WorldWideScience

Sample records for systematic misalignment scenarios

  1. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís C.; Turci, Aline M.; Pinheiro, Carina F.; Sousa, Letícia M.; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. PMID:25590441

  2. Improving environmental change research with systematic techniques for qualitative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Vanessa Jine; Kriegler, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Scenarios are key tools in analyses of global environmental change. Often they consist of quantitative and qualitative components, where the qualitative aspects are expressed in narrative, or storyline, form. Fundamental challenges in scenario development and use include identifying a small set of compelling storylines that span a broad range of policy-relevant futures, documenting that the assumptions embodied in the storylines are internally consistent, and ensuring that the selected storylines are sufficiently comprehensive, that is, that descriptions of important kinds of future developments are not left out. The dominant approach to scenario design for environmental change research has been criticized for lacking sufficient means of ensuring that storylines are internally consistent. A consequence of this shortcoming could be an artificial constraint on the range of plausible futures considered. We demonstrate the application of a more systematic technique for the development of storylines called the cross-impact balance (CIB) method. We perform a case study on the scenarios published in the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), which are widely used. CIB analysis scores scenarios in terms of internal consistency. It can also construct a very large number of scenarios consisting of combinations of assumptions about individual scenario elements and rank these combinations in terms of internal consistency. Using this method, we find that the four principal storylines employed in the SRES scenarios vary widely in internal consistency. One type of storyline involving highly carbon-intensive development is underrepresented in the SRES scenario set. We conclude that systematic techniques like CIB analysis hold promise for improving scenario development in global change research. (letter)

  3. Malocclusion (Misaligned Teeth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Dental Disorders Malocclusion Causes Treatment More Information Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Biology of the Mouth Additional Content Medical News Malocclusion ˌmal-ə-ˈklü-zhən (Misaligned Teeth) ...

  4. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  5. Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Soba, Marta; Maas, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We cannot predict the future with certainty, but we know that it is influenced by our current actions, and that these in turn are influenced by our expectations. This is why future scenarios have existed from the dawn of civilization and have been used for developing military, political and economic

  6. Systematic approach to scenario development using FEP analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.E.E.; Lever, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    UK regulatory requirements require that the 'assessed radiological risk ... to a representative member of the potentially exposed group at greatest risk should be consistent with a risk target of 10 -6 per year' and that risks should be 'summed over all situations that could give rise to exposure to the group'. It is a further requirement that a repository performance assessment provides a 'comprehensive record of the judgements and assumptions on which the risk assessments are based'. In order to meet these requirements, Nirex, working with AEA Technology, has developed an approach to performance assessment based on the identification and analysis of features, events and processes (FEPs). The objectives of the approach are to provide a comprehensive, traceable and clear presentation of a performance assessment for a deep geological radioactive waste repository. The approach to scenario development is fundamental to the overall Nirex strategy for performance assessment, eventually leading to a repository safety case for regulatory submission. This paper outlines the main concepts of the approach, illustrated with examples of work undertaken by Nirex to demonstrate its practicality. Due to the current status of the Nirex repository programme, the approach has not yet been used to conduct a full performance assessment of a repository located at a specific site. (authors)

  7. Distance education in neonatal nursing scenarios: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Machado Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identify resources that support learning mediated by technology in the field of neonatal nursing. METHOD Systematic review with searches conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. Titles and abstracts were independently evaluated by two experts. RESULTS Of the 2,051 references, 203 full-text articles were analyzed, resulting in the inclusion of nine studies on semiotics and semiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, general aspects of neonatal care, diagnostic reasoning and assessment of pain. Only two articles addressed the development of educational strategies and seven papers described the assessment of these strategies by experts and/or users. CONCLUSION Distance education is an important resource for education, and its improvement and updating, and it particularly adds advantages for neonatal nursing by approximating teaching and real-life situations and by minimizing the exposure of newborns for teaching purposes. The lack of educational initiatives mediated by technology suggests the need for the development, evaluation and dissemination of educational resources focused on nursing care of newborns and their families.

  8. [Distance education in neonatal nursing scenarios: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Laís Machado; Paula, Mariane Andreza de; Duarte, Elysangela Dittz; Bueno, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    Identify resources that support learning mediated by technology in the field of neonatal nursing. Systematic review with searches conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. Titles and abstracts were independently evaluated by two experts. Of the 2,051 references, 203 full-text articles were analyzed, resulting in the inclusion of nine studies on semiotics and semiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, general aspects of neonatal care, diagnostic reasoning and assessment of pain. Only two articles addressed the development of educational strategies and seven papers described the assessment of these strategies by experts and/or users. Distance education is an important resource for education, and its improvement and updating, and it particularly adds advantages for neonatal nursing by approximating teaching and real-life situations and by minimizing the exposure of newborns for teaching purposes. The lack of educational initiatives mediated by technology suggests the need for the development, evaluation and dissemination of educational resources focused on nursing care of newborns and their families.

  9. Misaligned Co-Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Jane Bjørn; Irwin, Alan

    of ‘misaligned co-production’ gives new insight into how academic and industrial researchers collaborate without smoothing out differences. We explore the advantages of this framework based on case examples of academic-industry collaborations from a field study in a Danish pharmaceutical company.......As many authors have noted, contemporary research can be characterized by a number of hybrid relations between researchers based in a variety of different organizations, both within and outside the university. Whilst historians might argue that there is very little new in the existence of academic......-industrial inter-connections within scientific research, there is still a tendency – in research publications but also in the statements of policy-makers – to present ‘academic’ and ‘industrial’ research as if they occupied fundamentally different realms. In this paper, we propose and discuss a framework...

  10. Effects of Misalignments on Microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae Hong; Yun, Jong Hee; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To avoid any distortions and/or artifacts that originate from the geometrical misalignments in reconstructed images, it is crucial to quantify those misalignments and then to reflect them into the image reconstruction procedure. It is typically known that the effect of .. is the greatest in image quality of cone-beam CT. Many studies have been carried out for quantitative measurements of misalignments. F. Noo et al. proposed an analytic method based on ellipse parameters, which were extracted from projections for a two-ball phantom. In this study, we investigate the effects of geometrical misalignments on the image quality of micro-CT. To determine the quantitative misalignments of our micro-CT system, we applied the ellipse-parameter method proposed by F. Noo et al. . The micro-CT images obtained for a wire phantom and ex-vivo rabbit bone without and with geometrical calibration are compared in this study. Misalignments made the single-wire phantom appear in two wires, due to the relatively large .... (note that the wire diameter was only 0.025 mm), as shown in Fig. 5(a), whereas the calibration successfully remedied this distortion artifact, as shown in Fig. 5(b). Comparisons with rabbit bone are shown in Fig. 6, and the calibration dramatically enhances the tomographic image quality.

  11. Misalignment of Magnetic Fields and Outflows in Protostellar Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erika; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of λ1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with ~2."5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the protostars. Rather, the data are consistent with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular), or where they are randomly aligned. If one assumes that outflows emerge along the rotati...

  12. Development of scenarios for emergency exercises and the systematic evaluation of the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidtborn, I.; Playfair, A. [Colenco Power Consulting AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes a systematic method for preparing emergency exercises for the training of power station personnel in the establishment of internal and external communications and the initiation of emergency measures in the case of beyond design basis accidents. The exercises are planned over a period of time in such a way that a wide range of scenarios are covered, keeping repetition to a minimum and the work for preparing the individual exercises is reduced as far as possible. To give an idea of the variety of exercises that can be developed using this method, a selection of the exercise titles that have been used by Colenco over the past 10 years is given. A great deal of importance has to be attached to the evaluation of the exercises.

  13. Development of scenarios for emergency exercises and the systematic evaluation of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtborn, I.; Playfair, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic method for preparing emergency exercises for the training of power station personnel in the establishment of internal and external communications and the initiation of emergency measures in the case of beyond design basis accidents. The exercises are planned over a period of time in such a way that a wide range of scenarios are covered, keeping repetition to a minimum and the work for preparing the individual exercises is reduced as far as possible. To give an idea of the variety of exercises that can be developed using this method, a selection of the exercise titles that have been used by Colenco over the past 10 years is given. A great deal of importance has to be attached to the evaluation of the exercises

  14. Projecting Future Heat-Related Mortality under Climate Change Scenarios: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard; Wang, Xiaoming; Vaneckova, Pavla; FitzGerald, Gerard; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heat-related mortality is a matter of great public health concern, especially in the light of climate change. Although many studies have found associations between high temperatures and mortality, more research is needed to project the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of research and methods for projecting future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios. Data sources and extraction: A literature search was conducted in August 2010, using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 through July 2010. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most projections showed that climate change would result in a substantial increase in heat-related mortality. Projecting heat-related mortality requires understanding historical temperature–mortality relationships and considering the future changes in climate, population, and acclimatization. Further research is needed to provide a stronger theoretical framework for projections, including a better understanding of socioeconomic development, adaptation strategies, land-use patterns, air pollution, and mortality displacement. Conclusions: Scenario-based projection research will meaningfully contribute to assessing and managing the potential impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. PMID:21816703

  15. Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Deqiang

    Optical interconnects are considered a promising solution for long distance and high bitrate data transmissions, outperforming electrical interconnects in terms of loss and dispersion. Due to the bandwidth and distance advantage of optical interconnects, longer links have been implemented with optics. Recent studies show that optical interconnects have clear advantages even at very short distances---intra system interconnects. The biggest challenge for such optical interconnects is the alignment tolerance. Many free space optical components require very precise assembly and installation, and therefore the overall cost could be increased. This thesis studied the misalignment tolerance and possible alignment correction solutions for optical interconnects at backplane or board level. First the alignment tolerance for free space couplers was simulated and the result indicated the most critical alignments occur between the VCSEL, waveguide and microlens arrays. An in-situ microlens array fabrication method was designed and experimentally demonstrated, with no observable misalignment with the waveguide array. At the receiver side, conical lens arrays were proposed to replace simple microlens arrays for a larger angular alignment tolerance. Multilayer simulation models in CodeV were built to optimized the refractive index and shape profiles of the conical lens arrays. Conical lenses fabricated with micro injection molding machine and fiber etching were characterized. Active component VCSOA was used to correct misalignment in optical connectors between the board and backplane. The alignment correction capability were characterized for both DC and AC (1GHz) optical signal. The speed and bandwidth of the VCSOA was measured and compared with a same structure VCSEL. Based on the optical inverter being studied in our lab, an all-optical flip-flop was demonstrated using a pair of VCSOAs. This memory cell with random access ability can store one bit optical signal with set or

  16. A systematic methodology to extend the applicability of a bioconversion model for the simulation of various co-digestion scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovalovszki, Adam; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Fotidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Detailed simulation of anaerobic digestion (AD) requires complex mathematical models and the optimization of numerous model parameters. By performing a systematic methodology and identifying parameters with the highest impact on process variables in a well-established AD model, its applicability...... was extended to various co-digestion scenarios. More specifically, the application of the step-by-step methodology led to the estimation of a general and reduced set of parameters, for the simulation of scenarios where either manure or wastewater were co-digested with different organic substrates. Validation...... experimental data quite well, indicating that it offers a reliable reference point for future simulations of anaerobic co-digestion scenarios....

  17. Shaft MisalignmentDetectionusing Stator Current Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar Verma, Somnath Sarangi and M.H. Kolekar

    2013-01-01

    This paper inspects the misaligned of shaft by usingdiagnostic medium such as current and vibration.Misalignments in machines can cause decrease inefficiency and in the long-run it may cause failurebecause of unnecessary vibration, stress on motor,bearings and short-circuiting in stator and rotorwindings.In this study, authors investigate the onsetof instability on a shaft mounted on journal bearings.Shaft displacement and stator current samples duringmachine run up under misaligned condition...

  18. Misaligned Accretion and Jet Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris

    2018-04-01

    Disk accretion onto a black hole is often misaligned from its spin axis. If the disk maintains a significant magnetic field normal to its local plane, we show that dipole radiation from Lense–Thirring precessing disk annuli can extract a significant fraction of the accretion energy, sharply peaked toward small disk radii R (as R ‑17/2 for fields with constant equipartition ratio). This low-frequency emission is immediately absorbed by surrounding matter or refracted toward the regions of lowest density. The resultant mechanical pressure, dipole angular pattern, and much lower matter density toward the rotational poles create a strong tendency to drive jets along the black hole spin axis, similar to the spin-axis jets of radio pulsars, also strong dipole emitters. The coherent primary emission may explain the high brightness temperatures seen in jets. The intrinsic disk emission is modulated at Lense–Thirring frequencies near the inner edge, providing a physical mechanism for low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). Dipole emission requires nonzero hole spin, but uses only disk accretion energy. No spin energy is extracted, unlike the Blandford–Znajek process. Magnetohydrodynamic/general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD/GRMHD) formulations do not directly give radiation fields, but can be checked post-process for dipole emission and therefore self-consistency, given sufficient resolution. Jets driven by dipole radiation should be more common in active galactic nuclei (AGN) than in X-ray binaries, and in low accretion-rate states than high, agreeing with observation. In non-black hole accretion, misaligned disk annuli precess because of the accretor’s mass quadrupole moment, similarly producing jets and QPOs.

  19. Reconstructing misaligned x-ray CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divin, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Misalignment errors for x-ray computed tomography (CT) systems can manifest as artifacts and a loss of spatial and contrast resolution. To mitigate artifacts, significant effort is taken to determine the system geometry and minimizing any residual error in the system alignment. This project improved our ability to post-correct data which was acquired on a misaligned CT system.

  20. Effect of cephalometer misalignment on calculations of facial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Curry, Sean; Boyd, Robert L; Norris, Kevin; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated errors introduced into the interpretation of facial asymmetry on posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms due to malpositioning of the x-ray emitter focal spot. We tested the hypothesis that horizontal displacements of the emitter from its ideal position would produce systematic displacements of skull landmarks that could be fully accounted for by the rules of projective geometry alone. A representative dry skull with 22 metal markers was used to generate a series of PA images from different emitter positions by using a fully calibrated stereo cephalometer. Empirical measurements of the resulting cephalograms were compared with mathematical predictions based solely on geometric rules. The empirical measurements matched the mathematical predictions within the limits of measurement error (x= 0.23 mm), thus supporting the hypothesis. Based upon this finding, we generated a completely symmetrical mathematical skull and calculated the expected errors for focal spots of several different magnitudes. Quantitative data were computed for focal spot displacements of different magnitudes. Misalignment of the x-ray emitter focal spot introduces systematic errors into the interpretation of facial asymmetry on PA cephalograms. For misalignments of less than 20 mm, the effect is small in individual cases. However, misalignments as small as 10 mm can introduce spurious statistical findings of significant asymmetry when mean values for large groups of PA images are evaluated.

  1. A Systematic Approach to Explorative Scenario Analysis in Emergy Assessment with Emphasis on Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Fossil energy depletion (specifically peak oil) and climate change are imagined to profoundly affect human civilisation. This motivates assessment of resilience, a concept associated with the ability to persist and maintain function. Explorative scenarios may be used to cast light on what......-site renewable inputs, (3) slowly renewable inputs, (4) direct labour and (5) indirect labour. We consider the existing EmA indicators of biophysical efficiency (the unit emergy value, UEV), the degree of dependence on free, renewable, natural flows of energy (%R) and the degree of dependence on local inputs...... systems that rely primarily on on-site renewable resources appear less sensitive to societal changes. The significance of labour inputs varies among scenarios, and a higher percentage of labour inputs leads to increasing UEV in a Green Tech scenario but lower UEV in more radical energy decent scenarios...

  2. Misalignment as legacy of an industrial leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel; Sheaffer, Zachary; Weber, Yaakov; Landau, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the nature of alignment and misalignment through a study of FertilChem, an Israeli multinational corporation. This paper also contributes to the growing body of research that disputes the tendency to use the alignment model as the single best way of guiding

  3. Misalignment under different exchange rate regimes: the case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Dağdeviren, Sengül; Ogus Binatli, Ayla; Sohrabji, Niloufer

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines misalignment of the Turkish lira between 1998 to 2008. Misalignment, specifically overvaluation has been linked to fixed exchange rate regimes. By studying the case of Turkey during this period which covers both a fixed and floating exchange rate regime, we contribute to the literature on the relation between misalignment and exchange rate regimes. We first estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate for Turkey, then compute misalignment and finally test for structural brea...

  4. Impact of the Velo 2 half misalignment on physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Roguljic, Matej; Borghi, Silvia; Grillo, Lucia; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the misalignment of the Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment on the physical quantities of the decay "$D^{*+} \\rightarrow (D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) \\pi^{+} $" is studied in this note. Different misalignments of the 2 halves are applied to Monte Carlo data and the variations of the physical quantities with respect to the case without misalignment are evaluated. The results show the importance of the VELO 2 half alignment which can significantly affect the physics performance in the large misalignment case. A misalignment equal to the precision of the real-time alignment of the Vertex Locator is found to have a negligible effect on the studied physical quantities.

  5. A peek into the drug development scenario of endometriosis - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Luxitaa; George, Melvin; Sen, Maitrayee

    2017-06-01

    Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease that is characterised by the presence of endometrium like tissue-epithelium and stroma that develops outside the uterine cavity, which is responsible for pelvic pain and infertility. Even though several medical therapies exist for the treatment of endometriosis, each of the drug class has its own limitations such as cost of treatment, side-effects and its short-term effect on the symptoms of endometriosis. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the current status and challenges of drug development for endometriosis. A systematic review was done and all the RCTs were selected from the identified hits. We included studies that explored the usage of therapeutic drugs on endometriosis patients from inception till November 2016. The search term used was 'Endometriosis' using PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov. For the final analysis, 60 articles were analyzed and we identified the newly emerging drug therapies for endometriosis treatment and have briefed their current status and challenges in drug development for endometriosis. The quality of the selected studies was assessed based on the degree of bias. The current classes of drugs that have shown promising therapeutic results include Gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists, aromatase inhibitors (AI), and selective progesterone and estrogen receptor modulators, dopamine receptor-2-agonists and statins. The drugs that failed midway during development include tanezumab, rosiglitazone, infliximab, pentoxifylline, telapristone acetate, asoprisnil and raloxifene. From the literature review, it appears that the most promising molecules for the treatment of endometriosis in the near future include elagolix, mifepristone, TAK-385, KLH-2109 and ASP1707 and cabergoline. It remains to be seen if these molecules would succeed large phase 3 clinical trials and overcome the regulatory hurdles to become an essential tool in the gynaecologist's armamentarium against endometriosis

  6. Power deposition on misaligned edges in COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dejarnac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If the decision is made not to apply a toroidal chamfer to tungsten monoblocks at ITER divertor vertical targets, exposed leading edges will arise as a result of assembly tolerances between adjacent plasma-facing components. Then, the advantage of glancing magnetic field angles for spreading plasma heat flux on top surfaces is lost at the misaligned edges with an interaction occurring at near normal incidence, which can drive melting for the expected inter-ELM heat fluxes. A dedicated experiment has been performed on the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study power deposition on misaligned edges using inner-wall limited discharges on a special graphite tile presenting gaps and leading edges directly viewed by a high resolution infra-red camera. The parallel power flux deducted from the unperturbed measurement far from the gap is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edge, respecting the power balance. All the power flowing into the gap is deposited at the leading edge and no mitigation factor is required to explain the thermal response. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the ion Larmor smoothing effect is weak and that the power deposition on misaligned edges is well described by the optical approximation because of an electron dominated regime associated with non-ambipolar parallel current flow.

  7. A systematic review on in vitro 3D bone metastases models: A new horizon to recapitulate the native clinical scenario?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanna, Francesca; Contartese, Deyanira; Maglio, Melania; Fini, Milena

    2016-07-12

    While the skeleton is not the only organ where metastasis can occur, it is one of the preferred sites, with a significant impact in patients' quality of life. With the aim of delineating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone metastasis, numerous studies have been employed to identify any contributing factors that trigger cancer progression. One of the major limitations of studying cancer-bone metastasis is the multifaceted nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, and not expensive models that strictly mimic the biological processes occurring in vivo allowing a correct translation of results. Currently, with the growing acceptance of in vitro models as effective tools for studying cancer biology, three-dimensional (3D) models have emerged as a compromise between two-dimensional cultures of isolated cancer cells and the complexity of human cancer xenografts in immunocompromised animal hosts. This descriptive systematic literature review summarizes the current status of advanced and alternative 3D in vitro bone metastases models. We have also reviewed the strategies employed by researchers to set-up these models with special reference to recent promising developments trying to better replicate the complexity and heterogeneity of a human metastasis in situ, with an outlook at their use in medicine. All these aspects will greatly contribute to the existing knowledge on bone metastases, providing a specific link to clinical scenarios and thus making 3D in vitro bone metastasis models an attractive tool for multidisciplinary experts.

  8. MISALIGNED DISKS AS OBSCURERS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Andy; Elvis, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We critically review the evidence concerning the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that appear as Type 2 AGNs, carefully distinguishing strict Type 2 AGNs from both more lightly reddened Type 1 AGNs, and from low excitation narrow line AGNs, which may represent a different mode of activity. Low-excitation AGNs occur predominantly at low luminosities; after removing these, true Type 2 AGNs represent 58% ± 5% of all AGNs, and lightly reddened Type 1 AGNs a further ∼15%. Radio, IR, and volume-limited samples all agree in showing no change of Type 2 fraction with luminosity. X-ray samples do show a change with luminosity; we discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy. We test a very simple picture which produces this Type 2 fraction with minimal assumptions. In this picture, infall from large scales occurs in random directions, but must eventually align with the inner accretion flow, producing a severely warped disk on parsec scales. If the re-alignment is dominated by tilt, with minimal twist, a wide range of covering factors is predicted in individual objects, but with an expected mean fraction of Type 2 AGNs of exactly 50%. This 'tilted disk' picture predicts reasonable alignment of observed nuclear structures on average, but with distinct misalignments in individual cases. Initial case studies of the few well-resolved objects show that such misalignments are indeed present.

  9. Effects of alternating cell misalignments on the DDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.; Kroll, N.M.; Higo, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors study some effects of cell misalignments in accelerator structures in which each cell is displaced the same amount and direction but with sign which alternates from cell to cell. In particular they study the manifold radiation in a damped detuned structure (DDS1) and wakefield effects in a uniform constant impedance structure. A synchronous wave aliasing phenomenon is observed. In previous treatments the effect of cell misalignment has been modeled by replacing it by beam displacement. Here they compare finite difference simulation of cell misalignment with the beam displacement model. They conclude with discussions about the relevance of the results for general misalignment profiles

  10. FACET Tolerances for Static and Dynamic Misalignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, Joel

    2012-07-13

    The Facility for AdvancedAccelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is designed to deliver a beam with a transverse spot size on the order of 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m in a new beamline constructed at the two kilometer point of the SLAC linac. Commissioning the beamline requires mitigating alignment errors and their effects, which can be significant and result in spot sizes orders of magnitude larger. Sextupole and quadrupole alignment errors in particular can introduce errors in focusing, steering, and dispersion which can result in spot size growth, beta mismatch, and waist movement. Alignment errors due to static misalignments, mechanical jitter, energy jitter, and other physical processes can be analyzed to determine the level of accuracy and precision that the beamline requires. It is important to recognize these effects and their tolerances in order to deliver a beam as designed.

  11. 9Real exchange rate misalignment and economic performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the impact of real exchange rate misalignment has not received adequate attention .... investment (FDI) and the commercial exploitation of oil in 1999. Notably, the flow of .... the analysis proceeds in two steps: 1) we measure the exchange rate misalignment, ... non-tradable goods (TAX) and the net foreign income (NFI).

  12. A comparative study of misalignment detection using a novel Wireless Sensor with conventional Wired Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arebi, L; Gu, F; Ball, A

    2012-01-01

    The advancement in low cost and low power MEMS sensors makes it possible to develop a cost-effective wireless accelerometer for condition monitoring. Especially, the MEMS accelerometer can be mounted directly on a rotating shaft, which has the potential to capture the dynamics of the shaft more accurately and hence to achieve high monitoring performance. In this paper a systematic comparison of shaft misalignment detection is conducted, based on a bearing test rig, between the wireless sensor measurement scheme and other three common sensors: a laser vibrometer, an accelerometer and a shaft encoder. These four sensors are used to measure simultaneously the dynamic responses: Instantaneous Angular Speed (IAS) from the encoder, bearing house acceleration from the accelerometer, shaft displacements from the laser vibrometer and angular acceleration from the wireless sensor. These responses are then compared in both the time and frequency domains in detecting and diagnosing different levels of shaft misalignment. Results show the effectiveness of wireless accelerometer in detecting the faults.

  13. Mismatch and misalignment: dark haloes and satellites of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, A. J.; McCarthy, I. G.; Font, A. S.; Evans, N. W.; Frenk, C. S.; Belokurov, V.; Libeskind, N. I.; Crain, R. A.; Theuns, T.

    2011-08-01

    We study the phase-space distribution of satellite galaxies associated with late-type galaxies in the GIMIC suite of simulations. GIMIC consists of resimulations of five cosmologically representative regions from the Millennium Simulation, which have higher resolution and incorporate baryonic physics. Whilst the disc of the galaxy is well aligned with the inner regions (r˜ 0.1r200) of the dark matter halo, both in shape and angular momentum, there can be substantial misalignments at larger radii (r˜r200). Misalignments of >45° are seen in ˜30 per cent of our sample. We find that the satellite population aligns with the shape (and angular momentum) of the outer dark matter halo. However, the alignment with the galaxy is weak owing to the mismatch between the disc and dark matter halo. Roughly 20 per cent of the satellite systems with 10 bright galaxies within r200 exhibit a polar spatial alignment with respect to the galaxy - an orientation reminiscent of the classical satellites of the Milky Way. We find that a small fraction (˜10 per cent) of satellite systems show evidence for rotational support which we attribute to group infall. There is a bias towards satellites on prograde orbits relative to the spin of the dark matter halo (and to a lesser extent with the angular momentum of the disc). This preference towards co-rotation is stronger in the inner regions of the halo where the most massive satellites accreted at relatively early times are located. We attribute the anisotropic spatial distribution and angular momentum bias of the satellites at z= 0 to their directional accretion along the major axes of the dark matter halo. The satellite galaxies have been accreted relatively recently compared to the dark matter mass and have experienced less phase-mixing and relaxation - the memory of their accretion history can remain intact to z= 0. Understanding the phase-space distribution of the z= 0 satellite population is key for studies that estimate the host halo

  14. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... misalignment is assessed. The study is performed through simulations of a reference turbine. The study shows that optimal yaw misalignment angles for minimizing the blade load variations can be identified for both deterministic and turbulent inflows. It is shown that the optimal yaw misalignment angles can...

  15. real exchange rate misalignment and economic performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effects of real exchange rate misalignment on economic performance in Nigeria. .... main factors that impacts on real exchange rate in India .... financial assets and ignores non-economic factor such as .... and fiscal policies to control inflation.

  16. Does Misaligned Currency Affect Economic Growth? – Evidence from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonći Svilokos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to measure the currency misalignment of the Croatian kuna and to reveal whether it affects economic growth for the period 2001 (Q1 to 2013 (Q3. The estimate relies on recent cointegration techniques, VAR models and Granger causality tests. The findings show that there are two misalignment sub-periods for the Croatian kuna: undervaluation in the period from 2000Q1 to 2007Q4 and overvaluation in the period from 2008Q1 to 2013Q3. The evidence reveals that for the whole sample period, the Granger causality goes from misalignments (MISA to GDP growth under the 10 percent significance level. However, for the two sub-periods no evidence of Granger causality from MISA to GDP growth or vice versa is found. The research also reveals that the currency misalignments in the observed period are relatively small.

  17. Beam pointing direction changes in a misaligned Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jyh-Fa; Leung, Chung-Yee

    1988-07-01

    The relative change of the beam pointing direction for a misaligned Porro prism resonator has been analyzed, using an oscillation axis concept for the Porro prism resonator to find the beam direction. Expressions for the beam tilting angles are presented which show that the angular misalignment in the horizontal direction will result in beam tilting in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is found.

  18. Method of measuring misalignment of welded threaded connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasatkin, V I

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for measuring misalignment of welded connections by special attachment, superposed indicator. Requirements are analyzed for welding the threaded sleeves established by specifications. It is shown that measurement of the slack only in one section on the selected base is insufficient for monitoring the geometry of the connected pipe parts. It is suggested that in order to evaluate the misalignment the concept of total slack be used and formulas are derived to define it.

  19. Phase correction for a Michelson interferometer with misaligned mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorvitch, D.

    1975-01-01

    The phase correction for a Michelson interferometer with misaligned mirrors in converging light is shown to give rise to a quadratic phase shift. In general, the calculation of a spectrum from the measured interferogram needs phase correction. Phase corrections have been well worked out for the cases of a linear phase shift and a phase that is slowly varying. The standard procedures for correcting calculated spectra need to be modified, however, to remove any phase errors resulting from misaligned mirrors.

  20. THE GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANETS ON INCLINED ORBITS AND PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AS THE ORIGIN OF PRIMORDIAL SPIN–ORBIT MISALIGNMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsakos, Titos; Königl, Arieh [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Many of the observed spin–orbit alignment properties of exoplanets can be explained in the context of the primordial disk misalignment model, in which an initially aligned protoplanetary disk is torqued by a distant stellar companion on a misaligned orbit, resulting in a precessional motion that can lead to large-amplitude oscillations of the spin–orbit angle. We consider a variant of this model in which the companion is a giant planet with an orbital radius of a few astronomical units. Guided by the results of published numerical simulations, we model the dynamical evolution of this system by dividing the disk into inner and outer parts—separated at the location of the planet—that behave as distinct, rigid disks. We show that the planet misaligns the inner disk even as the orientation of the outer disk remains unchanged. In addition to the oscillations induced by the precessional motion, whose amplitude is larger the smaller the initial inner-disk-to-planet mass ratio, the spin–orbit angle also exhibits a secular growth in this case—driven by ongoing mass depletion from the disk—that becomes significant when the inner disk’s angular momentum drops below that of the planet. Altogether, these two effects can produce significant misalignment angles for the inner disk, including retrograde configurations. We discuss these results within the framework of the Stranded Hot Jupiter scenario and consider their implications, including the interpretation of the alignment properties of debris disks.

  1. Steam turbine coupling misalignment detection by vibrational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, M.; Asoyesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    Machinery troubleshooting and diagnostics via vibration analysis have historically been proven, and once again become enlightened topics with the recent popularity of predictive maintenance programs. Among several causes of vibration of turbomachinery, coupling misalignment plays an important role.The results of a theoretical analysis of coupling misalignment and its frequency spectrum characteristics, which can be used for predictive maintenance programs, are compared with other numerical investigations and practical results. The analytical method used in this research is very straightforward and does not need any computer programming

  2. The misalignment angle in vessel-mounted ADCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Osinski

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of the misalignment angle and the consequences if it occurs is given. It is shown that because of gyrocompass errors, the misalignment angle error a has to be computed for each cruise. A simple method of calibrating the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP mounted on a vessel has been devised by fitting the cosinusoidal function. This is a post-processing method, suitable for calibrating previously collected data. Nevertheless, because of ADCP's constructional peculiarities, the procedure must be repeated for each cruise.

  3. Food scenarios 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a future study of the food sector. Two scenarios have been developed using a combination of: 1) a summary of the relevant scientific knowledge, 2) systematic scenario writing, 3) an expert-based Delphi technique, and 4) an expert seminar assessment. The two...... scenarios present possible futures at global, national (Denmark) and regional (Zealand, Denmark) levels. The main scenario is called ‘Food for ordinary days and celebrations’ (a combination of ‘High-technological food production − The functional society’ and ‘High-gastronomic food − The experience society...

  4. The symmetry, misalignment and kinematic evolution of double radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The symmetry properties of a carefully selected sample of 76 double radio sources have been examined. It is found that: (1) The average intrinsic misalignment (the ratio of the displacement of the optical object to the source size, before projection) of these sources is 0.038, independent of the intrinsic size; (2) sources which are most misaligned tend to have the highest values of D, the ratio of hot-spot separations from the nucleus; (3) hot spots are more asymmetric in brightness than are tails; and (4) the relative brightness of hot spots is not correlated with D, but the relation between D and F, the ratio of total flux densities in components, implies that most of the diffuse structure tends to be associated with the hot spot closer to the optical identification. Computer simulations have been used to examine (2); this is best explained if the major contribution to the D distribution is independent of orientation and is correlated with the intrinsic misalignment. It is shown that (2) is in conflict with the hypothesis that motion of the parent galaxy relative to the intergalactic medium makes the dominant contribution to the observed misalignment. (3) and (4) can be explained in terms of a beam model of double radio sources which includes the effects of the external environment. (author)

  5. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafranski, P.; Gambin, T.; Dharmadhikari, A.V.; Akdemir, K.C.; Jhangiani, S.N.; Schuette, J.; Godiwala, N.; Yatsenko, S.A.; Sebastian, J.; Madan-Khetarpal, S.; Surti, U.; Abellar, R.G.; Bateman, D.A.; Wilson, A.L.; Markham, M.H.; Slamon, J.; Santos-Simarro, F.; Palomares, M.; Nevado, J.; Lapunzina, P.; Chung, B.H.; Wong, W.L.; Chu, Y.W.; Mok, G.T.; Kerem, E.; Reiter, J.; Ambalavanan, N.; Anderson, S.A.; Kelly, D.R.; Shieh, J.; Rosenthal, T.C.; Scheible, K.; Steiner, L.; Iqbal, M.A.; McKinnon, M.L.; Hamilton, S.J.; Schlade-Bartusiak, K.; English, D.; Hendson, G.; Roeder, E.R.; DeNapoli, T.S.; Littlejohn, R.O.; Wolff, D.J.; Wagner, C.L.; Yeung, A.; Francis, D.; Fiorino, E.K.; Edelman, M.; Fox, J.; Hayes, D.A.; Janssens, S.; Baere, E. De; Menten, B.; Loccufier, A.; Vanwalleghem, L.; Moerman, P.; Sznajer, Y.; Lay, A.S.; Kussmann, J.L.; Chawla, J.; Payton, D.J.; Phillips, G.E.; Brosens, E.; Tibboel, D.; Klein, A.; Maystadt, I.; Fisher, R.; Sebire, N.; Male, A.; Chopra, M.; Pinner, J.; Malcolm, G.; Peters, G.; Arbuckle, S.; Lees, M.; Mead, Z.; Quarrell, O.; Sayers, R.; Owens, M.; Shaw-Smith, C.; Lioy, J.; McKay, E.; Leeuw, N. de; Feenstra, I.; Spruijt, L.; Elmslie, F.; Thiruchelvam, T.; Bacino, C.A.; Langston, C.; Lupski, J.R.; Sen, P.; Popek, E.; Stankiewicz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes

  6. An Improved Pansharpening Method for Misaligned Panchromatic and Multispectral Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jing, Linhai; Tang, Yunwei; Ding, Haifeng

    2018-02-11

    Numerous pansharpening methods were proposed in recent decades for fusing low-spatial-resolution multispectral (MS) images with high-spatial-resolution (HSR) panchromatic (PAN) bands to produce fused HSR MS images, which are widely used in various remote sensing tasks. The effect of misregistration between MS and PAN bands on quality of fused products has gained much attention in recent years. An improved method for misaligned MS and PAN imagery is proposed, through two improvements made on a previously published method named RMI (reduce misalignment impact). The performance of the proposed method was assessed by comparing with some outstanding fusion methods, such as adaptive Gram-Schmidt and generalized Laplacian pyramid. Experimental results show that the improved version can reduce spectral distortions of fused dark pixels and sharpen boundaries between different image objects, as well as obtain similar quality indexes with the original RMI method. In addition, the proposed method was evaluated with respect to its sensitivity to misalignments between MS and PAN bands. It is certified that the proposed method is more robust to misalignments between MS and PAN bands than the other methods.

  7. Strabismus genetics across a spectrum of eye misalignment disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, XC; Pegado, V; Patel, MS; Wasserman, WW

    2014-01-01

    Eye misalignment, called strabismus, is amongst the most common phenotypes observed, occurring in up to 5% of individuals in a studied population. While misalignment is frequently observed in rare complex syndromes, the majority of strabismus cases are non-syndromic. Over the past decade, genes and pathways associated with syndromic forms of strabismus have emerged, but the genes contributing to non-syndromic strabismus remain elusive. Genetic testing for strabismus risk may allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment, as well as decreased frequency of surgery. We review human and model organism literature describing non-syndromic strabismus, including family, twin, linkage, and gene expression studies. Recent advances in the genetics of Duane retraction syndrome are considered, as relatives of those impacted show elevated familial rates of non-syndromic strabismus. As whole genome sequencing efforts are advancing for the discovery of the elusive strabismus genes, this overview is intended to support the interpretation of the new findings. PMID:24579652

  8. Electrical conductance of carbon nanotubes with misaligned ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.pantano@unipa.it; Muratore, Giuseppe; Montinaro, Nicola [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica e Meccanica (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    During a manufacturing process, when a straight carbon nanotube is placed on a substrate, e.g., production of transistors, its two ends are often misaligned. In this study, we investigate the effects of multiwall carbon nanotubes' (MWCNTs) outer diameter and chirality on the change in conductance due to misalignment of the two ends. The length of the studied MWCNTs was 120 nm, while the diameters ranged between 4 and 7 nm. A mixed finite element-tight-binding approach was carefully designed to realize reduction in computational time by orders of magnitude in calculating the deformation-induced changes in the electrical transport properties of the nanotubes. Numerical results suggest that armchair MWCNTs of small diameter should work better if used as conductors, while zigzag MWCNTs of large diameter are more suitable for building sensors.Graphical Abstract.

  9. Texture zeros and hierarchical masses from flavour (mis)alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollik, W. G.; Saldana-Salazar, U. J.

    2018-03-01

    We introduce an unconventional interpretation of the fermion mass matrix elements. As the full rotational freedom of the gauge-kinetic terms renders a set of infinite bases called weak bases, basis-dependent structures as mass matrices are unphysical. Matrix invariants, on the other hand, provide a set of basis-independent objects which are of more relevance. We employ one of these invariants to give a new parametrisation of the mass matrices. By virtue of it, one gains control over its implicit implications on several mass matrix structures. The key element is the trace invariant which resembles the equation of a hypersphere with a radius equal to the Frobenius norm of the mass matrix. With the concepts of alignment or misalignment we can identify texture zeros with certain alignments whereas Froggatt-Nielsen structures in the matrix elements are governed by misalignment. This method allows further insights of traditional approaches to the underlying flavour geometry.

  10. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT ammunition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  11. RELATIVISTIC DOPPLER BEAMING AND MISALIGNMENTS IN AGN JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Radio maps of active galactic nuclei often show linear features, called jets, on both parsec and kiloparsec scales. These jets supposedly possess relativistic motion and are oriented close to the line of sight of the observer, and accordingly the relativistic Doppler beaming makes them look much brighter than they really are in their respective rest frames. The flux boosting due to the relativistic beaming is a very sensitive function of the jet orientation angle, as seen by the observer. Sometimes, large bends are seen in these jets, with misalignments being 90° or more, which might imply a change in the orientation angle that should cause a large change in the relativistic beaming factor. Hence, if relativistic beaming does play an important role in these jets such large bends should usually show high contrast in the brightness of the jets before and after the bend. It needs to be kept in mind that sometimes a small intrinsic change in the jet angle might appear as a much larger misalignment due to the effects of geometrical projection, especially when seen close to the line of sight. What really matters are the initial and final orientation angles of the jet with respect to the observer’s line of sight. Taking the geometrical projection effects properly into account, we calculate the consequences of the presumed relativistic beaming and demonstrate that there ought to be large brightness ratios in jets before and after the observed misalignments.

  12. Relativistic Doppler Beaming and Misalignments in AGN Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2016-08-01

    Radio maps of active galactic nuclei often show linear features, called jets, on both parsec and kiloparsec scales. These jets supposedly possess relativistic motion and are oriented close to the line of sight of the observer, and accordingly the relativistic Doppler beaming makes them look much brighter than they really are in their respective rest frames. The flux boosting due to the relativistic beaming is a very sensitive function of the jet orientation angle, as seen by the observer. Sometimes, large bends are seen in these jets, with misalignments being 90° or more, which might imply a change in the orientation angle that should cause a large change in the relativistic beaming factor. Hence, if relativistic beaming does play an important role in these jets such large bends should usually show high contrast in the brightness of the jets before and after the bend. It needs to be kept in mind that sometimes a small intrinsic change in the jet angle might appear as a much larger misalignment due to the effects of geometrical projection, especially when seen close to the line of sight. What really matters are the initial and final orientation angles of the jet with respect to the observer’s line of sight. Taking the geometrical projection effects properly into account, we calculate the consequences of the presumed relativistic beaming and demonstrate that there ought to be large brightness ratios in jets before and after the observed misalignments.

  13. Measuring real exchange rate misalignment in Croatia: cointegration approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Palić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze misalignment of the real exchange rate in Croatia. The misalignment analysis is conducted using the permanent equilibrium exchange rate approach. The equilibrium real exchange rate is computed using the cointegration approach whereby the real exchange rate and its fundamentals, namely terms of trade, net foreign assets and the ratio of prices of tradables to non-tradables are included in cointegration analysis. The Hodrick and Prescott filter is used to obtain permanent values of the equilibrium real exchange rate. The real exchange rate misalignment is computed as the deviation of the RER from its permanent equilibrium level. Four overvaluation periods and three undervaluation periods are recorded in Croatia in the observed period. Overvaluation periods are more often and of longer duration than undervaluation periods. However, the real exchange rate does not deviate largely from its estimated equilibrium value in the observed period, and it is neither overvalued nor undervalued constantly, but the periods alternate. Considering the results of the analysis, together with the empirical characteristics of Croatian economy, namely the high foreign currency indebtedness, highly euroized economy and underdeveloped export oriented sector, the depreciation of the real exchange rate is not recommended to economic policy makers and the current Croatian exchange rate policy is appropriate.

  14. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  15. Polar transfer alignment of shipborne SINS with a large misalignment angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jianhua; Wang, Tongda; Guan, Dongxue; Li, Meiling

    2016-01-01

    Existing polar transfer alignment (TA) algorithms are designed based on linear Kalman filters (KF) to estimate misalignment angles. In the case of a large misalignment angle, these algorithms cannot be applied in order to achieve accurate TA. In this paper, a TA algorithm based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to solve the problem of the large misalignment angle in the polar region. Based on a large misalignment angle, nonlinear navigation error equations, which are the UKF dynamic models, are derived under grid frames. This paper chooses the velocity plus attitude matching method as the TA matching method and errors of velocity and attitude as observations. The misalignment angle can be estimated by the designed UKF. The simulation results have demonstrated that the polar TA algorithm can be effective in improving the TA accuracy, especially when large misalignment angles occur. (paper)

  16. Scenario? Guilty!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1992-01-01

    Robert Campbell categorizes the word "scenario" as a buzzword, identifies four major uses within HCI and suggests that we adopt new terms differentiating these four uses of the word. My first reaction to reading the article was definitely positive, but rereading it gave me enough second thoughts...... to warrant a response. I should probably confess that I searched my latest paper for the word "scenario" and found eight occurrences, none of which fell in the categories described by Campbell....

  17. The effects of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange volatility on exports

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Ibrahima Amadou

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses panel data cointegration techniques to study the impacts of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility on total exports for a panel of 42 developing countries from 1975 to 2004. The results show that both real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility affect negatively exports. The results also illustrate that real exchange rate volatility is more harmful to exports than misalignment. These outcomes are corroborated by estimations on s...

  18. Analisa Pengaruh Parallel-Misalignment dan Tingkat Getaran yang Terjadi pada Pulley Depericarper Fan

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Lastri

    2016-01-01

    Depericarper fan consists of two pulleys, one as a driver and the other as a driven. The construction of the two pulleys that is not aligned can cause two pulleys run into parallel-misalignment.The parallel-misalignment pulley causing of vibration that can influence machine performance and decrease of power transmission. The purpose of the research are to known of influence parallel-misalignment against vibrations and rotation that occurs on depericarper fan. The research is done by using las...

  19. Tidal Turbines’ Layout in a Stream with Asymmetry and Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A refined assessment of tidal currents variability is a prerequisite for successful turbine deployment in the marine environment. However, the numerical evaluation of the tidal kinetic energy resource relies, most of the time, on integrated parameters, such as the averaged or maximum stream powers. Predictions from a high resolution three-dimensional model are exploited here to characterize the asymmetry and misalignment between the flood and ebb tidal currents in the “Raz de Sein”, a strait off western Brittany (France with strong potential for array development. A series of parameters is considered to assess resource variability and refine the cartography of local potential tidal stream energy sites. The strait is characterized by strong tidal flow divergence with currents’ asymmetry liable to vary output power by 60% over a tidal cycle. Pronounced misalignments over 20 ∘ are furthermore identified in a great part of energetic locations, and this may account for a deficit of the monthly averaged extractable energy by more than 12%. As sea space is limited for turbines, it is finally suggested to aggregate flood and ebb-dominant stream powers on both parts of the strait to output energy with reduced asymmetry.

  20. Diffuse γ-ray emission from misaligned active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F. [Physics Department, Torino University, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Calore, F. [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Latronico, L., E-mail: donato@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-01-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with jets seen at small viewing angles are the most luminous and abundant objects in the γ-ray sky. AGNs with jets misaligned along the line of sight appear fainter in the sky but are more numerous than the brighter blazars. We calculate the diffuse γ-ray emission due to the population of misaligned AGNs (MAGNs) unresolved by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). A correlation between the γ-ray luminosity and the radio-core luminosity is established and demonstrated to be physical by statistical tests, as well as compatible with upper limits based on Fermi-LAT data for a large sample of radio-loud MAGNs. We constrain the derived γ-ray luminosity function by means of the source-count distribution of the radio galaxies detected by the Fermi-LAT. We finally calculate the diffuse γ-ray flux due to the whole MAGN population. Our results demonstrate that MAGNs can contribute from 10% up to nearly the entire measured isotropic gamma-ray background. We evaluate a theoretical uncertainty on the flux of almost an order of magnitude.

  1. Diagnosis and Model Based Identification of a Coupling Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pennacchi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the application of two different diagnostic techniques aimed to identify the most important faults in rotating machinery as well as on the simulation and prediction of the frequency response of rotating machines. The application of the two diagnostics techniques, the orbit shape analysis and the model based identification in the frequency domain, is described by means of an experimental case study that concerns a gas turbine-generator unit of a small power plant whose rotor-train was affected by an angular misalignment in a flexible coupling, caused by a wrong machine assembling. The fault type is identified by means of the orbit shape analysis, then the equivalent bending moments, which enable the shaft experimental vibrations to be simulated, have been identified using a model based identification method. These excitations have been used to predict the machine vibrations in a large rotating speed range inside which no monitoring data were available. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of identification of coupling misalignment and prediction of the consequent machine behaviour in an actual size rotating machinery. The successful results obtained emphasise the usefulness of integrating common condition monitoring techniques with diagnostic strategies.

  2. Misalignment tolerable coil structure for biomedical applications with wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeff P W; Chen, Nan; Chung, Henry S H; Chan, Leanne L H

    2013-01-01

    Coil-misalignment is one of the major hurdles for inductively coupled wireless power transfer in applications like retinal prosthesis. Weak magnetic flux linkage due to coil misalignments would significantly impair the power efficiency. A novel receiver configuration with high misalignment tolerance is presented in this paper. The proposed receiver is composed of two receiver coils placed orthogonally, so as to reduce the variation of mutual inductance between transmitting and receiving coils under misalignment conditions. Three different receiver coil structures are analyzed and compared using the same length of wire. Theoretical predictions have been confirmed with measurement results.

  3. Anisotropic metamaterial for efficiency enhancement of mid-range wireless power transfer under coil misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, A L A K; Moscoso, Carlos Arriola; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    In a wireless power transfer (WPT) system, misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils is one of the key factors affecting efficiency. Recently, metamaterials have shown great potential to enhance electromagnetic propagation in various environments. In this work, we apply a metamaterial to enhance the WPT in a more general environment where misalignment is considered. Using an anisotropic metamaterial, we obtain a significant efficiency enhancement. Therefore, we propose that the metamaterial is an effective means to mitigate the decreased efficiency caused by misalignment. In addition, we investigate the effect of coil misalignment on the threshold distance beyond which the metamaterial enhances the performance of WPT. (paper)

  4. On exchange rate misalignments in the Eurozone's peripheral countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochová, Ladislava; Plecitá, Klára

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we model equilibrium exchange rates for the Eurozone's countries on the basis of the Behavioural Equilibrium Exchange Rate approach, which assumes, that equilibrium exchange rates are in the long run affected by economic fundamentals. To assess the degree of exchange rate misalignment for the Eurozone's peripheral countries - Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain - the gap between the actual and the modelled equilibrium exchange rate value is calculated. Our results show that Spain, Portugal and Ireland had their real exchange rates in equilibrium when they joined the Eurozone; however their real exchange rates have been persistently overvalued since the beginning of the 2000s. Greece, on the other hand, has experienced diminishing undervaluation at the beginning of its membership in the Eurozone and since 2009 has exhibited an overvalued real exchange rate.

  5. Calibration of a spinner anemometer for yaw misalignment measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Demurtas, Giorgio; Zahle, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    constant, k1, mainly affects the measurement of wind speed. The ratio between the two constants, kα = k2/k1, however, only affects the measurement of flow angles. The calibration of kα is thus a basic calibration of the spinner anemometer. Theoretical background for the non-linear calibration is derived......The spinner anemometer is an instrument for yaw misalignment measurements without the drawbacks of instruments mounted on the nacelle top. The spinner anemometer uses a non-linear conversion algorithm that converts the measured wind speeds by three sonic sensors on the spinner to horizontal wind...... from the generic spinner anemometer conversion algorithm. Five different methods were evaluated for calibration of a spinner anemometer on a 500 kW wind turbine. The first three methods used rotor yaw direction as reference angular, while the wind turbine, was yawed in and out of the wind. The fourth...

  6. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  7. Meshing Force of Misaligned Spline Coupling and the Influence on Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Meshing force of misaligned spline coupling is derived, dynamic equation of rotor-spline coupling system is established based on finite element analysis, the influence of meshing force on rotor-spline coupling system is simulated by numerical integral method. According to the theoretical analysis, meshing force of spline coupling is related to coupling parameters, misalignment, transmitting torque, static misalignment, dynamic vibration displacement, and so on. The meshing force increases nonlinearly with increasing the spline thickness and static misalignment or decreasing alignment meshing distance (AMD. Stiffness of coupling relates to dynamic vibration displacement, and static misalignment is not a constant. Dynamic behaviors of rotor-spline coupling system reveal the following: 1X-rotating speed is the main response frequency of system when there is no misalignment; while 2X-rotating speed appears when misalignment is present. Moreover, when misalignment increases, vibration of the system gets intricate; shaft orbit departs from origin, and magnitudes of all frequencies increase. Research results can provide important criterions on both optimization design of spline coupling and trouble shooting of rotor systems.

  8. Impact of mismatched and misaligned laser light sheet profiles on PIV performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, K.; de Silva, C. M.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of mismatched or misaligned laser light sheet profiles on the quality of particle image velocimetry (PIV) results is considered in this study. Light sheet profiles with differing widths, shapes, or alignment can reduce the correlation between PIV images and increase experimental errors. Systematic PIV simulations isolate these behaviours to assess the sensitivity and implications of light sheet mismatch on measurements. The simulations in this work use flow fields from a turbulent boundary layer; however, the behaviours and impacts of laser profile mismatch are highly relevant to any fluid flow or PIV application. Experimental measurements from a turbulent boundary layer facility are incorporated, as well as additional simulations matched to experimental image characteristics, to validate the synthetic image analysis. Experimental laser profiles are captured using a modular laser profiling camera, designed to quantify the distribution of laser light sheet intensities and inform any corrective adjustments to an experimental configuration. Results suggest that an offset of just 1.35 standard deviations in the Gaussian light sheet intensity distributions can cause a 40% reduction in the average correlation coefficient and a 45% increase in spurious vectors. Errors in measured flow statistics are also amplified when two successive laser profiles are no longer well matched in alignment or intensity distribution. Consequently, an awareness of how laser light sheet overlap influences PIV results can guide faster setup of an experiment, as well as achieve superior experimental measurements.

  9. Computation of misalignment and primary mirror astigmatism figure error of two-mirror telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yang; Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang

    2018-01-01

    Active optics usually uses the computation models based on numerical methods to correct misalignments and figure errors at present. These methods can hardly lead to any insight into the aberration field dependencies that arise in the presence of the misalignments. An analytical alignment model based on third-order nodal aberration theory is presented for this problem, which can be utilized to compute the primary mirror astigmatic figure error and misalignments for two-mirror telescopes. Alignment simulations are conducted for an R-C telescope based on this analytical alignment model. It is shown that in the absence of wavefront measurement errors, wavefront measurements at only two field points are enough, and the correction process can be completed with only one alignment action. In the presence of wavefront measurement errors, increasing the number of field points for wavefront measurements can enhance the robustness of the alignment model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that, when -2 mm ≤ linear misalignment ≤ 2 mm, -0.1 deg ≤ angular misalignment ≤ 0.1 deg, and -0.2 λ ≤ astigmatism figure error (expressed as fringe Zernike coefficients C5 / C6, λ = 632.8 nm) ≤0.2 λ, the misaligned systems can be corrected to be close to nominal state without wavefront testing error. In addition, the root mean square deviation of RMS wavefront error of all the misaligned samples after being corrected is linearly related to wavefront testing error.

  10. On-Orbit Camera Misalignment Estimation Framework and Its Application to Earth Observation Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwoo Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts for precise alignment of imaging sensors and attitude sensors before launch, the accuracy of pre-launch alignment is limited. The misalignment between attitude frame and camera frame is especially important as it is related to the localization error of the spacecraft, which is one of the essential factors of satellite image quality. In this paper, a framework for camera misalignment estimation is presented with its application to a high-resolution earth-observation satellite—Deimos-2. The framework intends to provide a solution for estimation and correction of the camera misalignment of a spacecraft, covering image acquisition planning to mathematical solution of camera misalignment. Considerations for effective image acquisition planning to obtain reliable results are discussed, followed by a detailed description on a practical method for extracting many GCPs automatically using reference ortho-photos. Patterns of localization errors that commonly occur due to the camera misalignment are also investigated. A mathematical model for camera misalignment estimation is described comprehensively. The results of simulation experiments showing the validity and accuracy of the misalignment estimation model are provided. The proposed framework was applied to Deimos-2. The real-world data and results from Deimos-2 are presented.

  11. Measurement of misalignment in a journal bearing with low frequency ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Noh Nu

    1998-01-01

    Misalignment of a shaft in journal bearing of rotary compressor was measured and analyzed for the study on the effect of misalignment on the performance of the rotary compressor using a new ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. Two low-frequency ultrasonic transducers(10Mhz) were mounted on the outer surface of the bearing in X and Y axis to receive the reflection signals from each axis and to obtain the amplitude of a modified reflection wave defined as the total reflection wave minus the first reflection wave from a thin layer which is inversely proportional to the thickness of the layer in the region where h/λ is approximately less than 1/4. The relationship of the amplitude of the modified reflection wave to the thickness of the oil layer was shown both in mathematical form and in graph. Gap clearances between the bearing and the shaft in the horizontal and vertical axis were determined directly by the relationship and used to evaluate the misalignment of the journal bearing. Several intentional misalignments in a test compressor were made to measure and show the misalignment and the effect of the misalignment on the efficiency of the rotary compressor. A fast quantitative evaluation of the misalignment of journal bearing was possible using the amplitude of the modified reflection signal without any inversion process to extract thickness information from waveforms of the reflected waves.

  12. The nonvisual illusion of self-touch: Misaligned hands and anatomical implausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebekah C; Weinberg, Jennifer L; Aimola Davies, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    The self-touch illusion is elicited when the participant (with eyes closed) administers brushstrokes to a prosthetic hand while the examiner administers synchronous brushstrokes to the participant's other (receptive) hand. In three experiments we investigated the effects of misalignment on the self-touch illusion. In experiment 1 we manipulated alignment (0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees, 180 degrees) of the prosthetic hand relative to the participant's receptive hand. The illusion was equally strong at 0 degrees and 45 degrees: the two conditions in which the prosthetic hand was in an anatomically plausible orientation. To investigate whether the illusion was diminished at 90 degrees (and beyond) by anatomical implausibility rather than by misalignment, in experiment 2 hand positioning was changed. The illusion was equally strong at 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees, but diminished at 135 degrees despite the prosthetic hand now being in an anatomically plausible orientation. Thus the illusion is diminished with misalignment of 135 degrees, irrespective of anatomical plausibility. Having demonstrated that the illusion was equally strong with the hands aligned (0 degrees) or misaligned by 45 degrees, in experiment 3 we demonstrated that participants did not detect a 45 degrees misalignment. Large degrees of misalignment prevent a compelling experience of the self-touch illusion, and the self-touch illusion prevents detection of small degrees of misalignment.

  13. Moduli vacuum misalignment and precise predictions in string inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Dutta, Koushik; Maharana, Anshuman; Quevedo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kähler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.

  14. Moduli vacuum misalignment and precise predictions in string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN sezione di Bologna,viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Abdus Salam ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dutta, Koushik [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Salt Lake, Kolkata 700064 (India); Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Intitute,Chattnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Quevedo, Fernando [Abdus Salam ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-03

    The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kähler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.

  15. Cosmogonic scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1985-05-01

    A recent analysis demonstrates that the Saturnian C ring and essential features of the B and A rings agrees with the plasma cosmogony approach with an accuracy of about 1% or even better. This starts a transition of cosmogony from speculation to real science. Based on the monographs by Alfven and Arrhenius on the evolution of the solar system a cosmogonic scenario is tentatively proposed. This outlines the evolution of an interstellar cloud and the formation of stars surrounded by solar nebulae under the combined action of gravitational and electromagnetic forces. Further, matter falling in from the solar nebula towards the sun is processed by newly clarified electromagnetic processes and a plasma-planetesimal transition (PPT) occurs. Planetesimals accrete to planets and around some of them the same process in miniature leads to the formation of satellites. Also the origin of comets is discussed. (author)

  16. In Search for a Measure of Currency Misalignment: the Case of the 1997 Asian Currency Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daekeun Park

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper searches for an appropriate measure of currency misalignment in light of the 1997 Asian currency crisis. A couple of measures of currency misalignment, one based on purchasing power parity and the other based on equilibrium real exchange rate that is consistent with internal and external equilibrium are used to estimate the degree of currency misalignment for Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand before the 1997 currency crisis. The paper finds that the purchasing power parity based methods show that the Asian currencies were not significantly overvalued on the eve of the crisis. On the other hand, measures based on the equilibrium real exchange rate concept demonstrate that the Asian currencies were significantly overvalued. In consequence, the equilibrium real exchange rate based method seems to be a useful candidate for a measure of currency misalignment.

  17. THE TURBULENT ORIGIN OF OUTFLOW AND SPIN MISALIGNMENT IN MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Arce, Héctor G.; Fielding, Drummond B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dunham, Michael M., E-mail: soffner@astro.umass.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momentum. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce {sup 12}CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that the observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multiple star systems.

  18. A panel data investigation of real exchange rate misalignment and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Vilela Vieira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the role of real exchange rate misalignment on long-run growth for a set of ninety countries using time series data from 1980 to 2004. We first estimate a panel data model (fixed and random effects for the real exchange rate in order to produce estimates of the equilibrium real exchange rate and this is then used to construct measures of real exchange rate misalignment. We provide an alternative set of estimates of RER misalignment using panel cointegration methods. The results for the two-step System GMM panel growth models indicate that the coefficients for real exchange rate misalignment are positive for different model specification and samples, which means that a more depreciated (appreciated real exchange rate helps (harms long-run growth. The estimated coefficients are higher for developing and emerging countries.

  19. THE TURBULENT ORIGIN OF OUTFLOW AND SPIN MISALIGNMENT IN MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Arce, Héctor G.; Fielding, Drummond B.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momentum. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce 12 CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that the observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multiple star systems.

  20. Self-consistent study of space-charge-dominated beams in a misaligned transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method is developed to investigate the dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams through a misaligned solenoid based transport system. Evolution of beam centroid, beam envelope and emittance is studied as a function of misalignment parameters for various types of beam distributions. Simulation results performed up to 40 mA of proton beam indicate that centroid oscillations induced by the displacement and rotational misalignments of solenoids do not depend of the beam distribution. It is shown that the beam envelope around the centroid is independent of the centroid motion for small centroid oscillation. In addition, we have estimated the loss of beam during the transport caused by the misalignment for various beam distributions

  1. Exchange rates and individual good's price misalignment: Some preliminary evidence of long-horizon predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wei; Nam, Deokwoo

    2011-01-01

    When prices are sticky, movements in the nominal exchange rate have a direct impact on international relative prices. A relative price misalignment would trigger an adjustment in consumption and employment, and may help to predict future movements in the exchange rate. Although purchasing-power-parity fundamentals, in general, have only weak predictability, currency misalignment may be indicated by price differentials for some goods, which could then have predictive power for subsequent re-ev...

  2. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Gambin, Tomasz; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Schuette, Jennifer; Godiwala, Nihal; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Sebastian, Jessica; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Surti, Urvashi; Abellar, Rosanna G; Bateman, David A; Wilson, Ashley L; Markham, Melinda H; Slamon, Jill; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Palomares, María; Nevado, Julián; Lapunzina, Pablo; Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Wong, Wai-Lap; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Mok, Gary Tsz Kin; Kerem, Eitan; Reiter, Joel; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Anderson, Scott A; Kelly, David R; Shieh, Joseph; Rosenthal, Taryn C; Scheible, Kristin; Steiner, Laurie; Iqbal, M Anwar; McKinnon, Margaret L; Hamilton, Sara Jane; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; English, Dawn; Hendson, Glenda; Roeder, Elizabeth R; DeNapoli, Thomas S; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Wolff, Daynna J; Wagner, Carol L; Yeung, Alison; Francis, David; Fiorino, Elizabeth K; Edelman, Morris; Fox, Joyce; Hayes, Denise A; Janssens, Sandra; De Baere, Elfride; Menten, Björn; Loccufier, Anne; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Moerman, Philippe; Sznajer, Yves; Lay, Amy S; Kussmann, Jennifer L; Chawla, Jasneek; Payton, Diane J; Phillips, Gael E; Brosens, Erwin; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Maystadt, Isabelle; Fisher, Richard; Sebire, Neil; Male, Alison; Chopra, Maya; Pinner, Jason; Malcolm, Girvan; Peters, Gregory; Arbuckle, Susan; Lees, Melissa; Mead, Zoe; Quarrell, Oliver; Sayers, Richard; Owens, Martina; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Lioy, Janet; McKay, Eileen; de Leeuw, Nicole; Feenstra, Ilse; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Elmslie, Frances; Thiruchelvam, Timothy; Bacino, Carlos A; Langston, Claire; Lupski, James R; Sen, Partha; Popek, Edwina; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20 postnatal and two prenatal) with clinically diagnosed ACDMPV. We describe novel deletion CNVs at the FOXF1 locus in 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients. Together with the previously reported cases, all 31 genomic deletions in 16q24.1, pathogenic for ACDMPV, for which parental origin was determined, arose de novo with 30 of them occurring on the maternally inherited chromosome 16, strongly implicating genomic imprinting of the FOXF1 locus in human lungs. Surprisingly, we have also identified four ACDMPV families with the pathogenic variants in the FOXF1 locus that arose on paternal chromosome 16. Interestingly, a combination of the severe cardiac defects, including hypoplastic left heart, and single umbilical artery were observed only in children with deletion CNVs involving FOXF1 and its upstream enhancer. Our data demonstrate that genomic imprinting at 16q24.1 plays an important role in variable ACDMPV manifestation likely through long-range regulation of FOXF1 expression, and may be also responsible for key phenotypic features of maternal uniparental disomy 16. Moreover, in one family, WES revealed a de novo missense variant in ESRP1, potentially implicating FGF signaling in the etiology of ACDMPV.

  3. A unified model for transfer alignment at random misalignment angles based on second-order EKF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiao; Qin, Yongyuan; Yan, Gongmin; Liu, Zhenbo; Mei, Chunbo

    2017-01-01

    In the transfer alignment process of inertial navigation systems (INSs), the conventional linear error model based on the small misalignment angle assumption cannot be applied to large misalignment situations. Furthermore, the nonlinear model based on the large misalignment angle suffers from redundant computation with nonlinear filters. This paper presents a unified model for transfer alignment suitable for arbitrary misalignment angles. The alignment problem is transformed into an estimation of the relative attitude between the master INS (MINS) and the slave INS (SINS), by decomposing the attitude matrix of the latter. Based on the Rodriguez parameters, a unified alignment model in the inertial frame with the linear state-space equation and a second order nonlinear measurement equation are established, without making any assumptions about the misalignment angles. Furthermore, we employ the Taylor series expansions on the second-order nonlinear measurement equation to implement the second-order extended Kalman filter (EKF2). Monte-Carlo simulations demonstrate that the initial alignment can be fulfilled within 10 s, with higher accuracy and much smaller computational cost compared with the traditional unscented Kalman filter (UKF) at large misalignment angles. (paper)

  4. A unified model for transfer alignment at random misalignment angles based on second-order EKF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Mei, Chunbo; Qin, Yongyuan; Yan, Gongmin; Liu, Zhenbo

    2017-04-01

    In the transfer alignment process of inertial navigation systems (INSs), the conventional linear error model based on the small misalignment angle assumption cannot be applied to large misalignment situations. Furthermore, the nonlinear model based on the large misalignment angle suffers from redundant computation with nonlinear filters. This paper presents a unified model for transfer alignment suitable for arbitrary misalignment angles. The alignment problem is transformed into an estimation of the relative attitude between the master INS (MINS) and the slave INS (SINS), by decomposing the attitude matrix of the latter. Based on the Rodriguez parameters, a unified alignment model in the inertial frame with the linear state-space equation and a second order nonlinear measurement equation are established, without making any assumptions about the misalignment angles. Furthermore, we employ the Taylor series expansions on the second-order nonlinear measurement equation to implement the second-order extended Kalman filter (EKF2). Monte-Carlo simulations demonstrate that the initial alignment can be fulfilled within 10 s, with higher accuracy and much smaller computational cost compared with the traditional unscented Kalman filter (UKF) at large misalignment angles.

  5. The GRB-SLSN connection: misaligned magnetars, weak jet emergence, and observational signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Nicholl, Matt; Sukhbold, Tuguldur

    2018-04-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support a connection between hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) and long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Both classes of events require a powerful central energy source, usually attributed to a millisecond magnetar or an accreting black hole. The GRB-SLSN link raises several theoretical questions: What distinguishes the engines responsible for these different phenomena? Can a single engine power both a GRB and a luminous SN in the same event? We propose a unifying model for magnetar thermalization and jet formation: misalignment between the rotation (Ω) and magnetic dipole (μ) axes dissipates a fraction of the spin-down power by reconnection in the striped equatorial wind, providing a guaranteed source of `thermal' emission to power the supernova. The remaining unthermalized power energizes a relativistic jet. We show that even weak relativistic jets of luminosity ˜1046 erg s-1 can escape the expanding SN ejecta implying that escaping relativistic jets may accompany many SLSNe. We calculate the observational signature of these jets. We show that they may produce transient ultraviolet (UV) cocoon emission lasting a few hours when the jet breaks out of the ejecta surface. A longer lived optical/UV signal may originate from a mildly relativistic wind driven from the interface between the jet and the ejecta walls, which could explain the secondary early-time maximum observed in some SLSNe light curves, such as LSQ14bdq. Our scenario predicts a population of GRB from on-axis jets with extremely long durations, potentially similar to the population of `jetted-tidal disruption events', in coincidence with a small subset of SLSNe.

  6. Effect of Misalignment between Successive Corneal Videokeratography Maps on the Repeatability of Topography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, FangJun; Wang, JunJie; Huang, JinHai; Yu, Ye; Deng, ManLi; Li, LinNa; Yu, AYong; Wang, QinMei; Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve the reliability of corneal topographic data through the development of a method to estimate the magnitude of misalignment between successive corneal videokeratography (VK) maps and eliminate the effect of misalignment on the repeatability of topography data. Methods Anterior and posterior topography maps were recorded twice for 124 healthy eyes of 124 participants using a Pentacam, and the repeatability of measurements was assessed by calculating the differences in elevation between each two sets of data. The repeatability of measurements was re-assessed following the determination of the magnitude of misalignment components (translational displacements: x0, y0 and z0, and rotational displacements: α, β and γ) between each two data sets and using them to modify the second data set within each pair based on an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The method simultaneously considered the anterior and posterior maps taken for the same eye since they were assumed to have the same set of misalignment components. A new parameter, named Combined Misalignment parameter (CM), has been developed to combine the effect of all six misalignment components on topography data and so enable study of the association between misalignment and the data repeatability test results. Results The repeatability tests resulted in average root mean square (RMS) differences in elevation data of 8.46±2.75 μm before ICP map matching when simultaneously considering anterior and posterior surfaces. With map matching and misalignment correction, the differences decreased to 7.28±2.58 μm (P = 0.00). When applied to only the anterior maps, misalignment correction led to a more pronounced reduction in elevation data differences from 4.58±1.84 μm to 2.97±1.29 μm (P = 0.00). CM was found to be associated with the repeatability error (P = 0.00), with posterior maps being responsible for most of the error due to their relatively lower accuracy compared to anterior maps

  7. Image features for misalignment correction in medical flat-detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklein, Julia; Kunze, Holger; Kalender, Willi A.; Kyriakou, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Misalignment artifacts are a serious problem in medical flat-detector computed tomography. Generally, the geometrical parameters, which are essential for reconstruction, are provided by preceding calibration routines. These procedures are time consuming and the later use of stored parameters is sensitive toward external impacts or patient movement. The method of choice in a clinical environment would be a markerless online-calibration procedure that allows flexible scan trajectories and simultaneously corrects misalignment and motion artifacts during the reconstruction process. Therefore, different image features were evaluated according to their capability of quantifying misalignment. Methods: Projections of the FORBILD head and thorax phantoms were simulated. Additionally, acquisitions of a head phantom and patient data were used for evaluation. For the reconstruction different sources and magnitudes of misalignment were introduced in the geometry description. The resulting volumes were analyzed by entropy (based on the gray-level histogram), total variation, Gabor filter texture features, Haralick co-occurrence features, and Tamura texture features. The feature results were compared to the back-projection mismatch of the disturbed geometry. Results: The evaluations demonstrate the ability of several well-established image features to classify misalignment. The authors elaborated the particular suitability of the gray-level histogram-based entropy on identifying misalignment artifacts, after applying an appropriate window level (bone window). Conclusions: Some of the proposed feature extraction algorithms show a strong correlation with the misalignment level. Especially, entropy-based methods showed very good correspondence, with the best of these being the type that uses the gray-level histogram for calculation. This makes it a suitable image feature for online-calibration.

  8. Scenario Planning as Organizational Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    existing contributions on scenario planning within a new consolidating framework that includes antecedents, processes, and outcomes. The proposed framework allows for integration of the extant literature on scenario planning from a wide variety of fields, including strategic management, finance, human...... resource management, operations management, and psychology. Findings: This study contributes to research by offering a coherent and consistent framework for understanding scenario planning as a dynamic process. As such, it offers future researchers with a systematic way to ascertain where a particular......Purpose: This paper identifies four areas in need of future research to enhance our theoretical understanding of scenario planning, and sets the basis for future empirical examination of its effects on individual and organizational level outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This paper organizes...

  9. Trade rules and exchange rate misalignments: in search for a WTO solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Thorstensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The debate on the link between trade rules and rules on exchange rates is raising the attention of experts on international trade law and economics. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts of exchange rate misalignments on tariffs as applied by the WTO - World Trade Organization. It is divided into five sections: the first one explains the methodology used to determine exchange rate misalignments and also presents its results for Brazil, U.S. and China; the second summarizes the methodology applied to calculate the impacts of exchange rate misalignments on the level of tariff protection through an exercise of "misalignment tariffication"; the third examines the effects of exchange rate variations on tariffs and their consequences for the multilateral trading system; the fourth one creates a methodology to estimate exchange rates against a currency of the World and a proposal to deal with persistent and significant misalignments related to trade rules. The conclusions are present in the last section.

  10. Circadian Misalignment Increases C-Reactive Protein and Blood Pressure in Chronic Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Mistretta, Joseph; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-04-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts. Thus, our objectives were to determine the independent effect of circadian misalignment on 24-h high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of systemic inflammation) and blood pressure levels-cardiovascular disease risk factors-in chronic shift workers. Chronic shift workers undertook two 3-day laboratory protocols that simulated night work, comprising 12-hour inverted behavioral and environmental cycles (circadian misalignment) or simulated day work (circadian alignment), using a randomized, crossover design. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h hs-CRP by 11% ( p shift workers. This may help explain the increased inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers.

  11. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Hudson, J.; Stephansson, O.

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  12. Correlation Between Pin Misalignment and Crack Length in THT Solder Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, correlations were searched for between pin misalignments relative to PCB bores and crack propagation after cyclic thermal shock tests in THT solder joints produced from lead-free solder alloys. In total, 7 compositions were examined including SAC solders with varying Ag, Cu and Ni contents. The crack propagation was initiated by cyclic thermal shock tests with 40°C / +125°C temperature profiles. Pin misalignments relative to the bores were characterized with three attributes obtained from one section of the examined solder joints. Cracks typically originated at the solder/pin or solder/bore interfaces and propagated within the solder. It was shown that pin misalignments did not have an effect on crack propagation, thus, the solder joints’ lifetime.

  13. Separation of the effects of astigmatic figure error from misalignments using Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P; Rakich, Andrew; Thompson, Kevin P

    2010-08-02

    We present the nodal aberration field response of Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes to a combination of optical component misalignments and astigmatic figure error on the primary mirror. It is shown that both astigmatic figure error and secondary mirror misalignments lead to binodal astigmatism, but that each type has unique, characteristic locations for the astigmatic nodes. Specifically, the characteristic node locations in the presence of astigmatic figure error (at the pupil) in an otherwise aligned telescope exhibit symmetry with respect to the field center, i.e. the midpoint between the astigmatic nodes remains at the field center. For the case of secondary mirror misalignments, one of the astigmatic nodes remains nearly at the field center (in a coma compensated state) as presented in Optics Express 18, 5282-5288 (2010), while the second astigmatic node moves away from the field center. This distinction leads directly to alignment methods that preserve the dynamic range of the active wavefront compensation component.

  14. Beam determination of quadrupole misalignments and beam position monitor biases in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Seeman, J.T.; Atwood, W.B.; Himel, T.M.; Petersen, A.; Adolphsen, C.E.

    1988-09-01

    Misalignments of magnetic quadrupoles and biases in beam position monitors (BPMs) in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac can lead to a situation in which the beam is off-center in the disk-loaded waveguide accelerator structure. The off-center beam produces wakefields which can limit SLC performance by causing unacceptably large emittance growth. We present a general method for determining quadrupole misalignments and BPM biases in the SLC linac by using beam trajectory measurements. The method utilizes both electron and positron beams on opposite rf cycles in the same linac lattice to determine simultaneously magnetic quadrupole misalignments and BPM biases. The two-beam trajectory data may be acquired without interrupting SLC colliding beam operations. 2 refs., 5 figs

  15. Worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems. A worm gear is used in Column type Electric Power Steering (C-EPS systems and an Anti-Rattle Spring (ARS is employed in C-EPS systems in order to prevent rattling when the vehicle goes on a bumpy road. This ARS plays a role of preventing rattling by applying preload to one end of the worm shaft but it also generates undesirable friction by causing misalignment of the worm shaft. In order to propose the worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment, geometrical and tribological analyses were performed in this study. For geometrical analysis, normal load on gear teeth was calculated using output torque, pitch diameter of worm wheel, lead angle and normal pressure angle and this normal load was converted to normal pressure at the contact point. Contact points between the tooth flanks of the worm and worm wheel were obtained by mathematically analyzing the geometry, and Hertz's theory was employed in order to calculate contact area at the contact point. Finally, misalignment by an ARS was also considered into the geometry. Friction coefficients between the tooth flanks were also researched in this study. A pin-on-disk type tribometer was set up to measure friction coefficients and friction coefficients at all conditions were measured by the tribometer. In order to validate the worm gear efficiency model, a worm gear was prepared and the efficiency of the worm gear was predicted by the model. As the final procedure of the study, a worm gear efficiency measurement system was set and the efficiency of the worm gear was measured and the results were compared with the predicted results. The efficiency considering misalignment gives more accurate results than the efficiency without misalignment.

  16. Nonlinear effects caused by coupling misalignment in rotors equipped with journal bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchi, Paolo; Vania, Andrea; Chatterton, Steven

    2012-07-01

    Misalignment is one of the most common sources of trouble of rotating machinery when rigid couplings connect the shafts. Ideal alignment of the shafts is difficult to be obtained and rotors may present angular and/or parallel misalignment (defined also as radial misalignment or offset). During a complete shaft revolution, a periodical change of the bearings load occurs in hyperstatic shaft-lines, if coupling misalignment between the shafts is excessive. If the rotating machine is equipped with fluid-film journal bearings, the change of the loads on the bearing causes also the variation of their instantaneous dynamic characteristics, i.e. damping and stiffness, and the complete system cannot be considered any longer as linear. Despite misalignment is often observed in the practice, there are relatively few studies about this phenomenon in literature and their results are sometimes conflicting. The authors aim at modeling accurately this phenomenon, for the first time in this paper, and giving pertinent diagnostic information. The proposed method is suitable for every type of shaft-line supported by journal bearings. A finite element model is used for the hyperstatic shaft-line, while bearing characteristics are calculated by integrating Reynolds equation as a function of the instantaneous load acting on the bearings, caused also by the coupling misalignment. The results obtained by applying the proposed method are shown by means of the simulation, in the time domain, of the dynamical response of a hyperstatic shaft-line. Nonlinear effects are highlighted and the spectral components of the system response are analyzed, in order to give diagnostic information about the signature of this type of fault.

  17. Representing Misalignments of the STAR Geometry Model using AgML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jason C.; Lauret, Jérôme; Perevotchikov, Victor; Smirnov, Dmitri; Van Buren, Gene

    2017-10-01

    The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was designed to provide high-precision tracking for the identification of charmed hadron decays in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. It consists of three independently mounted subsystems, providing four precision measurements along the track trajectory, with the goal of pointing decay daughters back to vertices displaced by less than 100 microns from the primary event vertex. The ultimate efficiency and resolution of the physics analysis will be driven by the quality of the simulation and reconstruction of events in heavy-ion collisions. In particular, it is important that the geometry model properly accounts for the relative misalignments of the HFT subsystems, along with the alignment of the HFT relative to STARs primary tracking detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) provides a single description of the STAR geometry, generating both our simulation (GEANT 3) and reconstruction geometries (ROOT). AgML implements an ideal detector model, while misalignments are stored separately in database tables. These have historically been applied at the hit level. Simulated detector hits are projected from their ideal position along the track’s trajectory, until they intersect the misaligned detector volume, where the struck detector element is calculated for hit digitization. This scheme has worked well as hit errors have been negligible compared with the size of sensitive volumes. The precision and complexity of the HFT detector require us to apply misalignments to the detector volumes themselves. In this paper we summarize the extension of the AgML language and support libraries to enable the static misalignment of our reconstruction and simulation geometries, discussing the design goals, limitations and path to full misalignment support in ROOT/VMC-based simulation.

  18. Random Walk Model for Cell-To-Cell Misalignments in Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2000-01-01

    Due to manufacturing and construction errors, cells in accelerator structures can be misaligned relative to each other. As a consequence, the beam generates a transverse wakefield even when it passes through the structure on axis. The most important effect is the long-range transverse wakefield that deflects the bunches and causes growth of the bunch train projected emittance. In this paper, the effect of the cell-to-cell misalignments is evaluated using a random walk model that assumes that each cell is shifted by a random step relative to the previous one. The model is compared with measurements of a few accelerator structures

  19. Corruption of pharmaceutical markets: addressing the misalignment of financial incentives and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Obtaining the Wakefield Due to Cell-to-Cell Misalignments in a Linear Accelerator Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bane, Karl L. F.; Li, Zenghai

    2001-01-01

    A linear accelerator structure, such as will be used in the linacs of the JLC/NLC collider, is composed of on the order of 100 cells. The cells are constructed as individual cups that are brazed together to form a structure. Fabrication error will result in slight cell-to-cell misalignments along the finished structure. In this report we derive an approximation to the transverse wakefield of a structure with cell-to-cell misalignments in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the erro...

  1. Influence of misalignments on the performance of externally occulted solar coronagraphs. Application to PROBA-3/ASPIICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestov, S. V.; Zhukov, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The ASPIICS instrument is a novel externally occulted coronagraph that will be launched on board the PROBA-3 mission of the European Space Agency. The external occulter will be placed on one satellite 150 m ahead of the second satellite that will carry an optical instrument. During 6 h out of 19.38 h of orbit, the satellites will fly in a precise (accuracy around a few millimeters) formation, constituting a giant externally occulted coronagraph. The large distance between the external occulter and the primary objective will allow observations of the white-light solar corona starting from extremely low heights 1.1R⊙. Aims: We intend to analyze influence of shifts of the satellites and misalignments of optical elements on the ASPIICS performance in terms of diffracted light. Based on the quantitative influence of misalignments on diffracted light, we provide a recipe for choosing the size of the internal occulter (IO) to achieve a trade-off between the minimal height of observations and sustainability to possible misalignments. Methods: We considered different types of misalignments and analyzed their influence from optical and computational points of view. We implemented a numerical model of the diffracted light and its propagation through the optical system and computed intensities of diffracted light throughout the instrument. Our numerical approach is based on a model from the literature that considered the axisymmetrical case. Here we extend the model to include nonsymmetrical cases and possible misalignments. Results: The numerical computations fully confirm the main properties of the diffracted light that we obtained from semi-analytical consideration. We obtain that relative influences of various misalignments are significantly different. We show that the internal occulter with RIO = 1.694 mm = 1.1R⊙ is large enough to compensate possible misalignments expected to occur in PROBA-3/ASPIICS. Besides that we show that apodizing the edge of the

  2. A planar model study of creep in metal matrix composites with misaligned short fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of fibre misalignment on the creep behaviour of metal matrix composites is modelled, including hardening behaviour (stage 1), dynamic recovery and steady state creep (stage 2) of the matrix material, using an internal variable constitutive model for the creep behaviour of the metal...... matrix. Numerical plane strain results in terms of average properties and detailed local deformation behaviour up to large strains are needed to show effects of fibre misalignment on the development of inelastic strains and the resulting over-all creep resistance of the material. The creep resistance...

  3. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff...... bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas...... the liner has practically no influence on the flexure journal bearing's performance....

  4. A beam-based alignment technique for correction of accelerator structure misalignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, K.; Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes a method of reducing the transverse emittance dilution in linear colliders due to transverse wakefields arising-from misaligned accelerator structures. The technique is a generalization of the Wake-Free correction algorithm. The structure alignment errors are measured locally by varying the bunch charge and/or bunch length and measuring the change in the beam trajectory. The misalignments can then be corrected by varying the beam trajectory or moving structures. The results of simulations are presented demonstrating the viability of the technique

  5. Influence of End-Effects on Static Torque Performance of Misaligned Cylindrical Permanent Magnet Couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Stig; Hansen, Hilary; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    Permanent magnet couplings are widely used in applications requiring torque to be transmitted through an air- gap. The aim of this study is to observe and explain the effect of radial and axial misalignment in a 12-pole, cylindrical permanent magnet coupling. Pull-out torque was measured for two...

  6. Finite element analysis of misaligned rotors on oil-film bearings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (cylindrical, pocket, symmetrical three-lobed, unsymmetrical three-lobed). As a first step, the ... Yu & Adams (1989) discussed .... From the static load-deflection curve for a value of Sommerfeld number one finds out the ..... Sekhar A S, Prabhu B S 1995 Effects of coupling misalignment on vibrations of rotating machinery.

  7. Influence of misaligned parents’ aspirations on long-term student academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hester; van der Werf, Margaretha P.C.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of misaligned parents’ aspirations, its relationship with student background characteristics, and its effects on long-term student performance. It is defined as the difference between parents’ educational ambitions for their child and the child's actual

  8. Misalignment calibration of geomagnetic vector measurement system using parallelepiped frame rotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhu, XueJun; Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao

    2016-01-01

    Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively. - Highlights: • A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. • It does not need to know sensor attitude information or local dip angle. • The calibration system attitude change angle is not strictly required. • It can be widely used when sensors measure different physical information. • Geomagnetic vector measurement error is reduced evidently.

  9. Misalignment calibration of geomagnetic vector measurement system using parallelepiped frame rotation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng [Academy of Equipment, Beijing 101416 (China); College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhu, XueJun, E-mail: zhuxuejun1990@126.com [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively. - Highlights: • A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. • It does not need to know sensor attitude information or local dip angle. • The calibration system attitude change angle is not strictly required. • It can be widely used when sensors measure different physical information. • Geomagnetic vector measurement error is reduced evidently.

  10. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hao-Xin; Xu, Bing; Xue, Li-Xia; Dai, Yun; Liu, Qian; Rao, Xue-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  11. Vibration characteristics of a hydraulic generator unit rotor system with parallel misalignment and rub-impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Jianzhong; Yang, Mengqi; Zhang, Yongchuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, College of Hydraulic and Digitalization Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China)

    2011-07-15

    The object of this research aims at the hydraulic generator unit rotor system. According to fault problems of the generator rotor local rubbing caused by the parallel misalignment and mass eccentricity, a dynamic model for the rotor system coupled with misalignment and rub-impact is established. The dynamic behaviors of this system are investigated using numerical integral method, as the parallel misalignment, mass eccentricity and bearing stiffness vary. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the generator rotor and turbine rotor with coupling faults are analyzed by means of bifurcation diagrams, Poincare maps, axis orbits, time histories and amplitude spectrum diagrams. Various nonlinear phenomena in the system, such as periodic, three-periodic and quasi-periodic motions, are studied with the change of the parallel misalignment. The results reveal that vibration characteristics of the rotor system with coupling faults are extremely complex and there are some low frequencies with large amplitude in the 0.3-0.4 x components. As the increase in mass eccentricity, the interval of nonperiodic motions will be continuously moved forward. It suggests that the reduction in mass eccentricity or increase in bearing stiffness could preclude nonlinear vibration. These might provide some important theory references for safety operating and exact identification of the faults in rotating machinery. (orig.)

  12. Coil Design for High Misalignment Tolerant Inductive Power Transfer System for EV Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafeel Ahmed Kalwar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inductive power transfer (IPT system for electric vehicle (EV charging has acquired more research interest in its different facets. However, the misalignment tolerance between the charging coil (installed in the ground and pick-up coil (mounted on the car chassis, has been a challenge and fundamental interest in the future market of EVs. This paper proposes a new coil design QDQ (Quad D Quadrature that maintains the high coupling coefficient and efficient power transfer during reasonable misalignment. The QDQ design makes the use of four adjacent circular coils and one square coil, for both charging and pick-up side, to capture the maximum flux at any position. The coil design has been modeled in JMAG software for calculation of inductive parameters using the finite element method (FEM, and its hardware has been tested experimentally at various misaligned positions. The QDQ coils are shown to be capable of achieving good coupling coefficient and high efficiency of the system until the misalignment displacement reaches 50% of the employed coil size.

  13. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao-Xin, Zhao; Bing, Xu; Li-Xia, Xue; Yun, Dai; Qian, Liu; Xue-Jun, Rao

    2008-01-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory

  14. Feedforward correction of mirror misalignment fluctuations for the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J R; Grote, H; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Lueck, H; Parsons, M; Strain, K A; Willke, B

    2005-01-01

    The core instrument of the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector is a Michelson interferometer with folded arms. The five main optics that form this interferometer are suspended in vacuum by triple pendulums with quasi-monolithic lower stages of fused silica. After installation of these pendulums in early 2003, a larger than expected coupling of longitudinal ground motion to tilt misalignment of the suspended optics was observed. Because of this, the uncontrolled misalignment of the optics during average conditions was several μrad Hz -1/2 in the frequency band around the pendulum resonance frequencies (0.5-4 Hz). In addition, it was found that longitudinal control signals applied to the intermediate pendulum stages also resulted in excessive mirror tilt. The resulting misalignment exceeded the level tolerable for stable operation of GEO 600. In order to reduce the level of mirror tilt, a bipartite feedforward system was implemented. One part feeds signals derived from seismic measurements to piezo-electric crystals in the stacks supporting the suspensions, reducing the longitudinal motion of the uppermost suspension points. The other applies tilt correction signals, derived from longitudinal control signals, to the intermediate level of the suspensions. The seismic feedforward correction reduces the root-mean-squared tilt misalignment of each main optic between 0.1 and 5 Hz by about 10 dB, typically. The intermediate-mass feedforward correction reduces the differential tilt misalignment of the Michelson interferometer by about 10 dB between 0.1 and 0.8 Hz, typically

  15. Scenario development methods and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an essential aspect of all nuclear power programmes. Although a general consensus has been reached in OECD countries on the use of geological repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, analysis of the long-term safety of these repositories, using performance assessment and other tools, is required prior to implementation. The initial stage in developing a repository safety assessment is the identification of all factors that may be relevant to the long-term safety of the repository and their combination to form scenarios. This must be done in a systematic and transparent way in order to assure the regulatory authorities that nothing important has been forgotten. Scenario development has become the general term used to describe the collection and organisation of the scientific and technical information necessary to assess the long-term performance or safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. This includes the identification of the relevant features, events and processes (FEPs), the synthesis of broad models of scientific understanding, and the selection of cases to be calculated. Scenario development provides the overall framework in which the cases and their calculated consequences can be discussed, including biases or shortcomings due to omissions or lack of knowledge. The NEA Workshop on Scenario Development was organised in Madrid, in May 1999, with the objective of reviewing developments in scenario methodologies and applications in safety assessments since 1992. The outcome of this workshop is the subject of this book. It is a review of developments in scenario methodologies based on a large body of practical experience in safety assessments. It will be of interest to radioactive waste management experts as well as to other specialists involved in the development of scenario methodologies. (author)

  16. Ex-core detector response caused by control rod misalignment observed during operation of the reactor on the nuclear ship Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru; Sakai, Tomohiro

    1993-01-01

    Unexpected deviations of ex-core neutron detector signals were observed during a voyage of the Japanese nuclear ship, Mutsu. From detailed three-dimensional analyses, this phenomenon was determined to be caused by an asymmetrical neutron source distribution in the core due to a small misalignment between the two control rods of a control rod group. A systematic ex-core detector response experiment was performed during the Mutsu's third experimental voyage to gain some understanding of the relationship between the control rod pattern and the detector response characteristics. Results obtained from analyses of the experiment indicate that the Crump-Lee technique, using calculated three-dimensional source distributions for various control rod patterns, provides good agreement between the calculated and measured detector responses. Xenon transient analyses were carried out to generate accurate three-dimensional source distributions for predicting the time-dependent detector response characteristics. Two types of ex-core detector responses are caused by changes in the control rod pattern in the Mutsu reactor: the detector response ratio tends to decrease with the withdrawal of a group of control rods as a pair, and a difference in the positions of the control rods in a group causes signal deviations among the four ex-core detectors. Control rod misalignment does not greatly affect the mean value of the four detector signals, and the deviation can be minimized if the two rods within a group are set at the same elevation at the time of detector calibration

  17. A three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatone, Stefania; Johnson, William Brett; Tucker, Kerice

    2016-04-01

    Misalignment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis joint axis with the anatomic joint axis may lead to discomfort, alterations in gait, and tissue damage. Theoretical, two-dimensional models describe the consequences of misalignments, but cannot capture the three-dimensional behavior of ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this project was to develop a model to describe the effects of ankle-foot orthosis ankle joint misalignment in three dimensions. Computational simulation. Three-dimensional scans of a leg and ankle-foot orthosis were incorporated into a link segment model where the ankle-foot orthosis joint axis could be misaligned with the anatomic ankle joint axis. The leg/ankle-foot orthosis interface was modeled as a network of nodes connected by springs to estimate interface pressure. Motion between the leg and ankle-foot orthosis was calculated as the ankle joint moved through a gait cycle. While the three-dimensional model corroborated predictions of the previously published two-dimensional model that misalignments in the anterior -posterior direction would result in greater relative motion compared to misalignments in the proximal -distal direction, it provided greater insight showing that misalignments have asymmetrical effects. The three-dimensional model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist others in understanding the consequences of joint misalignments. Models and simulations can be used to gain insight into functioning of systems of interest. We have developed a three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses. The model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist understanding of trainees and others interested in orthotics. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  18. Role of misalignment-induced angular chirp in the electro-optic detection of THz waves

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, D A; Pan, R; Snedden, E W; Graham, D M; Gillespie, W A; Jamison, S P

    2014-01-01

    A general description of electro-optic detection including non-collinear phase matching and finite transverse beam profiles is presented. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that non-collinear phase matching in ZnTe (and similar materials) produces an angular chirp in the chi((2))-generated optical signal. Due to this, in non-collinear THz and probe arrangements such as single-shot THz measurements or through accidental misalignment, measurement of an undistorted THz signal is critically dependent on having sufficient angular acceptance in the optical probe path. The associated spatial walk-off can also preclude the phase retardation approximation used in THz-TDS. The rate of misalignment-induced chirping in commonly used ZnTe and GaP schemes is tabulated, allowing ready analysis of a detection system. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America.

  19. Pumping behavior of ion pump elements at high and misaligned magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuh, H. C.; Jiang, W. S.; Mapes, M.

    1994-11-01

    The pumping speeds of several diode type ion pump elements with cell radii of 5 mm, 5.5 mm, 6 mm, 9 mm and 12 mm were measured while being subjected to a magnetic field B, ranging from 500 Gauss up to 15 KG, and misalignment angles (angles between the direction of B and the anode axis) from 0 to 13 degrees. The pumping speeds of elements with the 9 mm and 12 mm cells peaked around 1--2 KG, then dropped off rapidly with an increasing magnetic field. The pumping speeds of the smaller cell elements remained constant with an increasing magnetic field. The pumping speeds of all the elements decreased with increasing misalignment. The measured pumping speeds from this study are 3--4 times lower than the calculated pumping, speeds using previously reported empirical formulae.

  20. Pumping behavior of ion pump elements at high and misaligned magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuh, H.C.; Jiang, W.S.; Mapes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The pumping speeds of several diode type ion pump elements with cell radii of 5 mm, 5.5 mm, 6 mm, 9 mm and 12 mm were measured while being subjected to a magnetic field B, ranging from 500 Gauss up to 15 KG, and misalignment angles (angles between the direction of B and the anode axis) from 0 to 13 degrees. The pumping speeds of elements with the 9 mm and 12 mm cells peaked around 1--2 KG, then dropped off rapidly with an increasing magnetic field. The pumping speeds of the smaller cell elements remained constant with an increasing magnetic field. The pumping speeds of all the elements decreased with increasing misalignment. The measured pumping speeds from this study are 3--4 times lower than the calculated pumping, speeds using previously reported empirical formulae

  1. Dynamic characteristics of dual-rotor system with coupling faults of misalignment and rub-impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to fault problems of the rotor system local rubbing caused by mass eccentricity, a dynamic model for the dual-rotor system with coupling faults of misalignment and rub-impact was established. The dynamic behaviours of this system were investigated by using numerical integral method, as parallel and angular misalignment varied. Various nonlinear phenomena compressing periodic, three-periodic and quasi-periodic motions are observed. The results reveal that the process of the rotor rub-impact is extremely complex and has some frequencies with large amplitude, especially at the 1/3X component. Meanwhile, quasi-periodic regions exhibit different configurations of attractors and the phenomenon of beat vibration.

  2. Kinetic equilibrium of space charge dominated beams in a misaligned quadrupole focusing channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of intense beam propagation through the misaligned quadrupole focusing channel has been studied in a self-consistent manner using nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The equations of motion of the beam centroid have been developed and found to be independent of any specific beam distribution. A Vlasov equilibrium distribution and beam envelope equations have been obtained, which provide us a theoretical tool to investigate the dynamics of intense beam propagating in a misaligned quadrupole focusing channel. It is shown that the displaced quadrupoles only cause the centroid of the beam to wander off axis. The beam envelope around the centroid obeys the familiar Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij envelope equation that is independent of the centroid motion. However, the rotation of the quadrupole about its optical axis affects the beam envelope and causes an increase in the projected emittances in the two transverse planes due to the inter-plane coupling

  3. Exposure scenarios for workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Northage, C.; Money, C.

    2007-01-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate

  4. Recurrence of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins in two consecutive siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Benevides, Gabriel Nuncio; Picciarelli de Lima, Patricia; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Pereira de Melo, Ana Maria Andrello Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare, developmental lung disorder, which has been increasingly reported. This entity usually presents as neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension that is unresponsive to treatment, and is known to be uniformly fatal. Recent discoveries in the genetic field, and intensive treatments, may change the natural course of this disease, permitting easier diagnosis and giving new hope for the dismal prognosis. The autho...

  5. Misalignment Effect Function Measurement for Oblique Rotation Axes: Counterintuitive Predictions and Theoretical Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Yeom, Kiwon

    2013-01-01

    The Misalignment Effect Function (MEF) describes the decrement in manual performance associated with a rotation between operators' visual display frame of reference and that of their manual control. It now has been empirically determined for rotation axes oblique to canonical body axes and is compared with the MEF previously measured for rotations about canonical axes. A targeting rule, called the Secant Rule, based on these earlier measurements is derived from a hypothetical process and shown to describe some of the data from three previous experiments. It explains the motion trajectories determined for rotations less than 65deg in purely kinematic terms without the need to appeal to a mental rotation process. Further analysis of this rule in three dimensions applied to oblique rotation axes leads to a somewhat surprising expectation that the difficulty posed by rotational misalignment should get harder as the required movement is shorter. This prediction is confirmed. Geometry underlying this rule also suggests analytic extensions for predicting more generally the difficulty of making movements in arbitrary directions subject to arbitrary misalignments.

  6. Evaluation of Spur Gear Pair on Tooth Root Bending Stress in Radial Misalignment Contact Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lias M.R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of radial misalignment contact on the tooth root bending stress values of spur gear pair during the gear meshing cycle. Radial misalignment (H is denoted as the deviation of the pinion nominal position with respect to the gear tooth along the pinion axis to the gear which happened from manufacturing assembly errors (AE. A model based on involute 3D parametric CAD geometry, of spur gear design ISO 6336:2006 is analysed with allowable AE values from minimum 10μm to maximum 40μm with Finite-Element Method (FEM model based methodology using a dynamics module from ANSYS. Main parameters of interest are the Tooth root bending stress (TRBS in H condition with AE along the critical region with respect to face width of pinion-gear section. A comparison between standard High point single tooth contact models (HPSTC to this model showed a good agreement that H with AE had great influence on TRBS as the values’ increase. Radial misalignment influence factor (RMIF was introduced as indication of TRBS values in consideration of H due to AE shows and inverted patterns higher for pinion, give a good justification that the pinion is weaker compared to the gear.

  7. Planet Formation in Disks with Inclined Binary Companions: Can Primordial Spin-Orbit Misalignment be Produced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Many hot Jupiter (HJ) systems have been observed to have their stellar spin axis misaligned with the planet's orbital angular momentum axis. The origin of this spin-orbit misalignment and the formation mechanism of HJs remain poorly understood. A number of recent works have suggested that gravitational interactions between host stars, protoplanetary disks, and inclined binary companions may tilt the stellar spin axis with respect to the disk's angular angular momentum axis, producing planetary systems with misaligned orbits. These previous works considered idealized disk evolution models and neglected the gravitational influence of newly formed planets. In this paper, we explore how disk photoevaporation and planet formation and migration affect the inclination evolution of planet-star-disk-binary systems. We take into account planet-disk interactions and the gravitational spin-orbit coupling between the host star and the planet. We find that the rapid depletion of the inner disk via photoevaporation reduces the excitation of stellar obliquities. Depending on the formation and migration history of HJs, the spin-orbit coupling between the star and the planet may reduces and even completely suppress the excitation of stellar obliquities. Our work constrains the formation/migration history of HJs. On the other hand, planetary systems with "cold" Jupiters or close-in super-earths may experience excitation of stellar obliquities in the presence of distant inclined companions.

  8. Misalignment sensitivity in an intra-cavity coherently combined crossed-Porro resonator configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperovich, Z.; Buchinsky, O.; Greenstein, S.; Ishaaya, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the misalignment sensitivity in a crossed-Porro resonator configuration when coherently combining two pulsed multimode Nd:YAG laser channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study of this configuration. The configuration is based on a passive intra-cavity interferometric combiner that promotes self-phase locking and coherent combining. Detailed misalignment sensitivity measurements are presented, examining both translation and angular deviations of the end prisms and combiner, and are compared to the results for standard flat end-mirror configurations. The results show that the most sensitive parameter in the crossed-Porro resonator configuration is the angular tuning of the intra-cavity interferometric combiner, which is ~±54 µrad. In comparison, with the flat end mirror configuration, the most sensitive parameter in the resonator is the angular tuning of the output coupler, which is ~±11 µrad. Thus, with the crossed-Porro configuration, we obtain significantly reduced sensitivity. This ability to reduce the misalignment sensitivity in coherently combined solid-state configurations may be beneficial in paving their way into practical use in a variety of demanding applications.

  9. Misalignment with the external light environment drives metabolic and cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Alexander C; Smith, Laura; Ray, David W; Loudon, Andrew S I; Brown, Timothy M; Bechtold, David A

    2017-09-12

    Most organisms use internal biological clocks to match behavioural and physiological processes to specific phases of the day-night cycle. Central to this is the synchronisation of internal processes across multiple organ systems. Environmental desynchrony (e.g. shift work) profoundly impacts human health, increasing cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we characterise the impact of desynchrony between the internal clock and the external light-dark (LD) cycle on mammalian physiology. We reveal that even under stable LD environments, phase misalignment has a profound effect, with decreased metabolic efficiency and disrupted cardiac function including prolonged QT interval duration. Importantly, physiological dysfunction is not driven by disrupted core clock function, nor by an internal desynchrony between organs, but rather the altered phase relationship between the internal clockwork and the external environment. We suggest phase misalignment as a major driver of pathologies associated with shift work, chronotype and social jetlag.The misalignment between internal circadian rhythm and the day-night cycle can be caused by genetic, behavioural and environmental factors, and may have a profound impact on human physiology. Here West et al. show that desynchrony between the internal clock and the external environment alter metabolic parameters and cardiac function in mice.

  10. A new computerized diagnostic algorithm for quantitative evaluation of binocular misalignment in patients with strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, In Young; Kang, Ho Chul; Yang, Hee Kyung; Yoon, Chang Ki; Hwang, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2012-10-01

    Accurate measurement of binocular misalignment between both eyes is important for proper preoperative management, surgical planning, and postoperative evaluation of patients with strabismus. In this study, we proposed a new computerized diagnostic algorithm that can calculate the angle of binocular eye misalignment photographically by using a dedicated three-dimensional eye model mimicking the structure of the natural human eye. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, eight healthy volunteers and eight individuals with strabismus were recruited in this study, the horizontal deviation angle, vertical deviation angle, and angle of eye misalignment were calculated and the angular differences between the healthy and the strabismus groups were evaluated using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and the Pearson correlation test. The experimental results demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the healthy and strabismus groups (p = 0.015 0.05). The measurements of the two methods were highly correlated (r = 0.969, p human eye to diagnose non-invasively the severity of strabismus.

  11. Bit Error Rate Due to Misalignment of Earth Station Antenna Pointing to Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One problem causing reduction of energy in satellite communications system is the misalignment of earth station antenna pointing to satellite. Error in pointing would affect the quality of information signal to energy bit in earth station. In this research, error in pointing angle occurred only at receiver (Rx antenna, while the transmitter (Tx antennas precisely point to satellite. The research was conducted towards two satellites, namely TELKOM-1 and TELKOM-2. At first, measurement was made by directing Tx antenna precisely to satellite, resulting in an antenna pattern shown by spectrum analyzer. The output from spectrum analyzers is drawn with the right scale to describe swift of azimuth and elevation pointing angle towards satellite. Due to drifting from the precise pointing, it influenced the received link budget indicated by pattern antenna. This antenna pattern shows reduction of power level received as a result of pointing misalignment. As a conclusion, the increasing misalignment of pointing to satellite would affect in the reduction of received signal parameters link budget of down-link traffic.

  12. Interpreting energy scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gokul; Edmonds, James

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative scenarios from energy-economic models inform decision-making about uncertain futures. Now, research shows the different ways these scenarios are subsequently used by users not involved in their initial development. In the absence of clear guidance from modellers, users may place too much or too little confidence in scenario assumptions and results.

  13. Simultaneous misalignment correction for approximate circular cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Y; Hillebrand, L; Ertel, D; Kalender, W A; Lapp, R M

    2008-01-01

    Currently, CT scanning is often performed using flat detectors which are mounted on C-arm units or dedicated gantries as in radiation therapy or micro CT. For perspective cone-beam backprojection of the Feldkamp type (FDK) the geometry of an approximately circular scan trajectory has to be available for reconstruction. If the system or the scan geometry is afflicted with geometrical instabilities, referred to as misalignment, a non-perfect approximate circular scan is the case. Reconstructing a misaligned scan without knowledge of the true trajectory results in severe artefacts in the CT images. Unlike current methods which use a pre-scan calibration of the geometry for defined scan protocols and calibration phantoms, we propose a real-time iterative restoration of reconstruction geometry by means of entropy minimization. Entropy minimization is performed combining a simplex algorithm for multi-parameter optimization and iterative graphics card (GPU)-based FDK-reconstructions. Images reconstructed with the misaligned geometry were used as an input for the entropy minimization algorithm. A simplex algorithm changes the geometrical parameters of the source and detector with respect to the reduction of entropy. In order to reduce the size of the high-dimensional space required for minimization, the trajectory was described by only eight fix points. A virtual trajectory is generated for each iteration using a least-mean-squares algorithm to calculate an approximately circular path including these points. Entropy was minimal for the ideal dataset, whereas strong misalignment resulted in a higher entropy value. For the datasets used in this study, the simplex algorithm required 64-200 iterations to achieve an entropy value equivalent to the ideal dataset, depending on the grade of misalignment using random initialization conditions. The use of the GPU reduced the time per iteration as compared to a quad core CPU-based backprojection by a factor of 10 resulting in a total

  14. Numerical modeling of a rotor misalignment; Modelado numerico del desalineamiento de un rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Pina, Roberto

    2009-12-15

    In the turbo-machinery area after an unbalancing, the misalignment is the fault that most frequently appears, and this one has been little studied compared to the unbalance. The misalignment appears when the geometric centers of two shafts and/or bearings do not coincide, these differences take place by different factors such as: incorrect installation of the bearings or rotors, thermal effects, or rotor weight, to mention some of them. The of the misalignment diagnosis continues being an area little studied, since the effects it generates are complex and include diverse physical processes reason why it presents/displays similar symptoms to those of other faults; thus, one of the methods that are used to diagnose this fault, is based on analyzing the vibration phantoms but this works only under particular conditions. In order to reproduce the dynamic behavior of a misaligned rotor, in the present work non-linear simplified models of the supports are used, whose objective is to contribute to facilitate future studies of the flow-dynamic behavior of the bearing, helping to identify the type and magnitude of the existing non-linearity in the supports and leaning in the analysis of the vibratory behavior of misaligned rotors observed in the field. [Spanish] En el area de turbomaquinaria despues del desbalance, el desalineamiento es la falla que se presenta con mayor frecuencia, y esta se ha estudiado poco comparada con el desbalance. El desalineamiento se presenta cuando los centros geometricos de dos flechas y/o chumaceras no coinciden, estas diferencias se producen por diferentes factores como: instalacion incorrecta de las chumaceras o rotores, efectos termicos, o el peso del rotor, por mencionar algunos. El diagnostico del desalineamiento sigue siendo una area poco estudiada, ya que los efectos que genera son complejos y abarcan diversos procesos fisicos por lo que presenta sintomas similares a los de otras fallas; asi, uno de los metodos que se utilizan para

  15. A Method for SINS Alignment with Large Initial Misalignment Angles Based on Kalman Filter with Parameters Resetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, large initial misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which causes alignment failure when the classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used. In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS initial alignment is investigated, and the key reason for alignment failure is given as the state covariance from Kalman filter cannot represent the true one during the steady filtering process. According to the analysis, an alignment method for SINS based on multiresetting the state covariance matrix of Kalman filter is designed to deal with large initial misalignment angles, in which classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used, but the state covariance matrix should be multireset before the steady process until large misalignment angles are decreased to small ones. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation and car test, and the results indicate that the proposed method can fulfill initial alignment with large misalignment angles effectively and the alignment accuracy of the proposed method is as precise as that of alignment with small misalignment angles.

  16. The world in scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, A.; Roodenburg, H.

    1992-01-01

    As an introduction to this special issue 'Worlds of difference: Scenarios's for the economy, energy and the environment 1990-2015', an outline is given of the future of the world and the Netherlands, based on four scenarios. These scenarios are published in 'Scanning the future' in May 1992 by the CPB, the Dutch Central Planning Bureau. The Global Shift (GS) scenario is characterized by a very dynamic technological development, the free market perspective, strong economic growth in the Asian economies, and a relative economic regression in Western Europe. In the European Renaissance (ER) scenario the technological development is less dynamic and more gradual than in the GS scenario. The Balanced Growth (BG) scenario is dominated by a sustainable economic development and a strong technological dynamic development. The Global Crisis (GC) scenario shows a downward spiral in many areas, stagnating developments and fragile economies as results of the trends in the eighties. The first three scenarios are elaborated for the Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the aims and meaning of long-term scenarios. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  17. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ozben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Sandri, P. Levi; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY

  18. Elaborating SRES scenarios for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Alan; Riahi, Keywan; Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is identifying mid-century economic targets for nuclear energy. The first step is to describe what the mid-century energy market might look like: the major competitors for nuclear energy, what products are in demand, how much of each, where is growth greatest, and so forth. The mechanism for systematically describing the future market is scenario building. The starting point is the scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. SRES developed four narrative story lines, each representing a different coherent set of demographic, social, economic, technological, and environmental developments. For each story line several different scenarios were developed by six international modelling teams, resulting in 40 scenarios grouped in the 4 story lines. For three of the story lines this paper uses a single marker scenario representative of central tendencies within the scenario family. For the fourth story line the authors chose the scenario that assumes that advances in non-fossil technologies - renewable, nuclear, and high-efficiency conservation technologies - make them most cost-competitive. (BA)

  19. Spin-Orbit Misalignments of Three Jovian Planets via Doppler Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Cochran, William D.; Addison, Brett C.; Tinney, Chris G.; Wright, Duncan J.

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of the spin-orbit misalignments of the hot Jupiters HAT-P-41 b and WASP-79 b, and the aligned warm Jupiter Kepler-448 b. We obtain these measurements with Doppler tomography, where we spectroscopically resolve the line profile perturbation during the transit due to the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. We analyze time series spectra obtained during portions of five transits of HAT-P-41 b, and find a value of the spin-orbit misalignment of λ =-{22.1}-6.0{+0.8^\\circ }. We reanalyze the radial velocity Rossiter-McLaughlin data on WASP-79 b obtained by Addison et al. using Doppler tomographic methodology. We measure λ =-{99.1}-3.9{+4.1^\\circ }, consistent with but more precise than the value found by Addison et al. For Kepler-448 b we perform a joint fit to the Kepler light curve, Doppler tomographic data, and a radial velocity data set from Lillo-Box et al. We find an approximately aligned orbit (λ =-{7.1}-2.8{+4.2^\\circ }), in agreement with the value found by Bourrier et al. Through analysis of the Kepler light curve we measure a stellar rotation period of {P}{rot}=1.27+/- 0.11 days, and use this to argue that the full three-dimensional spin-orbit misalignment is small, \\psi ˜ 0^\\circ . Based in part on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  20. Circumstellar Disks and Outflows in Turbulent Molecular Cloud Cores: Possible Formation Mechanism for Misaligned Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Sustainability Studies, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We investigate the formation of circumstellar disks and outflows subsequent to the collapse of molecular cloud cores with the magnetic field and turbulence. Numerical simulations are performed by using an adaptive mesh refinement to follow the evolution up to ∼1000 years after the formation of a protostar. In the simulations, circumstellar disks are formed around the protostars; those in magnetized models are considerably smaller than those in nonmagnetized models, but their size increases with time. The models with stronger magnetic fields tend to produce smaller disks. During evolution in the magnetized models, the mass ratios of a disk to a protostar is approximately constant at ∼1%–10%. The circumstellar disks are aligned according to their angular momentum, and the outflows accelerate along the magnetic field on the 10–100 au scale; this produces a disk that is misaligned with the outflow. The outflows are classified into two types: a magnetocentrifugal wind and a spiral flow. In the latter, because of the geometry, the axis of rotation is misaligned with the magnetic field. The magnetic field has an internal structure in the cloud cores, which also causes misalignment between the outflows and the magnetic field on the scale of the cloud core. The distribution of the angular momentum vectors in a core also has a non-monotonic internal structure. This should create a time-dependent accretion of angular momenta onto the circumstellar disk. Therefore, the circumstellar disks are expected to change their orientation as well as their sizes in the long-term evolutions.

  1. Feedback loops and temporal misalignment in component-based hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, Mostafa M.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Castronova, Anthony M.

    2011-12-01

    In component-based modeling, a complex system is represented as a series of loosely integrated components with defined interfaces and data exchanges that allow the components to be coupled together through shared boundary conditions. Although the component-based paradigm is commonly used in software engineering, it has only recently been applied for modeling hydrologic and earth systems. As a result, research is needed to test and verify the applicability of the approach for modeling hydrologic systems. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate two aspects of using component-based software architecture for hydrologic modeling: (1) simulation of feedback loops between components that share a boundary condition and (2) data transfers between temporally misaligned model components. We investigated these topics using a simple case study where diffusion of mass is modeled across a water-sediment interface. We simulated the multimedia system using two model components, one for the water and one for the sediment, coupled using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) standard. The results were compared with a more conventional numerical approach for solving the system where the domain is represented by a single multidimensional array. Results showed that the component-based approach was able to produce the same results obtained with the more conventional numerical approach. When the two components were temporally misaligned, we explored the use of different interpolation schemes to minimize mass balance error within the coupled system. The outcome of this work provides evidence that component-based modeling can be used to simulate complicated feedback loops between systems and guidance as to how different interpolation schemes minimize mass balance error introduced when components are temporally misaligned.

  2. The effect of independent collimator misalignment on the dosimetry of abutted half-beam blocked fields for the treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.I.; McDonough, J.; Kassaee, A.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: Independent collimation conveniently allows for the junctioning of abutting fields with non-diverging beam edges. When this technique is used at the junction of multiple fields, e.g. lateral and low anterior fields in three-field head and neck set-ups, there should be a dosimetric match with no overdose or underdose at the matchline. We set out to evaluate the actual dosimetry at the central match plane. Materials and methods: Independent jaws were used to mimic two half-beam blocked fields abutting at the central axis. X-Ray verification film was exposed in a water-equivalent phantom and the dose at the matchline was evaluated with laser densitometry. Collimators were then programmed to force a gap or overlap of the radiation fields to evaluate the effect of jaw misalignment within the tolerance of the manufacturer's specification. Diode measurements of the field edges were also performed. Four beam energies from four different linear accelerators were evaluated. Results: Small systematic inhomogeneities were found along the matchline in all linear accelerators tested. The maximum dose on the central axis varied linearly with small programmed jaw misalignments. For a gap or overlap of 2 mm between the jaws, the matchline dose increased or decreased by 30-40%. The region of overdose or underdose around the matchline is 3-4 mm wide. The discrepancy between the width of jaw separation and the width of the region of altered dose is explained by a penumbra effect.Conclusion: We recommend that independent jaw alignment be evaluated routinely and provide a simple method to estimate dose inhomogeneity at the match plane. If there is a field gap or overlap resulting in a clinically significant change in dosimetry, jaw misalignment should be corrected. If it cannot be corrected, part of the benefit of asymmetric collimation is lost and other methods of field junctioning may have to be considered. We routinely use a small block over the spinal cord at

  3. From scenarios to components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.

    2010-01-01

    Scenario-based modeling has evolved as an accepted paradigm for developing complex systems of various kinds. Its main purpose is to ensure that a system provides desired behavior to its users. A scenario is generally understood as a behavioral requirement, denoting a course of actions that shall

  4. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Warren, Drake Edward; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Passell, Howard D.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Backus, George A.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. Scenario-based strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehr, Thomas; Lorenz, Ullrich; Willert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    For over 40 years, scenarios have been promoted as a key technique for forming strategies in uncertain en- vironments. However, many challenges remain. In this article, we discuss a novel approach designed to increase the applicability of scenario-based strategizing in top management teams. Drawi...... Ministry) and a firm affected by disruptive change (Bosch, leading global supplier of technology and solutions)....

  6. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  7. Integrative Scenario Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg A. Priess

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios are employed to address a large number of future environmental and socioeconomic challenges. We present a conceptual framework for the development of scenarios to integrate the objectives of different stakeholder groups. Based on the framework, land-use scenarios were developed to provide a common base for further research. At the same time, these scenarios assisted regional stakeholders to bring forward their concerns and arrive at a shared understanding of challenges between scientific and regional stakeholders, which allowed them to eventually support regional decision making. The focus on the integration of views and knowledge domains of different stakeholder groups, such as scientists and practitioners, required rigorous and repeated measures of quality control. The application of the integrative concept provided products for both stakeholder groups, and the process of scenario development facilitated cooperation and learning within both the scientist and practitioner groups as well as between the two groups.

  8. The effect, identification and correction of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans on brain PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu; Qiao Suixian

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain on brain PET imaging, and the Methods to identify and correct it. Methods: 18F-FDG PET imaging was performed on 8 volunteers. The emission images were reconstructed with attenuation correction after some translations and rotations in the x-axis and transverse plane were given, 1 mm and 1 degree each step, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans was used to identify the suspected misalignment on 10 18F-FDG PET brain imaging. Three Methods were used to correct the misalignment. First, to quantitate the amount of the misalignment by 3-D volume registration of PET emission and transmission scans, the emission images were reconstructed with corrected translations and rotations in x-direction and transverse plane. Second, the emission images were reconstructed with mathematic calculation of brain attenuation. Third, 18F-FDG PET brain imaging was redone with careful application of laser alignment. Results: The translations greater than 3 mm in x-direction and the rotations greater than 8 degrees in transverse plane could lead to visible artifacts, which were presented with decreasing radioactivity uptake in the cortex of half cerebrum and in the frontal cortex at the side in the translating or rotating direction, respectively. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans could identify and quantitate the amount of misalignment between PET emission and transmission scans of brain. The PET emission images reconstructed with corrected misalignment and mathematic calculation of brain attenuation were consistent with redone PET brain imaging. Conclusions: The misalignment between PET transmission and emission scans of brain can lead to visible artifacts. The 3-D volume fusion of PET emission and transmission scans can identify and quantitate the amount of the misalignment. The visible artifacts caused by the misalignment can be

  9. Study of Lateral Misalignment Tolerance of a Symmetric Free-Space Optical Link for Intra International Space Station Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah; Schoenholz, Bryan; Suddath, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the study of lateral misalignment tolerance of a symmetric high-rate free-space optical link (FSOL) for use between International Space Station (ISS) payload sites and the main cabin. The link will enable gigabit per second (Gbps) transmission of data, which is up to three orders of magnitude greater than the current capabilities. This application includes 10-20 meter links and requires minimum size, weight, and power (SWaP). The optical power must not present an eye hazard and must be easily integrated into the existing ISS infrastructure. On the ISS, rapid thermal changes and astronaut movement will cause flexure of the structure which will potentially misalign the free space transmit and receive optics 9 cm laterally and 0.2 degrees angularly. If this misalignment is not accounted for, a loss of the link or degradation of link performance will occur. Power measurements were collected to better understand the effect of various system design parameters on lateral misalignment. Parameters that were varied include: the type of small form pluggable (SFP) transceivers, type of fiber, and transmitted power level. A potential solution was identified that can reach the lateral misalignment tolerance (decenter span) required to create an FSOL on the ISS by using 105 m core fibers, a duplex SFP, two channels of light, and two fiber amplifiers.

  10. Modeling the Effects of Mirror Misalignment in a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Tawanda; Harton, Austin; Garcia, Edmundo

    2012-03-01

    The Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) has been proposed for the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This detector upgrade is considered necessary to study jet-matter interaction at high energies. The VHMPID identifies charged hadrons in the 5 GeV/c to 25 GeV/c momentum range. The Cherenkov photons emitted in the VHMPID radiator are collected by spherical mirrors and focused onto a photo-detector plane forming a ring image. The radius of this ring is related to the Cherenkov angle, this information coupled with the particle momentum allows the particle identification. A major issue in the RICH detector is that environmental conditions can cause movements in mirror position. In addition, chromatic dispersion causes the refractive index to shift, altering the Cherenkov angle. We are modeling a twelve mirror RICH detector taking into account the effects of mirror misalignment and chromatic dispersion using a commercial optical software package. This will include quantifying the effects of both rotational and translational mirror misalignment for the initial assembly of the module and later on particle identification.

  11. A Dynamically Adaptable Impedance-Matching System for Midrange Wireless Power Transfer with Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc Phi Duong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To enable the geometrical freedom envisioned for wireless power transfer (WPT, fast dynamic adaptation to unpredictable changes in receiver position is needed. In this paper, we propose an adaptive impedance-searching system that achieves good impedance matching quickly. For fast and robust operation, the proposed method consists of three steps: system calibration, coarse search, and fine search. The proposed WPT system is characterized using distance variation and lateral and angular misalignment between coils. The measured results indicate that the proposed method significantly reduces searching time from a few minutes to approximately one second. Furthermore, the proposed system achieves impedance matching with good accuracy. The robust impedance-searching capability of the proposed system significantly improves power transfer efficiency. At 6.78 MHz, we achieve a maximum efficiency of 89.7% and a high efficiency of >80% up to a distance of 50 cm. When the center-to-center misalignment is 35 cm, the efficiency is improved from 48.4% to 74.1% with the proposed method. At a distance of 40 cm, the efficiency is higher than 74% for up to 60° of angular rotation. These results agree well with the simulated results obtained using a lumped-element circuit model.

  12. Optical performance effects of the misalignment of nonimaging optics solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Jonathan; Ricketts, Melissa; Winston, Roland

    2017-09-01

    The use of non-imaging optics in the application of high temperature solar thermal collectors can be extremely advantageous in eliminating the need to track the sun. The stationary nature of non-imaging optics collectors, commonly called compound parabolic concentrators (CPC's), present a unique design challenge when orienting them to collect sunlight. Many facilities throughout the world that adopt CPCs are not situated to orient the collectors in the ideal angle facing the sun. This East-West misalignment can adversely affect the optical and power performance of the CPC collector. To characterize how this misalignment effects CPCs, reverse raytracing simulations are conducted for varying offset angles of the collectors from solar South. Optical performance is analyzed for an ideal East-West oriented CPC with a 40-degree acceptance angle. Direction cosine plots are used to develop a ratio of annual solar collection by the CPC over the total annual solar input. From these simulations, average annual collector performance is given for offset angles ranging from 0 to 90 degrees for different Earth Latitudes in 10 degree increments.

  13. Designing of self-deploying origami structures using geometrically misaligned crease patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Tsukahara, Akira; Okabe, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    Usually, origami-based morphing structures are designed on the premise of 'rigid folding', i.e. the facets and fold lines of origami can be replaced with rigid panels and ideal hinges, respectively. From a structural mechanics viewpoint, some rigid-foldable origami models are overconstrained and have negative degrees of freedom (d.f.). In these cases, the singularity in crease patterns guarantees their rigid foldability. This study presents a new method for designing self-deploying origami using the geometrically misaligned creases. In this method, some facets are replaced by 'holes' such that the systems become a 1-d.f. mechanism. These perforated origami models can be folded and unfolded similar to rigid-foldable (without misalignment) models because of their d.f. focusing on the removed facets, the holes will deform according to the motion of the frame of the remaining parts. In the proposed method, these holes are filled with elastic parts and store elastic energy for self-deployment. First, a new extended rigid-folding simulation technique is proposed to estimate the deformation of the holes. Next, the proposed method is applied on arbitrary-size quadrilateral mesh origami. Finally, by using the finite-element method, the authors conduct numerical simulations and confirm the deployment capabilities of the models.

  14. Bilateral, Misalignment-Compensating, Full-DOF Hip Exoskeleton: Design and Kinematic Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Junius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A shared design goal for most robotic lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of locomotion for the user. Despite this, only a limited amount of devices was able to actually reduce user metabolic consumption. Preservation of the natural motion kinematics was defined as an important requirement for a device to be metabolically beneficial. This requires the inclusion of all human degrees of freedom (DOF in a design, as well as perfect alignment of the rotation axes. As perfect alignment is impossible, compensation for misalignment effects should be provided. A misalignment compensation mechanism for a 3-DOF system is presented in this paper. It is validated by the implementation in a bilateral hip exoskeleton, resulting in a compact and lightweight device that can be donned fast and autonomously, with a minimum of required adaptations. Extensive testing of the prototype has shown that hip range of motion of the user is maintained while wearing the device and this for all three hip DOFs. This allowed the users to maintain their natural motion patterns when they are walking with the novel hip exoskeleton.

  15. Bilateral, Misalignment-Compensating, Full-DOF Hip Exoskeleton: Design and Kinematic Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degelaen, Marc; Lefeber, Nina; Swinnen, Eva; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    A shared design goal for most robotic lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of locomotion for the user. Despite this, only a limited amount of devices was able to actually reduce user metabolic consumption. Preservation of the natural motion kinematics was defined as an important requirement for a device to be metabolically beneficial. This requires the inclusion of all human degrees of freedom (DOF) in a design, as well as perfect alignment of the rotation axes. As perfect alignment is impossible, compensation for misalignment effects should be provided. A misalignment compensation mechanism for a 3-DOF system is presented in this paper. It is validated by the implementation in a bilateral hip exoskeleton, resulting in a compact and lightweight device that can be donned fast and autonomously, with a minimum of required adaptations. Extensive testing of the prototype has shown that hip range of motion of the user is maintained while wearing the device and this for all three hip DOFs. This allowed the users to maintain their natural motion patterns when they are walking with the novel hip exoskeleton. PMID:28790799

  16. The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV Velorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-01

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of βp = -52° ± 6° and βs = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.

  17. A novel approach to correct the coded aperture misalignment for fast neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F. N.; Hu, H. S., E-mail: huasi-hu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, D. M.; Jia, J. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, T. K. [Laser Fusion Research Center, CAEP, Mianyang, 621900 Sichuan (China); Jia, Q. G. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Aperture alignment is crucial for the diagnosis of neutron imaging because it has significant impact on the coding imaging and the understanding of the neutron source. In our previous studies on the neutron imaging system with coded aperture for large field of view, “residual watermark,” certain extra information that overlies reconstructed image and has nothing to do with the source is discovered if the peak normalization is employed in genetic algorithms (GA) to reconstruct the source image. Some studies on basic properties of residual watermark indicate that the residual watermark can characterize coded aperture and can thus be used to determine the location of coded aperture relative to the system axis. In this paper, we have further analyzed the essential conditions for the existence of residual watermark and the requirements of the reconstruction algorithm for the emergence of residual watermark. A gamma coded imaging experiment has been performed to verify the existence of residual watermark. Based on the residual watermark, a correction method for the aperture misalignment has been studied. A multiple linear regression model of the position of coded aperture axis, the position of residual watermark center, and the gray barycenter of neutron source with twenty training samples has been set up. Using the regression model and verification samples, we have found the position of the coded aperture axis relative to the system axis with an accuracy of approximately 20 μm. Conclusively, a novel approach has been established to correct the coded aperture misalignment for fast neutron coded imaging.

  18. Investigation of image distortion due to MCP electronic readout misalignment and correction via customized GUI application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitucci, G.; Minniti, T.; Tremsin, A. S.; Kockelmann, W.; Gorini, G.

    2018-04-01

    The MCP-based neutron counting detector is a novel device that allows high spatial resolution and time-resolved neutron radiography and tomography with epithermal, thermal and cold neutrons. Time resolution is possible by the high readout speeds of ~ 1200 frames/sec, allowing high resolution event counting with relatively high rates without spatial resolution degradation due to event overlaps. The electronic readout is based on a Timepix sensor, a CMOS pixel readout chip developed at CERN. Currently, a geometry of a quad Timepix detector is used with an active format of 28 × 28 mm2 limited by the size of the Timepix quad (2 × 2 chips) readout. Measurements of a set of high-precision micrometers test samples have been performed at the Imaging and Materials Science & Engineering (IMAT) beamline operating at the ISIS spallation neutron source (U.K.). The aim of these experiments was the full characterization of the chip misalignment and of the gaps between each pad in the quad Timepix sensor. Such misalignment causes distortions of the recorded shape of the sample analyzed. We present in this work a post-processing image procedure that considers and corrects these effects. Results of the correction will be discussed and the efficacy of this method evaluated.

  19. Mars base buildup scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station

  20. JAXA's Space Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been studying space exploration scenario, including human exploration for Japan since 2015, which encompasses goals, knowledge gap assessment, and architecture. assessment, and technology roadmap.

  1. Learning Through Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose

    level variables, this research corrects this void by investigating the dynamics of organizational learning through the lenses of a corporate scenario planning process. This enhances our scientific understanding of the role that scenario planning might play in the context of organizational learning......This project investigates the uses and effects of scenario planning in companies operating in highly uncertain and dynamic environments. Whereas previous research on scenario planning has fallen short of providing sufficient evidence of its mechanisms and effects on individual or organizational...... and strategic renewal. Empirical evidence of the various difficulties that learning flows has to overcome as it journeys through organizational and hierarchical levels are presented. Despite various cognitive and social psychological barriers identified along the way, the results show the novel...

  2. Integrated transportation scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Regional land usetransportation scenario planning emerged as a planning technique in U.S. : metropolitan areas in the 1990s. Building on prior work by this research team, this study continues : to track the development and expansion of regional sc...

  3. Rotating-coil calibration in a reference quadrupole, considering roll-angle misalignment and higher-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075492; Buzio, Marco; Köster, Oliver; Russenschuck, Stephan; Severino, Giordana

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed for calibrating the radius of a rotating coil sensor by relaxing the metrological constraints on alignment and field errors of the reference quadrupole. A coil radius calibration considering a roll-angle misalignment of the measurement bench, the magnet, and the motor-drive unit is analyzed. Then, the error arising from higher-order harmonic field imperfections in the reference quadrupole is assessed. The method is validated by numerical field computation for both the higher-order harmonic errors and the roll-angle misalignment. Finally, an experimental proof-of-principle demonstration is car-ried out in a calibration magnet with sextupole harmonic.

  4. Misalignment of Lava Flows from Topographic Slope Directions Reveals Late Amazonian Deformation at Arsia Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, B. A.; Chadwick, J.; McGovern, P. J., Jr.; Tucker, W.

    2017-12-01

    Arsia Mons is the southernmost of the three large Tharsis Montes near the equator of Mars and one of the largest volcanoes in the solar system. The main edifice of Arsia is about 440 km in diameter, the summit is over 9 km above the surrounding plains and has a pronounced 110 km caldera. Like the other Tharsis volcanoes, Arsia has a large, Late Amazonian glacial deposit on its NW flank. Previous crater retention studies for lava flows on Arsia have shown that the volcano experienced significant volcanic activity in the past 200 Ma. In this study, numerous long (>25 km), thin lava flows on the plains surrounding Arsia were mapped and used as indicators of the topographic slope direction at the time of their emplacement. The azimuthal orientation of each flow was compared with the present-day slope directions on the surrounding plains, derived from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data. The results reveal regions around Arsia where the flows no longer conform to the topography, indicating deformation in the time since the flows where emplaced. In a region of Daedalia Planum to the SE of Arsia, modern slope directions adjacent to 40 long lava flows are consistently misaligned from the paleo-slopes indicated by the lava flow orientations, with an angular offset that averages 7.2° in the clockwise direction. Crater size-frequency measurements for these tilted plains using CraterStats software indicate that the deformation responsible for the misaligned flows took place since 330 ± 10 Ma. Conversely, part of Daedalia Planum to the southwest of Arsia is younger, with a crater retention age of 160 ± 6 Ma, and this area shows no consistent flow-topography misalignments. These observations suggest that extensive regional deformation occurred between the two dates, consistent with other evidence for significant volcanism at Arsia in the Late Amazonian at about 200 Ma. Geophysical modelling using the finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics is planned to

  5. Series elastic actuation of an elbow rehabilitation exoskeleton with axis misalignment adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Su, Yin-Yu; Yu, Ying-Lung; Lin, Kuei-You; Lan, Chao-Chieh

    2017-07-01

    Powered exoskeletons can facilitate rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities. Designs using rotary motors usually result in bulky exoskeletons to reduce the problem of moving inertia. This paper presents a new linearly actuated elbow exoskeleton that consists of a slider crank mechanism and a linear motor. The linear motor is placed beside the upper arm and closer to shoulder joint. Thus better inertia properties can be achieved while lightweight and compactness are maintained. A passive joint is introduced to compensate for the exoskeleton-elbow misalignment and intersubject size variation. A linear series elastic actuator (SEA) is proposed to obtain accurate force and impedance control at the exoskeleton-elbow interface. Bidirectional actuation between exoskeleton and forearm is verified, which is required for various rehabilitation processes. We expect this exoskeleton can provide a means of robot-aided elbow rehabilitation.

  6. Super-ASSET: A technique for measuring and correcting accelerator structure misalignments at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Assmann, R.; Minty, M.G.; Raimondi, P.; Stupakov, G.

    1998-07-01

    Transverse wakefield kicks from misaligned accelerating structures in the SLC linac contribute significantly to emittance growth. If these kicks could be measured directly, it would be possible to align and/or steer the beam to a kick-free trajectory. In the Accelerator Structure Test Facility at SLAC, ASSET, the kicks due to a drive bunch are measured with a witness bunch at varying bunch separations. In ASSET, the first bunch is discarded and only the second bunch is measured. Super-ASSET is an extension of this technique where both bunches are accelerated down the entire linac together and a sum trajectory of both bunches is measured with beam position monitors (BPMs). The trajectory of the second, kicked bunch can be calculated by subtracting the orbit of the first bunch, measured alone, from the sum trajectory. This paper discusses BPM response issues and the expected resolution of this technique together with alignment and steering strategies

  7. NEW CONCEPTUAL SOLUTIONS FOR ELASTIC COUPLINGS WITH HIGH CAPABILITY COMPENSATION OF MISALIGNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRE Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a problem of great interest in power transmissions, very widely applied in practice: the use of elastic couplings having an adequate level of torque transmission and a reasonable axial and angular misalignment capability based on elastic deformations of specific flexible elements. A characterization (discussion of two elastic couplings characteristic for the area of compensative couplings is offered. An innovative principle of elastic coupling with reinforced flexible elements is proposed. The mechanical strength analysis for both elastic couplings (with spoked metallic membranes and reinforced elastic elements in the case of existing axial and angular deviations is discussed also. It is revealed that the study of these couplings based on elastic deformations is of great theoretical and practical importance today.

  8. A novel principal component analysis for spatially misaligned multivariate air pollution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandarov, Roman A; Sheppard, Lianne A; Sampson, Paul D; Szpiro, Adam A

    2017-01-01

    We propose novel methods for predictive (sparse) PCA with spatially misaligned data. These methods identify principal component loading vectors that explain as much variability in the observed data as possible, while also ensuring the corresponding principal component scores can be predicted accurately by means of spatial statistics at locations where air pollution measurements are not available. This will make it possible to identify important mixtures of air pollutants and to quantify their health effects in cohort studies, where currently available methods cannot be used. We demonstrate the utility of predictive (sparse) PCA in simulated data and apply the approach to annual averages of particulate matter speciation data from national Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory monitors.

  9. Biotin-deficient diet induces chromosome misalignment and spindle defects in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Ai; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Increased abnormal oocytes due to meiotic chromosome misalignment and spindle defects lead to elevated rates of infertility, miscarriage, and trisomic conceptions. Here, we investigated the effect of biotin deficiency on oocyte quality. Three-week-old female ICR mice were fed a biotin-deficient or control diet (0, 0.004 g biotin/kg diet) for 21 days. On day 22, these mouse oocytes were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Due to biotin, undernutrition increased the frequency of abnormal oocytes (the biotin deficient vs. control: 40 vs. 16%). Next, the remaining mice in the biotin-deficient group were fed a control or biotin-deficient diet from day 22 to 42. Although biotin nutritional status in the recovery group was restored, the frequency of abnormal oocytes in the recovery group was still higher than that in the control group (48 vs. 18%). Our results indicate that steady, sufficient biotin intake is required for the production of high-quality oocytes in mice.

  10. BALL KINEMATICS IN FINE POLISHING BETWEEN MISALIGNED DISKS IN CONIC OPENINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Shchetnikovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers ball kinematics in polishing between misaligned disks rotating with equal angular velocity; one of these disks has conic openings. Analytical dependences have been obtained for calculation of an angular velocity and ball sliding speed in the conic opening. It has been revealed that at a constant contact of a ball with elastic coating of a flat disk and absence of vibrations in the technological system an instantaneous axis of ball rotation does not change its position in the moving ball. It has been ascertained that when a ball is in contact with a flat disk having elastic coating with grooves changes in the position of ball rotation instantaneous axis have a regular character and do not depend on vibrations in the technological system.

  11. Scenarios and innovative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to present to the GEDEON community the scenarios for the deployment of innovative nuclear solutions. Both steady state situations and possible transitions from the present to new reactors and fuel cycles are considered. Innovative systems that satisfy improved natural resource utilization and waste minimization criteria will be described as well as the R and D orientations of various partners. This document brings together the transparencies of 17 communications given at this workshop: general policy for transmutation and partitioning; Amster: a molten salt reactor (MSR) concept; MSR capabilities; potentials and capabilities of accelerator driven systems (ADS); ADS demonstrator interest as an experimental facility; innovative systems: gas coolant technologies; Pu management in EPR; scenarios with thorium fuel; scenarios at the equilibrium state; scenarios for transition; partitioning and specific conditioning; management of separated radio-toxic elements; European programs; DOE/AAA (Advanced Accelerator Applications) program; OECD scenario studies; CEA research programs and orientations; partitioning and transmutation: an industrial point of view. (J.S.)

  12. SCENARIO PLANNING AS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lourenço Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scenario Planning has been increasingly used, from its introduction to the decision process as effective tools to test decisions, and improve performance in a dynamic environment (Chermack, 2005. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of an experimental Scenario Planning Model to mobilize, encourage and add more content to the organization’s decision making process – mainly with respect to Strategic Plans of two governmental institutions, a pharmaceutical company and a technology education foundation.  This study describes the application stages of a hybrid scenario-planning model – herein referred to as Planning as Learning – via action-research, showing the scenarios resulting from the experiment and describes the main results of an assessment of such practice. In order to do that, two well-established Scenario Planning models (Prospective school and Shell’s model were analyzed. They were used as a reference for the proposition and application of an experimental model in the two study objects. A questionnaire was used to assess the technique impact. It was possible to obtain high levels of reliability. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the participants. At the end, the results confirmed the model efficiency as a basis for decision making in the competitive environment in which the two institutions are inserted, also to encourage the learning process as a group, as observed throughout the work.

  13. Scenarios for Gluino Coannihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    We study supersymmetric scenarios in which the gluino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), with a mass sufficiently close to that of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) that gluino coannihilation becomes important. One of these scenarios is the MSSM with soft supersymmetry-breaking squark and slepton masses that are universal at an input GUT renormalization scale, but with non-universal gaugino masses. The other scenario is an extension of the MSSM to include vector-like supermultiplets. In both scenarios, we identify the regions of parameter space where gluino coannihilation is important, and discuss their relations to other regions of parameter space where other mechanisms bring the dark matter density into the range allowed by cosmology. In the case of the non-universal MSSM scenario, we find that the allowed range of parameter space is constrained by the requirement of electroweak symmetry breaking, the avoidance of a charged LSP and the measured mass of the Higgs boson, in parti...

  14. Scenarios for gluino coannihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King’s College London, London, WC2R 2LS United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN,Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Evans, Jason L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Luo, Feng [Theory Division, CERN,Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States)

    2016-02-11

    We study supersymmetric scenarios in which the gluino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), with a mass sufficiently close to that of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) that gluino coannihilation becomes important. One of these scenarios is the MSSM with soft supersymmetry-breaking squark and slepton masses that are universal at an input GUT renormalization scale, but with non-universal gaugino masses. The other scenario is an extension of the MSSM to include vector-like supermultiplets. In both scenarios, we identify the regions of parameter space where gluino coannihilation is important, and discuss their relations to other regions of parameter space where other mechanisms bring the dark matter density into the range allowed by cosmology. In the case of the non-universal MSSM scenario, we find that the allowed range of parameter space is constrained by the requirement of electroweak symmetry breaking, the avoidance of a charged LSP and the measured mass of the Higgs boson, in particular, as well as the appearance of other dark matter (co)annihilation processes. Nevertheless, LSP masses m{sub χ}≲8 TeV with the correct dark matter density are quite possible. In the case of pure gravity mediation with additional vector-like supermultiplets, changes to the anomaly-mediated gluino mass and the threshold effects associated with these states can make the gluino almost degenerate with the LSP, and we find a similar upper bound.

  15. Regional climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because studies of the regional impact of climate change need higher spatial resolution than that obtained in standard global climate change scenarios, developing regional scenarios from models is a crucial goal for the climate modelling community. The zoom capacity of ARPEGE-Climat, the Meteo-France climate model, allows use of scenarios with a horizontal resolution of about 50 km over France and the Mediterranean basin. An IPCC-A2 scenario for the end of the 21. century in France shows higher temperatures in each season and more winter and less summer precipitation than now. Tuning the modelled statistical distributions to observed temperature and precipitation allows us to study changes in the frequency of extreme events between today's climate and that at the end of century. The frequency of very hot days in summer will increase. In particular, the frequency of days with a maximum temperature above 35 deg C will be multiplied by a factor of 10, on average. In our scenario, the Toulouse area and Provence might see one quarter of their summer days with a maximum temperature above 35 deg C. (author)

  16. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  17. Scenario group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    A scenario is given for ISABELLE which provides a plausible sequence of events from FY 1980 to 1990. No doubt reality will be quite different. The scenario is based on the construction schedule of the 1976 proposal. Assembly and testing of the accelerator will occur until the end of FY 1983, and the next six years will provide pp interactions for the initial high energy physics research. By 1990 any temporary conditions associated with start-up of ISABELLE should be a thing of the past and all experimental capabilities fully utilized

  18. Scenario group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    The scenario is given which provides a plausible sequence of events for ISABELLE from FY 1980 to 1990. No doubt reality will be quite different. The scenario is based on the construction schedule of the 1976 proposal. Assembly and testing of the accelerator will occur until the end of FY 1983, and the next six years will provide pp interactions for the initial high energy physics research. By 1990 any temporary conditions associated with start-up of ISABELLE should be a thing of the past and all experimental capabilities fully utilized

  19. A familial case of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins supports paternal imprinting of FOXF1 in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare developmental lung disorder that is uniformly lethal. Affected infants die within the first few weeks of their life despite aggressive treatment, although a few cases of late manifestation and longer survival have ...

  20. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

    2012-01-01

    There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan. PMID:23620685

  1. Interest (mis)alignments in representative negotiations: Do pro-social agents fuel or reduce inter-group conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, H.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    In representative negotiations, interests of the representative and the represented constituency are not always aligned. We investigated how interest (mis)alignment and representative’s social value orientation influence representative negotiations. Past theory and research on the principal-agent

  2. The Problem of Constructive Misalignment in International Business Education: A Three-Stage Integrated Approach to Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shasha

    2016-01-01

    Past evidence suggests that constructive misalignment is particularly problematic in International Business (IB) education, though this paradigm has received limited research attention. Building on the literature of three independent teaching methods (threshold concept, problem-based learning, and technology-based learning), this study contributes…

  3. Cross-wind fatigue analysis of a full scale offshore wind turbine in the case of wind–wave misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina; Brown, Cameron; Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Wind–wave misalignment is often necessary to consider during the design of offshore wind turbines due to excitation of side–side vibration and the low aerodynamic damping in that direction. The measurements from a fully instrumented 3.6 MW pitch regulated-variable speed offshore wind turbine were...

  4. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mark R Smith, Charmane I EastmanBiological Rhythms Research Laboratory, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1 circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2 chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3 melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect, along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan.Keywords: circadian rhythms, night work, bright light, phase-shifting, sleep, melatonin

  5. xLPR Scenario Analysis Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Nevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hund, Lauren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Andrew Jordan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the methods, results, and conclusions of the analysis of 11 scenarios defined to exercise various options available in the xLPR (Extremely Low Probability of Rupture) Version 2 .0 code. The scope of the scenario analysis is three - fold: (i) exercise the various options and components comprising xLPR v2.0 and defining each scenario; (ii) develop and exercise methods for analyzing and interpreting xLPR v2.0 outputs ; and (iii) exercise the various sampling options available in xLPR v2.0. The simulation workflow template developed during the course of this effort helps to form a basis for the application of the xLPR code to problems with similar inputs and probabilistic requirements and address in a systematic manner the three points covered by the scope.

  6. Design and fabrication of a self-aligned parallel-plate-type silicon micromirror minimizing the effect of misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung-Wook; Jin, Joo-Young; Jang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a self-alignment method whereby a mirror actuation voltage, corresponding to a specific tilting angle, is unvarying in terms of misalignment during fabrication. A deep silicon etching process is proposed to penetrate the top silicon layer (the micromirror layer) and an amorphous silicon layer (the addressing electrode layer) together, through an aluminum mask pattern, in order to minimize the misalignment effect on the micromirror actuation. The size of a fabricated mirror plate is 250 × 250 × 4 µm 3 . A pair of amorphous silicon electrodes under the mirror plate is about half the size of the mirror plate individually. Numerical analysis associated with calculating the pull-in voltage and the bonding misalignment is performed to verify the self-alignment concepts focused upon in this paper. Curves of the applied voltage versus the tilt angle of the self-aligned micromirror are observed using a position sensing detector in order to compare the measurement results with MATLAB analysis of the expected static deflections. Although a 3.7 µm misalignment is found between the mirror plate and the electrodes, in the direction perpendicular to the shallow trench of the electrodes, before the self-alignment process, the measured pull-in voltage has been found to be 103.4 V on average; this differs from the pull-in voltage of a perfectly aligned micromirror by only 0.67%. Regardless of the unpredictable misalignments in repetitive photolithography and bonding, the tilting angles corresponding to the driving voltages are proved to be uniform along the single axis as well as conform to the results of analytical analysis

  7. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  8. Climate scenarios for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Maurer, Ed; Dettinger, Mike; Tyree, Mary; Hayhoe, Katharine; Bonfils, Celine; Duffy, Phil; Santer, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Possible future climate changes in California are investigated from a varied set of climate change model simulations. These simulations, conducted by three state-of-the-art global climate models, provide trajectories from three greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. These scenarios and the resulting climate simulations are not “predictions,” but rather are a limited sample from among the many plausible pathways that may affect California’s climate. Future GHG concentrations are uncertain because they depend on future social, political, and technological pathways, and thus the IPCC has produced four “families” of emission scenarios. To explore some of these uncertainties, emissions scenarios A2 (a medium-high emissions) and B1 (low emissions) were selected from the current IPCC Fourth climate assessment, which provides several recent model simulations driven by A2 and B1 emissions. The global climate model simulations addressed here were from PCM1, the Parallel Climate Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) group, and CM2.1 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluids Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL).

  9. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA. Health Doctor / Hospital Infant expenditure 1000 beds / 1000 mortality / % GDP 1000. India 0.8 0.47 0.8 71. World 2.6 1.5 3.3 54. Developed 6.1 2.8 7.2 6 Countries.

  10. An economically reliable scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Mister Benjamin Dessus, director of the Ecotech programme at the Cnrs and author of the Noe scenario, describes his propositions for energy prospective, supported by an economic analysis. He advocates the energy diversification and the use of renewable energies. (N.C.). 1 ref., 1 tab

  11. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H.K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ostbo, Bruce I.; Oates, Don

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

  12. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  13. The Scenario Planning Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2017-01-01

    planning paradox. Contributing fresh theory supposedly attends to the “dismal” state of theory, while contributing new typologies purportedly helps bring order to methodological chaos. Repeated over time, the contribution strategy breaks down. Effort to resolve the theoretical and methodological issue......, foundational theoretical perspective in futures studies. Perceived chaos gives way to typologies, which, as they mount, contribute to the chaos they were meant to resolve. The end result, intended by no one, is that theory remains dismal and methods remain chaotic. This direction for the field is indefensible......For more than a decade, futures studies scholars have prefaced scholarly contributions by repeating the claim that there is insufficient theory to support chaotic scenario methodology. The strategy is formulaic, and the net effect is a curious one, which the authors refer to as the scenario...

  14. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  16. The scenario-based generalization of radiation therapy margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Albin; Bokrantz, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We give a scenario-based treatment plan optimization formulation that is equivalent to planning with geometric margins if the scenario doses are calculated using the static dose cloud approximation. If the scenario doses are instead calculated more accurately, then our formulation provides a novel robust planning method that overcomes many of the difficulties associated with previous scenario-based robust planning methods. In particular, our method protects only against uncertainties that can occur in practice, it gives a sharp dose fall-off outside high dose regions, and it avoids underdosage of the target in ‘easy’ scenarios. The method shares the benefits of the previous scenario-based robust planning methods over geometric margins for applications where the static dose cloud approximation is inaccurate, such as irradiation with few fields and irradiation with ion beams. These properties are demonstrated on a suite of phantom cases planned for treatment with scanned proton beams subject to systematic setup uncertainty. (paper)

  17. Recurrence of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins in two consecutive siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nuncio Benevides

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV is a rare, developmental lung disorder, which has been increasingly reported. This entity usually presents as neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension that is unresponsive to treatment, and is known to be uniformly fatal. Recent discoveries in the genetic field, and intensive treatments, may change the natural course of this disease, permitting easier diagnosis and giving new hope for the dismal prognosis. The authors present two cases of siblings, with two years of difference, from different fathers - one of them was a first-degree and the other a second-degree cousin of the mother. Both patients were full-term babies born apparently without malformations and were sent to the nursery. Both siblings near 35 hours of age presented severe respiratory failure due to pulmonary hypertension. The outcome was fatal in both cases and at autopsy ACD/MPV was diagnosed. The authors call attention to this entity in the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory distress in early life.

  18. Controlling for unmeasured confounding and spatial misalignment in long-term air pollution and health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The health impact of long-term exposure to air pollution is now routinely estimated using spatial ecological studies, owing to the recent widespread availability of spatial referenced pollution and disease data. However, this areal unit study design presents a number of statistical challenges, which if ignored have the potential to bias the estimated pollution-health relationship. One such challenge is how to control for the spatial autocorrelation present in the data after accounting for the known covariates, which is caused by unmeasured confounding. A second challenge is how to adjust the functional form of the model to account for the spatial misalignment between the pollution and disease data, which causes within-area variation in the pollution data. These challenges have largely been ignored in existing long-term spatial air pollution and health studies, so here we propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical model that addresses both challenges and provide software to allow others to apply our model to their own data. The effectiveness of the proposed model is compared by simulation against a number of state-of-the-art alternatives proposed in the literature and is then used to estimate the impact of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter concentrations on respiratory hospital admissions in a new epidemiological study in England in 2010 at the local authority level. © 2015 The Authors. Environmetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Exchange rate misalignment, capital accumulation and income distribution: Theory and evidence from the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreiro José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between economic growth, income distribution and real exchange rate within the neo-Kaleckian literature, through the construction of a nonlinear macrodynamic model for an open economy in which investment in fixed capital is assumed to be a quadratic function of the real exchange rate. The model demonstrates that the prevailing regime of accumulation in a given economy depends on the type of currency misalignment, so if the real exchange rate is overvalued, then the regime of accumulation will be profit-led, but if the exchange rate is undervalued, then the accumulation regime is wage-led. Subsequently, the adherence of the theoretical model to data is tested for Brazil in the period 1994/Q3-2008/Q4. The econometric results are consistent with the theoretical non-linear specification of the investment function used in the model, so that we can define the existence of a real exchange rate that maximizes the rate of capital accumulation for the Brazilian economy. From the estimate of this optimal rate we show that the real exchange rate is overvalued in 1994/Q3- 2001/Q1 and 2005/Q4-2008/Q4 and undervalued in the period 2001/Q2-2005/Q3. As a direct corollary of this result, it follows that the prevailing regime of accumulation in the Brazilian economy after the last quarter of 2005 is profit-led.

  20. Magnet Misalignment Studies for the Front-end of the Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, G; Stratakis, D; Neuffer, D; Snopok, P; Rogers, C

    2013-01-01

    In the Neutrino Factory front-end the muon beam coming from the interaction of a high-power (4 MW) proton beam on a mercury jet target is transformed through a buncher, a phase rotator and an ionization cooling channel before entering the downstream acceleration system. The muon front-end channel is densely packed with solenoid magnets, normal conducting radio-frequency cavities and absorber windows for the cooling section. The tolerance to the misalignment of the different components has to be determined in order on one hand to set the limits beyond which the performance of the front-end channel would be degraded; on the other hand to optimize the design and assembly of the front-end cells such that the component alignment can be checked and corrected for where crucial for the performance of the channel. In this paper we show the results of some of the simulations of the frontend channel performance where the magnetic field direction has been altered compared to the baseline.

  1. A bivariate space-time downscaler under space and time misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Veronica J; Gelfand, Alan E; Holland, David M

    2010-12-01

    Ozone and particulate matter PM(2.5) are co-pollutants that have long been associated with increased public health risks. Information on concentration levels for both pollutants come from two sources: monitoring sites and output from complex numerical models that produce concentration surfaces over large spatial regions. In this paper, we offer a fully-model based approach for fusing these two sources of information for the pair of co-pollutants which is computationally feasible over large spatial regions and long periods of time. Due to the association between concentration levels of the two environmental contaminants, it is expected that information regarding one will help to improve prediction of the other. Misalignment is an obvious issue since the monitoring networks for the two contaminants only partly intersect and because the collection rate for PM(2.5) is typically less frequent than that for ozone.Extending previous work in Berrocal et al. (2009), we introduce a bivariate downscaler that provides a flexible class of bivariate space-time assimilation models. We discuss computational issues for model fitting and analyze a dataset for ozone and PM(2.5) for the ozone season during year 2002. We show a modest improvement in predictive performance, not surprising in a setting where we can anticipate only a small gain.

  2. Peripheral circadian misalignment: contributor to systemic insulin resistance and potential intervention to improve bariatric surgical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Kyle N.; Hanlon, Erin C.; Prachand, Vivek N.

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the world's population suffers from obesity and 39% from being overweight, which correlates with an increase in numerous secondary metabolic complications, such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity and results in significant weight loss and the amelioration of obesity-related comorbidities through changes in enteroendocrine activity, caloric intake, and alterations in gut microbiota composition. The circadian system has recently been found to be a critical regulatory component in the control of metabolism and, thus, may potentially play an important role in inappropriate weight gain. Indeed, some behaviors and lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of obesity are also risk factors for misalignment in the circadian clock system and for the metabolic syndrome. It is thus possible that alterations in peripheral circadian clocks in metabolically relevant tissues are a contributor to the current obesity epidemic. As such, it is plausible that postsurgical alterations in central circadian alignment, as well as peripheral gene expression in metabolic tissues may represent another mechanism for the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery may represent an opportunity to identify changes in the circadian expression of clock genes that have been altered by environmental factors, allowing for a better understanding of the mechanism of action of surgery. These studies could also reveal an overlooked target for behavioral intervention to improve metabolic outcomes following bariatric surgery. PMID:27465735

  3. Simulated night shift work induces circadian misalignment of the human peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervezee, Laura; Cuesta, Marc; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2018-05-22

    Misalignment of the endogenous circadian timing system leads to disruption of physiological rhythms and may contribute to the development of the deleterious health effects associated with night shift work. However, the molecular underpinnings remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of a 4-day simulated night shift work protocol on the circadian regulation of the human transcriptome. Repeated blood samples were collected over two 24-hour measurement periods from eight healthy subjects under highly controlled laboratory conditions before and 4 days after a 10-hour delay of their habitual sleep period. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells to obtain transcriptomic data. Cosinor analysis revealed a marked reduction of significantly rhythmic transcripts in the night shift condition compared with baseline at group and individual levels. Subsequent analysis using a mixed-effects model selection approach indicated that this decrease is mainly due to dampened rhythms rather than to a complete loss of rhythmicity: 73% of transcripts rhythmically expressed at baseline remained rhythmic during the night shift condition with a similar phase relative to habitual bedtimes, but with lower amplitudes. Functional analysis revealed that key biological processes are affected by the night shift protocol, most notably the natural killer cell-mediated immune response and Jun/AP1 and STAT pathways. These results show that 4 days of simulated night shifts leads to a loss in temporal coordination between the human circadian transcriptome and the external environment and impacts biological processes related to the adverse health effects associated to night shift work.

  4. Misalignments of purpose and power in an early Canadian interprofessional education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sarah; Paradis, Elise; Cartmill, Carrie; Kuper, Ayelet; Boon, Heather; Hart, Corinne; Razack, Saleem; Pipher, Mandy; Whitehead, Cynthia R

    2017-12-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has been widely incorporated into health professional curricula and accreditation standards despite an arguably thin base of evidence regarding its clinical effects, theoretical underpinnings, and social implications. To better understand how and why IPE first took root, but failed to grow, this study examines one of the earliest documented IPE initiatives, which took place at the University of British Columbia between 1960 and 1975. We examined a subset of 110 texts (academic literature, grey literature, and unpublished records) from a larger study that uses Critical Discourse Analysis to trace the emergence of IPE in Canada. We asked how IPE was promoted and received, by whom, for what purposes, and to what effects. Our analysis demonstrates that IPE was promoted as a response to local challenges for the Faculty of Medicine as well as national challenges for Canada's emerging public healthcare system. These dual exigencies enabled the IPE initiative, but they shaped it in somewhat divergent ways: the former gave rise to its core component (a health sciences centre) and the latter its ultimate purpose (increasing the role of non-medical professions in primary care). Reception of the initiative was complicated by a further tension: nurses and allied health professionals were sometimes represented as independent experts with unique knowledge and skills, and sometimes as assistants or substitutes for medical doctors. We relate the successes and frustrations of this early initiative to particular (mis)alignments of purpose and relationships of power, some of which continue to enable and constrain IPE today.

  5. The effect of coil misalignment on particle transport in quasi-axisymmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akihiro; Okamura, Shoichi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Suzuki, Chihiro; Nishimura, Shin; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Nemov, Victor V.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the misalignment of modular coils neoclassical transport in CHS-qa is discussed in this paper. In order to calculate the effective helical ripple that characterizes the neoclassical transport of the stellarator configuration, NEO code is used which gives the effective helical ripple numerically. A displacement is put artificially on the modular coils of the CHS-qa, and the effect of this on the profile of the effective helical ripple is evaluated quantitatively. One objective of this study is to obtain useful information to determine the acceptable error level for the assembly of modular coils from the viewpoint of engineering. The calculation results of the NEO code show that if the level of displacement is smaller than a few centimeters, it has only a very small effect on the neoclassical transport. The a mount of change in the effective helical ripple is small. Therefore the displacement of the modular coils caused by the electromagnetic force at a 1.5 T operation of CHS-qa does not lead to significant problems in terms of neoclassical transport. (author)

  6. Misalignment of disposable pulse oximeter probes results in false saturation readings that influence anesthetic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhonghui; Baker, Keith; Sandberg, Warren S

    2009-11-01

    We report a small case series in which misaligned disposable pulse oximeter sensors gave falsely low saturation readings. In each instance, the sensor performed well during preinduction oxygen administration and the early part of the case, most notably by producing a plethysmographic trace rated as high quality by the oximeter software. The reported pulse oximeter oxygen saturation eventually decreased to concerning levels in each instance, but the anesthesiologists, relying on the reported high-quality signal, initially sought other causes for apparent hypoxia. They undertook maneuvers and diagnostic procedures later deemed unnecessary. When the malpositioned sensors were discovered and repositioned, the apparent hypoxia was quickly relieved in each case. We then undertook a survey of disposable oximeter sensors as patients entered the recovery room, and discovered malposition of more than 1 cm in approximately 20% of all sensors, without apparent consequence. We conclude that the technology is quite robust, but that the diagnosis of apparent hypoxia should include a quick check of oximeter position early on.

  7. Application of Improved 5th-Cubature Kalman Filter in Initial Strapdown Inertial Navigation System Alignment for Large Misalignment Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiyuan

    2018-02-23

    In view of the fact the accuracy of the third-degree Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) used for initial alignment under large misalignment angle conditions is insufficient, an improved fifth-degree CKF algorithm is proposed in this paper. In order to make full use of the innovation on filtering, the innovation covariance matrix is calculated recursively by an innovative sequence with an exponent fading factor. Then a new adaptive error covariance matrix scaling algorithm is proposed. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method is used for improving the numerical stability of the fifth-degree CKF in this paper. In order to avoid the overshoot caused by excessive scaling of error covariance matrix during the convergence stage, the scaling scheme is terminated when the gradient of azimuth reaches the maximum. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm has better alignment accuracy with large misalignment angles than the traditional algorithm.

  8. Scenarios for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegermark, H.; Bergmark, M.

    1995-06-01

    This project aims primarily to give a basis for the joint R and D program for the Swedish electric utility industry, in the form of pictures of the future up to 2020. The work was performed during four seminars in a group of managers and R and D planners. The four scenarios differ mainly in the assumptions of high or low economic growth and on market or political rule. Assumptions on essential uncertainties about the future have been combined in a consistent manner, e.g. on the structure of the utility industry, the role of nuclear power, the importance of the greenhouse gas issue, the influence of new technology developments and on changes of values in society. Certain other development appear in all scenarios, e.g. the impact of information technology throughout society, the internationalization of business in general and industrial production in particular, considerations for the environment and care for natural resources. The four scenarios are: 'Technology on the throne' (market rule/high growth); 'Intense competition' (market rule/low growth); 'Monopoly takes over' (political rule/high growth); and 'Green local society' (political rule/low growth). Some of the important factors pointed out by the study are: Increased customer mobility between regions and countries; The impact of information technology; Societal value changes; Sustainable development as an important driving force; Structure of the utility industry. Diversifying into new services. New players; Access to knowledge and competence; Ways for handling the greenhouse gas problem; Preparedness for nuclear power phase-out. 12 figs, 6 tabs

  9. ITER safety and operational scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Saji, G.

    1998-01-01

    The safety and environmental characteristics of ITER and its operational scenario are described. Fusion has built-in safety characteristics without depending on layers of safety protection systems. Safety considerations are integrated in the design by making use of the intrinsic safety characteristics of fusion adequate to the moderate hazard inventories. In addition to this, a systematic nuclear safety approach has been applied to the design of ITER. The safety assessment of the design shows how ITER will safely accommodate uncertainties, flexibility of plasma operations, and experimental components, which is fundamental in ITER, the first experimental fusion reactor. The operation of ITER will progress step by step from hydrogen plasma operation with low plasma current, low magnetic field, short pulse and low duty factor without fusion power to deuterium-tritium plasma operation with full plasma current, full magnetic field, long pulse and high duty factor with full fusion power. In each step, characteristics of plasma and optimization of plasma operation will be studied which will significantly reduce uncertainties and frequency/severity of plasma transient events in the next step. This approach enhances reliability of ITER operation. (orig.)

  10. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway....... The circle’s research program runs from 2014 to 2016 and is aimed at examining the concept of crisis as it is used today in academia and public discussion. In this collection of papers from the symposium we present some of the different ways in which the topic of the study group was addressed....

  11. Heat flux distribution and gyro-radius smoothing effect on misaligned CFC tile in the Tore Supra tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corre, Y.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gardarein, J.-L.; Gaspar, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Komm, Michael; Lipa, M.; Loarer, T.; Missirlian, M.; Rigollet, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 832-836 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Heat loads * IR thermography * misalignment * limiter Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002231151400720X

  12. r-Process nucleosynthesis from three-dimensional jet-driven core-collapse supernovae with magnetic misalignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Goni; Mösta, Philipp

    2018-06-01

    We investigate r-process nucleosynthesis in three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of jet-driven supernovae resulting from rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized core-collapse. We explore the effect of misaligning the pre-collapse magnetic field with respect to the rotation axis by performing four simulations: one aligned model and models with 15°, 30°, and 45° misalignments. The simulations we present employ a microphysical finite-temperature equation of state and a leakage scheme that captures the overall energetics and lepton number exchange due to post-bounce neutrino emission and absorption. We track the thermodynamic properties of the ejected material with Lagrangian tracer particles and analyse its composition with the nuclear reaction network SKYNET. By using different neutrino luminosities in post-processing the tracer data with SKYNET, we constrain the impact of uncertainties in neutrino luminosities. We find that, for the aligned model considered here, the use of an approximate leakage scheme results in neutrino luminosity uncertainties corresponding to a factor of 100-1000 uncertainty in the abundance of third peak r-process elements. Our results show that for misalignments of 30° or less, r-process elements are robustly produced as long as neutrino luminosities are reasonably low (≲ 5 × 1052 erg s-1). For a more extreme misalignment of 45°, we find the production of r-process elements beyond the second peak significantly reduced. We conclude that robust r-process nucleosynthesis in magnetorotational supernovae requires a progenitor stellar core with a large poloidal magnetic field component that is at least moderately (within ˜30°) aligned with the rotation axis.

  13. Making use of scenarios : supporting scenario use in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggreeni, Irene

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of Scenario-Based Product Design (SBPD) guides the use of scenarios in a product design process. As concrete narratives, scenarios could facilitate making explicit how users would use the designed product in their activities, allowing usability studies to be an integrated part of the

  14. EDITORIAL: Where next with global environmental scenarios? Where next with global environmental scenarios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian; Pulver, Simone; Van Deveer, Stacy; Garb, Yaakov

    2008-12-01

    Scenarios have become a standard tool in the portfolio of techniques that scientists and policy-makers use to envision and plan for the future. Defined as plausible, challenging and relevant stories about how the future might unfold that integrate quantitative models with qualitative assessments of social and political trends, scenarios are a central component in assessment processes for a range of global issues, including climate change, biodiversity, agriculture, and energy. Yet, despite their prevalence, systematic analysis of scenarios is in its beginning stages. Fundamental questions remain about both the epistemology and scientific credibility of scenarios and their roles in policymaking and social change. Answers to these questions have the potential to determine the future of scenario analyses. Is scenario analysis moving in the direction of earth system governance informed by global scenarios generated through increasingly complex and comprehensive models integrating socio-economic and earth systems? Or will global environmental scenario analyses lose favour compared to more focused, policy-driven, regionally specific modelling? These questions come at an important time for the climate change issue, given that the scenario community, catalyzed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is currently preparing to embark on a new round of scenario development processes aimed at coordinating research and assessment, and informing policy, over the next five to ten years. These and related questions about where next to go with global environmental scenarios animated a workshop held at Brown University (Note1) that brought together leading practitioners and scholars of global environmental change scenarios from research, policy-making, advocacy, and business settings. The workshop aimed to provide an overview of current practices/best practices in scenario production and scenario use across a range of global environmental change arenas. Participants

  15. On the Kendrick Mass Defect Plots of Multiply Charged Polymer Ions: Splits, Misalignments, and How to Correct Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry N. J.; Cody, Robert B.; Ozeki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    The Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analysis of multiply charged polymeric distributions has recently revealed a surprising isotopic split in their KMD plots—namely a 1/z difference between KMDs of isotopes of an oligomer at charge state z. Relying on the KMD analysis of actual and simulated distributions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the isotopic split is mathematically accounted for and found to go with an isotopic misalignment in certain cases. It is demonstrated that the divisibility (resp. indivisibility) of the nominal mass of the repeating unit (R) by z is the condition for homolog ions to line up horizontally (resp. misaligned obliquely) in a KMD plot. Computing KMDs using a fractional base unit R/z eventually corrects the misalignments for the associated charge state while using the least common multiple of all the charge states as the divisor realigns all the points at once. The isotopic split itself can be removed by using either a new charge-dependent KMD plot compatible with any fractional base unit or the remainders of KM (RKM) recently developed for low-resolution data all found to be linked in a unified theory. These original applications of the fractional base units and the RKM plots are of importance theoretically to satisfy the basics of a mass defect analysis and practically for a correct data handling of single stage and tandem mass spectra of multiply charged homo- and copolymers.

  16. An Autonomous Coil Alignment System for the Dynamic Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles to Minimize Lateral Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Hwang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an autonomous coil alignment system (ACAS for electric vehicles (EVs with dynamic wireless charging (DWC to mitigate the reduction in received power caused by lateral misalignment between the source and load coils. The key component of the ACAS is a novel sensor coil design, which can detect the load coil’s left or right position relative to the source coil by observing the change in voltage phase. This allows the lateral misalignment to be estimated through the wireless power transfer (WPT system alone, which is a novel tracking method for vehicular applications. Once misalignment is detected, the vehicle’s lateral position is self-adjusted by an autonomous steering function. The feasibility of the overall operation of the ACAS was verified through simulation and experiments. In addition, an analysis based on experimental results was conducted, demonstrating that 26% more energy can be transferred during DWC with the ACAS, just by keeping the vehicle’s load coil aligned with the source coil.

  17. Stepping into the virtual unknown: feasibility study of a virtual reality-based test of ocular misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesaratnam, N; Thomas, P; Vivian, A

    2017-10-01

    IntroductionDissociated tests of strabismus provide valuable information for diagnosis and monitoring of ocular misalignment in patients with normal retinal correspondence. However, they are vulnerable to operator error and rely on a fixed head position. Virtual reality headsets obviate the need for head fixation, while providing other clear theoretical advantages, including complete control over the illumination and targets presented for the patient's interaction.PurposeWe compared the performance of a virtual reality-based test of ocular misalignment to that of the traditional Lees screen, to establish the feasibility of using virtual reality technology in ophthalmic settings in the future.MethodsThree patients underwent a traditional Lees screen test, and a virtual reality headset-based test of ocular motility. The virtual reality headset-based programme consisted of an initial test to measure horizontal and vertical deviation, followed by a test for torsion.ResultsThe pattern of deviation obtained using the virtual reality-based test showed agreement with that obtained from the Lees screen for patients with a fourth nerve palsy, comitant esotropia, and restrictive thyroid eye disease.ConclusionsThis study reports the first use of a virtual reality headset in assessing ocular misalignment, and demonstrates that it is a feasible dissociative test of strabismus.

  18. ILC Operating Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.; Brau, J.; Fujii, K.; Gao, J.; List, J.; Walker, N.; Yokoya, K.; Collaboration: ILC Parameters Joint Working Group

    2015-06-15

    The ILC Technical Design Report documents the design for the construction of a linear collider which can be operated at energies up to 500 GeV. This report summarizes the outcome of a study of possible running scenarios, including a realistic estimate of the real time accumulation of integrated luminosity based on ramp-up and upgrade processes. The evolution of the physics outcomes is emphasized, including running initially at 500 GeV, then at 350 GeV and 250 GeV. The running scenarios have been chosen to optimize the Higgs precision measurements and top physics while searching for evidence for signals beyond the standard model, including dark matter. In addition to the certain precision physics on the Higgs and top that is the main focus of this study, there are scientific motivations that indicate the possibility for discoveries of new particles in the upcoming operations of the LHC or the early operation of the ILC. Follow-up studies of such discoveries could alter the plan for the centre-of-mass collision energy of the ILC and expand the scientific impact of the ILC physics program. It is envisioned that a decision on a possible energy upgrade would be taken near the end of the twenty year period considered in this report.

  19. Erosion scenarios for Wellenberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemenz, W.

    1993-09-01

    The proposed Wellenberg site for a radioactive waste repository is located between Altzellen in the Engelberger valley and the Oberrickenbach valley, in a thick Valanginian marl series. The marl is generally overlaid with unconsolidated rocks but reaches to the surface in some places. In contrast to the situation in the Oberbauenstock region this marl complex is not protected by an overlying erosion resistant series and exhibits a marked relief. The question therefore arises with respect to the Wellenberg site, to what extent will the marl (i.e. the repository host rock formation) be removed by erosion processes during the 100,000 years interval under consideration and what overburden will remain at the end of this period. This report presents the results of an investigation of the longterm behaviour of the proposed site in respect of those processes of erosion and deposition which can lead to changes in the terrain surface and its location relative to the repository. A wide range of possible scenarios encompassing different developments of climatic conditions during the 100,000 year period of interest, was investigated. In addition to the continuation of the present climate and the occurrence of a new ice age on the scale of the Wuerm glaciation the consequences of altered climatic conditions on erosion removal of the repository overburden were considered. Within the 100,000 year period of interest none of the scenarios considered leads to the exposure of the repository. (author) figs., tabs, refs

  20. Risk assessment of complex accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluegel, Jens-Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The use of methods of risk assessment in accidents in nuclear plants is based on an old tradition. The first consistent systematic study is considered to be the Rasmussen Study of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, WASH-1400. Above and beyond the realm of nuclear technology, there is an extensive range of accident, risk and reliability research into technical-administrative systems. In the past, it has been this area of research which has led to the development of concepts of safety precautions of the type also introduced into nuclear technology (barrier concept, defense in depth, single-failure criterion), where they are now taken for granted as trivial concepts. Also for risk analysis, nuclear technology made use of methods (such as event and fault tree analyses) whose origins were outside the nuclear field. One area in which the use of traditional methods of probabilistic safety analysis is encountering practical problems is risk assessment of complex accident scenarios in nuclear technology. A definition is offered of the term 'complex accident scenarios' in nuclear technology. A number of problems are addressed which arise in the use of traditional PSA procedures in risk assessment of complex accident scenarios. Cases of complex accident scenarios are presented to demonstrate methods of risk assessment which allow robust results to be obtained even when traditional techniques of risk analysis are maintained as a matter of principle. These methods are based on the use of conditional risk metrics. (orig.)

  1. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  2. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenarios for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios by applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained will be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic (common sense) approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities.

  3. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenario for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios ab applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained well be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities

  4. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenarios for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios by applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained will be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic (common sense) approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities

  5. Engaging Personas and Narrative Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate...... a distinktion between creating, writing and reading. Keywords: personas, scenarios, user-centered design, HCI...

  6. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

  7. Malocclusion in early anatomically modern human: a reflection on the etiology of modern dental misalignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sarig

    Full Text Available Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion. The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication. When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted. The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans (AMH (the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. 100,000 years; that there is no basis to the notion that early AMH had a better adjustment between teeth and jaw size; and that jaw-teeth size discrepancy could be found in prehistoric populations and is not a recent phenomenon.

  8. Simulations of the magnet misalignments, field errors and orbit correction for the SLC north arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheifets, S.; Chao, A.; Jaeger, J.; Shoaee, H.

    1983-11-01

    Given the intensity of linac bunches and their repetition rate the desired luminosity of SLC 1.0 x 10 30 cm -2 sec -1 requires focusing the interaction bunches to a spot size in the micrometer (μm) range. The lattice that achieves this goal is obtained by careful design of both the arcs and the final focus systems. For the micrometer range of the beam spot size both the second order geometric and chromatic aberrations may be completely destructive. The concept of second order achromat proved to be extremely important in this respect and the arcs are built essentially as a sequence of such achromats. Between the end of the linac and the interaction point (IP) there are three special sections in addition to the regular structure: matching section (MS) designed for matching the phase space from the linac to the arcs, reverse bend section (RB) which provides the matching when the sign of the curvature is reversed in the arc and the final focus system (FFS). The second order calculations are done by the program TURTLE. Using the TURTLE histogram in the x-y plane and assuming identical histogram for the south arc, corresponding 'luminosity' L is found. The simulation of the misalignments and error effects have to be done simultaneously with the design and simulation of the orbit correction scheme. Even after the orbit is corrected and the beam can be transmitted through the vacuum chamber, the focusing of the beam to the desired size at the IP remains a serious potential problem. It is found, as will be elaborated later, that even for the best achieved orbit correction, additional corrections of the dispersion function and possibly transfer matrix are needed. This report describes a few of the presently conceived correction schemes and summarizes some results of computer simulations done for the SLC north arc. 8 references, 12 figures, 6 tables

  9. Specimen's plane misaligned installation solution based on charge fluctuation inside SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haojian; Liu, Yanting; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Panbing; Shen, Yajing

    2018-04-01

    Precise specimen's installation is a sticking point to ensure the characterization accuracy of the in-situ material property test. Although it is common knowledge that specimen's plane misaligned installation (PMI) would cause extra force loading during mechanical testing, there are few effective solutions available to deal with it at the current stage, especially during the in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test. Taking into consideration the charge fluctuation phenomenon under SEM, this paper proposes a highlight area variation (HAV) method for specimen deformation judgment, i.e., the specimen deformation is defined when the highlight area changes greater than 20% of the initial value of the specimen surface. Three types of specimens with different resistivities, i.e., human hair (electrical resistivity ˜3 × 1012 Ω cm), optical fiber (electrical resistivity ˜1017 Ω cm), and magnetic wire (electrical resistivity ˜2 × 10-5 Ω cm), are chosen to verify the effectiveness of the HAV method. Furthermore, combined with the developed robot-aided alignment system, the specimen's PMI problem can also be solved. In the demonstration, the human hair specimen is installed across two specimen stages and its in-situ twisting (in 360°) test is implemented. The results clearly indicate that the HAV method and the robot-aided alignment system are practical and reliable, and the specimen can be aligned on the same plane and installed precisely with accuracy up to 3 μm. This method will benefit the in-situ SEM material mechanical property test and has a significant impact in fundamental material research.

  10. The design of remote discharge scenario management system on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, W.T, E-mail: wtchai@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yuan, Q.P; Zhang, R.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The remote discharge scenario management system is established on EAST, it provides some useful function for operators to manage discharge scenarios and formulate discharge schedule. • Operators can use this system to formulate discharge schedule on account of it can electing optimal scenarios automatically. • The system is not only for local user but also for remote user. • In the future, we can combine with actual discharge data and data mining technology to acquire optimal configuration, which to generate expert database and guiding experiment. - Abstract: The discharge scenarios on EAST plasma control system (PCS), characterized by different waveform parameters and different hardware requirements, will need a systematic discharge scenario management system for remote and local operators, in order to optimize storage structure and rationally manage discharge time. The remote management of discharge scenarios will require extending the functionalities of the present PCS “future shot” and “next shot” modules. Taking advantage of database technique, the operators can acquire detail information of all discharge scenarios directly without PCS user interface and search the specified scenarios by key words. In addition, the system can elect optimal scenarios automatically based on discharge schedule and plasma pulse setting for later artificial selection. To this purpose, a new remote discharge scenario management system (RDSMS) basis for Web is being conceived on EAST. The system contains a database with functions of “user management”, “scenario verification”, “prepared scenario management”, “actual discharge scenario management” and “discharge schedule management”. This paper will present the relevant conceptual design and give an account of the test results for implementation on EAST discharges.

  11. The design of remote discharge scenario management system on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, W.T; Xiao, B.J; Yuan, Q.P; Zhang, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The remote discharge scenario management system is established on EAST, it provides some useful function for operators to manage discharge scenarios and formulate discharge schedule. • Operators can use this system to formulate discharge schedule on account of it can electing optimal scenarios automatically. • The system is not only for local user but also for remote user. • In the future, we can combine with actual discharge data and data mining technology to acquire optimal configuration, which to generate expert database and guiding experiment. - Abstract: The discharge scenarios on EAST plasma control system (PCS), characterized by different waveform parameters and different hardware requirements, will need a systematic discharge scenario management system for remote and local operators, in order to optimize storage structure and rationally manage discharge time. The remote management of discharge scenarios will require extending the functionalities of the present PCS “future shot” and “next shot” modules. Taking advantage of database technique, the operators can acquire detail information of all discharge scenarios directly without PCS user interface and search the specified scenarios by key words. In addition, the system can elect optimal scenarios automatically based on discharge schedule and plasma pulse setting for later artificial selection. To this purpose, a new remote discharge scenario management system (RDSMS) basis for Web is being conceived on EAST. The system contains a database with functions of “user management”, “scenario verification”, “prepared scenario management”, “actual discharge scenario management” and “discharge schedule management”. This paper will present the relevant conceptual design and give an account of the test results for implementation on EAST discharges.

  12. Designing and Evaluating Conative Game-Based Learning Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønau-Fog, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    It is an essential prerequisite to design for motivation in game-based learning applications, tools and activities. However, how is it possible to design and evaluate motivational game-based learning scenarios in a systematic process-oriented manner based on conation and player engagement? While...... of ‘continuation desire’ such as interfacing with the scenario, exploration and socialising. This paper aims to combine the concepts of Player Engagement, Conation and Continuation Desire by focusing on the conative aspects which are the essential drivers for the desire to continue any learning activity......-based learning scenarios....

  13. Scenario development and analysis in JNC'S second progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, H.; Makino, H.; Miyahara, K.; Naito, M.

    2001-01-01

    Scenario development and analysis is an integral part of the performance assessment in the JNC's second progress report which will be issued by the end of November 1999. A systematic approach has been elaborated to ensure traceability and transparency in overall context of the scenario development and set up of calculation cases for assessment of the repository performance. In this approach, the hierarchical FEP matrix was designed to flexibly identify FEPs at different level of detail. The reasoned argument with clearly defined criteria was then applied for screening and grouping of FEPs to define scenarios in the form of influence diagrams. Scenarios and calculation cases were developed based on the expected safety functions of disposal system and relationships with potential detrimental/favorable factors and perturbation factors. The process to develop scenarios and calculation cases are recorded and managed in a computer system. (authors)

  14. Scenario planning and nanotechnological futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, Darryl; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2009-01-01

    Scenario planning may assist us in harnessing the benefits of nanotechnology and managing the associated risks for the good of the society. Scenario planning is a way to describe the present state of the world and develop several hypotheses about the future of the world, thereby enabling discussions about how the world ought to be. Scenario planning thus is not only a tool for learning and foresight, but also for leadership. Informed decision making by experts and political leaders becomes possible, while simultaneously allaying the public's perception of the risks of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. Two scenarios of the societal impact of nanotechnology are the mixed-signals scenario and the confluence scenario. Technoscientists have major roles to play in both scenarios.

  15. Strategic Scenario Construction Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    insights from the area of strategic forecasting (of which scenario planning is a proper subset) and experiences gained from a recent course in that area to develop a simpler, more direct, hands-on method for scenario construction and to provide several ideas for scenario construction that can be used......Scenario planning is a well-known way to develop corporate strategy by creating multiple images of alternative futures. Yet although scenario planning grew from very hands-on strategy development efforts in the military and from operations research dedicated to solving practical problems, the use...... of scenarios in business has, in many cases, remained a cumbersome affair. Very often a large group of consultants, employees and staff is involved in the development of scenarios and strategies, thus making the whole process expensive in terms of time, money and human resources. In response, this article uses...

  16. The changing nutrition scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  17. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  18. A pseudo-penalized quasi-likelihood approach to the spatial misalignment problem with non-normal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopiano, Kenneth K; Young, Linda J; Gotway, Carol A

    2014-09-01

    Spatially referenced datasets arising from multiple sources are routinely combined to assess relationships among various outcomes and covariates. The geographical units associated with the data, such as the geographical coordinates or areal-level administrative units, are often spatially misaligned, that is, observed at different locations or aggregated over different geographical units. As a result, the covariate is often predicted at the locations where the response is observed. The method used to align disparate datasets must be accounted for when subsequently modeling the aligned data. Here we consider the case where kriging is used to align datasets in point-to-point and point-to-areal misalignment problems when the response variable is non-normally distributed. If the relationship is modeled using generalized linear models, the additional uncertainty induced from using the kriging mean as a covariate introduces a Berkson error structure. In this article, we develop a pseudo-penalized quasi-likelihood algorithm to account for the additional uncertainty when estimating regression parameters and associated measures of uncertainty. The method is applied to a point-to-point example assessing the relationship between low-birth weights and PM2.5 levels after the onset of the largest wildfire in Florida history, the Bugaboo scrub fire. A point-to-areal misalignment problem is presented where the relationship between asthma events in Florida's counties and PM2.5 levels after the onset of the fire is assessed. Finally, the method is evaluated using a simulation study. Our results indicate the method performs well in terms of coverage for 95% confidence intervals and naive methods that ignore the additional uncertainty tend to underestimate the variability associated with parameter estimates. The underestimation is most profound in Poisson regression models. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed [it

  20. Learning from global emissions scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, Brian C; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2008-01-01

    Scenarios of global greenhouse gas emissions have played a key role in climate change analysis for over twenty years. Currently, several research communities are organizing to undertake a new round of scenario development in the lead-up to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To help inform this process, we assess a number of past efforts to develop and learn from sets of global greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. We conclude that while emissions scenario exercises have likely had substantial benefits for participating modeling teams and produced insights from individual models, learning from the exercises taken as a whole has been more limited. Model comparison exercises have typically focused on the production of large numbers of scenarios while investing little in assessing the results or the production process, perhaps on the assumption that later assessment efforts could play this role. However, much of this assessment potential remains untapped. Efforts such as scenario-related chapters of IPCC reports have been most informative when they have gone to extra lengths to carry out more specific comparison exercises, but in general these assessments do not have the remit or resources to carry out the kind of detailed analysis of scenario results necessary for drawing the most useful conclusions. We recommend that scenario comparison exercises build-in time and resources for assessing scenario results in more detail at the time when they are produced, that these exercises focus on more specific questions to improve the prospects for learning, and that additional scenario assessments are carried out separately from production exercises. We also discuss the obstacles to better assessment that might exist, and how they might be overcome. Finally, we recommend that future work include much greater emphasis on understanding how scenarios are actually used, as a guide to improving scenario production.

  1. Spectral function calculation of angle wakes, wake moments, and misalignment wakes for the SLAC Damped Detuned Structures (DDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.; Kroll, N.M.

    1997-05-01

    Transverse wake functions so far reported for the SLAC DDS have been limited to those caused by uniform offset of the drive beam in a straight perfectly aligned structure. The complete description of the betatron oscillations of wake coupled bunches requires an array of wake functions, referred to as moments. Modifications of these arrays induced by structure misalignments are also of interest. In this paper we express the array elements in terms of a spectral function array. Examples are given based upon DDS1

  2. The Substellar Companion ROXs12 B: Near-Infrared Spectrum, System Architecture, and Spin-Orbit Misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan; Kraus, Adam L.; Bryan, Marta; Knutson, Heather; Brogi, Matteo; Rizzuto, Aaron; Mace, Gregory N.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Liu, Michael C.; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Cieza, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    ROXs 12 B is a substellar companion near the deuterium-burning limit orbiting a young star in Ophiuchus/Upper Scorpius. We present moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of this little-studied object, which shows clear evidence of low surface gravity and youth. Although ROXs 12 B does not possess obvious signs of a circumplanetary disk, we find that at least half of young (alignment in this system. The rotation axis of ROXs 12 A and the orbital axis of ROXs 12 B are likely misaligned, suggesting this companion formed more akin to fragmenting binary stars than planets in an equatorial disk.

  3. Energy scenarios for New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G. S.; Ellis, M. J.; Scott, G. C.; Wood, J. R.

    1977-10-15

    Three energy scenarios have been formulated for New Zealand. They concentrate on those aspects of society which have a direct bearing on energy, emphasizing three important issues: major shifts in society's values in relation to material wealth, pollution, and resources. The scenarios make assumptions that certain overall social conditions would prevail so that all decisions of government, the private sector, and individuals would be governed by the requirement to conform to the scenario theme in a way not possible under existing social and political conditions. The 3 scenarios are known as Continuation, Low New Zealand Pollution, and Limited Growth.

  4. Constraints on SU2xU1 breaking by vacuum misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.

    1984-01-01

    We examine a proposal of Georgi and Kaplan for raising the scale of technicolor. In scalarless vectorlike technicolor models with massless techni-fermions we show that the proposal does not work. We present a simple model which realizes the Georgi-Kaplan scenario with a partially chiral technicolor group. The model requires fine tuning of the ratio of two weak coupling constants with an accuracy of O(10 -4 ). We argue that the fine-tuning problem is quite general. (orig.)

  5. Systematic and non-systematic effects of the uncertainty of the sample position in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, T.; Korun, M.

    2004-01-01

    When cylindrical samples placed coaxially with the detector are measured on a gamma-ray spectrometer, the position of the sample very often deviates from an ideal one with the axes of the sample and the detector less than perfectly aligned. If a calibrated source is used prior to the measurement and is presumed to have been positioned correctly, one might conclude that the misalignment of the measured sample should result in an uncertainty of the reported nuclide activity, since the efficiencies of the sample and the calibrated source are effectively different due to the difference in placement. The efficiency of a displaced cylindrical sample, however, is always lower than the one of a sample that is perfectly aligned. The net effect of misalignment can therefore be not only an increase in the uncertainty of the activity, but also a systematic error in its evaluation. Since the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement requires that all such systematic effects be corrected for, we have developed a method to assess the change in the efficiency resulting from misalignment and to introduce the required correction. The calculation of this correction only requires knowledge of basic sample and detector data. The uncertainty of the reported activity can then also be assessed and is influenced by the uncertainty of the efficiency evaluated around its new, corrected value. An appropriate expression for this uncertainty has been derived

  6. Implementation of a cone-beam reconstruction algorithm for the single-circle source orbit with embedded misalignment correction using homogeneous coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolczak, Marek; Schaller, Stefan; Engelke, Klaus; Lutz, Andreas; Taubenreuther, Ulrike; Wiesent, Karl; Kalender, Willi

    2001-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of an approximate cone-beam image reconstruction algorithm for application in tomography, which accounts for scanner mechanical misalignment. The implementation is based on the algorithm proposed by Feldkamp et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 612-619 (1984)] and is directed at circular scan paths. The algorithm has been developed for the purpose of reconstructing volume data from projections acquired in an experimental x-ray microtomography (μCT) scanner [Engelke et al., Der Radiologe 39, 203-212 (1999)]. To mathematically model misalignment we use matrix notation with homogeneous coordinates to describe the scanner geometry, its misalignment, and the acquisition process. For convenience analysis is carried out for x-ray CT scanners, but it is applicable to any tomographic modality, where two-dimensional projection acquisition in cone beam geometry takes place, e.g., single photon emission computerized tomography. We derive an algorithm assuming misalignment errors to be small enough to weight and filter original projections and to embed compensation for misalignment in the backprojection. We verify the algorithm on simulations of virtual phantoms and scans of a physical multidisk (Defrise) phantom

  7. Automated Analysis of Infinite Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    The security of a network protocol crucially relies on the scenario in which the protocol is deployed. This paper describes syntactic constructs for modelling network scenarios and presents an automated analysis tool, which can guarantee that security properties hold in all of the (infinitely many...

  8. Multiscale scenarios for nature futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, Isabel M.D.; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Ferrier, Simon; Alkemade, J.R.M.; Acosta, Lilibeth A.; Resit Akcakaya, H.; Belder, den E.; Fazel, Asghar M.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harfoot, Mike; Harhash, Khaled A.; Harrison, Paula A.; Hauck, Jennifer; Hendriks, Rob J.J.; Hernández, Gladys; Jetz, Walter; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Kim, Hyejin; King, Nicholas; Kok, Marcel; Kolomytsev, Grygoriy O.; Lazarova, Tanya; Leadley, Paul; Lundquist, Carolyn J.; García Márquez, Jaime; Meyer, Carsten; Navarro, Laetitia M.; Nesshöver, Carsten; Ngo, Hien T.; Ninan, Karachepone N.; Palomo, Maria G.; Pereira, Laura; Peterson, G.D.; Pichs, Ramon; Popp, Alexander; Purvis, Andy; Ravera, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo; Sathyapalan, Jyothis; Schipper, Aafke; Seppelt, Ralf; Settele, Josef; Sitas, Nadia; Vuuren, van D.

    2017-01-01

    Targets for human development are increasingly connected with targets for nature, however, existing scenarios do not explicitly address this relationship. Here, we outline a strategy to generate scenarios centred on our relationship
    with nature to inform decision-making at multiple scales.

  9. Multiscale scenarios for nature futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, Isabel M.D.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Ferrier, Simon; Alkemade, Rob; Acosta, Lilibeth A.; Akcakaya, H. Resit; Den Belder, Eefje; Fazel, Asghar M.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harfoot, Mike; Harhash, Khaled A.; Harrison, Paula A.; Hauck, Jennifer; Hendriks, Rob J.J.; Hernández, Gladys; Jetz, Walter; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I.; Kim, Hyejin; King, Nicholas; Kok, Marcel T.J.; Kolomytsev, Grygoriy O.; Lazarova, Tanya; Leadley, Paul; Lundquist, Carolyn J.; García Márquez, Jaime; Meyer, Carsten; Navarro, Laetitia M.; Nesshöver, Carsten; Ngo, Hien T.; Ninan, Karachepone N.; Palomo, Maria G.; Pereira, Laura M.; Peterson, Garry D.; Pichs, Ramon; Popp, Alexander; Purvis, Andy; Ravera, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo; Sathyapalan, Jyothis; Schipper, Aafke M.; Seppelt, Ralf; Settele, Josef; Sitas, Nadia; Van Vuuren, Detlef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    Targets for human development are increasingly connected with targets for nature, however, existing scenarios do not explicitly address this relationship. Here, we outline a strategy to generate scenarios centred on our relationship with nature to inform decision-making at multiple scales.

  10. Energy scenarios: a prospective outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, Thierry; Claustre, Raphael; Charru, Madeleine; Sukov, Stephane; Marignac, Yves; Fink, Meike; Bibas, Ruben; Le Saux, Gildas

    2011-01-01

    A set of articles discusses the use of energy scenarios: how useful they can be to describe a possible future and even to gather the involved actors, how they have been used in France in the past (for planning or prediction purposes, with sometimes some over-assessed or contradictory results, without considering any decline of nuclear energy, or by setting an impossible equation in the case of the Grenelle de l'Environnement), how the scenario framework impacts its content (depending on the approach type: standard, optimization, bottom-up, top-down, or hybrid). It also discusses the issue of choice of hypotheses on growth-based and de-growth-based scenarios, outlines how energy saving is a key for a sustainable evolution. Two German scenarios regarding electricity production (centralisation or decentralisation) and French regional scenarios for Nord-Pas-de-Calais are then briefly discussed

  11. Dechanneling measurements of defect depth profiles and effective cross-channel distribution of misaligned atoms in ion irradiated gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronko, P.P.

    1975-01-01

    Defect depth profiles for self ion and He + irradiated gold are obtained from single and multiple scatter dechanneling analysis in single crystal gold films. Quantitative defect densities are obtained through use of atomic scattering cross sections. Integral damage profiles are extracted from the dechanneling spectra and subsequently differentiated to yield the volume concentration of defects as a function of depth. Results from the self ion irradiations suggest that incident ions produce defect distributions across depths much greater than predicted by random stopping theory. This is in agreement with TEM observations of others. Comparison of the experimental profiles is made with theoretical vacancy distributions predicted by defect diffusion in a radiation environment. Similarities are observed for the low fluence irradiations suggesting that profile characteristics may be controlled by rapid migration and loss of interstitials to the film surfaces during irradiation. Information on the across-channel distribution of misaligned atoms in the damaged films is obtained with the steady increase of transverse energy model applied to the dechanneling spectra. A predominance of slight misalignment is observed with no contribution to dechanneling coming from atoms displaced significantly close to the center of the channels. This is in keeping with what is expected for crystal distortions caused by the strain fields associated with vacancy cluster defects

  12. Dechanneling measurements of defect depth profiles and effective cross-channel distribution of misaligned atoms in ion-irradiated gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronko, P.P.

    1976-01-01

    Defect depth profiles for self-ion and He + irradiated gold are obtained from single and multiple scatter dechanneling analysis in single-crystal gold films. Quantitative defect densities are obtained through use of atomic-scattering cross sections. Integral damage profiles are extracted from the dechanneling spectra and subsequently differentiated to yield the volume concentration of defects as a function of depth. Results from the self-ion irradiations suggest that incident ions produce defect distributions across depths much greater than predicted by random stopping theory. This is in agreement with TEM observations of others. Comparison of the experimental profiles is made with theoretical vacancy distributions predicted by defect diffusion in a radiation environment. Similarities are observed for the low-fluence irradiations, suggesting that profile characteristics may be controlled by rapid migration and loss of interstitials to the film surfaces during irradiation. Information on the across-channel distribution of misaligned atoms in the damaged films is obtained with the steady increase of transverse energy model. A predominance of slight misalignment is observed with no contribution to dechanneling coming from atoms displaced significantly close to the center of the channels. This is in keeping with what is expected for crystal distortions caused by the strain fields associated with vacancy cluster defects. (Auth.)

  13. Orbital alignment of circumbinary planets that form in misaligned circumbinary discs: the case of Kepler-413b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierens, A.; Nelson, R. P.

    2018-06-01

    Although most of the circumbinary planets detected by the Kepler spacecraft are on orbits that are closely aligned with the binary orbital plane, the systems Kepler-413 and Kepler-453 exhibit small misalignments of ˜2.5°. One possibility is that these planets formed in a circumbinary disc whose midplane was inclined relative to the binary orbital plane. Such a configuration is expected to lead to a warped and twisted disc, and our aim is to examine the inclination evolution of planets embedded in these discs. We employed 3D hydrodynamical simulations that examine the disc response to the presence of a modestly inclined binary with parameters that match the Kepler-413 system, as a function of disc parameters and binary inclinations. The discs all develop slowly varying warps, and generally display very small amounts of twist. Very slow solid body precession occurs because a large outer disc radius is adopted. Simulations of planets embedded in these discs resulted in the planet aligning with the binary orbit plane for disc masses close to the minimum mass solar nebular, such that nodal precession of the planet was controlled by the binary. For higher disc masses, the planet maintains near coplanarity with the local disc midplane. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets born in tilted circumbinary discs should align with the binary orbit plane as the disc ages and loses mass, even if the circumbinary disc remains misaligned from the binary orbit. This result has important implications for understanding the origins of the known circumbinary planets.

  14. Inferences about Supernova Physics from Gravitational-Wave Measurements: GW151226 Spin Misalignment as an Indicator of Strong Black-Hole Natal Kicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Gerosa, Davide; Wysocki, Daniel

    2017-07-07

    The inferred parameters of the binary black hole GW151226 are consistent with nonzero spin for the most massive black hole, misaligned from the binary's orbital angular momentum. If the black holes formed through isolated binary evolution from an initially aligned binary star, this misalignment would then arise from a natal kick imparted to the first-born black hole at its birth during stellar collapse. We use simple kinematic arguments to constrain the characteristic magnitude of this kick, and find that a natal kick v_{k}≳50  km/s must be imparted to the black hole at birth to produce misalignments consistent with GW151226. Such large natal kicks exceed those adopted by default in most of the current supernova and binary evolution models.

  15. Effect of Difference-frequency Forces on the Dynamics of a Semi-submersible Type FVAWT in Misaligned Wave-wind Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Cheng, Zhengshun; Moan, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    With increasing interests in the development of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (FVAWTs), a large amount of studies on the FVAWTs have been conducted. This paper focuses on evaluating the effect of second-order difference-frequency force on the dynamics of a 5 MW FVAWT in misaligned...... wave-wind condition. The studied FVAWT is composed of a 5 MW Darrieus rotor, a semi-submersible floater and a catenary mooring system. Fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations were conducted using the state-of-art code Simo- Riflex-DMS. Several misaligned wave-wind conditions were selected...... to investigate the global dynamic responses of the FVAWT, such as the platform motions, structural responses and mooring line tensions. It has been found that the wave-wind misalignment does not significantly affect the mean values of the global responses since the global responses are primarily wind...

  16. Dying scenarios improve recall as much as survival scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Kramer, Melanie E

    2014-01-01

    Merely contemplating one's death improves retention for entirely unrelated material learned subsequently. This "dying to remember" effect seems conceptually related to the survival processing effect, whereby processing items for their relevance to being stranded in the grasslands leads to recall superior to that of other deep processing control conditions. The present experiments directly compared survival processing scenarios with "death processing" scenarios. Results showed that when the survival and dying scenarios are closely matched on key dimensions, and possible congruency effects are controlled, the dying and survival scenarios produced equivalently high recall levels. We conclude that the available evidence (cf. Bell, Roer, & Buchner, 2013; Klein, 2012), while not definitive, is consistent with the possibility of overlapping mechanisms.

  17. Economic assessment of energetic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Alain; Bureau, Dominique; Schubert, Katheline; Henriet, Fanny; Maggiar, Nicolas; Criqui, Patrick; Le Teno, Helene; Baumstark, Luc; Crassous, Renaud; Roques, Fabien

    2013-09-01

    This publication gathers contributions proposed by different members of the Economic Council for a Sustainable Development (CEDD) on the issue of energy transition, and more precisely on scenarios elaborated with respect to energy transition. A first set of contributions addresses models of energy transition (assessment of scenario costs to reach a factor 4; the issue of de-carbonation of energy consumption; study of ELECsim, a tool to highlight costs of scenarios of evolution of the electric power system). The second part addresses arbitrations and choice assessment (the importance of social and economic impacts of scenarios; challenges related to the joint definition of the discount rate and of the evolution of carbon value in time; the issue of assessment of the integration of renewable energies into the power system)

  18. Scenarios, targets, gaps, and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, James A.; Joos, Fortunat; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Richels, Richard G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2005-03-30

    This paper explores the connection between human activities and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. t explores the implication of the wide range of emissions scenarios developed by the IPCC in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and concludes that a robust finding is that major changes will be required in the global energy system if the concentration of carbon dioxide is eventually to be stabilized.

  19. Italian energy scenarios: Markal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Energy scenarios carried out through formal models comply with scientific criteria such as internal coherence and transparency. Besides, Markal methodology allows a good understanding of the complex nature of the energy system. The business-as-usual scenario carried out through the Markal-Italy model shows that structural changes occurring in end-use sectors will continue to drive up energy consumption, in spite of the slow economic growth and the quite high energy prices [it

  20. Scenarios for remote gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, Grethe; Molnvik, Mona J.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of natural gas resources accessible via proven production technology and existing infrastructure is declining. Therefore, smaller and less accessible gas fields are considered for commercial exploitation. The research project Enabling production of remote gas builds knowledge and technology aiming at developing competitive remote gas production based on floating LNG and chemical gas conversion. In this project, scenarios are used as basis for directing research related to topics that affect the overall design and operation of such plants. Selected research areas are safety, environment, power supply, operability and control. The paper summarises the scenario building process as a common effort among research institutes and industry. Further, it documents four scenarios for production of remote gas and outlines how the scenarios are applied to establish research strategies and adequate plans in a multidisciplinary project. To ensure relevance of the scenarios, it is important to adapt the building process to the current problem and the scenarios should be developed with extensive participation of key personnel.

  1. Anisotropic superconducting properties and fabrication of submicrometre bridges in misaligned Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (2212) films

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, M; Usami, K; Goto, T; Kobayashi, T

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report on misaligned Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (2212) films that have been deposited on vicinal strontium titanate substrates using a dc sputtering system. We measured the temperature dependences of resistivity across and along the terrace, and only the resistivity across the terrace slightly decreased with the increase of the temperature in the normal state region. The estimated anisotropy parameter gamma was smaller than that of single crystal, but a significant anisotropy was observed. Submicrometre bridges were fabricated, and the temperature dependence of the critical current density was investigated. The value of the critical current density across the terrace is smaller than the value of that along the terrace. This suggests that the current partially flows along the c-axis. However, a multi-branch structure was not observed even after post annealing in oxygen atmosphere at low pressure.

  2. Autotransplantation of a Supernumerary Tooth to Replace a Misaligned Incisor with Abnormal Dimensions and Morphology: 2-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ebru Tirali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation is a viable treatment option to restore esthetics and function impaired by abnormally shaped teeth when a suitable donors tooth is available. This paper describes the autotransplantation and 2-year follow-up of a supernumerary maxillary incisor as a replacement to a misaligned maxillary incisor with abnormal crown morphology and size. The supernumerary incisor was immediately autotransplanted into the extraction site of the large incisor and was stabilized with a bonded semirigid splint for 2 weeks. Fixed orthodontic therapy was initiated 3 months after autotransplantation. Ideal alignment of the incisors was accomplished after 6 months along with radiographic evidence of apical closure and osseous/periodontal regeneration. In autogenous tooth transplantation, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved if the cases are selected and treated properly.

  3. The extended wedge method: atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, H S; Burris, D L

    2013-05-01

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS2 to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS2 had friction coefficients of μ = 0.20 ± 0.04 and μ = 0.006 ± 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS2 had a friction coefficient of μ = 0.005 ± 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  4. SU-E-J-45: The Correlation Between CBCT Flat Panel Misalignment and 3D Image Guidance Accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenton, O; Valdes, G; Yin, L; Teo, B; Brousmiche, S; Wikler, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To simulate the impact of CBCT flat panel misalignment on the image quality, the calculated correction vectors in 3D image guided proton therapy and to determine if these calibration errors can be caught in our QA process. Methods The X-ray source and detector geometrical calibration (flexmap) file of the CBCT system in the AdaPTinsight software (IBA proton therapy) was edited to induce known changes in the rotational and translational calibrations of the imaging panel. Translations of up to ±10 mm in the x, y and z directions (see supplemental) and rotational errors of up to ±3° were induced. The calibration files were then used to reconstruct the CBCT image of a pancreatic patient and CatPhan phantom. Correction vectors were calculated for the patient using the software’s auto match system and compared to baseline values. The CatPhan CBCT images were used for quantitative evaluation of image quality for each type of induced error. Results Translations of 1 to 3 mm in the x and y calibration resulted in corresponding correction vector errors of equal magnitude. Similar 10mm shifts were seen in the y-direction; however, in the x-direction, the image quality was too degraded for a match. These translational errors can be identified through differences in isocenter from orthogonal kV images taken during routine QA. Errors in the z-direction had no effect on the correction vector and image quality.Rotations of the imaging panel calibration resulted in corresponding correction vector rotations of the patient images. These rotations also resulted in degraded image quality which can be identified through quantitative image quality metrics. Conclusion Misalignment of CBCT geometry can lead to incorrect translational and rotational patient correction vectors. These errors can be identified through QA of the imaging isocenter as compared to orthogonal images combined with monitoring of CBCT image quality

  5. Sensitivity of 3D Dose Verification to Multileaf Collimator Misalignments in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Spinal Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Ye, Ni; Ren, Lei; Yan, Hui; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to detect the sensitivity of Delt 4 on ordinary field multileaf collimator misalignments, system misalignments, random misalignments, and misalignments caused by gravity of the multileaf collimator in stereotactic body radiation therapy. (1) Two field sizes, including 2.00 cm (X) × 6.00 cm (Y) and 7.00 cm (X) × 6.00 cm (Y), were set. The leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator were simultaneously opened. (2) Three cases of stereotactic body radiation therapy of spinal tumor were used. The dose of the planning target volume was 1800 cGy with 3 fractions. The 4 types to be simulated included (1) the leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator were simultaneously opened, (2) only X1 of the multileaf collimator and the unilateral leaf were opened, (3) the leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator were randomly opened, and (4) gravity effect was simulated. The leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator shifted to the same direction. The difference between the corresponding 3-dimensional dose distribution measured by Delt 4 and the dose distribution in the original plan made in the treatment planning system was analyzed with γ index criteria of 3.0 mm/3.0%, 2.5 mm/2.5%, 2.0 mm/2.0%, 2.5 mm/1.5%, and 1.0 mm/1.0%. (1) In the field size of 2.00 cm (X) × 6.00 cm (Y), the γ pass rate of the original was 100% with 2.5 mm/2.5% as the statistical standard. The pass rate decreased to 95.9% and 89.4% when the X1 and X2 directions of the multileaf collimator were opened within 0.3 and 0.5 mm, respectively. In the field size of 7.00 (X) cm × 6.00 (Y) cm with 1.5 mm/1.5% as the statistical standard, the pass rate of the original was 96.5%. After X1 and X2 of the multileaf collimator were opened within 0.3 mm, the pass rate decreased to lower than 95%. The pass rate was higher than 90% within the 3 mm opening. (2) For spinal tumor, the change in the planning target volume V 18 under various modes calculated using treatment planning system

  6. Improving risk assessment by defining consistent and reliable system scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mazzorana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the entire procedure of risk assessment for hydrologic hazards, the selection of consistent and reliable scenarios, constructed in a strictly systematic way, is fundamental for the quality and reproducibility of the results. However, subjective assumptions on relevant impact variables such as sediment transport intensity on the system loading side and weak point response mechanisms repeatedly cause biases in the results, and consequently affect transparency and required quality standards. Furthermore, the system response of mitigation measures to extreme event loadings represents another key variable in hazard assessment, as well as the integral risk management including intervention planning. Formative Scenario Analysis, as a supplement to conventional risk assessment methods, is a technique to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a specific case and the potential system behaviour. By two case studies, carried out (1 to analyse sediment transport dynamics in a torrent section equipped with control measures, and (2 to identify hazards induced by woody debris transport at hydraulic weak points, the applicability of the Formative Scenario Analysis technique is presented. It is argued that during scenario planning in general and with respect to integral risk management in particular, Formative Scenario Analysis allows for the development of reliable and reproducible scenarios in order to design more specifically an application framework for the sustainable assessment of natural hazards impact. The overall aim is to optimise the hazard mapping and zoning procedure by methodologically integrating quantitative and qualitative knowledge.

  7. Social Foundation of Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowland, Nicholas James; Spaniol, Matthew Jon

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors establish that models of scenario planning typically involve a series of phases, stages, or steps that imply a sequenced (i.e., linear or chronological) process. Recursive models, in contrast, allow phases to repeat, thus, incorporating iteration. The authors acknowle......In this article, the authors establish that models of scenario planning typically involve a series of phases, stages, or steps that imply a sequenced (i.e., linear or chronological) process. Recursive models, in contrast, allow phases to repeat, thus, incorporating iteration. The authors...... from science and technology studies (STS) on knowledge production, the authors explain transition from one phase to the next and iteration between and within phases based on social negotiation. To this end, the authors examine the interplay between the “scenario development” phase and the “scenario use......” phase of a planning process with a non-governmental organization in Denmark. The upshot for facilitators is practical insight into how transition between phases and phase iteration in scenario planning can be identified, leveraged, and, thus, managed. The upshot for scholars is a related insight...

  8. New reactors concepts and scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years an increasing interest is observed with respect to subcritical, accelerator driven systems (ADS), for their possible role in perspective future nuclear energy scenarios, as actinide (Pu and MA) incinerators, and/or claimed energy plants with potential enhanced safety characteristics. Important research programs are devoted to the various related fields of research. Extensive studies on the ADS behavior under incidental conditions are in particular made, for verifying their claimed advantage, under the safety point of view, with respect to the corresponding critical reactors. Corresponding medium and long range scenarios are being studied to cope with a number of concerns associated with the safety (power excursions. residual heat risk), as well as with the fuel flow (criticality accidents, fuel diversion, radiological risk, proliferation). In the present work we shall try to review current lines of research in this field, and comment on possible scenarios so far envisaged. (author)

  9. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  10. NEC-2020 emission reduction scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slentø, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    The upcoming NEC-2020 EU directive sets up emission ceilings for NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and PM in order to meet the environmental exposure targets of the Thematic Strategy. This report contains an assessment of intermediary emission reduction scenarios for Denmark, computed by the GAINS model 2007,......, which serves as the basis for the pending negotiations in EU. The assessment is brought up to date by including a brief evaluation of the new reduction scenarios published in 2008, founding the European Commission NEC-2020 directive proposal....

  11. Attributes Of Quality Scenarios/Scenario Sets Used In Software Requirements Elicitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, Kimberly

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis examines scenarios used in software requirements elicitation. Many different definitions, formats, and ideas exist on scenarios, but no thorough work has been done on what makes a good, quality scenario and scenario set...

  12. The dynamic representation of gravity is suspended when the idiotropic vector is misaligned with gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    When people are asked to indicate the vanishing location of a moving target, errors in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and in the direction of gravity (representational gravity) are usually found. These errors possess a temporal course wherein the memory for the location of the target drifts downwards with increasing temporal intervals between target's disappearance and participant's responses (representational trajectory). To assess if representational trajectory is a body-referenced or a world-referenced phenomenon. A behavioral localization method was employed with retention times between 0 and 1400 ms systematically imposed after the target's disappearance. The target could move horizontally (rightwards or leftwards) or vertically (upwards or downwards). Body posture was varied in a counterbalanced order between sitting upright and lying on the side (left lateral decubitus position). In the upright task, the memory for target location drifted downwards with time in the direction of gravity. This time course did not emerge for the decubitus task, where idiotropic dominance was found. The dynamic visual representation of gravity is neither purely body-referenced nor world-referenced. It seems to be modulated instead by the relationship between the idiotropic vector and physical gravity.

  13. Program Analysis Scenarios in Rascal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); F. Durán

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRascal is a meta programming language focused on the implementation of domain-specific languages and on the rapid construction of tools for software analysis and software transformation. In this paper we focus on the use of Rascal for software analysis. We illustrate a range of scenarios

  14. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  15. Multiscale scenarios for nature futures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosa, IMD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available & Evolution, vol. 1: 1416-1419 Multiscale scenarios for nature futures Rosa IMD Pereira HM Ferrier S Alkemade R Acosta LA Akcakaya HR den Belder E Fazel AM Fujimori S Sitas NE ABSTRACT: Targets for human development are increasingly...

  16. Shell energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Shell developed two scenarios that describe alternative ways the energy future may develop. In the first scenario (Scramble) policymakers pay little attention to more efficient energy use until supplies are tight. Likewise, greenhouse gas emissions are not seriously addressed until there are major climate shocks. In the second scenario (Blueprints) growing local actions begin to address the challenges of economic development, energy security and environmental pollution. A price is applied to a critical mass of emissions giving a huge stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage, and energy efficiency measures. The result is far lower carbon dioxide emissions. Both these scenarios can help Shell to test their strategy against a range of possible developments over the long-term. However, according to Shell, the Blueprints' outcomes offer the best hope for a sustainable future, whether or not they arise exactly in the way described. However, with the right combination of policy, technology and commitment from governments, industry and society globally, Shell believes it can be realized. But achieving the targets will not be easy, and time is short. Clear thinking, huge investment, and effective leadership are required

  17. Handling time misalignment and rank deficiency in liquid chromatography by multivariate curve resolution: Quantitation of five biogenic amines in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Licarion; Díaz Nieto, César Horacio; Zón, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor; Ugulino de Araujo, Mario Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are used for identifying spoilage in food. The most common are tryptamine (TRY), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and histamine (HIS). Due to lack of chromophores, chemical derivatization with dansyl was employed to analyze these BAs using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). However, the derivatization reaction occurs with any primary or secondary amine, leading to co-elution of analytes and interferents with identical spectral profiles, and thus causing rank deficiency. When the spectral profile is the same and peak misalignment is present on the chromatographic runs, it is not possible to handle the data only with Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternative Least Square (MCR-ALS), by augmenting the time, or the spectral mode. A way to circumvent this drawback is to receive information from another detector that leads to a selective profile for the analyte. To overcome both problems, (tri-linearity break in time, and spectral mode), this paper proposes a new analytical methodology for fast quantitation of these BAs in fish with HPLC-DAD by using the icoshift algorithm for temporal misalignment correction before MCR-ALS spectral mode augmented treatment. Limits of detection, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries, ranging from 0.14 to 0.50 µg mL"−"1, 3.5–8.8% and 88.08%–99.68%, respectively. These are outstanding results obtained, reaching quantification limits for the five BAs much lower than those established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), all without any pre-concentration steps. The concentrations of BAs in fish samples ranged from 7.82 to 29.41 µg g"−"1, 8.68–25.95 µg g"−"1, 4.76–28.54 µg g"−"1, 5.18–39.95 µg g"−"1 and 1.45–52.62 µg g"−"1 for TRY, PHE, PUT, CAD, and HIS, respectively. In

  18. Handling time misalignment and rank deficiency in liquid chromatography by multivariate curve resolution: Quantitation of five biogenic amines in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Licarion [Laboratório de Automação e Instrumentação em Química Analítica e Quimiometria (LAQA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba, CCEN, Departamento de Química, Caixa Postal 5093, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Díaz Nieto, César Horacio; Zón, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor [Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, 5800, Río Cuarto (Argentina); Ugulino de Araujo, Mario Cesar, E-mail: laqa@quimica.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Automação e Instrumentação em Química Analítica e Quimiometria (LAQA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba, CCEN, Departamento de Química, Caixa Postal 5093, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are used for identifying spoilage in food. The most common are tryptamine (TRY), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and histamine (HIS). Due to lack of chromophores, chemical derivatization with dansyl was employed to analyze these BAs using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). However, the derivatization reaction occurs with any primary or secondary amine, leading to co-elution of analytes and interferents with identical spectral profiles, and thus causing rank deficiency. When the spectral profile is the same and peak misalignment is present on the chromatographic runs, it is not possible to handle the data only with Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternative Least Square (MCR-ALS), by augmenting the time, or the spectral mode. A way to circumvent this drawback is to receive information from another detector that leads to a selective profile for the analyte. To overcome both problems, (tri-linearity break in time, and spectral mode), this paper proposes a new analytical methodology for fast quantitation of these BAs in fish with HPLC-DAD by using the icoshift algorithm for temporal misalignment correction before MCR-ALS spectral mode augmented treatment. Limits of detection, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries, ranging from 0.14 to 0.50 µg mL{sup −1}, 3.5–8.8% and 88.08%–99.68%, respectively. These are outstanding results obtained, reaching quantification limits for the five BAs much lower than those established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), all without any pre-concentration steps. The concentrations of BAs in fish samples ranged from 7.82 to 29.41 µg g{sup −1}, 8.68–25.95 µg g{sup −1}, 4.76–28.54 µg g{sup −1}, 5.18–39.95 µg g{sup −1} and 1.45–52.62 µg g{sup −1} for TRY, PHE, PUT, CAD, and

  19. Dark Radiation predictions from general Large Volume Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Mangat, Patrick; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2014-09-01

    Recent observations constrain the amount of Dark Radiation (Δ N eff ) and may even hint towards a non-zero value of Δ N eff . It is by now well-known that this puts stringent constraints on the sequestered Large Volume Scenario (LVS), i.e. on LVS realisations with the Standard Model at a singularity. We go beyond this setting by considering LVS models where SM fields are realised on 7-branes in the geometric regime. As we argue, this naturally goes together with high-scale supersymmetry. The abundance of Dark Radiation is determined by the competition between the decay of the lightest modulus to axions, to the SM Higgs and to gauge fields, and leads to strict constraints on these models. Nevertheless, these constructions can in principle meet current DR bounds due to decays into gauge bosons alone. Further, a rather robust prediction for a substantial amount of Dark Radiation can be made. This applies both to cases where the SM 4-cycles are stabilised by D-terms and are small `by accident', i.e. tuning, as well as to fibred models with the small cycles stabilised by loops. In these constructions the DR axion and the QCD axion are the same field and we require a tuning of the initial misalignment to avoid Dark Matter overproduction. Furthermore, we analyse a closely related setting where the SM lives at a singularity but couples to the volume modulus through flavour branes. We conclude that some of the most natural LVS settings with natural values of model parameters lead to Dark Radiation predictions just below the present observational limits. Barring a discovery, rather modest improvements of present Dark Radiation bounds can rule out many of these most simple and generic variants of the LVS.

  20. Overview description of the base scenario derived from FEP analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, J.; Bailey, L.

    1998-01-01

    This report forms part of a suite of documents describing the Nirex model development programme. The programme is designed to provide a clear audit trail from the identification of significant features, events and processes (FEPs) to the models and modelling processes employed within a detailed performance assessment. A scenario approach to performance assessment has been adopted. It is proposed that potential evolutions of a deep geological radioactive waste repository can be represented by a base scenario and a number of variant scenarios. It is intended that assessment of the base scenario would form the core of any future performance assessment. The base scenario is chosen to be broad-ranging and to represent the natural evolution of the repository system and its surrounding environment. The base scenario is defined to include all those FEPs which are certain to occur and those which are judged likely to occur for a significant period of the assessment - timescale. Variant scenarios are defined by FEPs which represent a significant perturbation to the natural system evolution, for example the occurrence of a large seismic event. The structuring of FEPs on a Master Directed Diagram (MDD), provides a systematic framework for identifying those FEPs which form part of the natural evolution of the system and those which may define alternative potential evolutions of the repository system. In order to construct a description of the base scenario, FEPs have been grouped into a series of conceptual models. Conceptual models are groups of FEPs, identified from the MDD, representing a specific component or process within the disposal system. It has been found appropriate to define conceptual models in terms of the three main components of the disposal system: the repository engineered system, the surrounding geosphere and the biosphere. For each of these components, conceptual models provide a description of the relevant subsystem in terms of its initial characteristics

  1. The Young Substellar Companion ROXs 12 B: Near-infrared Spectrum, System Architecture, and Spin-Orbit Misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L.; Bryan, Marta L.; Knutson, Heather A.; Brogi, Matteo; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Liu, Michael C.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Cieza, Lucas A.

    2017-10-01

    ROXs 12 (2MASS J16262803-2526477) is a young star hosting a directly imaged companion near the deuterium-burning limit. We present a suite of spectroscopic, imaging, and time-series observations to characterize the physical and environmental properties of this system. Moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of ROXs 12 B from Gemini-North/NIFS and Keck/OSIRIS reveals signatures of low surface gravity including weak alkali absorption lines and a triangular H-band pseudocontinuum shape. No signs of Paβ emission are evident. As a population, however, we find that about half (46% ± 14%) of young (≲15 Myr) companions with masses ≲20 M Jup possess actively accreting subdisks detected via Paβ line emission, which represents a lower limit on the prevalence of circumplanetary disks in general, as some are expected to be in a quiescent phase of accretion. The bolometric luminosity of the companion and age of the host star ({6}-2+4 Myr) imply a mass of 17.5 ± 1.5 M Jup for ROXs 12 B based on hot-start evolutionary models. We identify a wide (5100 au) tertiary companion to this system, 2MASS J16262774-2527247, that is heavily accreting and exhibits stochastic variability in its K2 light curve. By combining v sin I * measurements with rotation periods from K2, we constrain the line-of-sight inclinations of ROXs 12 A and 2MASS J16262774-2527247 and find that they are misaligned by {{60}-11+7}^\\circ . In addition, the orbital axis of ROXs 12 B is likely misaligned from the spin axis of its host star, ROXs 12 A, suggesting that ROXs 12 B formed akin to fragmenting binary stars or in an equatorial disk that was torqued by the wide stellar tertiary. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support

  2. Discovering a misaligned CO outflow related to the red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Petriella, A.; Rubio, M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292 (MSXG34), catalogued as a massive young stellar object, was observed in molecular lines with the aim of discovering and studying molecular outflows. Methods: We mapped a region of 3'× 3' centred at MSXG34 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J = 3-2 and HCO+J = 4-3 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. Additionally, public 13CO J = 1-0 and near-IR UKIDSS data obtained from the Galactic Ring Survey and the WFCAM Sciencie Archive were analysed. Results: We found that the 12CO spectra towards the YSO present a self-absorption dip, as is common in star-forming regions, and spectral wings that indicate outflow activity. The HCO+ was detected only towards the MSXG34 position at vLSR ~ 14.2 km s-1, in coincidence with the 12CO absorption dip and approximately with the velocity of previous ammonia observations. HCO+ and NH3 are known to be enhanced in molecular outflows. When we analysed the spectral wings of the 12CO line, we discovered misaligned red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows associated with MSXG34. The near-IR emission shows a cone-like nebulosity composed of two arc-like features related to the YSO, which might be due to a cavity cleared in the circumstellar material by a precessing jet. This can explain the misalignment in the molecular outflows. From the analysis of the 13CO J = 1-0 data we suggest that the YSO is very likely related to a molecular clump ranging between 10 and 14 km s-1. This suggests that MSXG34, with an associated central velocity of about 14 km s-1, may be located in the background of this clump. Thus, the blue-shifted outflow is probably deflected by the interaction with dense gas along the line of sight. From a spectral energy distribution analysis of MSXG34 we found that its central object probably is an intermediate-mass protostar.

  3. Handling time misalignment and rank deficiency in liquid chromatography by multivariate curve resolution: Quantitation of five biogenic amines in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Licarion; Díaz Nieto, César Horacio; Zón, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor; de Araujo, Mario Cesar Ugulino

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are used for identifying spoilage in food. The most common are tryptamine (TRY), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and histamine (HIS). Due to lack of chromophores, chemical derivatization with dansyl was employed to analyze these BAs using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). However, the derivatization reaction occurs with any primary or secondary amine, leading to co-elution of analytes and interferents with identical spectral profiles, and thus causing rank deficiency. When the spectral profile is the same and peak misalignment is present on the chromatographic runs, it is not possible to handle the data only with Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternative Least Square (MCR-ALS), by augmenting the time, or the spectral mode. A way to circumvent this drawback is to receive information from another detector that leads to a selective profile for the analyte. To overcome both problems, (tri-linearity break in time, and spectral mode), this paper proposes a new analytical methodology for fast quantitation of these BAs in fish with HPLC-DAD by using the icoshift algorithm for temporal misalignment correction before MCR-ALS spectral mode augmented treatment. Limits of detection, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries, ranging from 0.14 to 0.50 µg mL(-1), 3.5-8.8% and 88.08%-99.68%, respectively. These are outstanding results obtained, reaching quantification limits for the five BAs much lower than those established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), all without any pre-concentration steps. The concentrations of BAs in fish samples ranged from 7.82 to 29.41 µg g(-1), 8.68-25.95 µg g(-1), 4.76-28.54 µg g(-1), 5.18-39.95 µg g(-1) and 1.45-52.62 µg g(-1) for TRY, PHE, PUT, CAD, and HIS, respectively. In addition, the proposed method spends

  4. Base case and perturbation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, T

    1998-10-01

    This report describes fourteen energy factors that could affect electricity markets in the future (demand, process, source mix, etc.). These fourteen factors are believed to have the most influence on the State's energy environment. A base case, or most probable, characterization is given for each of these fourteen factors over a twenty year time horizon. The base case characterization is derived from quantitative and qualitative information provided by State of California government agencies, where possible. Federal government databases are nsed where needed to supplement the California data. It is envisioned that a initial selection of issue areas will be based upon an evaluation of them under base case conditions. For most of the fourteen factors, the report identities possible perturbations from base case values or assumptions that may be used to construct additional scenarios. Only those perturbations that are plausible and would have a significant effect on energy markets are included in the table. The fourteen factors and potential perturbations of the factors are listed in Table 1.1. These perturbations can be combined to generate internally consist.ent. combinations of perturbations relative to the base case. For example, a low natural gas price perturbation should be combined with a high natural gas demand perturbation. The factor perturbations are based upon alternative quantitative forecasts provided by other institutions (the Department of Energy - Energy Information Administration in some cases), changes in assumptions that drive the quantitative forecasts, or changes in assumptions about the structure of the California energy markets. The perturbations are intended to be used for a qualitative reexamination of issue areas after an initial evaluation under the base case. The perturbation information would be used as a "tiebreaker;" to make decisions regarding those issue areas that were marginally accepted or rejected under the base case. Hf a

  5. Risk assessment of mitigated domino scenarios in process facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Necci, Amos; Antonioni, Giacomo; Argenti, Francesca; Cozzani, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of accidents among process units may lead to severe cascading events or domino effects with catastrophic consequences. Prevention, mitigation and management of domino scenarios is of utmost importance and may be achieved in industrial facilities through the adoption of multiple safety layers. The present study was aimed at developing an innovative methodology to address the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of domino scenarios accounting for the presence and role of safety barriers. Based on the expected performance of safety barriers, a dedicated event tree analysis allowed the identification and the assessment of the frequencies of the different end-point events deriving from unmitigated and partially mitigated domino chains. Specific criteria were introduced in consequence analysis to consider the mitigation effects of end-point scenarios deriving from safety barriers. Individual and societal risk indexes were calculated accounting for safety barriers and the mitigated scenarios that may result from their actions. The application of the methodology to case-studies of industrial interest proved the importance of introducing a specific systematic and quantitative analysis of safety barrier performance when addressing escalation leading to domino effect. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to account for safety barrier performance in escalation prevention. • The methodology allows quantitative assessment accounting for safety barrier performance. • A detailed analysis of transient mitigated scenarios is allowed by the developed procedure. • The procedure allows accounting for safety barrier performance in QRA of domino scenarios. • An important reduction in the risk due to domino scenarios is evidenced when considering safety barriers.

  6. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  7. Global energy context: future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  8. Advanced scenarios for ITER operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sips, A.C.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In thermonuclear fusion research using magnetic confinement, the tokamak is the leading candidate for achieving conditions required for a reactor. An international experiment, ITER is proposed as the next essential and critical step on the path to demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. ITER is to produce and study plasmas dominated by self heating. This would give unique opportunities to explore, in reactor relevant conditions, the physics of {alpha}-particle heating, plasma turbulence and turbulent transport, stability limits to the plasma pressure and exhaust of power and particles. Important new results obtained in experiments, theory and modelling, enable an improved understanding of the physical processes occurring in tokamak plasmas and give enhanced confidence in ITER achieving its goals. In particular, progress has been made in research to raise the performance of tokamaks, aimed to extend the discharge pulse length towards steady-state operation (advanced scenarios). Standard tokamak discharges have a current density increasing monotonically towards the centre of the plasma. Advanced scenarios on the other hand use a modified current density profile. Different advanced scenarios range from (i) plasmas that sustain a central region with a flat current density profile (zero magnetic shear), capable of operating stationary at high plasma pressure, to (ii) discharges with an off axis maximum of the current density profile (reversed magnetic shear in the core), able to form internal transport barriers, to increase the confinement of the plasma. The physics of advanced tokamak discharges is described, together with an overview of recent results from different tokamak experiments. International collaboration between experiments aims to provide a better understanding, control and optimisation of these plasmas. The ability to explore advanced scenarios in ITER is very desirable, in order to verify the result obtained in

  9. Scenarios for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The projected lifetime of the LHC low-beta quadrupoles, the evolution of the statistical error halving time, and the physics potential all call for an LHC luminosity upgrade by the middle of the coming decade. In the framework of the CARE-HHH network three principal scenarios have been developed for increasing the LHC peak luminosity by more than a factor of 10, to values above 1035 cm−2s−1. All scenarios imply a rebuilding of the high-luminosity interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. However, their respective features, bunch structures, IR layouts, merits and challenges, and luminosity variation with β∗ differ substantially. In all scenarios luminosity leveling during a store would be advantageous for the physics experiments. An injector upgrade must complement the upgrade measures in the LHC proper in order to provide the beam intensity and brightness needed as well as to reduce the LHC turnaround time for higher integrated luminosity.

  10. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  11. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In 2011, IRENA will start developing scenarios and strategies for Africa. This is a pilot study for a project that will ultimately encompass the whole world. The selection of Africa first indicates the priority that the IRENA work programme places on the continent. In the framework of the 2011 IRENA work programme, the analysis of scenarios and strategies will feed into the renewables readiness assessment, which will assess policy priorities and best practices in renewable energy policy-making. This, in turn, will be the basis for financing investment and capacity building activities. Energy policy advice must consider issues, such as the structure of energy supply and demand, the past and future energy trends, renewable energy resources, energy economics and technology access. Scenarios and strategies are key tools for such an analysis. Regional and national differences must be considered and individual sectors and end-use categories further analysed. These include power generation, cooking, heating, industrial process heat, and transport. Urban and rural solutions will be dealt with separately, as well as centralised and decentralised solutions. The analysis will cover issues, such as potentials, technology, supply chains and investment needs.

  12. Relay-aided free-space optical communications using α - μ distribution over atmospheric turbulence channels with misalignment errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Abhijeet; Dwivedi, Vivek K.; Singh, G.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the performance of dual hop radio frequency (RF)/free-space optical (FSO) fixed gain relay environment confined by atmospheric turbulence induced fading channel over FSO link and modeled using α - μ distribution. The RF hop of the amplify-and-forward scheme undergoes the Rayleigh fading and the proposed system model also considers the pointing error effect on the FSO link. A novel and accurate mathematical expression of the probability density function for a FSO link experiencing α - μ distributed atmospheric turbulence in the presence of pointing error is derived. Further, we have presented analytical expressions of outage probability and bit error rate in terms of Meijer-G function. In addition to this, a useful and mathematically tractable closed-form expression for the end-to-end ergodic capacity of the dual hop scheme in terms of bivariate Fox's H function is derived. The atmospheric turbulence, misalignment errors and various binary modulation schemes for intensity modulation on optical wireless link are considered to yield the results. Finally, we have analyzed each of the three performance metrics for high SNR in order to represent them in terms of elementary functions and the achieved analytical results are supported by computer-based simulations.

  13. Study of the effect of distance and misalignment between magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon-Nava, Adrian E; Díaz-Méndez, J Alejandro; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis; Calleja-Arriaga, Wilfrido; Gil-Carrasco, Felix; Díaz-Alonso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  14. EGCG evokes Nrf2 nuclear translocation and dampens PTP1B expression to ameliorate metabolic misalignment under insulin resistance condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yashi; Zhang, Wentong; Tian, Haoyu; Li, Runnan; Huang, Shuxian; Li, Xingyu; Qi, Guoyuan; Liu, Xuebo

    2018-03-01

    As a major nutraceutical component of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has attracted interest from scientists due to its well-documented antioxidant and antiobesity bioactivities. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of EGCG on metabolic misalignment and in balancing the redox status in mice liver and HepG2 cells under insulin resistance condition. Our results indicated that EGCG accelerates the glucose uptake and evokes IRS-1/Akt/GLUT2 signaling pathway via dampening the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Consistently, ectopic expression of PTP1B by Ad-PTP1B substantially impaired EGCG-elicited IRS-1/Akt/GLUT2 signaling pathway. Moreover, EGCG co-treatment stimulated nuclear translocation of Nrf2 by provoking P13K/AKT signaling pathway and thus modulated the downstream expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO-1 in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown Nrf2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) notably enhanced the expression of PTP1B and blunt EGCG-stimulated glucose uptake. Consistent with these results, in vivo study revealed that EGCG supplement significantly ameliorated high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-triggered insulin resistance and oxidative stress by up-regulating the IRS-1/AKT and Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathways. Administration of an appropriate chemopreventive agent, such as EGCG, could potentially serve as an additional therapeutic intervention in the arsenal against obesity.

  15. Bayesian importance parameter modeling of misaligned predictors: soil metal measures related to residential history and intellectual disability in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onicescu, Georgiana; Lawson, Andrew B; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C Marjorie; Cai, Bo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel spatial importance parameter hierarchical logistic regression modeling approach that includes measurement error from misalignment. We apply this model to study the relationship between the estimated concentration of soil metals at the residence of mothers and the development of intellectual disability (ID) in their children. The data consist of monthly computerized claims data about the prenatal experience of pregnant women living in nine areas within South Carolina and insured by Medicaid during January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2001 and the outcome of ID in their children during early childhood. We excluded mother-child pairs if the mother moved to an unknown location during pregnancy. We identified an association of the ID outcome with arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) concentration in soil during pregnancy, controlling for infant sex, maternal race, mother's age, and gestational weeks at delivery. There is some indication that Hg has a slightly higher importance in the third and fourth months of pregnancy, while As has a more uniform effect over all the months with a suggestion of a slight increase in risk in later months.

  16. Combined prospective and retrospective correction to reduce motion-induced image misalignment and geometric distortions in EPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Melvyn B; Muraskin, Jordan; Zou, Xiaowei; Thomas, William J; Krueger, Sascha; Aksoy, Murat; Bammer, Roland; Brown, Truman R

    2013-03-01

    Despite rigid-body realignment to compensate for head motion during an echo-planar imaging time-series scan, nonrigid image deformations remain due to changes in the effective shim within the brain as the head moves through the B(0) field. The current work presents a combined prospective/retrospective solution to reduce both rigid and nonrigid components of this motion-related image misalignment. Prospective rigid-body correction, where the scan-plane orientation is dynamically updated to track with the subject's head, is performed using an active marker setup. Retrospective distortion correction is then applied to unwarp the remaining nonrigid image deformations caused by motion-induced field changes. Distortion correction relative to a reference time-frame does not require any additional field mapping scans or models, but rather uses the phase information from the echo-planar imaging time-series itself. This combined method is applied to compensate echo-planar imaging scans of volunteers performing in-plane and through-plane head motions, resulting in increased image stability beyond what either prospective or retrospective rigid-body correction alone can achieve. The combined method is also assessed in a blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI task, resulting in improved Z-score statistics. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A computationally inexpensive model for estimating dimensional measurement uncertainty due to x-ray computed tomography instrument misalignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ametova, Evelina; Ferrucci, Massimiliano; Chilingaryan, Suren; Dewulf, Wim

    2018-06-01

    The recent emergence of advanced manufacturing techniques such as additive manufacturing and an increased demand on the integrity of components have motivated research on the application of x-ray computed tomography (CT) for dimensional quality control. While CT has shown significant empirical potential for this purpose, there is a need for metrological research to accelerate the acceptance of CT as a measuring instrument. The accuracy in CT-based measurements is vulnerable to the instrument geometrical configuration during data acquisition, namely the relative position and orientation of x-ray source, rotation stage, and detector. Consistency between the actual instrument geometry and the corresponding parameters used in the reconstruction algorithm is critical. Currently available procedures provide users with only estimates of geometrical parameters. Quantification and propagation of uncertainty in the measured geometrical parameters must be considered to provide a complete uncertainty analysis and to establish confidence intervals for CT dimensional measurements. In this paper, we propose a computationally inexpensive model to approximate the influence of errors in CT geometrical parameters on dimensional measurement results. We use surface points extracted from a computer-aided design (CAD) model to model discrepancies in the radiographic image coordinates assigned to the projected edges between an aligned system and a system with misalignments. The efficacy of the proposed method was confirmed on simulated and experimental data in the presence of various geometrical uncertainty contributors.

  18. Solidarity and conflict: aligned and misaligned prosody as a transactional resource in intra- and intercultural communication involving power differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Tobin, Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    This ethnographic study of teaching and learning in urban high school science classes investigates the ways in which teachers and students talk, gesture, and use space and time in interaction rituals. In situations where teachers coteach as a means of learning to teach in inner-city schools, successful teacher-teacher collaborations are characterized by prosodic expressions that converge over time and adapt to match the prosodic parameters of students' talk. In these situations our ethnographic data provide evidence of solidarity and positive emotions among the teachers and also between students and teachers. Unsuccessful collaborations are associated with considerable differences in pitch between consecutive speakers participating in turns-at-talk, these being related to the production of negative emotions and conflicts at longer time scales. Situational conflicts are co-expressed by increases in pitch levels, speech intensities, and speech rates; and conflict resolution is accelerated by the coordination of pitch levels. Our study therefore suggests that prosodic alignment and misalignment are resources that are pragmatically deployed to manage face-to-face interactions that have solidarity and conflict as their longer-term outcomes.

  19. Study of the Effect of Distance and Misalignment between Magnetically Coupled Coils for Wireless Power Transfer in Intraocular Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian E. Rendon-Nava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  20. Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, Vincent; Lovis, Christophe; Beust, Hervé; Ehrenreich, David; Henry, Gregory W.; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Allart, Romain; Bonfils, Xavier; Ségransan, Damien; Delfosse, Xavier; Cegla, Heather M.; Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste; Pepe, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The angle between the spin of a star and the orbital planes of its planets traces the history of the planetary system. Exoplanets orbiting close to cool stars are expected to be on circular, aligned orbits because of strong tidal interactions with the stellar convective envelope. Spin–orbit alignment can be measured when the planet transits its star, but such ground-based spectroscopic measurements are challenging for cool, slowly rotating stars. Here we report the three-dimensional characterization of the trajectory of an exoplanet around an M dwarf star, derived by mapping the spectrum of the stellar photosphere along the chord transited by the planet. We find that the eccentric orbit of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b is nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. Both eccentricity and misalignment, surprising around a cool star, can result from dynamical interactions (via Kozai migration) with a yet-undetected outer companion. This inward migration of GJ 436b could have triggered the atmospheric escape that now sustains its giant exosphere.

  1. Modification of the code BEAMCORR, and some simulation results of the magnet and achromat misalignments for the SLC South Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaee, H.; Kheifets, S.

    1984-01-01

    An important decision has been made regarding the correction scheme for the arcs leading to the adoption of the so called scheme I. In this scheme the beam position data are collected from single-plane x and y Beam Position Monitors (BPMs), which are placed in the drift spaces adjacent to the downstream D- and F-magnets correspondingly. Similarly, single-plane x and y correctors are used for moving the upstream end of the corresponding magnets. In the present simulation this scheme is used exclusively. The first order calculations performed by means of TRANSPORT appear to be unsatisfactory from the point of view of the beam spotsize at the interaction point (IP). In this note we describe the modification to our program BEAMCORR which employs second order calculations by means of the program TURTLE. We also present the results of the following simulations: (a) study of the effects of two different levels of magnet misalignment on the beam spotsize at IP, and comparison of the results with those obtained by means of the program DINGBAT; (b) study of disjoints between achromats (both the displacement of the adjacent ends and angular discontinuity between achromats)

  2. Scenario Development for Trgovska Gora Shallow Land Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Lokner, V.; Levanat, I.

    2002-01-01

    Safety assessments, either preliminary or final, consist of a qualitative and a quantitative part. The qualitative part of the assessment implies a selection of relevant scenarios to be analyzed, while the quantitative part of the assessment consists of their mathematical modeling. This work is dealing with the qualitative part of safety assessment concerning a specific radioactive waste disposal system, i.e., the shallow land facility situated on the macrolocation Trgovska gora. This article has as its purpose a brief presentation of the ISAM methodology application results (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Facilities;), a methodology developed within the framework of a project of the same name, organized by the IAEA. The above mentioned methodology is based on the development of the so-called FEP list (Features, Events, Process), on selection procedure of the FEP list, specifically regarding particular criteria defined in advance, and on application of systematic methods of selecting relevant scenarios (in this case the matrix of interactions method has been applied). The main aim and purpose of a methodology based on the analysis of FEPs (identification, classification, selection, construction of the matrix of interactions) consists of observing and documenting all the features, events and processes due to be taken into consideration while assessing safety of a particular radioactive waste disposal system. In this connection, by radioactive waste disposal system we mean a system consisting of radioactive waste and engineer features (barriers), geological environment within which the disposal site is located, surface-environment (soil, sediments, vegetation, etc.) and human population near the disposal site. The final step of the application of this methodology consists of generating the scenario using the matrix of interactions. So, for shallow land facility situated on the macrolocation Trgovska gora, applying

  3. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: from Publication to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.; Burkett, E. R.; Bwarie, J.; Campbell, N. M.; Johnson, L. A.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Porter, K.; Real, C. R.; Ritchie, L. A.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario modeled a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. We presented the likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the scenario tsunami. The intended users were those responsible for making mitigation decisions before and those who need to make rapid decisions during future tsunamis. The Tsunami Scenario process is being evaluated by the University of Colorado's Natural Hazards Center; this is the first time that a USGS scenario of this scale has been formally and systematically evaluated by an external party. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario was publicly introduced in September, 2013, through a series of regional workshops in California that brought together emergency managers, maritime authorities, first responders, elected officials and staffers, the business sector, state agencies, local media, scientific partners, and special districts such as utilities (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1170/). In March, 2014, NOAA's annual tsunami warning exercise, PACIFEX, was based on the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Many groups conducted exercises associated with PACIFEX including the State of Washington and several counties in California. San Francisco had the most comprehensive exercise with a 3-day functional exercise based on the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. In addition, the National Institutes of Health ran an exercise at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach in April, 2014, building on the Tsunami Scenario, focusing on the recovery phase and adding a refinery fire. The benefits and lessons learned include: 1) stimulating dialogue among practitioners to solve problems; 2) seeing groups add extra components to their exercises that best address their

  4. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. II. NO CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HOT-JUPITER SPIN-ORBIT MISALIGNMENT AND THE INCIDENCE OF DIRECTLY IMAGED STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Bechter, Eric B. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Johnson, John A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Morton, Timothy D. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Muirhead, Philip S., E-mail: hngo@caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Multi-star systems are common, yet little is known about a stellar companion's influence on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. For instance, stellar companions may have facilitated the inward migration of hot Jupiters toward to their present day positions. Many observed short-period gas giant planets also have orbits that are misaligned with respect to their star's spin axis, which has also been attributed to the presence of a massive outer companion on a non-coplanar orbit. We present the results of a multi-band direct imaging survey using Keck NIRC2 to measure the fraction of short-period gas giant planets found in multi-star systems. Over three years, we completed a survey of 50 targets ('Friends of Hot Jupiters') with 27 targets showing some signature of multi-body interaction (misaligned or eccentric orbits) and 23 targets in a control sample (well-aligned and circular orbits). We report the masses, projected separations, and confirmed common proper motion for the 19 stellar companions found around 17 stars. Correcting for survey incompleteness, we report companion fractions of 48% ± 9%, 47% ± 12%, and 51% ± 13% in our total, misaligned/eccentric, and control samples, respectively. This total stellar companion fraction is 2.8σ larger than the fraction of field stars with companions approximately 50-2000 AU. We observe no correlation between misaligned/eccentric hot Jupiter systems and the incidence of stellar companions. Combining this result with our previous radial velocity survey, we determine that 72% ± 16% of hot Jupiters are part of multi-planet and/or multi-star systems.

  5. Numerical investigation of optimal yaw misalignment and collective pitch angle for load imbalance reduction of rigid and flexible HAWT blades under sheared inflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min-Soo; Cha, Myung-Chan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, In

    2015-01-01

    Wind shear can strongly influence the cyclic loading on horizontal axis wind turbine blades. These load fluctuation causes a variation of power output and introduces fatigue load. Thus, individual pitch controllers have been developed that are focused on the load alleviations, however, comes at a price of actuator requirements for control. Moreover, these controllers are unable to apply to already existing wind turbines with active yaw and collective pitch control system. Therefore, the investigations for minimizing load imbalance through the adjustments of yaw misalignment and collective pitch angle are implemented for the rigid and flexible blades under the sheared inflow. By applying the optimization process based on a sequential quadratic programming approach, the optimal yaw and pitch angle can be estimated. Then, the numerical simulations for predicting the performance are performed. The results showed that the fluctuation range of the root flapwise bending moment for the rigid blades can be reduced by 84.5%, whereas the vibratory bending moment for the flexible blades can be reduced by up to approximately 82.4% in the best case. Therefore, the magnitudes of load imbalance can be minimized by the adjustment of the optimal yaw misalignment and collective pitch angle without any power loss. - Highlights: • We propose a novel method for the reduction of load imbalance under sheared inflow. • We estimate optimal yaw misalignment and collective pitch angle through optimization. • Numerical results of performance are predicted for rigid and flexible blades. • By applying optimal angles, load variations are reduced without any power loss

  6. Effect of motion-induced PET-CT misalignment on cardiac function and myocardial blood flow measured using dynamic 15O-water PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubberink, Mark; Ebrahimi, M; Harms, Hans

    -CT misalignment on MBF, transmural MBF (MBFt), perfusable tissue fraction (PTF), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) based on dynamic 15O-water scans. Methods: 10 patients underwent 6 min PET scans after injection of 400 MBq 15O-water at rest and during adenosine......Aim: Motion-induced PET-CT misalignment artifacts are common in myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurements with 82Rb and 13N-ammonia. For 15O-water, MBF is based on the clearance rate rather than uptake of the tracer. The clearance rate is determined by the shape of the time-activity curve, not its...... amplitude, and is thus not affected by attenuation correction errors. Hence, misalignment is hypothesized not to affect 15O-water-based MBF to any large extent, but it may affect cardiac function measures derived from 15O-water scans. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of PET...

  7. Scenarios for the future; Framtidsscenarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegermark, H; Bergmark, M

    1995-06-01

    This project aims primarily to give a basis for the joint R and D program for the Swedish electric utility industry, in the form of pictures of the future up to 2020. The work was performed during four seminars in a group of managers and R and D planners. The four scenarios differ mainly in the assumptions of high or low economic growth and on market or political rule. Assumptions on essential uncertainties about the future have been combined in a consistent manner, e.g. on the structure of the utility industry, the role of nuclear power, the importance of the greenhouse gas issue, the influence of new technology developments and on changes of values in society. Certain other development appear in all scenarios, e.g. the impact of information technology throughout society, the internationalization of business in general and industrial production in particular, considerations for the environment and care for natural resources. The four scenarios are: `Technology on the throne` (market rule/high growth); `Intense competition` (market rule/low growth); `Monopoly takes over` (political rule/high growth); and `Green local society` (political rule/low growth). Some of the important factors pointed out by the study are: Increased customer mobility between regions and countries; The impact of information technology; Societal value changes; Sustainable development as an important driving force; Structure of the utility industry. Diversifying into new services. New players; Access to knowledge and competence; Ways for handling the greenhouse gas problem; Preparedness for nuclear power phase-out. 12 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs

  9. Comparing recent uranium supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N.; Gufler, K.

    2014-01-01

    For more than one decade – even after the Fukushima accidents - an increase in global nuclear energy generation capacity is widely expected. At the same time a variety of uranium supply scenarios were published by industry, academics or international organizations, drawing different pictures of future uranium supply. They were created with the background of a uranium market facing several challenges. First an excursion in the uranium market price, in 2007, then reduced nuclear growth expectations after 2011, at least in non-Asian countries, also implying considerable changes to the supply side. For this publication a meta-study was carried out identifying, evaluating and comparing different recent scenarios on the availability of uranium. While there are some differences in the frame conditions (e.g. the expected uranium demand, the time fame, the considered mining projects,..), there are also notable similarities in these scenarios. This concerns long lead times for mine openings as well as the dependence on large mining projects (e.g. Olympic Dam, Cigar Lake). Generally, a decline in production in about 10 years is assumed, and thus the necessity of the timely development of mining projects is pointed out. In addition the omission of uranium from Russian nuclear weapons and the chances of keeping the changes in secondary supplies in balance with primary production have been widely discussed. Here, the production growth in Kazakhstan but also the role of the current market situation are central aspects. As another aspect the possible contribution from unconventional resources is of interest, particularly against the background of rising production costs for conventional resources. Finally, it shall be reflected how well older scenarios were able to map the reality and which trends could or could not be anticipated. It is relevant to identify which aspects in the development of mining capacities are essential for security of supply, and can therefore be regarded

  10. Biomass Scenario Model | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Scenario Model Biomass Scenario Model The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique range of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into biofuels. Over the past 25 years, the corn ethanol plant matter (lignocellulosic biomass) to fermentable sugars for the production of fuel ethanol

  11. Development scenario for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hovingh, J.; Buntzen, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    This scenario proposes establishment of test and engineering facilities to (1) investigate the technological problems associated with laser fusion, (2) demonstrate fissile fuel production, and (3) demonstrate competitive electrical power production. Such facilities would be major milestones along the road to a laser-fusion power economy. The relevant engineering and economic aspects of each of these research and development facilities are discussed. Pellet design and gain predictions corresponding to the most promising laser systems are presented for each plant. The results show that laser fusion has the potential to make a significant contribution to our energy needs. Beginning in the early 1990's, this new technology could be used to produce fissile fuel, and after the turn of the century it could be used to generate electrical power

  12. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for

  13. Protective Alternatives of SMR against Extreme Threat Scenario – A Preliminary Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, I.M.; Ornai, D.; Gal, E.; Ronen, Y.; Vidra, M.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a preliminary risk analysis of the main features in NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) that includes SMR - Small and Modular Reactors, given an extreme threat scenario. A review of the structure and systems of the SMR is followed by systematic definitions and analysis of the threat scenario to which a preliminary risk analysis was carried out. The article outlines the basic events caused by the referred threat scenario, which had led to possible failure mechanisms according to FTA (Fault-Tree-Analysis),critical protective circuits, and todetecting critical topics for the protection and safety of the reactor

  14. Trust and the illusive force of scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin, Cynthia Lea

    2006-01-01

    formulation and decision-making. By definition, scenarios are possible versions of the future so judging and evaluating scenarios is thus not about revealing truthfulness, but rather demonstrating trust, reliability, credibility in the absence of truth and in the face of varied influences and possible...... becomes interesting is how scenarios convey authority and trustworthiness. How is it that scenarios attain and maintain power to compel people to action, change their worldview, or influence the directions of decisions or consensus? This piece examines the process, participation and products of scenario...

  15. Input parameters and scenarios, including economic inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    scenarios, we excluded hobby-type farms1 In the vaccination scenarios, herds within the vaccination zone were simulated to be vaccinated 14 days after detection of the first herd or when 10, 20, 30 or 50 herds were infected. All herds within the zones were simulated to be vaccinated. We used vaccination...... zones of either a 1, 2, 3 or 5 km. In some scenarios, hobby herds were not vaccinated. In one scenario, no sheep were vaccinated, and in another scenario no swine were vaccinated. from depopulation in zones. The resources for depopulation were estimated to 4,800 swine and 2,000 ruminants a day...

  16. Nuclear power prospects and potential: scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, Hans-Hogler; McDonald, Alan; )

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines a range of scenarios describing what the world's energy system might look in the middle of the century, and what nuclear energy's most profitable role might be. The starting point is the 40 non-greenhouse-gas-mitigation scenarios in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Given their international authorship and comprehensive review by governments and scientific experts, the SRES scenarios are the state of the art in long-term energy scenarios

  17. Towards a user's guide to scenarios - a report on scenario types and scenario techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjeson, Lena; Hoejer, Mattias; Dreborg, Karl-Henrik; Finnveden, Goeran [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research - fms; Ekvall, Tomas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    2005-11-01

    Futures studies consist of a vast variation of studies and approaches. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of for what purposes scenarios are useful and what methods and procedures are useful for furthering these purposes. We present a scenario typology with an aim to better suit the context in which the scenarios are used. The scenario typology is combined with a new way of looking at scenario techniques, i.e. practical methods and procedures for scenario development. Finally, we look at the usefulness of scenarios in the light of the scenario typology and the scenario techniques. As a start, we distinguish between three main categories of scenario studies. The classification is based on the principal questions we believe a user may want to pose about the future. The resolution is then increased by letting each category contain two different scenario types. These are distinguished by different angles of approach of the questions defining the categories. The first question, What will happen?, is responded to by Predictive scenarios. In fact, the response to a question like this will always be conditional, e.g. of a stable and peaceful world, or by a certain continuous development of some kind. We have utilized this fact when defining the two predictive scenario types, Forecasts and What-if scenarios. The second question, What can happen?, is responded to by Explorative scenarios. The scenarios are thus explorations of what might happen in the future, regardless of beliefs of what is likely to happen or opinions of what is desirable. This category is further divided into external and strategic scenarios. The final question, How can a specific target be reached?, is responded to by Normative scenarios. Such studies are explicitly normative, since they take a target as a starting point. They are often directed towards how the target could be reached. This category is divided into preserving and transforming scenarios. If the user wants to

  18. Classifying Scenarios in a Product Design Process: a study to achieve automated scenario generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggreeni, Irene; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Houten, F.J.A.M.; Miedema, J.; Lutters, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the possible uses of scenarios in product design. A scenario classification is proposed as a framework to create, use and reuse different types of scenarios in a product design process. Our aims are three-fold: (1) to obtain a better view on the extent to which scenarios can be

  19. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Özben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Levi Sandri, P.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Jülich. By measuring with very high statistical precision, the contributions that are second-order in the systematic errors become apparent. By calibrating the sensitivity of the polarimeter to such errors, it becomes possible to obtain information from the raw count rate values on the size of the errors and to use this information to correct the polarization measurements. During the experiment, it was possible to demonstrate that corrections were satisfactory at the level of 10 -5 for deliberately large errors. This may facilitate the real time observation of vector polarization changes smaller than 10 -6 in a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.

  20. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantjes, N.P.M. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dzordzhadze, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gebel, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Gonnella, F. [Physica Department of ' Tor Vergata' University, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Gray, F.E. [Regis University, Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Hoek, D.J. van der [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Imig, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kruithof, W.L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Lazarus, D.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Messi, R. [Physica Department of ' Tor Vergata' University, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Moricciani, D. [INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Morse, W.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Noid, G.A. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); and others

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Juelich. By measuring with very high statistical precision, the contributions that are second-order in the systematic errors become apparent. By calibrating the sensitivity of the polarimeter to such errors, it becomes possible to obtain information from the raw count rate values on the size of the errors and to use this information to correct the polarization measurements. During the experiment, it was possible to demonstrate that corrections were satisfactory at the level of 10{sup -5} for deliberately large errors. This may facilitate the real time observation of vector polarization changes smaller than 10{sup -6} in a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.

  1. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Harji, A.

    2002-01-01

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  2. IPCC Special report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    This special report on emissions scenarios (SRES) is intended to reflect the most recent trends in driving forces of emissions; population projections economic development, and structural and technological change. It serves as an update to IS92 scenarios developed by IPCC in the early 1990s to illustrate a plausible range of future greenhouse gas emissions. This update is based on a review of the literature and the development of a database of over 400 global and regional scenarios; 190 of these extend from 1900 to 2100 and thus fed into the development of the narrative scenarios and storylines. Based on the literature review, a set of four alternative scenario families, having a total of 40 emission scenarios have been developed. Each scenario family includes a narrative storyline which describes a demographic, social. economic, technological, environmental and policy future. Characteristic features of each of the four families are summarized and a comparison is made between the IS92 and SRES. One of the main conclusions of this recent scenario construction effort is the realization that alternative combinations of main scenario driving forces can lead to similar levels of GHG emissions by the end of the 21st century, and that scenarios with different underlying assumptions can result in very similar climate change

  3. CIEMAT analyses of transition fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The efficient design of strategies for the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy or the phase-out of this technology is possible after the study of transition scenarios from the current fuel cycle to a future one with advanced technologies and concepts. CIEMAT has participated in numerous fuel cycle scenarios studies for more than a decade and, from some years ago, special attention has been put in the study of transition scenarios. In this paper, the main characteristics of each studied transition scenario are described. The main results and partial conclusions of each scenario are also analyzed. As general conclusions of transition studies, we highlight that the advantages of advanced technologies in transition scenarios can be obtained by countries or regions with sufficiently large nuclear parks, with a long-term implementation of the strategy. For small countries, these advantages are also accessible with an affordable cost, by means of the regional collaboration during several decades. (authors)

  4. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

    2008-08-01

    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission

  5. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  6. Action research Toolkit II: The Scenario Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the scenario workshop within the action research paradigm. In addtion, the maina phases and the functions of the facilitator and the participants are outlined. Finally,it describes and analyses the experiences of using the scenario workshop in practice.......The article describes the scenario workshop within the action research paradigm. In addtion, the maina phases and the functions of the facilitator and the participants are outlined. Finally,it describes and analyses the experiences of using the scenario workshop in practice....

  7. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...

  8. Visualizing Risks: Icons for Information Attack Scenarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosmer, Hilary

    2000-01-01

    .... Visual attack scenarios help defenders see system ambiguities, imprecision, vulnerabilities and omissions, thus speeding up risk analysis, requirements gathering, safeguard selection, cryptographic...

  9. Energy scenarios for Colombia: process and content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ricardo A. [National Univ. of Colombia, Escuela de Geosciencias y Medio Ambiente, Medellin (Colombia); Vesga, Daniel R.A. [Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, Bogota (Colombia); Cadena, Angela I. [Los Andes Univ., School of Engineering, Bogota (Colombia); Boman, Ulf [Kairos Future AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsen, Erik [Cass Business School, London (United Kingdom); Dyner, Isaac [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Energy Inst., Medellin (Colombia)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the approach undertaken, and the four energy scenarios that have been developed, to support long term energy policy in Colombia. The scenarios were constructed with emphasis on maximum interaction between stakeholders in the Colombian energy sector. The process directly involved over 120 people. The scenarios were developed as strategic support tools for the Energy and Mining Planning Unit (UPME), which is the Colombian institution in charge of developing the country's energy strategies and National Energy Policy. The methodology employed is presented, followed by a detailed description of each of the four scenarios. (Author)

  10. Development of Digital Mock-Up for the Assessment of Dismantling Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyun; Park, Hee-Sung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Jung, Chong-Hun

    2008-01-01

    As the number of superannuated research reactors and nuclear power plants increase, dismantling nuclear power facilities has become a big issue. However, decommissioning a nuclear facility is still a costly and possibly hazardous task. So prior to an actual decommission, what should be done foremost is to establish a proper procedure. Due to the fact that a significant difference in cost, exposure to a radiation, and safety might occur, a proper procedure is imperative for the entire engineering process. The purpose of this paper is to develop a system for evaluating the decommissioning scenarios logically and systematically. So a digital mockup system with functions such as a dismantling schedule, decommissioning costs, wastes, worker's exposure dose, and a radiation distribution was developed. Also on the basis of the quantitative information calculated from a DMU system and the data evaluated by decommissioning experts about qualitatively evaluating the items, the best decommissioning scenarios were established by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Finally, the DMU was implemented in the thermal column of KRR-1 and adequate scenarios were provided after comparing and analyzing the two scenarios. In this paper, we developed the virtual environment of KRR-1 by using computer graphic technology and simulating the dismantling processes. The data-computing modules were also developed for quantitatively comparing the decommissioning scenarios. The decommissioning DMU system was integrated with both the VE system and the data-computing modules. In addition, we presented a decision-making method for selecting the best decommissioning scenario through the AHP. So the scenarios can be evaluated logically and quantitatively through the decommissioning DMU. As an implementation of the AHP, the plasma cutting scenario and the nibbler cutting scenario of the thermal column were prioritized. The fact that the plasma cutting scenario ranked the better than the

  11. Online scenario labeling using a hidden Markov model for assessment of nuclear plant state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamalieva, Daniya; Yilmaz, Alper; Aldemir, Tunc

    2013-01-01

    By taking into account both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties within the same probabilistic framework, dynamic event trees (DETs) provide more comprehensive and systematic coverage of possible scenarios following an initiating event compared to conventional event trees. When DET generation algorithms are applied to complex realistic systems, extremely large amounts of data can be produced due to both the large number of scenarios generated following a single initiating event and the large number of data channels that represent these scenarios. In addition, the computational time required for the simulation of each scenario can be very large (e.g. about 24 h of serial run simulation time for a 4 h station blackout scenario). Since scenarios leading to system failure are more of interest, a method is proposed for online labeling of scenarios as failure or non-failure. The algorithm first trains a Hidden Markov Model, which represents the behavior of non-failure scenarios, using a training set from previous simulations. Then, the maximum likelihoods of sample failure and non-failure scenarios fitting this model are computed. These values are used to determine the timestamp at which the labeling of a certain scenario should be performed. Finally, during the succeeding timestamps, the likelihood of each scenario fitting the learned model is computed, and a dynamic thresholding based on the previously calculated likelihood values is applied. The scenarios whose likelihood is higher than the threshold are labeled as non-failure. The proposed algorithm can further delay the non-failure scenarios or discontinue them in order to redirect the computational resources toward the failure scenarios, and reduce computational time and complexity. Experiments using RELAP5/3D model of a fast reactor utilizing an Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) passive decay heat removal system and dynamic analysis of a station blackout (SBO) event show that the proposed method is

  12. Simulation of Electron Energy Spectra of a Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflection Analyzer as a Function of Entry Bias: Effects of Misalignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA, including fringing fields and their effect on focusing and energy resolution, is investigated using numerical methods. Electron energy spectra are calculated for three entry positions R0=84 mm, 100 mm, and 112 mm and compared with the recent experimental measurements. In both experiment and calculation, the two different paracentric entry positions R0=84 mm and R0=112 mm, on either side of the mean radius of 100 mm, are found to have a base energy resolution of about two times better than the conventional centric entry position R0=100 mm. In order to explain the discrepancies (6–30% between the simulated and the experimental resolutions the focusing characteristics are further investigated for different displacements of the input lens (ΔR0 with respect to the entry position R0 and the tilted input beam axis by αshift in the dispersive direction. We have found that the blame does not in fact lie with the theory and we have shown that the input lens may have been misaligned in the experiment. Slight misalignments affect both the true energy resolution measurement and the transmission of the beam.

  13. TURVA-2012: Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, Nuria; Hjerpe, Thomas; Snellman, Margit; Ikonen, Ari; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them as described in TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Posiva, 2013). The scenarios are further analysed in TURVA-2012: Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment (Posiva, 2012a, 2012b). The formulation of scenarios takes into account the safety functions of the main barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEP) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (2012d), the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEP and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately in estimating radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together biosphere description and the surface environment FEP and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios summarised in TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment. (authors)

  14. Toward Managing & Automating CyberCIEGE Scenario Definition File Creation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johns, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... These scenarios are written CyberCIEGE Scenarios Definition Language. Unfortunately, the trade-off for flexibility, extendibility and fully customizable Scenarios is syntax complexity in the Scenarios definition language...

  15. Evaluation Framework for Dependable Mobile Learning Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensassi, Manel; Laroussi, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the dependability analysis is to predict inconsistencies and to reveal ambiguities and incompleteness in the designed learning scenario. Evaluation, in traditional learning design, is generally planned after the execution of the scenario. In mobile learning, this stage becomes too difficult and expensive to apply due to the complexity…

  16. Some issues in the ghost condensation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the recently proposed 'ghost condensation' scenario a model of consistent infrared modification of gravity was suggested. We first review the basic ideas of this scenario. We discuss various phenomenological aspects of the ghost condensation, such as stability of the condensate, bounds on the UV cut-off scale of the corresponding effective field theory and other issues. (author)

  17. Molecular Diagnostic Analysis of Outbreak Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsink, M. C.; Dekter, H. E.; Dirks-Mulder, A.; van Leeuwen, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    In the current laboratory assignment, technical aspects of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are integrated in the context of six different bacterial outbreak scenarios. The "Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequence" (ERIC) PCR was used to analyze different outbreak scenarios. First, groups of 2-4 students determined optimal…

  18. The Narrative Aspect of Scenario Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2008-01-01

    The application of narrative scenarios in engineering or socio-technical systems provides an important link between general ideas and specification of technical system requirements. The chapter explores how the narrative approach can enrich the scenario 'skeleton. In addition, criteria are sugges...

  19. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...

  20. Accident scenario diagnostics with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are very complex systems. The diagnoses of transients or accident conditions is very difficult because a large amount of information, which is often noisy, or intermittent, or even incomplete, need to be processed in real time. To demonstrate their potential application to nuclear power plants, neural networks axe used to monitor the accident scenarios simulated by the training simulator of TVA's Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. A self-organization network is used to compress original data to reduce the total number of training patterns. Different accident scenarios are closely related to different key parameters which distinguish one accident scenario from another. Therefore, the accident scenarios can be monitored by a set of small size neural networks, called modular networks, each one of which monitors only one assigned accident scenario, to obtain fast training and recall. Sensitivity analysis is applied to select proper input variables for modular networks

  1. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers...... at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to identify the demands the food industry can expect to meet in the future plus which research areas...... the public research should prioritise in order to support the development of competences within the food industry. The scenarios are isolated developments. In practise, the future is likely to be a combination of the different tendencies within the scenarios. The first scenario 'Naturalness' has focus...

  2. Scenarios for Ecosystem Services: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA scenarios address changes in ecosystem services and their implications for human well-being. Ecological changes pose special challenges for long-term thinking, because of the possibility of regime shifts that occur rapidly yet alter the availability of ecosystem services for generations. Moreover, ecological feedbacks can intensify human modification of ecosystems, creating a spiral of poverty and ecosystem degradation. Such complex dynamics were evaluated by a mixture of qualitative and quantitative analyses in the MA scenarios. Collectively, the scenarios explore problems such as the connections of poverty reduction and ecosystem services, and trade-offs among ecosystem services. Several promising approaches are considered by the scenarios, including uses of biodiversity to build resilience of ecosystem services, actively adaptive management, and green technology. Although the scenarios do not prescribe an optimal path, they illuminate the consequences of different policies toward ecosystem services.

  3. The Greenpeace 2013 scenario for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Cyrille; Teske, Sven

    2013-01-01

    After a synthesis of the Greenpeace scenario for energy transition, this report presents the French current energy landscape: structure of the energy system, greenhouse gas emissions and nuclear risks, main social and economic challenges, and search for a political ambition (from the Grenelle de l'Environnement to the current debate on energy). Then, after having outlined that energy transition must be decided now, the report presents the scenario hypotheses: studies used to develop the scenario, macro-economic and technical-economic hypotheses. The scenario is then presented in terms of possible trajectory, of energy demand (global evolution per sector), of energy production (electricity, heat, mobility), and of CO 2 assessment and nuclear wastes. Scenarios are compared in social and economic terms, more particularly in terms of investments in electricity and heat production systems, of electricity production costs and electricity bill, of energy independence, and of jobs in the electricity and heat sectors

  4. Energy scenarios for Colombia - Environmental Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ricardo A; Vesga A, Daniel R; Boman, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    The planning unit of the Colombian ministry of energy -UPME -has done an energy scenario project for Colombia with a 20-year horizon (vision year 2020) in this project the scenario methodology was used in a systemic way involving a great number of local and international energy experts. As a result four energy scenarios were designed and in all of them the possible evolution of all energy was analyzed. In this article a description of the used methodology is presented with the developed scenarios. Also a discussion of the long-range future environmental considerations in the energy sector, taking into account the developed scenarios, is presented. Finally some conclusions and recommendations are presented

  5. A new scenario framework for Climate Change Research: scenario matrix architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Kriegler, E.; O'Neill, B.C.; Ebi, K.L.; Riahi, K.; Carter, T.R.; Edmonds, J.; Hallegatte, S.; Kram, T.; Mathur, R.; Winkler, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the scenario matrix architecture that underlies a framework for developing new scenarios for climate change research. The matrix architecture facilitates addressing key questions related to current climate research and policy-making: identifying the effectiveness of different

  6. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Battaglia et al. email = crathbun@fnal.gov

    2002-01-01

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb -1 could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at √s ≤ 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e - e - runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab -1 program, expected to take the first 6-7 years of LC operation, one can do

  7. Scenario Development for Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.; Mahmoud, M.; Liu, Y.; Hartman, H.; Wagener, T.; Gupta, H.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective of scenario development for water resources is to inform policy-makers about the implications of various policies to inform decision-making. Although there have been a number of studies conducted in the relatively-new and recent field of scenario analysis and development, very few of those have been explicitly applied to water resource issues. More evident is the absence of an established formal approach to develop and apply scenarios. Scenario development is a process that evaluates possible future states of the world by examining several feasible scenarios. A scenario is a projection of various physical and socioeconomic conditions that describe change from the current state to a future state. In this paper, a general framework for scenario development with special emphasis on applications to water resources is considered. The process comprises several progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. Several characteristics of scenarios that are important in describing scenarios are also taken into account; these include scenario types, scenario themes, scenario likelihoods and scenario categories. A hindrance to the adoption of a unified framework for scenario development is inconsistency in the terminology used by scenario developers. To address this problem, we propose a consistent terminology of basic and frequent terms. Outreach for this formal approach is partially maintained through an interactive community website that seeks to educate potential scenario developers about the scenario development process, share and exchange information and resources on scenarios to foster a multidisciplinary community of scenario developers, and establish a unified framework for scenario development with regards to terminology and guidelines. The website provides information on scenario development, current scenario-related activities, key water resources scenario

  8. Using scenarios of North Slope energy and resource development to assess research and monitoring needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Significant Arctic environmental and socio-economic change has been observed on the North Slope of Alaska, presenting challenges for resident communities and management agencies that need to adapt to future changes that are difficult to model or predict. Continued climate change coupled with new or modified energy development could substantially alter the landscape and ecosystem in the future. The North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) recognized the value of using a participatory scenarios process to consider plausible future energy and resource development scenarios through the year 2040 to help identify and prioritize research and monitoring needs on the North Slope. The scenarios process engaged diverse stakeholders, including subject matter experts and local knowledge holders. Through identification and ranking of key drivers and uncertainties relevant to the focus of the study, a series of spatially explicit scenarios was developed, analyzed in terms of low, medium and high development activities. Climate change and economic factors were key drivers affecting plausible energy development scenarios. The implications from each of the scenarios were then used to identify important research and monitoring activities and their relevant spatial scales. The scenarios project identified over 40 research and monitoring needs. The top five research needs addressed data gaps and key concerns related to how the scenarios could affect: hunting and trapping on land, health and community well-being, permafrost and hydrology, marine mammal subsistence and potential marine oil spills. The use of a participatory scenarios process was essential for identifying a range of plausible energy and resource development scenarios using a framework that involved a systematic assessment of complex interacting drivers of change, consideration of key uncertainties, and transparency throughout the project.

  9. Scenario Archetypes: Converging Rather than Diverging Themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Sadler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Future scenarios provide challenging, plausible and relevant stories about how the future could unfold. Urban Futures (UF research has identified a substantial set (>450 of seemingly disparate scenarios published over the period 1997–2011 and within this research, a sub-set of >160 scenarios has been identified (and categorized based on their narratives according to the structure first proposed by the Global Scenario Group (GSG in 1997; three world types (Business as Usual, Barbarization, and Great Transitions and six scenarios, two for each world type (Policy Reform—PR, Market Forces—MF, Breakdown—B, Fortress World—FW, Eco-Communalism—EC and New Sustainability Paradigm—NSP. It is suggested that four of these scenario archetypes (MF, PR, NSP and FW are sufficiently distinct to facilitate active stakeholder engagement in futures thinking. Moreover they are accompanied by a well-established, internally consistent set of narratives that provide a deeper understanding of the key fundamental drivers (e.g., STEEP—Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental and Political that could bring about realistic world changes through a push or a pull effect. This is testament to the original concept of the GSG scenarios and their development and refinement over a 16 year period.

  10. Effect of inherent misalignment and head motion in neurological PET/MR with the Philips Ingenuity TF – phantom and patient study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuho, Jarmo; Johansson, Jarkko; Saunavaara, Virva; Kemppainen, Nina; Teräs, Mika [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-29

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of misalignment and head motion on image quantification in PET/MR with a novel brain phantom and a healthy control group. The phantom was imaged at two time points in PET/MR, concurrently with PET and PET/CT. Phantom images were evaluated visually and the relative difference in hemispheric accumulation was calculated. Difference in cortical accumulation in a healthy control group was evaluated from non-attenuation corrected (NAC) and MR attenuation corrected (MRAC) images. Regional ROI mean values from F{sup 18}-FDG ratio images and regional hemispheric asymmetries were calculated. Controls were divided to high and low asymmetry groups. A student’s t-test (p<0.005) for group difference and NAC versus MRAC data was performed. Finally, mean PET-MR registration parameters were measured. Only the first phantom scan exhibited asymmetry in lateral frontal cortex (17%) and temporal cortex (19%). Correcting the misalignment of 2.63mm reduced the asymmetry to less than 5%, to a level seen in PET and PET/CT. A significant asymmetry was found in the temporal and parietal cortex between groups in MRAC data with no significant asymmetry in NAC data. Asymmetries in affected MRAC data in temporal and parietal cortex were 9.4% and 11.7%. NAC data from both groups had asymmetry less than 5% in all regions. Both groups had significant y- and z-translation, while only the asymmetry group had significant z-rotation and x-translation. The shift in x-, y-, or z-direction in both groups was less than 4 mm, with no significant differences. Thus, PET-MRAC misalignment may cause under- and overestimation of attenuation in the lines of response on opposite sides of the cortical regions, resulting to asymmetric difference between the hemispheres. Our findings stress the need for novel QC procedures for PET-MR alignment and suggest confirming the quality of PET-MRAC alignment from PET-NAC images.

  11. Baseline scenarios of global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcamo, J.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Bollen, J.C.; Born, G.J. van den; Krol, M.S.; Toet, A.M.C.; Vries, H.J.M. de; Gerlagh, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents three baseline scenarios of no policy action computed by the IMAGE2 model. These scenarios cover a wide range of coupled global change indicators, including: energy demand and consumption; food demand, consumption, and production; changes in land cover including changes in extent of agricultural land and forest; emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors; and climate change and its impacts on sea level rise, crop productivity and natural vegetation. Scenario information is available for the entire world with regional and grid scale detail, and covers from 1970 to 2100. (author)

  12. Experts dismiss doomsday scenarios for RHIC

    CERN Multimedia

    Levi, B G

    2000-01-01

    A panel of particle physicists examining the possibility that operation of RHIC could generate blackholes or 'strangelets' which would consume ordinary matter, have declared that such scenarios are 'firmly excluded' (1 p).

  13. Group 1: Scenario design and development issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, P.

    1981-01-01

    All LOFT scenarios and flight segments should be designed on the basis of a detailed statement of specific objectives. These objectives must state what kind of situation is to be addressed and why. The origin, routing, and destination of a particular scenario should be dictated by the specific objectives for that scenario or leg. Other factors to be considered are the desired weather, climate, etc. Simulator visual system, as well as other capabilities and limitations must be considered at a very early stage of scenario design. The simulator navigation area must be apropriate and must coincide with current Jeppeson charts. Much of the realism of LOFT is destroyed if the crew is unable to use current manuals and other materials.

  14. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) assesses the performance with which models predict time series data. The tool was developed Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)

  15. Environmental evaluation of plastic waste management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigamonti, L.; Grosso, M.; Møller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The management of the plastic fraction is one of the most debated issues in the discussion on integrated municipal solid waste systems. Both material and energy recovery can be performed on such a waste stream, and different separate collection schemes can be implemented. The aim of the paper....... The study confirmed the difficulty to clearly identify an optimal strategy for plastic waste management. In fact none of the examined scenarios emerged univocally as the best option for all impact categories. When moving from the P0 treatment strategy to the other scenarios, substantial improvements can...... is to contribute to the debate, based on the analysis of different plastic waste recovery routes. Five scenarios were defined and modelled with a life cycle assessment approach using the EASEWASTE model. In the baseline scenario (P0) the plastic is treated as residual waste and routed partly to incineration...

  16. Scenarios for the food industry in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2001-01-01

    visions of the future of the food industry and to assess their implications for competence requirements. Given the uncertain nature of the environment, food companies cannot rely on today's competencies being sufficient to fulfil the demands of tomorrow's markets. However, predicting the determinants......Predicting the future is impossible; corporate decision-makers have, however, to decide which competencies to develop precisely on this basis. This article presents the results of a research project on scenario analyses in the Danish food industry. The aim of the study is to look at alternative...... of success in the food industry 10 years hence is a daunting task. Scenario techniques can be very useful in this respect (von Reibnitz, 1988). The contribution of the article is the methodological approach to scenario building, which combines academic and industry input and translates the scenarios...

  17. Using Service Scenarios to Model Business Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate the notion of service scenarios. A service is work done by a service executor in interaction with a service consumer. A service scenario is a model of a service system and the roles that are played by the actors participating and interacting...... during the execution of a service. The model represents the roles and the interactions between the participants. Service scenarios can be used to model specific services and roles played by human beings and IT systems in the execution of services. The use of service scenarios is demonstrated by means...... of a case study in a public library. The case study indicates that service systems should be understood as socio-technical systems in which service executors and service consumers co-create value in mutual interaction with each other and with a set of shared resources....

  18. ANCRE scenarios for energy transition. Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, Nathalie; Des Courtils, Nicolas; Hache, Emmanuel; Liegeard, Alban; Lorne, Daphne; Duplan, Jean-Luc; Kalaydjian, Francois; Heintze, Eric; Tilagone, Richard; Henriot, Stephane; Forti, Laurent; Barthelemy, Pascal; Merlen, Elisabeth; Criqui, Patrick; Mathy, Sandrine; Menanteau, Philippe; Devezeaux De Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Avril, Sophie; Cavata, Christian; Le Duigou, Alain; Le Net, Elisabeth; Marcucci-Demeure, Jeanne; Safa, Henri; Topper, Benjamin; Touboul, Francoise; Carre, Franck; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Charbit, Francoise; Mermilliod, Nicole; Mermilliod, Nicole; Le Net, Elisabeth; Teissier, Olivier; Charrue, Herve; Colonna, Paul; Legrand, Jack; Vidal, Olivier; Goffe, Bruno; Mueller, Alex; Flamant, Gilles; Allard, Francis; Most, Jean-Michel; Matarasso, Pierre; Brault, Pascal; Lemoine, Lionel; Achard, Jean-Luc; Uster, Guillaume; Delsey, Jean; Lucchese, Paul; Tadrist, Lounes; Hadjsaid, Nouredine

    2014-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the energy system by presenting the determining factors of energy demand and of CO 2 emissions per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and biomass), by analysing energy systems and CO 2 emissions (energy sources, energy vectors, networks and storage, energy and CO 2 assessment for France), and by describing the guidelines of the scenarios proposed by ANCRE. The three main scenarios are characterized by a stronger sobriety, an electricity-based de-carbonation (with a variant based on nuclear and renewable energies), and diversified vectors. They are notably compared to a trend-based reference scenario. Results are discussed in terms of energy consumption (primary and final energy, consumption by the different sectors), of energy production and CO 2 emissions. Scenarios are assessed in terms of economic, environmental and societal, political and strategic criteria. Some consequences for research topics and funding are identified

  19. Masking of Enamel Fluorosis Discolorations and Tooth Misalignment With a Combination of At-Home Whitening, Resin Infiltration, and Direct Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, J; Lam, V Q; Burseth, B G; Real, C

    This clinical report illustrates a conservative technique to mask enamel discolorations in maxillary anterior teeth caused by hypomineralization associated with enamel fluorosis and subsequent direct resin composite to improve the anterior esthetics. The treatment consisted of at-home whitening with 10% carbamide peroxide gel with potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride in a custom-fitted tray to mask the brown-stained areas, followed by resin infiltration to mask the white spot areas. An existing resin composite restoration in the maxillary right central incisor was subsequently replaced after completion of the whitening and resin infiltration procedures, whereas the two misaligned and rotated maxillary lateral incisors were built up with direct resin composite restorations to provide the illusion of adequate arch alignment, as the patient was unable to use orthodontic therapy.

  20. Electromagnetic torques and forces due to misalignment effects and eddy currents in the homopolar generator, power supply for the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driga, M.D.; Bird, W.L.; Tolk, K.M.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Asymmetries in the applied magnetic field due to manufacturing tolerances and rotor-stator misalignments can cause significant forces and moments in a homopolar generator. Parasitic eddy-currents in the rotor, brushes and bearings are also important effects of such asymmetries. The finite element method is used to calculate the magnetic flux distributions in the TEXT homopolar generators. The axial magnetic thrust force and the magnetic tilt moment acting on the rotor are calculated. Eddy-current torques opposing rotor motion are determined using the theory for eddy-current brakes. The results have been used in the design of the TEXT homopolar generator which have been proposed to provide the energy store and conversion for the toroidal field and ohmic heating coils of the new Texas Experimental Tokamak

  1. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to ide...

  2. FAST Plasma Scenarios and Equilibrium Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Ramogida, G.; Cardinali, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Maddaluno, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Tuccillo, A.A.; Zonca, F.; Albanese, R.; Granucci, G.; Nowak, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) plasma scenarios and equilibrium configurations, designed to reproduce the ITER ones (with scaled plasma current) and suitable to fulfil plasma conditions for integrated studies of burning plasma physics, Plasma Wall interaction, ITER relevant operation problems and Steady State scenarios. The attention is focused on FAST flexibility in terms of both performance and physics that can be investigated: operations are foreseen at a wide range of parameters from high performance H-Mode (toroidal field, B T , up to 8.5 T; plasma current, I P , up to 8 MA) to advanced tokamak (AT) operation (I P =3 MA) as well as full non inductive current scenario (I P =2 MA). The coupled heating power is provided with 30MW delivered by an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system (30-90MHz), 6 MW by a Lower Hybrid (LH) system (3.7 or 5 GHz) for the long pulse AT scenario, 4 MW by an Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ECRH) system (170 GHz-B T =6T) for MHD and electron heating localized control and, eventually, with 10 MW by a Negative Ion Beam (NNBI), which the ports are designed to accommodate. In the reference H-mode scenario FAST preserves (with respect to ITER) fast ions induced as well as turbulence fluctuation spectra, thus, addressing the cross-scale couplings issue of micro- to meso-scale physics. The noninductive scenario at I P =2MA is obtained with 60-70 % of bootstrap and the remaining by LHCD. Predictive simulations of the H-mode scenarios described above have been performed by means of JETTO code, using a semi-empirical mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm transport model. Plasma position and Shape Control studies are also presented for the reference scenario

  3. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P.

    1998-01-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  4. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P. [Energetics Dept., Polytechnic of Turin (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  5. Quantifying scenarios to check statistical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetle, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    Ways of diverting nuclear material are presented in a form that reflects the effects of the diversions on a select set of statistical accounting procedures. Twelve statistics are examined for changes in mean values under sixty diversion scenarios. Several questions about the statistics are answered using a table of quantification results. Findings include a smallest, proper subset of the set of statistics which has one or more changed mean values under each of the diversion scenarios

  6. Spiral Arms, Infall, and Misalignment of the Circumbinary Disk from the Circumstellar Disks in the Protostellar Binary System L1551 NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Saigo, Kazuya [ALMA Project Office, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Saito, Masao [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1805 (Japan); Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Hanawa, Tomoyuki [Center for Frontier Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yen, Hsi-Wei; Ho, Paul T. P., E-mail: takakuwa@sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    We report the ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE in the 0.9 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (3–2), {sup 13}CO (3–2), SO (7{sub 8}–6{sub 7}), and CS (7–6) emission. At 0.″18 (=25 au) resolution, ∼4 times higher than that of our Cycle 0 observations, the circumbinary disk (CBD) as seen in the 0.9 mm emission is shown to be composed of a northern and a southern spiral arm, with the southern arm connecting to the circumstellar disk (CSD) around Source B. The western parts of the spiral arms are brighter than the eastern parts, suggesting the presence of an m = 1 spiral mode. In the C{sup 18}O emission, the infall gas motions in the interarm regions and the outward gas motions in the arms are identified. These observed features are well reproduced with our numerical simulations, where gravitational torques from the binary system impart angular momenta to the spiral-arm regions and extract angular momenta from the interarm regions. Chemical differentiation of the CBD is seen in the four molecular species. Our Cycle 2 observations have also resolved the CSDs around the individual protostars, and the beam-deconvolved sizes are 0.″29 × 0.″19 (=40 × 26 au) (P.A. = 144°) and 0.″26 × 0.″20 (=36 × 27 au) (P.A. = 147°) for Sources A and B, respectively. The position and inclination angles of these CSDs are misaligned with those of the CBD. The C{sup 18}O emission traces the Keplerian rotation of the misaligned disk around Source A.

  7. Graduate radiographers' expectations for role development - The potential impact of misalignment of expectation and valence on staff retention and service provision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Keren [Department of Radiography, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: williamsonk2@cardiff.ac.uk; Mundy, Lynn A. [Department of Radiography, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role development expectations of graduate radiographers with a view to predicting the potential impact of a misalignment of these expectations and valence on service delivery and staff retention. A final year cohort of radiography students completed a questionnaire designed to explore topics associated with role development opportunities. Method: Structured questionnaires, in the Likert scale format, utilised 20 attitude questions constructed to elicit information in relation to 3 main themes of investigation; expectation, valence and knowledge. Results: All participants (n = 37) stated an expectation for role development opportunities with 97.3% (n = 36) indicating that these expectations would be realised within 5 years of graduation and 75.7% (n = 28) within 2 years of graduation. A significant correlation between expectation for role development and job satisfaction was seen (p < 0.05). 81.1% (n = 30) of participants stated turnover intentions in order to meet their expectations. Conclusion: There is an expectation for role development opportunities for new graduates with a valence noted of the intrinsic reward of meeting these expectations. Expectation and valence are seen to be intrinsically linked with job satisfaction suggesting that misalignment of these would have a potentially negative impact on motivation and retention of the future radiography workforce demonstrating a positive correlation with withdrawal behaviours, including turnover intentions. In a relatively small professional group such as radiography the phenomenon of group cohesion may be strong suggesting that withdrawal behaviours may manifest as 'resignation in post', impacting on the quality of care and service provision for patients.

  8. Graduate radiographers' expectations for role development - The potential impact of misalignment of expectation and valence on staff retention and service provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Keren; Mundy, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role development expectations of graduate radiographers with a view to predicting the potential impact of a misalignment of these expectations and valence on service delivery and staff retention. A final year cohort of radiography students completed a questionnaire designed to explore topics associated with role development opportunities. Method: Structured questionnaires, in the Likert scale format, utilised 20 attitude questions constructed to elicit information in relation to 3 main themes of investigation; expectation, valence and knowledge. Results: All participants (n = 37) stated an expectation for role development opportunities with 97.3% (n = 36) indicating that these expectations would be realised within 5 years of graduation and 75.7% (n = 28) within 2 years of graduation. A significant correlation between expectation for role development and job satisfaction was seen (p < 0.05). 81.1% (n = 30) of participants stated turnover intentions in order to meet their expectations. Conclusion: There is an expectation for role development opportunities for new graduates with a valence noted of the intrinsic reward of meeting these expectations. Expectation and valence are seen to be intrinsically linked with job satisfaction suggesting that misalignment of these would have a potentially negative impact on motivation and retention of the future radiography workforce demonstrating a positive correlation with withdrawal behaviours, including turnover intentions. In a relatively small professional group such as radiography the phenomenon of group cohesion may be strong suggesting that withdrawal behaviours may manifest as 'resignation in post', impacting on the quality of care and service provision for patients.

  9. The negaWatt 2011 scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the approach adopted for the negaWatt scenario and its obtained results. It is based on sobriety (energy savings), on energy efficiency, and on the use of renewable energies. After having outlined the different reasons for an energy transition (increasing energy consumption, critics and risks related to nuclear energy, and high potential of renewable energies), the scenario is presented with its main principles. The scenario identifies possibilities ranging from half to two thirds of energy saving in the different energy consuming sectors. The building sector is presented as a major issue. The transport is described as a sector to be addressed on the long term. The necessary change of the industry sector is highlighted. The agriculture sector is presented as being at the heart of transition. Energy usages are to become sober, efficient and renewable. The scenario is based on a high rate development of renewable energies, while fossil energies are to become marginal, nuclear is to be progressively and reasonably given up, and networks are to become compatible to ensure the scenario success. Thus, the scenario demonstrates the feasibility of a 100 pc sustainable assessment for primary energy, complies with stakes and objectives by 2050. The cost of energy transition is briefly discussed

  10. Future nuclear energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Van Heek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda worldwide. In order to prepare for the next decades and to set priorities in nuclear R and D and investment, market share scenarios are evaluated. This allows to identify the triggers which influence the market penetration of future nuclear reactor technologies. To this purpose, scenarios for a future nuclear reactor park in Europe have been analysed applying an integrated dynamic process modelling technique. Various market share scenarios for nuclear energy are derived including sub-variants with regard to the intra-nuclear options taken, e.g. introduction date of Gen-III (i.e. EPR) and Gen-IV (i.e. SCWR, HTR, FR) reactors, level of reprocessing, and so forth. The assessment was undertaken using the DANESS code which allows to provide a complete picture of mass-flow and economics of the various nuclear energy system scenarios. The analyses show that the future European nuclear park will exist of combinations of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors. This mix will always consist of a set of reactor types each having its specific strengths. Furthermore, the analyses highlight the triggers influencing the choice between different nuclear energy deployment scenarios. In addition, a dynamic assessment is made with regard to manpower requirements for the construction of a future nuclear fleet in the different scenarios. (authors)

  11. Constraining sleptons at the LHC in a supersymmetric low-scale seesaw scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerna-Velazco, Nhell; Jones-Perez, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Seccion Fisica, Departamento de Ciencias, Lima (Peru); Faber, Thomas; Porod, Werner [Uni Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    We consider a scenario inspired by natural supersymmetry, where neutrino data is explained within a low-scale seesaw scenario. We extend the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model by adding light right-handed neutrinos and their superpartners, the R-sneutrinos, and consider the lightest neutralinos to be higgsino-like. We consider the possibilities of having either an R-sneutrino or a higgsino as lightest supersymmetric particle. Assuming that squarks and gauginos are heavy, we systematically evaluate the bounds on slepton masses due to existing LHC data. (orig.)

  12. Rogeaulito: a world energy scenario modeling tool for transparent energy system thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo eBenichou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  13. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benichou, Léo; Mayr, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  14. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benichou, Léo, E-mail: leo.benichou@theshiftproject.org [The Shift Project, Paris (France); Mayr, Sebastian, E-mail: communication@theshiftproject.org [Paris School of International Affairs, Sciences Po., Paris (France)

    2014-01-13

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  15. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  16. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas

    2016-01-01

    to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...

  17. Stellar aberration correction and thermoelastic compensation of Swarm μASC attitude observations: A comment to the Express Letter “Mysterious misalignments between geomagnetic and stellar reference frames seen in CHAMP and Swarm satellite measurements”, by Stefan Maus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, M.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Jørgensen, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    . However, comparison of the Inter Boresight Angle shows a relative attitude variation between the μASC Camera Head Units. These misalignments between Camera Head Units and a geomagnetic reference frame cannot be explained by incorrect aberration correction (as theorized by Maus). Herceg et al. found them...... and clean from any variation caused by thermoelastic effects....

  18. Visualizing alternative phosphorus scenarios for future food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina-Simone Neset

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1 the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2 the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3 the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4 the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency

  19. Visualizing Alternative Phosphorus Scenarios for Future Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neset, Tina-Simone; Cordell, Dana; Mohr, Steve; VanRiper, Froggi; White, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialog on the technical, behavioral, and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialog to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains in

  20. Carbon-constrained scenarios. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This report provides the results of the study entitled 'Carbon-Constrained Scenarios' that was funded by FONDDRI from 2004 to 2008. The study was achieved in four steps: (i) Investigating the stakes of a strong carbon constraint for the industries participating in the study, not only looking at the internal decarbonization potential of each industry but also exploring the potential shifts of the demand for industrial products. (ii) Developing an hybrid modelling platform based on a tight dialog between the sectoral energy model POLES and the macro-economic model IMACLIM-R, in order to achieve a consistent assessment of the consequences of an economy-wide carbon constraint on energy-intensive industrial sectors, while taking into account technical constraints, barriers to the deployment of new technologies and general economic equilibrium effects. (iii) Producing several scenarios up to 2050 with different sets of hypotheses concerning the driving factors for emissions - in particular the development styles. (iv) Establishing an iterative dialog between researchers and industry representatives on the results of the scenarios so as to improve them, but also to facilitate the understanding and the appropriate use of these results by the industrial partners. This report provides the results of the different scenarios computed in the course of the project. It is a partial synthesis of the work that has been accomplished and of the numerous exchanges that this study has induced between modellers and stakeholders. The first part was written in April 2007 and describes the first reference scenario and the first mitigation scenario designed to achieve stabilization at 450 ppm CO 2 at the end of the 21. century. This scenario has been called 'mimetic' because it has been build on the assumption that the ambitious climate policy would coexist with a progressive convergence of development paths toward the current paradigm of industrialized countries: urban sprawl, general

  1. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies rely upon attributional lifecycle analysis (LCA) approaches to estimate water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/evapotranspiration water consumed for biofuel production. Such approaches can be misleading. From a policy perspective, a better approach is to compare differential water impacts among scenarios on a landscape scale. We address the shortcomings of existing studies by using consequential LCA, and incorporate direct and indirect land use (changes) of biofuel scenarios, marginal vs. average biofuel water use estimates, future climate, and geographic heterogeneity. We use the outputs of a partial equilibrium economic model, climate and soil data, and a process-based crop-soil-climate-water model to estimate differences in green water (GW - directly from precipitation to soil) and blue water (BW - supplied by irrigation) use among three scenarios: (1) business-as-usual (BAU), (2) Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. We use spatial statistical methods to interpolate key climatic variables using daily climate observations for the contiguous USA. Finally, we use FAO's crop model AquaCrop to estimate the domestic GW and BW impacts of biofuel policies from 2007-2035. We assess the differences among scenarios along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion at the county level, including prime and marginal lands, (2) crop-specific and overall annual/seasonal water balances including (a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (d) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm 3 /acre over the relevant time period. The functional unit of analysis is the BW and GW requirements of biofuels (mm3 per Btu biofuel) at the county level. Differential water use impacts among scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes

  2. Scenario analysis for the postclosure assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B W; Stephens, M E; Davison, C C; Johnson, L H; Zach, R

    1994-12-01

    AECL Research has developed and evaluated a concept for disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste involving deep underground disposal of the waste in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The postclosure assessment of this concept focusses on the effects on human health and the environment due to potential contaminant releases into the biosphere after the disposal vault is closed. Both radiotoxic and chemically toxic contaminants are considered. One of the steps in the postclosure assessment process is scenario analysis. Scenario analysis identifies factors that could affect the performance of the disposal system and groups these factors into scenarios that require detailed quantitative evaluation. This report documents a systematic procedure for scenario analysis that was developed for the postclosure assessment and then applied to the study of a hypothetical disposal system. The application leads to a comprehensive list of factors and a set of scenarios that require further quantitative study. The application also identifies a number of other factors and potential scenarios that would not contribute significantly to environmental and safety impacts for the hypothetical disposal system. (author). 46 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs., 2 appendices.

  3. Scenario analysis for the postclosure assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Stephens, M.E.; Davison, C.C.; Johnson, L.H.; Zach, R.

    1994-12-01

    AECL Research has developed and evaluated a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involving deep underground disposal of the waste in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The postclosure assessment of this concept focusses on the effects on human health and the environment due to potential contaminant releases into the biosphere after the disposal vault is closed. Both radiotoxic and chemically toxic contaminants are considered. One of the steps in the postclosure assessment process is scenario analysis. Scenario analysis identifies factors that could affect the performance of the disposal system and groups these factors into scenarios that require detailed quantitative evaluation. This report documents a systematic procedure for scenario analysis that was developed for the postclosure assessment and then applied to the study of a hypothetical disposal system. The application leads to a comprehensive list of factors and a set of scenarios that require further quantitative study. The application also identifies a number of other factors and potential scenarios that would not contribute significantly to environmental and safety impacts for the hypothetical disposal system. (author). 46 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs., 2 appendices

  4. The importance of scenario development in meeting 40 CFR part 191

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Scenario development and screening is a fundamental part of performance assessment, but its importance in satisfying 40 CFR Part 191 (the standard) is sometimes underestimated. The first step in scenario development in support of performance assessment for the standard's containment requirements is to identify a set of potentially disruptive events and processes. This set must be broad enough to allow the identification, as required by the standard, of those processes and events that might affect the disposal system; data can then be collected on the scenarios identified in this step. The standard also requires that releases be estimated for all significant processes and events; thus the final step in scenario development is systematically screening the scenarios, on the basis of their probabilities and consequences, to select those that are important enough to be modeled in detail. In general, a few hundred scenarios for the release of radionuclides from a nuclear-waste repository can be identified, but only a few of these can or should be modeled in detail

  5. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  6. Analysis of JT-60SA operational scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotti, L.; Barbato, E.; Garcia, J.; Hayashi, N.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Maget, P.; Romanelli, M.; Saarelma, S.; Stankiewitz, R.; Yoshida, M.; Zagórski, R.

    2018-02-01

    Reference scenarios for the JT-60SA tokamak have been simulated with one-dimensional transport codes to assess the stationary state of the flat-top phase and provide a profile database for further physics studies (e.g. MHD stability, gyrokinetic analysis) and diagnostics design. The types of scenario considered vary from pulsed standard H-mode to advanced non-inductive steady-state plasmas. In this paper we present the results obtained with the ASTRA, CRONOS, JINTRAC and TOPICS codes equipped with the Bohm/gyro-Bohm, CDBM and GLF23 transport models. The scenarios analysed here are: a standard ELMy H-mode, a hybrid scenario and a non-inductive steady state plasma, with operational parameters from the JT-60SA research plan. Several simulations of the scenarios under consideration have been performed with the above mentioned codes and transport models. The results from the different codes are in broad agreement and the main plasma parameters generally agree well with the zero dimensional estimates reported previously. The sensitivity of the results to different transport models and, in some cases, to the ELM/pedestal model has been investigated.

  7. Scenario research: Can the future be predicted?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2000-01-01

    Mr. Jensen sits at the computer in his office wondering what to cook for dinner. He browses through the web site of his usual supermarket. Today's menu is fish. He skims the recipe that also informs him when, where and how the fish was caught. The fish is quite expensive but it has a story to tel...... and supplemented at workshops - one for each of the four sectors. Experts from industry, trade organisations, retailing, authorities and other interested parties participated....... of the project has been to develop scenarios for four sectors of the Danish food industry - meat, dairy, fish and fruit and vegetables - for 2010. The scenarios are put together with the purpose of making the food industry and food research reflect on which demands their competencies will be met with in various...... possible futures. In the process of creating the scenarios, researchers at MAPP and the Danish Technical University formulated mini scenarios based on their research. The scenarios were used as inspiration in discussions with experts from industry, trade organisations, authorities etc. and later discussed...

  8. Energy scenarios for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauerman, V.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has adopted a scenario approach in developing its energy outlook to 2025. These scenarios can be used in developing strategies to optimize opportunities and avoid the dangers that often accompany the more deterministic approach to forecasting. The scenarios are not predictions, but are instead feasible outcomes for the future. They encompass 5 major areas of uncertainty for the world energy market through 2025 that impact energy demand and fuel mix. These include the economy, technology, energy policy, resource availability, and market structure. The drivers for the energy scenarios are the environment, demography, economics, culture geopolitics and technology. The paper referred to the world energy market, the OECD energy markets, the non-OECD energy markets and the FSU energy markets under 3 energy scenarios including: (1) the material world in which the new economy drives the global economy, (2) a very dark Orwellian world in which there is a rise in terrorism and a breakdown in international cooperation, and (3) a utopia in which the major powers become increasingly serious about achieving sustainable development. 22 refs., 48 figs

  9. Forestry: Prospective Scenarios for Generating Eletricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Dias Blois

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forestry generates in all production segments a lot of waste which is a potential power source and an opportunity for electricity generation by the use of this material. Therefore, this study represents the construction of future scenarios for the power generation sector from alternative and renewable sources in the region of Vale do Taquari and Alto da Serra do Botucaraí, in the Northern-Central region of the Stat of Rio Grande do Sul, aiming for the application of waste and by-products from forestry present in a intensive and tendentious way in economic activities within the region. By way of prospective scenarios, one will be able to observe which events are impactful on the viability of an environmental project for recovery of forestry waste to generate electricity in the region. Thereby, we used the method described by Grumbach (2000, a methodology that prospects scenarios from the participation of experts, who collaborated analyzing and proposing events that impact as strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats and their interrelationships. Also, it was evident the degree of influence and dependence between the events, which create a matrix of cross impacts. Moreover, possible future scenarios have been constructed and analyzed for demonstrating that the study area has potential events that could serve as alternatives to the sector. However, no ideal scenario has been identified for the next five years, a fact that is due to the large amount of adverse events in six out of the ten final events.

  10. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay

    2017-01-01

    of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... was undertaken in two phases. In phase one, all abstracts were review by two independent reviewers. In phase two, the full text of all included studies were independently reviewed by two reviewers. The included studies underwent quality assessment and data synthesis. RESULTS: Ten published studies and 10...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...

  11. Systematic Avocating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Green

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeling obliged to undertake complex research tasks outside core working hours is a common occurrence in academia. Detailed and timely research projects are expected; the creation and defence of sufficient intervals within a crowded working schedule is one concern explored in this short version paper. Merely working longer hours fails to provide a satisfactory solution for individuals experiencing concerns of this nature. Personal effort and drive are utilised and requires the application of mental mustering and systematic procedures. The attitude to research work is treating the task as a hobby conceptualised as avocating. Whilst this provides a personal solution through immersion in the task, this approach should raise concerns for employers. The flexibility of grounded theory is evident and the freedom to draw on various bodies of knowledge provides fresh insight into a problem that occurs in organizations in many sectors experiencing multiple priorities. The application of the core category, systematic avocating, may prove beneficial.

  12. RESGen: Renewable Energy Scenario Generation Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    studies remains. Consequently, our aim here is to propose an open-source platform for space-time probabilistic forecasting of renewable energy generation (wind and solar power). This document covers both methodological and implementation aspects, to be seen as a companion document for the open......-source scenario generation platform. It can generate predictive densities, trajectories and space-time interdependencies for renewable energy generation. The underlying model works as a post-processing of point forecasts. For illustration, two setups are considered: the case of day-ahead forecasts to be issued......Space-time scenarios of renewable power generation are increasingly used as input to decision-making in operational problems. They may also be used in planning studies to account for the inherent uncertainty in operations. Similarly using scenarios to derive chance-constraints or robust...

  13. Nuclear Futures Analysis and Scenario Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Beller, D.; Canavan, G.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Peterson, P.; Wagner, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    This LDRD project created and used advanced analysis capabilities to postulate scenarios and identify issues, externalities, and technologies associated with future ''things nuclear''. ''Things nuclear'' include areas pertaining to nuclear weapons, nuclear materials, and nuclear energy, examined in the context of future domestic and international environments. Analysis tools development included adaptation and expansion of energy, environmental, and economics (E3) models to incorporate a robust description of the nuclear fuel cycle (both current and future technology pathways), creation of a beginning proliferation risk model (coupled to the (E3) model), and extension of traditional first strike stability models to conditions expected to exist in the future (smaller force sizes, multipolar engagement environments, inclusion of actual and latent nuclear weapons (capability)). Accomplishments include scenario development for regional and global nuclear energy, the creation of a beginning nuclear architecture designed to improve the proliferation resistance and environmental performance of the nuclear fuel cycle, and numerous results for future nuclear weapons scenarios

  14. KTM Tokamak operation scenarios software infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, V.; Baystrukov, K.; Golobkov, YU.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Meaentsev, A.; Merkulov, S.; Lee, A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I.; Shapovalov, G. [National Nuclear Center (NNC), Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2014-10-15

    One of the largest problems for tokamak devices such as Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material Testing (KTM) is the operation scenarios' development and execution. Operation scenarios may be varied often, so a convenient hardware and software solution is required for scenario management and execution. Dozens of diagnostic and control subsystems with numerous configuration settings may be used in an experiment, so it is required to automate the subsystem configuration process to coordinate changes of the related settings and to prevent errors. Most of the diagnostic and control subsystems software at KTM was unified using an extra software layer, describing the hardware abstraction interface. The experiment sequence was described using a command language. The whole infrastructure was brought together by a universal communication protocol supporting various media, including Ethernet and serial links. The operation sequence execution infrastructure was used at KTM to carry out plasma experiments.

  15. Energy scenarios for hydrogen production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    The hydrogen is a clean and very efficient fuel, its combustion does not produce gases of greenhouse effect, ozone precursors and residual acids. Also the hydrogen produced by friendly energy sources with the environment like nuclear energy could help to solve the global problems that it confronts the energy at present time. Presently work fuel cycles of hydrogen production technologies in Mexico are judged, by means of a structured methodology in the concept of sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. The methodology is divided in three scenarios: base, Outlook 2030 and capture of CO 2 . The first scenario makes reference to cycles analysis in a current context for Mexico, the second taking in account the demand projections reported by the IAEA in its report Outlook and the third scenario, capture of CO 2 , the technologies are analyzed supposing a reduction in capture costs of 75%. Each scenario also has four cases (base, social, environmental and economic) by means of which the cycles are analyzed in the dimensions of sustainable development. For scenarios base and capture, results show that combination nuclear energy- reformed of gas it is the best alternative for cases base and economic. For social case, the evaluated better technology is the hydraulics, and for environmental case, the best option is represented by the regenerative thermochemistry cycles. The scenario Outlook 2030 show a favorable tendency of growth of renewable sources, being the aeolian energy the best technology evaluated in the cases base and environmental, the hydraulics technology in the social case and in the economic case the reformed of natural gas that uses nuclear heat. (Author)

  16. The Impact of Gamification - Recommending Education Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Erenli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many students play (computer games in their leisure time, thus acquiring skills which can easily be utilized when it comes to teaching more sophisticated knowledge. Nevertheless many educators today are wasting this opportunity. Some have evaluated gaming scenarios and methods for teaching students and have created the term “gamification”. This paper describes the history of this new term and explains the possible impact on teaching. It will take well-researched facts into consideration to discuss the potential of games. Moreover, scenarios will be illustrated and evaluated for educators to adopt and use on their own.

  17. The other radios: Alternative scenario in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rivadeneyra-Olcese

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian radio shows a huge diversity in direct proportion to its multiculturality, the same which shows a process full of different influences of social actor which have produced a complex and extremely rich scenario, that is also filled with opportunities and challenges. Beyond the great capital commercial radio are the other radios, small companies, provincial, from church or the mayor or small business owners sons of folkloric melomania, different actors with a passion to establish a new media. The multiple motivations produce a scenario with many types of radio that we wishes to start knowing.

  18. Scenarios of Expansion to Electric Generation Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Somoza-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the building scenarios of expansion to electric generation capacity enough to supply the demand to 2050. We were using the LEAP facility (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System, to simulate dispatch of electricity at minimum cost. Finally, we show the cost-benefice analysis of the technologies availability, included externality and CO2 emission limited. However that we included the externals cost in this analysis, it results insufficient to closed gap between fossil and renewable technologies of electric generation. Nevertheless, in some opportunities the renewable options had very important participations in the minimal cost scenario of expansion.

  19. Modeling and Understanding Time-Evolving Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Melen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of modeling application scenarios characterized by variability over time and involving heterogeneous kinds of knowledge. The evolution of distributed technologies creates new and challenging possibilities of integrating different kinds of problem solving methods, obtaining many benefits from the user point of view. In particular, we propose here a multilayer modeling system and adopt the Knowledge Artifact concept to tie together statistical and Artificial Intelligence rule-based methods to tackle problems in ubiquitous and distributed scenarios.

  20. Negatep: A Scenario for Combating Global Warming; Le scenario Negatep. Un scenario de lutte contre le rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P. [Sauvons Le Climat, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    2011-07-15

    There have been an increasing number of foresight exercises in the field of energy and global warming in recent years, as we have seen from the articles devoted to these questions by Futuribles in 2011 (both in this special issue and in the April number). It is certainly the case that the goals for greenhouse-gas emission reduction are rather ambitious, particularly in France, it being the aim of the 2005 French framework law on energy to reduce carbon gas discharges by a factor of four. Among these scenarios, the Negatep scenario developed by Claude Acket and Pierre Bacher from the 'Sauvons le climat' [Let's save the climate] Association proposes to achieve this ('factor 4') goal in France by 2050 by reducing fossil fuel use by 75% and replacing this as quickly as possible with electricity produced from non-carbon-gas-emitting sources - chiefly, nuclear power and renewables. The authors lay out their goals here, backed up by figures, comparing these with the reference scenario. They also show the path that must be followed to arrive at these goals, particularly in the residential and tertiary sectors, and in transport and industry (through control of needs and recourse to alternative energy sources). They close by comparing the Negatep scenario with two other more recent scenarios aimed also at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, on the one hand in Europe, and on the other in Germany. The comparison confirms that they were right to rely on electricity as a substitute for oil, but gives them cause for concern in respect of the consequences (formidable in their view) that the replacement of nuclear power and coal energy by intermittent renewable energies might have in Europe, both with regard to costs and to the effects on the power network. (authors)

  1. Thermal leptogenesis and the gravitino problem in the Asaka-Yanagida axion/axino dark matter scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Howard; Lessa, Andre; Kraml, Sabine; Sekmen, Sezen

    2011-01-01

    A successful implementation of thermal leptogenesis requires the re-heat temperature after inflation T R to exceed ∼ 2 × 10 9 GeV. Such a high T R value typically leads to an overproduction of gravitinos in the early universe, which will cause conflicts, mainly with BBN constraints. Asaka and Yanagida (AY) have proposed that these two issues can be reconciled in the context of the Peccei-Quinn augmented MSSM (PQMSSM) if one adopts a mass hierarchy m(sparticle) > m(gravitino)>m(axino), with m(axino) ∼ keV. In this case, sparticle decays bypass the gravitino, and decay more quickly to the axino LSP, thus avoiding the BBN constraints. In addition, thermally produced gravitinos decay inertly to axion+axino, also avoiding BBN constraints. We calculate the relic abundance of mixed axion/axino dark matter in the AY scenario, and investigate under what conditions a value of T R sufficient for thermal leptogenesis can be generated. A high value of PQ breaking scale f a is needed to suppress overproduction of axinos, while a small vacuum misalignment angle θ i is needed to suppress overproduction of axions. The large value of f a results in late decaying neutralinos. We show that, to avoid BBN constraints, the AY scenario requires a rather low thermal abundance of neutralinos, while higher values of neutralino mass also help. We combine these constraint calculations along with entropy production from late decaying saxions, and find the saxion needs to be typically at least several times heavier than the gravitino. A successful implementation of the AY scenario suggests that LHC should discover a spectrum of SUSY particles consistent with weak scale supergravity; that the apparent neutralino abundance is low; that an axion direct detection signal (probably with m a in the sub-μeV range) may be possible, but no direct or indirect signals for WIMP dark matter should be observed

  2. Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Building confidence in the assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.

    1994-01-01

    Scenario developments is part of the iterative performance assessment (PA) process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Scenario development for the WIPP has been the subject of intense external review, and is certain to be the subject of continued scrutiny as the project proceeds toward regulatory compliance. The principal means of increasing confidence is this aspect of the PA will be through the use of a systematic and thorough procedure toward developing the scenarios and conceptual models on which the assessment is to be based. Early and ongoing interaction with project reviewers can assist with confidence building. Quality of argument and clarity of presentation in PA will be of key concern. Appropriate tools are required for documenting and tracking assumptions, through a single assessment phase, and between iterative assessment phases. Risks associated with future human actions are of particular concern to the WIPP project, and international consensus on the principles for incorporation of future human actions in assessments would be valuable

  3. Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Building confidence in the assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.

    1994-07-01

    Scenario development is part of the iterative performance assessment (PA) process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Scenario development for the WIPP has been the subject of intense external review and is certain to be the subject of continued scrutiny as the project proceeds toward regulatory compliance. The principal means of increasing confidence in this aspect of the PA will be through the use of the systematic and thorough procedure toward developing the scenarios and conceptual models on which the assessment is to be based. Early and ongoing interaction with project reviewers can assist with confidence building. Quality of argument and clarity of presentation in PA will be of key concern. Appropriate tools are required for documenting and tracking assumptions, through a single assessment phase, and between iterative assessment phases. Risks associated with future human actions are of particular concern to the WIPP project, and international consensus on the principles for incorporation of future human actions in assessments would be valuable

  4. Maximising the Effectiveness of a Scenario Planning Process: Tips for Scenario Planners in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Scenario planning is a tool which can help organisations and people to think about, and plan for, the long-term future. In basic terms, it involves creating a number of in-depth scenarios (stories), each of which tells of a different possible future for an organisation or issue, and considering how each different future might influence…

  5. Scenario-based roadmapping assessing nuclear technology development paths for future nuclear energy system scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Roelofs, Ferry; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy may play a significant role in a future sustainable energy mix. The transition from today's nuclear energy system towards a future more sustainable nuclear energy system will be dictated by technology availability, energy market competitiveness and capability to achieve sustainability through the nuclear fuel cycle. Various scenarios have been investigated worldwide each with a diverse set of assumptions on the timing and characteristics of new nuclear energy systems. Scenario-based roadmapping combines the dynamic scenario-analysis of nuclear energy systems' futures with the technology roadmap information published and analysed in various technology assessment reports though integrated within the nuclear technology roadmap Nuclear-Roadmap.net. The advantages of this combination is to allow mutual improvement of scenario analysis and nuclear technology roadmapping providing a higher degree of confidence in the assessment of nuclear energy system futures. This paper provides a description of scenario-based roadmapping based on DANESS and Nuclear-Roadmap.net. (author)

  6. Optimizing Decision Preparedness by Adapting Scenario Complexity and Automating Scenario Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Rob; Schatz, Sae; Flore, Stephen M.; Nicholson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Klein's recognition-primed decision (RPD) framework proposes that experts make decisions by recognizing similarities between current decision situations and previous decision experiences. Unfortunately, military personnel arQ often presented with situations that they have not experienced before. Scenario-based training (S8T) can help mitigate this gap. However, SBT remains a challenging and inefficient training approach. To address these limitations, the authors present an innovative formulation of scenario complexity that contributes to the larger research goal of developing an automated scenario generation system. This system will enable trainees to effectively advance through a variety of increasingly complex decision situations and experiences. By adapting scenario complexities and automating generation, trainees will be provided with a greater variety of appropriately calibrated training events, thus broadening their repositories of experience. Preliminary results from empirical testing (N=24) of the proof-of-concept formula are presented, and future avenues of scenario complexity research are also discussed.

  7. Renewable energy technology portfolio planning with scenario analysis: A case study for Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.-Y.; Yu, Oliver S.; Hsu, George Jyh-yih; Hsu, Fang-Ming; Sung, W.-N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study of applying a systematic and proven process of technology portfolio planning with the use of scenario analysis to renewable energy developments in Taiwan. The planning process starts with decision values of technology development based on a survey of society leaders. It then generates, based on expert opinions and literature search, a set of major technology alternatives, which in this study include: wind energy, photovoltaic, bio-energy, solar thermal power, ocean energy, and geothermal energy. Through a committee of technical experts with diversified professional backgrounds, the process in this study next constructs three scenarios ('Season in the Sun', 'More Desire than Energy', and 'Castle in the Air') to encompass future uncertainties in the relationships between the technology alternatives and the decision values. Finally, through a second committee of professionals, the process assesses the importance and risks of these alternative technologies and develops a general strategic plan for the renewable energy technology portfolio that is responsive and robust for the future scenarios. The most important contributions of this paper are the clear description of the systematic process of technology portfolio planning and scenario analysis, the detailed demonstration of their application through a case study on the renewable energy development in Taiwan, and the valuable results and insights gained from the application.

  8. Scenario-based table top simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a scenario-based table top simulation method in a user-driven innovation setting. A team of researchers worked together with a user group of five medical staff members from the existing clinic. Table top simulations of a new clinic were carried out in a simple model...

  9. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    As part of the major WEC study on Scenarios to 2050, a specific investigation was undertaken on measures required in the transport sector to secure sustainable energy and sustainable mobility in the future. This report outlines the results conducted by a study group of international WEC transport experts and gives concrete policy recommendations to develop sustainable transport systems.

  10. SO2 emission scenarios of eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, L.; Hao, J.; Lu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Under the National Key Project in Eighth Five-year Plan, a study was carried out on forecasting SO 2 emission from coal combustion in China, with a special emphasis on the eastern area. 3 scenarios, i.e. 'Optimistic', 'Pessimistic' and 'Business as Usual' scenarios were developed trying to cover changing scale of coal consumption and SO 2 emission from 1990 to 2020. A 'Top-down' approach was employed, and coal consumption elasticity was defined to project future economic growth and coal consumption. SO 2 emission scenarios were outlined, based on coal consumption, estimated sulfur content level and prospective SO 2 control situation. Emission level for each 1 degree longitude x 1 degree latitude grid cell within eastern China was also estimated to show geographical distribution of SO 2 sources. The results show that SO 2 emission in China will increase rapidly, if the current situation for energy saving and SO 2 control is maintained without improvement; measures enhanced reasonably with economic growth could stop further increase of emission by 2010. Realization of more encouraging objective to keep emission at even below 1990 level needs, however, more stringent options. The share of eastern China in the country's total emission would increase until 2000, while the general changing tendency would principally follow the scenarios of the whole country. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. NIDI scenario. Strong population decline in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations projections assume that by the end of this century one third of the world population will live in India, China or Nigeria. While population growth in India will slow down and the population size of China will decline, population growth in Nigeria will accelerate. A new NIDI scenario

  12. NIDI scenario. Strong population decline in China

    OpenAIRE

    de Beer, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations projections assume that by the end of this century one third of the world population will live in India, China or Nigeria. While population growth in India will slow down and the population size of China will decline, population growth in Nigeria will accelerate. A new NIDI scenario projects less population growth in Nigeria and sharp population decline in China.

  13. Flooding Capability for River-based Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Calhoun, Donna [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Centroid Labs., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anderson, S. Danielle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casteneda, Cody [Boise State Univ., ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the initial investigation into modeling and simulation tools for application of riverine flooding representation as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluations. The report provides examples of different flooding conditions and scenarios that could impact river and watershed systems. Both 2D and 3D modeling approaches are described.

  14. Probabilistic results for a mobile service scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Yiu, Man Lung

    We consider the following stochastic model for a mobile service scenario. Consider a stationary Poisson process in Rd, with its points radially ordered with respect to the origin (the anchor); if d = 2, the points may correspond to locations of e.g. restaurants. A user, with a location different...

  15. Use of simplifier scenarios for CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Cockpit resource management (CRM) at Metro Airlines is discussed. The process by which the program of CRM training was initiated is mentioned. Management aspects of various flying scenarios are considered. The transfer of training from the classroom to the field is assessed.

  16. Biomass round bales infield aggregation logistic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass bales often need to be aggregated (collected into groups and transported) to a field-edge stack for temporary storage for feedlots or processing facilities. Aggregating the bales with the least total distance involved is a goal of producers and bale handlers. Several logistics scenarios for ...

  17. Forlic deliverable 5.1: Persona scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, Govert; Leendertse, Matthijs; Leis, Miriam; Kirschner, Paul A.; Hoogveld, Bert; Stoyanov, Slavi; Weber, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This document describes nine persona scenarios. The outcomes of a group concept mapping (GCM) exercise were used as input to create nine personas. The basic data for each persona contains demographic information, its position in a three by three persona matrix, and an overview of the relevant

  18. National FCEV and Hydrogen Fueling Station Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc

    2016-06-09

    This presentation provides a summary of the FY16 activities and accomplishments for NREL's national fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and hydrogen fueling station scenarios project. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  19. European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ertug Ercin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops water footprint scenarios for Europe for 2050, at the country level, based on projections regarding population and economic growth, production and trade patterns, consumption patterns (diets and bioenergy use and technological development. The objective is to estimate possible future changes in the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of production and consumption, to analyze the main drivers of projected changes and to assess Europe’s future dependence on water resources elsewhere in the world. We develop four scenarios, considering globalization versus regional self-sufficiency, and development driven by economic objectives versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows that the most critical driver of change affecting Europe’s future WF is the consumption pattern. The WFs of both production and consumption in Western Europe increase under scenarios with high meat consumption and decrease with low-meat scenarios. Besides, additional water demands from increasing biofuel needs will put further pressure on European water resources. The European countries with a large ratio of external to total WF of consumption in 2000 decrease their dependencies on foreign water resources in 2050.

  20. Scenario study on the FBR deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi; Kofuji, Hirohide; Otaki, Akira; Yonezawa, Shigeaki; Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Hirao, Kazunori; Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2000-12-01

    This study on success scenarios for the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) deployment was performed taking account of future situation of fossil, renewable and nuclear energies in Japan as well as the world from the viewpoints of the following four items; economics, environment, energy security and restriction of natural uranium resources. In the economics scenario, if carbon tax is added to generating cost of LNG, coal and oil and the economics of FBR cycle is competitive with LWR cycle in the future, FBR cycle will be expected to introduce as the middle and base load power plant. In the environment scenario, there is also any possibility that FBR cycle which can burn and transmute minor actinide and fission product elements will be introduced in order to reduce the burden of deposit facility and the toxicity of high-level waste. In the uranium resources restriction scenario, FBR cycle needs to be deployed at the latest in the middle of 21st century from the viewpoint of the restriction of natural uranium resources. This study was carried out in a part of JNC's feasibility study on commercialized FBR cycle system. (author)

  1. Integration of software for scenario exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Takao

    1999-03-01

    The scenario exploration methodology using shadow models is a variation of the environmental simulation method. Key aspect of the scenario exploration is the use of shadow models which are not corresponding to any specific assumptions on physical processes and, instead, abstract their general features relevant to the effects on nuclide transport in a general manner so that benefit of using simulation approach can be maximized. In developing the shadow models, all the modelling options that have not yet been denied by the experts are kept and parametrized in a very general framework. This, in turn, enables one to treat various types of the uncertainty in performance assessment, i.e., scenario uncertainty, conceptual model uncertainty, mathematical model uncertainty and parameter uncertainty, in a common framework of uncertainty / sensitivity analysis. Objective of the current study is to review / modify the tools which have been developed separately and, thence, not fully consistent from one to the other and to integrate them into a unified methodology and software. Tasks for this are; 1. modification / integration of tools for scenario exploration of nuclide transport in the EBS and the near-field host rock, 2. verification of the software modified and integrated, 3. installation of the software at JNC. (author)

  2. Future Scenarios for Mobile Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Kevin; Kearney, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper adopts scenario planning as a methodological approach and tool to help science educators reconceptualise their use of mobile technologies across various different futures. These "futures" are set out neither as predictions nor prognoses but rather as stimuli to encourage greater discussion and reflection around the use of…

  3. International scenarios of the Venezuelan oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, Felipe; Irsay, Jorge E.

    1999-01-01

    The times of stability of the energy business, which characterized the 50s and the 60s came to their end in the 70s. From that moment on, new times have become times of quick changes and high uncertainty. In order to minimize the impact of the surprises that the future may bring, and so decrease the managers' decision making risk, many companies use the scenario planning process. The end purpose of scenario planning is the creation of an organization that will adapted to changes, a learning organization, that is able to identify the business environment un knows and to use this knowledge as one of its advantages. The present article shows the scenarios generated for the Venezuelan oil industry's strategic planning exercise for the 1999-2015 period. Theses scenarios are Consensus and Harmony, Regions and Environment, Conflicts and Decadence and Pragmatic Community. It is concluded from them that oil business success would be supported by differentiation as a secure, trusted and low cost producer; early oil and gas opportunities identification; Hemispherical integration and/or bilateral commercial agreements; oil and gas business portfolio diversification; and diversification to state-of-the-art technologies for renewable forms of energy

  4. Scenarios of land cover in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tian Xiang; Fan, Ze Meng; Liu, Ji Yuan

    2007-02-01

    A method for surface modeling of land cover change (SMLC) is developed on the basis of establishing transition probability matrixes between land cover types and HLZ types. SMLC is used to simulate land cover scenarios of China for the years 2039, 2069 and 2099, for which HLZ scenarios are first simulated in terms of HadCM3 climatic scenarios that are downscaled in zonal model of spatial climate change in China. This paper also analyzes spatial distribution of land cover types, area change and mean center shift of each land cover type, ecotope diversity, and patch connectivity under the land cover scenarios. The results show that cultivated land would decrease and woodland would expand greatly with climatic change, which coincides with consequences expected by implementation of Grain-for-Green policy. Nival area would shrink, and desertification area would expand at a comparatively slow rate in future 100 years. Climate change would generally cause less ecotope diversity and more patch connectivity. Ecosystems in China would have a pattern of beneficial cycle after efficient ecological conservation and restoration. However, if human activities would exceed regulation capacity of ecosystems themselves, the ecosystems in China might deteriorate more seriously.

  5. Scenario evaluation of open pond microalgae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Lösing, M.B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate microalgae production in large scale open ponds under different climatologic conditions, a model-based framework is used to study the effect of light conditions, water temperature and reactor design on trends in algae productivity. Scenario analyses have been done for two algae species

  6. Blindness to alternative scenarios in evidence evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.C. Rassin (Eric)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn order to prevent miscarriages of justice, police, prosecution, and judges must remain open to alternative scenarios in which the suspect is in fact innocent. In recent years, however, several studies have delivered results suggesting that open-mindedness is not always standard in

  7. Solution space diagram in conflict detection scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, S.M.A.; Borst, C.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Solution Space Diagram (SSD) as a measure of sector complexity and also as a predictor of performance and workload, focusing on the scenarios regarding Air Traffic Controller (ATCO)’s ability to detect future conflicts. A human-in-the-loop experiment with

  8. No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...

  9. Orchestrating Learning Scenarios for the Borderless Classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Esther; Rusman, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This part of the symposium focuses on the design of seamless learning experiences in a borderless classroom. There are two parts to this symposium. We start with unpacking various theoretical approaches that inform the instructional design of boundary-crossing learning scenarios, such as social

  10. Prospective assessment of the frequency of low gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: Critical impact of aortic flow misalignment and pressure recovery phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringle, Anne; Castel, Anne-Laure; Le Goffic, Caroline; Delelis, François; Binda, Camille; Bohbot, Yohan; Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir; Guerbaai, Raphaëlle A; Levy, Franck; Vincentelli, André; Graux, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Maréchaux, Sylvestre

    2018-02-10

    The frequency of paradoxical low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (AS) varies widely across studies. The impact of misalignment of aortic flow and pressure recovery phenomenon on the frequency of low-gradient severe AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has not been evaluated in prospective studies. To investigate prospectively the impact of aortic flow misalignment by Doppler and lack of pressure recovery phenomenon correction on the frequency of low-gradient (LG) severe aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved LVEF. Aortic jet velocities and mean pressure gradient (MPG) were obtained by interrogating all windows in 68 consecutive patients with normal LVEF and severe AS (aortic valve area [AVA] ≤1cm 2 ) on the basis of the apical imaging window alone (two-dimensional [2D] apical approach). Patients were classified as having LG or high-gradient (HG) AS according to MPG 35mL/m 2 or ≤35mL/m 2 , on the basis of the 2D apical approach, the multiview approach (multiple windows evaluation) and AVA corrected for pressure recovery. The proportion of LG severe AS was 57% using the 2D apical approach alone. After the multiview approach and correction for pressure recovery, the proportion of LG severe AS decreased from 57% to 13% (LF-LG severe AS decreased from 23% to 3%; NF-LG severe AS decreased from 34% to 10%). As a result, 25% of patients were reclassified as having HG severe AS (AVA ≤1cm 2 and MPG ≥40mmHg) and 19% as having moderate AS. Hence, 77% of patients initially diagnosed with LG severe AS did not have "true" LG severe AS when the multiview approach and the pressure recovery phenomenon correction were used. Aortic flow misevaluation, resulting from lack of use of multiple windows evaluation and pressure recovery phenomenon correction, accounts for a large proportion of incorrectly graded AS and considerable overestimation of the frequency of LG severe AS with preserved LVEF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of renal function loss on circadian misalignment of cytokines EPO, IGF-1, IL-6 and TNF-alfa in chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putten, Karien; Koch, Birgit; van Someren, Eus; Wielders, Jos; Ter Wee, Piet; Nagtegaal, Elsbeth; Gaillard, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of renal disease. Circadian sleep-wake rhythm is disturbed in renal disease. Awareness of other disturbed rhythms, such as inflammation processes, can affect the treatment of patients with renal disease. Knowledge of possibly related circadian misalignment of the cytokines erythropoietin (EPO), Insulin Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and interleukins (IL) however is limited. We therefore performed an observational study. The objective of this study was to characterize levels of EPO, IGF-1 and inflammation markers IL-6 and TNF-α, related to renal function. The study population consisted of patients with various degrees of renal function, admitted to our hospital. During 24 hours, blood of 28 subjects with various degrees of renal function was collected every 2 hours. The patients were stable, not acutely ill and they were waiting for a procedure, such as elective surgery. Circadian parameters of EPO, IGF-1, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in serum and were correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and Hb, using Pearson correlations. Although diurnal variations in EPO level were found in 15 out of 28 patients, the curves did not show a consistent phase. The presence of an EPO rhythm was not related to GFR. No diurnal rhythm could be detected for IGF-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Mean levels of IGF-1 were correlated inversely to mean levels of EPO (p=0.03). When divided based on GFR and Hb subjects with GFR 10-30 ml/min and lower Hb had the highest IGF-1 levels (p=0.02). A relationship between Il-6, TNF-α and EPO or GFR was not found. The existence of a circadian (mis)alignment of EPO, IGF-1, IL-6 and TNF-α was not found. The association between high IGF-1 and low Hb suggests that EPO and IGF-1 have an alternating role, dependent on GFR, in stimulating erythropoiesis. These results could have consequences for the treatment of anemia.

  12. SU-E-T-35: A General Fill Factor Definition Serving to Characterise the MLC Misalignment Detection Capabilities of Two-Dimensional Detector Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelljes, T.S.; Looe, H.K.; Poppe, B. [Clinic for Radiation Therapy, Pius-Hospital, Oldenburg, DE (United States); WG Medical Radiation Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg, DE (United States); Harder, D. [Prof. em., Medical Physics and Biophysics, Georg August University, Goettingen, DE (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To present a general definition of the fill factor realistically characterizing the “field coverage”, i.e. the MLC misalignment detection capabilities of a detector array. Methods: According to Gago-Arias et al.{sup 1} the fill factor of a 2D array is defined as the ratio of the area enclosed by the FWHM of the fluence response function KM(x) of a single detector and its cell area defined by the detector spacing. More generally - accounting also for the possible overlap between FWHM’s of neighboured detectors - the fill factor is here defined as that fraction of the sum of the detector cell areas in which a defined MLC misalignment is detectable when the induced percentage signal changes exceed a detection threshold d. Ideally the generalized fill factor may reach 100 %. With user code EGS-chamber and a 2 MeV photon slit beam 0.25 mm wide, both types of the fill factor were calculated for an array with total cell area 100 cm{sup 2} for chamber widths 1–9 mm, using =1mm, d=5%. Results: For single chamber width 5 mm, fill factors were 0.49 (FWHM) and 0.61 (generalized). For chamber width 2 mm the FWHM fill factor was 0.13 whereas the generalized fill factor was 0.32. For chamber widths above 7 mm, the FWHM fill factor exceeds unity, and the general fill factor is exactly 1.00. Conclusions: An updated fill factor definition is introduced which, as a generalization of the FWHM-based definition, more closely estimates the performance of small array chambers and gives a realistic value in the case of overlapping sensitive areas of neighboured chambers. References:{sup 1}A. Gago-Arias, L. Brualla-Gonzalez, D.M. Gonzalez-Castano, F. Gomez, M.S. Garcia, V.L. Vega, J.M. Sueiro, J. Pardo-Montero, “Evaluation of chamber response function influence on IMRT verification using 2D commercial detector arrays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2005–2020 (2012)

  13. SU-E-T-35: A General Fill Factor Definition Serving to Characterise the MLC Misalignment Detection Capabilities of Two-Dimensional Detector Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelljes, T.S.; Looe, H.K.; Poppe, B.; Harder, D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a general definition of the fill factor realistically characterizing the “field coverage”, i.e. the MLC misalignment detection capabilities of a detector array. Methods: According to Gago-Arias et al. 1 the fill factor of a 2D array is defined as the ratio of the area enclosed by the FWHM of the fluence response function KM(x) of a single detector and its cell area defined by the detector spacing. More generally - accounting also for the possible overlap between FWHM’s of neighboured detectors - the fill factor is here defined as that fraction of the sum of the detector cell areas in which a defined MLC misalignment is detectable when the induced percentage signal changes exceed a detection threshold d. Ideally the generalized fill factor may reach 100 %. With user code EGS-chamber and a 2 MeV photon slit beam 0.25 mm wide, both types of the fill factor were calculated for an array with total cell area 100 cm 2 for chamber widths 1–9 mm, using =1mm, d=5%. Results: For single chamber width 5 mm, fill factors were 0.49 (FWHM) and 0.61 (generalized). For chamber width 2 mm the FWHM fill factor was 0.13 whereas the generalized fill factor was 0.32. For chamber widths above 7 mm, the FWHM fill factor exceeds unity, and the general fill factor is exactly 1.00. Conclusions: An updated fill factor definition is introduced which, as a generalization of the FWHM-based definition, more closely estimates the performance of small array chambers and gives a realistic value in the case of overlapping sensitive areas of neighboured chambers. References: 1 A. Gago-Arias, L. Brualla-Gonzalez, D.M. Gonzalez-Castano, F. Gomez, M.S. Garcia, V.L. Vega, J.M. Sueiro, J. Pardo-Montero, “Evaluation of chamber response function influence on IMRT verification using 2D commercial detector arrays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2005–2020 (2012)

  14. Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecha, R.

    2008-12-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some

  15. CLASS: Core Library for Advanced Scenario Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouginot, B.; Thiolliere, N.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear reactor simulation community has to perform complex electronuclear scenario simulations. To avoid constraints coming from the existing powerful scenario software such as COSI, VISION or FAMILY, the open source Core Library for Advanced Scenario Simulation (CLASS) has been developed. The main asset of CLASS is its ability to include any type of reactor, whether the system is innovative or standard. A reactor is fully described by its evolution database which should contain a set of different validated fuel compositions in order to simulate transitional scenarios. CLASS aims to be a useful tool to study scenarios involving Generation-IV reactors as well as innovative fuel cycles, like the thorium cycle. In addition to all standard key objects required by an electronuclear scenario simulation (the isotopic vector, the reactor, the fuel storage and the fabrication units), CLASS also integrates two new specific modules: fresh fuel evolution and recycled fuel fabrication. The first module, dealing with fresh fuel evolution, is implemented in CLASS by solving Bateman equations built from a database induced cross-sections. The second module, which incorporates the fabrication of recycled fuel to CLASS, can be defined by user priorities and/or algorithms. By default, it uses a linear Pu equivalent-method, which allows predicting, from the isotopic composition, the maximum burn-up accessible for a set type of fuel. This paper presents the basis of the CLASS scenario, the fuel method applied to a MOX fuel and an evolution module benchmark based on the French electronuclear fleet from 1977 to 2012. Results of the CLASS calculation were compared with the inventory made and published by the ANDRA organisation in 2012. For UOX used fuels, the ANDRA reported 12006 tonnes of heavy metal in stock, including cooling, versus 18500 tonnes of heavy metal predicted by CLASS. The large difference is easily explained by the presence of 56 tonnes of plutonium already separated

  16. When Things Do Not Go as Expected: Scenario Life Savers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Lippert, A.; Glavin, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss scenario life savers - interventions before and during simulation scenarios that allow to create and use relevant learning opportunities, even if unexpected events happen during the conduction of the scenario. Scenario life savers are needed, when the comprehension...... or acceptance of the scenario by the participants is at stake, thus compromising learning opportunities. Scenario life savers can principally work by bringing participants back on track of the planned scenario or by adapting the conduction to their actions on the fly. Interventions can be within the logic...... of the scenario or from the "outside," not being part of the scenario itself. Scenario life savers should be anticipated during the design of scenarios and used carefully during their conduction, aiming to maximize the learning for participants. (Sim Healthcare 5: 219-225, 2010)...

  17. Global climate-oriented transportation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops scenarios whereby CO 2 emissions from the transportation sector are eliminated worldwide by the end of this century. Data concerning the energy intensity and utilization of different passenger and freight transportation modes in 2005, and per capita income, in 10 different socio-economic regions of the world are combined with scenarios of population and per capita GDP to generate scenarios of future transportation energy demand. The impact of various technical options (improvements in the energy intensity of all transportation modes, changes in the proportions of vehicles with different drive trains, and a shift to biomass or hydrogen for the non-electricity energy requirements) and behavioural options (a shift to less energy-intensive LDV market segments, a reduction in total passenger-km of travel per capita, and an increase in the share of less energy-intensive passenger and freight modes of transport) is assessed. To eliminate transportation fossil fuel emissions within this century while limiting the demand for electricity, biofuels or hydrogen to manageable levels requires the simultaneous application of all the technical and behavioural measures considered here, with improvements in vehicle efficiencies and a shift to plug-in hybrid and battery-electric drive trains for light duty vehicles being the most important measures. - Highlights: ► Scenarios are developed whereby transportation CO 2 emissions reach zero by 2100. ► These scenarios address concerns about peak oil and global warming. ► A comprehensive mix of technical and behavioural changes is considered in 10 world regions. ► Efficiency improvements and a shift to plug-in hybrid vehicles are the most important measures

  18. Participative Spatial Scenario Analysis for Alpine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Marina; Stotten, Rike; Steinbacher, Melanie; Leitinger, Georg; Tasser, Erich; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Schermer, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify. The concept of social-ecological resilience can thereby provide a framework for understanding complex interlinkages on multiple scales and from different disciplines. In our study site (Stubai Valley, Tyrol/Austria), we applied a sequence of steps including the characterization of the social-ecological system and identification of key drivers that influence farmers' management decisions. We then developed three scenarios, i.e., "trend", "positive" and "negative" future development of farming conditions and assessed respective future land use changes. Results indicate that within the "trend" and "positive" scenarios pluri-activity (various sources of income) prevents considerable changes in land use and land cover and promotes the resilience of farming systems. Contrarily, reductions in subsidies and changes in consumer behavior are the most important key drivers in the negative scenario and lead to distinct abandonment of grassland, predominantly in the sub-alpine zone of our study site. Our conceptual approach, i.e., the combination of social and ecological methods and the integration of local stakeholders' knowledge into spatial scenario analysis, resulted in highly detailed and spatially explicit results that can provide a basis for further community development recommendations.

  19. The future of scenarios: issues in developing new climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Hugh M

    2009-01-01

    In September, 2007, the IPCC convened a workshop to discuss how a new set of scenarios to support climate model runs, mitigation analyses, and impact, adaptation and vulnerability research might be developed. The first phase of the suggested new approach is now approaching completion. This article discusses some of the issues raised by scenario relevant research and analysis since the last set of IPCC scenarios were created (IPCC SRES, 2000) that will need to be addressed as new scenarios are developed by the research community during the second phase. These include (1) providing a logic for how societies manage to transition from historical paths to the various future development paths foreseen in the scenarios, (2) long-term economic growth issues, (3) the appropriate GDP metric to use (purchasing power parity or market exchange rates), (4) ongoing issues with moving from the broad geographic and time scales of the emission scenarios to the finer scales needed for impacts, adaptation and vulnerability analyses and (5) some possible ways to handle the urgent request from the policy community for some guidance on scenario likelihoods. The challenges involved in addressing these issues are manifold; the reward is greater credibility and deeper understanding of an analytic tool that does much to form the context within which many issues in addition to the climate problem will need to be addressed.

  20. The future of scenarios: issues in developing new climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-04-01

    In September, 2007, the IPCC convened a workshop to discuss how a new set of scenarios to support climate model runs, mitigation analyses, and impact, adaptation and vulnerability research might be developed. The first phase of the suggested new approach is now approaching completion. This article discusses some of the issues raised by scenario relevant research and analysis since the last set of IPCC scenarios were created (IPCC SRES, 2000) that will need to be addressed as new scenarios are developed by the research community during the second phase. These include (1) providing a logic for how societies manage to transition from historical paths to the various future development paths foreseen in the scenarios, (2) long-term economic growth issues, (3) the appropriate GDP metric to use (purchasing power parity or market exchange rates), (4) ongoing issues with moving from the broad geographic and time scales of the emission scenarios to the finer scales needed for impacts, adaptation and vulnerability analyses and (5) some possible ways to handle the urgent request from the policy community for some guidance on scenario likelihoods. The challenges involved in addressing these issues are manifold; the reward is greater credibility and deeper understanding of an analytic tool that does much to form the context within which many issues in addition to the climate problem will need to be addressed.

  1. A working definition of scenario and a method of scenario construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.

    1992-01-01

    The event-tree method of scenario construction has been chosen for the Yucca Mountain performance assessment. Its applicability and suitability to the problem are discussed and compared with those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) method. The event-tree method is appropriate for an incompletely characterized site, where there must be an evolving understanding, over time, of the processes at work, for a site that may require analysis of details in specific context, and when the scenario functions to guide site characterization. Anticipating the eventual requirement for using the NRC method, we show that the event-tree method can be translated to the NRC format after final scenario screening

  2. The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) for CMIP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Hurtt, George; Knutti, Reto; Kriegler, Elmar; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lowe, Jason; Meehl, Gerald A.; Moss, Richard; Riahi, Keywan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Projections of future climate change play a fundamental role in improving understanding of the climate system as well as characterizing societal risks and response options. The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) is the primary activity within Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) that will provide multi-model climate projections based on alternative scenarios of future emissions and land use changes produced with integrated assessment models. In this paper, we describe ScenarioMIP's objectives, experimental design, and its relation to other activities within CMIP6. The ScenarioMIP design is one component of a larger scenario process that aims to facilitate a wide range of integrated studies across the climate science, integrated assessment modeling, and impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability communities, and will form an important part of the evidence base in the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments. At the same time, it will provide the basis for investigating a number of targeted science and policy questions that are especially relevant to scenario-based analysis, including the role of specific forcings such as land use and aerosols, the effect of a peak and decline in forcing, the consequences of scenarios that limit warming to below 2 °C, the relative contributions to uncertainty from scenarios, climate models, and internal variability, and long-term climate system outcomes beyond the 21st century. To serve this wide range of scientific communities and address these questions, a design has been identified consisting of eight alternative 21st century scenarios plus one large initial condition ensemble and a set of long-term extensions, divided into two tiers defined by relative priority. Some of these scenarios will also provide a basis for variants planned to be run in other CMIP6-Endorsed MIPs to investigate questions related to specific forcings. Harmonized, spatially

  3. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser with double anti-misalignment corner cubes pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. P.; Dai, T. Y.; Wu, J.; Ju, Y. L.; Yao, B. Q.

    2018-06-01

    We report the acousto-optically Q-switched Ho:YAG laser with double anti-misalignment corner cubes pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser. In the continuous-wave operation of Ho:YAG laser, the maximum s-polarized output power of 3.2 W at 2090.3 nm was obtained under the absorbed pump power of 12.9 W by rotating the fast axis of quarter-wave plate to change the output transmission of laser cavity. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 24.8% and the slope efficiency was 55.7%. When one of the corner cubes was rotated to 11.8° around vertical direction or 6.7° around horizontal direction, the laser could still operate stably. For the Q-switched operation, the pulse energy of Ho:YAG laser was 9.9 mJ with a pulse width of 53 ns at the repetition rate of 100 Hz, resulting in a peak power of 186.8 kW. The beam quality factor M2 of Ho:YAG laser was 1.3.

  4. The shift work and health research agenda: Considering changes in gut microbiota as a pathway linking shift work, sleep loss and circadian misalignment, and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy C; Paterson, Jessica L; Ferguson, Sally A; Stanley, Dragana; Wright, Kenneth P; Dawson, Drew

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence and impact of metabolic disease is rising. In particular, overweight and obesity are at epidemic levels and are a leading health concern in the Western world. Shift work increases the risk of overweight and obesity, along with a number of additional metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). How shift work contributes to metabolic disease has not been fully elucidated. Short sleep duration is associated with metabolic disease and shift workers typically have shorter sleep durations. Short sleep durations have been shown to elicit a physiological stress response, and both physiological and psychological stress disrupt the healthy functioning of the intestinal gut microbiota. Recent findings have shown altered intestinal microbial communities and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in circadian disrupted mice and jet lagged humans. We hypothesize that sleep and circadian disruption in humans alters the gut microbiota, contributing to an inflammatory state and metabolic disease associated with shift work. A research agenda for exploring the relationship between insufficient sleep, circadian misalignment and the gut microbiota is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  6. FEATURES OF FORMATION SCENARIOS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Nozhenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topic – the invention of approaches to enterprise development oil and fat industry. The goal – to identify features of formation scenarios for the food industry. The chosen methodology allowed to analyze and evaluate the functioning of state enterprises. Results are discovering the benefits of scenario planning to find ways of business development. Novelty – a rationale for the use of scenario planning for enterprise development oil and fat industry, developing a set of scenarios. The practical significance – providing specific scenarios for enterprises of oil and fat industry. Keywords: scenario planning, scenario development, enterprise, oil and fat industry outlook. JEL: L 66

  7. Climate change scenarios for Canada's national parks : a users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Wun, N.; Scott, D.; Barrow, E.

    2003-01-01

    A screening level impact assessment has shown that the implications of climate change for Canada's national parks are considerable. Climate change scenarios will be an important component in examining the potential climate change impacts and the implications of adaptation strategies. Most climate change scenarios are based on vulnerability, impact and adaptation research. This user's manual describes the development of 3 types of climate change scenarios including scenarios from global climate models (GCMs), bioclimate scenarios and daily scenarios for use by Parks Canada. The manual offers advice to first-time climate change scenario users in choosing and interpreting climate change, bioclimate and daily scenarios. It also addresses the theoretical and practical foundations of each climate scenario and shows how to access data regarding the various scenarios. Hands-on exercises are included as an interpretive aid. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 19 figs

  8. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  9. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  10. U. S. electricity shortfall: three scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderslice, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Scenarios in which no nuclear-generating capacity is added between 1981 and 1985 and the goal of doubling coal utilization is only 50% successful show electric power shortfalls over most of the U.S. by 1985, with the industrial central regions the hardest hit. Since conservation alone cannot carry the nation through a transition from oil dependence to coal and nuclear, the author stresses the importance of identifying the consequences of such a shortfall. General Electric's scenarios are projected for shortfalls in energy supply, electric power, and oil and natural gas to determine the effect on gross national product, business investment, production growth, inflation foreign exchange rates, and employment levels. Near-term crises in power plant shortages are indicated by the energy models.

  11. The UFE Prospective scenarios for energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After an overview of the French energy consumption in 2011 (final energy consumption, distribution of CO 2 emissions related to energy consumption), this Power Point presentation proposes graphs and figures illustrating UFE's prospective scenarios for energy demand. The objective is to foresee energy demand in 2050, to study the impact of possible actions on energy demand, and to assess the impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses relate to demographic evolution, economic growth, energy intensity evolution, energy efficiency, and use transfers. Factors of evolution of energy demand are discussed: relationship between demography and energy consumption, new uses of electricity (notably with TICs), relationship between energy intensity and economic growth. Actions on demand are discussed. The results of different scenarios of technical evolution are presented

  12. Scenarios for the Strategic Planning of Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Grienitz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing based corporations often find themselves confronted with complexities of increased pressures to innovate in order to ensure their comparative market positions. In order to react to various exogenous changes corporations need to develop strategies that match their manufacturing resources as well as products with the markets requirements. Technology scenarios represent a holistic approach for managing innovation processes and technologies efficiently. A multidimensional requirement catalogue for specific product- market- combinations represents the fundamental building block for the ranking of particular material- components and technologies. The following analysis through evolutionary algorithms for compatibility between and amongst them provides the necessary information about their suitability. The resulting scenarios and roadmap and a regular monitoring process are prerequisite for the managerial decision making process and the implementation technology strategies.

  13. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  14. The hexagon hypothesis: Six disruptive scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtles, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to bring a simple but effective and comprehensive approach to the development, delivery and monitoring of business continuity solutions. To ensure that the arguments and principles apply across the board, the paper sticks to basic underlying concepts rather than sophisticated interpretations. First, the paper explores what exactly people are defending themselves against. Secondly, the paper looks at how defences should be set up. Disruptive events tend to unfold in phases, each of which invites a particular style of protection, ranging from risk management through to business continuity to insurance cover. Their impact upon any business operation will fall into one of six basic scenarios. The hexagon hypothesis suggests that everyone should be prepared to deal with each of these six disruptive scenarios and it provides them with a useful benchmark for business continuity.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  16. BIOMOVS test scenario model comparison using BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, H.A.; Van Dorp, F.

    1986-07-01

    This report presents the results of the irrigation test scenario, presented in the BIOMOVS intercomparison study, calculated by the computer code BIOPATH. This scenario defines a constant release of Tc-99 and Np-237 into groundwater that is used for irrigation. The system of compartments used to model the biosphere is based upon an area in northern Switzerland and is essentially the same as that used in Projekt Gewaehr to assess the radiological impact of a high level waste repository. Two separate irrigation methods are considered, namely ditch and overhead irrigation. Their influence on the resultant activities calculated in the groundwater, soil and different foodproducts, as a function of time, is evaluated. The sensitivity of the model to parameter variations is analysed which allows a deeper understanding of the model chain. These results are assessed subjectively in a first effort to realistically quantify the uncertainty associated with each calculated activity. (author)

  17. 3 Investment Scenarios for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoai Tehrani, Bianka; Da Costa, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Results: • 4 families of scenarios: – In each of them, 3 options for national nuclear policy → 12 scenarios; – 3 favorable to FRs: - “climate constraint” with strong pro-nuclear policy - “climate constraint” with moderate pro-nuclear policy - “totally green” with strong pro-nuclear policy. • Business As Usual is not favorable to Fast Reactors; Fast reactors deployment: - Needs strong climate policy - Is viable in case of important renewable progress as long as climate policy is strong. International perspective: • Results are valid for Europe, other drivers being likely to be more important in other countries : high growth and demand (Asia); • With strong contrasts between European countries. Further research: • Finer modeling of drivers with unclear influence (clustered and excluded variables): Influence of weak signals

  18. Cold dark matter in brane cosmology scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahab, Eiman Abou El; Khalil, Shaaban

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of brane cosmology. We investigate the impact of the non-conventional brane cosmology on the relic abundance of non-relativistic stable particles in high and low reheating temperature scenarios. We show that in case of high reheating temperature, the brane cosmology may enhance the dark matter relic density by many order of magnitudes and a stringent lower bound on the five dimensional scale is obtained. We also consider low reheating temperature scenarios with chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium. We emphasize that in non-equilibrium case, the resulting relic density is very small. While with equilibrium, it is increased by a factor of O(10 2 ) with respect to the standard thermal production. Therefore, dark matter particles with large cross section, which is favored by detection expirements, can be consistent with the recent relic density observational limits

  19. TIBER engineering test reactor (ETR) startup scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackfield, D.T.; Perkins, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A time-dependent Tokamak Systems Code (TTSC) has been developed and used to examine various inductively driven startup scenarios for the TIBER reactor. Radially averaged particle and energy balance equations are solved. In addition, time varying currents in the PF and OH coils are determined from MHD equilibrium and volt-seconds considerations. Less than 20 MW of auxiliary power deposited in the electrons is required to obtain steady-state operations. For this scenario, less than 10% of the total volt-seconds capability is consumed during startup and the currents in the PF and OH coils do not appear to exceed stress limits. For every volt-second saved during startup, the burn time can be extended 14 seconds. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Extreme scenarios for nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M J [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Div. of Applied Sciences; Crouch, E [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Energy and Environmental Policy Center

    1982-09-01

    Two extreme scenarios for release of radioactive waste have been constructed. In the first, a volcanic eruption releases 1 km/sup 2/ of an underground nuclear waste repository, while in the second, waste enters the drinking water reservoir of a major city. With pessimistic assumptions, upper bounds on the number of cancers due to radiation are calculated. In the volcano scenario, the effects of the waste are smaller than the effects of natural radioactivity in the volcanic dust if the delay between emplacement and eruption exceeds 2000 yr. The consequences of the waste in drinking water depend on the survival time of the canisters and the rate of leaching of the nuclides from the waste matrix. For a canister life of 400 yr and a leach time of 6300 yr the cancer rate in the affected area would increase by 25%.

  1. Extreme scenarios for nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M J; Crouch, E

    1982-09-01

    Two extreme scenarios for release of radioactive waste have been constructed. In the first, a volcanic eruption releases 1 km2 of an underground nuclear waste repository, while in the second, waste enters the drinking water reservoir of a major city. With pessimistic assumptions, upper bounds on the number of cancers due to radiation are calculated. In the volcano scenario, the effects of the water are smaller than the effects of natural radioactivity in the volcanic dust if the delay between emplacement and eruption exceeds 2000 yr. The consequences of the waste in drinking water depend on the survival time of the canisters and the rate of leaching of the nuclides from the waste matrix. For a canister life of 400 yr and a leach time of 6300 yr the cancer rate in the affected area would increase by 25%.

  2. Environmental and climate security: improving scenario methodologies for science and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. M.; Carlsen, H.

    2010-12-01

    Governments and popular discussions have increasingly referred to concepts of ‘climate security’, often with reference to IPCC data. Development of effective methodologies to translate complex, scientific data into risk assessments has lagged, resulting in overly simplistic political assumptions of potential impacts. Climate security scenarios have been developed for use by security and military agencies, but effective engagement by scientific communities requires an improved framework. Effective use of data requires improvement both of climate projections, and the mapping of cascading impacts across interlinked, complex systems. In this research we propose a process for systematic generation of subsets of scenarios (of arbitrary size) from a given set of variables with possible interlinkages. The variables could include climatic changes as well as other global changes of concerns in a security context. In coping with possible challenges associated with the nexus of climate change and security - where deep structural uncertainty and possible irreversible changes are of primary interest - it is important to explore the outer limits of the relevant uncertainties. Therefore the proposed process includes a novel method that will help scenario developers in generating scenario sets where the scenarios are in a quantifiable sense maximally different and therefore best ‘span’ the whole set of scenarios. When downscaled onto a regional level, this process can provide guidance to potentially significant and abrupt geophysical changes, where high uncertainty has often prevented communication of risks. Potential physical changes can then be used as starting points for mapping cascading effects across networks, including topological analysis to identify critically vulnerable nodes and fragile systems, the existence of positive or negative feedback loops, and possible intervention points. Advanced knowledge of both potential geo-physical shifts and related non

  3. Necrotizing Fasciitis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Galust, Henrik; Oliverio, Matthew H; Giorgio, Daniel J; Espinal, Alexis M; Ahmed, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis?(NF) is a rare and rapidly progressing life-threatening infectious process. By progressing through a simulation involving a patient with NF and participating in a post-scenario debriefing, learners will gain the necessary skills and knowledge to properly diagnose and manage patients with NF. Learners are taught to initiate appropriate and timely treatment and to advocate on behalf of their patient after inappropriate pushback from consultants to improve outcomes.

  4. Necrotizing Fasciitis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galust, Henrik; Oliverio, Matthew H; Giorgio, Daniel J; Espinal, Alexis M; Ahmed, Rami

    2016-08-31

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare and rapidly progressing life-threatening infectious process. By progressing through a simulation involving a patient with NF and participating in a post-scenario debriefing, learners will gain the necessary skills and knowledge to properly diagnose and manage patients with NF. Learners are taught to initiate appropriate and timely treatment and to advocate on behalf of their patient after inappropriate pushback from consultants to improve outcomes.

  5. The climatic scenario of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deque, M.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation shows how the ARPEGE model, which is the regional model of Meteo-France, responds to the forcing results of the A2 scenario of the GIEC for the parameters of temperature and rainfalls. It emerges from the study that the main impact in France of the climatic change is an increase of the temperature in all seasons, an increase of the rains in winter and a decrease of the rains in summer. (A.L.B.)

  6. Scenarios for the Electrification of Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kanudia , Amit; Gastineau , Pascal; BACHMANN , Till; PREISS , Philipp; STOFFREGEN , Alexander; VINOT , Simon; CHEZE , Benoît; Tchung-Ming , Stéphane; BOUVART , Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    SCelecTRA - Scenarios for the electrification of Transport is a collaborative project under the ERANET - Electromobility+ call for project and aims at: · identifying the conditions and public policies actions to develop road passenger electromobility in Europe for 2030, · assessing the environmental impacts of such policies via consequential Life Cycle Analysis as well as their external costs.; Sélectionné dans le cadre du programme ERANET- Electromobility+, le projet visait à identifier les ...

  7. A Note on Scenarios of Metastable Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsák, Jan; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 5 (2010), s. 593-605 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802; GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : metastable water * spinodal * scenarios Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  8. Internal wave attractors: different scenarios of instability

    OpenAIRE

    Brouzet, Christophe; Ermanyuk, E. V.; Joubaud, Sylvain; Pillet, Grimaud; Dauxois, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an experimental study of different instability scenarios in a parallelogram-shaped internal wave attractor in a trapezoidal domain filled with a uniformly stratified fluid.Energy is injected into the system via the oscillatory motion of a vertical wall of the trapezoidal domain. Whole-field velocity measurements are performed with the conventional PIV technique. In the linear regime, the total kinetic energyof the fluid system is used to quantify th...

  9. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios The WEA Project Team May 2012 SPECIAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2012-SR-020 CERT® Division, Software ...Homeland Security under Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0003 with Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally...DISTRIBUTES IT “AS IS.” References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trade mark, manufacturer, or otherwise

  10. Investment scenarios for Chinese power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis is provided of returns for investment in power plants in China and India. Three sample investment scenarios are compared to illustrate the relative merits of each financing arrangement. The best returns would seem to be offered by a mix of debt and equity financing. The potential problem of gradual currency depreciation can be overcome by early cash payments. Foreign investment in China's power generation industry would be more readily forthcoming if easier access to debt finance were available. (UK)

  11. Scenarios as methods of Community Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2002-01-01

    The significance of the scenario workshop is the combination of creativity, reflection and action helping the participants to imaging and realise desirable futures. It can contribute to fill the gaps between visions of the future and the present situation, giving the participants knowledge and po...... and power to act themselves instead of just being passively adjusted to the ongoing changes of their organisation or community....

  12. Management strategies in hospitals: scenario planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Instead of waiting for challenges to confront hospital management, doctors and managers should act in advance to optimize and sustain value-based health. This work highlights the importance of scenario planning in hospitals, proposes an elaborated definition of the stakeholders of a hospital and defines the influence factors to which hospitals are exposed to. Methodology: Based on literature analysis as well as on personal interviews with stakeholders we propose an elaborated definition of stakeholders and designed a questionnaire that integrated the following influence factors, which have relevant impact on hospital management: political/legal, economic, social, technological and environmental forces. These influence factors are examined to develop the so-called critical uncertainties. Thorough identification of uncertainties was based on a “Stakeholder Feedback”. Results: Two key uncertainties were identified and considered in this study: According to the developed scenarios, complementary education of the medical staff as well as of non-medical top executives and managers of hospitals was the recommended core strategy. Complementary scenario-specific strategic options should be considered whenever needed to optimize dealing with a specific future development of the health care environment. Conclusion: Strategic planning in hospitals is essential to ensure sustainable success. It considers multiple situations and integrates internal and external insights and perspectives in addition to identifying weak signals and “blind spots”. This flows into a sound planning for multiple strategic options. It is a state of the art tool that allows dealing with the increasing challenges facing hospital management.

  13. Sustainable energy-economic-environmental scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-31

    IIASA's Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Project has proposed a quantitative 'working definition' of sustainable development E3 (energy-economic-environmental) scenarios. ECS has proposed four criteria for sustainability: economic growth is sustained throughout the time horizon; socioeconomic inequity among world regions is reduced over the 21st century; reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio for exhaustible primary energy resources do not decline; and long-term environmental stress is mitigated. Using these criteria, 40 long-term E3 scenarios generated by ECS models were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions drawn were: slow population growth or stabilization of global population appears to be prerequisite for sustainable development; economic growth alone does not guarantee a sustainable future; carbon intensities of total primary energy must decrease faster than the historical trend; strategies for fossil fuel consumption must aim at non-decreasing R/P ratios; and carbon emissions must be near or below today's levels at the end of this century. The analysis of sustainable development scenarios is an important step towards formulating long-term strategies aimed at climate stabilization. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Resource Demand Scenarios for the Major Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T E; Ciacci, Luca; Reck, Barbara K

    2018-03-06

    The growth in metal use in the past few decades raises concern that supplies may be insufficient to meet demands in the future. From the perspective of historical and current use data for seven major metals-iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead-we have generated several scenarios of potential metal demand from 2010 to 2050 under alternative patterns of global development. We have also compared those demands with various assessments of potential supply to midcentury. Five conclusions emerge: (1) The calculated demand for each of the seven metals doubles or triples relative to 2010 levels by midcentury; (2) The largest demand increases relate to a scenario in which increasingly equitable values and institutions prevail throughout the world; (3) The metal recycling flows in the scenarios meet only a modest fraction of future metals demand for the next few decades; (4) In the case of copper, zinc, and perhaps lead, supply may be unlikely to meet demand by about midcentury under the current use patterns of the respective metals; (5) Increased rates of demand for metals imply substantial new energy provisioning, leading to increases in overall global energy demand of 21-37%. These results imply that extensive technological transformations and governmental initiatives could be needed over the next several decades in order that regional and global development and associated metal demand are not to be constrained by limited metal supply.

  15. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  16. Clinical Scenarios for Discordant Anti-Xa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Vera-Aguilera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Xa test measures the activity of heparin against the activity of activated coagulation factor X; significant variability of anti-Xa levels in common clinical scenarios has been observed. Objective. To review the most common clinical settings in which anti-Xa results can be bias. Evidence Review. Guidelines and current literature search: we used PubMed, Medline, Embase, and MEDION, from 2000 to October 2013. Results. Anti-Xa test is widely used; however the assay underestimates heparin concentration in the presence of significant AT deficiency, pregnancy, end stage renal disease, and postthrombolysis and in patients with hyperbilirubinemia; limited published data evaluating the safety and effectiveness of anti-Xa assays for managing UH therapy is available. Conclusions and Relevance. To our knowledge this is the first paper that summarizes the most common causes in which this assay can be affected, several “day to day” clinical scenarios can modify the outcomes, and we concur that these rarely recognized scenarios can be affected by negative outcomes in the daily practice.

  17. Scenarios and design: Scoping the dialogue space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin, Cynthia Lea; Kimbell, Lucy; Ramirez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the intersections between two futures-oriented domains of practice and research: scenario planning and design. Both are practice-led, with uneasy but productive relationships with theorizing. Exploring their relations offers ways to address challenges faced by interdisciplinar......'s contribution is to suggest how scenario planning can engage with design, resulting in new opportunities for research and projects. These modes of engagement provide a framing to explore dialogues between other management disciplines.......This paper examines the intersections between two futures-oriented domains of practice and research: scenario planning and design. Both are practice-led, with uneasy but productive relationships with theorizing. Exploring their relations offers ways to address challenges faced by interdisciplinary...... management research, which struggles to connect research and practice. The authors describe how they brought the two fields together. We outline how we convened, designed and facilitated the fourth Oxford Futures Forum held in May 2014. This event brought together leading practitioners and researchers...

  18. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T; Tuomenvirta, H [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  19. Land-Use Scenarios: National-Scale Housing-Density Scenarios Consistent with Climate Change Storylines (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Land-Use Scenarios: National-Scale Housing-Density Scenarios Consistent with Climate Change Storylines. This report describes the scenarios and models used to generate national-scale housing density scenarios for the con...

  20. Deforestation scenarios for the Bolivian lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Graciela; Dalla-Nora, Eloi; Cordoba, Diana; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Ovando, Alex; Assis, Talita; Aguiar, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests in South America play a key role in the provision of ecosystem services such as carbon sinks, biodiversity conservation, and global climate regulation. In previous decades, Bolivian forests have mainly been deforested by the expansion of agricultural frontier development, driven by the growing demands for beef and other productions. In the mid-2000s the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party rose to power in Bolivia with the promise of promoting an alternative development model that would respect the environment. The party passed the world's first laws granting rights to the environment, which they termed Mother Earth (Law No. 300 of 2012), and proposed an innovative framework that was expected to develop radical new conservation policies. The MAS conservationist discourse, policies, and productive practices, however, have since been in permanent tension. The government continues to guarantee food production through neo-extractivist methods by promoting the notion to expand agriculture from 3 to 13 million ha, risking the tropical forests and their ecosystem services. These actions raise major environmental and social concerns, as the potential impacts of such interventions are still unknown. The objective of this study is to explore an innovative land use modeling approach to simulate how the growing demand for land could affect future deforestation trends in Bolivia. We use the LuccME framework to create a spatially-explicit land cover change model and run it under three different deforestation scenarios, spanning from the present-2050. In the Sustainability scenario, deforestation reaches 17,703,786 ha, notably in previously deforested or degraded areas, while leaving forest extensions intact. In the Middle of the road scenario, deforestation and degradation move toward new or paved roads spreading across 25,698,327 ha in 2050, while intact forests are located in Protected Areas (PAs). In the Fragmentation scenario, deforestation expands to almost

  1. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  2. Using Optimal Land-Use Scenarios to Assess Trade-Offs between Conservation, Development, and Social Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Pressey, Robert L; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G

    2016-01-01

    Development of land resources can contribute to increased economic productivity but can also negatively affect the extent and condition of native vegetation, jeopardize the persistence of native species, reduce water quality, and erode ecosystem services. Spatial planning must therefore balance outcomes for conservation, development, and social goals. One approach to evaluating these trade-offs is scenario planning. In this paper we demonstrate methods for incorporating stakeholder preferences into scenario planning through both defining scenario objectives and evaluating the scenarios that emerge. In this way, we aim to develop spatial plans capable of informing actual land-use decisions. We used a novel approach to scenario planning that couples optimal land-use design and social evaluation of environmental outcomes. Four land-use scenarios combined differences in total clearing levels (10% and 20%) in our study region, the Daly Catchment Australia, with the presence or absence of spatial precincts to concentrate irrigated agriculture. We used the systematic conservation planning tool Marxan with Zones to optimally plan for multiple land-uses that met objectives for both conservation and development. We assessed the performance of the scenarios in terms of the number of objectives met and the degree to which existing land-use policies were compromised (e.g., whether clearing limits in existing guidelines were exceeded or not). We also assessed the land-use scenarios using expected stakeholder satisfaction with changes in the catchment to explore how the scenarios performed against social preferences. There were a small fraction of conservation objectives with high conservation targets (100%) that could not be met due to current land uses; all other conservation and development objectives were met in all scenarios. Most scenarios adhered to the existing clearing guidelines with only marginal exceedances of limits, indicating that the scenario objectives were

  3. Using Optimal Land-Use Scenarios to Assess Trade-Offs between Conservation, Development, and Social Values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M Adams

    Full Text Available Development of land resources can contribute to increased economic productivity but can also negatively affect the extent and condition of native vegetation, jeopardize the persistence of native species, reduce water quality, and erode ecosystem services. Spatial planning must therefore balance outcomes for conservation, development, and social goals. One approach to evaluating these trade-offs is scenario planning. In this paper we demonstrate methods for incorporating stakeholder preferences into scenario planning through both defining scenario objectives and evaluating the scenarios that emerge. In this way, we aim to develop spatial plans capable of informing actual land-use decisions. We used a novel approach to scenario planning that couples optimal land-use design and social evaluation of environmental outcomes. Four land-use scenarios combined differences in total clearing levels (10% and 20% in our study region, the Daly Catchment Australia, with the presence or absence of spatial precincts to concentrate irrigated agriculture. We used the systematic conservation planning tool Marxan with Zones to optimally plan for multiple land-uses that met objectives for both conservation and development. We assessed the performance of the scenarios in terms of the number of objectives met and the degree to which existing land-use policies were compromised (e.g., whether clearing limits in existing guidelines were exceeded or not. We also assessed the land-use scenarios using expected stakeholder satisfaction with changes in the catchment to explore how the scenarios performed against social preferences. There were a small fraction of conservation objectives with high conservation targets (100% that could not be met due to current land uses; all other conservation and development objectives were met in all scenarios. Most scenarios adhered to the existing clearing guidelines with only marginal exceedances of limits, indicating that the scenario

  4. Assessment of nuclear power scenarios allowing for matrix behavior in radiological impact modeling of disposal scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.; Boussier, H.

    2000-01-01

    Under the provisions of the 1991 French radioactive waste management law, various fuel cycle scenarios will be assessed and compared in terms of feasibility, flexibility, cost, and ultimate waste radio-toxic inventory. The latter criterion may be further broken down into 'potential radio-toxic inventory' (the radio-toxic inventory of all the radionuclides produced) and 'residual radio-toxic inventory' (the radionuclide fraction reaching the biosphere after migration from the repository). The innovative scientific contribution of this study is to consider a third type of radio-toxic inventory: the potential radio-toxic inventory after conditioning, i.e. taking into account the containment capacity of the radionuclide conditioning matrices. The matrix fraction subjected to alteration over time determines the potential for radionuclide release, hence the notion of the potential radio-toxic inventory after conditioning. An initial comparison of possible scenarios is proposed by considering orders of magnitude for the radionuclide containment capacity of the disposal matrices and for their mobilization potential. All the scenarios investigated are normalized to the same annual electric power production so that a legitimate comparison can be established for the ultimate wasteform produced per year of operation. This approach reveals significant differences among the scenarios considered that do not appear when only the raw potential radio-toxic inventory is taken into account. The matrix containment performance has a decisive effect on the final impact of a given scenario or type of scenario. Pu recycling scenarios thus reduce the potential radio-toxicity by roughly a factor of 50 compared with an open cycle; the gain rises to a factor of about 300 for scenarios in which Pu and the minor actinides are recycled. Interestingly, the results obtained by the use of a dedicated containment matrix for the minor actinides in a scenario limited to Pu recycling were comparable to

  5. The role of fusion power in energy scenarios. Proposed method and review of existing scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P; Ybema, J.R.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1998-04-01

    The European Commission wishes more insight in the potential role of fusion energy in the second half of the 21st century. Therefore, several scenario studies are carried out in the so-called macro-task Long Term Scenarios to investigate the potential role of fusion power in the energy system. The main contribution of ECN to the macro-task is to perform a long term energy scenario study for Western Europe with special focus on the role of fusion power. This interim report gives some methodological considerations for such an analysis. A discussion is given on the problems related to the long time horizon of the scenario study such as the forecast of technological innovations, the selection of appropriate discount rates and the links with climate change. Key parameters which are expected to have large effects on the role and cost-effectiveness are discussed in general terms. The key parameters to be varied include level and structure of energy demand, availability and prices of fossil energy, CO2 reduction policy, discount rates, cost and potential of renewable energy sources, availability of fission power and CO2 capture and disposal and the cost and the maximum rate of market growth of fusion power. The scenario calculations are to be performed later in the project with the help of an existing cost minimisation model of the Western European energy system. This MARKAL model is briefly introduced. The results of the model calculations are expected to make clear under which combinations of scenario parameters fusion power is needed and how large the expected financial benefits will be. The present interim report also gives an evaluation of existing energy scenarios with respect to the role of fusion power. 18 refs

  6. MASCARA-1 b. A hot Jupiter transiting a bright mV = 8.3 A-star in a misaligned orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens, G. J. J.; Albrecht, S.; Spronck, J. F. P.; Lesage, A.-L.; Otten, G. P. P. L.; Stuik, R.; Van Eylen, V.; Van Winckel, H.; Pollacco, D.; McCormac, J.; Grundahl, F.; Fredslund Andersen, M.; Antoci, V.; Snellen, I. A. G.

    2017-10-01

    We report the discovery of MASCARA-1 b, which is the first exoplanet discovered with the Multi-site All-Sky CAmeRA (MASCARA). This exoplanet is a hot Jupiter orbiting a bright mV = 8.3, rapidly rotating (vsini⋆ > 100 km s-1) A8 star with a period of 2.148780 ± 8 × 10-6 days. The planet has a mass and radius of 3.7 ± 0.9 MJup and 1.5 ± 0.3 RJup, respectively. As with most hot Jupiters transiting early-type stars, we find a misalignment between the planet orbital axis and the stellar spin axis, which may be a signature of the formation and migration histories of this family of planets. MASCARA-1 b has a mean density of 1.5 ± 0.9 g cm-3 and an equilibrium temperature of 2570+50-30K, that is one of the highest temperatures known for a hot Jupiter to date. The system is reminiscent of WASP-33, but the host star lacks apparent delta-scuti variations, making the planet an ideal target for atmospheric characterization. We expect this to be the first of a series of hot Jupiters transiting bright early-type stars that will be discovered by MASCARA. Tables of the photometry and the reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A73

  7. Riparian vegetation structure under desertification scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário Fernandes, M.; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Riparian areas are responsible for many ecological and ecosystems services, including the filtering function, that are considered crucial to the preservation of water quality and social benefits. The main goal of this study is to quantify and understand the riparian variability under desertification scenario(s) and identify the optimal riparian indicators for water scarcity and droughts (WS&D), henceforth improving river basin management. This study was performed in the Iberian Tâmega basin, using riparian woody patches, mapped by visual interpretation on Google Earth imagery, along 130 Sampling Units of 250 m long river stretches. Eight riparian structural indicators, related with lateral dimension, weighted area and shape complexity of riparian patches were calculated using Patch Analyst extension for ArcGis 10. A set of 29 hydrological, climatic, and hydrogeomorphological variables were computed, by a water modelling system (MOHID), using monthly meteorological data between 2008 and 2014. Land-use classes were also calculated, in a 250m-buffer surrounding each sampling unit, using a classification based system on Corine Land Cover. Boosted Regression Trees identified Mean-width (MW) as the optimal riparian indicator for water scarcity and drought, followed by the Weighted Class Area (WCA) (classification accuracy =0.79 and 0.69 respectively). Average Flow and Strahler number were consistently selected, by all boosted models, as the most important explanatory variables. However, a combined effect of hidrogeomorphology and land-use can explain the high variability found in the riparian width mainly in Tâmega tributaries. Riparian patches are larger towards Tâmega river mouth although with lower shape complexity, probably related with more continuous and almost monospecific stands. Climatic, hydrological and land use scenarios, singly and combined, were used to quantify the riparian variability responding to these changes, and to assess the loss of riparian

  8. Hydrogen energy network start-up scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingartner, S.; Ellerbrock, H.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogen is widely discussed as future fuel and energy storage medium either to replace conventional fuels for automobiles, aircrafts and ships or to avoid the necessity of bulky battery systems for electricity storage, especially in connection with solar power systems. These discussions however started more than 25 years ago and up to now hydrogen has failed to achieve a major break-through towards wider application as energy storage medium in civil markets. The main reason is that other fuels are cheaper and very well implemented in our daily life. A study has been performed at Deutsche Aerospace in order to evaluate the boundary conditions, either political or economical, which would give hydrogen the necessary push, i.e. advantage over conventional fuels. The main goal of this study was to identify critical influence factors and specific start-up scenarios which would allow an economical and practically realistic use of hydrogen as fuel and energy medium in certain niche markets outside the space industry. Method and major results of this study are presented in detail in the paper. Certain niche markets could be identified, where with little initial governmental support, either by funding, tax laws or legislation, hydrogen can compete with conventional fuels. This however requires a scenario where a lot of small actions have to be taken by a high variety of institutions and industries which today are not interconnected with each other, i.e. it requires a new cooperative and proactive network between e.g. energy utilities, car industries, those who have a sound experience with hydrogen (space industry, chemical industry) and last, but certainly not the least, the government. Based on the developed scenario precise recommendations are drawn as conclusions

  9. Inventories and scenarios of nitrous oxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David

    2014-01-01

    Effective mitigation for N 2 O emissions, now the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas and the largest remaining anthropogenic source of stratospheric ozone depleting substances, requires understanding of the sources and how they may increase this century. Here we update estimates and their uncertainties for current anthropogenic and natural N 2 O emissions and for emissions scenarios to 2050. Although major uncertainties remain, ‘bottom-up’ inventories and ‘top-down’ atmospheric modeling yield estimates that are in broad agreement. Global natural N 2 O emissions are most likely between 10 and 12 Tg N 2 O-N yr −1 . Net anthropogenic N 2 O emissions are now about 5.3 Tg N 2 O-N yr −1 . Gross anthropogenic emissions by sector are 66% from agriculture, 15% from energy and transport sectors, 11% from biomass burning, and 8% from other sources. A decrease in natural emissions from tropical soils due to deforestation reduces gross anthropogenic emissions by about 14%. Business-as-usual emission scenarios project almost a doubling of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions by 2050. In contrast, concerted mitigation scenarios project an average decline of 22% relative to 2005, which would lead to a near stabilization of atmospheric concentration of N 2 O at about 350 ppb. The impact of growing demand for biofuels on future projections of N 2 O emissions is highly uncertain; N 2 O emissions from second and third generation biofuels could remain trivial or could become the most significant source to date. It will not be possible to completely eliminate anthropogenic N 2 O emissions from agriculture, but better matching of crop N needs and N supply offers significant opportunities for emission reductions. (paper)

  10. Management strategies in hospitals: scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Schnoor, Jörg; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard; Kuwatsch, Sandra; Bohn, Marco; Josten, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Instead of waiting for challenges to confront hospital management, doctors and managers should act in advance to optimize and sustain value-based health. This work highlights the importance of scenario planning in hospitals, proposes an elaborated definition of the stakeholders of a hospital and defines the influence factors to which hospitals are exposed to. Based on literature analysis as well as on personal interviews with stakeholders we propose an elaborated definition of stakeholders and designed a questionnaire that integrated the following influence factors, which have relevant impact on hospital management: political/legal, economic, social, technological and environmental forces. These influence factors are examined to develop the so-called critical uncertainties. Thorough identification of uncertainties was based on a "Stakeholder Feedback". Two key uncertainties were identified and considered in this study: the development of workload for the medical staff the profit oriented performance of the medical staff. According to the developed scenarios, complementary education of the medical staff as well as of non-medical top executives and managers of hospitals was the recommended core strategy. Complementary scenario-specific strategic options should be considered whenever needed to optimize dealing with a specific future development of the health care environment. Strategic planning in hospitals is essential to ensure sustainable success. It considers multiple situations and integrates internal and external insights and perspectives in addition to identifying weak signals and "blind spots". This flows into a sound planning for multiple strategic options. It is a state of the art tool that allows dealing with the increasing challenges facing hospital management.

  11. Sustainability assessment framework for scenarios – SAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya, E-mail: yevgeniya.arushanyan@abe.kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Centre for Sustainable Communications (CESC), Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekener, Elisabeth; Moberg, Åsa [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Centre for Sustainable Communications (CESC), Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    To address current challenges regarding sustainable development and support planning for this form of development, new learning about different possible futures and their potential sustainability implications is needed. One way of facilitating this learning is by combining the futures studies and sustainability assessment (SA) research fields. This paper presents the sustainability assessment framework for scenarios (SAFS), a method developed for assessing the environmental and social risks and opportunities of future scenarios, provides guidelines for its application and demonstrates how the framework can be applied. SAFS suggests assessing environmental and social aspects using a consumption perspective and a life cycle approach, and provides qualitative results. SAFS does not suggest any modelling using precise data, but instead offers guidelines on how to carry out a qualitative assessment, where both the process of assessing and the outcome of the assessment are valuable and can be used as a basis for discussion. The benefits, drawbacks and potential challenges of applying SAFS are also discussed in the paper. SAFS uses systems thinking looking at future societies as a whole, considering both environmental and social consequences. This encourages researchers and decision-makers to consider the whole picture, and not just individual elements, when considering different futures. - Highlights: • The paper presents a new methodological framework for qualitative sustainability assessment of future scenarios with transformative changes. • The framework suggests qualitative assessment with consumption perspective and a life cycle approach. • The paper presents the framework and provides guidelines for its application. • The paper demonstrates on an example how the framework can be applied. • The benefits, drawbacks and challenges of the framework application and the need for further development are discussed.

  12. Predictive integrated modelling for ITER scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.F.; Imbeaux, F.; Aniel, T.; Basiuk, V.; Eriksson, L.G.; Giruzzi, G.; Hoang, G.T.; Huysmans, G.; Joffrin, E.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.; Thomas, P.

    2005-01-01

    The uncertainty on the prediction of ITER scenarios is evaluated. 2 transport models which have been extensively validated against the multi-machine database are used for the computation of the transport coefficients. The first model is GLF23, the second called Kiauto is a model in which the profile of dilution coefficient is a gyro Bohm-like analytical function, renormalized in order to get profiles consistent with a given global energy confinement scaling. The package of codes CRONOS is used, it gives access to the dynamics of the discharge and allows the study of interplay between heat transport, current diffusion and sources. The main motivation of this work is to study the influence of parameters such plasma current, heat, density, impurities and toroidal moment transport. We can draw the following conclusions: 1) the target Q = 10 can be obtained in ITER hybrid scenario at I p = 13 MA, using either the DS03 two terms scaling or the GLF23 model based on the same pedestal; 2) I p = 11.3 MA, Q = 10 can be reached only assuming a very peaked pressure profile and a low pedestal; 3) at fixed Greenwald fraction, Q increases with density peaking; 4) achieving a stationary q-profile with q > 1 requires a large non-inductive current fraction (80%) that could be provided by 20 to 40 MW of LHCD; and 5) owing to the high temperature the q-profile penetration is delayed and q = 1 is reached about 600 s in ITER hybrid scenario at I p = 13 MA, in the absence of active q-profile control. (A.C.)

  13. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  14. Sustainability assessment framework for scenarios – SAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya; Ekener, Elisabeth; Moberg, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    To address current challenges regarding sustainable development and support planning for this form of development, new learning about different possible futures and their potential sustainability implications is needed. One way of facilitating this learning is by combining the futures studies and sustainability assessment (SA) research fields. This paper presents the sustainability assessment framework for scenarios (SAFS), a method developed for assessing the environmental and social risks and opportunities of future scenarios, provides guidelines for its application and demonstrates how the framework can be applied. SAFS suggests assessing environmental and social aspects using a consumption perspective and a life cycle approach, and provides qualitative results. SAFS does not suggest any modelling using precise data, but instead offers guidelines on how to carry out a qualitative assessment, where both the process of assessing and the outcome of the assessment are valuable and can be used as a basis for discussion. The benefits, drawbacks and potential challenges of applying SAFS are also discussed in the paper. SAFS uses systems thinking looking at future societies as a whole, considering both environmental and social consequences. This encourages researchers and decision-makers to consider the whole picture, and not just individual elements, when considering different futures. - Highlights: • The paper presents a new methodological framework for qualitative sustainability assessment of future scenarios with transformative changes. • The framework suggests qualitative assessment with consumption perspective and a life cycle approach. • The paper presents the framework and provides guidelines for its application. • The paper demonstrates on an example how the framework can be applied. • The benefits, drawbacks and challenges of the framework application and the need for further development are discussed.

  15. Scenario analysis of false indication in computer-control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Wan-Hui; Fan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new failure mode and effect for safety-critical systems is proposed. ► False indication is the most dreadful kind of partial failures. ► A model-based simulation approach to generate failure scenarios is proposed. ► Simulation results showed that multiple errors may cause undesired consequences. ► An assertion-based method to detect false indication problems is provided. -- Abstract: Computer control may cause additional failure modes and effects that are new to analogue systems. False indication is one such failure mode that may bring unknown risks to a system. False indication refers to the problem when part of a system fails while other processes still work, and the failure is not revealed to operators. This paper presents a model-based simulation approach to systematically generate potential false indication and unintended consequences. Experiments showed that once a false indication occurs, it may have drastic effects on system safety. False indication can mislead the operator to perform adverse actions or no action. Therefore, we propose an assertion-based detection method to alleviate such failures. Our assertions contain process/device dependencies, timing relations and physical conservation rules. With these assertions, the operator may be alerted at run time. The proposed technique can reduce false indication problem. Moreover, it can also be used to assist the system design.

  16. Interreality in the management of psychological stress: a clinical scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Pallavicini, Federica; Grassi, Alessandra; Algeri, Davide; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The term "psychological stress" describes a situation in which a subject perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. We aim to design, develop and test an advanced ICT based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to improve the actual CBT approach. To reach this goal we will use the "interreality" paradigm integrating assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) is the best way to address the above limitations. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Paola, a 45 years old nurse, with a mother affected by progressive senile dementia.

  17. On the role of climate scenarios for adaptation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessai, S.; Xianfu Lu; Risbey, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Climate scenarios have been widely used in impact, vulnerability and adaptation assessments of climate change. However, few studies have actually looked at the role played by climate scenarios in adaptation planning. This paper examines how climate scenarios fit in three broad adaptation frameworks: the IPCC approach, risk approaches, and human development approaches. The use (or not) of climate scenarios in three real projects, corresponding to each adaptation approach, is investigated. It is shown that the role played by climate scenarios is dependant on the adaptation assessment approach, availability of technical and financial capacity to handle scenario information, and the type of adaptation being considered. (author)

  18. Optimal neutral beam heating scenario for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Optimal neutral beam heating scenarios are determined for FED based on a 1/one-half/-D transport analysis. Tradeoffs are examined between neutral beam energy, power, and species mix for positive ion systems. A ramped density startup is found to provide the most economical heating. The resulting plasma power requirements are reduced by 10-30% from a constant density startup. For beam energies between 100 and 200 keV, the power needed to heat the plasma does not decrease significantly as beam energy is increased. This is due to reduced ion heating, more power in the fractional energy components, and rising power supply requirements as beam energy increases

  19. The prosa methodology for scenario development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupa, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a methodology for scenario development is proposed. The method is developed in an effort to convince ourselves (and others) that all conceivable future developments of a waste repository have been covered. To be able to assess all conceivable future developments, the method needs to be comprehensive. To convince us and others the method should be structured in such a way that the treatment of each conceivable future development is traceable. The methodology is currently being applied to two Dutch disposal designs. Preliminary results show that the elaborated method functions better than the original method. However, some elements in the method will need further refinement. (author)

  20. Experimental observations of boric acid precipitation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaghetto, R., E-mail: r.vaghetto@tamu.edu; Childs, M., E-mail: masonchilds@tamu.edu; Jones, P., E-mail: pgjones87@tamu.edu; Lee, S., E-mail: sayalee@tamu.edu; Kee, E., E-mail: erniekee@gmail.com; Hassan, Y.A., E-mail: y-hassan@tamu.edu

    2017-02-15

    During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Light Water Reactors (LWR), borated water is injected into the core through the safety injection system. The continuous vaporization of the water from the core may increase the concentration of boric acid in the core that, under certain conditions may reach the solubility limit and precipitate. This includes scenarios where the liquid water supply to the core is affected by possible blockages due to debris accumulation. Questions have been raised on the effects of the precipitate in the core on the flow behavior, including the possibility of additional blockages produced by precipitate accumulation. A simple experimental facility was constructed to perform experimental observations of the behavior of borated water under the combined effects of the boiling and the boric acid precipitation (BAP). The facility consists of a transparent polycarbonate vertical pipe where forty-five heated rods have been installed to supply the power to the water to reach the saturation temperature, and maintain a desired boil-off rate. The layout and geometry of the experimental apparatus were conceived to emulate a simplified core of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Experimental observations have been conducted under two different conditions. Preliminary tests were conducted to observe the behavior of the water and the boric acid precipitate during a boil-off scenario without borated water addition (decreasing water level). During the main test runs, borated water was constantly injected from the top of the test section to maintain a constant mixture level in the test section. Both tests assumed no flow from the bottom of the test section which may be the case of PWR LOCA scenarios in presence of debris-generated core blockage. The observations performed with a set of cameras installed around the test section showed interesting effects of the vapor bubbles on the boric acid precipitate migration and accumulation in the test section. The