second generation prototype was then designed to remove or compensate for these undesirable characteristics. This prototype was then built and tested. The new design showed an almost complete removal of hysteretic non-linear effects and was capable of operating at 10 × the pressure range of the initial generation. This new design is the framework for a novel DEAP based pressure sensor ready for commercial applications. (paper)

  12. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    2010-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires...

  13. Model-based state estimator for an intelligent tire

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A. P.; Schmeitz, A. J.C.; Besselink, I.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  14. Model-based State Estimator for an Intelligent Tire

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  15. The cost of prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: A systematic review.

    Demarré, Liesbet; Van Lancker, Aurélie; Van Hecke, Ann; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Grypdonck, Maria; Lemey, Juul; Annemans, Lieven; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    Pressure ulcers impose a substantial financial burden. The need for high-quality health care while expenditures are constrained entails the interest to calculate the cost of preventing and treating pressure ulcers and their impact on patients, healthcare, and society. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the cost of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in an adult population. A systematic literature review was performed to conform the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews. The search strategy contained index terms and key words related to pressure ulcers and cost. The search was performed in Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Embase, and EconLit covering articles up to September 2013. Reference lists and conference abstracts were screened. Articles were eligible if they reported on direct medical cost of pressure ulcer prevention or treatment, and provided national cost estimates, cost per patient, or cost per patient per day. The Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist was used to assess methodological quality of the included studies. In total, 2542 records were retrieved. After assessing eligibility, 17 articles were included. Five articles reported on both the cost of prevention and treatment, three articles reported on cost of prevention, and nine articles reported on the cost of pressure ulcer treatment. All articles were published between 2001 and 2013. Cost of pressure ulcer prevention per patient per day varied between 2.65 € to 87.57 € across all settings. Cost of pressure ulcer treatment per patient per day ranged from 1.71 € to 470.49 € across different settings. The methodological heterogeneity among studies was considerable, and encompassed differences regarding type of health economic design, perspective, cost components, and health outcomes. Cost of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment differed considerable between studies. Although the cost to provide pressure ulcer prevention

  16. Can sibutramine alter systemic blood pressure in obese patients? Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Hernani Pinto de Lemos Júnior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Systemic arterial hypertension is part of the metabolic syndrome resulting from obesity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of sibutramine on overweight and obese patients' blood pressure through a systematic review. METHODS: All the studies included needed to be randomized controlled trials. The methodological quality of the selected trials was assessed using the criteria described in the Cochrane Handbook. The participants were overweight and obese patients; the intervention was sibutramine compared with placebo. The primary outcome measurement was systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the secondary measurement was blood pressure. Studies were identified by searching the following sources: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs, Medline, Cochrane reviews, manual searches, personal communication and contact with the pharmaceutical industry. There were no language, date or other restrictions. Data collection and extraction was performed by two reviewers, who independently obtained the full articles of all eligible papers. RESULTS: Three meta-analyses were produced: 1 systolic blood pressure outcome (eight studies did not show statistical significance between sibutramine and placebo: weighted mean difference (WMD 1.57, confidence interval (CI -0.03 to 3.18; 2 diastolic blood pressure outcome (ten studies did not show statistical significance between sibutramine and placebo: WMD 1.13, CI -0.49 to 2.76; 3 blood pressure outcome (two studies also did not show statistical significance between the groups: relative risk (RR 0.69, CI 0.07 to 7.01. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analyses presented in this systematic review show that sibutramine does not have a statistically significant effect on blood pressure, compared with placebo.

  17. Prevention of Pressure Ulcers Among People With Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Groah, Suzanne L; Schladen, Manon; Pineda, Cynthia G; Hsieh, Ching-Hui J

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the literature on the effectiveness of bed and wheelchair positioning and repositioning in the prevention of pressure ulcers (PUs) in both the spinal cord injury (SCI) and non-SCI populations. Systematic review. PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE were queried with the subject heading terms "pressure sore," "pressure ulcer," "position or turn in bed, wheelchair," "pressure relief," and "pressure release." All study design types that assessed the effectiveness of bed and wheelchair positioning and pressure relief maneuvers in any patient group and in any setting were sought. Three independent reviewers extracted and summarized details of eligible trials using a standardized method. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of each trial using the American Academy of Neurology guidelines. When reviewers were not able to reach consensus, a third independent reviewer served as tiebreaker. We identified 2820 publications, of which 49 met inclusion criteria. Of these publications, the subject population was 2834 (923 persons with SCI, 717 persons without SCI, and 1194 healthy control subjects). Among studies examining pressure related to position or repositioning in bed or sitting, procedures for measuring skin pressure and metabolism were highly variable by anatomic location, measurement technique, outcome measure, study site, participant characteristics, and description of position/turning for bed and seated interventions. Numerous factors can influence tissue interface pressures, and no prospective studies had been performed to determine a causal relationship between interface pressure and skin breakdown. Several studies suggest that skin response to pressure differs between subjects with and without SCI. Conflicting results and insufficient evidence for optimal bed and seated positioning and turning and pressure relief maneuvers to prevent PUs in both SCI and non-SCI populations were limiting factors. Although there is no clear

  18. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  19. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  20. Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)

  1. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  2. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski [Faculdade Evangélica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha, E-mail: jrochafaria@cardiol.br; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence.

  3. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence

  4. Dietary interventions and blood pressure in Latin America - systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2014-04-01

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence.

  5. “A System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire”

    Maloney, John [The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, OH (United States)

    2017-07-07

    Under-inflated tires significantly reduce a vehicle’s fuel efficiency by increasing rolling resistance (drag force). The Air Maintenance Technology (“AMT”) system developed through this project replenishes lost air and maintains optimal tire cavity pressure whenever the tire is rolling in service, thus improving overall fuel economy by reducing the tire’s rolling resistance. The system consists of an inlet air filter, an air pump driven by tire deformation during rotation, and a pressure regulating device. Pressurized air in the tire cavity naturally escapes by diffusion through the tire and wheel, leaks in tire seating, and through the filler valve and its seating. As a result, tires require constant maintenance to replenish lost air. Since manual tire inflation maintenance is both labor intensive and time consuming, it is frequently overlooked or ignored. By automating the maintenance of optimal tire pressure, the tire’s contribution to the vehicle’s overall fuel economy can be maximized. The work was divided into three phases. The objectives of Phase 1, Planning and Initial Design, resulted in an effective project plan and to create a baseline design. The objectives for Phase 2, Design and Process Optimization, were: to identify finalized design for the pump, regulator and filter components; identify a process to build prototype tires; assemble prototype tires; test prototype tires and document results. The objectives of Phase 3, Design Release and Industrialization, were to finalize system tire assembly, perform release testing and industrialize the assembly process.

  6. Directions for material recovery of used tires and their use in the production of new products intended for the industry of civil construction and pavements

    Bulei, C.; Todor, M. P.; Heput, T.; Kiss, I.

    2018-01-01

    The management of waste from used tires is one of the major principles of recycling and reuse, which involves encouraging a high level of material recovery components, preferably by recycling. Given the current pressure on natural resources on a global scale we must fully take into account the waste in a broader framework defined by the flow of raw materials and their sustainable use. Thus, the opportunity to use various waste from used tires as raw material in order to support economic activities becomes a priority. The recycling of raw materials from waste products and their use in new production processes for their material capitalization is becoming a sustainable approach. Used tire recycling, is the process of recycling waste tires that are no longer suitable for use on vehicles due to wear or irreparable damage. These tires are a problematic source of waste, due to the large volume produced, the durability of the tires, and the components in the tire that are ecologically problematic. Although tires are usually burnt, not recycled, efforts are continuing to find value. Tires can be recycled into, among other things, typically as crumb rubber modifier in recycled pavement. The paper presents aspects of the product resulting from crushing of used tires (powder), which can be used properly valued in the street furniture field or building materials containing rubber.

  7. Tractor perfomance as a function of speed and seeder’s tire inflation pressure Desempenho de trator em função da velocidade e da pressão de inflação dos pneus da semeadora

    Carlos Eduardo Angeli Furlani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of agricultural tractors under field conditions results from the interaction between tire and wheel affected by displacement speed. This work was developed to assess the performance of an agricultural tractor under different seeder's tire inflation pressure (518; 483 and 414kPa and in two different gears providing speeds of 3.0 and 6.0km h-1. The experiment was performed at Jaboticabal Campus of São Paulo State University (UNESP. The experimental design used was entirely randomized in a 2-factor factorial design (3x2 with four replications. The draft force was influenced by the gear as well as by the required power; however, tire inflation pressure in the seeder did not change these parameters. Also, fuel consumption was influenced only by the tractor gear. Energy consumption was greater as speed increased, caused by gear shifting. The displacement speed was greater for the 518kPa pressure due to a lesser slippage in the seeder under this pressure. Tractor slippage did not change.O desempenho de tratores agrícolas em condições de campo resulta da interação entre pneu e rodado, influenciado pela velocidade de deslocamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de um trator agrícola sob diferentes pressões de inflação dos pneus da semeadora (518, 483, and 414kPa e em duas marchas que proporcionaram velocidades de 3,0 e 6,0km h-1. O experimento foi realizado no campus de Jaboticabal da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi fatorial inteiramente casualizado (3x2, com quatro repetições. A força de tração foi influenciada pela marcha e pela potência exigida; no entanto, a pressão de inflação do pneu da semeadora não alterou esses parâmetros. Além disso, o consumo de combustível foi influenciado apenas pela marcha do trator. O consumo de energia foi maior com o aumento da velocidade, ocasionada pela mudança de marcha. A velocidade de deslocamento foi maior

  8. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    2009-04-01

    Tire Tread Modeling 4  4.  Setting Tire Thickness 7  5.  Changing the Rim Width 9  6.  Changing the Radial Location of the... treaded or nontreaded model in the tire -model.c combination based on the analysis. 4. Setting Tire Thickness Tire thickness is manipulated via... tread is not modeled by default but can be added using options. • Fine-grained control of parameters such as tire thickness is available with

  9. Tire Models for Use in Braking Applications

    Svendenius, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The tire is a significant part for control of a vehicle. For a well-working brake system the contact properties between the tire and the ground is the limiting factor for a safe braking. To get optimal performance it is important that the system can utilize all friction resources. The brush tire model was a popular method in the 1960's and 1970's before the empirical approaches became dominating. The brush model gives an educational interpretation of the physics behind the tire behavi...

  10. Chest physiotherapy with positive expiratory pressure breathing after abdominal and thoracic surgery: a systematic review.

    Orman, J; Westerdahl, E

    2010-03-01

    A variety of chest physiotherapy techniques are used following abdominal and thoracic surgery to prevent or reduce post-operative complications. Breathing techniques with a positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to increase airway pressure and improve pulmonary function. No systematic review of the effects of PEP in surgery patients has been performed previously. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of PEP breathing after an open upper abdominal or thoracic surgery. A literature search of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) was performed in five databases. The trials included were systematically reviewed by two independent observers and critically assessed for methodological quality. We selected six RCT evaluating the PEP technique performed with a mechanical device in spontaneously breathing adult patients after abdominal or thoracic surgery via thoracotomy. The methodological quality score varied between 4 and 6 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database score. The studies were published between 1979 and 1993. Only one of the included trials showed any positive effects of PEP compared to other breathing techniques. Today, there is scarce scientific evidence that PEP treatment is better than other physiotherapy breathing techniques in patients undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery. There is a lack of studies investigating the effect of PEP over placebo or no physiotherapy treatment.

  11. Limited evidence of abnormal intra-colonic pressure profiles in diverticular disease - a systematic review.

    Jaung, R; Robertson, J; O'Grady, G; Milne, T; Rowbotham, D; Bissett, I P

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal colonic pressure profiles and high intraluminal pressures are postulated to contribute to the formation of sigmoid colon diverticulosis and the pathophysiology of diverticular disease. This study aimed to review evidence for abnormal colonic pressure profiles in diverticulosis. All published studies investigating colonic pressure in patients with diverticulosis were searched in three databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus). No language restrictions were applied. Any manometry studies in which patients with diverticulosis were compared with controls were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) for case-control studies was used as a measure of risk of bias. A cut-off of five or more points on the NOS (fair quality in terms of risk of bias) was chosen for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Ten studies (published 1962-2005) met the inclusion criteria. The studies followed a wide variety of protocols and all used low-resolution manometry (sensor spacing range 7.5-15 cm). Six studies compared intra-sigmoid pressure, with five of six showing higher pressure in diverticulosis vs controls, but only two reached statistical significance. A meta-analysis was not performed as only two studies were above the cut-off and these did not have comparable outcomes. This systematic review of manometry data shows that evidence for abnormal pressure in the sigmoid colon in patients with diverticulosis is weak. Existing studies utilized inconsistent methodology, showed heterogeneous results and are of limited quality. Higher quality studies using modern manometric techniques and standardized reporting methods are needed to clarify the role of colonic pressure in diverticulosis. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  13. Prevention of pressure ulcers with a static air support surface: A systematic review.

    Serraes, Brecht; van Leen, Martin; Schols, Jos; Van Hecke, Ann; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2018-03-05

    The aims of this study were to identify, assess, and summarise available evidence about the effectiveness of static air mattress overlays to prevent pressure ulcers. The primary outcome was the incidence of pressure ulcers. Secondary outcomes included costs and patient comfort. This study was a systematic review. Six electronic databases were consulted: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed (Medline), CINAHL (EBSCOhost interface), Science direct, and Web of Science. In addition, a hand search through reviews, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of the included studies was performed to identify additional studies. Potential studies were reviewed and assessed by 2 independent authors based on the title and abstract. Decisions regarding inclusion or exclusion of the studies were based on a consensus between the authors. Studies were included if the following criteria were met: reporting an original study; the outcome was the incidence of pressure ulcer categories I to IV when using a static air mattress overlay and/or in comparison with other pressure-redistribution device(s); and studies published in English, French, and Dutch. No limitation was set on study setting, design, and date of publication. The methodological quality assessment was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program Tool. Results were reported in a descriptive way to reflect the exploratory nature of the review. The searches included 13 studies: randomised controlled trials (n = 11) and cohort studies (n = 2). The mean pressure ulcer incidence figures found in the different settings were, respectively, 7.8% pressure ulcers of categories II to IV in nursing homes, 9.06% pressure ulcers of categories I to IV in intensive care settings, and 12% pressure ulcers of categories I to IV in orthopaedic wards. Seven comparative studies reported a lower incidence in the groups of patients on a static air mattress overlay. Three studies reported a statistical (P pressure ulcers. There

  14. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  15. Semeadora-adubadora: exigências em função do preparo do solo, da pressão de inflação do pneu e da velocidade Planter: requirements as related to soil tillage, tire pressure, and machine speed

    Carlos Eduardo Angeli Furlani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available As semeadoras-adubadoras, responsáveis pela correta adição de semente e adubo ao solo, possuem mecanismos dosadores acionados por suas rodas motrizes, que giram em função do contato com a superfície do solo. Esse contato é influenciado, entre outros fatores, pela pressão de inflação dos pneus. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o desempenho de uma semeadora-adubadora de precisão em função do preparo do solo (preparo convencional e plantio direto, das velocidades de deslocamento e da pressão de inflação do seu pneu. O trabalho foi realizado na UNESP de Jaboticabal (SP no ano de 2006. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: força de tração e potência na barra, consumo de combustível (horário, ponderal, operacional e específico, capacidade de campo operacional, patinagem dos rodados do trator e da semeadora-adubadora, estande inicial e distribuição longitudinal de sementes. O sistema plantio direto demandou maior força (35 %, potência e consumo horário de combustível; o mesmo aconteceu na maior velocidade. A pressão de inflação das rodas da semeadora proporcionou menor patinagem e maior estande inicial de plântulas.Planter machines, responsible for the correct placing of seeds and fertilizer in the ground, have dosing mechanisms set in motion by the drive wheels, as they rotate in function of the contact with the ground surface. This contact is influenced, among other factors, by tire pressure. The objective of this work was to study the performance of a planter as affected by soil tillage, machine speed and planter tire pressure. The following variables were evaluated: traction force and drawbar pull, fuel consumption, field capacity, wheel skidding, initial stand and longitudinal seed distribution. The greatest force was needed in the no-tillage system, which also demanded the highest power and hourly fuel consumption. The same results were found at the fastest speed. In this system the tire pressure of

  16. Pressure ulcers from spinal immobilization in trauma patients: a systematic review.

    Ham, Wietske; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    2014-04-01

    To protect the (possibly) injured spine, trauma patients are immobilized on backboard or vacuum mattress, with a cervical collar, lateral headblocks, and straps. Several studies identified pressure ulcer (PU) development from these devices. The aim of this literature study was to gain insight into the occurrence and development of PUs, the risk factors, and the possible interventions to prevent PUs related to spinal immobilization with devices in adult trauma patients. We systematically searched PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL for the period 1970 to September 2011. Studies were included if participants were healthy volunteers under spinal immobilization or trauma patients under spinal immobilization until spine injuries were diagnosed or excluded. Outcomes of primary interest included occurrence, severity, and risk for PU development as well as prevention of PU development related to spinal immobilization devices. The results of included studies show an incidence of collar-related PUs ranging from 6.8% to 38%. Described locations are the occiput, chin, shoulders, and back. The severity of these PUs varies between Stages 1 and 3, and one study describes PUs requiring surgical debridement, indicating a Stage 4 PU. Described risk factors for PU development are high pressure and pain from immobilizing devices, the length of time in/on a device, intensive care unit admission, high Injury Severity Scores (ISSs), mechanical ventilation, and intracranial pressure monitoring. Preventive interventions for collar-related PUs include early replacement of the extrication collar and regular skin assessment, collar refit, and position change. The results from this systematic review show that immobilization with devices increases the risk for PU development. This risk is demonstrated in nine experimental studies with healthy volunteers and in four clinical studies. Systematic review, level III.

  17. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  18. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  19. Effectiveness of Enteral Nutritional Therapy in the Healing Process of Pressure Ulcers: A Systematic Review

    Gisely Blanc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of enteral nutritional therapy (ENT in the healing process of pressure ulcers (PU in adults and the elderly. METHOD A systematic review whose studies were identified through the databases of Cochrane, MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and manual searches. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs without delimiting the period or language of publication, which addressed adults and elderly patients with pressure ulcers in a comparative treatment of enteral nutritional therapy and placebo or between enteral nutritional therapy with different compositions and dosages. RESULTS We included ten studies that considered different interventions. It resulted in more pressure ulcers healed in the groups that received the intervention. The included studies were heterogeneous with regard to patients, the type of intervention, the sample and the follow-up period, all of which made meta-analysis impossible. CONCLUSION Although the enteral nutritional therapy demonstrates a promotion of pressure ulcer healing, sufficient evidence to confirm the hypothesis was not found.

  20. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  1. Positive expiratory pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--a systematic review.

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Breathing exercises against a resistance during expiration are often used as treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Controversy still exists regarding the clinical application and efficacy. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effects of chest physiotherapy techniques with positive expiratory pressure (PEP) for the prevention and treatment of pulmonary impairment in adults with COPD. The review was conducted on randomised, controlled clinical trials in which breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure were compared with other chest physical therapy techniques or with no treatment, in adult patients with COPD. A computer-assisted literature search of available databases from 1970 to January 2008 was performed. Two reviewers extracted data independently and assessed the trials systematically with an instrument for measuring methodological quality. In total, 11 trials met the inclusion criteria, of which 5 reached an adequate level of internal validity. Several kinds of PEP techniques with a diversity of intensities and durations of treatment have been evaluated with different outcome measures and follow-up periods. Benefits of PEP were found in isolated outcome measures in separate studies with a follow-up period <1 month. Concerning long-term effects, the results are contradictory. Prior to widespread prescription of long-term PEP treatment, more research is required to establish the benefit of the technique in patients with COPD. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Usage of post-consumer tires as raw materials

    O.A. Vovk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to the problem of post-consumer tires accumulation and recycling both in Europe and Ukraine. It describes general tires properties, their structure and composite elements which are valuable secondary resources. Also there are analyzed the most known methods of used tires treatment and final product of tires utilizations.

  3. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tire identification requirements. 574.5 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) TIRE IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDKEEPING § 574.5 Tire identification requirements. Each tire manufacturer shall conspicuously label on one...

  4. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  5. Equilibrium analysis of hydrogen production using the steam-plasma gasification process of the used car tires

    Kuznetsov, V A; Kumkova, I I; Lerner, A S; Popov, V E

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the treatment of used car tires. The method of used tires plasma gasification is proposed. The investigation of the syngas composition was carried out according to the temperature and plasma flow rate variation. The method of the steam catalytic conversion of CO, which is a part of the syngas, and CaO usage are suggested. The results of the calculation modeling at various temperatures, pressures, and steam flow rates are presented.

  6. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The opportunity lies in the wide availability of the material and in the fact that passenger car tires form a huge potential market for recycled rubber. The aim of this study is to develop a de-vulcanizatio...

  7. A systematic study of atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of large-area monolayer graphene.

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Chen, Yu; Lin, Yung-Chen; Qu, Yongquan; Bai, Jingwei; Ivanov, Ivan A; Liu, Gang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-28

    Graphene has attracted considerable interest as a potential material for future electronics. Although mechanical peel is known to produce high quality graphene flakes, practical applications require continuous graphene layers over a large area. The catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising synthetic method to deliver wafer-sized graphene. Here we present a systematic study on the nucleation and growth of crystallized graphene domains in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Parametric studies show that the mean size of the graphene domains increases with increasing growth temperature and CH 4 partial pressure, while the density of domains decreases with increasing growth temperature and is independent of the CH 4 partial pressure. Our studies show that nucleation of graphene domains on copper substrate is highly dependent on the initial annealing temperature. A two-step synthetic process with higher initial annealing temperature but lower growth temperature is developed to reduce domain density and achieve high quality full-surface coverage of monolayer graphene films. Electrical transport measurements demonstrate that the resulting graphene exhibits a high carrier mobility of up to 3000 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature.

  8. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Sonu Punia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High blood pressure (BP is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians.

  9. Forestry Tire Tractive Performance: New, Worn, and with Chains

    C.R. Vechinski; C.R. Johnson; R.L. Raper; T.P. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The tractive perfomance of a new tire, a worn tire, and a worn tire with forestry tire chains was measured in four soil types. Two of the soil types simulated forest-floor conditions with one soil type having a sulfate cover of pine straw and the other having a surface cover of sod. The two remaining soil types were bare. The worn tire with and without chains had...

  10. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires

    2010-08-17

    with tire tread . By varying the thickness and geometry of the polyurethane soft layer, this unique tire -wheel assembly can generate a wide array of...carcass severely damaged/punctured, provide the same dynamic deflection as the normal pneumatic tire , and provide similar tread life. Could a tire be...be for an optimized shape. Fig 8 shows the actual process applied to a current tire . The carbon fiber was added by removing the tread , cutting

  11. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  12. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  13. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Yangmin Ding; Jian Yang; Chen Liang; Jing Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5) was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS). The ti...

  14. Tissue repair genes: the TiRe database and its implication for skin wound healing.

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Barzilay, Thomer; Abramovich, Amir; Ziesche, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-04-19

    Wound healing is an inherent feature of any multicellular organism and recent years have brought about a huge amount of data regarding regular and abnormal tissue repair. Despite the accumulated knowledge, modulation of wound healing is still a major biomedical challenge, especially in advanced ages. In order to collect and systematically organize what we know about the key players in wound healing, we created the TiRe (Tissue Repair) database, an online collection of genes and proteins that were shown to directly affect skin wound healing. To date, TiRe contains 397 entries for four organisms: Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Sus domesticus, and Homo sapiens. Analysis of the TiRe dataset of skin wound healing-associated genes showed that skin wound healing genes are (i) over-conserved among vertebrates, but are under-conserved in invertebrates; (ii) enriched in extracellular and immuno-inflammatory genes; and display (iii) high interconnectivity and connectivity to other proteins. The latter may provide potential therapeutic targets. In addition, a slower or faster skin wound healing is indicative of an aging or longevity phenotype only when assessed in advanced ages, but not in the young. In the long run, we aim for TiRe to be a one-station resource that provides researchers and clinicians with the essential data needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of wound healing, designing new experiments, and the development of new therapeutic strategies. TiRe is freely available online at http://www.tiredb.org.

  15. Negative pressure wound therapy versus standard wound care on quality of life: a systematic review.

    Janssen, A H J; Mommers, E H H; Notter, J; de Vries Reilingh, T S; Wegdam, J A

    2016-03-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a widely accepted treatment modality for open or infected wounds. Premature ending of NPWT occasionally occurs due to negative effects on the quality of life (QoL), however, the actual impact on QoL is unknown. The aim of this review is to analyse the effect of NPWT versus standard wound care (SWC) on QoL when used for the treatment of open or infected wounds. A systematic literature search in a range of databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, Web of Science, Science Direct Freedom Collection, SwetsWise, PSYCArticles and Infrotrac Custom Journals) using the following search terms; 'standard wound care', 'wound dressing', 'dressing', 'treatment', OR 'negative pressure wound therapy [MESH]', OR 'vacuum assisted closure' AND 'quality of life [MESH]', 'patient-satisfaction', OR 'experiences' was performed. Methodological quality was assessed using the methodological index for non-randomised studies (MINORS) checklist. There were 42 studies identified, five matched the inclusion criteria: two randomised clinical trials (RCTs), one clinical comparative study, one exploratory prospective cohort study and one quasi experimental pilot study. Median MINORS-score was 75% (58%-96%). There were seven different questionnaires used to measure QoL or a subsidiary outcome. QoL in the NPWT group was lower in the first week, though no difference in QoL was observed thereafter. This systematic review observed that QoL improved at the end of therapy independent of which therapy was used. NPWT led to a lower QoL during the first week of treatment, possible due to aniexty, after which a similar or better QoL was reported when compared with SWC. It could be suggested that NPWT might be associated with increased anxiety. All authors of this publication have received no financial support or have personal interests conflicting with the objectivity of this manuscript.

  16. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  17. Oscillometric and auscultatory blood pressure measurement methods in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Duncombe, Stephanie L; Voss, Christine; Harris, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    The phase-out of mercury from clinical settings calls for valid alternatives to assess blood pressure (BP) in children. Aneroid devices provide a mercury-free alternative to BP measurements by auscultation, whereas oscillometric (automated) devices are increasingly becoming the norm in clinical practice due to their ease of use. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the accuracy of oscillometric and aneroid BP devices compared with the mercury sphygmomanometer for the measurement of BP in children. We systematically searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science) and relevant journals for eligible articles published before 30 July 2015. We screened 1415 articles, and two authors independently reviewed 92 full-text articles. We included 29 articles (38 studies) with 26 879 children. Random-effects model meta-analyses revealed that oscillometric devices yield higher measurements of SBP than auscultation with a mercury sphygmomanometer (pooled effect estimate 2.53 mmHg; 95% CI 0.57-4.50; P devices and found comparable results. Oscillometric devices may serve as a suitable alternative to auscultation for initial BP screening in the pediatric population.

  18. Endurance exercise beneficially affects ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Buys, Roselien; Smart, Neil A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise is widely recommended as one of the key preventive lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of hypertension and to manage high blood pressure (BP), but individual studies investigating the effect of exercise on ambulatory BP have remained inconclusive. Therefore, the primary purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of aerobic endurance training on daytime and night-time BP in healthy adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Clinical trial registry from their inception to May 2012. Randomized controlled trials of at least 4 weeks investigating the effects of aerobic endurance training on ambulatory BP in healthy adults were included. Inverse weighted random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence limits. We included 15 randomized controlled trials, involving 17 study groups and 633 participants (394 exercise participants and 239 control participants). Overall, endurance training induced a significant reduction in daytime SBP [-3.2 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI), -5.0 to-1.3] and daytime DBP (-2.7 mmHg, 95% CI, -3.9 to -1.5). No effect was observed on night-time BP. The findings from this meta-analysis suggest that aerobic endurance exercise significantly decreases daytime, but not night-time, ambulatory BP.

  19. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW th . A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign

  20. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  1. Recycling of car tires by means of Waterjet technologies

    Holka, Henryk; Jarzyna, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    An increasing number of used car tires poses a threat to the environment. Therefore they need to be recycled. In this work a decomposition method that involves applying a stream of water at very high pressure (to 600MPa) is presented. This method is based on the authors' own patent from 2010 and the results have been provided from two year-long tests and calculations This study includes many diagrams, images and calculations that have been used to develop the discussed method which is competitive for currently used ones.

  2. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  3. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  4. Using Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires to Reduce Road Traffic Noise

    Frolova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of sound pressure levels on an experimental road section (road pavement with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires in Mala Ida village (Kosice region, Slovakia and on a road with stone mastic asphalt in Haniska village (Presov region, Slovakia are presented in the paper. The results obtained using statistical pass-by methods were compared and they confirmed that road surface with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires produced quieter pavement than stone mastic asphalt road pavement alone.

  5. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  6. Effects of heated water-based exercise on blood pressure: a systematic review

    Awassi Yuphiwa Ngomane

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Systemic arterial hypertension is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors affecting several population. In this context, heated water-based exercise has emerged as a potential alternative to land- based physical exercise to reduce blood pressure (BP in hypertensive patients. Objective: To systematically synthesize evidence for the lowering effects of heated water-based exercise on BP in a non-specific population. Methods: Scielo, Pubmed and Scopus electronic databases were searched for studies from 2005 to 2016, with the following descriptors in English: “blood pressure, exercise, immersion, blood pressure and hydrotherapy”. A total of 10,461 articles were found and, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 articles were selected and included in the final analysis. All included articles evaluated individuals from different populations and age groups, submitted to a heated water-based exercise session and/or program. Results: The results suggest that both an acute single session and chronic training period (12 to 24 weeks of heated water-based exercise may reduce BP in different populations (normotensive, hypertensive, postmenopausal women, and heart transplant populations. The magnitude and duration of acute and chronic hypotensive effect of exercise ranged substantially, which was probably due to the variety of exercise frequency, duration and intensity, as well as due to the studied population. Conclusion: These results suggest that heated water-based exercise may promote acute and chronic hypotensive effects in different populations. However, there is no homogeneity in the protocols used, which may have led to the heterogeneity in magnitude and duration of BP reductions.

  7. Blood pressure-lowering effect of Shinrin-yoku (Forest bathing): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Ideno, Yuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yukina; Ueda, Kayo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2017-08-16

    Shinrin-yoku (experiencing the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) has received increasing attention from the perspective of preventive medicine in recent years. Some studies have reported that the forest environment decreases blood pressure. However, little is known about the possibility of anti-hypertensive applications of Shinrin-yoku. This study aimed to evaluate preventive or therapeutic effects of the forest environment on blood pressure. We systematically reviewed the medical literature and performed a meta-analysis.Four electronic databases were systematically searched for the period before May 2016 with language restriction of English and Japanese. The review considered all published, randomized, controlled trials, cohort studies, and comparative studies that evaluated the effects of the forest environment on changes in systolic blood pressure. A subsequent meta-analysis was performed. Twenty trials involving 732 participants were reviewed. Systolic blood pressure of the forest environment was significantly lower than that of the non-forest environment. Additionally, diastolic blood pressure of the forest environment was significantly lower than that of the non-forest environment. This systematic review shows a significant effect of Shinrin-yoku on reduction of blood pressure.

  8. Vibration Analysis of a Tire in Ground Contact under Varied Conditions

    Karakus Murat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different factors, which are inflation pressure, vertical load and coefficient of friction on the natural frequencies of a tire (175/70 R13 has been studied. A three dimensional tire model is constructed, using four different material properties and parts in the tire. Mechanical properties of the composite parts are evaluated. After investigating the free vibration, contact analysis is carried out. A concrete block and the tire are modelled together, using three different coefficients of friction. Experiments are run under certain conditions to check the accuracy of the numerical model. The natural frequencies are measured to describe free vibration and vibration of the tire contacted by ground, using a damping monitoring method. It is seen, that experimental and numerical results are in good agreement. On the other hand, investigating the impact of three different factors together is quite difficult on the natural frequencies. When some of these factors are assumed to be constant and the variables are taken one by one, it is easier to assess the effects.

  9. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model and SST k-ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtue of the orthogonal table L16(45, the parameters of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment was obtained. The simulation results show that dimple bionic nonsmooth structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, optimal type of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure is arranged on the bottom of tire circumferential grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that the dimple bionic nonsmooth structure effectively decreases the tread hydrodynamic pressure when driving on water film and increases the tire hydroplaning velocity, thus improving tire antihydroplaning performance.

  10. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning.

    Zhou, Haichao; Wang, Guolin; Ding, Yangmin; Yang, Jian; Zhai, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS) reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model) and SST k - ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtue of the orthogonal table L16(4(5)), the parameters of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment was obtained. The simulation results show that dimple bionic nonsmooth structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, optimal type of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure is arranged on the bottom of tire circumferential grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that the dimple bionic nonsmooth structure effectively decreases the tread hydrodynamic pressure when driving on water film and increases the tire hydroplaning velocity, thus improving tire antihydroplaning performance.

  11. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  12. Numerical Simulation of the Ground Response to the Tire Load Using Finite Element Method

    Valaskova, Veronika; Vlcek, Jozef

    2017-10-01

    Response of the pavement to the excitation caused by the moving vehicle is one of the actual problems of the civil engineering practice. The load from the vehicle is transferred to the pavement structure through contact area of the tires. Experimental studies show nonuniform distribution of the pressure in the area. This non-uniformity is caused by the flexible nature and the shape of the tire and is influenced by the tire inflation. Several tire load patterns, including uniform distribution and point load, were involved in the numerical modelling using finite element method. Applied tire loads were based on the tire contact forces of the lorry Tatra 815. There were selected two procedures for the calculations. The first one was based on the simplification of the vehicle to the half-part model. The characteristics of the vehicle model were verified by the experiment and by the numerical model in the software ADINA, when vehicle behaviour during the ride was investigated. Second step involved application of the calculated contact forces for the front axle as the load on the multi-layered half space representing the pavement structure. This procedure was realized in the software Plaxis and considered various stress patterns for the load. The response of the ground to the vehicle load was then analyzed. Axisymmetric model was established for this procedure. The paper presents the results of the investigation of the contact pressure distribution and corresponding reaction of the pavement to various load distribution patterns. The results show differences in some calculated quantities for different load patterns, which need to be verified by the experimental way when also ground response should be observed.

  13. The effect of pressure and shear on tissue viability of human skin in relation to the development of pressure ulcers: a systematic review.

    Hoogendoorn, Iris; Reenalda, Jasper; Koopman, Bart F J M; Rietman, Johan S

    2017-08-01

    Pressure ulcers are a significant problem in health care, due to high costs and large impact on patients' life. In general, pressure ulcers develop as tissue viability decreases due to prolonged mechanical loading. The relation between load and tissue viability is highly influenced by individual characteristics. It is proposed that measurements of skin blood flow regulation could provide good assessment of the risk for pressure ulcer development, as skin blood flow is essential for tissue viability. . Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to gain insight in the relation between mechanical load and the response of the skin and underlying tissue to this loading measured in-vivo with non-invasive techniques. A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles analysing the relation between mechanical load (pressure and/or shear) and tissue viability measured in-vivo. Two independent reviewers scored the methodological quality of the 22 included studies. Methodological information as well as tissue viability parameters during load application and after load removal were extracted from the included articles and used in a meta-analysis. Pressure results in a decrease in skin blood flow parameters, compared to baseline; showing a larger decrease with higher magnitudes of load. The steepness of the decrease is mostly dependent on the anatomical location. After load removal the magnitude of the post-reactive hyperaemic peak is related to the magnitude of pressure. Lastly, shear in addition to pressure, shows an additional negative effect, but the effect is less apparent than pressure on skin viability. Copyright © 2017 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  15. New developments in tire derived fuels (TDF)

    Hawkins, G. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Portland cement is a mixture of finely ground raw materials that are processed in a rotary kiln heated to 1500 degrees C by various fuels. Cooled clinker from the kiln is ground into portland cement. This presentation provided an overview of the role that tire-derived fuels is now playing in cement manufacturing. Data on the extent of TDF use in cement manufacturing processes were presented, as well as the results of air emissions monitoring programs conducted to assess the environmental impacts of TDF. During the cement manufacturing process, shredded and chipped tires are blown into the kiln to provide fuel, while whole tires are placed in the midpoint of long dry or wet kilns. For preheater and precalciner kilns, whole tires are added to raw material entering the kiln. The kiln's controlled combustion environment ensures the complete destruction of scrap tires. Approximately 130 million scrap tires were recycled in Portland cement plants in 2003. Forty-four portland cement plants are currently using TDF in North America. The United States Department of Energy has estimated that TDF produces less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per unit of energy than coal. Monitoring programs at Portland cement plants have indicated that the use of TDF in place of coal has resulted in moderate reductions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, slightly lower sulfuric oxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions and moderate reductions in carbon monoxide (CO). Some plants have reported slight reductions in particulate matter (PM) emissions. It was concluded that the use of scrap tires as a fuel reduces a waste stream and contributes to energy and raw material requirements. Moreover, plant air emissions are either reduced or are not impacted by TDF use. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Systematic review of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for chronic respiratory failure.

    Hannan, Liam M; Dominelli, Giulio S; Chen, Yi-Wen; Darlene Reid, W; Road, Jeremy

    2014-02-01

    This systematic review examined the effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on patient reported outcomes (PROs) and survival for individuals with or at risk of chronic respiratory failure (CRF). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised studies in those treated with NIPPV for CRF were identified from electronic databases, reference lists and grey literature. Diagnostic groups included in the review were amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), restrictive thoracic disease (RTD) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Eighteen studies were included and overall study quality was weak. Those with ALS/MND had improved somnolence and fatigue as well as prolonged survival with NIPPV. For OHS, improvements in somnolence and fatigue, dyspnoea and sleep quality were demonstrated, while for RTD, measures of dyspnoea, sleep quality, physical function and health, mental and emotional health and social function improved. There was insufficient evidence to form conclusions regarding the effect of NIPPV for those with DMD. This review has demonstrated that NIPPV influences PROs differently depending on the underlying cause of CRF. These findings may provide assistance to patients and clinicians to determine the relative costs and benefits of NIPPV therapy and also highlight areas in need of further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Approaches that use software to support the prevention of pressure ulcer: A systematic review.

    Marchione, F G; Araújo, L M Q; Araújo, L V

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and costs for pressure ulcer (PU) treatment remain high even though preventive methods are applied. Approaches that use software to support the prevention of PU are presented in the literature to make it more effective. Identify the state of art of the approaches that use software to support the prevention of PUs. A systematic literature review was performed to analyze approaches that use software to support the prevention of PU. ACM, IEEE, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Embase databases have been searched with a predetermined search string to identify primary studies. We selected the ones that met the established inclusion criteria. Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. To support prevention, most approaches monitor the patient to provide information about exposure to pressure, temperature level, humidity level and estimated body position in bed providing risk factor intensity charts and intensity maps. The main method to perform patient's monitoring is using sensors installed on the mattress, but recently, alternative methods have been proposed such as electronic sensors and tactile sensory coils. Part of the approaches performs automated management of the risk factors using ventilation tubes and mattresses with porous cells to decrease body's temperature and movable cells to automatically redistribute the pressure over the body. Matters as cost of the approach, patient comfort and hygiene of the monitoring equipment is only briefly discussed in the selected articles. No experiments have been conducted to evidence the approached may reduce PU incidence. Currently, approaches that use software to support the prevention of PU provide relevant information to health professionals such as risk factor intensity charts and intensity maps. Some of them can even automatically manage risk factors in a limited way. Yet, the approaches are based on risk factor monitoring methods that require patient's contact with the monitoring equipment. Therefore, some

  18. A Synthesis on the Evolution of the Studded Tire

    Angerinos, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Ever since studded tires were flrst introduced, the advantages, disadvantages, and effects of studded tires on vehicles, drivers and pavement systems has been the center of research and controversy...

  19. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  20. Federal Research on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields

    Ground rubber is recovered from scrap tires or from the tire retreading process. It is used in road construction and in athletic and recreational applications,like ground cover under playground equipment, running track material, and as a soil additive.

  1. Rubber - application of radiation to tire manufacture

    Hunt, J.D.; Alliger, G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the advent of commercial accelerators during the last several years capable of producing controllable electron beams of high energy, Firestone has devoted a considerable effort to the better understanding of the possible applications of such radiation to the production of tires or tire components. A number of chemical reactions can occur when elastomeric compounds are exposed to high energy waves, but crosslinking and degradation are the most important. The degree to which the crosslinking reaction predominates depends upon the nature of the rubber, compounding ingredients and the dosage. In general then, the effects achieved by the radiation of a rubber are quite similar to those resulting from heat. However, radiation cure or precure of compounds offers the advantage that the degree of crosslinking can be better controlled. Uniform crosslinking is possible since the high speed electrons penetrate uniformly throughout the sample. Curing with heat on the other hand may result in a greater degree of crosslinking on the surface of the sample than the center because of low heat conductivity. In general, radiation can be used to advantage to crosslink partially rubber tire components so that they retain better their shape and dimension during tire assembly and final cure or vulcanization. Added advantages of radiation precure include: a reduction of material usage, substitution of synthetic for natural rubber without loss in strength and the fact that partially crosslinked components will not thin out or become displaced during construction and vulcanization of the tire. (author)

  2. Global Overexpression of ET-1 Decreases Blood Pressure - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of ET-1 Transgenic Mice.

    Lu, Yong Ping; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Vignon-Zellweger, Nicolas; Heiden, Susi; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    ET-1 has independent effects on blood pressure regulation in vivo, it is involved in tubular water and salt excretion, promotes constriction of smooth muscle cells, modulates sympathetic nerve activity, and activates the liberation of nitric oxide. To determine the net effect of these partially counteracting mechanisms on blood pressure, a systematic meta-analysis was performed. Based on the principles of Cochrane systematic reviews, we searched in major literature databases - MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Google Scholar, and the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc) - for articles relevant to the topic of the blood pressure phenotype of endothelin-1 transgenic (ET-1+/+) mice from January 1, 1988 to March 31, 2016. Review Manager Version 5.0 (Rev-Man 5.0) software was applied for statistical analysis. In total thirteen studies reported blood pressure data. The meta-analysis of blood pressure data showed that homozygous ET-1 transgenic mice (ET-1+/+ mice) had a significantly lower blood pressure as compared to WT mice (mean difference: -2.57 mmHg, 95% CI: -4.98∼ -0.16, P = 0.04), with minimal heterogeneity (P = 0.86). A subgroup analysis of mice older than 6 months revealed that the blood pressure difference between ET-1+/+ mice and WT mice was even more pronounced (mean difference: -6.19 mmHg, 95% CI: -10.76∼ -1.62, P = 0.008), with minimal heterogeneity (P = 0.91). This meta-analysis provides robust evidence that global ET-1 overexpression in mice lowers blood pressure in an age-dependent manner. Older ET-1+/+ mice have a somewhat more pronounced reduction of blood pressure. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  4. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    2012-08-01

    the body-ply is a linear elastic material. To facilitate the analysis, the tire was divided into Tread and Sidewall by the dash line as shown in...only one element is assigned through the thickness of the tire . Therefore, the thickness of the element is the same as the thickness of the tire ...to the whole part of the 3D full tire in the thermal analysis. The average strain energy density for each part ( tread or sidewall) in the cross

  5. Proceedings of Two Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    1978-05-01

    understanding of this tire inspection area. But this better technical understanding will not guar - antee the success of either the industry or...control. Tires with very dark sur- face may be sprayed with talcum powder to improve their reflectance. Depending upon tire type and the required tire...products there has been a tendency to use some natural or synthetic cross-linking polymer gums which under extended heat conditions have tended to

  6. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  7. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... two adjoining spots that are each two or more inches in length. (e) A seam running lengthwise that is...

  8. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    2011-12-21

    ... car tires. The final rule also established reporting requirements for the generated performance... aspects of tire performance: rolling resistance, wet traction, and treadwear life.\\3\\ The final rule also... provide information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear...

  9. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    2013-11-06

    ... information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear, traction... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0120] RIN 2127-AL49 Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...). ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...

  10. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  11. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  12. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    2010-10-01

    ... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When... the minimum thickness of tires may be as much below the limits specified earlier in this paragraph (d...

  13. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  14. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    2010-03-30

    ... how much the proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and... 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No... 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  15. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  16. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  17. Natural history of treatment-emergent central sleep apnea on positive airway pressure: A systematic review.

    Nigam, Gaurav; Riaz, Muhammad; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario

    2018-01-01

    Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TECSA) is observed in some patients when they are treated with positive airway pressure (PAP) after significant resolution of the preexisting obstructive events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies describing the natural history of TECSA. PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochran Library databases were searched through June 29, 2017. Five studies were identified that discussed the natural history of TECSA. TECSA developed in 3.5%-19.8% of PAP-treated patients. Treatment-persistent central sleep apnea (TPCSA), representing protracted periods of PAP therapy-related central apneas, was noted in 14.3%-46.2% of patients with TECSA. Delayed-TECSA (D-TECSA) represents an anomalous TECSA entity appearing weeks to months after initial PAP therapy. D-TECSA was observed in 0.7%-4.2% of OSA patients undergoing PAP treatment (after at least 1 month). In patients with TECSA, a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and central apnea index at their baseline study or a higher residual AHI at their titration study may be associated with an increased likelihood of conversion to TPCSA. Overall, TECSA developed in 3.5%-19.8% of PAP-treated patients with OSA. The vast majority will experience complete resolution of central apneas over a few weeks to months. Unfortunately, about a third of patients with TECSA may continue to exhibit persistence of central sleep apnea on reevaluation. A small proportion may experience D-TECSA after few weeks to several months of initial exposure to PAP therapy.

  18. Prevalence and clinical implications of the inter-arm blood pressure difference: A systematic review.

    Clark, C E; Campbell, J L; Evans, P H; Millward, A

    2006-12-01

    A blood pressure (BP) difference between arms was first reported over 100 years ago. Knowledge of its prevalence and relevance to the accurate measurement of BP remains poor. Current hypertension guidelines do not emphasise it. The objectives of this study were to establish the best estimate of prevalence of the inter-arm difference (IAD) in the population, to consider its implications for accurate BP measurement and treatment, and to discuss its aetiology and potential as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Systematic literature review was carried out. The data sources were Medline EMBASE and CINAHL databases, and Index of Theses. Studies reporting prevalence rates of IAD were retrieved and considered for inclusion against explicit methodological criteria. Point prevalence rates were extracted and weighted mean prevalence rates calculated. The main outcome measures were weighted mean prevalences of systolic IAD > or =10 and > or =20 mm Hg and of diastolic IAD > or =10 mm Hg. Thirty-one studies were identified. Most had methodological weaknesses; only four met the inclusion criteria. Pooled prevalences of the IAD from these four studies were 19.6% systolic > or =10 mm Hg (95% CI 18.0-21.3%), 4.2% systolic > or =20 mm Hg (95% CI 3.4-5.1%) and 8.1% diastolic > or =10 mm Hg (95%CI 6.9-9.2%). In conclusion, an IAD is present in a substantial number of patients and should be looked for whenever diagnosis and treatment depend on accurate measurements of BP. The importance of an IAD should be better emphasised in current hypertension management guidelines. There is evidence associating an IAD with peripheral vascular disease, raising the possibility that its presence may predict cardiovascular events.

  19. Tissue repair genes: the TiRe database and its implication for skin wound healing

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Barzilay, Thomer; Abramovich, Amir; Ziesche, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is an inherent feature of any multicellular organism and recent years have brought about a huge amount of data regarding regular and abnormal tissue repair. Despite the accumulated knowledge, modulation of wound healing is still a major biomedical challenge, especially in advanced ages. In order to collect and systematically organize what we know about the key players in wound healing, we created the TiRe (Tissue Repair) database, an online collection of genes and proteins that ...

  20. Fifty shades of gradients: does the pressure gradient in venous sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension matter? A systematic review.

    McDougall, Cameron M; Ban, Vin Shen; Beecher, Jeffrey; Pride, Lee; Welch, Babu G

    2018-03-02

    OBJECTIVE The role of venous sinus stenting (VSS) for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is not well understood. The aim of this systematic review is to attempt to identify subsets of patients with IIH who will benefit from VSS based on the pressure gradients of their venous sinus stenosis. METHODS MEDLINE/PubMed was searched for studies reporting venous pressure gradients across the stenotic segment of the venous sinus, pre- and post-stent pressure gradients, and clinical outcomes after VSS. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. RESULTS From 32 eligible studies, a total of 186 patients were included in the analysis. Patients who had favorable outcomes had higher mean pressure gradients (22.8 ± 11.5 mm Hg vs 17.4 ± 8.0 mm Hg, p = 0.033) and higher changes in pressure gradients after stent placement (19.4 ± 10.0 mm Hg vs 12.0 ± 6.0 mm Hg, p = 0.006) compared with those with unfavorable outcomes. The post-stent pressure gradients between the 2 groups were not significantly different (2.8 ± 4.0 mm Hg vs 2.7 ± 2.0 mm Hg, p = 0.934). In a multivariate stepwise logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, CSF opening pressure, pre-stent pressure gradient, and post-stent pressure gradient, the change in pressure gradient with stent placement was found to be an independent predictor of favorable outcome (p = 0.028). Using a pressure gradient of 21 as a cutoff, 81/86 (94.2%) of patients with a gradient > 21 achieved favorable outcomes, compared with 82/100 (82.0%) of patients with a gradient ≤ 21 (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS There appears to be a relationship between the pressure gradient of venous sinus stenosis and the success of VSS in IIH. A randomized controlled trial would help elucidate this relationship and potentially guide patient selection.

  1. Empirical Analysis of Pneumatic Tire Friction on Ice

    Holley, Troy Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Pneumatic tire friction on ice is an under-researched area of tire mechanics. This study covers the design and analysis of a series of pneumatic tire tests on a flat-level ice road surface. The terramechanics rig of the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Lab (AVDL) is a single-wheel test rig that allows for the experimental analysis of the forces and moments on a tire, providing directly the data for the drawbar pull of said tire, thus supporting the calculation of friction based on this data. This...

  2. A molecular dynamics (MD simulation on tire-aggregate friction

    Fengyan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The friction between tire and road surface is fundamentally depending on the molecular forces. In this paper, the nanoscale 3D contact model is employed to investigate the tire-aggregate friction mechanism. The tire and aggregate micro-structure are both constructed to evaluate the microscopic performance of tire-aggregate friction influence. Simulation results show for a high velocity, the energy dissipation of sliding on crystal structure is small, which results in a small friction coefficient; temperature will have influences on the friction coefficient, and with the increasing of velocity, the effect will gradually reduce. Keywords: Tire, Aggregate, Friction coefficient, Microscopic mechanism, MD simulation

  3. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.

  4. Study on profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser

    Wang, LiangCai; Zhang, Wanping; Zhu, Weihu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a new 2D measuring system-profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser. It includes the thickness measurement of extruding tire tread by laser and the width measurement of extruding tire tread using Moire Fringe. The system has been applied to process line of extruding tire tread. Two measuring results have been obtained. One is a standard profile picture of extruding tire tread including seven measuring values. Another one is a series of thickness and width values. When the scanning speed thickness range is thickness < +/- 0.1mm.

  5. Continuous positive airway pressure reduces blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea; a systematic review and meta-analysis with 1000 patients.

    Schein, Andressa S O; Kerkhoff, Alessandra C; Coronel, Christian C; Plentz, Rodrigo D M; Sbruzzi, Graciele

    2014-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may lead to the development of hypertension and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can promote reduction in blood pressure. The objective of this study is to review systematically the effects of CPAP on blood pressure in patients with OSA. The search was conducted in the following databases, from their beginning until February 2013: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Lilacs and PEDro. In addition, a manual search was performed on references of published studies. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that used CPAP compared with placebo CPAP or subtherapeutic CPAP for treatment of patients with OSA and that evaluated office SBP and DBP and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure were selected. Sixteen RCTs were included among 3409 publications, totaling 1166 patients. The use of CPAP resulted in reductions in office SBP [-3.20  mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI) -4.67 to -1.72] and DBP (-2.87  mmHg; 95% CI -5.18 to -0.55); in night-time SBP (-4.92  mmHg; 95% CI -8.70 to -1.14); in mean 24-h blood pressure (-3.56  mmHg; 95% CI -6.79 to -0.33), mean night-time blood pressure (-2.56  mmHg; 95% CI -4.43 to -0.68) and 24-h DBP (-3.46  mmHg; 95% CI -6.75 to -0.17). However, no significant change was observed in daytime SBP (-0.74  mmHg; 95% CI -3.90 to 2.41) and daytime DBP (-1.86  mmHg; 95% CI -4.55 to 0.83). Treatment with CPAP promoted significantly but small reductions in blood pressure in individuals with OSA. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the effects of long-term CPAP and the impact on cardiovascular risk.

  6. Pressure-induced structural change of liquid InAs and the systematics of liquid III-V compounds

    Hattori, T.; Tsuji, K.; Miyata, Y.; Sugahara, T.; Shimojo, F.

    2007-01-01

    To understand the pressure-induced structural changes of liquid III-V compounds systematically, the pressure dependence of l-InAs was investigated using the synchrotron x-ray diffraction and an ab initio molecular-dynamics simulation (AIMD). The x-ray diffraction experiments revealed that the liquid changes its compression behavior from a nearly uniform type to a nonuniform one around 9 GPa. Corresponding to this change, the coordination number (China), which is maintained up to 9 GPa, markedly increases from 6.0 to 7.5. The AIMD simulation revealed that this change is related to the change in the pressure dependence of all three pair correlations. In particular, a marked change is observed in the As-As correlation; in the low-pressure region, the position of the first peak in g AsAs (r), r AsAs , increases while maintaining the CN AsAs , but in the high-pressure region, the r AsAs stops increasing and the CN AsAs begins to increase. The AIMD simulation also revealed that each partial structure of l-InAs is similar to that for the pure-element liquid with the same valence electron number. Upon compression, each partial structure approaches the respective one for a heavier element in the same group. These findings suggest that the structures of liquid compounds are locally controlled by the number of the valence electrons in each ion pair and that the change in each partial structure obeys the empirical rule that the high-pressure state resembles the ambient state of a heavier element in the same group. Comparing the pressure-induced structural change of l-InAs to those of other liquid III-V compounds (GaSb and InSb) has revealed that, although the high-pressure behaviors of these three liquids are apparently different, their structural changes are systematically understood by a common structural sequence. This systematics originates from the same effect on each partial structure between increasing the atomic number and the pressurization

  7. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Targets Individualized to Pressure-Reactivity Index in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Needham, Edward; McFadyen, Charles; Newcombe, Virginia; Synnot, Anneliese J; Czosnyka, Marek; Menon, David

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently triggers a disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) at which autoregulation is optimal ("CPPopt") varies between individuals, and can be calculated based on fluctuations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. This review assesses the effect of individualizing CPP targets to pressure reactivity index (a measure of autoregulation) in patients with TBI. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE®, Embase, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched in March 2015 for studies assessing the effect of targeting CPPopt in TBI. We included all studies that assessed the impact of targeting CPPopt on outcomes including mortality, neurological outcome, and physiological changes. Risk of bias was assessed using the RTI Item Bank and evidence quality was considered using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Eight cohort studies (based on six distinct data sets) assessing the association between CPPopt and mortality, Glasgow Outcome Scale and physiological measures in TBI were included. The quality of evidence was deemed very low based on the GRADE criteria. Although the data suggest an association between variation from CPPopt and poor clinical outcome at 6 months, the quality of evidence prevents firm conclusions, particularly regarding causality, from being drawn. Available data suggest that targeting CPPopt might represent a technique to improve outcomes following TBI, but currently there is insufficient high-quality data to support a recommendation for use in clinical practice. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies should be undertaken to clarify its role in the acute management of TBI.

  8. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by techniques of thermal compression

    Nadal Gisbert, Antonio V.

    In this work is investigated the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by thermal compression. The production of recycled products is carried out starting from the powder, of elastomeric nature, coming from the grinding of used tires denominated GTR (Ground Tire Rubber) of different grain size, although the fundamental objective is the recycling of powder of 0,2mm grain size. The process of forming used for obtaining the recycled product is thermal compression, due to its simplicity and low cost. The composition of the powder has been analyzed and also the influence, on the elastomeric characteristics of the recycled product, of different parameters: Grain size, compact pressure, temperature, time, thickness of the recycled product and combination of sizes. At last we give an hypothesis that justifies the mechanism that gives cohesion to the powder GTR and allows their recycling. We also have carried out an analysis of the investigation lines, at the present, on the recycling of tires in general and an economic study of the viability of the recycled product in front of present products in the market, agglomerated with polyurethane, that have their application in using it in different types of floors.

  11. Panethnic Differences in Blood Pressure in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Pietro Amedeo Modesti

    Full Text Available People of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA and South Asians(SA ethnic minorities living in Europe have higher risk of stroke than native Europeans(EU. Study objective is to provide an assessment of gender specific absolute differences in office systolic(SBP and diastolic(DBP blood pressure(BP levels between SSA, SA, and EU.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies conducted in Europe that examined BP in non-selected adult SSA, SA and EU subjects. Medline, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched from their inception through January 31st 2015, for relevant articles. Outcome measures were mean SBP and DBP differences between minorities and EU, using a random effects model and tested for heterogeneity. Twenty-one studies involving 9,070 SSA, 18,421 SA, and 130,380 EU were included. Compared with EU, SSA had higher values of both SBP (3.38 mmHg, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.48 mmHg; and 6.00 mmHg, 95% CI 2.22 to 9.78 in men and women respectively and DBP (3.29 mmHg, 95% CI 1.80 to 4.78; 5.35 mmHg, 95% CI 3.04 to 7.66. SA had lower SBP than EU(-4.57 mmHg, 95% CI -6.20 to -2.93; -2.97 mmHg, 95% CI -5.45 to -0.49 but similar DBP values. Meta-analysis by subgroup showed that SA originating from countries where Islam is the main religion had lower SBP and DBP values than EU. In multivariate meta-regression analyses, SBP difference between minorities and EU populations, was influenced by panethnicity and diabetes prevalence.1 The higher BP in SSA is maintained over decades, suggesting limited efficacy of prevention strategies in such group in Europe;2 The lower BP in Muslim populations suggests that yet untapped lifestyle and behavioral habits may reveal advantages towards the development of hypertension;3 The additive effect of diabetes, emphasizes the need of new strategies for the control of hypertension in groups at high prevalence of diabetes.

  12. Reflection on Mobile Applications for Blood Pressure Management: A Systematic Review on Potential Effects and Initiatives.

    Mohammadi, Reyhaneh; Ayatolahi Tafti, Movahhedeh; Hoveidamanesh, Soodabeh; Ghanavati, Reza; Pournik, Omid

    2018-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease and stroke have been considered as the first global leading cause of death in last decades [1]. Blood pressure (BP) management is one of the easiest ways suggested for preventing and controlling cardiovascular diseases before the patient develops complications and death-following outcomes. Appearance of technology advancements in the health system has motivated researchers and health providers to study its different aspects and applications in order to improve disease prevention and management. Following these efforts, mobile health (mHealth) technologies were presented to provide people with fast and easier-to-use services. Although there are some unsolved challenges, these technologies have become popular among many people. As an important part of mHealth, mobile applications (apps) have been the focused subject of many studies in the last decade. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the potential effects of mobile apps designed for BP management by scrutinizing the related studies. Search methods: We searched the following electronic databases in December 2016: Medline (PubMed), National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Education Resources Information Center(ERIC), Web of Science, ProQuest, and Google Scholar. No language restriction and start point limitation were imposed. We included studies that evaluated and assessed mobile apps for BP management and related clinical trials that considered mobile app as the only difference between intervention and control groups. Two review authors applied the eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. Literature search resulted in 13 included studies and 27 reviews. 12 records of 13 included studies identified as interventional studies. The review showed that the mobile apps may improve individual's BP

  13. Changes in blood pressure among users of lay health worker or volunteer operated community-based blood pressure programs over time: a systematic review protocol.

    Skar, Pål; Young, Lynne; Gordon, Carol

    2015-10-01

    reducing cardiovascular disease in specific hard-to-reach populations. Several systematic reviews have been conducted to assess different models for delivering services to people living with high blood pressure to assess community-based programs with a focus on cardiovascular disease, and to assess effectiveness of community health workers (CHW) in a variety of settings. These systematic reviews point to the importance of distinguishing between different categories of health care providers, their training and their roles in program delivery when assessing studies for possible inclusion in a systematic review.In a systematic review of studies from the US by Brownstein et al. focusing on the effectiveness of community health workers (CHWs) in the care of people with hypertension, this category of health care providers went under many different names. Community health workers in this review were defined as "any health workers who carried out functions related to health care deliver, were trained as part of an intervention, had no formal paraprofessional or professional designation, and had a relationship with the community being served". One of the findings from this review was the wide variety of formal training of the CHWs. In other parts of the world, a CHW might be defined differently. In their review of CHW-based programs focusing on children's health, Bhattacharyya, Winch, LeBan and Tien found that "in general CHWs are not paid salaries because the MOH (Ministry of Health) or donors do not consider salaries to be sustainable. Yet CHWs are often held accountable and supervised as if they were employees. Community health worker programs must recognize that CHWs are volunteers (emphasis in original), even if they receive small monetary or nonmonetary incentives. They are volunteering their time to serve the community". One Canadian model for delivering a cardiovascular awareness program designed to reach older adults through their primary care provider is based on

  14. Thermolysis of scrap tire and rubber in sub/super-critical water.

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Fuxin; Meng, Aihong; Tan, Zhongchao; Zhang, Yanguo

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of waste tires has become a serious environmental issue. Energy and material recovery is regarded as a promising use for waste tires. Thermolysis of scrap tire (ST), natural rubber (NR), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was carried out in subcritical and supercritical water using a temperature-pressure independent adjustable batch tubular reactor. As a result, oil yields increased as temperature and pressure increased, and they reached maximum values as the state of water was near the critical point. However, further increases in water temperature and pressure reduced the oil yields. The maximum oil yield of 21.21% was obtained at 420 °C and 18 MPa with a reaction time of 40 min. The relative molecular weights of the chemicals in the oil products were in the range of 70-140 g/mole. The oil produced from ST, NR, and SBR contained similar chemical compounds, but the oil yield of SR was between those of NR and SBR. The oil yield from thermolysis of subcritical or supercritical water should be further improved. The main gaseous products, including CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , and C 3 H 8 , increased with reaction time, temperature, and pressure, whereas the solid residues, including carbon black and impurities, decreased. These results provide useful information to develop a sub/super-critical water thermolysis process for energy and material regeneration from waste tires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical and environmental assessment of the scrap tire vacuum pyrolysis process

    Roy, C.; Caumia, B. de; Lebrecque, B.; Blanchette, D.; Pakdel, H.; Roy, V.

    1991-01-01

    Tire recycling has become a necessity because of the huge piles of tires which represent a threat to the environment. There is about one worn tire produced per year and per person in the developed countries. The used tires represent a source of energy and valuable chemical products. By thermal decomposition of rubber under reduced pressure, it is possible to recover the useful compounds. A step by step approach has been used, from bench-scale batch systems, to process development and finally pilot plant, to experiment and develop vacuum pyrolysis of used tires. Yields are: 55% oil, 25% carbon black, 9% steel, 5% fiber and 6% gas. The maximum recovery of oil was performed at 415 degree C below 2 kPa abs. The specific gravity of this oil was 0.95, its gross heating value was 43 MJ/kg and total sulfur content about 0.8%. It was rich in limonene, benzol and other petrochemical components. The carbon black favorably compared with the low standard grades and may find an application in low grade rubber goods following further research and development. From an environmental point of view, the quality of the gas emissions was found to be acceptable based on the province of Quebec regulations. The aqueous phase contains toxic substances which will be eliminated after blending and burning it with pyrolysis oils used to heat up the reactor. The heat of pyrolysis for the reactions is low, estimated around 700 kJ/kg. The process has been tested in a 200 kg/h pilot plant, which positively demonstrated the possibility of continuously feeding large chunks of rubber under a vacuo. The process feasibility is promising, with returns on the investment of 31% after three years of operation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Relationships among the contact patch length and width, the tire deflection and the rolling resistance of a free-running wheel in a soil bin facility

    Tomaraee, P.; Mardani, A.; Mohebbi, A.; Taghavifar, H.

    2015-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of contact patch length-rolling resistance, contact patch width-rolling resistance and tire deflection-rolling resistance at different wheel load and inflation pressure levels is presented. The experiments were planned in a randomized block design and were conducted in the controlled conditions provided by a soil bin environment utilizing a well-equipped single wheel-tester of Urmia University, Iran. The image processing technique was used for determination of the contact patch length and contact patch width. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the correlations. The highest values of contact length and width and tire deflection occurred at the highest wheel load and lowest tire inflation pressure. Contact patch width is a polynomial (order 2) function of wheel load while there is a linear relationship between tire contact length and wheel load as well as between tire deflection and wheel load. Correlations were developed for the evaluation of contact patch length-rolling resistance, contact patch width-rolling resistance and tire deflection-rolling resistance. It is concluded that the variables studied have a significant effect on rolling resistance. (Author)

  17. Effects of blood pressure reduction in mild hypertension : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Jackson, Rod; Turnbull, Fiona; Rahimi, Kazem; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of blood pressure reduction in persons with grade 1 hypertension are unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate whether pharmacologic blood pressure reduction prevents cardiovascular events and deaths in persons with grade 1 hypertension. DATA SOURCES: Trials included in the BPLTTC (Blood

  18. Application of activated carbon derived from scrap tires for adsorption of Rhodamine B.

    Li, Li; Liu, Shuangxi; Zhu, Tan

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon derived from solid hazardous waste scrap tires was evaluated as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal. The adsorption process with respect to operating parameters was investigated to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the activated pyrolytic tire char (APTC) for Rhodamine B (RhB). Systematic research including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies was performed. The results showed that APTC was a potential adsorbent for RhB with a higher adsorption capacity than most adsorbents. Solution pH and temperature exert significant influence while ionic strength showed little effect on the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data obey Langmuir isotherm and the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process followed intra-particle diffusion model with more than one process affecting the adsorption process. Thermodynamic study confirmed that the adsorption was a physisorption process with spontaneous, endothermic and random characteristics.

  19. Literature review of models on tire-pavement interaction noise

    Li, Tan; Burdisso, Ricardo; Sandu, Corina

    2018-04-01

    Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) becomes dominant at speeds above 40 km/h for passenger vehicles and 70 km/h for trucks. Several models have been developed to describe and predict the TPIN. However, these models do not fully reveal the physical mechanisms or predict TPIN accurately. It is well known that all the models have both strengths and weaknesses, and different models fit different investigation purposes or conditions. The numerous papers that present these models are widely scattered among thousands of journals, and it is difficult to get the complete picture of the status of research in this area. This review article aims at presenting the history and current state of TPIN models systematically, making it easier to identify and distribute the key knowledge and opinions, and providing insight into the future research trend in this field. In this work, over 2000 references related to TPIN were collected, and 74 models were reviewed from nearly 200 selected references; these were categorized into deterministic models (37), statistical models (18), and hybrid models (19). The sections explaining the models are self-contained with key principles, equations, and illustrations included. The deterministic models were divided into three sub-categories: conventional physics models, finite element and boundary element models, and computational fluid dynamics models; the statistical models were divided into three sub-categories: traditional regression models, principal component analysis models, and fuzzy curve-fitting models; the hybrid models were divided into three sub-categories: tire-pavement interface models, mechanism separation models, and noise propagation models. At the end of each category of models, a summary table is presented to compare these models with the key information extracted. Readers may refer to these tables to find models of their interest. The strengths and weaknesses of the models in different categories were then analyzed. Finally

  20. Automobile Tire Assessment: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Ateekh-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the present dynamic market, automobile manufacturing industries are constantly evaluating and improving their manufacturing strategies to stay competitive. It is also evident that they evaluate those strategies considering multiple criteria. In one such case, an automobile project manager has to ensure that the selected tire (among the available alternatives complies with the prospective automobile’s performance. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of alternative automobile tires taking into account multiple criteria, such as tire sustainability, tire road performance, environmental issues, tire purchase cost and tire road grip. The presented approach is quite helpful to any decision maker who is interested not only in ranking alternatives but also in establishing the superiority of an alternative over others. The approach also helps to specify the position of each alternative with respect to ideal solution. A case illustration is used to demonstrate an application of the approach.

  1. A new use for old tires

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  2. A new use for old tires

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  3. Systematic trends of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films post annealed in low oxygen partial pressures

    Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.; Werder, D.J.; Tiefel, T.H.; Marshall, J.H.; Siegal, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Systematic studies have been performed on 1000 A YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films produced by the BaF 2 process and annealed in an oxygen partial pressure (p O 2 ) range from 740 Torr to 10 mTorr as well as a temperature range from 600 to 1050 degree C. The results show that while high quality films can be annealed in a wide range of oxygen partial pressure, they have different characteristics. In general, crystalline quality and T c are optimized at high p O 2 and high annealing temperature, while strong flux pinning and low normal state resistivity are achieved at lower values of both variables. Under optimized low p O 2 conditions, an ion channeling χ min of 6% is obtained on films as thick as 5000 A. This study will serve as a useful guide to tailoring film properties to the application at hand

  4. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    2015-07-10

    strikes a balance between simple tire models that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions and computationally intensive models that...strikes a balance between heuristic tire models (such as a linear point-follower) that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Cleared for public release A PLANAR QUASI-STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL Rui Maa John B. Ferris

  5. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    Sun, Jianhu; Chu, Zhaojun; Liu, Yingfang; Luo, Weiming; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall h...

  6. Deterministic and Stochastic Semi-Empirical Transient Tire Models

    Umsrithong, Anake

    2012-01-01

    The tire is one of the most important components of the vehicle. It has many functions, such as supporting the load of the vehicle, transmitting the forces which drive, brake and guide the vehicle, and acting as the secondary suspension to absorb the effect of road irregularities before transmitting the forces to the vehicle suspension. A tire is a complex reinforced rubber composite air container. The structure of the tire is very complex. It consists of several layers of synthetic polymer, ...

  7. The design and improvement of radial tire molding machine

    Wang, Wenhao; Zhang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented that the high accuracy semisteel meridian tire molding machine structure configurations, combining tyre high precision characteristics, the original structure and parameter optimization, technology improvement innovation design period of opening and closing machine rotary shaping drum institutions. This way out of the shaft from the structure to the push-pull type movable shaping drum of thinking limit, compared with the specifications and shaping drum can smaller contraction, is conducive to forming the tire and reduce the tire deformation.

  8. Systematic prediction of high-pressure melting curves of transition metals

    Hieu, Ho Khac

    2014-01-01

    The pressure effects on melting temperatures of transition metals have been studied based on the combination of the modified Lindemann criterion with statistical moment method in quantum statistical mechanics. Numerical calculations have been performed for five transition metals including Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Mn up to pressure 100 GPa. Our results are in good and reasonable agreements with available experimental data. This approach gives us a relatively simple method for qualitatively calculating high-pressure melting temperature. Moreover, it can be used to verify future experimental and theoretical works. This research proposes the potential of the combination of statistical moment method and the modified Lindemann criterion on predicting high-pressure melting of materials.

  9. Experiments on Spray from a Rolling Tire

    Radovich, Charles; Browand, Fred

    2010-11-01

    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the mechanisms and statistics of droplet production for spray emerging from a rolling tire. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire contact patch in the form of a liquid sheet of non-uniform thickness. The sheet breaks into droplets as a result of several, organized instabilities. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6, for Weber numbers of 2700, 10900 and 24400. A technique to identify and size water droplets was developed and the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000μm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800μm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with increasing Weber number as (approximately) We-1/2. Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as a function of droplet size. The spread of droplet velocities about the tire peripheral speed is strongly correlated with droplet size. The spread can be estimated by a simple physical model incorporating rigid droplets subject to gravity and drag.

  10. Effects of blood pressure reduction in mild hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Jackson, Rod; Turnbull, Fiona; Rahimi, Kazem; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-02-03

    Effects of blood pressure reduction in persons with grade 1 hypertension are unclear. To investigate whether pharmacologic blood pressure reduction prevents cardiovascular events and deaths in persons with grade 1 hypertension. Trials included in the BPLTTC (Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration) and trials identified from a previous review and electronic database searches. Patients without cardiovascular disease with blood pressures in the grade 1 hypertension range (140 to 159/90 to 99 mm Hg) who were randomly assigned to an active (antihypertensive drug or more intensive regimen) or control (placebo or less intensive regimen) blood pressure-lowering regimen. Individual-patient data from BPLTTC trials and aggregate data from other trials were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed for all trials. Individual-patient data involved 10 comparisons from trials where most patients had diabetes, and aggregate data involved 3 comparisons from trials of patients without diabetes. The average blood pressure reduction was about 3.6/2.4 mm Hg. Over 5 years, odds ratios were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.01) for total cardiovascular events, 0.72 (CI, 0.55 to 0.94) for strokes, 0.91 (CI, 0.74 to 1.12) for coronary events, 0.80 (CI, 0.57 to 1.12) for heart failure, 0.75 (CI, 0.57 to 0.98) for cardiovascular deaths, and 0.78 (CI, 0.67 to 0.92) for total deaths. Results were similar in secondary analyses. Withdrawal from treatment due to adverse effects was more common in the active groups. Blood pressure reductions and numbers of events were small. Blood pressure-lowering therapy is likely to prevent stroke and death in patients with uncomplicated grade 1 hypertension. Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Australian Research Council, and National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.

  11. In-plane Tire Deformation Measurement Using a Multi-Laser Sensor System

    Xiong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between tires and roads are basic mechanisms that alter the dynamic states of vehicles. A fundamental understanding of tire-road interactions is clearly demanded in tire design to achieve performance improvements. The emergence of various tire sensors provides an opportunity to make accurate measurement of the physical quantities that are involved in tire-road interactions.  This thesis aims to measure and analyze the in-plane deformation of rolling tires through its direc...

  12. Impact of tire loading and tire pressure on measured 3D contact stresses

    Hernandez, JA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement 2013 D ow nl oa de d fro m a sc el ib ra ry .o rg b y G RA IN G ER E N G IN EE RI N G L IB E o n 10 /1 4/ 13 . C op yr ig ht A SC E. F or p er so na l u se o nl y; a ll rig ht s r es er ve d. 2 composed of a measuring mechanism... a v e m e n t 2 0 1 3 : S u s t a i n a b l e a n d E f f i c i e n t P a v e m e n t s © A S C E 2 0 1 3 A i r f i e l d a n d H i g h w a y P a v e m e n t 2 0 1 3 D ow nl oa de d fro m a sc el ib ra ry .o rg b y G RA IN G ER...

  13. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  14. Who benefited from the US tariffs on the Chinese tires?

    Joonhyung, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the short-run effect of the tariffs on Chinese tires imposed by the US in September 2009. First, we investigated whether the tariffs were beneficial to the US domestic tire industry in terms of employment. Our empirical analysis found that there were no significant benefits to US employment in the tire industry. This result led us to the next question: Who benefited from the tariffs? We found that the tire imports to the US were significantly deviated ...

  15. Method of sections in analytical calculations of pneumatic tires

    Tarasov, V. N.; Boyarkina, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Analytical calculations in the pneumatic tire theory are more preferable in comparison with experimental methods. The method of section of a pneumatic tire shell allows to obtain equations of intensities of internal forces in carcass elements and bead rings. Analytical dependencies of intensity of distributed forces have been obtained in tire equator points, on side walls (poles) and pneumatic tire bead rings. Along with planes in the capacity of secant surfaces cylindrical surfaces are used for the first time together with secant planes. The tire capacity equation has been obtained using the method of section, by means of which a contact body is cut off from the tire carcass along the contact perimeter by the surface which is normal to the bearing surface. It has been established that the Laplace equation for the solution of tasks of this class of pneumatic tires contains two unknown values that requires the generation of additional equations. The developed computational schemes of pneumatic tire sections and new equations allow to accelerate the pneumatic tire structure improvement process during engineering.

  16. Environmental impact caused by incorrect discard of tires

    Vitória Emanuella da Silva Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tires are wastes that need special treatment, because when buried whole, its shape facilitates the accumulation of gases from the decomposition of other waste and in case of emerge surface provides shelter for diseases. Thus, this research aimed to provide information about the environmental impacts caused by the improper disposal of unserviceable tires and about some techniques for reusing and recycling them. We opted for the literature search using databases SCIELO, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, CAPES journals, resolutions of the MMA, the ANIP and regulations of IBAMA instructions. The consultation material comprises a period from 1992 to 2015 with the following descriptors: industrial waste; laws of tires; environmental impacts caused by improper disposal of tires and technological alternatives usable by tires and scrap therefore improper disposal of scrap tires can cause negative impacts such as floods, by reducing the flow capacity of water bodies and drains. In contrast, after use, the tire can undergo reform and be reused, but the wear out is completely characterized as waste tire and the correct disposal are the possible ways of recycling. Thus it is very important compliance of laws that deal with the proper disposal of tires.

  17. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comp...

  18. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  19. A systematic search of sudden pressure drops on Gale crater during two Martian years derived from MSL/REMS data

    Ordonez-Etxeberria, Iñaki; Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín

    2018-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover carries a suite of meteorological detectors that constitute the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument. REMS investigates the meteorological conditions at Gale crater by obtaining high-frequency data of pressure, air and ground temperature, relative humidity, UV flux at the surface and wind intensity and direction with some limitations in the wind data. We have run a search of atmospheric pressure drops of short duration (pressure data during its first 1417 sols (more than two Martian years). The identified daytime pressure drops could be caused by the close passages of warm vortices and dust devils. Previous systematic searches of warm vortices from REMS pressure data (Kahanpää et al., 2016; Steakley and Murphy, 2016) cover about one Martian year. We show that sudden pressure drops are twice more abundant in the second Martian year [sols 671-1339] than in the first one analyzed in previous works. The higher number of detections could be linked to a combination of different topography, higher altitudes (120 m above the landing site) and true inter-annual meteorological variability. We found 1129 events with a pressure drop larger than 0.5 Pa. Of these, 635 occurred during the local daytime (∼56%) and 494 were nocturnal. The most intense pressure drop (4.2 Pa) occurred at daytime on sol 1417 (areocentric solar longitude Ls = 195°) and was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in the UV signal of 7.1%, pointing to a true dust devil. We also discuss similar but less intense simultaneous pressure and UV radiation drops that constitute 0.7% of all daytime events. Most of the intense daytime pressure drops with variations larger than 1.0 Pa occur when the difference between air and ground temperature is larger than 15 K. Statistically, the frequency of daytime pressure drops peaks close to noon (12:00-13:00 Local True Solar Time or LTST) with more events in spring and summer (Ls from 180° to 360°). The

  20. Pneumoperitoneum pressures during pelvic laparoscopic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Chiappa, Valentina; Lorusso, Domenica; Ghezzi, Fabio; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the level of pneumoperitoneal pressure is directly correlated with postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. However, only limited evidence is available in the field of gynaecologic surgery. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of low (8mmHg), standard (12mmHg) and high (15mmHg) pneumoperitoneal pressures (LPPpressure influence postoperative pain. The study also sought to determine the safety of LPP during gynaecologic procedures. A literature search revealed two randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of different pneumoperitoneal pressures. Overall, 230 patients who underwent gynaecologic procedures via laparoscopy using different pneumoperitoneal pressures (LPP: n=74, 32%; SPP: n=67, 29%; HPP: n=89, 39%) were evaluated. Pooled results suggested that the use of LPP does not increase operative time compared with SPP [mean difference (MD) 6.78min] and HPP (MD 5.52min). Similarly, no differences in operative time were recorded between procedures using SPP and HPP (MD 0.34min). Estimated blood loss was not influenced by CO2 intra-abdominal pressure (LPP vs SPP: MD 10.05ml; LPP vs HPP: MD -4.03ml; SPP vs HPP: MD 6.75ml). Twenty-four hours after surgery, HPP was found to be correlated with higher levels of pain compared with LPP and SPP. However, CO2 pressure did not influence the length of hospital stay. These results suggest that in comparison with SPP and HPP, LPP provides a slight benefit in terms of postoperative pain among patients undergoing gynaecologic laparoscopy, with no increase in operative time, blood loss or surgery-related morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of an Intelligent Tire Based Tire - Vehicle State Estimator for Application to Global Chassis Control

    Singh, Kanwar Bharat

    2012-01-01

    The contact between the tire and the road is the key enabler of vehicle acceleration, deceleration and steering. However, under the circumstances of sudden changes to the road conditions, the driver`s ability to maintain control of the vehicle maybe at risk. In many cases, this requires intervention from the chassis control systems onboard the vehicle. Although these systems perform well in a variety of situations, their performance can be improved if a real-time estimate of the tire-road c...

  2. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    Esteban Fraile-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment.

  3. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pressure ulcers from spinal immobilization in trauma patients: A systematic review

    Ham, W.; Schoonhoven, L.; Schuurmans, M.J.; Leenen, L.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To protect the (possibly) injured spine, trauma patients are immobilized on backboard or vacuum mattress, with a cervical collar, lateral headblocks, and straps. Several studies identified pressure ulcer (PU) development from these devices. The aim of this literature study was to gain

  5. Treatment and clinical outcome in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus - a systematic review

    Torsnes, Linnea; Blåfjelldal, Vibeke; Poulsen, Frantz Rom

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is challenging. It is well known that patients with iNPH experience short-term symptom relief after shunt implantation, but the long-term effect of shunting has yielded diverging results. The objective of the present study...

  6. A systematic review of topical negative pressure therapy for acute and chronic wounds

    Ubbink, D. T.; Westerbos, S. J.; Nelson, E. A.; Vermeulen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy is becoming increasingly popular for all kinds of wounds. Its clinical and cost effectiveness is unclear. A search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on TNP in adult patients with all kinds of wounds in all settings was undertaken in Medline, Embase,

  7. Negative pressure of the environmental air in the cleaning area of the materials and sterilization center: a systematic review

    Caroline Lopes Ciofi-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the scientific evidence on aerosols generated during cleaning activities of health products in the Central Service Department (CSD and the impact of the negative pressure of the ambient air in the cleaning area to control the dispersion of aerosols to adjacent areas. Method: for this literature systematic review the following searches were done: search guidelines, manuals or national and international technical standards given by experts; search in the portal and databases PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science; and a manual search of scientific articles. Results: the five technical documents reviewed recommend that the CSD cleaning area should have a negative differential ambient air pressure, but scientific articles on the impact of this intervention were not found. The four articles included talked about aerosols formed after the use of a ultrasonic cleaner (an increased in the contamination especially during use and pressurized water jet (formation of smaller aerosols 5μm. In a study, the aerosols formed from contaminated the hot tap water with Legionella pneumophila were evaluated. Conclusions: there is evidence of aerosol formation during cleanup activities in CSD. Studies on occupational diseases of respiratory origin of workers who work in CSD should be performed.

  8. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  9. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section 27.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed...

  10. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section 29.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise...

  11. The experimental assessment of dynamic tire handling performance

    Pauwelussen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Testing of steady state tire handling performance is nowadays common practice with slip angle sweeps and breaking being simulated in the laboratory with drum or flat belt, or on the road with a test trailer. In recent years, more emphasis is put on dynamic tire models, motivated by ride comfort

  12. Enhanced friction modeling for steady-state rolling tires

    Steen, van der R.

    2010-01-01

    Tire modeling is nowadays a necessary tool in the tire industry. Car manufacturers, governments and consumers demand better traction under all circumstances, less wear and more recently less noise and a lower rolling resistance. Therefore finite element analysis is adopted in the design process of

  13. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  14. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Punia, Sonu; Kulandaivelan, Sivachidambaram; Singh, Varun; Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian su...

  15. Exercise Training for Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta?analysis

    Cornelissen, Veronique A.; Smart, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted meta?analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials lasting ?4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ?18 year...

  16. Microtomography of elastomers for tire manufacture

    Dunsmuir, John H.; Dias, A. J.; Peiffer, D. G.; Kolb, R.; Jones, G.

    1999-09-01

    X-ray microtomography is used to image the internal structure of carbon black filled isobutylene-p-methylstyrene-p- bromomethylstyrene (PIB-PMS/BrPMS or ExxProTM) curing bladders before and after use-to-failure in the manufacture of automobile tires. Curing bladders operate under extreme conditions with extended mechanical cycling at high temperatures. Manufacturers typically do not run the bladders until failure but rather a pull policy is established which emphasizes the distribution of cyclic lifetimes. We examine the bladder elastomer structure at a resolution of about 10 microns with the objective of reducing the variability in performance. Using both edge crossing and absorption contrast we identify several types of heterogeneity including voids, foreign inclusions, and the distribution of curative agent from which we infer the uniformity of the cure. The results indicate several potential failure mechanisms. The small number of voids and foreign inclusions are mechanical defects that can initiate cracking. More widespread through the polymer matrix are small regions of polymer devoid of curative agent as shown by absorption edge imaging. These regions may be uncured polymer with poor mechanical and thermal properties that may lead to early failure. After several cure cycles the uncured regions are no longer present in the bladder tread area but they remain near the bead. At high cycles an approximately 500 micrometer thick zinc rich cap develops where the bladder contacts the inner tread area of the tire. This zinc rich cap may cause over-curing of the polymer resulting in crack initiation at the surface of the bladder that contacts the tire.

  17. Replacing coal by tire powder in ceramic industry

    Mothe, C.G. [Dept. de Processos Organicos, Escola de Quimica/CT/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mothe Filho, H.F. [Dept. de Geociencias, Inst. de Agronomia/UFRRJ, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays preserving nature, recycling or reusing materials are good policies. Around ten million tires are put out by year in Brazil, and it is not known for how long they will remain in environment till their complete degradation. This research used tires to replace coal in ceramic processing. In this way it helps to protect environment, to reduce the consumption of mineral deposits and to save money. Results show that tire powder can replace coal to obtain ceramic material, using one percent of tire. Experiments were carried out using TA instruments SDT 2960, in air or nitrogen atmospheres, at heating rate of 10 C/min., flow 120 ml/min. TG/DTA curves of tire and coal have exothermic events at close temperatures between 450-600 C. At range of temperatures clay have endothermic events. (orig.)

  18. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  19. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  20. Effect of Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F.; Segal, Jodi B.; Kim, Miyong T.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. Methods and Results We searched databases up to April 22, 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using weighted random effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18,925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on SBP and 18 on DBP. The pooled intervention effect was −1.64 mmHg (95% CI: -2.56, −0.71; P=0.001) for SBP and -1.44 mmHg (95% CI: −2.28, −0.60; P=0.001) for DBP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both SBP and DBP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP; while 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP, but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Conclusions Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP and those targeting at both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective. PMID:24552832

  1. Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney disease. To lower blood pressure (BP), several lifestyle changes are recommended such as weight loss, exercise, and following a healthy diet. Investigating the effect of single nutrients may have positive results, but food is consumed as part of a whole diet, resulting in nutrient interactions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of dietary patterns on BP in adults. Studies that were published between January 1999 and June 2014 were retrieved using Scopus, Web of Science, and the MEDLINE database. Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggest that healthy dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, Nordic diet, and Mediterranean diet significantly lowered systolic BP and diastolic BP by 4.26 mm Hg and 2.38 mm Hg, respectively. These diets are rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, fish, and dairy and low in meat, sweets, and alcohol. Lifestyle factors such as exercise and weight loss in combination with dietary changes may also reduce BP. Further research is needed to establish the effect of dietary patterns on BP in different cultures other than those identified in this review. The review was registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) as CRD42015016272. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Development and Verification of the Tire/Road Friction Estimation Algorithm for Antilock Braking System

    Jian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road friction information is very important for vehicle active braking control systems such as ABS, ASR, or ESP. It is not easy to estimate the tire/road friction forces and coefficient accurately because of the nonlinear system, parameters uncertainties, and signal noises. In this paper, a robust and effective tire/road friction estimation algorithm for ABS is proposed, and its performance is further discussed by simulation and experiment. The tire forces were observed by the discrete Kalman filter, and the road friction coefficient was estimated by the recursive least square method consequently. Then, the proposed algorithm was analysed and verified by simulation and road test. A sliding mode based ABS with smooth wheel slip ratio control and a threshold based ABS by pulse pressure control with significant fluctuations were used for the simulation. Finally, road tests were carried out in both winter and summer by the car equipped with the same threshold based ABS, and the algorithm was evaluated on different road surfaces. The results show that the proposed algorithm can identify the variation of road conditions with considerable accuracy and response speed.

  3. 78 FR 54369 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2013-09-03

    ... subject tires meet or exceed all applicable FMVSS performance standards for a tire labeled as either load...-0107; Notice 2] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of... Petition Mootness. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  4. 75 FR 17830 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2010-04-07

    ... safety as it ``does not affect the safety, performance and durability of the tire; the tires were built... requirements. Continental said that it performs ongoing compliance testing ``to assure tire performance'' and that ``all tires included in this petition will meet or exceed the performance requirements of FMVSS...

  5. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2013-02-11

    ... subject tires in fact have more tread plies than indicated and meet or exceed all performance requirements...-0109; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand tires manufactured...

  6. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2012-12-03

    ... noncompliant tires are mislabeled; the subject tires meet or exceed all performance requirements as required in...-0108; Notice 1] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of... petition. SUMMARY: Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC (BRIDGESTONE),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  7. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2013-08-02

    ..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0109; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper) \\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand replacement tires...

  8. 77 FR 11189 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2012-02-24

    ...-0056; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Yokohama Tire Corporation, (YTC),\\1\\ replacement tires for passenger cars... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 139, New Pneumatic Radial Tires for Light Vehicles. YTC...

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.110 - Tire identification/registration program.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tire identification...-General Policies § 101-25.110 Tire identification/registration program. The regulations issued by the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR part 574, Tire Identification and Recordkeeping, require that tire...

  10. Geotechnical Investigation of the Potential Use of Shredded Scrap Tires in Soil Stabilization.

    1998-11-01

    Silt-tire and clay-tire mixtures, containing 0% to 100% shredded tire material by weight, with tire chips ranging in size from 7mm-13mm, 13mm-25mm, and 25mm-38mm, were tested for a series of engineering properties including compaction characteristics...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Original equipment tires on imported articles..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on... than bicycle tires and inner tubes) that are original equipment for an imported article upon which no...

  12. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  13. Redox systematics of a magma ocean with variable pressure-temperature gradients and composition.

    Righter, K; Ghiorso, M S

    2012-07-24

    Oxygen fugacity in metal-bearing systems controls some fundamental aspects of the geochemistry of the early Earth, such as the FeO and siderophile trace element content of the mantle, volatile species that influence atmospheric composition, and conditions for organic compounds synthesis. Redox and metal-silicate equilibria in the early Earth are sensitive to oxygen fugacity (fO(2)), yet are poorly constrained in modeling and experimentation. High pressure and temperature experimentation and modeling in metal-silicate systems usually employs an approximation approach for estimating fO(2) that is based on the ratio of Fe and FeO [called "ΔIW (ratio)" hereafter]. We present a new approach that utilizes free energy and activity modeling of the equilibrium: Fe + SiO(2) + O(2) = Fe(2)SiO(4) to calculate absolute fO(2) and relative to the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer at pressure and temperature [ΔIW (P,T)]. This equilibrium is considered across a wide range of pressures and temperatures, including up to the liquidus temperature of peridotite (4,000 K at 50 GPa). Application of ΔIW (ratio) to metal-silicate experiments can be three or four orders of magnitude different from ΔIW (P,T) values calculated using free energy and activity modeling. We will also use this approach to consider the variation in oxygen fugacity in a magma ocean scenario for various thermal structures for the early Earth: hot liquidus gradient, 100 °C below the liquidus, hot and cool adiabatic gradients, and a cool subsolidus adiabat. The results are used to assess the effect of increasing P and T, changing silicate composition during accretion, and related to current models for accretion and core formation in the Earth. The fO(2) in a deep magma ocean scenario may become lower relative to the IW buffer at hotter and deeper conditions, which could include metal entrainment scenarios. Therefore, fO(2) may evolve from high to low fO(2) during Earth (and other differentiated bodies) accretion. Any

  14. Combustion of used tires for energy recovery. Yozumi taiya shokyaku ni suru netsuriyo

    Ishizawa, N. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-15

    The recycled automobile tires in 1991 amounts to 87%, and the tires are used most effectively for heat generation. The utilization of tires for heat in Japan and in other countries are outlined, and a detailed report is made on the use of used tires as fuel at coal cogeneration plants in tire manufacturing plants. The 'utilization percent for heat' is steadily increasing among the recycling applications of used tires. Energy recovery by dry distillation method and by direct combustion method is discussed. The states of used tire utilization in America, West Germany, and Britain are introduced. A concrete example of utilization for heat of used tires at a tire manufacturing plant is shown. Used tires are chopped into chips, mixed and burned in a coal boiler, the generated steam is used as the heat source for private power generation, and the power is used as the power source for the plant. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Blood Pressure Response to Meditation and Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Park, Seong-Hi; Han, Kuem Sun

    2017-09-01

    To introduce research that presents scientific evidence regarding the effects of mantra and mindfulness meditation techniques and yoga on decreasing blood pressure (BP) in patients who have hypertension. A literature search was performed to identify all studies published between 1946 and 2014 from periodicals indexed in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, KoreaMed, and NDSL by using the following keywords: "hypertension," "blood pressure," "psychotherapy," "relaxation therapy," "meditation," "yoga," and "mind-body therapy." The Cochrane's Risk of Bias was applied to assess the internal validity of the randomized controlled trial studies. Thirteen studies were analyzed in this meta-analysis by using Review Manager 5.3. Among 510 possible studies, 13 met the selection criteria. Seven examined meditation, and six examined yoga. The meta-analysis indicated that meditation and yoga appeared to decrease both systolic and diastolic BP, which were within similar baseline ranges, and the reduction was statistically significant; however, some results showed little difference. After an in-depth analysis of those results, BP range and patient age were revealed as the factors that affected the different results in some reports. In particular, meditation played a noticeable role in decreasing the BP of subjects older than 60 years of age, whereas yoga seemed to contribute to the decrease of subjects aged less than 60 years. While acknowledging the limitations of this research due to the differences in BP and the participants' ages, meditation and yoga are demonstrated to be effective alternatives to pharmacotherapy. Given that BP decreased with the use of meditation and yoga, and this effect varied in different age groups, scientifically measured outcomes indicate that these practices are safe alternatives in some cases.

  16. Effectiveness of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Strategies for Adult Patients in Intensive Care Units: A Systematic Review.

    Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-12-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with substantial health burden, but could be preventable. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) prevention has become a priority for all healthcare settings, as it is considered a sign of quality of care providing. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at higher risk for HAPUs development. Despite the availability of published prevention strategies, there is a little evidence about which strategies can be safely integrated into routine standard care and have an impact on HAPUs prevention. The aim was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of single strategies designed to reduce the incidence and prevalence of HAPUs development in ICUs. The search strategy was designed to retrieve studies published in English across CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Scopus, and Mednar between 2000 and 2015. All adult ICU participants were aged 18 years or over. This review included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental and comparative studies. The studies that were selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical-appraisal instruments. The review included 25 studies, and the meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant effect of a silicon foam dressing strategy in reducing HAPUs incidence (effect size = 4.62; 95% CI: 0.05-0.29; p prevention of HAPUs development in the ICU was limited, which precludes strong conclusions. The review provides an evidence-based guide to future priorities for clinical practice. In particular, a silicone foam dressing has positive impact in reducing sacrum and heel HAPUs incidence in the ICU. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    Nikola Korunović; Miloš Madić; Miroslav Trajanović; Miroslav Radovanović

    2015-01-01

    The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zo...

  18. Dielectric properties of various polymers (PVC, EVA, HDPE, and PP) reinforced with ground tire rubber (GTR)

    Mujal Rosas, Ramón María; Marín Genescá, Marcos; Ballart Prunell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Mass production of tires as well as its difficult storage or elimination is a real environmental problem. Various methods for recycling tires are currently used, such as mechanical crushing, which puts vulcanized rubber, steel, and fibers apart. The rubber may be used in several industrial applications such as flooring, insulations, and footwear. The present paper focuses on finding a new application for old used tires [ground tire rubber (GTR)]. To this end, tires dust has been mixed with va...

  19. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comparing with the other uses. There are a lot of studies conducted in these field, these studies suggests many methods to manage the huge number of scrap tires, the current paper aims to use the old rubber tires in engineering purposes (especially as a coupler joins the motor or engines with the other equipment as electric dynamo or pumps, the study focusing on the mechanical properties of a strip from a used tires and comparing with one prepared in the lab., and suggesting a new method to use as an engineering parts (for example the coupler lays between the IC engine and the dynamo of an electric generator. One of the results obtained from the experiments, there is no significant difference between the mechanical properties of the old and the new strip, (in the tensile test, the breaking force of the -Lab. tensile specimen- is 137 N whereas the specimen of old tire have a breaking force 113.27 N, but they are same in the elongation. A computational example is suggested to estimate the dimensions of a flexible coupler use an old tire pieces.

  20. Carbon Isotope Systematics in Mineral-Catalyzed Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperature and Pressures

    Fu, Qi; Socki, R. A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques. Reduction of CO2 and/or CO during serpentization by mineral surface catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars. With the evidence a recent study has discovered for serpentinization in deeply buried carbon rich sediments, and more showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history, it seems likely that abiotic methane generation via serpentinization reactions may have been common on Mars. Experiments involving mineral-catalyzed hydrothermal organic synthesis processes were conducted at 750 C and 5.5 Kbars. Alkanes, alcohols and carboxylic acids were identified as organic compounds. No "isotopic reversal" of delta C-13 values was observed for alkanes or carboxylic acids, suggesting a different reaction pathway than polymerization. Alcohols were proposed as intermediaries formed on mineral surfaces at experimental conditions. Carbon isotope data were used in this study to unravel the reaction pathways of abiotic formation of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems at high temperatures and pressures. They are instrumental in constraining the origin and evolution history of organic compounds on Mars and other planets.

  1. Effect of cocoa products on blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Desch, Steffen; Schmidt, Johanna; Kobler, Daniela; Sonnabend, Melanie; Eitel, Ingo; Sareban, Mahdi; Rahimi, Kazem; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa products such as dark chocolate and cocoa beverages may have blood pressure (BP)-lowering properties due to their high content of plant-derived flavanols. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessing the antihypertensive effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products. The primary outcome measure was the change in systolic and diastolic BP between intervention and control groups. In total, 10 randomized controlled trials comprising 297 individuals were included in the analysis. The populations studied were either healthy normotensive adults or patients with prehypertension/stage 1 hypertension. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 18 weeks. The mean BP change in the active treatment arms across all trials was -4.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI), -5.9 to -3.2, P cocoa products in a larger set of trials than previously reported. However, significant statistical heterogeneity across studies could be found, and questions such as the most appropriate dose and the long-term side effect profile warrant further investigation before cocoa products can be recommended as a treatment option in hypertension.

  2. Dynamic airway pressure-time curve profile (Stress Index): a systematic review.

    Terragni, Pierpaolo; Bussone, Guido; Mascia, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of respiratory mechanics at the bedside is necessary in order to identify the most protective ventilatory strategy. Indeed in the last 20 years, adverse effects of positive ventilation to the lung structures have led to a reappraisal of the objectives of mechanical ventilation. The ventilator setting requires repeated readjustment over the period of mechanical ventilation dependency and careful respiratory monitoring to minimize the risks, preventing further injury and permitting the lung and airways healing. Among the different methods that have been proposed and validated, the analysis of dynamic P-t curve (named Stress Index, SI) represents an adequate tool available at the bedside, repeatable and, therefore, able to identify the amount of overdistension occurring in the daily clinical practice, when modifying positive end-expiratory pressure. In this review we will analyze the evidence that supports respiratory mechanics assessment at the bedside and the application of the dynamic P/t curve profile (SI) to optimize protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure.

  3. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRUCKS TIRES

    Z. A. Godzhaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now improvement of technological design specification of trucks tires develops very much. In modern mechanical engineering polyamide and kapron cords for tires of line-haul trucks and buses are replaced with all-metal ones (AMC even more often. It was defined that at increase in AMC tires production their technical characteristics were investigated insufficiently. In this regard there were carried out bench tests to compare the main operational indicators of domestic (JSC Nizhnekamskshina production and foreign tires with an all-metal cord: 315/60R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/60r22.5 the XZA2 ENERGY Michelin model (steering; 315/60R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/60R22.5 the XDA2+ ENERGY Michelin model (drive; 315/80R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D Michelin XZE X MultiWay model (steering; 315/80R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D XDE X MultiWay model (drive. The laboratory researches were carried out for the purpose of an assessment of the universal, load, damping (hysteresis and other characteristics of tires with use of the universal functional SIB-1M test-bench. It was established that Michelin AMC tires of steering low-profile 315/60R22.5 XZA2 ENERGY models have the best indicators on power heterogeneity - 0.47-0.89 percent. The high-profile AMC tires of drive wheels 315/80R22.5 of the NR-201 model of JSC Nizhnekamskshina have the worst indicators. However, all the tested tires correspond to GOST 5513-97on this indicator. It was noted that Nizhnekamsk AMC tires of the size 315/60R22.5 are flush with AMC tires Michelin on set of operational indicators, except power heterogeneity, and last one of Michelin tires is lower than Nizhnekamsk ones by 2-3 times. It was suggested to conduct further researches on definition of optimum operational tires indicators because of an intensive use of KAMAZ trucks in agricultural production

  4. No immediate relief for large mining tire shortage

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    Inventories are low and they will not get better anytime soon, but mine operators do have a few options. The three main manufacturers supplying tires to the US mining industry, Bridgestone Firestone Off Road Tire Company, Goodyear and Michelin are struggling to keep up with demand, but are unlikely to restore inventories to manageable levels by 2009. Meanwhile Yokohama and Global Tyres have stepped in to help. The article reports plans for expansions to plant in Japan. In the meantime, mine operators need to plan accordingly and pay increased attention to tire maintenance. The larger the tyre, the less available it is. 3 photos.

  5. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    2015-04-28

    Germany. p. 18. 2. Oertel, C., On Modeling Contact and Friction Calculation of Tyre Response on Uneven Roads . Vehicle System Dynamics, 1997. 27(S1): p...touching the ground. This massless tip acts as a sensor point and can be used to detect the tire- road contact . Also, using the direction and value of the...superiority of this model as compared to other lumped parameter models currently available. Keywords: Wheeled Vehicle, Terramechanics, Off- Road

  6. Does the pulse pressure in people of European, African and South Asian descent differ? A systematic review and meta-analysis of UK data

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Redekop, W. K.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the pulse pressures (PPs) in people of African and South Asian descent differ from those of the European-origin White (henceforth, White) in the UK. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 1966-2006 and EMBASE 1980-2006. The

  7. Systematic review including re-analyses of 1148 individual data sets of central venous pressure as a predictor of fluid responsiveness

    Eskesen, T G; Wetterslev, M; Perner, A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Central venous pressure (CVP) has been shown to have poor predictive value for fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. We aimed to re-evaluate this in a larger sample subgrouped by baseline CVP values. METHODS: In April 2015, we systematically searched and included all clinical...

  8. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment.

  9. Effect of childhood obesity prevention programs on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F; Segal, Jodi B; Kim, Miyong T; Wang, Youfa

    2014-05-06

    Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. We searched databases up to April 22, 2013, for relevant randomized, controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥ 1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic BP and diastolic BP with the use of weighted random-effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18 925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on systolic BP and 18 on diastolic BP. The pooled intervention effect was -1.64 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.56 to -0.71; P=0.001) for systolic BP and -1.44 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.28 to -0.60; P=0.001) for diastolic BP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both systolic BP and diastolic BP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP, whereas 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP, and those targeting both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective.

  10. On the climate model simulation of Indian monsoon low pressure systems and the effect of remote disturbances and systematic biases

    Levine, Richard C.; Martin, Gill M.

    2018-06-01

    Monsoon low pressure systems (LPS) are synoptic-scale systems forming over the Indian monsoon trough region, contributing substantially to seasonal mean summer monsoon rainfall there. Many current global climate models (GCMs), including the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM), show deficient rainfall in this region, much of which has previously been attributed to remote systematic biases such as excessive equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) convection, while also substantially under-representing LPS and associated rainfall as they travel westwards across India. Here the sources and sensitivities of LPS to local, remote and short-timescale forcing are examined, in order to understand the poor representation in GCMs. An LPS tracking method is presented using TRACK feature tracking software for comparison between re-analysis data-sets, MetUM GCM and regional climate model (RCM) simulations. RCM simulations, at similar horizontal resolution to the GCM and forced with re-analysis data at the lateral boundaries, are carried out with different domains to examine the effects of remote biases. The results suggest that remote biases contribute significantly to the poor simulation of LPS in the GCM. As these remote systematic biases are common amongst many current GCMs, it is likely that GCMs are intrinsically capable of representing LPS, even at relatively low resolution. The main problem areas are time-mean excessive EIO convection and poor representation of precursor disturbances transmitted from the Western Pacific. The important contribution of the latter is established using RCM simulations forced by climatological 6-hourly lateral boundary conditions, which also highlight the role of LPS in moving rainfall from steep orography towards Central India.

  11. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Arno Greyling

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies examining the effect of tea consumption on BP.We systematically searched Medline, Biosis, Chemical Abstracts and EMBASE databases through July 2013. For inclusion, studies had to meet the following pre-defined criteria: 1 placebo controlled design in human adults, 2 minimum of 1 week black tea consumption as the sole intervention, 3 reported effects on systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP or both. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled overall effect of black tea on BP.Eleven studies (12 intervention arms, 378 subjects, dose of 4-5 cups of tea met our inclusion criteria. The pooled mean effect of regular tea ingestion was -1.8 mmHg (95% CI: -2.8, -0.7; P = 0.0013 for SBP and -1.3 mmHg (95% CI: -1.8, -0.8; P<0.0001 for DBP. In covariate analyses, we found that the method of tea preparation (tea extract powders versus leaf tea, baseline SBP and DBP, and the quality score of the study affected the effect size of the tea intervention (all P<0.05. No evidence of publication bias could be detected.Our meta-analysis indicates that regular consumption of black tea can reduce BP. Although the effect is small, such effects could be important for cardiovascular health at population level.

  12. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Cornelissen, Veronique A; Smart, Neil A

    2013-02-01

    We conducted meta-analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Randomized controlled trials lasting ≥4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ≥18 years) and published in a peer-reviewed journal up to February 2012 were included. Random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence interval. We included 93 trials, involving 105 endurance, 29 dynamic resistance, 14 combined, and 5 isometric resistance groups, totaling 5223 participants (3401 exercise and 1822 control). Systolic BP (SBP) was reduced after endurance (-3.5 mm Hg [confidence limits -4.6 to -2.3]), dynamic resistance (-1.8 mm Hg [-3.7 to -0.011]), and isometric resistance (-10.9 mm Hg [-14.5 to -7.4]) but not after combined training. Reductions in diastolic BP (DBP) were observed after endurance (-2.5 mm Hg [-3.2 to -1.7]), dynamic resistance (-3.2 mm Hg [-4.5 to -2.0]), isometric resistance (-6.2 mm Hg [-10.3 to -2.0]), and combined (-2.2 mm Hg [-3.9 to -0.48]) training. BP reductions after endurance training were greater (Phypertensive subjects (-8.3 [-10.7 to -6.0]/-5.2 [-6.8 to -3.4] mm Hg) than in 50 groups of prehypertensive subjects (-2.1 [-3.3 to -0.83]/-1.7 [-2.7 to -0.68]) and 29 groups of subjects with normal BP levels (-0.75 [-2.2 to +0.69]/-1.1 [-2.2 to -0.068]). BP reductions after dynamic resistance training were largest for prehypertensive participants (-4.0 [-7.4 to -0.5]/-3.8 [-5.7 to -1.9] mm Hg) compared with patients with hypertension or normal BP. Endurance, dynamic resistance, and isometric resistance training lower SBP and DBP, whereas combined training lowers only DBP. Data from a small number of isometric resistance

  13. An evaluation of string theory for the prediction of dynamic tire properties using scale model aircraft tires

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    The string theory was evaluated for predicting lateral tire dynamic properties as obtained from scaled model tests. The experimental data and string theory predictions are in generally good agreement using lateral stiffness and relaxation length values obtained from the static or slowly rolling tire. The results indicate that lateral forces and self-aligning torques are linearly proportional to tire lateral stiffness and to the amplitude of either steer or lateral displacement. In addition, the results show that the ratio of input excitation frequency to road speed is the proper independent variable by which frequency should be measured.

  14. Apical negative pressure irrigation versus syringe irrigation: a systematic review of cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system.

    Konstantinidi, E; Psimma, Z; Chávez de Paz, L E; Boutsioukis, C

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and critically analyse the published data on the treatment outcome (primary outcome) and on the cleaning and disinfection of root canals (secondary outcomes) achieved by negative pressure irrigation as compared to syringe irrigation. An electronic search was conducted in EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge using both free-text keywords and controlled vocabulary. Additional studies were sought through hand searching of endodontic journals and of the relevant chapters of endodontic textbooks. No language restriction was imposed. The retrieved studies were screened by two reviewers according to predefined criteria. Included studies were critically appraised and the extracted data were arranged in tables. The electronic search and hand search retrieved 489 titles. One clinical study and 14 in vitro studies were finally included in the review; none of these studies assessed treatment outcome, four studies assessed the antimicrobial effect, seven studies evaluated the removal of pulp tissue remnants, and four studies investigated the removal of hard tissue debris or both hard tissue debris and pulp tissue remnants. Poor standardization and description of the protocols was evident. Inconclusive results were reported about the cleaning and disinfection accomplished by the two irrigation methods. Negative pressure irrigation was more effective under certain conditions when compared to suboptimal syringe irrigation; however, the variability of the protocols hindered quantitative synthesis. There is insufficient evidence to claim general superiority of any one of these methods. The level of the available evidence is low, and the conclusions should be interpreted with caution. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Exercise Training for Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis

    Cornelissen, Veronique A.; Smart, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted meta‐analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials lasting ≥4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ≥18 years) and published in a peer‐reviewed journal up to February 2012 were included. Random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence interval. We included 93 trials, involving 105 endurance, 29 dynamic resistance, 14 combined, and 5 isometric resistance groups, totaling 5223 participants (3401 exercise and 1822 control). Systolic BP (SBP) was reduced after endurance (−3.5 mm Hg [confidence limits −4.6 to −2.3]), dynamic resistance (−1.8 mm Hg [−3.7 to −0.011]), and isometric resistance (−10.9 mm Hg [−14.5 to −7.4]) but not after combined training. Reductions in diastolic BP (DBP) were observed after endurance (−2.5 mm Hg [−3.2 to −1.7]), dynamic resistance (−3.2 mm Hg [−4.5 to −2.0]), isometric resistance (−6.2 mm Hg [−10.3 to −2.0]), and combined (−2.2 mm Hg [−3.9 to −0.48]) training. BP reductions after endurance training were greater (Phypertensive subjects (−8.3 [−10.7 to −6.0]/−5.2 [−6.8 to −3.4] mm Hg) than in 50 groups of prehypertensive subjects (−2.1 [−3.3 to −0.83]/−1.7 [−2.7 to −0.68]) and 29 groups of subjects with normal BP levels (−0.75 [−2.2 to +0.69]/−1.1 [−2.2 to −0.068]). BP reductions after dynamic resistance training were largest for prehypertensive participants (−4.0 [−7.4 to −0.5]/−3.8 [−5.7 to −1.9] mm Hg) compared with patients with hypertension or normal BP. Conclusion Endurance, dynamic resistance, and

  16. The Implementation of Quality Function Deployment (QFD in Tire Industry

    Hari Abdul Hadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research had two main objectives. The first research objective was to make the right design of new product according to customer requirements with the implementation of Quality Function Deployment (QFD in the tire industry. The second research objective was to enhance competitiveness based on the renewal of marketing strategy and consumer needs, non-explosive prohibition, non-slip tires, no bulgy, and competitive prices. The research was carried out by using costumer satisfaction rating by comparing with the competitor companies. Based on calculation using QFD method, it shows that split liner has the highest percentage of technical requirement in tire industry about 30,57%. The second factor is pattern design about 25,98%. Then, the third factor is compound technology about 22,68%. Therefore, the researchers can recommend several strategies for the quality improvement based on customer needs for the tire industry.

  17. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  18. The Scrap Tire Problem: A Preliminary Economic Analysis (1985)

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a preliminary economic analysis of the social benefits of EPA action to require more appropriate disposal of scrap tires versus the social costs of such an action.

  19. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  20. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires' Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development.

    Yunta, Jorge; Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Diaz, Vicente; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2018-02-06

    Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire's loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  1. Pressure Control In A Tyre Of Moving Vehicle

    Gawande, Kshitij P.; Jawanjal, Vaishakh A.

    2012-08-01

    We always try to make everything perfect around us and there is major problem still remaining in our automobiles, a puncture in a tire while running. We have developed tubeless tires but thatís not a perfect solution, so there is a serious need of improvement in this area. In this paper the compressed air is used to maintain the pressure in the tire using pneumatic pipes. This is a very basic concept which uses compressor power to maintain the pressure of a tire, while running using pressure gauges and leak proof connection. This technique allows us to drive a punctured vehicle which increases safety, comfort & saves time. This paper suggests a new technique towards one more improvement in our automobile industry.

  2. Effect of thin water film on tire/road friction

    BEAUTRU, Yannick; KANE, Malal; CEREZO, Véronique; DO, Minh Tan

    2011-01-01

    Water film on pavement surfaces entails a decrease of friction between the tire and the road. Nevertheless, only effects of water films above 1mm depth were investigated until now, considering hydroplaning risk. From these investigations, formulae were derived to predict the so-called hydroplaning speed at which happen hazardous situations for the driver because there is no more contact between the tire and the road. However, a significant number of accidents occurs on very thin water film su...

  3. Effect of thin water film on tire/road friction

    BEAUTRU, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    Water film on pavement surfaces entails a decrease of friction between the tire and the road. Nevertheless,only effects of water films above 1mm depth were investigated until now, considering hydroplaning risk. From these investigations, formulae were derived to predict the so-called hydroplaning speed at which happen hazardous situations for the driver because there is no more contact between the tire and the road. However, a significant number of accidents occurs on very thin water film suc...

  4. Upgrading pyrolytic residue from waste tires to commercial carbon black.

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Wang, Fumeng

    2018-05-01

    The managing and recycling of waste tires has become a worldwide environmental challenge. Among the different disposal methods for waste tires, pyrolysis is regarded as a promising route. How to effectively enhance the added value of pyrolytic residue (PR) from waste tires is a matter of great concern. In this study, the PRs were treated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids in turn under ultrasonic waves. The removal efficiency for the ash and sulfur was investigated. The pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) obtained after treating PR with acids was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, laser Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and physisorption apparatus. The properties of PCB were compared with those of commercial carbon black (CCB) N326 and N339. Results showed PRs from waste tires were mainly composed of carbon, sulfur, and ash. The carbon in PCB was mainly from the CCB added during tire manufacture rather than from the pyrolysis of pure rubbers. The removal percentages for the ash and sulfur of PR are 98.33% (from 13.98 wt % down to 0.24 wt %) and 70.16% (from 1.81 wt % down to 0.54 wt %), respectively, in the entire process. The ash was mainly composed of metal oxides, sulfides, and silica. The surface properties, porosity, and morphology of the PCB were all close to those of N326. Therefore, PCB will be a potential alternative of N326 and reused in tire manufacture. This route successfully upgrades PR from waste tires to the high value-added CCB and greatly increases the overall efficiency of the waste tire pyrolysis industry.

  5. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  6. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in 122,053 Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Lacerda, Maria Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. To perform: i) systematically review the literature on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents; ii) analyze the possible methodological factors associated with HBP; and iii) compare the prevalence between developed and developing countries. We revised 10 electronic databases up to August 11, 2013. Only original articles using international diagnosis of HBP were considered. The pooled prevalence's of HBP were estimated by random effects. Meta-regression analysis was used to identify the sources of heterogeneity across studies. Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and total of 122,053 adolescents included. The pooled-prevalence of HBP was 11.2%, 13% for boys, and 9.6% for girls (P < 0.01). Method of measurement of BP and year in which the survey was conducted were associated with heterogeneity in the estimates of HBP among boys. The data indicate that HBP is higher among boys than girls, and that the method of measurement plays an important role in the overall heterogeneity of HBP value distributions, particularly in boys. PMID:25501086

  7. Blood Pressure Reduction and Secondary Stroke Prevention: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Filippatou, Angeliki; Manios, Efstathios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Parissis, John; Frogoudaki, Alexandra; Vrettou, Agathi-Rosa; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Pikilidou, Maria; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Alexandrov, Anne W; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Current recommendations do not specifically address the optimal blood pressure (BP) reduction for secondary stroke prevention in patients with previous cerebrovascular events. We conducted a systematic review and metaregression analysis on the association of BP reduction with recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events using data from randomized controlled clinical trials of secondary stroke prevention. For all reported events during each eligible study period, we calculated the corresponding risk ratios to express the comparison of event occurrence risk between patients randomized to antihypertensive treatment and those randomized to placebo. On the basis of the reported BP values, we performed univariate metaregression analyses according to the achieved BP values under the random-effects model (Method of Moments) for those adverse events reported in ≥10 total subgroups of included randomized controlled clinical trials. In pairwise meta-analyses, antihypertensive treatment lowered the risk for recurrent stroke (risk ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.87; Psecondary stroke prevention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Goekhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-01-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  9. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  11. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  12. Spray From a Rolling Tire: Mechanics of Droplet Formation

    Plocher, Dennis; Browand, Fred

    2010-11-01

    The spray pattern immediately behind a single-groove tire rolling on a wet surface is produced in the laboratory using a specially designed tire spray simulator. The spray development is examined using high speed video. Water from the groove forms a liquid sheet as the tire-tread lifts away from the surface. The sheet is not of uniform thickness, but it remains attached to the tread. The thinner portions of the sheet become even thinner as the tire rotates, and eventually break to produce holes near the tire surface. The holes grow as the sheet margins surrounding the holes retract into the thicker portions of the sheet which become roughly cylindrical "ligaments" aligned at right angles to the direction of spray motion. The ligaments break into large droplets via a Rayleigh instability. The smallest droplets form when the margins of two holes collide. As Weber number, We = ρU^2w/2σ , based on tire groove half width, w/2, varies by a factor of 25, the sheet-ligament structure persists, but ligaments become less organized, and more small droplets appear in the pattern.

  13. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  14. The in-plane deformation of a tire carcass: analysis and measurement

    Xiong, Yi; Tuononen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    The deformation of parts of a tire is the direct result of tire–road interactions, and therefore is of great interest in tire sensor development. This case study focuses on the analysis of the deformation of the tire carcass and investigates its potential for the estimation of the in-plane tire force. The deformation of the tire carcass due to applied steady-state in-plane forces is first analyzed with the flexible ring model and then validated through optical tire sensor measurements. Couple...

  15. Tire aging: a human factors analysis of failure to warn and inform.

    Wogalter, Michael S; Laughery, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    A scenario of an automotive accident caused by tire failure is given followed by a human factors analysis of the information available to consumers on tire aging. Consumers have not been told that the age of the tire is a safety concern. It is not easy to decode the date of manufacture on tires. More publicity and prominent warnings are needed to communicate the dangers of older tires. Also, better ways to present the date of manufacture so that consumers can more easily and accurately assess tire age are needed.

  16. Strength and microstructure characteristics of the recycled rubber tire-sand mixtures as lightweight backfill.

    Zhang, Tao; Cai, Guojun; Duan, Weihong

    2018-02-01

    The disposal of scrap rubber tires has induced critical environmental issue worldwide due to the rapid increase in the number of vehicles. Recycled scrap tires as a construction material in civil engineering have significant environmental benefits from a waste management perspective. A systematic study that deals with strength and microstructure characteristics of the rubber-sand mixtures is initiated, and mechanical response of the mixtures is discussed in this investigation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of rubber fraction on the basic properties including mass density (ρ), stress-strain characteristics, shear strength, and unconfined compression strength (q u ) of the rubber-sand mixtures. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to reveal the microstructure characteristics of the mixtures with various rubber fractions. A discussion on the micromechanics of the mixtures also was conducted. This study demonstrates that the ρ, friction angle, and q u decrease linearly with an increase in rubber fraction, whereas shear strain at peak increases. The stress-strain characteristics of the rubber-sand mixtures shift from brittle to ductile as the rubber fraction increase. These changes are attributed to remarkably lower stiffness and higher compressibility of the rubber particle compared with those of the conventional mineral aggregates. With an increase in the rubber fraction, the mechanical response of rubber-sand mixtures exhibits two types: sand-like material and rubber-like material. Rubber particle possesses the capacity to prevent the contacted sand particles from sliding at lower rubber fraction, whereas it transmits the applied loadings as the rubber fraction increased. This outcome reinforces the practicability of using recycled rubber tire-sand mixtures as a lightweight backfill in subbase/base applications.

  17. Evaluation of negative-pressure wound therapy for patients with diabetic foot ulcers: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Liu S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Si Liu,1 Chao-zhu He,1 Yan-ting Cai,1 Qiu-ping Xing,1 Ying-zhen Guo,1 Zhi-long Chen,1 Ji-liang Su,1 Li-ping Yang2 1School of Nursing, Nanchang University, 2Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China Objectives: The aim of this study was to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs.Methods: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid, and Chinese Biological Medicine databases up to June 30, 2016. We also manually searched the articles from reference lists of the retrieved articles, which used the NPWT system in studies of vacuum-assisted closure therapy. Studies were identified and selected, and two independent reviewers extracted data from the studies.Results: A total of eleven randomized controlled trials, which included a total of 1,044 patients, were selected from 691 identified studies. Compared with standard dressing changes, NPWT had a higher rate of complete healing of ulcers (relative risk, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24–1.76; P<0.001, shorter healing time (mean difference, −8.07; 95% CI: −13.70–−2.45; P=0.005, greater reduction in ulcer area (mean difference, 12.18; 95% CI: 8.50–15.86; P<0.00001, greater reduction in ulcer depth (mean difference, 40.82; 95% CI: 35.97–45.67; P<0.00001, fewer amputations (relative risk, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.15–0.62; P=0.001, and no effect on the incidence of treatment-related adverse effects (relative risk, 1.12; 95% CI: 0.66–1.89; P=0.68. Meanwhile, many analyses showed that the NPWT was more cost-effective than standard dressing changes.Conclusion: These results indicate that NPWT is efficacious, safe, and cost-effective in treating DFUs. Keywords: diabetic foot ulcers, negative-pressure wound therapy, complete wound closure, amputation, meta

  18. Effects of pomegranate juice on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Ferri, Claudio; Giorgini, Paolo; Bo, Simona; Nachtigal, Petr; Grassi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) has been claimed to provide several health benefits. Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich fruit juice with high antioxidant capacity. Several studies suggested that pomegranate juice can exert antiatherogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, the potential cardioprotective benefits of pomegranate juice deserve further clinical investigation. To systematically review and meta-analyze available evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of pomegranate juice consumption and blood pressure (BP). A comprehensive literature search in Medline and Scopus was carried out to identify eligible RCTs. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed using a random-effects model. Quality assessment, sensitivity analysisand publication bias evaluations were conducted using standard methods. Quantitative data synthesis from 8 RCTs showed significant reductions in both systolic [weighed mean difference (WMD): -4.96mmHg, 95% CI: -7.67 to -2.25, pjuice consumption. Effects on SBP remained stable to sensitivity analyses. Pomegranate juice reduced SBP regardless of the duration (>12 wks: WMD=-4.36mmHg, 95% CI: -7.89 to -0.82, p=0.016) and 240cc: WMD=-3.62mmHg, 95% CI: -6.62 to -0.63, p=0.018) and juice per day) whereas doses >240cc provided a borderline significant effect in reducing DBP. The present meta-analysis suggests consistent benefits of pomegranate juice consumption on BP. This evidence suggests it may be prudent to include this fruit juice in a heart-healthy diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Central venous pressure monitoring via peripherally or centrally inserted central catheters: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Noto, Alberto; Martucci, Gennaro; Farbo, Marco; Burgio, Gaetano; Biasucci, Daniele G

    2017-07-14

    The central venous pressure (CVP) is the most commonly used static marker of preload for guiding fluid therapy in critically ill patients, though its usefulness remains controversial. Centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) are the gold-standard devices for CVP monitoring but peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) may represent a valid alternative. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aim to investigate whether the difference between PICC- and CICC-measured CVP is not significant. We searched for clinical studies published in PubMed and EMBASE databases from inception until December 21st 2016. We included studies providing data on paired and simultaneous CVP measurement from PICCs and CICCs. We conducted two analyses on the values of CVP, the first one according to the total number of CVP assessments, the second one considering the number of patients recruited. Four studies matched the inclusion criteria, but only three of them provided data for the meta-analyses. Both analyses showed non-significant differences between PICC-measured and CICC-measured CVP: 1489 paired simultaneous CVP assessments (MD 0.16, 95%CI -0.14, 0.45, p = 0.30) on a total of 57 patients (MD 0.22, 95%CI -1.46, 1.91, p = 0.80). Both analyses showed no heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). Available evidence supports that CVP monitoring with PICCs is accurate and reproduces similar values to those obtained from CICCs. The possibility to monitor CVP should not be used among clinical criteria for preferring a CICC over a PICC line.

  20. 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability Assessed by Average Real Variability: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Mena, Luis J; Felix, Vanessa G; Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E

    2017-10-19

    Although 24-hour blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) is predictive of cardiovascular outcomes independent of absolute BP levels, it is not regularly assessed in clinical practice. One possible limitation to routine BPV assessment is the lack of standardized methods for accurately estimating 24-hour BPV. We conducted a systematic review to assess the predictive power of reported BPV indexes to address appropriate quantification of 24-hour BPV, including the average real variability (ARV) index. Studies chosen for review were those that presented data for 24-hour BPV in adults from meta-analysis, longitudinal or cross-sectional design, and examined BPV in terms of the following issues: (1) methods used to calculate and evaluate ARV; (2) assessment of 24-hour BPV determined using noninvasive ambulatory BP monitoring; (3) multivariate analysis adjusted for covariates, including some measure of BP; (4) association of 24-hour BPV with subclinical organ damage; and (5) the predictive value of 24-hour BPV on target organ damage and rate of cardiovascular events. Of the 19 assessed studies, 17 reported significant associations between high ARV and the presence and progression of subclinical organ damage, as well as the incidence of hard end points, such as cardiovascular events. In all these cases, ARV remained a significant independent predictor ( P <0.05) after adjustment for BP and other clinical factors. In addition, increased ARV in systolic BP was associated with risk of all cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.27). Only 2 cross-sectional studies did not find that high ARV was a significant risk factor. Current evidence suggests that ARV index adds significant prognostic information to 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and is a useful approach for studying the clinical value of BPV. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  1. Pressure-induced α->ω transition in titanium metal: a systematic study of the effects of uniaxial stress

    Errandonea, Daniel; Meng, Y.; Somayazulu, M.; Haeusermann, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of uniaxial stress on the pressure-induced α->ω transition in pure titanium (Ti) are investigated by means of angle dispersive X-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell. Experiments under four different pressure environments reveal that: (1) the onset of the transition depends on the pressure medium used, going from 4.9GPa (no pressure medium) to 10.5GPa (argon pressure medium); (2) the α and ω phases coexist over a rather large pressure range, which depends on the pressure medium employed; (3) the hysteresis and quenchability of the ω phase is affected by differences in the sample pressure environment; and (4) a short-term laser heating of Ti lowers the α->ω transition pressure. Possible transition mechanisms are discussed in the light of the present results, which clearly demonstrate the influence of uniaxial stress in the α->ω transition

  2. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    2013-12-26

    ...; Shandong Linglong Tyre Co., Ltd. of Zhaoyuan City, China; Dunlap & Kyle Company, Inc., d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service of Batesville, Mississippi; Unicorn Tire Corp. of Memphis, Tennessee; West KY Customs, LLC...

  3. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    2013-09-20

    ..., China 265406 Dunlap & Kyle Company, Inc., d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service, Eureka St. Extended, Batesville, MS 38606 Unicorn Tire Corp., 4660 Distriplex Drive West, Memphis, TN 38118 West KY Customs, LLC...

  4. Flexible and conductive waste tire-derived carbon/polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-04-10

    A method of making a supercapacitor from waste tires, includes the steps of providing rubber pieces and contacting the rubber pieces with a sulfonation bath to produce sulfonated rubber; pyrolyzing the sulfonated rubber to produce a tire-derived carbon composite comprising carbon black embedded in rubber-derived carbon matrix comprising graphitized interface portions; activating the tire-derived carbon composite by contacting the tire-derived carbon composite with a specific surface area-increasing composition to increase the specific surface area of the carbon composite to provide an activated tire-derived carbon composite; and, mixing the activated tire-derived carbon composite with a monomer and polymerizing the monomer to produce a redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite. The redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite can be formed into a film. An electrode and a supercapacitor are also disclosed.

  5. A study on the fatigue life prediction of tire belt-layers using probabilistic method

    Lee, Dong Woo; Park, Jong Sang; Lee, Tae Won; Kim, Seong Rae; Sung, Ki Deug; Huh, Sun Chul

    2013-01-01

    Tire belt separation failure is occurred by internal cracks generated in *1 and *2 belt layers and by its growth. And belt failure seriously affects tire endurance. Therefore, to improve the tire endurance, it is necessary to analyze tire crack growth behavior and predict fatigue life. Generally, the prediction of tire endurance is performed by the experimental method using tire test machine. But it takes much cost and time to perform experiment. In this paper, to predict tire fatigue life, we applied deterministic fracture mechanics approach, based on finite element analysis. Also, probabilistic analysis method based on statistics using Monte Carlo simulation is presented. Above mentioned two methods include a global-local finite element analysis to provide the detail necessary to model explicitly an internal crack and calculate the J-integral for tire life prediction.

  6. Optimal tread design for agricultural lug tires determined through failure analysis

    Hyun Seok Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural lug tires, commonly used in tractors, must provide safe and stable support for the body of the vehicle and bear any additional load while effectively traversing rough, poor-quality ground surfaces. Many agricultural lug tires fail unexpectedly. In this study, we optimised and validated a tread design for agricultural lug tires intended to increase their durability using failure analysis. Specifically, we identified tire failure modes using indoor driving tests and failure mode effects analysis. Next, we developed a threedimensional tire model using the Ogden material model and finite element method. Using sensitivity analysis and response surface methodology, we optimised the tread design. Finally, we evaluated the durability of the new design using a tire prototype and drum test equipment. Results indicated that the optimised tread design decreased the tire tread stress by 16% and increased its time until cracking by 38% compared to conventional agricultural lug tires.

  7. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    2010-10-01

    ... means the breaking away of pieces of the carcass or tread. Cracking means any parting within the carcass... some circumference of the tire, these measurements shall be taken at least six points around the tire...

  8. Self-monitoring of blood pressure in hypertension: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Tucker, Katherine L; Sheppard, James P; Stevens, Richard; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bove, Alfred; Bray, Emma P; Earle, Kenneth; George, Johnson; Godwin, Marshall; Green, Beverly B; Hebert, Paul; Hobbs, F D Richard; Kantola, Ilkka; Kerry, Sally M; Leiva, Alfonso; Magid, David J; Mant, Jonathan; Margolis, Karen L; McKinstry, Brian; McLaughlin, Mary Ann; Omboni, Stefano; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Parati, Gianfranco; Qamar, Nashat; Tabaei, Bahman P; Varis, Juha; Verberk, Willem J; Wakefield, Bonnie J; McManus, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    Self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) appears to reduce BP in hypertension but important questions remain regarding effective implementation and which groups may benefit most. This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was performed to better understand the effectiveness of BP self-monitoring to lower BP and control hypertension. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomised trials comparing self-monitoring to no self-monitoring in hypertensive patients (June 2016). Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility and the authors of eligible trials were approached requesting IPD. Of 2,846 articles in the initial search, 36 were eligible. IPD were provided from 25 trials, including 1 unpublished study. Data for the primary outcomes-change in mean clinic or ambulatory BP and proportion controlled below target at 12 months-were available from 15/19 possible studies (7,138/8,292 [86%] of randomised participants). Overall, self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic blood pressure (sBP) compared to usual care at 12 months (-3.2 mmHg, [95% CI -4.9, -1.6 mmHg]). However, this effect was strongly influenced by the intensity of co-intervention ranging from no effect with self-monitoring alone (-1.0 mmHg [-3.3, 1.2]), to a 6.1 mmHg (-9.0, -3.2) reduction when monitoring was combined with intensive support. Self-monitoring was most effective in those with fewer antihypertensive medications and higher baseline sBP up to 170 mmHg. No differences in efficacy were seen by sex or by most comorbidities. Ambulatory BP data at 12 months were available from 4 trials (1,478 patients), which assessed self-monitoring with little or no co-intervention. There was no association between self-monitoring and either lower clinic or ambulatory sBP in this group (clinic -0.2 mmHg [-2.2, 1.8]; ambulatory 1.1 mmHg [-0.3, 2.5]). Results for diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were similar. The main limitation of this work was that significant

  9. Self-monitoring of blood pressure in hypertension: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Katherine L Tucker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP appears to reduce BP in hypertension but important questions remain regarding effective implementation and which groups may benefit most. This individual patient data (IPD meta-analysis was performed to better understand the effectiveness of BP self-monitoring to lower BP and control hypertension.Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomised trials comparing self-monitoring to no self-monitoring in hypertensive patients (June 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility and the authors of eligible trials were approached requesting IPD. Of 2,846 articles in the initial search, 36 were eligible. IPD were provided from 25 trials, including 1 unpublished study. Data for the primary outcomes-change in mean clinic or ambulatory BP and proportion controlled below target at 12 months-were available from 15/19 possible studies (7,138/8,292 [86%] of randomised participants. Overall, self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic blood pressure (sBP compared to usual care at 12 months (-3.2 mmHg, [95% CI -4.9, -1.6 mmHg]. However, this effect was strongly influenced by the intensity of co-intervention ranging from no effect with self-monitoring alone (-1.0 mmHg [-3.3, 1.2], to a 6.1 mmHg (-9.0, -3.2 reduction when monitoring was combined with intensive support. Self-monitoring was most effective in those with fewer antihypertensive medications and higher baseline sBP up to 170 mmHg. No differences in efficacy were seen by sex or by most comorbidities. Ambulatory BP data at 12 months were available from 4 trials (1,478 patients, which assessed self-monitoring with little or no co-intervention. There was no association between self-monitoring and either lower clinic or ambulatory sBP in this group (clinic -0.2 mmHg [-2.2, 1.8]; ambulatory 1.1 mmHg [-0.3, 2.5]. Results for diastolic blood pressure (dBP were similar. The main limitation of this work was that

  10. Alternative fuel produced from thermal pyrolysis of waste tires and its use in a DI diesel engine

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Bai, Chi-Jeng; Lin, Chi-Tung; Prakash, Samay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The liquid, solid and gas yields from pyrolysis of waste tires were investigated. • For energy and economic consideration, pre-treatments of TPO were avoided. • Various proportions of TPO-diesel mixture were tested in a DI diesel engine. • TPOs derived from various pyrolysis temperatures were also tested in engine. • Fuel consumption, cylinder pressure, engine power, and SO2 emission were discussed. - Abstract: Alternative fuels from waste material have been receiving attentions due to the increasing demand of fossil fuels. Pyrolysis has been a considerable solution for processing waste tires because it gives clean emissions and produces valuable liquid or solid products. Pyrolysis oil from waste tires has become a potential replacement for petroleum diesel due to the similar physical and chemical properties to diesel fuel. In this study, waste tires were pyrolyzed in a lab-scale fixed bed reactor with various reaction temperatures. The liquid, solid and gas product yields from different pyrolysis temperatures were compared, as well as the analyses of property and element for the oil product. Due to the energy and economic consideration, the pre-treatments of TPO before adding into regular diesel were avoided. The TPO derived from various pyrolysis temperatures were mixed with regular diesel at different proportions and subsequently tested in a DI diesel engine. The engine performance, such as fuel consumption, cylinder pressure, engine power, and SO_2 emission, were examined and discussed. The results indicated that increasing the TPO fraction in diesel lead to worse engine performance, but it can be recovered using TPOs produced from higher pyrolysis temperatures.

  11. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  12. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    Francesco Coppo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  13. Six-sigma application in tire-manufacturing company: a case study

    Gupta, Vikash; Jain, Rahul; Meena, M. L.; Dangayach, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    Globalization, advancement of technologies, and increment in the demand of the customer change the way of doing business in the companies. To overcome these barriers, the six-sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) method is most popular and useful. This method helps to trim down the wastes and generating the potential ways of improvement in the process as well as service industries. In the current research, the DMAIC method was used for decreasing the process variations of bead splice causing wastage of material. This six-sigma DMAIC research was initiated by problem identification through voice of customer in the define step. The subsequent step constitutes of gathering the specification data of existing tire bead. This step was followed by the analysis and improvement steps, where the six-sigma quality tools such as cause-effect diagram, statistical process control, and substantial analysis of existing system were implemented for root cause identification and reduction in process variation. The process control charts were used for systematic observation and control the process. Utilizing DMAIC methodology, the standard deviation was decreased from 2.17 to 1.69. The process capability index (C p) value was enhanced from 1.65 to 2.95 and the process performance capability index (C pk) value was enhanced from 0.94 to 2.66. A DMAIC methodology was established that can play a key role for reducing defects in the tire-manufacturing process in India.

  14. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Shengze Zhu; Xiuyu Liu; Qingqing Cao; Xiaoming Huang

    2017-01-01

    Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by ...

  15. Ontario tire recycling and economic development (OnTRED) plan : a market approach to eliminating tire stockpiles and promoting recycled rubber product manufacturing in Ontario

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    Details of the Ontario Tire Recycling and Economic Development (OnTRED) plan were presented. The plan was developed to address deficiencies in the Ontario Tire Stewardship's (OTS) Scrap Tire Diversion Program plan. The OTS promotes the burning of scrap tires contrary to the Waste Diversion Act, and transfers the financial responsibility for scrap tire management from manufacturers to retailers. The OnTRED plan will attempt to improve the current 87 per cent recovery rate for passenger scrap tires in Ontario, and prevent the formation of any new tire stockpiles. The aim of the OnTRED plan is to ensure reuse and recycling consistent with provisions in the Waste Diversion Act and enhance the existing workings of the tire and scrap tire market through the promotion of reuse and recycling. In addition, the plan aims to minimize administration and compliance costs. A program summary of the OnTRED plan was presented, as well as details of market development plans and buy-recycled rebates. Issues concerning collector registration and transaction tracking were presented, as well as details of brand-owner and first importer pay-in models. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities were reviewed. A budget scenario was presented, as well as a rebate and diversion scenario. It was concluded that Ontario's 87 per cent scrap tire diversion rate can be improved through a focus on patterns of reuse and recycling. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. The prediction of airborne and structure-borne noise potential for a tire

    Sakamoto, Nicholas Y.

    Tire/pavement interaction noise is a major component of both exterior pass-by noise and vehicle interior noise. The current testing methods for ranking tires from loud to quiet require expensive equipment, multiple tires, and/or long experimental set-up and run times. If a laboratory based off-vehicle test could be used to identify the airborne and structure-borne potential of a tire from its dynamic characteristics, a relative ranking of a large group of tires could be performed at relatively modest expense. This would provide a smaller sample set of tires for follow-up testing and thus save expense for automobile OEMs. The focus of this research was identifying key noise features from a tire/pavement experiment. These results were compared against a stationary tire test in which the natural response of the tire to a forced input was measured. Since speed was identified as having some effect on the noise, an input function was also developed to allow the tires to be ranked at an appropriate speed. A relative noise model was used on a second sample set of tires to verify if the ranking could be used against interior vehicle measurements. While overall level analysis of the specified spectrum had mixed success, important noise generating features were identified, and the methods used could be improved to develop a standard off-vehicle test to predict a tire's noise potential.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of friction and braking characteristics of rolling tires

    Steen, R. van der; Lopez, I.; Nijmeijer, H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Bruijn, B. de

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the tire industry, virtual testing has been widely adopted in the design process. Both static deformation and dynamic response of the tire rolling on the road must be accurately predicted to evaluate the handling performance of a tire. Unfortunately, experimental characterization of

  18. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2010-04-07

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety performance standards. All of the markings related to tire service (load capacity..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0213; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

  19. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2012-01-19

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0033; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential.... SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company,(Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 26,224 Goodyear...

  20. 75 FR 68855 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2010-11-09

    ... noncompliance has an inconsequential effect on tire performance and motor vehicle safety because all of the affected tires meet or exceed all of the minimum performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139. In addition... performance tires; their asymmetric tread design is one of the main features sought by consumers for the...

  1. 78 FR 27476 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2013-05-10

    ... performance and motor vehicle safety because all of the affected tires meet or exceed all of the [[Page 27477... are ultra high performance tires; their asymmetric tread design is one of the main features sought by... these performance characteristics, the customers seek to ensure that their tires are installed correctly...

  2. 78 FR 35357 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2013-06-12

    ... safety since the actual performance of the subject tires will not be affected by the mismarking. Bridgestone supports this belief by stating that the tires met the performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139...-0025; Notice 2] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

  3. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    2010-10-01

    ... to provide information indicating the relative performance of replacement passenger car tires in the... achieve the level of performance represented by each rating. (A) Ratings. Each tire shall be rated with... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program...

  4. 78 FR 47049 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2013-08-02

    ... on the operational performance or safety of vehicles on which these tires are mounted. Bridgestone..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0108; Notice 2] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

  5. 75 FR 28319 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2010-05-20

    ... concludes in part that ``the actual tire performance is not inconsequential as it relates to motor vehicle safety because the actual tire performance is not affected by this noncompliance, and in the unlikely...-0056; Notice 1] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

  6. 77 FR 20482 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2012-04-04

    ... performance of the subject tires will not be affected by the mismarking. Bridgestone supports this belief by stating that the tires met the performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139 for endurance and high speed when...-0025; Notice 1] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

  7. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2011-11-28

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0080; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has...

  8. 75 FR 81712 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2010-12-28

    ..., all of the tires included in this petition meet or exceed the performance requirements of FMVSS No...-0174; Notice 1] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear) \\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear commercial...

  9. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    2010-10-01

    ... imported is less than 15,000, or are deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires... requirements for manufacturers of tires. For each reporting period, a manufacturer (including a brand name...

  10. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2012-12-03

    ...: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear brand tires... LT 275/65R18 brand tires manufactured between April 8, 2012, and May 12, 2012 at its plant in Gadsden.... Electronically: By logging onto the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) Web site at http://www.regulations...

  11. 78 FR 71032 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2013-11-27

    ...-0063; Notice 2] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...). ACTION: Denial of Petition. SUMMARY: Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS), as importer for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited, has...

  12. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2010-06-25

    ...-0080; Notice 1] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 14,826 passenger car tires manufactured between August of 2007 and May of 2009, do not fully comply with paragraph...

  13. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    2013-03-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0030] RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims... Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be... also proposes to exclude these trailers from a vehicle testing requirement that a tire must be retained...

  14. 75 FR 32536 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2010-06-08

    ...-0063; Notice 1] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS) \\1\\, as importer of record for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited has determined that certain...

  15. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    2011-03-18

    ...-0033; Notice 1] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 26,224 Goodyear Assurance ComforTred Touring passenger replacement car tires manufactured between January 4, 2010 and...

  16. 75 FR 73159 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    2010-11-29

    ...-0153; Notice 1] Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Continental Tire North America, Inc., (Continental),\\1\\ has determined that certain passenger car replacement tires manufactured in 2009 do not fully comply with paragraph S5.5(b) of Federal...

  17. Pyrolysis treatment of waste tire powder in a capacitively coupled RF plasma reactor

    Huang, H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Waihuanxi Road, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, L. [Department of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Waihuanxi Road, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A capacitively coupled radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactor was tested mainly for the purpose of solid waste treatment. It was found that using a RF input power between 1600 and 2000 W and a reactor pressure between 3000 and 8000 Pa (absolute pressure), a reactive plasma environment with a gas temperature between 1200 and 1800 K can be reached in this lab scale reactor. Under these conditions, pyrolysis of tire powder gave two product streams: a combustible gas and a pyrolytic char. The major components of the gas product are H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} The physical properties (surface area, porosity, and particle morphology) as well as chemical properties (elemental composition, heating value, and surface functional groups) of the pyrolytic char has also been examined. (author)

  18. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pavement system with rubber tire chips in subgrade

    Ashtakala, B.; Hoque, A.K.M.M. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A pavement design method was developed in which shredded rubber tire chips mixed with sand were used as a material for pavement subgrade. Rubber tire chips are highly compressible and produce both elastic and plastic deformations under the application of loads. Sand was added to fill the void between the tire chips and make the mixture a strong material. The design method considered the vertical compressive strain produced by the design life traffic load 18k (80 KN) repetitions. The equivalent thicknesses of the layers above the subgrade corresponding to this vertical compressive strain were determined using contour charts. From this equivalent thickness, the thicknesses for asphalt pavement, base, and sub-base were determined by Odemark`s method. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  20. Longitudinal tire force estimation based on sliding mode observer

    El Hadri, A.; Cadiou, J.C.; M' Sirdi, N.K. [Versailles Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Robotique; Beurier, G.; Delanne, Y. [Lab. Central des Ponts, Centre de Nantes (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an estimation method for vehicle longitudinal dynamics, particularly the tractive/braking force. The estimation can be used to detect a critical driving situation to improve security. It can be used also in several vehicle control systems. The main characteristics of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics were taken into account in the model used to design an observer and computer simulations. The state variables are the angular wheel velocity, vehicle velocity and the longitudinal tire force. The proposed differential equation of the tractive/braking force is derived using the concept of relaxation length. The observer designed is based on the sliding mode approach using only the angular wheel velocity measurement. The proposed method of estimation is verified through a one-wheel simulation model with a ''Magic formula'' tire model. Simulations results show an excellent reconstruction of the tire force. (orig.)

  1. Adsorption of uranium on adsorbents produced from used tires

    Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Potential use of adsorbents produced from used tires for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions is investigated. Two different adsorbents were used including char and activated carbon produced from used tires. The surface area was larger on activated carbon. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of time, adsorbent concentration, pH and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the Lagergren equation. The rate constants of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of uranium in the presence of different cations were also studied and the results were correlated with the ionic potential of the cations. It was demonstrated that the activated carbon produced from used tires can be considered as an adsorbent that has a commercial potential for uranium removal. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the suitability of root cause analysis frameworks for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers: a systematic review and documentary analysis.

    McGraw, Caroline; Drennan, Vari M

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the suitability of root cause analysis frameworks for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers. The objective was to identify the extent to which these frameworks take account of the setting where the ulcer originated as being the person's home rather than a hospital setting. Pressure ulcers involving full-thickness skin loss are increasingly being regarded as indicators of nursing patient safety failure, requiring investigation using root cause analysis frameworks. Evidence suggests that root cause analysis frameworks developed in hospital settings ignore the unique dimensions of risk in home healthcare settings. A systematic literature review and documentary analysis of frameworks used to investigate community-acquired grade three and four pressure ulcers by home nursing services in England. No published papers were identified for inclusion in the review. Fifteen patient safety investigative frameworks were collected and analysed. Twelve of the retrieved frameworks were intended for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers; seven of which took account of the setting where the ulcer originated as being the patient's home. This study provides evidence to suggest that many of the root cause analysis frameworks used to investigate community-acquired pressure ulcers in England are unsuitable for this purpose. This study provides researchers and practitioners with evidence of the need to develop appropriate home nursing root cause analysis frameworks to investigate community-acquired pressure ulcers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  4. Tire inspection system with shielded x-ray source

    Heisner, D.N.; Palermo, A. Jr.; Loyer, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    An automated tire inspection system is described which employs a penetrative radiation, such as x-radiation, to inspect the integrity of portions of tires fed sequentially along a feed path through a centering station and into a shielded enclosure where an inspection station is defined. Features of the system include a continuously operating x-ray source movable between inspection and retracted positions, and an x-ray shield for covering the source when it is retracted to permit the doors of the shielded enclosure to be opened without danger from escaping radiation. 19 Claims, 38 Drawing Figures

  5. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  6. Technology updates from the OEMs (tires, rims, automation inflation systems, and alternative fuels for heavy vehicles)

    White, N. [Charonic Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation outlined a project at Charonic Canada Inc., which demonstrated and evaluated innovations in the areas of vehicle safety, operating economy and diesel fuel substitution. It also presented a range of results that demonstrate some of the trends that may be used on vehicles, particularly trucks, in the near future. The demonstration involved a 2 year observation of a five truck fleet hauling refuse from Toronto to Michigan. The trucks completed 2,500 round trips of 540 miles and used 115 tonnes of natural gas fuel replacing diesel fuel. Safety innovations included tire pressure monitoring, hazard locator radar system, anti-spray system, wheel nut and bearing temperature indicators and brake safe indicators. These features were reported as being worthwhile investments. Economy innovations included a dual-fuel engine system, wide base tires, light weight CNG tanks, centrifugal oil cleaner and an oil and lubrication system. Although the technology continues to improve, the dual-engine system requires further work. Difficulties were encountered when trying to meet performance, fuel economy and emission targets at the same time. 18 figs.

  7. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    2010-09-29

    ... evaluates resistance to heat buildup when the tire is run at stepped-up loads at or near its rated load... that involves a tire running on the roadwheel under specified conditions to allow for tire growth. The... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0132] RIN 2127-AK17 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  9. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production...

  10. 40 CFR 63.6006 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.6006 Section 63.6006... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord... tire cord production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with each...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must use...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5999 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5999 Section 63.5999 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5999 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord...

  13. The prediction of airborne and structure-borne noise potential for a tire

    Sakamoto, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Tire/pavement interaction noise is a major component of both exterior pass-by noise and vehicle interior noise. The current testing methods for ranking tires from loud to quiet require expensive equipment, multiple tires, and/or long experimental set-up and run times. If a laboratory based off-vehicle test could be used to identify the airborne and structure-borne potential of a tire from its dynamic characteristics, a relative ranking of a large group of tires could be performed at relativel...

  14. Forensic analysis of tire rubbers based on their sulfur chemical states.

    Funatsuki, Atsushi; Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki; Tamenori, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    The chemical states of sulfur in 11 tires were analyzed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) in order to discriminate between various tire rubbers. All tires had peaks around 2471.5 and 2480.5eV, and the shapes and heights of these peaks differed among tires, suggesting that the sulfur chemical state could be used for discrimination between tire rubbers. Based on t-tests on the results of XANES, 43 of 55 combinations were different at a significance level of 5%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Negative pressure of the environmental air in the cleaning area of the materials and sterilization center: a systematic review.

    Ciofi-Silva, Caroline Lopes; Hansen, Lisbeth Lima; Almeida, Alda Graciele Claudio Dos Santos; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-09-01

    to analyze the scientific evidence on aerosols generated during cleaning activities of health products in the Central Service Department (CSD) and the impact of the negative pressure of the ambient air in the cleaning area to control the dispersion of aerosols to adjacent areas. for this literature systematic review the following searches were done: search guidelines, manuals or national and international technical standards given by experts; search in the portal and databases PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science; and a manual search of scientific articles. the five technical documents reviewed recommend that the CSD cleaning area should have a negative differential ambient air pressure, but scientific articles on the impact of this intervention were not found. The four articles included talked about aerosols formed after the use of a ultrasonic cleaner (an increased in the contamination especially during use) and pressurized water jet (formation of smaller aerosols 5μm). In a study, the aerosols formed from contaminated the hot tap water with Legionella pneumophila were evaluated. there is evidence of aerosol formation during cleanup activities in CSD. Studies on occupational diseases of respiratory origin of workers who work in CSD should be performed. analisar as evidências científicas sobre aerossóis gerados durante atividades de limpeza dos produtos para saúde no Centro de Material e Esterilização (CME) e o impacto da pressão negativa do ar ambiente na área de limpeza para controle da dispersão de aerossóis para áreas adjacentes. para essa revisão sistemática de literatura foram realizadas: busca de diretrizes, manuais ou normas técnicas nacionais e internacionais indicadas por especialistas; busca no portal e bases de dados PUBMED, SCOPUS, Cinahl e Web of Science; e busca manual de artigos científicos. Os cinco documentos técnicos analisados preconizam que na área de limpeza do CME haja diferencial negativo de pressão do ar ambiente

  16. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  17. A novel wireless piezoelectric tire sensor for the estimation of slip angle

    Erdogan, G; Alexander, L; Rajamani, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple approach for the analysis of tire deformation and proposes a new piezoelectric tire sensor for physically meaningful measurements of tire deformations. Tire deformation measurements in the contact patch can be used for the estimation of slip angle, tire forces, slip ratio and tire–road friction coefficient. The specific case of a wireless tire deformation sensor for the estimation of slip angle is taken up in this paper. A sensor in which lateral sidewall deformation can be decoupled from radial deformation is designed. The slope of the lateral deflection curve in the contact patch is used to calculate slip angle. A specially constructed tire test rig is used to experimentally evaluate the performance of the developed sensor. Results show that the developed sensor can accurately estimate slip angles up to values of 5°

  18. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  19. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  20. Systematic review of behavioral and educational interventions to prevent pressure ulcers in adults with spinal cord injury.

    Cogan, Alison M; Blanchard, Jeanine; Garber, Susan L; Vigen, Cheryl Lp; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence A

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcers in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cochrane, Clinical Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched in June 2016. The search combined related terms for pressure ulcers, spinal cord injury, and behavioral intervention. Each database was searched from its inception with no restrictions on year of publication. Inclusion criteria required that articles were (a) published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, (b) evaluated a behavioral or educational intervention for pressure ulcer prevention, (c) included community-dwelling adult participants aged 18 years and older with SCI, (d) measured pressure ulcer occurrence, recurrence, or skin breakdown as an outcome, and (e) had a minimum of 10 participants. All study designs were considered. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Extracted information included study design, sample size, description of the intervention and control condition, pressure ulcer outcome measures, and corresponding results. The search strategy yielded 444 unique articles of which five met inclusion criteria. Three were randomized trials and two were quasi-experimental designs. A total of 513 participants were represented. The method of pressure ulcer or skin breakdown measurement varied widely among studies. Results on pressure ulcer outcomes were null in all studies. Considerable methodological problems with recruitment, intervention fidelity, and participant adherence were reported. At present, there is no positive evidence to support the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcer occurrence in adults with SCI.

  1. Research of Sustainable Use of Tire Shreds in Landfill

    Kristina Bazienė

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies are on-going to establish the suitability of tire shreds in the landfill bottom drainage layer, to minimize clogging. Four experimental columns were constructed in which were 500 mm long and 200 mm in diameter. They were filled with different fillers and with a different amount of tire shreds. The most important problem with drainage filler in landfills is clogging. Over long periods of time in landfill operation, the drainage layer clogs (the pores of the layer become smaller and the porosity of the layer becomes smaller. The experiment was carried out for 365 days. Although the landfill for this period represents only one-fiftieth or less of the operation time, the laboratory tests found that the drainage layer bandwidth of reduction in one year can have a negative impact in the long run over time. The main elements that influence the decrease of conductivity are the total suspended solids and calcium and iron compounds. The change of these compounds was observed during the column study, where the concentration of each month in all the columns was decreasing. The results showed that the waste of rubber (tire shreds used for creating fillers in columns provided greater porosity of the layer. It is a beneficial reason to use a rubble and tire shreds waste mix for forming the drainage layer in landfills.

  2. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  3. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    2012-01-25

    ... test machine(s) for the TFECIP. This would allow tire manufacturers to know the identity of the machine... the ISO 28580 procedure. 4. Future Production. To assist with estimating the potential benefits of the... will I have to speak at the public workshop? Once NHTSA learns how many people have registered to speak...

  4. Potential of waste tires as aggregates in concrete | Mutuku | Journal ...

    Potential use of this kind of concrete includes nonstructural purposes such as lightweight concrete walls and blocks, building facades and crash barriers. Keywords: concrete aggregates, rubber chips, rubberized concrete, used tires, waste recycling. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol. 3(1) 2006: 75-84 ...

  5. Sustained Release of a Watermgoluble tiring from Directly ...

    Sustained Release of a Watermgoluble tiring from Directly Compressed Okra Gum Matrix. Tablets. Val). Mill, MA. Gilllllbll'ifl'l' AND KT. ... in near noromorder release of aspirin from the matrix tablets. The results indicate that okra gum is .... porous structure including alteration of the shape and size distribution of the pores.

  6. A Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM) For Vehicle Mobility And Deterministic Performance Analysis In Terramechanics Applications

    Taheri, Shahyar

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and efficient tire models for deformable terrain operations are essential for performing vehicle simulations. Assessment of the forces and moments that occur at the tire-terrain interface, and the effect of the tire motion on properties of the terrain are crucial in understanding the performance of a vehicle. In order to model the dynamic behavior of the tire on different terrains, a lumped mass discretized tire model using Kelvin-Voigt elements is developed. To optimize the computat...

  7. Evaluation of Quantitative Exposure Assessment Method for Nanomaterials in Mixed Dust Environments: Application in Tire Manufacturing Facilities.

    Kreider, Marisa L; Cyrs, William D; Tosiano, Melissa A; Panko, Julie M

    2015-11-01

    Current recommendations for nanomaterial-specific exposure assessment require adaptation in order to be applied to complicated manufacturing settings, where a variety of particle types may contribute to the potential exposure. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a method that would allow for exposure assessment of nanostructured materials by chemical composition and size in a mixed dust setting, using carbon black (CB) and amorphous silica (AS) from tire manufacturing as an example. This method combined air sampling with a low pressure cascade impactor with analysis of elemental composition by size to quantitatively assess potential exposures in the workplace. This method was first pilot-tested in one tire manufacturing facility; air samples were collected with a Dekati Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI) during mixing where either CB or AS were used as the primary filler. Air samples were analyzed via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to identify what fraction of particles were CB, AS, or 'other'. From this pilot study, it was determined that ~95% of all nanoscale particles were identified as CB or AS. Subsequent samples were collected with the Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) at two tire manufacturing facilities and analyzed using the same methodology to quantify exposure to these materials. This analysis confirmed that CB and AS were the predominant nanoscale particle types in the mixing area at both facilities. Air concentrations of CB and AS ranged from ~8900 to 77600 and 400 to 22200 particles cm(-3), respectively. This method offers the potential to provide quantitative estimates of worker exposure to nanoparticles of specific materials in a mixed dust environment. With pending development of occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials, this methodology will allow occupational health and safety practitioners to estimate worker exposures to specific materials, even in scenarios

  8. Students' Investigations in Temperature and Pressure

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James; Hansert, Bernhard; Frederick, Ron; Frerichs, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Why does a balloon deflate when it is left in a cold car; or why does one have to pump up his or her bike tires in the spring after leaving them in the garage all winter? To answer these questions, students must understand the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas. The purpose of the Predict, Share, Observe, and Explain…

  9. Computerized Cuff Pressure Algometry as Guidance for Circumferential Tissue Compression for Wearable Soft Robotic Applications: A Systematic Review.

    Kermavnar, Tjaša; Power, Valerie; de Eyto, Adam; O'Sullivan, Leonard W

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we review the literature on quantitative sensory testing of deep somatic pain by means of computerized cuff pressure algometry (CPA) in search of pressure-related safety guidelines for wearable soft exoskeleton and robotics design. Most pressure-related safety thresholds to date are based on interface pressures and skin perfusion, although clinical research suggests the deep somatic tissues to be the most sensitive to excessive loading. With CPA, pain is induced in deeper layers of soft tissue at the limbs. The results indicate that circumferential compression leads to discomfort at ∼16-34 kPa, becomes painful at ∼20-27 kPa, and can become unbearable even below 40 kPa.

  10. Upscaling of a Batch De-vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis A.E.M.; Heideman, G.; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount

  11. High blood pressure in school children and adolescents in Argentina over the past 25 years: A systematic review of observational studies.

    Díaz, Alejandro; Calandra, Luciana

    2017-02-01

    Over the past years, hypertension has been recognized as an important health problem in the pediatric population. A systematic review of observational studies published between 1988 and 2014 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents in Argentina. A bibliographic search was done in MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS to look for studies on high blood pressure prevalence in school children and adolescents in Argentina. Studies and surveys that had included the measurement of blood pressure in children and adolescents (aged 5-20 years) according to the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents by the American Academy of Pediatrics were included in this study. Fourteen publications were identified. The pooled prevalence in 11 706 subjects (random effects model) was 6.61% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.30-9.37). The crude prevalence was 7.35% (95% CI: 6.88-7.83). High blood pressure was more prevalent among adolescents than children ≤ 10 years old (7.4% versus 4.3%, P = 0.001), and among boys than girls (11.2% versus 6.8%, P = 0.001). The most common risk factors included a sedentary lifestyle (50%), overweight (15.4%), abdominal obesity (13.7%), obesity (11.5%), and smoking (6.5%). Our data show that the prevalence of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors in school children and adolescents is high, and this accounts for a very important public health problem in Argentina. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  12. Effects of tire leachate on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the native congener Aedes triseriatus

    Oswaldo C. Villena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17 mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1% and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8% were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4% of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (λ′ was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0–8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0–10,000 mg/L tire leachate, but steeply declined to zero from 44.50–89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000–100,000 mg/L tire leachate. In contrast, A. triseriatus λ′ declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate, and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate. These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at

  13. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental and organic carbon emissions from tire-wear.

    Aatmeeyata; Sharma, Mukesh

    2010-09-15

    Tire-wear is an important source of PAHs, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). The emissions of these pollutants have been studied in an experimental set-up, simulating a realistic road-tire interaction (summer tire-concrete road). The large particle non-exhaust emissions (LPNE; diameter greater than 10 microm) have been evaluated over 14,500 km run of the tire. An increasing linear trend with cumulative km run was observed for emissions of PAHs and carbon. Amongst PAHs in LPNE, pyrene has been observed to be the highest (30+/-4 mg kg(-1)) followed by benzo[ghi]perylene (17+/-2 mg kg(-1)). Different fractions of EC-OC for tire-wear have been analyzed, and unlike exhaust emissions, EC1 was observed to be 99% of EC whereas more than 70% of the OC was the high temperature carbon (OC3 and OC4). The overall emission factors (mass tire(-1) km(-1)) for PAHs, EC and OC from tire-wear are 378 ng tire(-1) km(-1), 1.46 mg tire(-1) km(-1) and 2.37 mg tire(-1) km(-1) for small cars. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  16. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction.

  17. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    Maghami, S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its

  18. Footwear and offloading interventions to prevent and heal foot ulcers and reduce plantar pressure in patients with diabetes: a systematic review.

    Bus, S A; van Deursen, R W; Armstrong, D G; Lewis, J E A; Caravaggi, C F; Cavanagh, P R

    2016-01-01

    Footwear and offloading techniques are commonly used in clinical practice for preventing and healing of foot ulcers in persons with diabetes. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the medical scientific literature on this topic to better inform clinical practice about effective treatment. We searched the medical scientific literature indexed in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane database for original research studies published since 1 May 2006 related to four groups of interventions: (1) casting; (2) footwear; (3) surgical offloading; and (4) other offloading interventions. Primary outcomes were ulcer prevention, ulcer healing, and pressure reduction. We reviewed both controlled and non-controlled studies. Controlled studies were assessed for methodological quality, and extracted key data was presented in evidence and risk of bias tables. Uncontrolled studies were assessed and summarized on a narrative basis. Outcomes are presented and discussed in conjunction with data from our previous systematic review covering the literature from before 1 May 2006. We included two systematic reviews and meta-analyses, 32 randomized controlled trials, 15 other controlled studies, and another 127 non-controlled studies. Several randomized controlled trials with low risk of bias show the efficacy of therapeutic footwear that demonstrates to relief plantar pressure and is worn by the patient, in the prevention of plantar foot ulcer recurrence. Two meta-analyses show non-removable offloading to be more effective than removable offloading for healing plantar neuropathic forefoot ulcers. Due to the limited number of controlled studies, clear evidence on the efficacy of surgical offloading and felted foam is not yet available. Interestingly, surgical offloading seems more effective in preventing than in healing ulcers. A number of controlled and uncontrolled studies show that plantar pressure can be reduced by several conservative and surgical approaches. Sufficient

  19. A systematic review on the influence of trial quality on the effect of garlic on blood pressure.

    Simons, S.O.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Thien, Th.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Garlic is a widely used herbal product for hypertension. Previous meta-analyses on the effect of garlic on blood pressure (BP) have been contradictory however. We hypothesised that methodological deficiencies may have contributed to this disagreement. We therefore evaluated whether

  20. Systematic review of the use of Statistical Process Control methods to measure the success of pressure ulcer prevention.

    Clark, Michael; Young, Trudie; Fallon, Maureen

    2018-06-01

    Successful prevention of pressure ulcers is the end product of a complex series of care processes including, but not limited to, the assessment of vulnerability to pressure damage; skin assessment and care; nutritional support; repositioning; and the use of beds, mattresses, and cushions to manage mechanical loads on the skin and soft tissues. The purpose of this review was to examine where and how Statistical Process Control (SPC) measures have been used to assess the success of quality improvement initiatives intended to improve pressure ulcer prevention. A search of 7 electronic bibliographic databases was performed on May 17th, 2017, for studies that met the inclusion criteria. SPC methods have been reported in 9 publications since 2010 to interpret changes in the incidence of pressure ulcers over time. While these methods offer rapid interpretation of changes in incidence than is gained from a comparison of 2 arbitrarily selected time points pre- and post-implementation of change, more work is required to ensure that the clinical and scientific communities adopt the most appropriate SPC methods. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Analysis of Tire Tractive Performance on Deformable Terrain by Finite Element-Discrete Element Method

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Yuzuru

    The goal of this study is to develop a practical and fast simulation tool for soil-tire interaction analysis, where finite element method (FEM) and discrete element method (DEM) are coupled together, and which can be realized on a desktop PC. We have extended our formerly proposed dynamic FE-DE method (FE-DEM) to include practical soil-tire system interaction, where not only the vertical sinkage of a tire, but also the travel of a driven tire was considered. Numerical simulation by FE-DEM is stable, and the relationships between variables, such as load-sinkage and sinkage-travel distance, and the gross tractive effort and running resistance characteristics, are obtained. Moreover, the simulation result is accurate enough to predict the maximum drawbar pull for a given tire, once the appropriate parameter values are provided. Therefore, the developed FE-DEM program can be applied with sufficient accuracy to interaction problems in soil-tire systems.

  2. Laser cleaning of the contaminations on the surface of tire mould

    Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Tang, Hongping; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yao, Caizhen

    2017-07-01

    During the manufacturing of tires, surface pollutants on tire mould will lead to the production of unqualified tires. Tire moulds need to be regularly cleaned. Laser cleaning is recognized as a non-destructive, effective, precise and environmental friendly method. In this paper, laser cleaning was used to remove contaminants on tire mould surface. First, laser induced damage experiments were performed. The results showed that the roughness and hardness of the cast steel sample surface seldom changed under the energy range of 140.1-580.2 mJ laser irradiation 1 pulse and the energy range of 44.7-168.9 mJ laser irradiation 100 pulses. In the laser cleaning experiments, the cleaning thresholds and the optimal cleaning parameters were obtained. Results indicated that laser cleaning was safe and effective for tire mould contamination removal.

  3. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  4. A comparative study of natural rubber modified with ground tire rubber of truck

    Binti Haridan, Ili Liyana

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber has considerable significance in term of environmental protection and energy conservation. Considering that most of the relevant literature is concerned with tire recycling, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize the elastomeric samples of natural rubber (NR) composites filled with ground tire rubber of truck (GTR) devulcanized by microwave (DGTR). The tire rubber was ground under ambient conditions and subjected to microwave exposure for 3, 5 and ...

  5. 26 x 6.6 radial-belted aircraft tire performance

    Davis, Pamela A.; Martinson, Veloria J.; Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results from testing of 26 x 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. The 26 x 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 x 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.

  6. How wear affects road surface texture and its impact on tire/road noise

    Siebert, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical pavement wear in the Nordic countries is essentially influenced by the use of studded tires during long winter seasons. The abrasive effect of the studded tires is the cause of significant damage on the pavement and a contributor to rutting. In addition, the mechanical aggregate removal due to the studded tires is the reason for significant changes in the road surface texture. At traditional dense asphalt pavements, the mechanical wear is initiated by the abrasion of the mortar, wh...

  7. Proceedings of Four Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    1978-05-25

    particular vein. They publish a process guide for their franchisees . It so happens that the Bandag Corp. is a member of TRI, and annually we go in and in...WHY THE CONCERN WITH NDT OF TIRES The population of the United States has historically been independent. We do not like being restricted by schedules...cords. This radiograph shows how lead acetate, carried by water, is restricted to those cords having access to the physically damaged region. FIGURE 4

  8. New developments in tire-derived fuels (TDF)

    Gilbert, G. [Kentucky Dept. for Environmental Protection, KY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Public opinion on the use of tire derived fuels (TDF) has been influenced by images of the large, uncontrolled tire fires at landfills that fill the atmosphere with heavy black smoke. This presentation discussed some of the issues and challenges related to the introduction of TDF in communities. The United States Environmental Protection Agency currently supports the responsible use of tires in Portland cement kilns and other industrial facilities if they have a storage and handling plan and have secured a permit for all applicable state and federal environmental programs. The use of TDF falls within the EPA resource conservation challenge (RCC) which has initiated a scrap tire workgroup and a TDF committee. The RCC has asked industry using TDF to assemble and share air, water, and product data to assist new TDF users and permitting agencies. TDF is currently used in cement production, by utility boilers, and pulp and paper manufacturers. A recent comparison of TDF and coal characteristics has shown that TDF releases fewer sulphur emissions than coal and produces more energy. While hydrogen emissions are typically higher, nitrogen emissions are lower. An elemental ash analysis has shown that wire-free TDF contains less aluminum than bitumens, as well as less iron. Particulate matter (PM) emissions and volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from various plants using TDF are often lower than, or the same as, coal. It was concluded that in order to challenge preconceived notions about TDF, baseline compliance tests should be conducted before presenting data for a permit. Baseline tests should also be conducted with other fuels such as coal within the same timeframe. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    Martínez-Cruz, E.; Martínez-Barrera, G.; Martínez-López, M.

    2013-06-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  10. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    Martínez-Cruz, E; Martínez-López, M; Martínez-Barrera, G

    2013-01-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  11. Recycling tires? Reversible crosslinking of poly(butadiene).

    Trovatti, Eliane; Lacerda, Talita M; Carvalho, Antonio J F; Gandini, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  13. EFFECTOF ISOLATION WALL USING SCRAP TIRE ON GROUND VIBRATION REDUCTION

    Kashimoto, Takahiko; Kashimoto, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Hiroaki

    Some countermeasure methods against the environmental ground vibration caused by some traffic vibrations have been proposed so far. The authors have developed a new type ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire, and evaluated its effectiveness on the ground vibration reduction by full scale field tests. In this paper, the authors discussed and examined the effectiveness of the developed countermeasure method by two field tests. The one concerns on the effect of scrap tire as soft material of vibration isolation wall, and the other on the effect of the developed countermeasure method practically applied in a residential area close to monorail traffic. As the results, it was elucidated that the ground vibration of 2-3 dB was reduced in case of two times volume of the soft material, the conversion ratio of the vibration energy of the soft material to the kinetic energy was higher than that of the core material of PHC pile, the vibration acceleration of 0.19 - 1.26 gal was reduced by the developed countermeasure method in case of the monorail traffic, and the vibration reduction measured behind the isolation wall agreed well with the proposed theoretical value, together with confirming the effectiveness of the ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire as the countermeasure method against the environmental ground vibration.

  14. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    Nikola Korunović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zones inside the tire. It consists of four main stages: pre-analysis, design of experiment, mathematical modeling and multi-objective optimization. Advantage of the proposed procedure is reflected in the fact that multi-objective optimization is based on the Pareto concept, which enables design engineers to obtain a complete set of optimization solutions and choose a suitable tire design. Furthermore, modeling of the relationships between tire design parameters and objective functions based on multiple regression analysis minimizes computational and modeling effort. The adequacy of the proposed tire design multi-objective optimization procedure has been validated by performing experimental trials based on finite element method.

  15. Performance indicators, practices and maintenance costs in tires management of a transport company

    Marcos Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are three operational costs that are more expressive for PSL: vehicle maintenance, tires and fuel. In studies of maintenance has been little researched the concept of tire management, technical maintenance and performance together. In this context, this study aims at identifying the practices and performance indicators in the area of maintenance and tire management also analyze the influence of costs applied to the tires on the total cost of maintenance. We conducted a case study of exploratory and descriptive. The main instruments of data collection were on-site observation, unstructured interviews, document analysis and reports results indicators. Data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple regression. It was revealed that among the performance indicators in the management of tire maintenance costs applied to the tires have a higher correlation with the total cost of maintenance. The ANOVA indicated that tire maintenance costs influence in 54% of the variations in the total cost of maintenance. We clarified the concepts of maintenance techniques specific tire management, and identify performance indicators in the area of tire managent.

  16. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  17. The space shuttle program from challenge to achievement: Space exploration rolling on tires

    Felder, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Transportation System is the first space program to employ the pneumatic tire as a part of space exploration. For aircraft tires, this program establishes new expectations as to what constitutes acceptable performance within a set of tough environmental and operational conditions. Tire design, stresses the usual low weight, high load, high speed, and excellent air retention features but at extremes well outside industry standards. Tires will continue to be an integral part of the Shuttle's landing phase in the immediate future since they afford a unique combination of directional control, braking traction, flotation and shock absorption not available by other systems.

  18. Positive pressure ventilation in the management of acute and chronic cardiac failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Nadar, Sunil; Prasad, Neeraj; Taylor, Rod S; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2005-03-18

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common condition and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality, in spite of the many advances in its treatment. Chronic stable heart failure is also associated with an increased incidence of sleep-related breathing disorders, such as central sleep apnoea (CSA) and Cheyne Stokes respiration (CSR). Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of CHF, improve left ventricular function and oxygenation. To a certain extent, CPAP also abolishes sleep-related breathing disorders in patients with chronic heart failure. In patients with acute pulmonary oedema, the use of positive pressure ventilation improves cardiac haemodynamic indices, as well as symptoms and oxygenation, and is associated with a lower need for intubation. However, some studies have cast doubts about its safety and suggest a higher rate of myocardial infarction associated with its use. In our opinion, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and CPAP offers an adjunctive mode of therapy in patients with acute pulmonary oedema and chronic heart failure, who may not be suitable for intubation and in those not responsive to conventional therapies. Non-invasive ventilation also helps to improve oxygenation in those patients with exhaustion and respiratory acidosis. Many trials are still ongoing and the results of these studies would throw more light on the present role of non-invasive ventilation in the management of CHF.

  19. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  20. Effects of blueberry supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Zhu, Y; Sun, J; Lu, W; Wang, X; Wang, X; Han, Z; Qiu, C

    2017-03-01

    Blueberries belong to the genus Vaccinium of the family Ericaceae. A series of epidemiological studies have demonstrated that blueberry polyphenols, particularly blueberry anthocyanins provide significant beneficial effects for humans. However, the findings of clinical studies have been equivocal. Therefore, we sought to assess the potential anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry supplementation through a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, The Cochrane Library, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), Embase, Web of Science, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were performed to identify potential studies published before June 2015. The standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as summary statistics. Net changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between the blueberry and placebo groups were calculated by subtracting the values at the end of follow-up from those at baseline. Meta-regression was used to identify potential moderators of effect size. Six RCT studies with 204 participants were included in our meta-analysis. There was no significant effect of blueberry supplementation on changes in blood pressure (BP) relative to baseline, and there was a mean difference of -0.28 (95% CI: -1.11 to 0.56, I 2 =87%) and -0.5 (95% CI: -1.24 to 0.24, I 2 =84%) mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. In summary, the results from this meta-analysis do not favor any clinical efficacy of blueberry supplementation in improving BP. Further well-designed larger RCTs are required to verify the association between blueberry supplementation and BP.

  1. Prevalence of high blood pressure in Brazilian adolescents and quality of the employed methodological procedures: systematic review

    Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada Magalhães

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on studies that estimated the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP or systemic arterial hypertension (SAH in Brazilian adolescents, considering the employed methodological procedures. METHODS: Bibliographical research of prevalence studies of HBP/SAH in adolescents from 1995 to 2010. The search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, and Isi Adolec. The descriptors "hypertension", "BP", "teen", "students", "cross-sectional", "prevalence" and "Brazil" were used in Portuguese and English. Furthermore, a score ranging from 0 to 18 based on Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals and the VI Brazilian Guidelines of Hypertension was elaborated, in order to analyze the procedures used to measure BP in studies. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were identified, mostly published in the last 10 years, and 90.5% were performed in school-based and regions of the Southeast, Northeast and South. The prevalence of HBP/SAH ranged from 2.5 to 30.9%. The score of the studies ranged from 0 to 16. A significant negative correlation (rho = -0.504; p = 0.020 was observed between the prevalence of HBP/SAH and the score of BP measurement quality. CONCLUSION: The great variability of PAE/SAH estimates appears to be influenced by methodological procedures used in the studies.

  2. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined

  3. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Prochazka, David, E-mail: prochazka.d@fme.vutbr.cz [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Physical Engineering, Technická 2, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bilík, Martin [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prochazková, Petra [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Ticová, Barbora [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined.

  4. Recommendations to prevention, recovery and disposal of used tires; Recomendacion para la prevencion, recuperacion y disposicion de los neumaticos usados

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Every year the European Union produces 2.000.000 tm of used tires. Most of them are disposed in sanitary landfills. the tires are not hazardous wastes and can be used as raw material for different uses. (Author)

  5. 76 FR 4298 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    2011-01-25

    ... use, including passenger cars, race cars, station wagons, sport utility vehicles, minivans, mobile...--Identifies a tire intended primarily for service on passenger cars; LT--Identifies a tire intended primarily...

  6. 75 FR 64259 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    2010-10-19

    ... use, including passenger cars, race cars, station wagons, sport utility vehicles, minivans, mobile...--Identifies a tire intended primarily for service on passenger cars; LT--Identifies a tire intended primarily...

  7. A systematic review of complication and recurrence rates of musculocutaneous, fasciocutaneous, and perforator-based flaps for treatment of pressure sores.

    Sameem, Mojib; Au, Michael; Wood, Thomas; Farrokhyar, Forough; Mahoney, James

    2012-07-01

    Management of pressure sores poses a significant reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. Currently, there is no consensus on whether musculocutaneous, fasciocutaneous, or perforator-based flaps provide superior results for treating pressure sores. The following databases were searched: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS (January of 1950 to November of 2010), MEDLINE (January of 1950 to November of 2010), and EMBASE (January of 1980 to November of 2010). Only articles reporting on the use of musculocutaneous, fasciocutaneous, and perforator-based flaps were included. The primary study outcomes were complication and recurrence rates. Fifty-five articles were included in the final analysis (kappa = 0.78). From this total, 28 were categorized as pertaining to musculocutaneous flaps, 13 studied fasciocutaneous flaps, and 14 evaluated perforator-based flaps. The authors' review revealed recurrence and complication rates of 8.9 and 18.6 percent, respectively, following reconstruction with musculocutaneous flaps, 11.2 and 11.7 percent following reconstruction with fasciocutaneous flaps, and 5.6 and 19.6 percent following reconstruction with perforator-based flaps. Overall, statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in complication or recurrence rates among these three techniques. The authors' review revealed that there was no statistically significant difference with regard to recurrence or complication rates among musculocutaneous, fasciocutaneous, or perforator-based flaps. This suggests that surgeons performing such reconstructive procedures may choose to consider the advantages of a specific approach rather than the complication and recurrence rates. Therapeutic, IV.

  8. The effectiveness of hydrocolloid dressings versus other dressings in the healing of pressure ulcers in adults and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Franciele Soares Pott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrocolloids in the healing of pressure ulcers in adult and older adult patients.METHOD: systematic review with meta-analysis, based on the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook. The search was undertaken in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS, Cochrane Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science and the Scientific Electronic Library Online.RESULTS: 646 primary studies were identified, 69 were evaluated and nine were selected, referring to the use of the hydrocolloid dressing in healing; of these, four studies allowed meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the hydrocolloid group and the foams group (p value=0.84; Odds Ratio 1.06, CI 95% 0.61-1.86. A slight superiority of the polyurethane dressings was observed in relation to the hydrocolloid dressings.CONCLUSION: the evidence is not sufficient to affirm whether the efficacy of hydrocolloid dressings is superior to that of other dressings. It is suggested that clinical randomized trials be undertaken so as to ascertain the efficacy of this intervention in the healing of pressure ulcers, in relation to other treatments.

  9. Evening versus morning dosing regimen drug therapy for chronic kidney disease patients with hypertension in blood pressure patterns: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Wang, Caixia; Ye, Yuqiu; Liu, Chunyong; Zhou, Yongming; Lv, Linsheng; Cheng, Cailian; Li, Shaomin; Lou, Tanqi; Liu, Xun

    2017-08-01

    Evening dosing regimen drug therapy on blood pressure (BP) control is used widely, but its clinical benefits and preservation or re-establishment of the normal 24-h BP dipping pattern in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is not known. To investigate the effect of an evening dosing regimen of antihypertensive drugs on BP patterns of CKD patients with hypertension. A systematic review was conducted by searching PUBMED, EMBASE, ASN-ONLINE, the Cochrane Library and the reference lists of relevant articles of published papers. All trials designed to evaluate the effects of evening versus morning dosing regimen drug therapy for CKD patients with hypertension were included. Meta-analysis was performed using random or fixed effects models. Five randomised controlled trials and one comparative study, including 3732 patients, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with morning dosing regimen drug therapy, evening administration of antihypertensive medication was associated with a significant reduction of 40% in non-dipper BP patterns (risk ratio (RR), 95% CI, (0.43, 0.84)). We noted a significant decrease in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) (MD -3.17 mmHg, 95% CI (-5.41, -0.94)), a significant reduction in nocturnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (MD -1.37 mmHg, 95% CI (-2.05, -0.69)) and a significant increase in awake SBP (MD 1.15 mmHg, 95% CI (0.10, 2.19)) in patients assigned to the evening dosing regimen drug therapy group. Patients showed no significant differences for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. This review shows that evening dosing regimen drug therapy could reverse non-dipper BP patterns in hypertensive CKD patients. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. 78 FR 51209 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    2013-08-20

    ... will be available for inspection during official business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office... China; Dunlap & Kyle Company, Inc. d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service of MS; Unicorn Tire Corp. of TN; West... impact United States consumers. Written submissions must be filed no later than by close of business...

  11. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: rolling resistance and (wet)

  12. Understanding the Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the silica reinforcement of styrene–butadiene rubber compounds for passenger car tire treads, with the objective of gaining greater insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins. The major tire performance factors predicted are rolling resistance and (wet) skid

  13. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: Rolling Resistance and (Wet)

  14. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  15. Stress-based viscoelastic master curve construction of model tire tread compounds

    Maghami, S.; Dierkes, W.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.; Tolpekina, T.; Schultz, S.; Gögelein, C.; Wrana, C.; Gil-Negrete, Nere; Asier, Alonso

    2013-01-01

    One of the important aspects in the development of new tire compounds is the correlation between the dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber, measured on laboratory scale, and the actual tire performance. In order to predict wet traction, the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber materials at high

  16. Experimental Investigations on the Pull-Out Behavior of Tire Strips Reinforced Sands.

    Li, Li-Hua; Chen, Yan-Jun; Ferreira, Pedro Miguel Vaz; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Heng-Lin

    2017-06-27

    Waste tires have excellent mechanical performance and have been used as reinforcing material in geotechnical engineering; however, their interface properties are poorly understood. To further our knowledge, this paper examines the pull-out characteristics of waste tire strips in a compacted sand, together with uniaxial and biaxial geogrids also tested under the same conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the interlocking effect and pull-out resistance between the tire strip and the sand is very strong and significantly higher than that of the geogrids. In the early stages of the pull-out test, the resistance is mainly provided by the front portion of the embedded tire strips, as the pull-out test continues, more and more of the areas towards the end of the tire strips are mobilized, showing a progressive failure mechanism. The deformations are proportional to the frictional resistance between the tire-sand interface, and increase as the normal stresses increase. Tire strips of different wear intensities were tested and presented different pull-out resistances; however, the pull-out resistance mobilization patterns were generally similar. The pull-out resistance values obtained show that rubber reinforcement can provide much higher pull-out forces than the geogrid reinforcements tested here, showing that waste tires are an excellent alternative as a reinforcing system, regardless of the environmental advantages.

  17. Evaluation of bifenthrin applications in tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding.

    Nguyen, Huy T; Whelan, Peter I; Shortus, Matthew S; Jacups, Susan P

    2009-03-01

    The efficacy of maximum label rates of bifenthrin applications to dry tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding was investigated by field colonization and bioassay trials in shaded and unshaded locations. Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were the most abundant species present in the field colonization trial. Colonization and survival of Ae. notoscriptus larvae to the late instar occurred significantly earlier in treated tires in shaded compared with unshaded locations (P = 0.002). Bifenthrin applications in shaded tires only prevented early instar survival for approximately 2.6 wk. Aedes notoscriptus late instars did not appear in the treated unshaded tires. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized treated tires from the 2nd wk in both shaded and unshaded treatments. In the bioassay, water from bifenthrin-treated tires, through extrapolation, was found to kill approximately 100% of late instar Ae. notoscriptus for only approximately 2.0-2.2 wk in shaded and unshaded tires. Under conditions optimal for Aedes breeding, such as shaded locations, high ambient temperatures, high relative humidity, and high amounts of leaf/organic matter accumulations, bifenthrin may not be effective as a larval control measure in tires for greater than 2.0-2.6 wk.

  18. Tire wear emissions for asphalt rubber and Portland cement concrete pavement surfaces.

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, it has been the policy of the State of Arizona that the recycling and reuse of : waste tires are the highest priority. The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) : has long supported the use of recycled waste tire rubber in asphalt r...

  19. Characterization of Semi-Volatile Organic Chemicals from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Recycled tire crumb rubber (TCR) is often used as infill material in synthetic turf playing fields as well as some playgrounds. Concerns have been raised about the safety of this material and a multi-agency Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Field...

  20. A multi-site recycled tire crumb rubber characterization study: recruitment strategy and field sampling approach

    Recently, concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of tire crumb rubber infill used in synthetic turf fields. In response, the 2016 Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP) was developed to examine key envir...

  1. Association between Michelin tire baby syndrome and congenital panhyopituitarism in an Iranian girl.

    Haghshenas, Zahra; Tajziehchi, Leila; Ghavami, Fakhredin

    2014-08-01

    Michelin tire baby syndrome is a rare syndrome, diagnosed clinically by multiple circumferential skin folds. Multiple noncutaneous anomalies have been described with this syndrome. We report a case of Michelin tire baby syndrome with congenital panhypopituitarism. To date, there is no report of association between these two disorders.

  2. Characterization of Exposure Potential during Activities on Synthetic Turf Fields with Recycled Tire Crumb Rubber Infill

    The Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP), released in February 2016, is a multi-agency research plan in response to concerns over the use of tire crumb rubber as infill on synthetic turf fields. The FRAP outlines specif...

  3. A brief description of the biomechanics and physiology of a strongman event: the tire flip.

    Keogh, Justin W L; Payne, Amenda L; Anderson, Brad B; Atkins, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) characterize the temporal aspects of a popular strongman event, the tire flip; (b) gain some insight into the temporal factors that could distinguish the slowest and fastest flips; and (c) obtain preliminary data on the physiological stress of this exercise. Five resistance-trained subjects with experience in performing the tire flip gave informed consent to participate in this study. Each subject performed 2 sets of 6 tire flips with a 232-kg tire with 3 minutes of rest between sets. Temporal variables were obtained from video cameras positioned 10 m from the tire, perpendicular to the intended direction of the tire flip. Using the "stopwatch" function in Silicon Coach, the duration of each tire flip and that of the first pull, second pull, transition, and push phases were recorded. Physiological stress was estimated via heart rate and finger-prick blood lactate response. Independent T-tests revealed that the 2 faster subjects (0.38 +/- 0.17 s) had significantly (p tire flip performance and that this exercise provides relatively high degrees of physiological stress.

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Production...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Cord...

  6. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    2010-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... with a 12-inch or smaller rim diameter, each tire shall have not less than six treadwear indicators... mountain, there must be a six-sided snowflake having a minimum height of one-half the tallest peak...

  7. Toward using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available pavement design. Four different tire models were used to represent a single tire type in order to demonstrate its effect on road pavement response of a typical South African pavement structure. Only applied vertical stress was used for the analyses...

  8. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each motor...

  9. Chemical and Physical Analysis Methods for Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber Used in Synthetic Turf Fields

    Tire crumb rubber from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. Recycled crumb rubber is a complex and potentially variable matrix with many metal, VOC, and SVOC constituents, presenting challenges for characterization and ex...

  10. 41 CFR 101-25.110-2 - Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. 101-25.110-2 Section 101-25.110-2 Public Contracts... Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. When tire manufacturers ship tires direct against...

  11. 75 FR 56991 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire Distribution and Wheel...

    2010-09-17

    ... Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire Distribution and Wheel Assembly) Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its...; Now, therefore, the Board hereby grants authority for subzone status for activity related to tire and tire accessories warehousing and distribution and wheel assembly at the facility of Michelin North...

  12. 78 FR 22513 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    2013-04-16

    ...-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is September 1, 2010, through August 31, 2011. This review covers one...

  13. 76 FR 7816 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    2011-02-11

    ...-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative... countervailing duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009, with respect to the one remaining...

  14. Novel superconductivity at the magnetic critical point in heavy-fermion systems: a systematic study of NQR under pressure

    Kitaoka, Y; Kawasaki, S; Kawasaki, Y; Mito, T; Zheng, G-q

    2007-01-01

    We report on the discovery of exotic superconductivity (SC) and novel magnetism in heavy-fermion (HF) compounds, CeCu 2 Si 2 , CeRhIn 5 and CeIn 3 , on the verge of antiferromagnetism (AFM) through nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR) measurements under pressure (P). The exotic SC in a homogeneous CeCu 2 Si 2 (T c = 0.7 K) revealed antiferromagnetic critical fluctuations at the border to AFM or a marginal AFM. Remarkably, it has been found that the application of magnetic field induces a spin-density-wave (SDW) transition by suppressing the SC near the upper critical field. Furthermore, the uniform mixed phase of SC and AFM in CeCu 2 (Si 1-x Ge x ) 2 emerges on a microscopic level, once a tiny amount of 1% Ge (x = 0.01) is substituted for Si to expand its lattice. The application of minute pressure (P∼0.19 GPa) suppresses the sudden emergence of the AFM caused by doping Ge. The persistence of the low-lying magnetic excitations at temperatures lower than T c and T N is ascribed to the uniform mixed phase of SC and AFM. Likewise, the P-induced HF superconductor CeRhIn 5 coexists with AFM on a microscopic level in P = 1.5-1.9 GPa. It is demonstrated that SC does not yield any trace of gap opening in low-lying excitations below the onset temperature, presumably associated with an amplitude fluctuation of superconducting order parameter. The unconventional gapless nature of SC in the low-lying excitation spectrum emerges due to the uniform mixed phase of AFM and SC. By contrast, in CeIn 3 , the P-induced phase separation of AFM and paramagnetism (PM) takes place without any trace for a quantum phase transition. The outstanding finding is that SC sets in at both the phases magnetically separated into AFM and PM in P = 2.28-2.5 GPa. A new type of SC forms the uniform mixed phase with AFM and the HF SC occurs in PM. We propose that the magnetic excitations such as spin-density fluctuations induced by the first-order phase transition from AFM to PM might mediate attractive

  15. Recycling of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials

    Piggott, M.R.; Woodhams, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that the addition of rubber to asphalt used in paving will produced markedly superior road surfaces. Partly because of cost and because of the nonconventional paving techniques necessary, rubber has been largely ignored as a practical paving additive except in special cases. However, the large accumulation of old tires existing today provides a ready source for suitable rubber. If ground into a fine powder, this rubber can be mixed in a conventional pug mill along with sand, stone and asphalt to produce a hot mix which can be aplied in the normal manner without any special techniques. The extra cost of such modification is only 1% of a typical paving contract, whereas the advantages include lower maintenance cost, more durable road surface, and elimination of unwanted waste tires. This report has been prepared to assist civic and other authorities in the development of improved road surfacing formulations through the reuse of old tires. It includes the results of paving trials in Toronto and laboratory evaluations. These tests show that the addition of powdered rubber to asphalt paving materials markedly improves the durability and crack resistance, particularly at low temperatures. Additives in the rubber impart good strength retention in the presence of moisture. The toughness increases with age due to a slow interaction of the rubber with the asphalt which is accompanied by an increase in viscosity. As a result, performance is also enhanced at high temperatures and helps to minimize pavement distortions due to hot weather and traffic. 16 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. A systematic review of electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in people with spinal cord injuries.

    Liu, Liang Qin; Moody, Julie; Traynor, Michael; Dyson, Sue; Gall, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) can confer benefit to pressure ulcer (PU) prevention and treatment in spinal cord injuries (SCIs). However, clinical guidelines regarding the use of ES for PU management in SCI remain limited. To critically appraise and synthesize the research evidence on ES for PU prevention and treatment in SCI. Review was limited to peer-reviewed studies published in English from 1970 to July 2013. Studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, prospective cohort studies, case series, case control, and case report studies. Target population included adults with SCI. Interventions of any type of ES were accepted. Any outcome measuring effectiveness of PU prevention and treatment was included. Methodological quality was evaluated using established instruments. Twenty-seven studies were included, 9 of 27 studies were RCTs. Six RCTs were therapeutic trials. ES enhanced PU healing in all 11 therapeutic studies. Two types of ES modalities were identified in therapeutic studies (surface electrodes, anal probe), four types of modalities in preventive studies (surface electrodes, ES shorts, sacral anterior nerve root implant, neuromuscular ES implant). The methodological quality of the studies was poor, in particular for prevention studies. A significant effect of ES on enhancement of PU healing is shown in limited Grade I evidence. The great variability in ES parameters, stimulating locations, and outcome measure leads to an inability to advocate any one standard approach for PU therapy or prevention. Future research is suggested to improve the design of ES devices, standardize ES parameters, and conduct more rigorous trials.

  17. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  18. Prospective of Macedonia for treatment and recycling of tire waste with Pirolitic process

    Sarafov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry is one of the ever-developing branches of modern society and therefore collecting and recycling of old tires must not be ignored. It must be taken into consideration that tire waste is decomposing at an extremely low pace under the influence of climate factors, that waste from used tires not only is covering large areas, but there is also a possibility of spontaneous fire that is usually long-lasting and emits gasses that have negative effect on human health. Tires are made of complex polymeric materials and contain chemical additives. When burning tires on an open field highly toxic and cancerous organic compounds are being released (biphenyl, anthracene, fluoranthene and other toxins. Pyrolysis is a process that offers sustainable management of this type of waste which in continuation is to be explained in detail.

  19. Uncontacted tire explosion causing trauma to bilateral lower extremities: A case report.

    Yu, Ming-Yang; Su, Yun; Meng, Xiang-Jun; Luan, Bo-Wu; Gu, Gui-Shan; Sun, Qiang; Zhao, De-Wei

    2017-06-01

    It is uncommon for tire explosion related injuries on the lower extremity. The bilateral lower extremities were injured by tire explosion when the patient was seated in a bus. She sustained an open fracture with partial bone loss in the right calcaneus (a comminuted fracture in the right ankle joint) and a closed comminuted fracture in the left tibia and fibula. This damage was caused by uncontacted tire explosion, thanks to a thick floor between the exploded tire and the patient's feet. This type of injury on lower extremity caused by uncontacted tire explosion was uncommon. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  1. The Online Market of Wheels and Tires in Russia

    Masienok, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines market situation of wheels and tires in Russia from 2014 until 2016. As the main type of cars were chosen passenger cars because they are used most. As a case study was chosen the biggest online store “Mosautoshina” and the most popular feedback site “Yandex.Market”. These sites possess real customers’ feedbacks, their opinion about each item and rating. To make right statistics for 2013 and 2014, I have used the work made by Discovery Research Group, which kind...

  2. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  3. "Well, I'm tired of tryin'!" Organizational citizenship behavior and citizenship fatigue.

    Bolino, Mark C; Hsiung, Hsin-Hua; Harvey, Jaron; LePine, Jeffery A

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to identify workplace conditions that influence the degree to which employees feel worn out, tired, or on edge attributed to engaging in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and also how this phenomenon, which we refer to as citizenship fatigue, is associated with future occurrences of OCB. Using data collected from 273 employees and their peers at multiple points in time, we found that the relationship between OCB and citizenship fatigue depends on levels of perceived organizational support, quality of team-member exchange relationships, and pressure to engage in OCB. Specifically, the relationship between OCB and citizenship fatigue is significantly stronger and positive when perceived organizational support is low, and it is significantly stronger and negative when the quality of team-member exchange is high and pressure to engage in OCB is low. Our results also indicate that citizenship fatigue is negatively related to subsequent acts of OCB. Finally, supplemental analyses reveal that the relationship between OCB and citizenship fatigue may vary as a function of the specific facet of OCB. We conclude with a discussion of the key theoretical and practical implications of our findings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae.

    Camponelli, Kimberly M; Casey, Ryan E; Snodgrass, Joel W; Lev, Steven M; Landa, Edward R

    2009-02-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg(-1)) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics.

  6. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-08-05

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  7. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators

    Arto Niskanen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  8. Acceleration sensitivity of micromachined pressure sensors

    August, Richard; Maudie, Theresa; Miller, Todd F.; Thompson, Erik

    1999-08-01

    Pressure sensors serve a variety of automotive applications, some which may experience high levels of acceleration such as tire pressure monitoring. To design pressure sensors for high acceleration environments it is important to understand their sensitivity to acceleration especially if thick encapsulation layers are used to isolate the device from the hostile environment in which they reside. This paper describes a modeling approach to determine their sensitivity to acceleration that is very general and is applicable to different device designs and configurations. It also describes the results of device testing of a capacitive surface micromachined pressure sensor at constant acceleration levels from 500 to 2000 g's.

  9. Comparative effects of different dietary approaches on blood pressure in hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Chaimani, Anna; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Toledo, Estefania; Pünsch, Marina; Hoffmann, Georg; Boeing, Heiner

    2018-05-02

    Pairwise meta-analyses have shown beneficial effects of individual dietary approaches on blood pressure but their comparative effects have not been established. Therefore we performed a systematic review of different dietary intervention trials and estimated the aggregate blood pressure effects through network meta-analysis including hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients. PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar were searched until June 2017. The inclusion criteria were defined as follows: i) Randomized trial with a dietary approach; ii) hypertensive and pre-hypertensive adult patients; and iii) minimum intervention period of 12 weeks. In order to determine the pooled effect of each intervention relative to each of the other intervention for both diastolic and systolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), random effects network meta-analysis was performed. A total of 67 trials comparing 13 dietary approaches (DASH, low-fat, moderate-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, Palaeolithic, vegetarian, low-GI/GL, low-sodium, Nordic, Tibetan, and control) enrolling 17,230 participants were included. In the network meta-analysis, the DASH, Mediterranean, low-carbohydrate, Palaeolithic, high-protein, low-glycaemic index, low-sodium, and low-fat dietary approaches were significantly more effective in reducing SBP (-8.73 to -2.32 mmHg) and DBP (-4.85 to -1.27 mmHg) compared to a control diet. According to the SUCRAs, the DASH diet was ranked the most effective dietary approach in reducing SBP (90%) and DBP (91%), followed by the Palaeolithic, and the low-carbohydrate diet (ranked 3rd for SBP) or the Mediterranean diet (ranked 3rd for DBP). For most comparisons, the credibility of evidence was rated very low to moderate, with the exception for the DASH vs. the low-fat dietary approach for which the quality of evidence was rated high. The present network meta-analysis suggests that the DASH dietary approach might be the most effective dietary measure

  10. Efficacy of nutritional recommendations given by registered dietitians compared to other healthcare providers in reducing arterial blood pressure: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Riegel, Glaube Raquel; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Rodrigues, Marcela Perdomo; Zuchinali, Priccila; Moreira, Leila Beltrami

    2018-04-01

    The multidisciplinary health practitioners can facilitate adherence to treatment of hypertension. Nutritional recommendations delivered by an expert in nutrition might increase the blood pressure control through a better comprehension about how nutrition plays a role on hypertension. To evaluate the effect of nutritional intervention performed by a multidisciplinary team with and without registered dietitians compared to usual care in blood pressure control of hypertensive patients. Systematic review including randomized clinical trials that assessed participants >18 years, both sexes, with blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive, ≥8 weeks duration and at least one nutritional planned intervention versus usual care. The search was conducted in July 2015 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIREME, Web of Science and LILACS without limitation to language. Outcome was defined as deltas of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Sub-group analysis was conducted according to the presence or not of the registered dietitians in the staff. The analyses were performed in RevMan 5.3 software, using random effects model with heterogeneity assessed by statistical I 2 . From 7280 identified titles, 62 studies were selected for data extraction, and 13 were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 2050 participants. There was a greater reduction in ΔSBP -2.82 mmHg (95% CI: 4.03 to -1.62) and ΔDBP -1.37 mmHg (95% CI: -2.11 to -0.62) when diet recommendations have been delivered by multi-professional team versus usual care. In stratified analyses only the subgroup of studies with registered dietitians showed statistical significant reduction in blood pressure ΔSBP -3.21 mmHg (95% CI: -4.14 to -2.27); ΔDBP -1.46 mmHg (95% CI: -2.06 to -0.86). There were significant differences between the deltas of blood pressure according to sodium restriction (ΔSBP -3.5 mmHg (95% CI: -4.52 to -2.48), ΔDBP -1.69 mmHg (95% CI: -2.36 to -1, 02)) and

  11. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires.

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  12. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  13. Analysis on nondestructive temperature distribution of tire tread part in a running using infrared thermal vision camera

    Kim, Jae Yeol; Yang, Dong Jo; Ma, Sang Dong; Park, Byoung Gu; Lee, Ju Wan

    2001-01-01

    The experimental method which investigates validity of numerical simulation for wheeling tires has not developed until now. Separation of belt caused by sudden temperature increase is the most serious problem with wheeling tires. Actually, separation of belt is closely related with the life cycle and design of tires. It is important to investigate the temperature history of tires because sudden temperature increase on belt accelerates the thermal fatigue and then causes the destruction of bending area in the radial direction. Therefore, in the present study, finite element method (FEM) was used to obtain the accurate temperature distribution of tire. Its results were compared with experimental data acquired by infrared thermal camera.

  14. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  15. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  16. A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse.

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-10-01

    In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76-98% for the FBSBR compared to 71-96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y obs ) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  18. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  19. A technical survey on tire-road friction estimation

    Seyedmeysam KHALEGHIAN; Anahita EMAMI; Saied TAHERI

    2017-01-01

    Lack of driver's knowledge about the abrupt changes in pavement's friction and poor performance of the vehicle's stability,traction,and ABS controllers on the low friction surfaces are the most important factors affecting car crashes.Due to its direct relation to vehicle stability,accurate estimation of tire-road friction is of interest to all vehicle and tire companies.Many studies have been conducted in this field and researchers have used different tools and have proposed different algorithms.This literature survey introduces different approaches,which have been widely used to estimate the friction or other related parameters,and covers the recent literature that contains these methodologies.The emphasize of this review paper is on the algorithms and studies,which are more popular and have been repeated several times.The focus has been divided into two main groups:experiment-based and model-based approaches.Each of these main groups has several sub-categories,which are explained in the next few sections.Several summary tables are provided in which the overall feature of each approach is reviewed that gives the reader the general picture of different algorithms,which are widely used in friction estimation studies.

  20. Use of recycled tires in non-structural concrete

    Al Rawahi Zamzam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the issue of tire waste management and natural aggregate resource depletion. It investigates use of commercially produced recycled tire rubber as replacement for fine and coarse aggregate in non-structural concrete. Two replacement levels of 10% and 20% were considered for fine aggregate with 0% or 10% of coarse aggregate. The study employed a mix proportion of 1:5:4 (cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.25, which is normally utilized in concrete block manufacturing in Oman. The mixes were tested for their thermal conductivity, water absorption and compressive strength. The behavior of mixes exposed to 100 and 200°C was also studied and the samples were later tested for compressive strength. The results showed improvements in compressive strength after exposure to heat. Thermal conductivity was reduced as the percentage replacement increased for both fine and coarse aggregate. During heat exposure, the temperature rise was faster in rubberized mixes, and the compressive strength of all mixes improved after the exposure to heat. Water absorption and void content increased with increase in replacement percentage. The compressive strength did not show a clear trend with the replacement and this is due to the sensitivity of the stiff mix used in the study and its inherent lean nature. The results indicate that the lean nature of the mix makes it insensitive to small replacement investigated in this research.

  1. Deformability of Oxide Inclusions in Tire Cord Steels

    Zhang, Lifeng; Guo, Changbo; Yang, Wen; Ren, Ying; Ling, Haitao

    2018-04-01

    The deformation of oxide inclusions in tire cord steels during hot rolling was analyzed, and the factors influencing their deformability at high and low temperatures were evaluated and discussed. The aspect ratio of oxide inclusions decreased with the increasing reduction ratio of the steel during hot rolling owing to the fracture of the inclusions. The aspect ratio obtained after the first hot-rolling process was used to characterize the high-temperature deformability of the inclusions. The deformation first increased and then decreased with the increasing (MgO + Al2O3)/(SiO2 + MnO) ratio of the inclusions. It also increased with the decreasing melting temperatures of the inclusions. Young's modulus was used to evaluate the low-temperature deformability of the inclusions. An empirical formula was fitted to calculate the Young's moduli of the oxides using the mean atomic volume. The moduli values of the inclusions causing wire fracture were significantly greater than the average. To reduce fracture in tire cord steel wires during cold drawing, it is proposed that inclusions be controlled to those with high SiO2 content and extremely low Al2O3 content. This proposal is based on the hypothesis that the deformabilities of oxides during cold drawing are inversely proportional to their Young's moduli. The future study thus proposed includes an experimental confirmation for the abovementioned predictions.

  2. Harmonic filter design consideration for a tire-rubber factory

    Zebardast, A. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Abhar Branch]|[Sharif Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, H. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear loads and arc furnace loads are the main sources of harmonic currents in power distribution systems. Harmonic currents can cause reductions in system efficiency, and shorten the lifespan of transformers and capacitor banks. This paper provided details of a filter designed to attenuate harmonic currents at a tire company in Iran. The tire company was supplied by 3 distribution transformers and an emergency transformer. Main supply was through a 132 kV/20 kV transformer, which was connected to 2 A and B stations. The AC/DC drivers generated harmonics. Harmonic measurements were performed to determine the type and size of the required filters. A summary of site harmonic measurements was provided. A passive filter was placed at a medium voltage location. A sensitivity analysis was then performed in order to assess loading effects on filter performance. The analysis was performed on all possible configurations in the plant, including load change, capacitor bank step change, and transformer energization. Resonance conditions were also examined. Results showed that attention must be paid to the filter component rating in addition to potential resonant conditions. It was concluded that resonant conditions alter when system operating conditions change. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  3. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer–GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties. - Highlights: ► In this study ground tire rubber was incorporated into polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. ► Compatibilizing effects of irradiation and ethylene-vinyl acetate were investigated. ► The samples were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. ► Both compatibilizing methods improved the rubber-like properties of the blends. ► This improvement was especially significant when they were applied together.

  4. Prevalence of systolic inter-arm differences in blood pressure for different primary care populations: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Clark, Christopher E; Taylor, Rod S; Shore, Angela C; Campbell, John L

    2016-11-01

    Various prevalence figures have been reported for inter-arm differences in blood pressure (IAD); variation may be explained by differing population vascular risk and by measurement method. To review the literature to derive robust estimates of IAD prevalence relevant to community populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL were searched for cross-sectional studies likely to represent general or primary care populations, reporting prevalence of IAD and employing a simultaneous method of measurement. Using study-level data, pooled estimates of mean prevalence of systolic IADs were calculated and compared using a random effects model. Eighty IAD studies were identified. Sixteen met inclusion criteria: pooled estimates of prevalence for systolic IAD ≥10 mmHg were 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1 to 13.6) in hypertension, 7.4% (95% CI = 5.8 to 9.2) in diabetes, and 3.6% (95% CI = 2.3 to 5.0) for a general adult population (Pdifferences). Differences persisted for higher cut-off values. Prevalences were lower for East Asian than for Western populations and were overestimated by sequential measurement where this could be compared with simultaneous measurement within studies (relative risk for IAD: 2.9 [95% CI = 2.1 to 4.1]). Studies with higher mean absolute systolic pressures had higher prevalences for a systolic IAD ≥10 mmHg (P = 0.04). Prevalences of IADs rise in relation to underlying cardiovascular comorbidities of the population studied, and are overestimated threefold when sequential measurement is used. Population-specific variation in prevalences of IAD should be taken into account in delivering clinical care and in planning future studies. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  5. It Is Tough and Tiring but It Works—Children’s Experiences of Undergoing Radiotherapy

    Engvall, Gunn; Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 300 children ages 0 to 18 are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year, and 80 to 90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to describe children’s experiences of preparing for and undergoing radiotherapy, and furthermore to describe children’s suggestions for improvement. Thirteen children between the ages of 5 and 15 with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed five categories: positive and negative experiences with hospital stays and practical arrangements; age-appropriate information, communication, and guidance to various degrees; struggle with emotions; use of distraction and other suitable coping strategies; and children’s suggestions for improvement during radiotherapy. An overarching theme emerged: “It is tough and tiring but it works”. Some key areas were: explanatory visits, the need for information and communication, being afraid, discomfort and suffering, the need for media distraction, dealing with emotions, and the need for support. A systematic, family-centered preparation program could possible help families prepare and individualized distraction during radiotherapy could contribute to reducing distress. Further studies with interventions could clarify successful programs. PMID:27055258

  6. It Is Tough and Tiring but It Works--Children's Experiences of Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    Engvall, Gunn; Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 300 children ages 0 to 18 are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year, and 80 to 90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to describe children's experiences of preparing for and undergoing radiotherapy, and furthermore to describe children's suggestions for improvement. Thirteen children between the ages of 5 and 15 with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed five categories: positive and negative experiences with hospital stays and practical arrangements; age-appropriate information, communication, and guidance to various degrees; struggle with emotions; use of distraction and other suitable coping strategies; and children's suggestions for improvement during radiotherapy. An overarching theme emerged: "It is tough and tiring but it works". Some key areas were: explanatory visits, the need for information and communication, being afraid, discomfort and suffering, the need for media distraction, dealing with emotions, and the need for support. A systematic, family-centered preparation program could possible help families prepare and individualized distraction during radiotherapy could contribute to reducing distress. Further studies with interventions could clarify successful programs.

  7. Development of tire road noise chassis-dynamometer simulator. Effect of ISO surface replica model pad on tire road noise; Shisakushita tire romen soon shiken`yo jissha daijo simulator ni tsuite. ISO romen mogi pad wo sochakushita koka ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Tanaka, T; Murakami, T; Ogata, S; Sakamoto, I [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As a new test facility to clarify noise reduction method of tire road noise, Tire Road Noise Chassis-Dynamometer Simulator was developed. ISO surface replica pads made by copying the texture of ISO surface were attached on the roller surface of this system to simulate tire road noise. This paper described the specifications and characteristics of this system, and the effects of ISO surface replica pads on tire noise measurement by comparing the sound intensity in horizontal plane of tire noise measured in this system with that measured in a single drum tester with safety walk surface. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Systematic Approach for the Formulation and Optimization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Efavirenz by High Pressure Homogenization Using Design of Experiments for Brain Targeting and Enhanced Bioavailability

    Gupta, Shweta; Kesarla, Rajesh; Chotai, Narendra; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2017-01-01

    The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, used for the treatment of HIV infections, are reported to have low bioavailability pertaining to high first-pass metabolism, high protein binding, and enzymatic metabolism. They also show low permeability across blood brain barrier. The CNS is reported to be the most important HIV reservoir site. In the present study, solid lipid nanoparticles of efavirenz were prepared with the objective of providing increased permeability and protection of drug due to biocompatible lipidic content and nanoscale size and thus developing formulation having potential for enhanced bioavailability and brain targeting. Solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization technique using a systematic approach of design of experiments (DoE) and evaluated for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. Particles of average size 108.5 nm having PDI of 0.172 with 64.9% entrapment efficiency were produced. Zeta potential was found to be −21.2 mV and the formulation was found stable. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed increased concentration of the drug in brain, as desired, when administered through intranasal route indicating its potential for an attempt towards complete eradication of HIV and cure of HIV-infected patients. PMID:28243600

  9. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  10. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    Xudong Zhang

    Full Text Available The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  11. Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder

    Oh, Dong I.; Nam, Kyongphile; Park, Jae W.; Khim, Jee H.; Kim, Yong K.; Kim, Jae Y.

    2008-01-01

    A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water-tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could be estimated using a logarithmic relationship between observed water-tire partition coefficients and octanol-water partition coefficients of the VOCs tested. The target VOCs did not seem to compete with other VOCs significantly when sorbed onto the tire powder for the range of concentrations tested. The influence of environmental conditions, such as pH and ionic strength also did not seem to be significant. Water-tire partition coefficients of benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene decreased as the sorbent dosage increased. However, they showed stable values when the sorbent dosage was greater than 10 g/L. Air-tire partition coefficient could be extrapolated from Henry's law constants and water-tire partition coefficient of VOCs

  12. Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete with Cubed Waste Tire Rubbers as Coarse Aggregates

    Haryanto, Y.; Hermanto, N. I. S.; Pamudji, G.; Wardana, K. P.

    2017-11-01

    One feasible solution to overcome the issue of tire disposal waste is the use of waste tire rubber to replace aggregate in concrete. We have conducted an experimental investigation on the effect of rubber tire waste aggregate in cuboid form on the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete. The test was performed on 72 cylindrical specimens with the height of 300 mm and diameter of 150 mm. We found that the workability of concrete with waste tire rubber aggregate has increased. The concrete density with waste tire rubber aggregate was decreased, and so was the compressive strength. The decrease of compressive strength is up to 64.34%. If the content of waste tire rubber aggregate is more than 40%, then the resulting concrete cannot be categorized as structural concrete. The modulus of elasticity decreased to 59.77%. The theoretical equation developed to determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete with rubber tire waste aggregate has an accuracy of 84.27%.

  13. Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder

    Oh, Dong I. [Division of R and D Planning and Management, Korea Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyongphile [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae W. [Department of Civil Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jee H. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong K. [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Y. [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-01

    A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water-tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could be estimated using a logarithmic relationship between observed water-tire partition coefficients and octanol-water partition coefficients of the VOCs tested. The target VOCs did not seem to compete with other VOCs significantly when sorbed onto the tire powder for the range of concentrations tested. The influence of environmental conditions, such as pH and ionic strength also did not seem to be significant. Water-tire partition coefficients of benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene decreased as the sorbent dosage increased. However, they showed stable values when the sorbent dosage was greater than 10 g/L. Air-tire partition coefficient could be extrapolated from Henry's law constants and water-tire partition coefficient of VOCs.

  14. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advantage of SBR/carbon black masterbatch for tire tread application

    Sone, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Akimoto, H.; Ishida, M.

    1992-04-01

    The performance required of tire tread is becoming more severe and more various year by year, as social demands on tires have been changing. To improve wear resistance, driving safety and good drive feeling, new HP tires (high performance passenger car tires) are developed intensively. In addition, good fuel efficiency is required to satisfy the CAFE rule, which was proposed for a better global environment. To support this movement of the tire industry, material suppliers are making an effort to supply better materials. Mitsubishi Kasei has been improving the quality and production process of WMB, a SBR/carbon black master-batch produced by co-coagulation of SBR latex, carbon black and extender oil under the wet dispersion process. Compared to the tire tread made from dry-mixing compounds, that made from the WMB shows the following characteristics: (1) the abrasion resistance and the durability are higher; (2) from the viscoelastic properties, skid performance and driving stability are expected to be improved. These characteristics are remarkable when WMB is compounded in the recipes for HP and racing tires using fine carbon black. In this article, these features of WMB are studied from the view point of carbon black dispersion and polymer-carbon black interaction. Furthermore, the changes of carbon black structure during abrasion and fatigue process are analyzed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  16. Aerobic exercise interventions reduce blood pressure in patients after stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Wang, Cheng; Redgrave, Jessica; Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Majid, Arshad; Kilner, Karen; Ali, Ali N

    2018-05-09

    Secondary vascular risk reduction is critical to preventing recurrent stroke. We aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise interventions on vascular risk factors and recurrent ischaemic events after stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Intervention systematic review and meta-analysis. OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, TRIP Database, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, UK Clinical Trials Gateway and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched from 1966 to October 2017. Randomised controlled trials evaluating aerobic or resistance exercise interventions on vascular risk factors and recurrent ischaemic events among patients with stroke or TIA, compared with control. Twenty studies (n=1031) were included. Exercise interventions resulted in significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) -4.30 mm Hg (95% CI -6.77 to -1.83) and diastolic blood pressure -2.58 mm Hg (95% CI -4.7 to -0.46) compared with control. Reduction in SBP was most pronounced among studies initiating exercise within 6 months of stroke or TIA (-8.46 mm Hg, 95% CI -12.18 to -4.75 vs -2.33 mm Hg, 95% CI -3.94 to -0.72), and in those incorporating an educational component (-7.81 mm Hg, 95% CI -14.34 to -1.28 vs -2.78 mm Hg, 95% CI -4.33 to -1.23). Exercise was also associated with reductions in total cholesterol (-0.27 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.00), but not fasting glucose or body mass index. One trial reported reductions in secondary vascular events with exercise, but was insufficiently powered. Exercise interventions can result in clinically meaningful blood pressure reductions, particularly if initiated early and alongside education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Predicting the compressibility behaviour of tire shred samples for landfill applications.

    Warith, M A; Rao, Sudhakar M

    2006-01-01

    Tire shreds have been used as an alternative to crushed stones (gravel) as drainage media in landfill leachate collection systems. The highly compressible nature of tire shreds (25-47% axial strain on vertical stress applications of 20-700 kPa) may reduce the thickness of the tire shred drainage layer to less than 300 mm (minimum design requirement) during the life of the municipal solid waste landfill. There hence exists a need to predict axial strains of tire shred samples in response to vertical stress applications so that the initial thickness of the tire shred drainage layer can be corrected for compression. The present study performs one-dimensional compressibility tests on four tire shred samples and compares the results with stress/strain curves from other studies. The stress/strain curves are developed into charts for choosing the correct initial thickness of tire shred layers that maintain the minimum thickness of 300 mm throughout the life of the landfill. The charts are developed for a range of vertical stresses based on the design height of municipal waste cell and bulk unit weight of municipal waste. Experimental results also showed that despite experiencing large axial strains, the average permeability of the tire shred sample consistently remained two to three orders of magnitude higher than the design performance criterion of 0.01cm/s for landfill drainage layers. Laboratory experiments, however, need to verify whether long-term chemical and bio-chemical reactions between landfill leachate and the tire shred layer will deteriorate their mechanical functions (hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, strength) beyond permissible limits for geotechnical applications.

  18. Increased efficiency in the second-hand tire trade provides opportunity for dengue control.

    Pliego Pliego, Emilene; Velázquez-Castro, Jorge; Eichhorn, Markus P; Fraguela Collar, Andrés

    2018-01-21

    Dengue fever is increasing in geographical range, spread by invasion of its vector mosquitoes. The trade in second-hand tires has been implicated as a factor in this process because they act as mobile reservoirs of mosquito eggs and larvae. Regional transportation of tires can create linkages between rural areas with dengue and disease-free urban areas, potentially giving rise to outbreaks even in areas with strong local control measures. In this work we sought to model the dynamics of mosquito transportation via the tire trade, in particular to predict its role in causing unexpected dengue outbreaks through vertical transmission of the virus across generations of mosquitoes. We also aimed to identify strategies for regulating the trade in second-hand tires, improving disease control. We created a mathematical model which captures the dynamics of dengue between rural and urban areas, taking into account the movement and storage time of tires, and mosquito diapause. We simulate a series of scenarios in which a mosquito population is introduced to a dengue-free area via movement of tires, either as single or multiple events, increasing the likelihood of a dengue outbreak. A persistent disease state can be induced regardless of whether urban conditions for an outbreak are met, and an existing endemic state can be enhanced by vector input. Finally we assess the potential for regulation of tire processing as a means of reducing the transmission of dengue fever using a specific case study from Puerto Rico. Our work demonstrates the importance of the second-hand tire trade in modulating the spread of dengue fever across regions, in particular its role in introducing dengue to disease-free areas. We propose that reduction of tire storage time and control of their movement can play a crucial role in containing dengue outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A North American model to contain the spread of Aedes albopictus through tire legislation.

    Novak, R J

    1995-12-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in the United States has been facilitated by used or waste tires. This species has not only caused considerable concern among public health officials but also highlighted that the growing accumulations of used tires are a serious solid waste problem and a challenge to the recycling industry. This paper illustrates how the State of Illinois addressed the public health and solid waste problems associated with waste tires, mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens. The goal of the State was to develop and implement through legislative process the Illinois Waste Tire Act. The purpose of the Waste Tire Act is: 1) to ensure that used and waste tires are collected for disposal and recycling, 2) to provide for the abatement of used and waste tire dumps and associated threats to public health, 3) to encourage the development of used and waste tire processing facilities and technologies, including energy recovery, and 4) to provide for research on vectors associated with used and waste tires, and the diseases they spread. The discussion will include key statutes from the Act and the model used to coordinate the effort of five different governmental agencies. An up-to-date presentation of vector-related research, mandated by the Act, ranging from applied investigations on mosquito control to more basic studies investigations on virus identification using molecular technology will be discussed. Finally a discussion of problems that have been encountered along with solutions dealing with legislative language, multidisciplined agency efforts and interactions with the general public are presented.

  20. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives