WorldWideScience

Sample records for systematic functional analysis

  1. Systematic design and functional analysis of artificial microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Jason D.; Gallichotte, Emily N.; Tewari, Muneesh

    2014-01-01

    Unlike short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are commonly designed to repress a single messenger RNA (mRNA) target through perfect base pairing, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that have evolved to concurrently repress multiple mRNA targets through imperfect complementarity. MicroRNA target recognition is primarily determined by pairing of the miRNA seed sequence (nucleotides 2–8) to complementary match sites in each mRNA target. Whereas siRNA technology is well established for single target knockdown, the design of artificial miRNAs for multi-target repression is largely unexplored. We designed and functionally analysed over 200 artificial miRNAs for simultaneous repression of pyruvate carboxylase and glutaminase by selecting all seed matches shared by their 3′ untranslated regions. Although we identified multiple miRNAs that repressed endogenous protein expression of both genes, seed-based artificial miRNA design was highly inefficient, as the majority of miRNAs with even perfect seed matches did not repress either target. Moreover, commonly used target prediction programs did not substantially discriminate effective artificial miRNAs from ineffective ones, indicating that current algorithms do not fully capture the features important for artificial miRNA targeting and are not yet sufficient for designing artificial miRNAs. Our analysis suggests that additional factors are strong determinants of the efficacy of miRNA-mediated target repression and remain to be discovered. PMID:24598260

  2. Obesity, arterial function and arterial structure ? a systematic review and meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ne, J. Y. A.; Cai, T. Y.; Celermajer, D S; Caterson, I D; Gill, T.; Lee, C M Y; Skilton, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which obesity affects cardiovascular risk have not been fully elucidated. This paper reports a comprehensive systematic review and meta?analysis on obesity and two key aspects of vascular health using gold?standard non?invasive measures ? arterial endothelial function (brachial flow?mediated dilatation) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima?media thickness). Methods Electronic searc...

  3. Systematic review with meta-analysis: diagnostic overlap of microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagnozzi, D; Arias, Á; Lucendo, A J

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic colitis shares certain common clinical manifestations with functional bowel disorders, especially diarrhoea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional diarrhoea. However, the exact relationship between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders has not been systematically assessed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic overlap between functional bowel disorders and microscopic colitis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases, as well as the abstract books of the major gastroenterology meetings, to investigate the prevalence of microscopic colitis among patients with functional bowel disorders (considering all subtypes of both disorders) and vice versa. Data were pooled with a random-effects model. Of 227 references identified, data were collected from 26 studies and a total of 5,099 adult patients. The pooled prevalence any type of functional bowel disorders in patients who present diagnostic criteria of microscopic colitis was 39.1% (95% CI: 22.8-56.6%; I2 : 97%) and was higher for lymphocytic colitis than for collagenous colitis (40.7% vs. 28.4%, respectively; P = 0.58). The prevalence of microscopic colitis in functional bowel disorders patients was 7% (95% CI: 3.6-11.4%), reaching 9.8% (95% CI: 4.4-17.1%; I2 : 95%) in patients exhibiting diarrhoea-dominant IBS, nonsignificantly higher than microscopic colitis rates among patients with constipation-dominant IBS (1.3%) or mixed-dominant IBS (1.9%). There is a significant overlap of symptoms between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders, especially in diarrhoeal subtypes. The high proportion of microscopic colitis among diarrhoea-dominant functional syndromes should serve as a call for more active diagnosis in selected patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Abdominal functional electrical stimulation to improve respiratory function after spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, E J; Borotkanics, R J; Gollee, H; Folz, R J; McLachlan, A J

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal functional electrical stimulation (abdominal FES) is the application of a train of electrical pulses to the abdominal muscles, causing them to contract. Abdominal FES has been used as a neuroprosthesis to acutely augment respiratory function and as a rehabilitation tool to achieve a chronic increase in respiratory function after abdominal FES training, primarily focusing on patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to review the evidence surrounding the use of abdominal FES to improve respiratory function in both an acute and chronic manner after SCI. A systematic search was performed on PubMed, with studies included if they applied abdominal FES to improve respiratory function in patients with SCI. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria (10 acute and 4 chronic). Low participant numbers and heterogeneity across studies reduced the power of the meta-analysis. Despite this, abdominal FES was found to cause a significant acute improvement in cough peak flow, whereas forced exhaled volume in 1 s approached significance. A significant chronic increase in unassisted vital capacity, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow was found after abdominal FES training compared with baseline. This systematic review suggests that abdominal FES is an effective technique for improving respiratory function in both an acute and chronic manner after SCI. However, further randomised controlled trials, with larger participant numbers and standardised protocols, are needed to fully establish the clinical efficacy of this technique.

  5. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Li Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken essence (CE is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane’s Risk of Bias (ROB tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD of −0.55 (−1.04, −0.06 and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (−0.001, 1.40. For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (−0.16, 1.42. Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE.

  6. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Siew Li; Sudfangsai, Suthinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-20

    Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane's Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.55 (-1.04, -0.06)) and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (-0.001, 1.40)). For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (-0.16, 1.42)). Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE.

  7. Female Sexual Function Following Surgical Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicudo-Fürst, Maria Cláudia; Borba Leite, Pedro Henrique; Araújo Glina, Felipe Placco; Baccaglini, Willy; de Carvalho Fürst, Rafael Vilhena; Bezerra, Carlos Alberto; Glina, Sidney

    2017-12-27

    The impact of surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) on female sexual function has received attention in the medical literature, but not in a structured manner. To assess the most recent evidence on the impact of surgical management for female SUI on female sexual function. The review and meta-analysis of available articles published in Medline, Cochrane, LILACS, SCOPUS, Web of Science, CINHAL, and EMBASE included prospective randomized and non-randomized studies that assessed patients who underwent surgical treatment for UI through 2 validated questionnaires: the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The following terms were searched: (urinary incontinence OR female OR woman OR women) AND (suburethral slings OR transobturator tape* OR transobturator suburethral tape OR trans-obturator tape* OR urethral sling* OR midurethral sling* OR mid-urethral sling* OR "standard midurethral slings" OR tensionless vaginal tape* OR mini sling* OR Burch* OR "Burch colposuspension" OR "urologic surgical procedures" OR "tension-free vaginal tape" OR pubovaginal sling) AND (sexual behavior OR "Female Sexual Function Index" OR FSFI OR sexual function OR "Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire" OR PISQ-12). 1,043 articles were retrieved; 9 studies were included for qualitative analysis and 4 were included for meta-analysis. 25 articles were excluded because they used questionnaires other than the FSFI and PISQ-12. Meta-analysis of 2 studies composed of 411 women who underwent to retropubic and transobturator sling intervention and completed the PISQ-12 questionnaire showed an increase in sexual function of 2.40 points after transobturator compared with retropubic sling intervention (95% CI = -2.48 to -2.32; I 2  = 35%, P Urinary Incontinence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sex Med Rev 2017;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A Systematic Analysis of Functional Safety Certification Practices in Industrial Robot Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, industry robotics have delivered on the promise of speed, efficiency and productivity. The last several years have seen a sharp resurgence in the orders of industrial robots in China, and the areas addressed within industrial robotics has extended into safety-critical domains. However, safety standards have not yet been implemented widely in academia and engineering applications, particularly in robot software development. This paper presents a systematic analysis of functional safety certification practices in software development for the safety-critical software of industrial robots, to identify the safety certification practices used for the development of industrial robots in China and how these practices comply with the safety standard requirements. Reviewing from Chinese academic papers, our research shows that safety standards are barely used in software development of industrial robot. The majority of the papers propose various solutions to achieve safety, but only about two thirds of the papers refer to non-standardized approaches that mainly address the systematic level rather than the software development level. In addition, our research shows that with the development of artificial intelligent, an emerging field is still on the quest for standardized and suitable approaches to develop safety-critical software.

  9. Systematic Triple-Mutant Analysis Uncovers Functional Connectivity between Pathways Involved in Chromosome Regulation

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    James E. Haber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic interactions reveal the functional relationships between pairs of genes. In this study, we describe a method for the systematic generation and quantitation of triple mutants, termed triple-mutant analysis (TMA. We have used this approach to interrogate partially redundant pairs of genes in S. cerevisiae, including ASF1 and CAC1, two histone chaperones. After subjecting asf1Δ cac1Δ to TMA, we found that the Swi/Snf Rdh54 protein compensates for the absence of Asf1 and Cac1. Rdh54 more strongly associates with the chromatin apparatus and the pericentromeric region in the double mutant. Moreover, Asf1 is responsible for the synthetic lethality observed in cac1Δ strains lacking the HIRA-like proteins. A similar TMA was carried out after deleting both CLB5 and CLB6, cyclins that regulate DNA replication, revealing a strong functional connection to chromosome segregation. This approach can reveal functional redundancies that cannot be uncovered through traditional double-mutant analyses.

  10. Functional Capacity in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Camila Wohlgemuth; Macedo, Aline Chagastelles Pinto de; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Umpierre, Daniel; Schaan, Beatriz D; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-10-01

    Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease often have alterations in their exercise capacity that can be evaluated by various functional testing. To evaluate the functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) with systematic review and meta-analyses. The review included observational studies, data from the first evaluation of randomized clinical trials or observational follow-up periods after clinical trials which evaluated functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, stress testing, six-minute walk test or step test, in children and adolescents with CHD, aged between six and 18 years, and comparisons with healthy controls in the same age group. The quantitative assessment was performed by meta-analysis, by comparing the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of children and adolescents with CHD and respective control groups. Twenty-five of 2.683 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The VO2max measurement showed that patients with CHD have a decrease of 9.31 ml/Kg/min (95% CI. -12.48 to -6.13; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity maximum heart rate (HR) reached during cardiopulmonary test and stress testing, retrieved from 18 studies, showed a HR value of -15.14 bpm (95% CI. -20.97 to -9.31; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001) compared with the control group. Children and adolescents with CHD have lower VO2max and HR compared to controls.

  11. Functional Capacity in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Camila Wohlgemuth; de Macedo, Aline Chagastelles Pinto; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Umpierre, Daniel; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease often have alterations in their exercise capacity that can be evaluated by various functional testing. Objective To evaluate the functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) with systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods The review included observational studies, data from the first evaluation of randomized clinical trials or observational follow-up periods after clinical trials which evaluated functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, stress testing, six-minute walk test or step test, in children and adolescents with CHD, aged between six and 18 years, and comparisons with healthy controls in the same age group. The quantitative assessment was performed by meta-analysis, by comparing the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of children and adolescents with CHD and respective control groups. Results Twenty-five of 2.683 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The VO2max measurement showed that patients with CHD have a decrease of 9.31 ml/Kg/min (95% CI. -12.48 to -6.13; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001) compared with the control group. The meta-analysis of the data of maximum heart rate (HR) reached during cardiopulmonary test and stress testing, retrieved from 18 studies, showed a HR value of -15.14 bpm (95% CI. -20.97 to -9.31; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001) compared with the control group. Conclusion Children and adolescents with CHD have lower VO2max and HR compared to controls. PMID:28876372

  12. Functional Capacity in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Wohlgemuth Schaan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease often have alterations in their exercise capacity that can be evaluated by various functional testing. Objective: To evaluate the functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD with systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: The review included observational studies, data from the first evaluation of randomized clinical trials or observational follow-up periods after clinical trials which evaluated functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, stress testing, six-minute walk test or step test, in children and adolescents with CHD, aged between six and 18 years, and comparisons with healthy controls in the same age group. The quantitative assessment was performed by meta-analysis, by comparing the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max of children and adolescents with CHD and respective control groups. Results: Twenty-five of 2.683 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The VO2max measurement showed that patients with CHD have a decrease of 9.31 ml/Kg/min (95% CI. -12.48 to -6.13; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001 compared with the control group. The meta-analysis of the data of maximum heart rate (HR reached during cardiopulmonary test and stress testing, retrieved from 18 studies, showed a HR value of -15.14 bpm (95% CI. -20.97 to -9.31; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with CHD have lower VO2max and HR compared to controls.

  13. The systematic functional analysis of plasmodium protein kinases identifies essential regulators of mosquito transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tewari, Rita

    2010-10-21

    Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Obesity, arterial function and arterial structure – a systematic review and meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne, J. Y. A.; Cai, T. Y.; Celermajer, D. S.; Caterson, I. D.; Gill, T.; Lee, C. M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which obesity affects cardiovascular risk have not been fully elucidated. This paper reports a comprehensive systematic review and meta‐analysis on obesity and two key aspects of vascular health using gold‐standard non‐invasive measures – arterial endothelial function (brachial flow‐mediated dilatation) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima‐media thickness). Methods Electronic searches for ‘Obesity and flow‐mediated dilatation’ and ‘Obesity and intima‐media thickness’ were performed using Ovid Medline and Embase databases. A meta‐analysis was undertaken for brachial flow‐mediated dilatation and carotid intima‐media thickness to obtain pooled estimates for adults with obesity and those with healthy weight. Results Of the 5,810 articles retrieved, 19 studies on flow‐mediated dilatation and 19 studies on intima‐media thickness were included. Meta‐analysis demonstrated that obesity was associated with lower flow‐mediated dilatation (−1.92 % [95% CI −2.92, −0.92], P = 0.0002) and greater carotid intima‐media thickness (0.07 mm [95% CI 0.05, 0.08], P Obesity is associated with poorer arterial endothelial function and increased subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with these aspects of vascular health at least partially contributing to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in adults with obesity. These estimated effect sizes will enable vascular health benefits in response to weight loss treatment to be put in greater perspective, both in the research setting and potentially also clinical practice. PMID:28702212

  15. From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine

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    Maleš Željan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used for identification, quantification, and characterization of individual flavonoid or phenolic acid. Total content of active constituents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and using appropriate software. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidant activity was conducted, as well as assessment of prolonged propolis supplementation on antioxidative status of organism. Thin layer chromatography-densitometry has been proven as quick and reliable method for standard analysis of propolis and wine; the best mobile phase being chloroform – methanol – formic acid (98–100% in ratio 44 : 3.5 : 2.5 (v/v. Higher number of polyphenolics was determined by high performance liquid chromatography; 15 compared to 9 by thin layer chromatography. Interactions in situ with acetylsalicylic acid were detected with most of polyphenolics analysed. Plasma protein binding and blood-barrier penetration was greatest for flavone. The interactions with human serum albumin have been grater than 95% for all flavonoids analysed. The prolonged propolis consumption increased superoxide dismutase activity. The necessity of standardization of natural products and their registration as functional nutraceuticals demand easy, quick and inexpensive methods of analysis. In this work we provided overview of analytical part for polyphenolics that could be used as data for possible

  16. N-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Brisa S; Dean, Olivia M; Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Berk, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To assess the utility of N-acetylcysteine administration for depressive symptoms in subjects with psychiatric conditions using a systematic review and meta-analysis. A computerized literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, SciELO, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. No year or country restrictions were used. The Boolean terms used for the electronic database search were (NAC OR N-acetylcysteine OR acetylcysteine) AND (depression OR depressive OR depressed) AND (trial). The last search was performed in November 2014. The literature was searched for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using N-acetylcysteine for depressive symptoms regardless of the main psychiatric condition. Using keywords and cross-referenced bibliographies, 38 studies were identified and examined in depth. Of those, 33 articles were rejected because inclusion criteria were not met. Finally, 5 studies were included. Data were extracted independently by 2 investigators. The primary outcome measure was change in depressive symptoms. Functionality, quality of life, and manic and anxiety symptoms were also examined. A full review and meta-analysis were performed. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were calculated. Five studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, providing data on 574 participants, of whom 291 were randomized to receive N-acetylcysteine and 283 to placebo. The follow-up varied from 12 to 24 weeks. Two studies included subjects with bipolar disorder and current depressive symptoms, 1 included subjects with MDD in a current depressive episode, and 2 included subjects with depressive symptoms in the context of other psychiatric conditions (1 trichotillomania and 1 heavy smoking). Treatment with N-acetylcysteine improved depressive symptoms as assessed by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale when compared to placebo (SMD = 0.37; 95% CI = 0

  17. Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognitive Functioning in People With Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Rosenbaum, Simon; Vancampfort, Davy; Malchow, Berend; Schuch, Felipe; Elliott, Rebecca; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Yung, Alison R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cognitive deficits are pervasive among people with schizophrenia and treatment options are limited. There has been an increased interest in the neurocognitive benefits of exercise, but a comprehensive evaluation of studies to date is lacking. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of all controlled trials investigating the cognitive outcomes of exercise interventions in schizophrenia. Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to April 2016. Meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled effect sizes (Hedges g) and 95% CIs. We identified 10 eligible trials with cognitive outcome data for 385 patients with schizophrenia. Exercise significantly improved global cognition (g = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.53, P = .001) with no statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). The effect size in the 7 studies which were randomized controlled trials was g = 0.43 (P exercise are associated with larger improvements in global cognition (β = .005, P = .065). Interventions which were supervised by physical activity professionals were also more effective (g = 0.47, P Exercise significantly improved the cognitive domains of working memory (g = 0.39, P = .024, N = 7, n = 282), social cognition (g = 0.71, P = .002, N = 3, n = 81), and attention/vigilance (g = 0.66, P = .005, N = 3, n = 104). Effects on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory and reasoning and problem solving were not significant. This meta-analysis provides evidence that exercise can improve cognitive functioning among people with schizophrenia, particularly from interventions using higher dosages of exercise. Given the challenges in improving cognition, and the wider health benefits of exercise, a greater focus on providing supervised exercise to people with schizophrenia is needed. PMID:27521348

  18. Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognitive Functioning in People With Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Stubbs, Brendon; Rosenbaum, Simon; Vancampfort, Davy; Malchow, Berend; Schuch, Felipe; Elliott, Rebecca; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Yung, Alison R

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive deficits are pervasive among people with schizophrenia and treatment options are limited. There has been an increased interest in the neurocognitive benefits of exercise, but a comprehensive evaluation of studies to date is lacking. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of all controlled trials investigating the cognitive outcomes of exercise interventions in schizophrenia. Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to April 2016. Meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled effect sizes (Hedges g) and 95% CIs. We identified 10 eligible trials with cognitive outcome data for 385 patients with schizophrenia. Exercise significantly improved global cognition (g = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.53, P = .001) with no statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). The effect size in the 7 studies which were randomized controlled trials was g = 0.43 (P exercise are associated with larger improvements in global cognition (β = .005, P = .065). Interventions which were supervised by physical activity professionals were also more effective (g = 0.47, P Exercise significantly improved the cognitive domains of working memory (g = 0.39, P = .024, N = 7, n = 282), social cognition (g = 0.71, P = .002, N = 3, n = 81), and attention/vigilance (g = 0.66, P = .005, N = 3, n = 104). Effects on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory and reasoning and problem solving were not significant. This meta-analysis provides evidence that exercise can improve cognitive functioning among people with schizophrenia, particularly from interventions using higher dosages of exercise. Given the challenges in improving cognition, and the wider health benefits of exercise, a greater focus on providing supervised exercise to people with schizophrenia is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  19. Systematic analysis of snake neurotoxins' functional classification using a data warehousing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Joyce Phui Yee; Khan, Asif M; Tan, Paul T J; Koh, Judice L Y; Seah, Seng Hong; Koo, Chuay Yeng; Chai, Siaw Ching; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Brusic, Vladimir; Jeyaseelan, Kandiah

    2004-12-12

    Sequence annotations, functional and structural data on snake venom neurotoxins (svNTXs) are scattered across multiple databases and literature sources. Sequence annotations and structural data are available in the public molecular databases, while functional data are almost exclusively available in the published articles. There is a need for a specialized svNTXs database that contains NTX entries, which are organized, well annotated and classified in a systematic manner. We have systematically analyzed svNTXs and classified them using structure-function groups based on their structural, functional and phylogenetic properties. Using conserved motifs in each phylogenetic group, we built an intelligent module for the prediction of structural and functional properties of unknown NTXs. We also developed an annotation tool to aid the functional prediction of newly identified NTXs as an additional resource for the venom research community. We created a searchable online database of NTX proteins sequences (http://research.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/Templar/DB/snake_neurotoxin). This database can also be found under Swiss-Prot Toxin Annotation Project website (http://www.expasy.org/sprot/).

  20. Albuminuria in Association with Cognitive Function and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Dimitriou, Nikolaos G; Karalexi, Maria A; Mihas, Constantinos; Nasothimiou, Efthimia G; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-06-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease is considered to contribute to cognitive dysfunction. We opted to explore whether albuminuria, a marker of systemic microangiopathy, is associated with cognitive impairment, dementia, and cognitive function. Systematic review; independent reviewers screened 2359 articles, derived through the search strategy, for identification of observational studies quantifying an association of albuminuria with the outcomes of interest, abstracted data on study characteristics and results and evaluated studies on quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Community. Adults. Cognitive impairment and dementia, defined by validated neuropsychological tests or clinical guidelines, respectively, and cognitive function, assessed by validated instruments. Thirty-two eligible studies were identified. Albuminuria was associated with cognitive impairment (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.19-1.53; 7,852 cases), dementia (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10-1.65; 5,758 cases), clinical Alzheimer's disease (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.11-1.69; 629 cases) and vascular dementia (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.16-3.31; 186 cases); the effect remained significant among longitudinal, population-based and high quality studies. Time-to-event analysis on prospective studies of non-demented at baseline individuals also showed a significant association with incident dementia (Risk Ratio: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-1.99; 971 cases). Worse global cognitive performance (Hedge's g: -0.13, 95% CI: -0.18, -0.09; 68,348 subjects) and accelerated cognitive decline (g: -0.20, 95% CI: -0.34, -0.07; 31,792 subjects) were noted among subjects with albuminuria, who also scored lower in executive function, processing speed, verbal fluency, and verbal memory. Albuminuria was independently associated with cognitive impairment, dementia and cognitive decline. The stronger effects for vascular dementia and cognitive performance in domains primarily affected by microvascular disease support that the

  1. Association between myasthenia gravis and cognitive function: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of myasthenia gravis (MG is complicated by increased reports of cognitive defects in both human and animal models, which suggests potential central nervous system (CNS damage. We conducted a systematic review of the relationships between MG and cognitive function. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Major databases were searched to examine the neuropsychological studies of adults with MG. Weighted effect sizes were pooled by cognitive domain. Eight studies representing 300 subjects were included. Eight cognitive domain categories were identified: (i Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, (ii language, (iii processing speed, (iv verbal learning and memory, (v visual learning and memory, (vi attention span, (vii response fluency, and (viii motor performance. Nine (cognitive domain categories, MMSE, language, processing speed, verbal learning and memory (except for delayed recall memory, and motor performance of 16 cognitive tasks revealed significant moderate effect sizes. Verbal logical-delayed memory, finger tapping with the preferred hand, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test showed a greater magnitude relationship to cognitive function than did other specific cognitive domains. Verbal learning and memory seems to be the most significant affected according to cognitive domain categories. For MG, the ability of attention, response fluency, visual learning, and memory seems to be reserved. The MG patients seem to perform significantly worse than the non-MG controls in a range of cognitive domains. Our findings should be interpreted with caution because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies.

  2. Physiological adaptation of endothelial function to pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes van Balen, V A; van Gansewinkel, T A G; de Haas, S; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Ghossein-Doha, C; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-12-01

    To establish reference values for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and brachial artery diameter (BAD) in pregnancy and to provide insight into the physiological and pathological course of endothelial adaptation throughout human singleton pregnancy. A meta-analysis was performed following a systematic review of current literature on FMD, as a derivative for endothelial function, and BAD, throughout uncomplicated and complicated pregnancy. PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) electronic databases were used for the literature search, which was performed from inception to 9 June 2016. To allow judgment of changes in comparison with the non-pregnant state, studies were required to report both non-pregnant mean reference of FMD (matched control group, prepregnancy or postpartum measurement) and mean FMD at a predetermined and reported gestational age. Pooled mean differences between the reference and pregnant FMD values were calculated for predefined intervals of gestational age. Fourteen studies that enrolled 1231 participants met the inclusion criteria. Publication dates ranged from 1999 to 2014. In uncomplicated pregnancy, FMD was increased in the second and third trimesters. Between 15 and 21 weeks of gestation, absolute FMD increased the most, by a mean (95% CI) of 1.89% (0.25-3.53%). This was a relative increase of 22.5% (3.0-42.0%) compared with the non-pregnant reference. BAD increased progressively, in a steady manner, by the second trimester but not significantly in the first half of the second trimester. We could not discern differences in FMD and BAD between complicated and uncomplicated pregnancies at 29-35 weeks' gestation, reported in the three studies that met our inclusion criteria. Despite the increase in FMD and BAD throughout gestation, both reference curves were characterized by wide 95% CIs. During healthy pregnancy, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and BAD increase. Women with a complicated pregnancy had FMD values within the lower range when

  3. The effect of aquatic exercise on physical functioning in the older adult: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Benjamin; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna; Vitor, Manuel; Rodionova, Karina; Lambeck, Johan; Heinonen, Ari; Daly, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    ageing and sedentary behaviour cause negative changes in the neuromuscular systems of healthy older adults resulting in a decrease in physical functioning. Exercising in water (aquatic exercise, AE) has been shown to be effective at improving physical functioning in this population; however, no systematic review with meta-analysis has been published. to investigate the effect of AE on physical functioning in healthy older adults compared to control or land-based exercise (LE) through a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, published before 31st December 2015. in total, 28 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review; 24 studies with 1,456 subjects (89% female) and with mean age 66.4 years were included in the meta-analysis. data were extracted and checked for accuracy by three independent reviewers. size of treatment effect was measured using the standardised mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). compared to control interventions, AE had a moderate positive effect on physical functioning 0.70 [95% CI 0.48 to 0.92]. Compared to LE, AE had a small positive effect on physical functioning 0.39 [0.12 to 0.66]. there is a high risk of bias and low methodological quality in the studies particularly when comparing AE to LE with possible over estimation of the benefit of AE. AE may improve physical functioning in healthy older people and is at least as effective as LE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Functional lesional neurosurgery for tremor—a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Joachim K; Chang, Jin Woo; Bhatia, Kailash P; Kägi, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The recent introduction of incision-less lesional neurosurgery using Gamma Knife and MRI-guided focused ultrasound has revived interest in lesional treatment options for tremor disorders. Preliminary literature researches reveal that the consistency of treatment effects after lesional neurosurgery for tremor has not formally been assessed yet. Similarly, the efficacy of different targets for lesional treatment and incidence of persistent side effects of lesional neurosurgical interventions has not been comprehensively assessed. This work therefore aims to describe a suitable process how to review the existing literature on efficacy and persistent side effects of lesional neurosurgical treatment for tremor due to Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, multiple sclerosis and midbrain/rubral tremor. Methods and analysis We will search electronic databases (Medline, Cochrane) and reference lists of included articles for studies reporting lesional interventions for tremor in cohorts homogeneous for tremor aetiology and intervention (technique and target). We will include cohorts with a minimum number of five subjects and follow-up of 2 months. One investigator will perform the initial literature search and two investigators then independently decide which references to include for final efficacy and safety analysis. After settling of disagreement, data will be extracted from articles using a standardised template. We will perform a random-effect meta-analysis calculating standardised mean differences (Hedge’s g) for comparison in Forest plots and subgroup analysis after assessment of heterogeneity using I2 statistics. Ethics and dissemination This study will summarise the available evidence on the efficacy of lesional interventions for the most frequent tremor disorders, as well as for the incidence rate of persisting side effects after unilateral lesional treatment. This data will be useful to guide future work on incision-less lesional interventions

  5. Functional textiles for atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cristina; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luís; Correia, Osvaldo; Moreira, André

    2013-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a relapsing inflammatory skin disease with a considerable social and economic burden. Functional textiles may have antimicrobial and antipruritic properties and have been used as complementary treatment in AD. We aimed to assess their effectiveness and safety in this setting. We carried out a systematic review of three large biomedical databases. GRADE approach was used to rate the levels of evidence and grade of recommendation. Meta-analyses of comparable studies were carried out. Thirteen studies (eight randomized controlled trials and five observational studies) met the eligibility criteria. Interventions were limited to silk (six studies), silver-coated cotton (five studies), borage oil, and ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) fiber (one study each). Silver textiles were associated with improvement in SCORAD (2 of 4), fewer symptoms, a lower need for rescue medication (1 of 2), no difference in quality of life, decreased Staphyloccosus aureus colonization (2 of 3), and improvement of trans-epidermal water loss (1 of 2), with no safety concerns. Silk textile use was associated with improvement in SCORAD and symptoms (2 of 4), with no differences in quality of life or need for rescue medication. With borage oil use only skin erythema showed improvement, and with EVOH fiber, an improvement in eczema severity was reported. Recommendation for the use of functional textiles in AD treatment is weak, supported by low quality of evidence regarding effectiveness in AD symptoms and severity, with no evidence of hazardous consequences with their use. More studies with better methodology and longer follow-up are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Renal Function in Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Zou, Jianan; Ye, Zhibin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Weijie; Ren, Qinggui; Zhang, Pin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function. Outcomes included the pre- and post-bariatric surgery GFR, proteinuria and albuminuria. In obese patients with hyperfiltration, we draw conclusions from studies using measured GFR (inulin or iothalamate clearance) unadjusted for BSA only. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 32 observational studies met our inclusion criteria, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No matter in dichotomous data or in dichotomous data, there were statistically significant reduction in hyperfiltration, albuminuria and proteinuria after bariatric surgery. The main limitation of this meta-analysis is the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another limitation is the lack of long-term follow-up. Bariatric surgery could prevent further decline in renal function by reducing proteinuria, albuminuria and improving glomerular hyperfiltration in obese patients with impaired renal function. However, whether bariatric surgery reverses CKD or delays ESRD progression is still in question, large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed.

  7. Effect of therapeutic aquatic exercise on symptoms and function associated with lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Benjamin; Ogonowska-Slodownik, Anna; Vitor, Manuel; Lambeck, Johan; Daly, Daniel; Kujala, Urho M; Heinonen, Ari

    2014-10-01

    Current management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain control and maintaining physical function through pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and surgical treatments. Exercise, including therapeutic aquatic exercise (TAE), is considered one of the most important management options. Nevertheless, there is no up-to-date systematic review describing the effect of TAE on symptoms and function associated with lower limb OA. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to determine the effect of TAE on symptoms and function associated with lower limb OA. The data sources used in this study were: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus. All studies selected for review were randomized controlled trials with an aquatic exercise group and a nontreatment control group. In total, 11 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the synthesis and meta-analysis. Data were extracted and checked for accuracy by 3 independent reviewers. Standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated for all outcomes. The meta-analysis showed a significant TAE effect on pain (SMD=0.26 [95% CI=0.11, 0.41]), self-reported function (SMD=0.30 [95% CI=0.18, 0.43]), and physical functioning (SMD=0.22 [95% CI=0.07, 0.38]). Additionally, a significant effect was seen on stiffness (SMD=0.20 [95% CI=0.03, 0.36]) and quality of life (SMD=0.24 [95% CI=0.04, 0.45]). Heterogeneity of outcome measures and small sample sizes for many of the included trials imply that conclusions based on these results should be made with caution. The results indicate that TAE is effective in managing symptoms associated with lower limb OA. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Functional neuroimaging of visual creativity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Laura M; Grealy, Madeleine; Duffy, Alex H B; Hay, Laura; McTeague, Chris; Vuletic, Tijana; Coyle, Damien; Gilbert, Sam J

    2016-10-01

    The generation of creative visual imagery contributes to technological and scientific innovation and production of visual art. The underlying cognitive and neural processes are, however, poorly understood. This review synthesizes functional neuroimaging studies of visual creativity. Seven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 19 electroencephalography (EEG) studies were included, comprising 27 experiments and around 800 participants. Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of the fMRI studies comparing visual creativity to non-rest control tasks yielded significant clusters in thalamus, left fusiform gyrus, and right middle and inferior frontal gyri. The EEG studies revealed a tendency for decreased alpha power during visual creativity compared to baseline, but comparisons of visual creativity to non-rest control tasks revealed inconsistent findings. The findings are consistent with suggested contributions to visual creativity of prefrontally mediated inhibition, evaluation, and working memory, as well as visual imagery processes. Findings are discussed in relation to prominent theories of the neural basis of creativity.

  9. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Castro-Avila

    Full Text Available Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU patients.Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data.5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72. There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness.Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation outcomes, although it seems to

  10. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Avila, Ana Cristina; Serón, Pamela; Fan, Eddy; Gaete, Mónica; Mickan, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU) patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data. 5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72). There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness. Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation outcomes, although it seems to improve walking

  11. Nutritional intervention as part of functional rehabilitation in older people with reduced functional ability: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A M; Dent, E; Baldwin, C

    2016-12-01

    Nutritional intervention is increasingly recognised as having an important role in functional rehabilitation for older people. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of the functional benefit of nutritional interventions is needed. A systematic review and meta-analysis examined randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2007 and 2014 with the aim of determining whether nutritional intervention combined with rehabilitation benefited older people with reduced functional ability. Six electronic databases were searched. RCTs including people aged 65 years and older with reduced physical, social and/or cognitive function were included. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed, and gradepro computer software (http://gradepro.org) was used for the quality assessment of critical and important outcomes. Included studies considered to be clinical homogenous were combined in a meta-analysis. Of the 788 studies screened, five were identified for inclusion. Nutritional intervention given with functional rehabilitation improved energy and protein intake, although it failed to provide any improvement in final body weight, hand-grip strength or muscle strength. There was no difference between groups in the critical outcomes; balance, cognition, activities of daily living and mortality at long-term follow-up. Nutritional intervention given with functional rehabilitation was associated with an increased likelihood of both mortality (odds ratio = 1.77; 95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.76) and hospitalisation (odds ratio = 2.29; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-4.79) during the intervention. Meta-analysis of the baseline data showed that, overall, the intervention cohort had a lower body weight and cognition. This meta-analysis highlights concerns regarding the quality of the randomisation of participants at baseline. Future high-quality research is essential to establish whether older people with loss of functional

  12. Quality of life and functional status after carotid revascularisation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, L; Shan, J; Saxena, A; Robinson, D

    2015-06-01

    Stroke causes significant quality of life (QOL) deterioration and functional impairment. Carotid revascularisation by either endarterectomy (CEA) or stenting (CAS) is performed to prevent stroke. The direct effect of revascularisation on QOL is unclear. This study reviews (a) QOL after CEA, (b) QOL after CAS, (c) QOL differences between CEA and CAS, and (d) QOL compared with reference populations. Medline and Embase were used for sources of data. The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Clinical studies published after January 1990 were selected using strict eligibility criteria. Quality appraisal and data tabulation were performed using predetermined forms. Data were synthesised by narrative review and random-effects meta-analysis using standardised response means. Heterogeneity and bias were assessed. Twelve studies (4,224 patients), including two randomised controlled trials, were reviewed. Despite an initial decline in QOL after CEA, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the SF-36 questionnaire showed all domains returned to baseline by 1 year. Preliminary data suggests that QOL after CAS does not have an initial decline, especially in physical health domains. QOL is similar between CEA and CAS at 1 year. Comparisons to reference populations are inconclusive. Meta-analysis was limited by significant statistical and methodological heterogeneity. Revascularisation by CEA or CAS maintains preoperative QOL. There are minimal differences between CEA and CAS. This review reaffirms the success of carotid revascularisation in preventing the devastating consequences of stroke on QOL and functional status. Guidelines for future studies are provided. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of breast cancer metastasis candidate genes from next generation-sequencing via systematic functional genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrøm, Monica Marie

    2016-01-01

    ) and non-CSCs. The main goal of this project was to functionally characterize a set of candidate genes recovered from next-generation sequencing analysis for their role in breast cancer metastasis formation. The starting gene set comprised 104 gene variants; i.e. 57 wildtype and 47 mutated variants. During...... the project, the aim was to generate a panel of genetically identical (“isogenic”) MCF7 breast cancer cell lines with inducible overexpression of the gene variants, and to analyze these for effects on breast cancer growth and invasion in vitro under standardized conditions. Moreover, it was aimed at acquiring......Metastatic breast cancer remains an incurable disease accounting for the vast majority of deaths from breast cancer. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for metastatic spread is important to improve diagnosis and for generating starting points for novel treatment strategies. Inhibition...

  14. Active exergames to improve cognitive functioning in neurological disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Gioia; Carta, Mauro G; Sancassiani, Federica; Machado, Sergio; Prosperini, Luca

    2017-10-25

    Exergames represent a way to perform physical activity through active video games, serving as potentially useful tool in the field of neurorehabilitation. However, little is known regarding the possible role of exergames in improving cognitive functions in persons suffering from neurological disabilities. A search for relevant articles was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus, PEDro, and Google Scholar. Only randomized controlled studies and non-randomized but controlled studies were retained. The following additional inclusion criteria were applied: studies focused on physical activity interventions carried out by means of exergames; populations targeted were affected by neurological disabilities; and reported results were related to cognitive outcomes. We calculated standardized mean differences (SMD) and pooled results using a random effects meta-analysis. Of 520 abstracts screened, thirteen studies met the criteria to be included yielding a total of 465 participants, 233 randomized to exergames, and 232 allocated to the alternative or no intervention. The included studies varied in terms of studied populations (e.g., multiple sclerosis, post-stroke hemiparesis, Parkinson's disease, dementia, dyslexia, Down syndrome), type and duration of interventions, and cognitive outcome measures. Exergames significantly improved executive functions (SMD=0.53, p=0.005; 8 studies, n=380) and visuo-spatial perception (SMD=0.65, phome.

  15. Reliability, Validity, and Injury Predictive Value of the Functional Movement Screen: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Nicholas A; Smuin, Dallas; Onks, Cayce A; Silvis, Matthew L; Dhawan, Aman

    2017-03-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is utilized by professional and collegiate sports teams and the military for the prevention of musculoskeletal injuries. The FMS demonstrates good interrater and intrarater reliability and validity and has predictive value for musculoskeletal injuries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using a computerized search of the electronic databases MEDLINE and ScienceDirect in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Extracted relevant data from each included study were recorded on a standardized form. The Cochran Q statistic was utilized to evaluate study heterogeneity. Pooled quantitative synthesis was performed to measure the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for interrater and intrarater reliability, along with 95% CIs, and odds ratios with 95% CIs for the injury predictive value for a score of ≤14. Eleven studies for reliability, 5 studies for validity, and 9 studies for the injury predictive value were identified that met inclusion and exclusion criteria; of these, 6 studies for reliability and 9 studies for the injury predictive value were pooled for quantitative synthesis. The ICC for intrarater reliability was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.92) and for interrater reliability was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.92). The odds of sustaining an injury were 2.74 times with an FMS score of ≤14 (95% CI, 1.70-4.43). Studies for validity demonstrated flaws in both internal and external validity of the FMS. The FMS has excellent interrater and intrarater reliability. Participants with composite scores of ≤14 had a significantly higher likelihood of an injury compared with those with higher scores, demonstrating the injury predictive value of the test. Significant concerns remain regarding the validity of the FMS.

  16. The effect of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology on executive functions in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Castells, Xavier

    2013-11-30

    The presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with greater functional impairment. The impact of these features on cognitive function is unclear. In this article, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of OCS/OCD on executive functions in schizophrenia patients. Results indicate that schizophrenia patients with OCS/OCD were more impaired in abstract thinking than schizophrenia patients without OCS/OCD. This finding provides support to the double jeopardy hypothesis and may partially explain the greater functional impairment shown in schizo-obsessive patients compared to those with schizophrenia. Inconsistent results were found for set-shifting, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition and verbal fluency, as indicated by the high statistical heterogeneity found. Potential sources of heterogeneity such as definition of OCS/OCD, age of onset, severity of negative symptoms and premorbid intelligence were planned to be explored but there was an insufficient number of studies to perform these analyses. Our findings highlight the complexity of the relationship between OCS/OCD and schizophrenia and warrant further investigation of the cognitive function of schizo-obsessive patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of music therapy on cognitive functions in patients with dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Laura; Bieleninik, Łucja; Brondino, Natascia; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-07-10

    The aim of the present study was to meta-analyze the effect of music therapy (MT) on cognitive functions in patients with dementia. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and RILM up to 8 September 2016. We included all randomized controlled trials that compared MT with standard care, or other non-musical types of intervention, evaluating cognitive outcomes in patients with dementia. Outcomes included global cognition, complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, and perceptual-motor skills. From 1089 potentially relevant records, 110 studies were assessed for eligibility, and 7 met the inclusion criteria, of which 6 contained appropriate data for meta-analysis (330 participants, mean age range 78.8-86.3). Overall, random-effects meta-analyses suggested no significant effects of MT on all outcomes. Subgroup analysis found evidence of a beneficial effect of active MT on global cognition (SMD = 0.29, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.57, p = 0.04). Despite the limited evidence of the present review, it is important to continue supporting MT as a complementary treatment for older adults with dementia. RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to better elucidate the impact of MT on cognitive functions.

  18. Effects of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. on cognitive function and mood related outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttarak, Panupong; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Saokaew, Surasak; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Kongkaew, Chuenjid; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Chuthaputti, Anchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-09-06

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. has been used as an herbal brain tonic for mental disorders and enhancing memory, but no review of the overall evidence of C. asiatica and cognitive function has been conducted. This study aims to determine the effects of C. asiatica on cognitive function and its related properties. The current systematic review includes five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to determine the effect of C. asiatica alone and six RCTs conducted to determine the effect of C. asiatica-containing products. Meta-analysis indicated that there are no significant differences in all cognitive function domains of C. asiatica when compared to placebo. However, it could improve mood by increasing alert scores [SMD: 0.71 (95% CI; 0.01 to 1.41); I 2  = 30.5%] and decreasing anger scores at 1 hour after treatment [SMD: -0.81 (95%CI; -1.51 to -0.09); I 2  = 36.6%]. None of the studies reported adverse effects of C. asiatica. In conclusion, there is not strong evidence to support the use of C. asiatica for cognitive function improvement in each cognitive domain. C. asiatica could improve alertness and relieve anger. However, some limitations should be aware including dose regimen, plant preparation, standardization, and product variation. Future well-designed clinical trials using suitable doses of standardized C. asiatica are still needed.

  19. Systematic Review: Associations Between Family Functioning and Child Adjustment After Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schoors, Marieke; Caes, Line; Knoble, Naomi B; Goubert, Liesbet; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; Alderfer, Melissa A

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate associations between family functioning and child adjustment (patient/siblings) after pediatric cancer diagnosis. Database searches were performed using Web of Science, Pubmed, Cochrane, PsycInfo, and Embase. After screening 5,563 articles, 35 were identified regarding this topic; 30 contributed data for meta-analyses. Pearson’s r correlations were the effect of interest. Omnibus and family functioning domain-specific random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. Data are depicted in forest plots. A statistically significant association was found between family functioning and child adjustment (patient/siblings) after cancer diagnosis (r  =  0.19; 95% CI: 0.13–0.24). Greater family cohesion, expressiveness, and support and less family conflict were each associated with better child adjustment outcomes. Conclusions Family functioning is associated with patient and sibling adjustment after pediatric cancer diagnosis. Limitations in the existing literature preclude strong conclusions about the size of these effects and potential moderators.

  20. Language functions in preterm-born children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort-van der Spek, Inge L; Franken, Marie-Christine J P; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2012-04-01

    Preterm-born children (language function problems compared with term-born children. It is unknown whether these problems decrease, deteriorate, or remain stable over time. The goal of this research was to determine the developmental course of language functions in preterm-born children from 3 to 12 years of age. Computerized databases Embase, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and PsycInfo were searched for studies published between January 1995 and March 2011 reporting language functions in preterm-born children. Outcome measures were simple language function assessed by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and complex language function assessed by using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Pooled effect sizes (in terms of Cohen's d) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for simple and complex language functions were calculated by using random-effects models. Meta-regression was conducted with mean difference of effect size as the outcome variable and assessment age as the explanatory variable. Preterm-born children scored significantly lower compared with term-born children on simple (d = -0.45 [95% CI: -0.59 to -0.30]; P language function tests, even in the absence of major disabilities and independent of social economic status. For complex language function (but not for simple language function), group differences between preterm- and term-born children increased significantly from 3 to 12 years of age (slope = -0.05; P = .03). While growing up, preterm-born children have increasing difficulties with complex language function.

  1. Course and predictors of pain and physical functioning in patients with hip osteoarthritis : Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Heymans, Martijn W; Holla, Jasmijn F M; Häkkinen, Arja; Lems, Willem F; Roorda, Leo D; Veenhof, Cindy; Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; de Vet, Henrica C W; Dekker, Joost

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize the literature on: (i) the course of pain and physical functioning; and (ii) predictors of deterioration of pain and physical functioning in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO

  2. Prognosis of pain and physical functioning in patients with knee osteoarthritis : Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Heymans, Martijn W; Holla, Jasmijn F M; Häkkinen, Arja; Lems, Willem F; Roorda, Leo D; Veenhof, Cindy; Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; de Vet, Henrica C W; Dekker, Joost

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically summarise the literature on 1) the course of pain in patients with knee OA; 2) prognostic factors that predict deterioration of pain; 3) the course of physical functioning; and 4) prognostic factors that predict deterioration of physical functioning in persons with knee

  3. Cognitive functioning in the first-episode of major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Elayne; Semkovska, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in major depression. Yet, when these deficits emerge and how they relate to the depressed state is unclear. The aim of this 2-part systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the pattern and extent of cognitive deficits during a first-episode of depression (FED) and their persistence following FED remission. Published, peer-reviewed articles on cognitive function in FED patients through October 2015 were searched. Meta-analyses with random-effects modeling were conducted. Part 1 assessed weighted, mean effect sizes of cognitive function in FED patients relative to healthy controls. Moderator analyses of clinical and demographical variables effects were conducted. Part 2 assessed weighted, mean effect sizes of change in cognitive function at remission compared with acute FED performance in longitudinal studies. Thirty-one studies including 994 FED patients were retained in Part 1. Relative to healthy controls, small to large impairments were observed across most cognitive domains. Remission was associated with a normalization of function in processing speed, learning and memory, autobiographical memory, shifting, and IQ. Lower FED age was associated with higher IQ, but more impairment in word-list delayed memory. Four studies including 92 FED patients were retained in Part 2. Following remission, FED patients showed small improvements in processing speed and shifting but persistent impairment in inhibition and verbal fluency. Significant cognitive deficits are already identifiable during a FED, with some functions showing persistent impairment upon remission. Clinicians must consider cognitive impairment alongside mood symptoms to ensure functional recovery from the FED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The effect of music therapy on cognitive functioning among older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Chi; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Kuei-Min

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of current studies to determine whether music therapy affects the cognitive function of older people. The databases surveyed include PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AgeLine, Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS) as well as the reference lists of the included studies. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) extension checklist for nonpharmacologic treatment was used to evaluate the literature. Music therapy intervention offered in nursing homes, hospitals, or communities. A total of 234 participants from 5 studies were assessed in the meta-analysis, with a mean age per study of 71.4 to 82.0 years. Cognitive outcome domains were analyzed in a systematic review. The short-term effects of music therapy in Mini-Mental State Examination data for meta-analysis were compiled. A forest plot was constructed using a fixed effect model to obtain a pooled mean difference. Active music therapy comprising singing and other musical activities was generally determined to effect a significant improvement in the Mini-Mental State Examination according to individual retrieval studies. However, this study showed no significant improvement in the short-term effects of music therapy when all related studies in meta-analysis were combined. The pooled mean difference was 0.73 (95% confidence interval -0.07 to 1.54; Z = 1.79; P = .07) for using music therapy overall and 0.74 (95% confidence interval -0.08 to 1.56; Z = 1.76; P = .08) for using active music therapy. The findings of the meta-analysis indicate that the short-term effects of music therapy do not improve the cognitive function of older people. Future studies that utilize a good quality methodology with a long-term design and diversified active music therapy are recommended. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting gene function through systematic analysis and quality assessment of high-throughput data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmeren, Patrick; Kockelkorn, Thessa T J P; Bijma, Theo; Donders, Rogier; Holstege, Frank C P

    2005-04-15

    Determining gene function is an important challenge arising from the availability of whole genome sequences. Until recently, approaches based on sequence homology were the only high-throughput method for predicting gene function. Use of high-throughput generated experimental data sets for determining gene function has been limited for several reasons. Here a new approach is presented for integration of high-throughput data sets, leading to prediction of function based on relationships supported by multiple types and sources of data. This is achieved with a database containing 125 different high-throughput data sets describing phenotypes, cellular localizations, protein interactions and mRNA expression levels from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a bit-vector representation and information content-based ranking. The approach takes characteristic and qualitative differences between the data sets into account, is highly flexible, efficient and scalable. Database queries result in predictions for 543 uncharacterized genes, based on multiple functional relationships each supported by at least three types of experimental data. Some of these are experimentally verified, further demonstrating their reliability. The results also generate insights into the relative merits of different data types and provide a coherent framework for functional genomic datamining. Free availability over the Internet. f.c.p.holstege@med.uu.nl http://www.genomics.med.uu.nl/pub/pk/comb_gen_network.

  6. Systematic analysis of non-structural protein features for the prediction of PTM function potential by artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Henry M; Torres, Matthew P

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) provide an extensible framework for regulation of protein behavior beyond the diversity represented within the genome alone. While the rate of identification of PTMs has rapidly increased in recent years, our knowledge of PTM functionality encompasses less than 5% of this data. We previously developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) for the prioritization of eukaryotic PTMs based on function potential of discrete modified alignment positions (MAPs) in a set of 8 protein families. A proteome-wide expansion of the dataset to all families of PTM-bearing, eukaryotic proteins with a representational crystal structure and the application of artificial neural network (ANN) models demonstrated the broader applicability of this approach. Although structural features of proteins have been repeatedly demonstrated to be predictive of PTM functionality, the availability of adequately resolved 3D structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) limits the scope of these methods. In order to bridge this gap and capture the larger set of PTM-bearing proteins without an available, homologous structure, we explored all available MAP features as ANN inputs to identify predictive models that do not rely on 3D protein structural data. This systematic, algorithmic approach explores 8 available input features in exhaustive combinations (247 models; size 2-8). To control for potential bias in random sampling for holdback in training sets, we iterated each model across 100 randomized, sample training and testing sets-yielding 24,700 individual ANNs. The size of the analyzed dataset and iterative generation of ANNs represents the largest and most thorough investigation of predictive models for PTM functionality to date. Comparison of input layer combinations allows us to quantify ANN performance with a high degree of confidence and subsequently select a top-ranked, robust fit model which highlights 3,687 MAPs, including 10,933 PTMs with a high

  7. Psychological Interventions for Children with Functional Somatic Symptoms : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Kallesøe, Karen H; Janssens, Karin A M; Schröder, Andreas; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Rask, Charlotte U

    Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of psychological treatments on symptom load and associated disability in children with functional somatic symptoms, and to explore potential moderators of effects. Study design: Cochrane, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for randomized

  8. Language functions in preterm-born children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. van Noort - Van der Spek (Inge); M-C. Franken (Marie-Christine); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Preterm-born children (function problems compared with term-born children. It is unknown whether these problems decrease, deteriorate, or remain stable over time. The goal of this research was to determine the

  9. Analysis of occupational and displacive disorder using the atomic pair distribution function: a systematic investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Proffen, Th.

    2000-01-01

    Many disordered crystalline materials show chemical short range order and relaxation of neighboring atoms. Local structural information can be obtained by analyzing the atomic pair distribution function (PDF). The viability of reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations to extract quantitative information about chemical ordering as well as displacements is investigated. The method has been applied to simulated PDFs of disordered structures showing chemical disorder alone as well as in combination w...

  10. The Placebo Response in Pediatric Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, Daniël R; Zeevenhooven, Judith; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S; Douwes Dekker, Iuke; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M; Vlieger, Arine M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the magnitude and determinants of the placebo response in studies with pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for systematic reviews and randomized placebo-controlled trials concerning children 4-18 years of age with an abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. The primary outcome was the pooled proportion of subjects assigned to placebo with improvement as defined by the authors. The effect of trial characteristics on the magnitude of the placebo response was investigated using univariate meta-regression analysis. Twenty-one trials were identified. The pooled proportion of subjects with improvement was 41% (95% CI, 34%-49%; 17 studies) and with no pain was 17% (95% CI, 8%-32%; 7 studies). The pooled standardized mean difference on the Faces Pain Scales compared with baseline was -0.73 (95% CI, -1.04 to -0.42; 8 studies). There was significant heterogeneity across studies with respect to both outcomes. Lower dosing frequency (P = .04), positive study (P = .03), longer duration of treatment (P placebo dropout (P placebo. Several trial characteristics are correlated significantly with the proportion of patients with no pain on placebo and with the magnitude of the placebo response on Faces Pain Scales. These data could be valuable for the design of future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic analysis of compositional order of proteins reveals new characteristics of biological functions and a universal correlate of macroevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Persi

    Full Text Available We present a novel analysis of compositional order (CO based on the occurrence of Frequent amino-acid Triplets (FTs that appear much more than random in protein sequences. The method captures all types of proteomic compositional order including single amino-acid runs, tandem repeats, periodic structure of motifs and otherwise low complexity amino-acid regions. We introduce new order measures, distinguishing between 'regularity', 'periodicity' and 'vocabulary', to quantify these phenomena and to facilitate the identification of evolutionary effects. Detailed analysis of representative species across the tree-of-life demonstrates that CO proteins exhibit numerous functional enrichments, including a wide repertoire of particular patterns of dependencies on regularity and periodicity. Comparison between human and mouse proteomes further reveals the interplay of CO with evolutionary trends, such as faster substitution rate in mouse leading to decrease of periodicity, while innovation along the human lineage leads to larger regularity. Large-scale analysis of 94 proteomes leads to systematic ordering of all major taxonomic groups according to FT-vocabulary size. This is measured by the count of Different Frequent Triplets (DFT in proteomes. The latter provides a clear hierarchical delineation of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and prokaryotes, with thermophiles showing the lowest level of FT-vocabulary. Among eukaryotes, this ordering correlates with phylogenetic proximity. Interestingly, in all kingdoms CO accumulation in the proteome has universal characteristics. We suggest that CO is a genomic-information correlate of both macroevolution and various protein functions. The results indicate a mechanism of genomic 'innovation' at the peptide level, involved in protein elongation, shaped in a universal manner by mutational and selective forces.

  12. Systematic Analysis of Compositional Order of Proteins Reveals New Characteristics of Biological Functions and a Universal Correlate of Macroevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Erez; Horn, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel analysis of compositional order (CO) based on the occurrence of Frequent amino-acid Triplets (FTs) that appear much more than random in protein sequences. The method captures all types of proteomic compositional order including single amino-acid runs, tandem repeats, periodic structure of motifs and otherwise low complexity amino-acid regions. We introduce new order measures, distinguishing between ‘regularity’, ‘periodicity’ and ‘vocabulary’, to quantify these phenomena and to facilitate the identification of evolutionary effects. Detailed analysis of representative species across the tree-of-life demonstrates that CO proteins exhibit numerous functional enrichments, including a wide repertoire of particular patterns of dependencies on regularity and periodicity. Comparison between human and mouse proteomes further reveals the interplay of CO with evolutionary trends, such as faster substitution rate in mouse leading to decrease of periodicity, while innovation along the human lineage leads to larger regularity. Large-scale analysis of 94 proteomes leads to systematic ordering of all major taxonomic groups according to FT-vocabulary size. This is measured by the count of Different Frequent Triplets (DFT) in proteomes. The latter provides a clear hierarchical delineation of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and prokaryotes, with thermophiles showing the lowest level of FT-vocabulary. Among eukaryotes, this ordering correlates with phylogenetic proximity. Interestingly, in all kingdoms CO accumulation in the proteome has universal characteristics. We suggest that CO is a genomic-information correlate of both macroevolution and various protein functions. The results indicate a mechanism of genomic ‘innovation’ at the peptide level, involved in protein elongation, shaped in a universal manner by mutational and selective forces. PMID:24278003

  13. Systematic analysis of compositional order of proteins reveals new characteristics of biological functions and a universal correlate of macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Erez; Horn, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel analysis of compositional order (CO) based on the occurrence of Frequent amino-acid Triplets (FTs) that appear much more than random in protein sequences. The method captures all types of proteomic compositional order including single amino-acid runs, tandem repeats, periodic structure of motifs and otherwise low complexity amino-acid regions. We introduce new order measures, distinguishing between 'regularity', 'periodicity' and 'vocabulary', to quantify these phenomena and to facilitate the identification of evolutionary effects. Detailed analysis of representative species across the tree-of-life demonstrates that CO proteins exhibit numerous functional enrichments, including a wide repertoire of particular patterns of dependencies on regularity and periodicity. Comparison between human and mouse proteomes further reveals the interplay of CO with evolutionary trends, such as faster substitution rate in mouse leading to decrease of periodicity, while innovation along the human lineage leads to larger regularity. Large-scale analysis of 94 proteomes leads to systematic ordering of all major taxonomic groups according to FT-vocabulary size. This is measured by the count of Different Frequent Triplets (DFT) in proteomes. The latter provides a clear hierarchical delineation of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and prokaryotes, with thermophiles showing the lowest level of FT-vocabulary. Among eukaryotes, this ordering correlates with phylogenetic proximity. Interestingly, in all kingdoms CO accumulation in the proteome has universal characteristics. We suggest that CO is a genomic-information correlate of both macroevolution and various protein functions. The results indicate a mechanism of genomic 'innovation' at the peptide level, involved in protein elongation, shaped in a universal manner by mutational and selective forces.

  14. Effect of exercise on cognitive function in chronic disease patients: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Li, Guichen; Hua, Shanshan; Liu, Yufei; Chen, Li

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review to assess the effect of exercise on cognitive function in people with chronic diseases. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and three Chinese databases were electronically searched for papers that were published until September 2016. This meta-analysis and systematic review included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of exercise on cognitive function compared with control group for people with chronic diseases. Totally, 35 studies met the inclusion criteria, with 3,113 participants. The main analysis revealed a positive overall random effect of exercise intervention on cognitive function in patients with chronic diseases. The secondary analysis revealed that aerobic exercise interventions and aerobic included exercise interventions had a positive effect on cognition in patients with chronic diseases. The intervention offering low frequency had a positive effect on cognitive function in patients with chronic diseases. Finally, we found that interventions offered at both low exercise intensity and moderate exercise intensity had a positive effect on cognitive function in patients with chronic diseases. The secondary analysis also revealed that exercise interventions were beneficial in Alzheimer's disease patients when grouped by disease type. This meta-analysis and systematic review suggests that exercise interventions positively influence cognitive function in patients with chronic diseases. Beneficial effect was independent of the type of disease, type of exercise, frequency, and the intensity of the exercise intervention.

  15. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Azizah Mat; Ashor, Ammar W; Schoenmakers, Inez; Hill, Tom; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario

    2017-04-01

    In addition to regulating calcium homoeostasis and bone health, vitamin D influences vascular and metabolic processes including endothelial function (EF) and insulin signalling. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on EF and to examine whether the effect size was modified by health status, study duration, dose, route of vitamin D administration, vitamin D status (baseline and post-intervention), body mass index (BMI), age and type of vitamin D. We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases from inception until March 2015 for studies meeting the following criteria: (1) RCT with adult participants, (2) vitamin D administration alone, (3) studies that quantified EF using commonly applied methods including ultrasound, plethysmography, applanation tonometry and laser Doppler. Sixteen articles reporting data for 1177 participants were included. Study duration ranged from 4 to 52 weeks. The effect of vitamin D on EF was not significant (SMD: 0.08, 95 % CI -0.06, 0.22, p = 0.28). Subgroup analysis showed a significant improvement of EF in diabetic subjects (SMD: 0.31, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.57, p = 0.02). A non-significant trend was found for diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02; p = 0.07) and BMI (β = 0.05; p = 0.06). Vitamin D supplementation did not improve EF. The significant effect of vitamin D in diabetics and a tendency for an association with BMI may indicate a role of excess adiposity and insulin resistance in modulating the effects of vitamin D on vascular function. This remains to be tested in future studies.

  16. Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: What Strength Does It Have? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy on functional dyspepsia (FD has been systematically reviewed, the available reports are still contradictive and no robust evidence has been provided to date. Objective. To assess the current evidence of high quality on the effects of acupuncture for patients with FD. Methods. A comprehensive literature database search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing acupuncture therapies (including manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture to sham acupuncture and medication use. A meta-analysis was performed following a strict methodology. Results. 16 RCTs involving 1436 participants were included. The majority of the trials were determined to be of low quality. Positive results were found for acupuncture in improving the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI and scores of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, as well as in alleviating relevant symptoms (especially postprandial fullness and early satiation of FD patients. Conclusion. Based on current available evidence, acupuncture therapy achieves statistically significant effect for FD in comparison with sham acupuncture and is superior to medication (prokinetic agents in improving the symptoms and quality of life of FD patients. Nonetheless, despite stringent methodological analyses, the conclusion of our review still needs to be strengthened by additional RCTs of higher quality.

  17. Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: What Strength Does It Have? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Bo; Hu, Ya-Cai; Cai, Qiu-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy on functional dyspepsia (FD) has been systematically reviewed, the available reports are still contradictive and no robust evidence has been provided to date. Objective. To assess the current evidence of high quality on the effects of acupuncture for patients with FD. Methods. A comprehensive literature database search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acupuncture therapies (including manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture) to sham acupuncture and medication use. A meta-analysis was performed following a strict methodology. Results. 16 RCTs involving 1436 participants were included. The majority of the trials were determined to be of low quality. Positive results were found for acupuncture in improving the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) and scores of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), as well as in alleviating relevant symptoms (especially postprandial fullness and early satiation) of FD patients. Conclusion. Based on current available evidence, acupuncture therapy achieves statistically significant effect for FD in comparison with sham acupuncture and is superior to medication (prokinetic agents) in improving the symptoms and quality of life of FD patients. Nonetheless, despite stringent methodological analyses, the conclusion of our review still needs to be strengthened by additional RCTs of higher quality. PMID:28119758

  18. Effect of exercise on cognitive function in chronic disease patients: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hong Cai,* Guichen Li,* Shanshan Hua, Yufei Liu, Li Chen School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review to assess the effect of exercise on cognitive function in people with chronic diseases.Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and three Chinese databases were electronically searched for papers that were published until September 2016. This meta-analysis and systematic review included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of exercise on cognitive function compared with control group for people with chronic diseases.Results: Totally, 35 studies met the inclusion criteria, with 3,113 participants. The main analysis revealed a positive overall random effect of exercise intervention on cognitive function in patients with chronic diseases. The secondary analysis revealed that aerobic exercise interventions and aerobic included exercise interventions had a positive effect on cognition in patients with chronic diseases. The intervention offering low frequency had a positive effect on cognitive function in patients with chronic diseases. Finally, we found that interventions offered at both low exercise intensity and moderate exercise intensity had a positive effect on cognitive function in patients with chronic diseases. The secondary analysis also revealed that exercise interventions were beneficial in Alzheimer’s disease patients when grouped by disease type.Conclusion: This meta-analysis and systematic review suggests that exercise interventions positively influence cognitive function in patients with chronic diseases. Beneficial effect was independent of the type of disease, type of exercise, frequency, and the intensity of the exercise intervention. Keywords: exercise, cognitive function, physical activity

  19. Effectiveness of functional training on cardiorespiratory parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de; Oliveira, Vinicius Cunha; Silva, Anne Kastelianne França da; Pérez-Riera, Andrés Ricardo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos

    2017-07-28

    Functional training is a new training vision that was prepared from the gesture imitation of daily activities. Although your use has become popular in clinical practice, the influence of the several cardiorespiratory adjustments performed during the functional training in different populations and conditions is unknown. So, the aim of this systematic review was to gather information in the literature regarding the influence of functional training on cardiorespiratory parameters. We conducted search strategies on MEDLINE, PEDro, EMBASE, SportDiscus and Cochrane to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of functional training on cardiorespiratory parameters. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) summarized the evidence. Five original studies were included. Effects favoured functional training on oxygen consumption (VO2 ) at intermediate-term follow-up: weighted mean difference -1·0 (95% CI: 5·4-3·3), P = 0·642, and a small and not clinically important effect observed on VO2 favouring control at intermediate-term follow-up (i.e. mean difference of 1·30 (95% CI 1·07-1·53), Pfunctional training is better than other interventions to improve cardiovascular parameters. This result encourages new searches about the theme. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Do Functional Movement Screen (FMS) composite scores predict subsequent injury? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Schneiders, Anthony G; Mason, Jesse; Sullivan, S John

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to systematically review studies investigating the strength of association between FMS composite scores and subsequent risk of injury, taking into account both methodological quality and clinical and methodological diversity. Systematic review with meta-analysis. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted for the period between their inception and 3 March 2016 using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Academic Search Complete, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Health Source and SPORTDiscus. Inclusion criteria: (1) English language, (2) observational prospective cohort design, (3) original and peer-reviewed data, (4) composite FMS score, used to define exposure and non-exposure groups and (5) musculoskeletal injury, reported as the outcome. (1) data reported in conference abstracts or non-peer-reviewed literature, including theses, and (2) studies employing cross-sectional or retrospective study designs. 24 studies were appraised using the Quality of Cohort Studies assessment tool. In male military personnel, there was 'strong' evidence that the strength of association between FMS composite score (cut-point ≤14/21) and subsequent injury was 'small' (pooled risk ratio=1.47, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.77, p<0.0001, I(2)=57%). There was 'moderate' evidence to recommend against the use of FMS composite score as an injury prediction test in football (soccer). For other populations (including American football, college athletes, basketball, ice hockey, running, police and firefighters), the evidence was 'limited' or 'conflicting'. The strength of association between FMS composite scores and subsequent injury does not support its use as an injury prediction tool. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015025575. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  1. Effects of Olive Oil on Markers of Inflammation and Endothelial Function-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Christoph, Marina; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-09-11

    The aim of the present systematic review was to synthesize data from randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of olive oil on markers of inflammation or endothelial function. Literature search in electronic databases Cochrane Trial Register, EMBASE, and MEDLINE was performed. Thirty studies enrolling 3106 participants fulfilled the selection criteria. Pooled effects of different interventions were assessed as mean difference using a random effects model. Olive oil interventions (with daily consumption ranging approximately between 1 mg and 50 mg) resulted in a significantly more pronounced decrease in C-reactive protein (mean difference: -0.64 mg/L, (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.96 to -0.31), p oil interventions (mean difference: 0.76% (95% CI 0.27 to 1.24), p oil might exert beneficial effects on endothelial function as well as markers of inflammation and endothelial function, thus representing a key ingredient contributing to the cardiovascular-protective effects of a Mediterranean diet. However, due to the heterogeneous study designs (e.g., olive oil given as a supplement or as part of dietary pattern, variations in control diets), a conservative interpretation of the results is necessary.

  2. A continuum of executive function deficits in early subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Background. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. Objective: This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Methods: Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: “vascular mild cognitive impairment” OR “vascular cognitive impairment no dementia” OR “vascular mild neurocognitive disorder” AND “dysexecutive” OR “executive function”. Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Results: Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. Conclusion: A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control. PMID:29354217

  3. Cardiac Function and Diastolic Dysfunction in Behcet’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Aslam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular involvement in Behcet’s disease (BD is reported and has variable manifestations. It is not clear if diastolic dysfunction (DD is increased in BD. Our objective was to evaluate the existing literature to determine if cardiac dysfunction, particularly DD, was more prevalent in these patients. Methods. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the available studies analyzing the echocardiographic findings in BD was conducted using a random-effects model. Mean differences were used to calculate the effect sizes of the echocardiographic parameters of interest. Results. A total of 22 studies with 1624 subjects were included in the analysis. Patients with BD had statistically significantly larger mean left atrial dimension (0.08, p=0.0008, greater aortic diameter (0.16, p=0.02, significantly reduced ejection fraction (−1.08, p<0.0001, significantly prolonged mitral deceleration time (14.20, p<0.0001, lower E/A ratio (−0.24, p=0.05, and increased isovolumetric relaxation time (7.29, p<0.00001. Conclusion. DD is increased in patients with BD by the presence of several echocardiographic parameters favoring DD as compared to controls. The meta-analysis also identified that LA dimension is increased in BD patients. EF has also been found to be lower in BD patients. Aortic diameter was also increased in BD patients as compared to controls.

  4. Intensive training of motor function and functional skills among young children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinderholt Myrhaug, Hilde; Østensjø, Sigrid; Larun, Lillebeth; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Jahnsen, Reidun

    2014-12-05

    Young children with cerebral palsy (CP) receive a variety of interventions to prevent and/or reduce activity limitations and participation restrictions. Some of these interventions are intensive, and it is a challenge to identify the optimal intensity. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to describe and categorise intensive motor function and functional skills training among young children with CP, to summarise the effects of these interventions, and to examine characteristics that may contribute to explain the variations in these effects. Ten databases were searched for controlled studies that included young children (mean age less than seven years old) with CP and assessments of the effects of intensive motor function and functional skills training. The studies were critically assessed by the Risk of bias tool (RoB) and categorised for intensity and contexts of interventions. Standardised mean difference were computed for outcomes, and summarised descriptively or in meta-analyses. Thirty-eight studies were included. Studies that targeted gross motor function were fewer, older and with lower frequency of training sessions over longer training periods than studies that targeted hand function. Home training was most common in studies on hand function and functional skills, and often increased the amount of training. The effects of constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) on hand function and functional skills were summarised in six meta-analyses, which supported the existing evidence of CIMT. In a majority of the included studies, equal improvements were identified between intensive intervention and conventional therapy or between two different intensive interventions. Different types of training, different intensities and different contexts between studies that targeted gross and fine motor function might explain some of the observed effect variations. Home training may increase the amount of training, but are less controllable. These factors

  5. A systematic framework for functional connectivity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Elizabeth Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods have been proposed to characterize the functional connectivity between nodes in a network measured with different modalities (electrophysiology, functional magnetic resonance imaging etc.. Since different measures of functional connectivity yield different results for the same dataset, it is important to assess when and how they can be used. In this work, we provide a systematic framework for evaluating the performance of a large range of functional connectivity measures – based upon a comprehensive portfolio of models generating measurable responses. Specifically, we benchmarked 42 methods using 10,000 simulated datasets from 5 different types of generative models with different connectivity structures. Since all functional connectivity methods require the setting of some parameters (window size and number, model order etc., we first optimized these parameters using performance criteria based upon (threshold free ROC analysis. We then evaluated the performance of the methods on data simulated with different types of models. Finally, we assessed the performance of the methods against different levels of signal-to-noise ratios and network configurations. A MATLAB toolbox is provided to perform such analyses using other methods and simulated datasets.

  6. Effect of Flavonoids on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Immune Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Vaughan S; Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on animals indicates flavonoid compounds have immunomodulatory properties; however, human research remains inconclusive. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of dietary flavonoids on upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and immune function in healthy adults. A created search strategy was run against Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and EMBASE classic, CINAHL, and AMED. The returned studies were initially screened, and 2 reviewers independently assessed the remaining studies for eligibility against prespecified criteria. Fourteen studies, of 387 initially identified, were included in this review, and the primary outcome measure was the effect of flavonoids on URTI incidence, duration, and severity. Of the included studies, flavonoid supplementation ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 g/d. Overall, flavonoid supplementation decreased URTI incidence by 33% (95% CI: 31%, 36%) compared with control, with no apparent adverse effects. Sick-day count was decreased by 40% with flavonoid supplementation, although unclear. Differences in bio-immune markers (e.g., interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, neutrophils) were trivial between the intervention and control groups during the intervention and after exercise when a postintervention exercise bout was included. These findings suggest that flavonoids are a viable supplement to decrease URTI incidence in an otherwise healthy population. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Functional vascular changes of the kidney during pregnancy in animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Joris; de Vries, Rob; Lotgering, Frederik K; Smits, Paul; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2014-01-01

    Renal vascular responses to pregnancy have frequently been studied, by investigating renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal artery responses to stimuli. Nonetheless, several questions remain: 1. Which vasodilator pathways are activated and to what extent do they affect RVR, renal flow and GFR across species, strains and gestational ages, 2. Are these changes dependent on renal artery adaptation, 3. At which cellular level does pregnancy affect the involved pathways? In an attempt to answer the questions raised, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on animal data. We included 37 studies (116 responses). At mid-gestation, RVR and GFR change to a similar degree across species and strains, accompanied by variable change in renal flow. At least in rats, changes depend on NO activation. At late gestation, changes in RVR, renal flow and GFR vary between species and strains. In rats, these changes are effectuated by sympathetic stimulation. Overall, renal artery responsiveness to stimuli is unaffected by pregnancy, except for Sprague Dawley rats in which pregnancy enhances renal artery vascular compliance and reduces renal artery myogenic reactivity. Our meta-analysis shows that: 1. Pregnancy changes RVR, renal flow and GFR dependent on NO-activation and sympathetic de-activation, but adjustments are different among species, strains and gestational ages; 2. These changes do not depend on adaptation of renal artery responsiveness; 3. It remains unknown at which cellular level pregnancy affects the pathways. Our meta-analysis suggests that renal changes during pregnancy in animals are qualitatively similar, even in comparison to humans, but quantitatively different.

  8. Functional vascular changes of the kidney during pregnancy in animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris van Drongelen

    Full Text Available Renal vascular responses to pregnancy have frequently been studied, by investigating renal vascular resistance (RVR, renal flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and renal artery responses to stimuli. Nonetheless, several questions remain: 1. Which vasodilator pathways are activated and to what extent do they affect RVR, renal flow and GFR across species, strains and gestational ages, 2. Are these changes dependent on renal artery adaptation, 3. At which cellular level does pregnancy affect the involved pathways? In an attempt to answer the questions raised, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on animal data. We included 37 studies (116 responses. At mid-gestation, RVR and GFR change to a similar degree across species and strains, accompanied by variable change in renal flow. At least in rats, changes depend on NO activation. At late gestation, changes in RVR, renal flow and GFR vary between species and strains. In rats, these changes are effectuated by sympathetic stimulation. Overall, renal artery responsiveness to stimuli is unaffected by pregnancy, except for Sprague Dawley rats in which pregnancy enhances renal artery vascular compliance and reduces renal artery myogenic reactivity. Our meta-analysis shows that: 1. Pregnancy changes RVR, renal flow and GFR dependent on NO-activation and sympathetic de-activation, but adjustments are different among species, strains and gestational ages; 2. These changes do not depend on adaptation of renal artery responsiveness; 3. It remains unknown at which cellular level pregnancy affects the pathways. Our meta-analysis suggests that renal changes during pregnancy in animals are qualitatively similar, even in comparison to humans, but quantitatively different.

  9. Effect of home-based exercise on functional ability of hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Shafipour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: hemodialysis patients suffer from impaired functional ability. Several pilot studies have been conducted concerning the effect of home-based exercise on functional ability of hemodialysis patients; however, there have been observed some contradictions between the results of these studies. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the effects of home-based exercise on functional ability of hemodialysis patients using meta-analysis. Methods: In this review study, for the purpose of finding studies published electronically form 2000 to 2016, the papers published in journals indexed in the databases of “PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar Cochrane” were used. Also, to analyze the full text of these articles, Stata Software Version 11 was used. Heterogeneity index between the studies was determined using Cochran (Q c and I2 tests. Since heterogeneity was observed between the studies, a random effect model was used to estimate the mean score of the standardized difference of a 6-minute walk test in order to measure the functional ability of hemodialysis patients in two experimental and comparison groups. Results: Four articles were finally selected in this meta-analysis. 68 patients were in the experimental group and 65 were in the control group. After the intervention, the mean score of the standardized difference of a 6-minute walk test in the experimental group with a confidence interval of 95% was 0.21 (-0.15, 0.57 units more than before the intervention, which was statistically not significant. Conclusion: The results of the meta-analysis showed that home-based exercise increased the functional ability of hemodialysis patients although this effect was not significant.

  10. The effect of organic dust exposure on long-term change in lung function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, Anneli Cs; Miller, Martin R; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2017-07-01

    Lung function is a predictor of morbidity and mortality, and the chronic nature of lung function decline allows for preventive initiatives. Proinflammatory constituents of organic dust are considered a possible cause of compromised respiratory health. The aim of this systematic review was to reveal the impact of organic dust exposure on long-term change in lung function. The literature search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Predefined criteria concerned study design: longitudinal, ≥1 year follow-up, ≥50 exposed; exposure measures: organic dust, measured or estimated, in different occupational settings; and outcome measures: change in lung function measured by spirometry. Based on these criteria, 1580 potentially relevant publications were narrowed down to 20 included publications. Quality was evaluated and discussed based on six objectively defined criteria. Overall, 14 studies found some type of association between exposure to organic dust and long-term change in lung function. However, the results were inconsistent and no specific work exposure showed more clear associations to change in lung function. Meta-analysis revealed an overall small significant excess loss in forced expiratory volume in the 1st s for exposed compared with controls of 4.92 mL/year (95% CI 0.14 to 9.69). No significant association was seen overall for forced vital capacity. 12 studies revealed a significant exposure-response relation between organic dust and change in lung function. The results were inconsistent across varying study design and different exposure measures and outcomes. We therefore conclude that there is limited evidence of a causal association between general exposure to organic dust and long-term excess decline in lung function. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  11. The interrater and intrarater reliability of the functional movement screen: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchna, Jennifer W; Hoch, Matthew C; Hoch, Johanna M

    2016-05-01

    To synthesize the literature and perform a meta-analysis for both the interrater and intrarater reliability of the FMS™. Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and SportsDiscus databases were systematically searched from inception to March 2015. Studies were included if the primary purpose was to determine the interrater or intrarater reliability of the FMS™, assessed and scored all 7-items using the standard scoring criteria, provided a composite score and employed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Studies were excluded if reliability was not the primary aim, participants were injured at data collection, or a modified FMS™ or scoring system was utilized. Seven papers were included; 6 assessing interrater and 6 assessing intrarater reliability. There was moderate evidence in good interrater reliability with a summary ICC of 0.843 (95% CI = 0.640, 0.936; Q7 = 84.915, p < 0.0001). There was moderate evidence in good intrarater reliability with a summary ICC of 0.869 (95% CI = 0.785, 0.921; Q12 = 60.763, p < 0.0001). There was moderate evidence for both forms of reliability. The sensitivity assessments revealed this interpretation is stable and not influenced by any one study. Overall, the FMS™ is a reliable tool for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of exercise training on endothelial function in heart failure patients: A systematic review meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, M J; Smart, N A

    2017-03-15

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF) and is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is widely utilised to assess endothelial function and is improved with exercise training in heart failure patients. The aim of this meta-analysis is to quantify the effect of exercise training in patients with heart failure. A large number of studies now exist that have examined endothelial function in patients with heart failure. We sought to add to the current literature by quantifying the effect of exercise training on endothelial function. We conducted database searches (PubMed, EMBASE, PROQUEST and Cochrane Trials Register to June 2016) for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms exercise training, endothelial function, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The 16 included studies provided a total of 529 participants, 293 in an intervention and 236 in controls groups. FMD was improved with exercise training in exercise vs. control, SMD of 1.08 (95%CI 0.70 to 1.46, ptraining improved endothelial function, assessed via FMD, and endothelial progenitor cells in heart failure patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kesavan, S

    2009-01-01

    The material presented in this book is suited for a first course in Functional Analysis which can be followed by Masters students. While covering all the standard material expected of such a course, efforts have been made to illustrate the use of various theorems via examples taken from differential equations and the calculus of variations, either through brief sections or through exercises. In fact, this book will be particularly useful for students who would like to pursue a research career in the applications of mathematics. The book includes a chapter on weak and weak topologies and their applications to the notions of reflexivity, separability and uniform convexity. The chapter on the Lebesgue spaces also presents the theory of one of the simplest classes of Sobolev spaces. The book includes a chapter on compact operators and the spectral theory for compact self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space. Each chapter has large collection of exercises at the end. These illustrate the results of the text, show ...

  14. Does transcranial direct current stimulation enhance cognitive and motor functions in the ageing brain? A systematic review and meta- analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Jeffery J; Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive and motor functions has enjoyed a massive increase in popularity. Modifying neuroplasticity via non-invasive cortical stimulation has enormous potential to slow or even reverse declines in functions associated with ageing. The current meta-analysis evaluated the effects of tDCS on cognitive and motor performance in healthy older adults. Of the 81 studies identified, 25 qualified for inclusion. A random effects model meta-analysis revealed a significant overall standardized mean difference equal to 0.53 (SE=0.09; medium heterogeneity: I(2)=57.08%; and high fail-safe: N=448). Five analyses on moderator variables indicated significant tDCS beneficial effects: (a) on both cognitive and motor task performances, (b) across a wide-range of cognitive tasks, (c) on specific brain areas, (d) stimulation offline (before) or online (during) the cognitive and motor tasks. Although the meta-analysis revealed robust support for enhancing both cognitive and motor performance, we outline a number of caveats on the use of tDCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of niacin on endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2014-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an independent predictor of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Niacin possesses high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-elevating, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, all potentially contributing to the amelioration of endothelial function. However, controversies exist among trials reporting the effects of niacin on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as a reliable surrogate of endothelial function. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of niacin on brachial artery FMD using a meta-analysis of available evidence. MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for randomized controlled trials investigating the impact of niacin therapy on brachial artery FMD. Meta-analysis of eligible studies was conducted using a random-effects model. Pooled effects were measured by weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Quality assessment, and subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were conducted using standard methods. Among 596 citations, 19 full-text articles were read and seven were found to be eligible for inclusion. Eligible studies involved 441 subjects comprising 228 in the niacin and 213 in the control groups. Niacin therapy significantly improved FMD (WMD: 1.98%; 95% CI: 0.91-3.05%; p = 0.0003) and this effect was robust in the sensitivity analysis. The effect size was greater in the subgroup of studies administering higher doses of niacin (≥ 2000 mg/day) as well as those studies administering niacin for primary prevention of ACVD. Meta-regression indicated no association between niacin-induced changes in FMD and changes in plasma HDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol or triglycerides. None of the included studies could find any significant effect of niacin on nitroglycerin-mediated dilation. In conclusion, treatment with niacin improves endothelial function.

  16. Clinical review: The benefits and harms of systemic dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in postmenopausal women with normal adrenal function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elraiyah, Tarig; Sonbol, Mohamad Bassam; Wang, Zhen; Khairalseed, Tagwa; Asi, Noor; Undavalli, Chaitanya; Nabhan, Mohammad; Altayar, Osama; Prokop, Larry; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Exogenous dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) therapy has been proposed to replenish the depletion of endogenous DHEA and its sulfate form, which occurs with advancing age and is thought to be associated with loss of libido and menopausal symptoms. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence supporting the use of systemic DHEA in postmenopausal women with normal adrenal function. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus through January 2014. Pairs of reviewers, working independently, selected studies and extracted data from eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We used the random-effects model to pool across studies and evaluated heterogeneity using the I(2) statistic. We included 23 RCTs with moderate to high risk of bias enrolling 1188 women. DHEA use was not associated with significant improvement in libido or sexual function (standardized mean difference, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, -0.02 to 0.73; P value = .06; I(2) = 62%). There was also no significant effect of DHEA on serious adverse effects, serum lipids, serum glucose, weight, body mass index, or bone mineral density. This evidence warranted low confidence in the results, mostly due to imprecision, risk of bias, and inconsistency across RCTs. Evidence warranting low confidence suggests that DHEA administration does not significantly impact sexual symptoms or selected metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with normal adrenal function.

  17. Effect of nut consumption on vascular endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunjun; Huang, Wei; Peng, Chaoqiong; Zhang, Jinzhou; Wong, Carmen; Kim, Jean H; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Su, Xuefen

    2017-04-20

    nut consumption has consistently been found to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality in prospective studies. However, its effect on endothelial function, a prognostic marker of CVD, is still controversial in clinical trials. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to quantitatively assess the effect of nuts on vascular endothelial function. Major electronic databases were searched for published RCTs that reported the effect of nuts on flow mediated dilation (FMD) as a measurement of endothelial function in the adult population (age eighteen years or over). We calculated the pooled estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using random-effects models. A total of nine papers (10 trials) involving 374 participants were included. The pooled estimates found that nut consumption significantly improved FMD (WMD: 0.41%; 95% CI: 0.18%, 0.63%; P = 0.001). Moderate and marginally significant heterogeneity was observed among the studies (I(2) = 39.5%, P = 0.094). Subgroup analyses indicated that walnuts significantly improved FMD (WMD: 0.39%; 95% CI: 0.16%, 0.63%; P = 0.001). In addition, nut consumption had a significant effect on FMD in the trials with study duration consumption significantly improved endothelial function. However, the beneficial effect was limited to walnuts. More studies examining the effect of other nuts on endothelial function are needed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Does pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder alter the brain? Systematic review and meta-analysis of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Ana Carolina C; Hoffmann, Elis V; Fossaluza, Victor; Jackowski, Andrea P; Mello, Marcelo F

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have recently demonstrated that the volumes of specific brain regions are reduced in children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those of healthy controls. Our study investigated the potential association between early traumatic experiences and altered brain regions and functions. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature regarding functional magnetic resonance imaging and a meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies that investigated cerebral region volumes in pediatric patients with PTSD. We searched for articles from 2000 to 2014 in the PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, and ISI (Web of Knowledge) databases. All data regarding the amygdala, hippocampus, corpus callosum, brain, and intracranial volumes that fit the inclusion criteria were extracted and combined in a meta-analysis that assessed differences between groups. The meta-analysis found reduced total corpus callosum areas and reduced total cerebral and intracranial volumes in the patients with PTSD. The total hippocampus (left and right hippocampus) and gray matter volumes of the amygdala and frontal lobe were also reduced, but these differences were not significant. The functional studies revealed differences in brain region activation in response to stimuli in the post-traumatic stress symptoms/PTSD group. Our results confirmed that the pediatric patients with PTSD exhibited structural and functional brain abnormalities and that some of the abnormalities occurred in different brain regions than those observed in adults. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Effect of removable functional appliances on mandibular length in patients with class II with retrognathism: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Villegas, Adriana; Manrique-Hernandez, Rubén; Alvarez-Varela, Emery; Restrepo-Serna, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Orthopedic functional devices, are used to improve mandibular length in skeletal class II patients. However, the orthopedic functional device with the best effect to increasing the mandibular length, has not been identified before. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT), to determine the best functional appliance improving mandibular length in subjects with retrognathism. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed, including studies published and indexed in databases between 1966 and 2016. RCTs evaluating functional appliances' effects on mandibular length (Condilion-Gnation (Co-Gn) and Condilion-Pogonion (Co-Po)), were included. Reports' structure was evaluated according to 2010 CONSORT guide. The outcome measure was distance between Co-Gn and/or Co-Po after treatment. Data were analyzed with Cochran Q Test and random effects model. Five studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall difference in mandibular length was 1.53 mm (Confidence Interval (CI) 95% 1.15-1.92) in comparison to non-treated group. The Sander Bite Jumping reported the greatest increase in mandibular length (3.40 mm; CI 95% 1.69-5.11), followed by Twin Block, Bionator, Harvold Activator and Frankel devices. All removable functional appliances, aiming to increase mandibular length, are useful. Sander Bite Jumping was observed to be the most effective device to improve the mandibular length.

  20. Clinical and functional correlates of processing speed in pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nathan E; Braaten, Ellen B; Surman, Craig B H

    2017-03-27

    It is well established that processing speed is negatively impacted in children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Unfortunately, exactly how processing speed vulnerabilities manifest in daily functioning has not been well established. To support clinical care of youth with ADHD, it is important to better understand the functional consequences and relevant outcomes associated with processing speed deficits. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to identify the association between processing speed and clinical or functional correlates among children or adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. A total of 409 abstracts were screened, of which, 60 full-text articles were identified as potentially relevant, and 8 of these studies met inclusion criteria. Domains evaluated across these studies included reading skills, mathematics skills, written expression, anxiety, self-appraisals of competence, and adaptive functioning. Six studies reported an association between processing speed and reading skills, allowing for meta-analysis. Processing speed difficulties among youth with ADHD appear strongly associated with several clinical and functional correlates including weaker academic skills, poorer adaptive skills, increased self-reported anxiety, and overestimates of social competence. Meta-analytic results for studies reporting the association between processing speed and reading skills indicate a medium overall weighted mean effect size (r = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.28 -0.39) with minimal heterogeneity (I2 = 0.17). Clinical implications of these findings, limitations in the current knowledge base, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Exercise Improves Clinical Symptoms, Quality of Life, Global Functioning, and Depression in Schizophrenia : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauwan, Meenakshi; Begemann, Marieke J H; Heringa, Sophie M; Sommer, Iris E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical exercise may be valuable for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders as it may have beneficial effect on clinical symptoms, quality of life and cognition. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using PubMed (Medline), Embase, PsychInfo, and Cochrane Database of

  2. Evaluation of the Functional Movement Screen as an Injury Prediction Tool Among Active Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrel, Bryan S; Long, Terry; Shaffer, Scott; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an assessment tool for quality of human movement. Research reports a significant difference between FMS scores of subjects who later experienced injury and those who remain uninjured. To systematically review literature related to predictive validity of the FMS. From the aggregated data, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the prognostic accuracy of the FMS. PubMed, Ebscohost, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Review databases were searched between 1998 and February 20, 2014. Identified studies were reviewed in full detail to validate inclusion criteria. Seven of the 11 identified studies were included. Articles were reviewed for inclusion criteria, then bias assessment and critical analysis were conducted. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level 3. Extracted data included the following: study type, methodology, study subjects, number of subjects, injury classification definition, FMS cut score, sensitivity, specificity, odds ratios, likelihood ratios (LR), predictive values, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, and area under the curve (AUC). Overall bias for the included 7 studies was low with respect to patient selection. Quality assessment scored 1 study 5 of a possible 7, 2 studies were scored 3 of 7, and 4 studies were scored 2 of 7. The meta-analysis indicated the FMS was more specific (85.7%) than sensitive (24.7%), with a positive predictive value of 42.8% and a negative predictive value of 72.5%. The area under the curve was 0.587 (LR+, 1.7; LR-, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.6-6.1) and the effect size was 0.68. Based on analysis of the current literature, findings do not support the predictive validity of the FMS. Methodological and statistical limitations identified threaten the ability of the research to determine the predictive validity of FMS. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Weight loss is associated with improvements in cognitive function among overweight and obese people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Facchini, Silvia; Stubbs, Brendon; Luchini, Claudio; Solmi, Marco; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe; Maggi, Stefania; Cosco, Theodore; Fontana, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Whilst obesity is associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment, the influence of weight loss on cognitive function in obese/overweight people is equivocal. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal studies evaluating the influence of voluntary weight loss on cognitive function in obese/overweight individuals. Articles were acquired from a systematic search of major databases from inception till 01/2016. A random effect meta-analysis of weight loss interventions (diet, physical activity, bariatric surgery) on different cognitive domains (memory, attention, executive functions, language and motor speed) was conducted. Twenty studies (13 longitudinal studies=551 participants; 7 RCTs=328 treated vs. 140 controls) were included. Weight loss was associated with a significant improvement in attention and memory in both longitudinal studies and RCTs, whereas executive function and language improved in longitudinal and RCT studies, respectively. In conclusion, intentional weight loss in obese/overweight people is associated with improvements in performance across various cognitive domains. Future adequately powered RCTs are required to confirm/refute these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immediate nonfunctional versus immediate functional loading and dental implant failure rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present review was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the implant failure rates, postoperative infection, and marginal bone loss for patients being rehabilitated using dental implants with immediate nonfunctional loading (INFL) compared to immediate functional loading (IFL), against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in March 2014. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomized or not. The estimates of relative effect were expressed in risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) in millimeters. 1059 studies were identified and 11 studies were included, of which 7 were of high risk of bias, whereas four studies were of low risk of bias. The results showed that the procedure used (nonfunctional vs. functional) did not significantly affect the implant failure rates (P=0.70), with a RR of 0.87 (95% CI 0.44-1.75). The wide CI demonstrates uncertainty about the effect size. The analysis of postoperative infection was not possible due to lack of data. No apparent significant effects of non-occlusal loading on the marginal bone loss (MD 0.01mm, 95% CI -0.04-0.06; P=0.74) were observed. The results of this study suggest that the differences in occlusal loading between INFL and IFL might not affect the survival of these dental implants and that there is no apparent significant effect on the marginal bone loss. There has been a controversy concerning whether dental implants should be subjected to immediate functional or nonfunctional loading. As the philosophies of treatment may alter over time, a periodic review of the different concepts is necessary to refine techniques and eliminate unnecessary procedures. This would form a basis for optimum treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of yoga on physical functioning and health related quality of life in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neela K; Newstead, Ann H; Ferrer, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    The goal was to review systematically the comparative effectiveness of yoga, compared with other exercise interventions, for older adults as shown on measures of health and physical functioning. This was a systematic review with both narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE®/PUBMED, PSYCINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and SCOPUS; bibliographies of selected articles; and one systematic review on the effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease. Original studies from 1950 to November 2010 were sought, evaluating the effects of yoga on older adults. The search was restricted to randomized controlled trials of yoga in subjects ≥age 60, and published in English. Data were extracted and evaluated regarding setting, population size and characteristics, intervention type and duration, comparison group, outcome assessment, data analysis, follow-up, key results, and the quality of each study according to specific predetermined criteria. The search yielded 18 eligible studies (N=649). The studies reported on older adults across a range of settings, intervention intensity, and outcome measures. The majority of the studies hadbenefits of yoga may exceed those of conventional exercise interventions for self-rated health status, aerobic fitness, and strength. However, the effect sizes were modest, and the evidence was mixed for yoga's effect on depression, sleep, and bone-mineral density. Studies did not find an effect on cognition. Small studies with mixed methodological quality suggested that yoga may be superior to conventional physical-activity interventions in elderly people. The precision of the estimates remains low. Larger studies are necessary to define better the intersection of populations, settings, and interventions in which yoga is most beneficial.

  6. Does music therapy enhance behavioral and cognitive function in elderly dementia patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingshi; Cai, Jiayi; An, Li; Hui, Fuhai; Ren, Tianshu; Ma, Hongda; Zhao, Qingchun

    2017-05-01

    Demographic aging is a worldwide phenomenon, cognitive and behavioral impairment is becoming global burden of nerve damage. However, the effect of pharmacological treatment is not satisfying. Therefore, we analyzed the efficacy of music therapy in elderly dementia patients, and if so, whether music therapy can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2016. A total of 34 studies (42 analyses, 1757 subjects) were included; all of them had an acceptable quality based on the PEDro and CASP scale scores. Studies based on any type of dementia patient were combined and analyzed by subgroup. The standardized mean difference was -0.42 (-0.74 to -0.11) for disruptive behavior and 0.20 (-0.09 to 0.49) for cognitive function as primary outcomes in random effect models using controls as the comparator; the secondary outcomes were depressive score, anxiety and quality of life. No evidence of publication bias was found based on Begg's and Egger's test. The meta-analysis confirmed that the baseline differences between the two groups were balanced. Subgroup analyses showed that disease sub-type, intervention method, comparator, subject location, trial design, trial period and outcome measure instrument made little difference in outcomes. The meta-regression may have identified the causes of heterogeneity as the intervention method, comparator and trial design. Music therapy was effective when patients received interactive therapy with a compared group. There was positive evidence to support the use of music therapy to treat disruptive behavior and anxiety; there were positive trends supporting the use of music therapy for the treatment of cognitive function, depression and quality of life. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016036153. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional Analysis in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eleazar, III; Marino, Matthew T.; Donehower, Claire; Koch, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Functional analysis (FA) is an assessment procedure involving the systematic manipulation of an individual's environment to determine why a target behavior is occurring. An analog FA provides practitioners the opportunity to manipulate variables in a controlled environment and formulate a hypothesis for the function of a behavior. In previous…

  8. The Personal Factors of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in the literature - a systematic review and content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Szilvia; Peter, Claudio; Müller, Rachel; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Ustün, Bedirhan T; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the literature on the conceptualisation of the Personal Factors (PF) component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A systematic literature review was carried out. Electronic searches were performed in Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SSCI. Qualitative content analysis of statements about PF was conducted using inductive coding. The searches yielded 353 citations, 79 papers were eligible for analyses. Five hundred thirty-eight statements about PF were extracted, condensed and coded. Beside conceptual statements, 238 examples of potential PF as well as five attempts at classifying PF were found in the literature. PF were considered in relation to clinical service provision, assessment and intervention, in research and social security contexts. PF were seen to be related to various aspects of health, functioning, disability and the environment. The analysis of the literature shows that PF is seen as relevant to the application of the ICF in various settings. The review revealed a need for standardisation of PF. The literature points to the potential of PF in enhancing the understanding of functioning, disability and health, in facilitating interventions and services for people with disabilities, and strengthening the perspective of individuals in the ICF.

  9. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  10. Effects of dance practice on functional mobility, motor symptoms and quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Delabary, Marcela; Komeroski, Isabel Giovannini; Monteiro, Elren Passos; Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Haas, Aline Nogueira

    2017-10-04

    Patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) undergo motor injuries, which decrease their quality of life (QL). Dance, added to drug therapy, can help treating these patients AIMS: To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis with the aim to analyze the effects of dance classes in comparison to other interventions or to the absence of intervention, in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), on functional mobility, motor symptoms and QL of PD patients METHODS: The search was conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane and PsycINFO (last searched in August 2017). RCTs analyzing dance effects in comparison to other physical training types or to no intervention, on functional mobility, motor symptoms and QL of PD patients were selected. The outcomes assessed were motor symptoms with Unified PD Rating Scale III (UPDRSIII), functional mobility with Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), endurance with 6 min walking test (6MWT), freezing of gait with Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG_Q), walking velocity with GAITRite and QL with PD Questionnaire (PDQ39). Two reviewers independently extracted methodological quality and studies data. Results are presented as weighted mean differences. Five RCTs were included, totaling 159 patients. Dance promoted significant improvements on UPDRSIII, and a decrease in TUG time when compared to other types of exercise. In comparison to the absence of intervention, dance practice also showed significant improvements in motor scores. Dance can improve motor parameters of the disease and patients' functional mobility.

  11. Positive effects of resistant starch supplementation on bowel function in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deqiang; Bai, Hao; Li, Zhaoping; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Huanhuan; Chen, Liyong

    2017-03-01

    Animal experimental studies have found that resistant starch can significantly improve bowel function, but the outcomes are mixed while conducting human studies. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the relationship between resistant starch supplementation and large intestinal function. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus) were searched to identify eligible studies. The standardized mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model. The pooled findings revealed that resistant starch significantly increased fecal wet weight (WMD 35.51 g/d, 95% CI 1.21, 69.82) and butyrate concentration (SMD 0.61, 95% CI 0.32, 0.89). Also, it significantly reduced fecal PH (WMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.35, -0.03), but the increment of defecation frequency were not statistically significant (WMD 0.04stools/g, 95% CI -0.08, 0.16). To conclude, our study found that resistant starch elicited a beneficial effect on the function of large bowel in healthy adults.[Formula: see text].

  12. Systematic review and meta-analysis comparing land and aquatic exercise for people with hip or knee arthritis on function, mobility and other health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Stephanie I; Heywood, Sophie; Keating, Jennifer L

    2011-06-02

    Aquatic and land based exercise are frequently prescribed to maintain function for people with arthritis. The relative efficacy of these rehabilitation strategies for this population has not been established.This review investigated the effects of aquatic compared to land based exercise on function, mobility or participants' perception of programs for people with arthritis. Medline, CINAHL, AMED and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials were searched up to July 2010. Ten randomised, controlled clinical trials that compared land to aquatic exercise for adults with arthritis were included. Study quality was assessed with the PEDro scale. Data relevant to the review question were systematically extracted by two independent reviewers. Standardised mean differences between groups for key outcomes were calculated. Meta-analyses were performed for function, mobility and indices that pooled health outcomes across multiple domains. No differences in outcomes were observed for the two rehabilitation strategies in meta-analysis. There was considerable variability between trials in key program characteristics including prescribed exercises and design quality. Components of exercise programs were poorly reported by the majority of trials. No research was found that examined participant preferences for aquatic compared to land based exercise, identifying this as an area for further research. Outcomes following aquatic exercise for adults with arthritis appear comparable to land based exercise. When people are unable to exercise on land, or find land based exercise difficult, aquatic programs provide an enabling alternative strategy.

  13. Systematic functional comparative analysis of four single-stranded DNA-binding proteins and their affection on viral RNA metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Shi

    Full Text Available The accumulation of single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB proteins is essential for organisms and has various applications. However, no study has simultaneously and systematically compared the characteristics of SSB proteins. In addition, SSB proteins may bind RNA and play an unknown biological role in RNA metabolism. Here, we expressed a novel species of SSB protein derived from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (KOD, as well as SSB proteins from Thermus thermophilus (TTH, Escherichia coli, and Sulfolobus Solfataricus P2 (SSOB, abbreviated kod, tth, bl21, and ssob, respectively. These SSB proteins could bind ssDNA and viral RNA. bl21 resisted heat treatment for more than 9 h, Ssob and kod could withstand 95°C for 10 h and retain its ssDNA- and RNA-binding ability. Four SSB proteins promoted the specificity of the DNA polymerase in PCR-based 5- and 9-kb genome fragment amplification. kod also increased the amplification of a 13-kb PCR product, and SSB protein-bound RNA resisted Benzonase digestion. The SSB proteins could also enter the host cell bound to RNA, which resulted in modulation of viral RNA metabolism, particularly ssob and bl21.

  14. The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joyce S; Dalleck, Lance C; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Beetham, Kassia S; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-05-01

    Vascular dysfunction is a precursor to the atherosclerotic cascade, significantly increasing susceptibility to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Previous studies have revealed a strong relationship between vascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Thus, since high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potent method of improving CRF, several small randomized trials have investigated the impact on vascular function of HIIT relative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence and quantify the impact on vascular function of HIIT compared with MICT. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE) were searched (until May 2014) for randomized trials comparing the effect of at least 2 weeks of HIIT and MICT on vascular function. HIIT protocols involved predominantly aerobic exercise at a high intensity, interspersed with active or passive recovery periods. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the mean difference in the change in vascular function assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) from baseline to post-intervention between HIIT and MICT. The impact of HIIT versus MICT on CRF, traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and biomarkers associated with vascular function (oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance) was also reviewed across included studies. Seven randomized trials, including 182 patients, met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. A commonly used HIIT prescription was four intervals of 4 min (4 × 4 HIIT) at 85-95% of maximum or peak heart rate (HRmax/peak), interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 60-70% HRmax/peak, three times per week for 12-16 weeks. Brachial artery FMD improved by 4.31 and 2.15% following HIIT and MICT, respectively. This resulted in a significant (p HIIT also had a greater tendency than MICT to induce positive effects on secondary

  15. Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on pain, physical functions and safety outcomes in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Xie, Yujie; Luo, Xiaotian; Ji, Qiaodan; Lu, Chunlan; He, Chengqi; Wang, Pu

    2016-10-01

    To explore the effects of therapeutic ultrasound with sham or no intervention on pain, physical function and safety outcomes in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This systematic review was searched on CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Open Gray on 4 September 2015. Trials included randomized controlled trials that compared therapeutic ultrasound with a sham or no intervention in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Eligible trials and extracted data were identified by two independent investigators. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for pain and physical function outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I2 test and inverse-variance random-effects analysis was applied to all trials. Ten randomized controlled trials (645 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Therapeutic ultrasound showed a positive effect on pain (SMD = -0.93, 95%, CI = -1.22 to -0.64, p physical function, therapeutic ultrasound was advantageous for reducingWestern Ontario and McMaster Universities physical function score (SMD = -0.37, 95% CI = -0.73 to -0.01, p = 0.04, p for heterogeneity = 0.94, I2 = 0%). In terms of safety, no occurrence of adverse events caused by therapeutic ultrasound was reported in any trial. The authors suggested that therapeutic ultrasound is beneficial for reducing knee pain and improving physical functions in patients with knee osteoarthritis and could be a safe treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the percentage of revised diagnoses in functional somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelboom, E. M.; Tak, L. M.; Roest, A.M.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) are bodily complaints of unclear etiology, which are (currently) not fully explained by well-recognized somatic pathology. Doctors are often hesitant to diagnose FSS, due to the risk to miss a somatic disease. The purpose of this study is to review

  17. Effect of glucomannan on functional constipation in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiang-Qun; Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Lv, Lu-Xian

    2017-05-01

    Constipation, a common complaint in children, considerably affects the quality of life. This systematic review assessed the treatment effects of glucomannan on children with constipation by summarising evidence from previous randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A comprehensive electronic literature search was conducted for identifying eligible RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of glucomannan. The results were reported as mean differences (MDs), standardised mean differences (SMDs), and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The primary outcome was the defecation frequency per week; the secondary outcomes were stool consistency and the rate of successful treatment. A metaanalysis was conducted using the random effects model. Three RCTs evaluating 122 participants were identified. Glucomannan use was associated with an increased frequency of defecation (3 trials; MD=1.40; 95% CI: 0.36-2.44, p=0.008); however, there were no significant differences in the outcomes of stool consistency (3 trials; SMD=0.48; 95% CI: -0.44 to 1.40, p=0.300) or the rate of successful treatment (2 trials; RR=1.36; 95% CI: 0.48-3.81, p=0.110). Glucomannan moderately increases the defecation frequency of children with constipation but is not associated with a reduction in stool consistency or overall improvement in the rate of successful treatment. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of the small sample size and the risk of products containing glucomannan need to be considered. Additional large-scale and well-designed RCTs are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of glucomannan.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Acotiamide for the Treatment of Functional Dyspepsia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoping; Fan, Juan; Deng, Jianjun; Tan, Shan; Zhu, Yu; Guo, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background. There are no treatments with established efficacy for this disorder so far. Aim. To systematically review the efficacy of acotiamide in the treatment of patients with FD. Methods. We searched main electronic databases through November 2013. RCTs evaluating the efficacy of acotiamide versus placebo in FD patients were included. Pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidential interval (CI) was calculated. Results. Six publications including seven RCTs were eligible for inclusion. The summary RR of overall improvement of FD symptoms in patients receiving acotiamide versus placebo was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.19–1.40, P < 0.00001; I 2 = 15%). Acotiamide improved the symptoms of patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09–1.53, P = 0.003; I 2 = 0%), and the summary RR for patients with epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.76–1.11, P = 0.39; I 2 = 0%). Acotiamide showed a significantly beneficial effect on the elimination of some individual FD symptoms compared with placebo. Adverse events were not significantly different between acotiamide and placebo groups. Subgroup analyses suggested that acotiamide 100 mg three times daily (tid) showed consistent efficacy not only for the overall improvement but also for the elimination of some individual symptoms in FD patients. Conclusions. Acotiamide has the potential to improve the symptoms of patients with FD, particularly of patients with PDS, without major adverse effects. The dosage of acotiamide 100 mg tid might be the appropriate dose in the treatment of FD. PMID:25197703

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Acotiamide for the Treatment of Functional Dyspepsia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoguang Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no treatments with established efficacy for this disorder so far. Aim. To systematically review the efficacy of acotiamide in the treatment of patients with FD. Methods. We searched main electronic databases through November 2013. RCTs evaluating the efficacy of acotiamide versus placebo in FD patients were included. Pooled risk ratio (RR with 95% confidential interval (CI was calculated. Results. Six publications including seven RCTs were eligible for inclusion. The summary RR of overall improvement of FD symptoms in patients receiving acotiamide versus placebo was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.19–1.40, P<0.00001; I2=15%. Acotiamide improved the symptoms of patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09–1.53, P=0.003; I2=0%, and the summary RR for patients with epigastric pain syndrome (EPS was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.76–1.11, P=0.39; I2=0%. Acotiamide showed a significantly beneficial effect on the elimination of some individual FD symptoms compared with placebo. Adverse events were not significantly different between acotiamide and placebo groups. Subgroup analyses suggested that acotiamide 100 mg three times daily (tid showed consistent efficacy not only for the overall improvement but also for the elimination of some individual symptoms in FD patients. Conclusions. Acotiamide has the potential to improve the symptoms of patients with FD, particularly of patients with PDS, without major adverse effects. The dosage of acotiamide 100 mg tid might be the appropriate dose in the treatment of FD.

  20. [Systematic approach for dysfunctional analysis in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, A; Levrat, E; Pétin, J-F; Noël, A; Aigle, D; Peiffert, D; Graff, P

    2012-12-01

    We previously presented a systematic and structured approach to acquire an accurate functional model of the patient's process in radiotherapy. This approach relied on new functional structuring patterns, derived from system engineering and knowledge engineering. Additionally, we propose a complementary methodical process for the dysfunctional analysis of the obtained functional model. The procedure is based on joint implementation of two qualitative methods named "Failure modes and effects analysis" (FMEA) and "Hazard and operability" (HazOp). All the technical, the human and the organizational dimensions of the patient's process are pooled in a unique, exhaustive and detailed dysfunctional analysis. The application of this systematic approach within a particular institution can precisely identify the risks incurred by patients in care, but also highlight the logical sequence between precursor events and incidents. The dysfunctional analysis presented in this document will be used for the development still in process of quantified risk models. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of preoperative exercise on functional recovery after joint replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeboom, Thomas J; Oosting, Ellen; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; Veenhof, Cindy; Siemonsma, Petra C; de Bie, Rob A; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to develop a rating scale to assess the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise programmes. By use of this rating scale we investigated the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise in patients awaiting primary total joint replacement (TJR). Finally, we studied the association between therapeutic validity of preoperative therapeutic exercise and its effectiveness in terms of postoperative functional recovery. (Quasi) randomised clinical trials on preoperative therapeutic exercise in adults awaiting TJR on postoperative recovery of functioning within three months after surgery were identified through database and reference screening. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and therapeutic validity. Therapeutic validity of the interventions was assessed with a nine-itemed, expert-based rating scale (scores range from 0 to 9; score ≥6 reflecting therapeutic validity), developed in a four-round Delphi study. Effects were pooled using a random-effects model and meta-regression was used to study the influence of therapeutic validity. Of the 7,492 articles retrieved, 12 studies (737 patients) were included. None of the included studies demonstrated therapeutic validity and two demonstrated low risk of bias. Therapeutic exercise was not associated with 1) observed functional recovery during the hospital stay (Standardised Mean Difference [SMD]: -1.19; 95%-confidence interval [CI], -2.46 to 0.08); 2) observed recovery within three months of surgery (SMD: -0.15; 95%-CI, -0.42 to 0.12); and 3) self-reported recovery within three months of surgery (SMD -0.07; 95%-CI, -0.35 to 0.21) compared with control participants. Meta-regression showed no statistically significant relationship between therapeutic validity and pooled-effects. Preoperative therapeutic exercise for TJR did not demonstrate beneficial effects on postoperative functional recovery. However, poor therapeutic validity of the therapeutic exercise programmes may have hampered

  2. The effects of whole body vibration on muscle strength and functional mobility in persons with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haiyan; Lu, Jun; Xu, Guangxu

    2016-05-01

    This review aimed to confirm the effects of the whole body vibration (WBV) on muscle performance and functional mobility in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A systematic literature search was performed in databases of Pubmed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 1990 to 2015. The risk of bias in the selected studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool. Summary statistics was calculated using the Review Manager 5.2 software. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 7 trials including 201 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the WBV significantly improved the knee extensor strength (WMD=13.74, 95% CI 4.56 to 22.93, P=0.003). However, there were no significant differences between WBV and control groups on knee flexor strength (95% CI -26.22 to 41.83, P=0.65), Timed Up and Go test (TUG, WMD=0.31, 95% CI: -0.91 to 3.42, P=0.62) and walking speed (SMD=0.42, 95% CI: -0.78 to 1.62, P=0.49). These results indicate that the WBV may improve the knee extension muscle strength. However, the WBV does not show a meaningful improvement of functional mobility in MS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of co-culture of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells with pancreatic islets on viability and function outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Bianca Marmontel; Bouças, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Fernanda Dos Santos de; Reis, Karina Pires; Ziegelmann, Patrícia; Bauer, Andrea Carla; Crispim, Daisy

    2017-03-04

    The maintenance of viable and functional pancreatic islets is crucial for successful islet transplantation from brain-dead donors. To overcome islet quality loss during culture, some studies have co-cultured islets with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). However, it is still uncertain if MSC-secreted factors are enough to improve islet quality or if a physical contact between MSCs and islets is needed. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the effect of different culture contact systems of islets with MSCs on viability and insulin secretion outcomes. Pubmed and Embase were searched. Twenty studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis and/or meta-analysis. For both outcomes, pooled weighted mean differences (WMD) between islet cultured alone (control group) and the co-culture condition were calculated. Viability mean was higher in islets co-cultured with MSCs compared with islet cultured alone [WMD = 18.08 (95% CI 12.59-23.57)]. The improvement in viability was higher in islets co-cultured in indirect or mixed contact with MSCs than in direct physical contact (P culture condition compared with islet cultured alone [WMD = 0.83 (95% CI 0.54-1.13)], independently of contact system. Results from the studies that were analyzed only qualitatively are in accordance with meta-analysis data. Co-culture of islets with MSCs has the potential for protecting islets from injury during culture period. Moreover, culture time appears to influence the beneficial effect of different methods of co-culture on viability and function of islets.

  4. Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT)-BIG to improve motor function in people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Rischbieth, Briony; Schammer, Tenille T; Seaforth, Chantel; Shaw, Alex J; Phillips, Anna C

    2017-10-01

    The technique called Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT)-LOUD has previously been used to improve voice quality in people with Parkinson's disease. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an alternate intervention, LSVT-BIG (signifying big movements), to improve functional mobility. Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized trials. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, AgeLine, Scopus and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2017 using multiple search terms related to Parkinson's disease and LSVT-BIG. Two researchers searched the literature for studies of the LSVT-BIG intervention of 16 sessions, delivered by a certified instructor over four weeks, to any other intervention. Outcomes related to functional ability were included. Study quality was appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Four studies were included, reporting on three randomized trials of 84 participants with mild Parkinson's disease. Compared to physiotherapy exercises, or a shorter training protocol, there was a significant improvement in motor function assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (mean difference = -3.20, 95% confidence interval = -5.18 to -1.23) and a trend towards faster Timed Up and Go performance (mean difference = -0.47, 95% confidence interval = -0.99 to 0.06) and 10-metre walk test (mean difference = -0.53, 95% confidence interval = -1.07 to 0.01). Compared to shorter format LSVT-BIG or general exercise, LSVT-BIG was more effective at improving motor function. This provides preliminary, moderate quality evidence that amplitude-oriented training is effective in reducing motor impairments for people with mild Parkinson's disease.

  5. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part III, Surgical Pain Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cindy; Paat, Charmagne F.; Price, Ashley; Xenakis, Lea; Zhang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Pain is multi-dimensional and may be better addressed through a holistic, biopsychosocial approach. Massage therapy is commonly practiced among patients seeking pain management; however, its efficacy is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to rigorously assess the quality of the evidence for massage therapy’s efficacy in treating pain, function-related, and health-related quality of life outcomes in surgical pain populations. Methods. Key databases were searched from inception through February 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality using SIGN 50 Checklist. Meta-analysis was applied at the outcome level. A professionally diverse steering committee interpreted the results to develop recommendations. Results. Twelve high quality and four low quality studies were included in the review. Results indicate massage therapy is effective for treating pain [standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.79] and anxiety (SMD = −0.57) compared to active comparators. Conclusion. Based on the available evidence, weak recommendations are suggested for massage therapy, compared to active comparators for reducing pain intensity/severity and anxiety in patients undergoing surgical procedures. This review also discusses massage therapy safety, challenges within this research field, how to address identified research gaps, and next steps for future research. PMID:27165970

  6. Effect of vitamin C on endothelial function in health and disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashor, Ammar W; Lara, Jose; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Observational studies indicate that higher vitamin C intake is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, randomised controlled trials (RCT) examining the effect of vitamin C on endothelial function (EF) have reported inconsistent results. The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on EF and to investigate whether the effect was influenced by health status, study duration, dose and route of vitamin C administration. We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases from inception to May 2013 for studies that met the following criteria: 1) RCT with adult participants, 2) vitamin C administered alone, 3) studies that quantified EF using commonly applied methods including ultrasound, plethysmography and pulse wave analysis. Pooling the data from 44 clinical trials showed a significant positive effect of vitamin C on EF (SMD: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.66, P http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Aortic Valve Replacement on Severe Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Systolic Function: Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qishi; Djohan, Andie H; Lim, Enghow; Ding, Zee Pin; Ling, Lieng H; Shi, Luming; Chan, Edwin Shih-Yen; Chin, Calvin Woon Loong

    2017-07-11

    The survival benefits of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the different flow-gradient states of severe aortic stenosis (AS) is not known. A comprehensive search in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI and OpenGrey were conducted to identify studies that investigated the prognosis of severe AS (effective orifice area ≤1.0 cm(2)) and left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%. Severe AS was stratified by mean pressure gradient [threshold of 40 mmHg; high-gradient (HG) and low-gradient (LG)] and stroke volume index [threshold of 35 ml/m(2); normal-flow (NL) and low-flow (LF)]. Network meta-analysis was conducted to assess all-cause mortality among each AS sub-type with rate ratio (RR) reported. The effects of AVR on prognosis were examined using network meta-regression. In the pooled analysis (15 studies and 9,737 patients), LF states (both HG and LG) were associated with increased mortality rate (LFLG: RR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.43-2.46; LFHG: RR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.16-2.70) compared to moderate AS; and NF states in both HG and LG had similar prognosis as moderate AS (NFLG: RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.81-1.53; NFHG: RR 1.16; 95% CI: 0.82-1.64). AVR conferred different survival benefits: it was most effective in NFHG (RR with AVR /RR without AVR : 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22-0.82) and least in LFLG (RR with AVR /RR without AVR : 1.19; 95% CI: 0.74-1.94).

  8. Systematic analysis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism and function in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuantai; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2013-05-24

    While GABA has been suggested to regulate spore encapsulation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, the metabolic profile and other potential functions of GABA during development remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the homeostasis of GABA metabolism by disrupting genes related to GABA metabolism and signaling. Extracellular levels of GABA are tightly regulated during early development, and GABA is generated by the glutamate decarboxylase, GadB, during growth and in early development. However, overexpression of the prespore-specific homologue, GadA, in the presence of GadB reduces production of extracellular GABA. Perturbation of extracellular GABA levels delays the process of aggregation. Cytosolic GABA is degraded by the GABA transaminase, GabT, in the mitochondria. Disruption of a putative vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) homologue DdvGAT reduces secreted GABA. We identified the GABAB receptor-like family member GrlB as the major GABA receptor during early development, and either disruption or overexpression of GrlB delays aggregation. This delay is likely the result of an abolished pre-starvation response and late expression of several "early" developmental genes. Distinct genes are employed for GABA generation during sporulation. During sporulation, GadA alone is required for generating GABA and DdvGAT is likely responsible for GABA secretion. GrlE but not GrlB is the GABA receptor during late development.

  9. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Functional Outcomes and Complications Following Transurethral Procedures for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Resulting from Benign Prostatic Obstruction: An Update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Ahyai, Sascha; Bachmann, Alexander; de la Rosette, Jean; Gilling, Peter; Gratzke, Christian; McVary, Kevin; Novara, Giacomo; Woo, Henry; Madersbacher, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    A number of transurethral ablative techniques based on the use of innovative medical devices have been introduced in the recent past for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). To conduct a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of available randomized

  10. Comparison of high vs. normal/low protein diets on renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schwingshackl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It was the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effects of high protein (HP versus normal/low protein (LP/NP diets on parameters of renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Queries of literature were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Trial Register until 27th February 2014. Study specific weighted mean differences (MD were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.1. FINDINGS: 30 studies including 2160 subjects met the objectives and were included in the meta-analyses. HP regimens resulted in a significantly more pronounced increase in glomerular filtration rate [MD: 7.18 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI 4.45 to 9.91, p<0.001], serum urea [MD: 1.75 mmol/l, 95% CI 1.13 to 237, p<0.001], and urinary calcium excretion [MD: 25.43 mg/24h, 95% CI 13.62 to 37.24, p<0.001] when compared to the respective LP/NP protocol. CONCLUSION: HP diets were associated with increased GFR, serum urea, urinary calcium excretion, and serum concentrations of uric acid. In the light of the high risk of kidney disease among obese, weight reduction programs recommending HP diets especially from animal sources should be handled with caution.

  11. The effects of resistance training on muscle strength, joint pain, and hand function in individuals with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Nicoló Edoardo; McNair, Peter John; Rice, David Andrew

    2017-06-13

    Hand osteoarthritis is a common condition characterised by joint pain and muscle weakness. These factors are thought to contribute to ongoing disability. Some evidence exists that resistance training decreases pain, improves muscle strength, and enhances function in people with knee and hip osteoarthritis. However, there is currently a lack of consensus regarding its effectiveness in people with hand osteoarthritis. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish whether resistance training in people with hand osteoarthritis increases grip strength, decreases joint pain, and improves hand function. Seven databases were searched from 1975 until July 1, 2016. Randomised controlled trials were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess studies' methodological quality. The Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was adopted to rate overall quality of evidence. Suitable studies were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Five studies were included with a total of 350 participants. The majority of the training programs did not meet recommended intensity, frequency, or progression criteria for muscle strengthening. There was moderate-quality evidence that resistance training does not improve grip strength (mean difference = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.84, 3.54; I (2) = 50%; p = 0.23 ). Low-quality evidence showed significant improvements in joint pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI = -0.42, -0.04; I (2) = 0%; p = 0.02) which were not clinically relevant. Low-quality evidence demonstrated no improvements in hand function following resistance training (SMD = -0.1; 95% CI = -0.33, 0.13; I (2) = 28%; p = 0.39). There is no evidence that resistance training has a significant effect on grip strength or hand function in people with hand osteoarthritis. Low-quality evidence suggests it has a small, clinically

  12. Association of Sleep-Disordered Breathing With Cognitive Function and Risk of Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yue; McEvoy, Claire T; Allen, Isabel E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests an association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cognitive decline in elderly persons. However, results from population-based studies have been conflicting, possibly owing to different methods to assess SDB or cognitive domains, making it difficult to draw conclusions on this association. To provide a quantitative synthesis of population-based studies on the relationship between SDB and risk of cognitive impairment. PubMed, EMBASE, and PsychINFO were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published in English before January 2017 that reported on the association between SDB and cognitive function. We included cross-sectional and prospective studies with at least 200 participants with a mean participant age of 40 years or older. Data were extracted independently by 2 investigators. We extracted and pooled adjusted risk ratios from prospective studies and standard mean differences from cross-sectional studies, using random-effect models. This meta-analysis followed the PRISMA guidelines and also adhered to the MOOSE guidelines. Cognitive outcomes were based on standard tests or diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Sleep-disordered breathing was ascertained by apnea-hypopnea index or clinical diagnosis. We included 14 studies, 6 of which were prospective, covering a total of 4 288 419 men and women. Pooled analysis of the 6 prospective studies indicated that those with SDB were 26% (risk ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.50) more likely to develop cognitive impairment, with no evidence of publication bias but significant heterogeneity between studies. After removing 1 study that introduced significant heterogeneity, the pooled risk ratio was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.11-1.65). Pooled analysis of the 7 cross-sectional studies suggested that those with SDB had slightly worse executive function (standard mean difference, -0.05; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.00), with no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Sleep

  13. The role of executive function in posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, A. Rosaura; Witteveen, Anke B.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Olff, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with disturbances in verbal memory, studies examining executive functioning in PTSD show mixed results. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare executive functioning in patients with

  14. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part II, Cancer Pain Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cindy; Paat, Charmagne F.; Price, Ashley; Xenakis, Lea; Zhang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Pain is multi-dimensional and may be better addressed through a holistic, biopsychosocial approach. Massage therapy is commonly practiced among patients seeking pain management; however, its efficacy is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to rigorously assess the quality of massage therapy research and evidence for its efficacy in treating pain, function-related and health-related quality of life in cancer populations. Methods. Key databases were searched from inception through February 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality using the SIGN 50 Checklist. Meta-analysis was applied at the outcome level. A diverse steering committee interpreted the results to develop recommendations. Results. Twelve high quality and four low quality studies were subsequently included in the review. Results demonstrate massage therapy is effective for treating pain compared to no treatment [standardized mean difference (SMD)  = −.20] and active (SMD = −0.55) comparators. Compared to active comparators, massage therapy was also found to be beneficial for treating fatigue (SMD = −1.06) and anxiety (SMD = −1.24). Conclusion. Based on the evidence, weak recommendations are suggested for massage therapy, compared to an active comparator, for the treatment of pain, fatigue, and anxiety. No recommendations were suggested for massage therapy compared to no treatment or sham control based on the available literature to date. This review addresses massage therapy safety, research challenges, how to address identified research gaps, and necessary next steps for implementing massage therapy as a viable pain management option for cancer pain populations. PMID:27165967

  15. Borderline intellectual functioning: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-12-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health problems. When adults with BIF were compared with the general population, they held lower-skilled jobs and earned less money. Although some risk factors (e.g., low birth weight) and preventive factors (e.g., education) were reported, they were not specific to BIF. The review finds that, despite the obvious everyday problems, BIF is almost invisible in the field of research. More research, societal discussion, and flexible support systems are needed.

  16. Effects of Vocal Function Exercises: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Vrushali; Croake, Daniel; Stemple, Joseph

    2017-11-03

    The purpose of the present review was to systematically analyze the evidence for the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) in improving voice production. A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers using PubMed and EBSCOHost to access relevant databases and to locate outcome studies that used VFEs as an intervention. Articles that met inclusion criteria were appraised based on the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association's levels of evidence. Effect sizes for outcomes were calculated using Hedge's g. Voice outcomes were categorized according to the five domains of voice assessment: visual perceptual analysis, acoustic analysis, aerodynamic analysis, auditory-perceptual analysis, and patient self-report measures. Twenty-one articles were included for the final appraisal. All studies demonstrated positive effects of VFEs as demonstrated by effect sizes across selected voice parameters. Effect sizes across parameters ranged from -0.59 to 1.55. None of the included studies reported adverse voice outcomes as a result of VFEs. Outcome studies demonstrate that VFEs are efficacious in enhancing vocal function in individuals with normal and disordered voices, presbylaryngeus, and professional voice users. The available research suggests moderate to strong evidence to support the use of VFEs for a variety of voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Persistent right ventricular dysfunction, functional capacity limitation, exercise intolerance, and quality of life impairment following pulmonary embolism: Systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Miller, Larry E; Kahn, Susan R; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term right ventricular (RV) function, functional capacity, exercise capacity, and quality of life following pulmonary embolism (PE), and the impact of thrombolysis, are unclear. A systematic review of studies that evaluated these outcomes with ⩾ 3-month mean follow-up after PE diagnosis was performed. For each outcome, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Twenty-six studies (3671 patients) with 18-month median follow-up were included. The pooled prevalence of RV dysfunction was 18.1%. Patients treated with thrombolysis had a lower, but not statistically significant, risk of RV dysfunction versus those treated with anticoagulation (odds ratio: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.13, p=0.10). Pooled prevalence of at least mild functional impairment (NYHA II-IV) was 33.2%, and at least moderate functional impairment (NYHA III-IV) was 11.3%. Patients treated with thrombolysis had a lower, but not statistically significant, risk of at least moderate functional impairment versus those treated with anticoagulation (odds ratio: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.15 to 1.49, p=0.20). Pooled 6-minute walk distance was 415 m (95% CI: 372 to 458 m), SF-36 Physical Component Score was 44.8 (95% CI: 43 to 46), and Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire total score was 9.1. Main limitations included heterogeneity among studies for many outcomes, variation in the completeness of data reported, and inclusion of data from non-randomized, non-controlled, and retrospective studies. Persistent RV dysfunction, impaired functional status, diminished exercise capacity, and reduced QoL are common in PE survivors. The effect of thrombolysis on RV function and functional status remains unclear.

  18. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  19. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Exploring the function and effectiveness of knowledge brokers as facilitators of knowledge translation in health-related settings: a systematic review and thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornbaum, Catherine C; Kornas, Kathy; Peirson, Leslea; Rosella, Laura C

    2015-11-20

    Knowledge brokers (KBs) work collaboratively with key stakeholders to facilitate the transfer and exchange of information in a given context. Currently, there is a perceived lack of evidence about the effectiveness of knowledge brokering and the factors that influence its success as a knowledge translation (KT) mechanism. Thus, the goal of this review was to systematically gather evidence regarding the nature of knowledge brokering in health-related settings and determine if KBs effectively contributed to KT in these settings. A systematic review was conducted using a search strategy designed by a health research librarian. Eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Scopus, SocINDEX, and Health Business Elite) and relevant grey literature sources were searched using English language restrictions. Two reviewers independently screened the abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, extracted data, and performed quality assessments. Analysis included a confirmatory thematic approach. To be included, studies must have occurred in a health-related setting, reported on an actual application of knowledge brokering, and be available in English. In total, 7935 records were located. Following removal of duplicates, 6936 abstracts were screened and 240 full-text articles were reviewed. Ultimately, 29 articles, representing 22 unique studies, were included in the thematic analysis. Qualitative (n = 18), quantitative (n = 1), and mixed methods (n = 6) designs were represented in addition to grey literature sources (n = 4). Findings indicated that KBs performed a diverse range of tasks across multiple health-related settings; results supported the KB role as a 'knowledge manager', 'linkage agent', and 'capacity builder'. Our systematic review explored outcome data from a subset of studies (n = 8) for evidence of changes in knowledge, skills, and policies or practices related to knowledge brokering. Two studies met standards for

  1. Comparing the Pilates method with no exercise or lumbar stabilization for pain and functionality in patients with chronic low back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ligia M; Obara, Karen; Dias, Josilainne M; Menacho, Maryela O; Guariglia, Débora A; Schiavoni, Durcelina; Pereira, Hugo M; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2012-01-01

    To perform a systematic review with meta-analyses that evaluates the effectiveness of the Pilates method on the pain and functionality outcome in adults with non-specific chronic low back pain. The search was performed in the following databases: Medline, Embase, AMED, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scielo, SportDiscus, ProQuest, Web of Science, PEDro, Academic Search Premier and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1950 to 2011; the following keywords were used: 'Pilates', 'Pilates-based', 'back exercises', 'exercise therapy', 'low back pain', 'back pain' and 'backache'. The inclusion criteria were studies that assessed the effects of the Pilates method on patients with chronic low back pain. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The total number of patients was 71 in the Pilates group and 68 in the control group. Pilates exercise did not improve functionality (standardized mean difference (SMD = -1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.80, 0.11; P = 0.07) or pain between Pilates and control groups (SMD = -1.99; 95% CI -4.35, 0.37; P = 0.10). Pilates and lumbar stabilization exercises presented no significant difference in functionality (mean difference (MD) = -0.31; 95% CI -1.02, 0.40; P = 0.39) or pain (MD = -0.31; 95% CI -1.02, 0.40; P = 0.39). The Pilates method did not improve functionality and pain in patients who have low back pain when compared with control and lumbar stabilization exercise groups.

  2. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: systematic review of functional results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Beat; Kimura, Shoji; Vartolomei, Mihai D; Abufaraj, Mohammad; Gust, Kilian; Fajkovic, Harun; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Seitz, Christian

    2017-12-22

    Various ischemia type during partial nephrectomy for renal cell cancer (RCC) resulted in different postoperative functional outcomes. Our objective was to systematically review the contemporary literature on robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN) and investigate the association of ischemia type and tumor complexity with postoperative functional outcomes of the operated kidney and overall. Forty-five of the 99 reports identified were selected for qualitative analysis. All included studies were observational and nonrandomized. Overall, we found that patients undergoing RPN with zero ischemia and selective artery clamping had a lower decrease in glomerular filtration rates of the operated kidney in comparison to both warm and cold ischemia. This association seems also to play a role in patients with bilateral kidneys harboring complex tumors. Zero ischemia and selective artery clamping provide the best functional outcomes following robotic partial nephrectomy. This seems to be of particular relevance in patients with single kidney or tumors of high complexity. Whether these changes are statistically or clinically significant cannot be determined within this systematic review.

  3. Functional data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, J O

    1997-01-01

    Scientists today collect samples of curves and other functional observations. This monograph presents many ideas and techniques for such data. Included are expressions in the functional domain of such classics as linear regression, principal components analysis, linear modelling, and canonical correlation analysis, as well as specifically functional techniques such as curve registration and principal differential analysis. Data arising in real applications are used throughout for both motivation and illustration, showing how functional approaches allow us to see new things, especially by exploiting the smoothness of the processes generating the data. The data sets exemplify the wide scope of functional data analysis; they are drwan from growth analysis, meterology, biomechanics, equine science, economics, and medicine. The book presents novel statistical technology while keeping the mathematical level widely accessible. It is designed to appeal to students, to applied data analysts, and to experienced researc...

  4. Fundamentals of functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Farenick, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique path for graduate or advanced undergraduate students to begin studying the rich subject of functional analysis with fewer prerequisites than is normally required. The text begins with a self-contained and highly efficient introduction to topology and measure theory, which focuses on the essential notions required for the study of functional analysis, and which are often buried within full-length overviews of the subjects. This is particularly useful for those in applied mathematics, engineering, or physics who need to have a firm grasp of functional analysis, but not necessarily some of the more abstruse aspects of topology and measure theory normally encountered. The reader is assumed to only have knowledge of basic real analysis, complex analysis, and algebra. The latter part of the text provides an outstanding treatment of Banach space theory and operator theory, covering topics not usually found together in other books on functional analysis. Written in a clear, concise manner,...

  5. Group Process: A Systematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Albert E.; Radl, Myrna C.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies components of group process and describes leader functions. Discusses personal elements, focus of interaction/psychological distance, group development, content, quality of interaction, and self-reflective/meaning attribution, illustrated by a case study of a group of persons (N=5) arrested for drunk driving. (JAC)

  6. Effectiveness of Functional Electrical Stimulation in Improving Clinical Outcomes in the Upper Arm following Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir K. Vafadar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Different therapeutic methods are being used to prevent or decrease long-term impairments of the upper arm in stroke patients. Functional electrical stimulation (FES is one of these methods, which aims to stimulate the nerves of the weakened muscles so that the resulting muscle contractions resemble those of a functional task. Objectives. The objective of this study was to review the evidence for the effect of FES on (1 shoulder subluxation, (2 pain, and (3 upper arm motor function in stroke patients, when added to conventional therapy. Methods. From the 727 retrieved articles, 10 (9 RCTs, 1 quasi-RCT were selected for final analysis and were rated based on the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database scores and the Sackett’s levels of evidence. A meta-analysis was performed for all three considered outcomes. Results. The results of the meta-analyses showed a significant difference in shoulder subluxation in experimental groups compared to control groups, only if FES was applied early after stroke. No effects were found on pain or motor function outcomes. Conclusion. FES can be used to prevent or reduce shoulder subluxation early after stroke. However, it should not be used to reduce pain or improve upper arm motor function after stroke.

  7. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Functional Outcomes and Complications Following Transurethral Procedures for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Resulting from Benign Prostatic Obstruction: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Ahyai, Sascha; Bachmann, Alexander; de la Rosette, Jean; Gilling, Peter; Gratzke, Christian; McVary, Kevin; Novara, Giacomo; Woo, Henry; Madersbacher, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    A number of transurethral ablative techniques based on the use of innovative medical devices have been introduced in the recent past for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). To conduct a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transurethral ablative procedures for BPO. A systematic literature search was performed for all RCTs comparing any transurethral surgical technique for BPO to another between 1992 and 2013. Efficacy was evaluated after a minimum follow-up of 1 yr based on International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum flow rate, and postvoid residual volume. Efficacy at midterm follow-up, prostate volume, perioperative data, and short-term and long-term complications were also assessed. Data were analyzed using RevMan software. A total of 69 RCTs (8517 enrolled patients) were included. No significant difference was found in terms of short-term efficacy between bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP) and monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (M-TURP). However, B-TURP was associated with a lower rate of perioperative complications. Better short-term efficacy outcomes, fewer immediate complications, and a shorter hospital stay were found after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) compared with M-TURP. Compared with M-TURP, GreenLight photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) was associated with a shorter hospital stay and fewer complications but no different short-term efficacy outcomes. This meta-analysis shows that HoLEP is associated with more favorable outcomes than M-TURP in published RCTs. B-TURP and PVP have resulted in better perioperative outcomes without significant differences regarding efficacy parameters after short-term follow-up compared with M-TURP. Further studies are needed to provide long-term comparative data and head-to head comparisons of emerging techniques

  8. Acupuncture and related therapies used as add-on or alternative to prokinetics for functional dyspepsia: overview of systematic reviews and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Robin S T; Chung, Vincent C H; Wong, Charlene H L; Wu, Justin C Y; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Irene X Y

    2017-09-04

    Prokinetics for functional dyspepsia (FD) have relatively higher number needed to treat values. Acupuncture and related therapies could be used as add-on or alternative. An overview of systematic reviews (SRs) and network meta-analyses (NMA) were performed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of different acupuncture and related therapies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search for SRs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in eight international and Chinese databases. Data from eligible RCTs were extracted for random effect pairwise meta-analyses. NMA was used to explore the most effective treatment among acupuncture and related therapies used alone or as add-on to prokinetics, compared to prokinetics alone. From five SRs, 22 RCTs assessing various acupuncture and related therapies were included. No serious adverse events were reported. Two pairwise meta-analyses showed manual acupuncture has marginally stronger effect in alleviating global FD symptoms, compared to domperidone or itopride. Results from NMA showed combination of manual acupuncture and clebopride has the highest probability in alleviating patient reported global FD symptom. Combination of manual acupuncture and clebopride has the highest probability of being the most effective treatment for FD symptoms. Patients who are contraindicated for prokinetics may use manual acupuncture or moxibustion as alternative. Future confirmatory comparative effectiveness trials should compare clebopride add-on manual acupuncture with domperidone add-on manual acupuncture and moxibustion.

  9. A systematic analysis of scoring functions in rigid-body protein docking: The delicate balance between the predictive rate improvement and the risk of overtraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas-Bautista, Didier; Moal, Iain H; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2017-07-01

    Protein-protein interactions play fundamental roles in biological processes including signaling, metabolism, and trafficking. While the structure of a protein complex reveals crucial details about the interaction, it is often difficult to acquire this information experimentally. As the number of interactions discovered increases faster than they can be characterized, protein-protein docking calculations may be able to reduce this disparity by providing models of the interacting proteins. Rigid-body docking is a widely used docking approach, and is often capable of generating a pool of models within which a near-native structure can be found. These models need to be scored in order to select the acceptable ones from the set of poses. Recently, more than 100 scoring functions from the CCharPPI server were evaluated for this task using decoy structures generated with SwarmDock. Here, we extend this analysis to identify the predictive success rates of the scoring functions on decoys from three rigid-body docking programs, ZDOCK, FTDock, and SDOCK, allowing us to assess the transferability of the functions. We also apply set-theoretic measure to test whether the scoring functions are capable of identifying near-native poses within different subsets of the benchmark. This information can provide guides for the use of the most efficient scoring function for each docking method, as well as instruct future scoring functions development efforts. Proteins 2017; 85:1287-1297. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rehabilitation Interventions for Upper Limb Function in the First Four Weeks Following Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattchow, Kimberley A; McDonnell, Michelle N; Hillier, Susan L

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the therapeutic interventions reported in the research literature and synthesize their effectiveness in improving upper limb (UL) function in the first 4 weeks poststroke. Electronic databases and trial registries were searched from inception until June 2016, in addition to searching systematic reviews by hand. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials, and interventional studies with pre/posttest design were included for adults within 4 weeks of any type of stroke with UL impairment. Participants all received an intervention of any physiotherapeutic or occupational therapeutic technique designed to address impairment or activity of the affected UL, which could be compared with usual care, sham, or another technique. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility of full texts, and methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A total of 104 trials (83 RCTs, 21 nonrandomized studies) were included (N=5225 participants). Meta-analyses of RCTs only (20 comparisons) and narrative syntheses were completed. Key findings included significant positive effects for modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) (standardized mean difference [SMD]=1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], .21-1.97) and task-specific training (SMD=.37; 95% CI, .05-.68). Evidence was found to support supplementary use of biofeedback and electrical stimulation. Use of Bobath therapy was not supported. Use of mCIMT and task-specific training was supported, as was supplementary use of biofeedback and electrical simulation, within the acute phase poststroke. Further high-quality studies into the initial 4 weeks poststroke are needed to determine therapies for targeted functional UL outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic role of vitamin D in pneumonia patients through meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for relevant studies that assessed the impact of vitamin D on the risk of adverse outcomes among patients with pneumonia. Risk ratios (RR).

  13. The dose-dependent effect of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bo; Wang, Chunbin; Yao, Yuanqing; Huang, Yuwen; Tan, Jie; Cao, Yin; Zou, Yanke; Huang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting renal effects of nesiritide have been reported in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. To answer this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the influence of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Articles were obtained from PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library and reference review. Randomized controlled studies that investigated the effects of continuous infusion of nesiritide on renal function in adult patients with acute decompensated heart failure were included and analyzed. Fixed-effect model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and weight mean difference (WMD). The quality assessment of each study, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. Most of included studies had relatively high quality and no publication bias was found. Overall, compared to control therapies, nesiritide might increase the risk of worsening renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15, P = 0.023). In subgroup analysis, high-dose nesiritide strongly associated with renal dysfunction (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.19-2.00, P = 0.001), but no statistical differences were observed in standard-dose (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98-1.12, P = 0.213), low-dose groups (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.74-1.37, P = 0.968) and same results were identified in the subgroup analysis of placebo controlled trials. Peak mean change of serum creatinine from baseline was no significant difference (WMD -2.54, 95% CI -5.76-0.67, P = 0.121). In our meta-analysis, nesiritide may have a dose-dependent effect on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. High-dose nesiritide is likely to increase the risk of worsening renal function, but standard-dose and low-dose nesiritide probably have no impact on renal function. These findings could be helpful to optimize the use of

  14. Systematic analysis of HEP collider data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuteson, Bruce [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)]. E-mail: knuteson@fnal.gov

    2004-11-21

    These proceedings outline steps toward a systematic analysis of frontier energy collider data: specifically, those data collected at Tevatron Runs I and II, LEP Run II, HERA Runs I and II, and the future LHC. Algorithms designed to understand the gross features of the data (VISTA), to systematically and model-independently search for new physics at the electroweak scale (SLEUTH), to automate tests of specific hypotheses against those data (QUAERO), to turn an existing full detector simulation into a fast simulation (TURBOSIM), and to infer the physics underlying any hint observed in the data (BARD) are reviewed. A somewhat non-conventional viewpoint is adopted throughout.

  15. Lectures on Functional Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kurepa, Svetozar; Kraljević, Hrvoje

    1987-01-01

    This volume consists of a long monographic paper by J. Hoffmann-Jorgensen and a number of shorter research papers and survey articles covering different aspects of functional analysis and its application to probability theory and differential equations.

  16. Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Renal Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-Infected Patients Treated with Atazanavir (ATV-Based Regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Cure

    Full Text Available Some HIV antiretroviral therapies (ART have been associated with renal toxicities, which become of increasing concern as HIV-infected patients age and develop comorbidities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative impact of atazanavir (ATV-based regimens on the renal function of adult patients with HIV. We conducted a systematic literature review by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and the CRD from 2000 until March 2013. Major HIV-related conferences occurring in the past two years were also searched. All randomized clinical trials and large cohort studies assessing renal function in treatment-naïve and/or treatment-experienced HIV patients on ATV-based regimens were included. Fixed-effect mixed-treatment network analyses were carried out on the most frequently reported renal outcomes. 23 studies met the inclusion criteria, and change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR from baseline to 48 weeks was identified as the main outcome. Two networks including, respectively, six studies (using the Cockcroft-Gault method and four studies (using MDRD and CKD-EPI were analysed. With CG network, ATV/r + TDF/FTC was associated with lower impact on the decline of eGFR than ATV/cobicistat + TDF/FTC but with higher decrease in eGFR than ATV/r + ABC/3TC (difference in mean change from baseline in eGFR respectively +3.67 and -3.89. The use of ATV/cobicistat + TDF/FTC led to a similar decline in eGFR as EVG/cobicistat/TDF/FTC. With respect to third agents combined with TDF/FTC, ATV/r had a lower increase in eGFR in comparison to EFV, and no difference was shown when compared to SQV/r and DRV/r. The effect of ATV-based regimens on renal function at 48 weeks appears similar to other ART regimens and appears to be modest regardless of boosting agent or backbone, although TDF containing backbones consistently leads to greater decline in eGFR.

  17. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Griffel, DH

    2002-01-01

    A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the

  18. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Anneka Elizabeth; Greig, Carolyn A

    2017-07-20

    In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health in older adults. A comprehensive search of electronic databases, including Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane CENTRAL accessed by Wiley Science) was conducted. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials including men and women (aged ≥65 years or mean age ≥65 years); enlisting resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation; including outcomes of muscle strength, function, muscle power, body composition, serum vitamin D/calcium status or quality of life comparing results with a control group. The review was informed by a preregistered protocol (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015020157). Seven studies including a total of 792 participants were identified. Studies were categorised into two groups; group 1 compared vitamin D3 supplementation and exercise training versus exercise alone (describing the additive effect of vitamin D3 supplementation when combined with resistance exercise training) and group 2 compared vitamin D3 supplementation and exercise training versus vitamin D3 supplementation alone (describing the additive effect of resistance exercise training when combined with vitamin D3 supplementation).Meta-analyses for group 1 found muscle strength of the lower limb to be significantly improved within the intervention group (0.98, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.24, pvitamin D3 supplementation for the improvement of muscle strength in older adults. For

  19. Effects of whole body vibration on pain, stiffness and physical functions in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Yang, Xiaotian; Yang, Yonghong; Yang, Lin; Zhou, Yujing; Liu, Chuan; Reinhardt, Jan D; He, Chengqi

    2015-10-01

    To assess the effects of whole body vibration for pain, stiffness and physical functions in patients with knee osteoarthritis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and EMBASE (up to October 2014) to identify relevant randomized controlled trials. The outcome measures were pain, stiffness and physical functions. Two investigators identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. The PEDro score was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the selected studies. Standard mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test. A total of five randomized controlled trials involving 170 patients with knee osteoarthritis met the inclusion criteria. Only four studies involving 144 patients were deemed to be good quality trials (PEDro score = 6-7). Meta-analysis revealed that whole body vibration has a significant treatment effect in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index physical function score (SMD = -0.72 points, 95% CI = -1.14 to -0.30, P = 0.0008), 12 weeks whole body vibration improved the 6-minute walk test (SMD 1.15 m, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.80, P = 0.0006) and balance (SMD = -0.78 points, 95% CI -1.40 to -0.16, P = 0.01). Whole body vibration was not associated with a significant reduction in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index pain and stiffness score. Eight-week and 12-week whole body vibration is beneficial for improving physical functions in patients with knee osteoarthritis and could be included in rehabilitation programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oden, J Tinsley

    2010-01-01

    The textbook is designed to drive a crash course for beginning graduate students majoring in something besides mathematics, introducing mathematical foundations that lead to classical results in functional analysis. More specifically, Oden and Demkowicz want to prepare students to learn the variational theory of partial differential equations, distributions, and Sobolev spaces and numerical analysis with an emphasis on finite element methods. The 1996 first edition has been used in a rather intensive two-semester course. -Book News, June 2010

  1. Processing of food, body and emotional stimuli in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yikang; Hu, Xiaochen; Wang, Jijun; Chen, Jue; Guo, Qian; Li, Chunbo; Enck, Paul

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of the cognitive processing of food, body and emotional information in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are debatable. We reviewed functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to assess whether there were consistent neural basis and networks in the studies to date. Searching PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar between January 1980 and May 2012, we identified 17 relevant studies. Activation likelihood estimation was used to perform a quantitative meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. For both food stimuli and body stimuli, AN patients showed increased hemodynamic response in the emotion-related regions (frontal, caudate, uncus, insula and temporal) and decreased activation in the parietal region. Although no robust brain activation has been found in response to emotional stimuli, emotion-related neural networks are involved in the processing of food and body stimuli among AN. It suggests that negative emotional arousal is related to cognitive processing bias of food and body stimuli in AN. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size...... from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can be reduced using Trial Sequential Analysis. Several empirical studies have demonstrated...

  3. Comparison of prophylactic effect of UGIB and effects on platelet function between PPIs and H2RAs combined with DAPT: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Z

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhan-Miao Yi,1 Ting-Ting Qiu,1,2 Yuan Zhang,3 Zhi-Yan Liu,1 Suo-Di Zhai1 1Department of Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Objective: We compared prophylactic effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs on upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB associated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT and explored this influence on platelet function. Methods: Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies comparing PPIs with H2RAs in adults receiving DAPT were collected from PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Dichotomous data were pooled to obtain risk ratios (RRs for UGIB, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs, poor responders to clopidogrel and rehospitalization, and continuous data were pooled to obtain mean differences (MDs for P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: Twelve clinical trials (n=3,301 met the inclusion criteria. Compared to H2RAs, PPIs lessened UGIB (RR =0.16, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of PRUs (MD =18.21 PRUs, 95% CI: -4.11–40.54, poor responders to clopidogrel (RR =1.21, 95% CI: 0.92–1.61, incidence of MACEs (RR =0.89, 95% CI: 0.45–1.75 or rehospitalization (RR =1.76, 95% CI: 0.79–3.92. Subgroup analysis confirmed fewer PRUs in the H2RAs group compared to the omeprazole group (2 studies, n=189, MD =31.80 PRUs, 95% CI: 11.65–51.96. However, poor responder data for clopidogrel and MACEs might be unreliable because few studies of this kind were included. Conclusion: Limited evidence indicates that PPIs were better than H2RAs for prophylaxis of UGIB associated with DAPT and had no effect on platelet function. Further study is needed to confirm these observations. Keywords: proton pump

  4. Usefulness of chewing gum for recovering intestinal function after cesarean delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ping Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum has been reported to enhance bowel function. However, the efficacy remains unclear for women undergoing cesarean delivery. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of chewing gum for recovering intestinal function following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library were searched to identify English language randomized controlled trials comparing chewing gum with other procedures for promoting the recovery of intestinal function after cesarean delivery. Two of the authors independently extracted data from the eligibility studies, and Review Manager Version 5.2 was used to pool the data. Finally, five randomized controlled trials involving 882 patients were included and all the trials were considered as at high risk of bias. The pooled findings showed that chewing gum after cesarean delivery can significantly shorten the time to first flatus [standardized mean difference (SMD = −0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.01 to −0.14; p < 0.001]; time to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (SMD = −0.69; 95% CI = −1.20 to −0.17; p = 0.009; I² = 92%. Time to the first defecation (SMD = −0.53; 95% CI = −1.61 to −0.07; p = 0.07; I² = 92% and length of hospital stay (SMD = −0.59; 95% CI = −1.18 to 0.00; p = 0.05; I² = 93% were also reduced in the chewing gum group; however, these results were not statistically significant. The current evidence suggests that chewing gum has a positive effect on intestinal function recovery following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. However, more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results.

  5. Food and functional dyspepsia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, K R; Talley, N J; Walker, M M; Burrows, T L

    2017-09-15

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by early satiety, post-prandial fullness or epigastric pain related to meals, which affects up to 20% of western populations. A high dietary fat intake has been linked to FD and duodenal eosinophilia has been noted in FD. We hypothesised that an allergen such as wheat is a risk factor for FD and that withdrawal will improve symptoms of FD. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food and functional dyspepsia. Sixteen out of 6451 studies identified in a database search of six databases met the inclusion criteria of studies examining the effect of nutrients, foods and food components in adults with FD or FD symptoms. Wheat-containing foods were implicated in FD symptom induction in six studies, four of which were not specifically investigating gluten and two that were gluten-specific, with the implementation of a gluten-free diet demonstrating a reduction in symptoms. Dietary fat was associated with FD in all three studies that specifically measured this association. Specific foods reported as inducing symptoms were high in either natural food chemicals, high in fermentable carbohydrates or high in wheat/gluten. Caffeine was associated with FD in four studies, although any association with alcohol was uncertain. Wheat and dietary fats may play key roles in the generation of FD symptoms and reduction or withdrawal eased symptoms. Randomised trials investigating the roles of gluten, FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols) and high fat ingestion and naturally occurring food chemicals in the generation of functional dyspepsia symptoms are warranted and further investigation of the mechanisms is now required. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniak, Anneka Elizabeth; Greig, Carolyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculosk...

  7. Match Analysis in Volleyball: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.

  8. Effectiveness of bisphosphonate analogues and functional electrical stimulation on attenuating post-injury osteoporosis in spinal cord injury patients- a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Han, Der-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Various pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches have been applied to reduce sublesional bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI), and the results are inconsistent across the studies. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether the two most-studied interventions, bisphosphonate analogues and functional electrical stimulation (FES), could effectively decrease bone mineral density (BMD) attenuation and/or restore lost BMD in the SCI population. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and prospective follow-up studies employing bisphosphonates or FES to treat post-SCI osteoporosis were identified in PubMed and Scopus. The primary outcome was the percentage of BMD change from baseline measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or computed tomography (CT). Data were extracted from four points: the 3rd, 6th, 12th, and 18th month after intervention. A total of 19 studies were included in the analysis and involved 364 patients and 14 healthy individuals. Acute SCI participants treated with bisphosphonate therapy demonstrated a trend toward less bone loss than participants who received placebos or usual care. A significant difference in BMD decline was noted between both groups at the 3rd and 12th month post-medication. The subgroup analysis failed to show the superiority of intravenous bisphosphonate over oral administration. Regarding FES training, chronic SCI patients had 5.96% (95% CI, 2.08% to 9.84%), 7.21% (95%CI, 1.79% to 12.62%), and 9.56% (95% CI, 2.86% to 16.26%) increases in BMD at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months post-treatment, respectively. The studies employing FES ≥ 5 days per week were likely to have better effectiveness than studies using FES ≤ 3 days per week. Our meta-analysis indicated bisphosphonate administration early following SCI effectively attenuated sublesional bone loss. FES intervention for chronic SCI patients could significantly increase sublesional BMD near the site of maximal mechanical

  9. Notes on functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    These notes are a record of a one semester course on Functional Analysis given by the author to second year Master of Statistics students at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi. Students taking this course have a strong background in real analysis, linear algebra, measure theory and probability, and the course proceeds rapidly from the definition of a normed linear space to the spectral theorem for bounded selfadjoint operators in a Hilbert space. The book is organised as twenty six lectures, each corresponding to a ninety minute class session. This may be helpful to teachers planning a course on this topic. Well prepared students can read it on their own.

  10. Nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deimling, Klaus

    1985-01-01

    topics. However, only a modest preliminary knowledge is needed. In the first chapter, where we introduce an important topological concept, the so-called topological degree for continuous maps from subsets ofRn into Rn, you need not know anything about functional analysis. Starting with Chapter 2, where infinite dimensions first appear, one should be familiar with the essential step of consider­ ing a sequence or a function of some sort as a point in the corresponding vector space of all such sequences or functions, whenever this abstraction is worthwhile. One should also work out the things which are proved in § 7 and accept certain basic principles of linear functional analysis quoted there for easier references, until they are applied in later chapters. In other words, even the 'completely linear' sections which we have included for your convenience serve only as a vehicle for progress in nonlinearity. Another point that makes the text introductory is the use of an essentially uniform mathematical languag...

  11. Improving Academic Engagement through Systematic, Function-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaupsin, Carl J.; Umbreit, John; Ferro, Jolenea B.; Urso, Annmarie; Upreti, Gita

    2006-01-01

    Fiona was a 14-year-old 7th-grader whose academic history, frequent behavior problems, and low levels of academic engagement put her at-risk for academic failure. This study's purpose was to examine the effectiveness of a systematic process for identifying the function of her problem behaviors and designing interventions that directly addressed…

  12. Cognitive functioning in meningioma patients : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskal, I.; Gehring, K.; Rutten, G.J.M.; Sitskoorn, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates relevant findings and methodologic aspects of studies on cognitive functioning in meningioma patients prior to and/or following surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases were searched until December 2015. From 1012

  13. CrossFit Overview: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, João Gustavo; Gabbett, Tim J; Bourgeois, Frank; Souza, Helton de Sá; Miranda, Rafael Chagas; Mezêncio, Bruno; Soncin, Rafael; Cardoso Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bottaro, Martim; Hernandez, Arnaldo Jose; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2018-02-26

    CrossFit is recognized as one of the fastest growing high-intensity functional training modes in the world. However, scientific data regarding the practice of CrossFit is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the findings of scientific literature related to CrossFit via systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme/MedLine, and SciELO online databases were conducted for articles reporting the effects of CrossFit training. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The Oxford Levels of Evidence was used for all included articles, and only studies that investigated the effects of CrossFit as a training program were included in the meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes (ESs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. Thirty-one articles were included in the systematic review and four were included in the meta-analysis. However, only two studies had a high level of evidence at low risk of bias. Scientific literature related to CrossFit has reported on body composition, psycho-physiological parameters, musculoskeletal injury risk, life and health aspects, and psycho-social behavior. In the meta-analysis, significant results were not found for any variables. The current scientific literature related to CrossFit has few studies with high level of evidence at low risk of bias. However, preliminary data has suggested that CrossFit practice is associated with higher levels of sense of community, satisfaction, and motivation.

  14. Functional Family Therapy for Young People in Treatment for Nonopioid Drug Use: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of functional family therapy (FFT) on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Data and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Results: The search yielded two…

  15. Effect of corticosteroid injections versus physiotherapy on pain, shoulder range of motion and shoulder function in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlette Burger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain. Limited research has been conducted into the efficacy of corticosteroid injections (CSIs compared to physiotherapy in the management of SIS.Objective: To critically appraise and establish the best available evidence for the effectiveness of CSI in comparison with physiotherapy for the management of pain, shoulder range of motion (ROM and shoulder function in patients with SIS.Methodology:  Seven databases were searched from inception to February 2016, namely PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCO Host: SPORTDiscus, EBSCO Host: CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus and PEDro. The main search terms were shoulder impingement syndrome and/or subacromial impingement syndrome, corticosteroid injections and/or steroid injections, physical therapy and/or physiotherapy. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs were considered for inclusion. The articles were appraised according to the PEDro scale. The Revman© Review Manager Software was used to combine the results of shoulder function and the data were illustrated in forest plots.Results: The PEDro scores of the three RCTs that qualified for this review ranged from 7 to 8/10. There is Level II evidence suggesting that besides a significant improvement in shoulder function in favour of CSI at 6–7 weeks follow-up (p < 0.0001, no evidence was found for the superiority of CSIs compared with physiotherapy for pain, ROM and shoulder function in the short- (1–3 months, mid- (6 months and long term (12 months.Conclusion: In patients with SIS only a short term significant improvement in shoulder function was found in favour of CSIs.

  16. Attrition, occlusion, (dys)function, and intervention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Spijker, Arie; Kreulen, Cees M; Creugers, Nico H J

    2007-06-01

    Attrition and occlusal factors and masticatory function or dysfunction are thought to be related. This study aims to systematically review the literature on this topic with the emphasis to find evidence for occlusion-based treatment protocols for attrition. Literature was searched using PubMed (1980 to 2/2006) and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials with the keywords 'tooth' and 'wear'. Five steps were followed. Exclusion was based on the following: (1) reviews, case-reports, studies on non-human tooth material, and studies not published in English and (2) historical or forensic studies. Included were (3) in vivo studies. Next, studies on (4) occlusal factors, function or dysfunction [temporomandibular disorders (TMD), bruxism], or intervention, and (5) attrition were included. Two investigators independently assessed the abstracts; measure of agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa; disagreement was resolved by discussion. Full-text articles were obtained and correlation between outcomes on occlusal factors, (dys)function, treatment, and attrition were retrieved. References in the papers included in the final analysis were cross-matched with the original list of references to add references that met the inclusion criteria. The search procedure revealed 1289 references on tooth wear. The numbers of included studies after each step were (1) 345 (kappa=0.8), (2) 287 (kappa=0.87), (3) 174 (kappa=0.99), (4) 81 (kappa=0.71), and (5) 27 (kappa=0.68). Hand searches through the reference lists revealed six additional papers to be included. Analysis of the 33 included papers failed to find sound evidence for recommending a certain occlusion-based treatment protocol above another in the management of attrition. Some studies reported correlations between attrition and anterior spatial relationships. No studies were found suggesting that absent posterior support necessarily leads to increased attrition, though one study found that fewer number of teeth resulted in

  17. Geometric nonlinear functional analysis volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Benyamini, Yoav

    1999-01-01

    The book presents a systematic and unified study of geometric nonlinear functional analysis. This area has its classical roots in the beginning of the twentieth century and is now a very active research area, having close connections to geometric measure theory, probability, classical analysis, combinatorics, and Banach space theory. The main theme of the book is the study of uniformly continuous and Lipschitz functions between Banach spaces (e.g., differentiability, stability, approximation, existence of extensions, fixed points, etc.). This study leads naturally also to the classification of

  18. Pre-surgery exercise and post-operative physical function of people undergoing knee replacement surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Peer, Maria; Rush, Robert; Gallacher, P; Gleeson, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness and dose-response characteristics of pre-operative exercise programmes on post-operative physical function following total knee arthroplasty.\\ud Data sources: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PubMed, SPORTDiscus and EMBASE.\\ud Study selection: Randomized controlled trials were eligible if they provided full description of physiological stress (i.e. mode, frequency, intensity and duration).\\ud Data extraction: Data extraction and evalua...

  19. Olfactory and gustatory functions in bipolar disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazour, Francois; Richa, Sami; Desmidt, Thomas; Lemaire, Mathieu; Atanasova, Boriana; El Hage, Wissam

    2017-05-12

    Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in bipolar disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test) and Sniffin' Sticks were the most widely used tests to evaluate smell. Some studies on olfaction described dysfunctions in smell identification as potential markers for bipolar disorders. Moreover, olfactory acuity was associated with psychosocial and cognitive performances. For taste, only few studies used standardized tests to evaluate gustation. These studies showed that patients with Bipolar disorders had more gustatory dysfunction compared to controls, and to non-bipolar depressed patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromatographic screening techniques in systematic toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, O H

    1999-10-15

    A review of techniques used to screen biological specimens for the presence of drugs was conducted with particular reference to systematic toxicological analysis. Extraction systems of both the liquid-liquid and solid-phase type show little apparent difference in their relative ability to extract a range of drugs according to their physio-chemical properties, although mixed-phase SPE extraction is a preferred technique for GC-based applications, and liquid-liquid were preferred for HPLC-based applications. No one chromatographic system has been shown to be capable of detecting a full range of common drugs of abuse, and common ethical drugs, hence two or more assays are required for laboratories wishing to cover a reasonably comprehensive range of drugs of toxicological significance. While immunoassays are invariably used to screen for drugs of abuse, chromatographic systems relying on derivatization and capable of extracting both acidic and basic drugs would be capable of screening a limited range of targeted drugs. Drugs most difficult to detect in systematic toxicological analysis include LSD, psilocin, THC and its metabolites, fentanyl and its designer derivatives, some potent opiates, potent benzodiazepines and some potent neuroleptics, many of the newer anti-convulsants, alkaloids colchicine, amantins, aflatoxins, antineoplastics, coumarin-based anti-coagulants, and a number of cardiovascular drugs. The widespread use of LC-MS and LC-MS-MS for specific drug detection and the emergence of capillary electrophoresis linked to MS and MS-MS provide an exciting possibility for the future to increase the range of drugs detected in any one chromatographic screening system.

  1. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life.

  2. Systematic text condensation: a strategy for qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-12-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies. Giorgi's psychological phenomenological analysis is the point of departure and inspiration for systematic text condensation. The basic elements of Giorgi's method and the elaboration of these in systematic text condensation are presented, followed by a detailed description of procedures for analysis according to systematic text condensation. Finally, similarities and differences compared with other frequently applied methods for qualitative analysis are identified, as the foundation of a discussion of strengths and limitations of systematic text condensation. Systematic text condensation is a descriptive and explorative method for thematic cross-case analysis of different types of qualitative data, such as interview studies, observational studies, and analysis of written texts. The method represents a pragmatic approach, although inspired by phenomenological ideas, and various theoretical frameworks can be applied. The procedure consists of the following steps: 1) total impression - from chaos to themes; 2) identifying and sorting meaning units - from themes to codes; 3) condensation - from code to meaning; 4) synthesizing - from condensation to descriptions and concepts. Similarities and differences comparing systematic text condensation with other frequently applied qualitative methods regarding thematic analysis, theoretical methodological framework, analysis procedures, and taxonomy are discussed. Systematic text condensation is a strategy for analysis developed from traditions shared by most of the methods for analysis of qualitative data. The method offers the novice researcher a process of intersubjectivity, reflexivity, and feasibility, while maintaining a responsible level of methodological rigour.

  3. Systematic reviews with meta-analysis: Why, when, and how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this

  4. Function Point Analysis Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  5. Diagnostic performance of the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100) for the detection of disorders of primary haemostasis in patients with a bleeding history-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Ralf; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Müller, Hans-Helge; Kretschmer, Volker; Hunink, Myriam

    2007-06-01

    The Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100) is increasingly being used in the workup of patients with a bleeding diathesis. A profound knowledge of the possible diagnostic performance of this test is essential in order to make sound clinical decisions based on its results. It was the aim of this study to systematically review the published literature and provide valid estimates of the diagnostic performance of the PFA-100 for detecting disorders of primary haemostasis in newly presenting patients with a bleeding diathesis. A comprehensive literature search was performed for studies published between January 1994 and February 2006. Studies were eligible for the systematic review if they provided data supposed to be applicable to the determination of the diagnostic performance of the PFA-100. Furthermore, they were included in a meta-analysis if study reporting allowed calculation of sensitivity and specificity and if study quality ensured minimized biases of these estimates for the described clinical setting. Pooled weighted sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio were calculated applying random effects modelling and constructing summary operator characteristic curves. This was done separately for the available test modifications using either collagen/epinephrine (PFA-EPI) or collagen/adenosine-diphosphate (PFA-ADP) for platelet activation. Thirty-six articles were included in the systematic review. Six studies met our eligibility criteria for a meta-analysis. The major reason for exclusion from the meta-analysis was a case-control design. A total of 1486 and 1259 patients were included in the meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the PFA-EPI and PFA-ADP, respectively. Pooled weighted sensitivity and specificity of the PFA-EPI/PFA-ADP in detecting a disorder of primary haemostasis were: 82.5/66.9% (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI): 76.0-88.9%/57.9-75.9%), and 88.7/85.5% (95%-CI: 84.3-93.1%/82.0-89.1%). 83/75% of patients with a positive PFA

  6. Strange functions in real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kharazishvili, AB

    2005-01-01

    Weierstrass and Blancmange nowhere differentiable functions, Lebesgue integrable functions with everywhere divergent Fourier series, and various nonintegrable Lebesgue measurable functions. While dubbed strange or "pathological," these functions are ubiquitous throughout mathematics and play an important role in analysis, not only as counterexamples of seemingly true and natural statements, but also to stimulate and inspire the further development of real analysis.Strange Functions in Real Analysis explores a number of important examples and constructions of pathological functions. After introducing the basic concepts, the author begins with Cantor and Peano-type functions, then moves to functions whose constructions require essentially noneffective methods. These include functions without the Baire property, functions associated with a Hamel basis of the real line, and Sierpinski-Zygmund functions that are discontinuous on each subset of the real line having the cardinality continuum. Finally, he considers e...

  7. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-03-06

    Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors) and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors). We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2) measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can be

  8. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Wetterslev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors. Methods We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. Results The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2 measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in

  9. Theoretical numerical analysis a functional analysis framework

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Kendall

    2005-01-01

    This textbook prepares graduate students for research in numerical analysis/computational mathematics by giving to them a mathematical framework embedded in functional analysis and focused on numerical analysis. This helps the student to move rapidly into a research program. The text covers basic results of functional analysis, approximation theory, Fourier analysis and wavelets, iteration methods for nonlinear equations, finite difference methods, Sobolev spaces and weak formulations of boundary value problems, finite element methods, elliptic variational inequalities and their numerical solu

  10. Functional Bracing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Walter R; Warth, Ryan J; Davis, Elizabeth P; Bailey, Lane

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current literature on the use of functional knee braces after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with respect to clinical and in vivo biomechanical data. A systematic search of both the PubMed and Embase databases was performed to identify all studies that reported clinical and/or in vivo biomechanical results of functional bracing versus nonbracing after ACL reconstruction. Extracted data included study design, surgical reconstruction techniques, postoperative rehabilitation protocols, objective outcomes, and subjective outcomes scores. The in vivo biomechanical data collected included kinematics, strength, function, and proprioception. Subjective clinical outcomes scores were collected when available. Quality appraisal analyses were performed using the Cochrane Collaboration tools for randomized and nonrandomized trials to aid in data interpretation. Fifteen studies met the selection criteria (including 3 randomized trials [level II], 11 nonrandomized trials [level II], and 1 retrospective comparative study [level III]), with follow-up intervals ranging from 3 to 48 months. Most studies were designed to compare the effects of functional bracing versus nonbracing on subjective and objective results in patients who underwent previous primary ACL reconstruction. Functional bracing significantly improved kinematics of the knee joint and improved gait kinetics, although functional bracing may decrease quadriceps activation without affecting functional tests, range of motion, and proprioception. Four studies reported no differences in subjective outcomes scores with brace use; however, one study reported increased patient confidence with brace use, whereas another study reported decreased pain and quicker return to work when the brace was not used. The effectiveness of postoperative functional bracing following ACL reconstruction remains elusive. Some data suggest that functional bracing may have some benefit

  11. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part I, Patients Experiencing Pain in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cindy; Paat, Charmagne F.; Price, Ashley; Xenakis, Lea; Yang, EunMee; Zhang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Pain is multi-dimensional and may be better addressed through a holistic, biopsychosocial approach. Massage therapy is commonly practiced among patients seeking pain management; however, its efficacy is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to rigorously assess the quality of massage therapy research and evidence for its efficacy in treating pain, function-related and health-related quality of life outcomes across all pain populations. Methods. Key databases were searched from inception through February 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality using SIGN 50 Checklist. Meta-analysis was applied at the outcome level. A diverse steering committee interpreted the results to develop recommendations. Results. Sixty high quality and seven low quality studies were included in the review. Results demonstrate massage therapy effectively treats pain compared to sham [standardized mean difference (SMD) = −.44], no treatment (SMD = −1.14), and active (SMD = −0.26) comparators. Compared to active comparators, massage therapy was also beneficial for treating anxiety (SMD = −0.57) and health-related quality of life (SMD = 0.14). Conclusion. Based on the evidence, massage therapy, compared to no treatment, should be strongly recommended as a pain management option. Massage therapy is weakly recommended for reducing pain, compared to other sham or active comparators, and improving mood and health-related quality of life, compared to other active comparators. Massage therapy safety, research challenges, how to address identified research gaps, and necessary next steps for implementing massage therapy as a viable pain management option are discussed. PMID:27165971

  12. Functional restoration programs for low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiraudeau, S; Rannou, F; Revel, M

    2007-07-01

    In developed countries, chronic low back pain (LBP) is one the most common reasons for disability and work-time loss. Conventional treatments have not slowed the increasing prevalence of chronic LBP. Therefore, in a search for new solutions to the problem, functional restoration programs were developed. To synthesize the literature on the efficacy of functional restoration programs for LBP. We performed a systematic literature search of the MedLINE database using the keywords LBP, functional restoration, work-hardening program, exercise therapy, rehabilitation, aerobic, and cognitive behavioral therapy. The term "functional restoration" has been associated with a full-day multidisciplinary program lasting from 3 to 6 weeks. Results of most published controlled studies on the efficacy of functional restoration programs are positive regarding the return-to-work rate. Maintaining job status with the pre-injury employer is often best accomplished by the provision of suitable modified duties. Finally, results of functional restoration programs in terms of return-to-work rate probably depend strongly on the social security system of the country where the program was developed.

  13. Functional Analysis in Interdisciplinary Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nursultanov, Erlan; Ruzhansky, Michael; Sadybekov, Makhmud

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents current research in functional analysis and its applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and mathematical physics. The book contains over forty carefully refereed contributions to the conference “Functional Analysis in Interdisciplinary Applications” (Astana, Kazakhstan, October 2017). Topics covered include the theory of functions and functional spaces; differential equations and boundary value problems; the relationship between differential equations, integral operators and spectral theory; and mathematical methods in physical sciences. Presenting a wide range of topics and results, this book will appeal to anyone working in the subject area, including researchers and students interested to learn more about different aspects and applications of functional analysis.

  14. Why home hemodialysis? A systematic "marketing" analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Ferraresi, Martina; Consiglio, Valentina; Scognamiglio, Stefania; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Randone, Olga; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Calderale, Pasquale Mario

    2012-01-01

    Home hemodialysis (HHD) has met with alternating fortunes. The present revival of interest is due to lower costs and more frequent/efficient treatments. HHD is underdeveloped, and a marketing approach may help in defining development strategies. The aim of this study was to systematically review the recent literature (2000-2010) according to a marketing approach, defining the potential of HHD according to the classical marketing items: market size, growth rate, profitability, trends, keys for success, needs for structures and distribution channels. A Medline search was conducted for 2000-2010. The analysis took into account the recent trends in publication as a measure of interest, size and trends, while survival and costs were analyzed as keys for success. The issues of structures and distribution channels were arbitrarily considered as equivalent to the overall hemodialysis market. Interest in HHD is growing, as shown by the increasing number of published papers (9 in 2000, 52 in 2010); yet, clinical studies accounted for less than half of the papers. In the 138 clinical studies, quality of life (33 papers) and metabolism (16 papers) were the most studied topics. Survival and cost analyses were highly heterogeneous (the broad inclusion of nocturnal or quotidian dialysis has to be mentioned). Overall, survival was equal to, or better than, that for other modalities, including transplantation and peritoneal dialysis; costs compared favorably with hospital dialysis and were equivalent to those of peritoneal dialysis. The small "market" of HHD is increasing, with potential for further growth, the keys for success being equivalence or superiority of survival at equivalent or lower costs.

  15. Restoring function in major depressive disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, David V; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Asami, Yuko; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth A; Boucher, Matthieu

    2017-06-01

    Functional impairment contributes to significant disability and economic burden in major depressive disorder (MDD). Treatment response is measured by improvement in depressive symptoms, but functional improvement often lags behind symptomatic improvement. Residual deficits are associated with relapse of depressive symptoms. A literature search was conducted using the following terms: "major depressive disorder," "functional impairment," "functional outcomes," "recovery of function," "treatment outcome," "outcome assessment," "social functioning," "presenteeism," "absenteeism," "psychiatric status rating scales," and "quality of life." Search limits included publication date (January 1, 1995 to August 31, 2016), English language, and human clinical trials. Controlled, acute-phase, nonrecurrent MDD treatment studies in adults were included if a functional outcome was measured at baseline and endpoint. The qualitative analysis included 35 controlled studies. The Sheehan Disability Scale was the most commonly used functional assessment. Antidepressant treatments significantly improved functional outcomes. Early treatment response predicted functional improvement, while baseline disease severity did not. Clinical studies utilized various methodologies and assessments for functional impairment, and were not standardized or adequately powered. The lack of synchronicity between symptomatic and functional improvement highlights an unmet need for MDD. Treatment guided by routine monitoring of symptoms and functionality may minimize residual functional impairments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The temporal effect of platelet-rich plasma on pain and physical function in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Longxiang; Yuan, Ting; Chen, Shengbao; Xie, Xuetao; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-01-23

    Quite a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) have been recently published. Therefore, an updated systematic review was performed to evaluate the temporal effect of PRP on knee pain and physical function. Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library, and Scopus were searched for human RCTs comparing the efficacy and/or safety of PRP infiltration with other intra-articular injections. A descriptive summary and quality assessment were performed for all the studies finally included for analysis. For studies reporting outcomes concerning Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) or adverse events, a random-effects model was used for data synthesis. Fourteen RCTs comprising 1423 participants were included. The control included saline placebo, HA, ozone, and corticosteroids. The follow-up ranged from 12 weeks to 12 months. Risk of bias assessment showed that 4 studies were considered as moderate risk of bias and 10 as high risk of bias. Compared with control, PRP injections significantly reduced WOMAC pain subscores at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up (p = 0.02, 0.004, <0.001, respectively); PRP significantly improved WOMAC physical function subscores at 3, 6, and 12 months (p = 0.002, 0.01, <0.001, respectively); PRP also significantly improved total WOMAC scores at 3, 6 and 12 months (all p < 0.001); nonetheless, PRP did not significantly increased the risk of post-injection adverse events (RR, 1.40 [95% CI, 0.80 to 2.45], I 2  = 59%, p = 0.24). Intra-articular PRP injections probably are more efficacious in the treatment of knee OA in terms of pain relief and self-reported function improvement at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up, compared with other injections, including saline placebo, HA, ozone, and corticosteroids. PROSPERO CRD42016045410 . Registered 8 August 2016.

  17. Automatic Functional Harmonic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841250; Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141928034; Veltkamp, R.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084742984

    2013-01-01

    Music scholars have been studying tonal harmony intensively for centuries, yielding numerous theories and models. Unfortunately, a large number of these theories are formulated in a rather informal fashion and lack mathematical precision. In this article we present HarmTrace, a functional model of

  18. Function Analysis and Decomposistion using Function Analysis Systems Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixson, James Robert

    1999-06-01

    The "Father of Value Analysis", Lawrence D. Miles, was a design engineer for General Electric in Schenectady, New York. Miles developed the concept of function analysis to address difficulties in satisfying the requirements to fill shortages of high demand manufactured parts and electrical components during World War II. His concept of function analysis was further developed in the 1960s by Charles W. Bytheway, a design engineer at Sperry Univac in Salt Lake City, Utah. Charles Bytheway extended Mile's function analysis concepts and introduced the methodology called Function Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) to the Society of American Value Engineers (SAVE) at their International Convention in 1965 (Bytheway 1965). FAST uses intuitive logic to decompose a high level, or objective function into secondary and lower level functions that are displayed in a logic diagram called a FAST model. Other techniques can then be applied to allocate functions to components, individuals, processes, or other entities that accomplish the functions. FAST is best applied in a team setting and proves to be an effective methodology for functional decomposition, allocation, and alternative development.

  19. Function Analysis and Decomposistion using Function Analysis Systems Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Wixson

    1999-06-01

    The "Father of Value Analysis", Lawrence D. Miles, was a design engineer for General Electric in Schenectady, New York. Miles developed the concept of function analysis to address difficulties in satisfying the requirements to fill shortages of high demand manufactured parts and electrical components during World War II. His concept of function analysis was further developed in the 1960s by Charles W. Bytheway, a design engineer at Sperry Univac in Salt Lake City, Utah. Charles Bytheway extended Mile's function analysis concepts and introduced the methodology called Function Analysis Systems Techniques (FAST) to the Society of American Value Engineers (SAVE) at their International Convention in 1965 (Bytheway 1965). FAST uses intuitive logic to decompose a high level, or objective function into secondary and lower level functions that are displayed in a logic diagram called a FAST model. Other techniques can then be applied to allocate functions to components, individuals, processes, or other entities that accomplish the functions. FAST is best applied in a team setting and proves to be an effective methodology for functional decomposition, allocation, and alternative development.

  20. Class II functional orthopaedic treatment: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antò, V; Bucci, R; Franchi, L; Rongo, R; Michelotti, A; Martina, R

    2015-08-01

    This Systematic Review (SR) aims to assess the quality of SRs and Meta-Analyses (MAs) on functional orthopaedic treatment of Class II malocclusion and to summarise and rate the reported effects. Electronic and manual searches were conducted until June 2014. SRs and MAs focusing on the effects of functional orthopaedic treatment of Class II malocclusion in growing patients were included. The methodological quality of the included papers was assessed using the AMSTAR (Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews). The design of the primary studies included in each SR was assessed with Level of Research Design scoring. The evidence of the main outcomes was summarised and rated according to a scale of statements. 14 SRs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The appliances evaluated were as follows: Activator (2 studies), Twin Block (4 studies), headgear (3 studies), Herbst (2 studies), Jasper Jumper (1 study), Bionator (1 study) and Fränkel-2 (1 study). Four studies reviewed several functional appliances, as a group. The mean AMSTAR score was 6 (ranged 2-10). Six SRs included only controlled clinical trials (CCTs), three SRs included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs), four SRs included both CCTs and RCTs and one SR included also expert opinions. There was some evidence of reduction of the overjet, with different appliances except from headgear; there was some evidence of small maxillary growth restrain with Twin Block and headgear; there was some evidence of elongation of mandibular length, but the clinical relevance of this results is still questionable; there was insufficient evidence to determine an effect on soft tissues. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, G; Narula, N; Pinotti, R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease extent in ulcerative colitis is one of the major factors determining prognosis over the long-term. Disease extent is dynamic and a proportion of patients presenting with limited disease progress to more extensive forms of disease over time. AIM: To perform a systematic review ...

  2. Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shochat, Tamar; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Tzischinsky, Orna

    2014-02-01

    During adolescence, changes in sleep patterns due to biological and environmental factors are well documented. Later bedtimes and inadequate sleep, i.e., short and disrupted sleep patterns, insomnia and daytime sleepiness, have become increasingly common. Accumulating evidence suggests that sleep plays a crucial role in healthy adolescent development. This review systematically explores descriptive evidence, based on prospective and cross sectional investigations, indicating that inadequate sleep is associated with negative outcomes in several areas of health and functioning, including somatic and psychosocial health, school performance and risk taking behavior. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal investigations aimed at establishing the underpinnings of these associations and for developing and implementing interventions designed to achieve healthier and more balanced sleep patterns in the adolescent population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Statins, mood, sleep, and physical function: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, Kristopher J; Manalac, Raoul J; Blaha, Michael J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of statins on mood, sleep, and physical function. We performed a systematic computer-aided search of MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register and augmented this search by scrutinizing reference lists and making inquiries among colleagues and experts in the field. All patient populations and study types were considered. We selected studies of statin therapy compared with no statin or placebo. Outcome measures included mood, sleep, and physical function. Thirty-four studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Seven of eight (88 %) observational studies, 4/6 (66 %) randomized trials with mood as a primary endpoint (487 total participants; exposure 4 weeks to 1 year), and 3/3 (100 %) randomized trials with mood as a secondary endpoint (2,851 total participants; exposure 1-4 years) were not compatible with a negative mood effect of statins. Comparatively, fewer studies examined statin effects on sleep and physical function. Studies reporting negative effects contained potential sources of bias, including multiple testing or lack of adjustment for confounders in observational studies, and failure to prespecify outcomes or report blinding in trials. A limited body of available evidence is most compatible with no adverse effect of statins on quality of life measures, namely, mood, sleep, and physical function. Studies suggesting such effects suffer from an increased risk of bias. High-quality, prospective, and adequately powered studies are needed, especially in the domains of sleep and physical function, with careful attention to patients who may be most vulnerable to adverse effects.

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, B; Prosberg, M V; Gluud, L L

    2017-01-01

    . METHOD: Systematic review of cross-sectional studies. Patients included had UC or CD and were classified as active, in remission, or needing surgery, biological and/or steroid treatment. We included studies assessing disability using the IBD-DI and that were captured by electronic and manual searches...... on biological treatment had lower disability rates than those receiving corticosteroid treatment (SMD [CI95] = -0.22[-0.36, -0.08], I(2) = 0%, P...-rater reliability and "excellent" for inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was "moderately strong" to "very strong" and structural validity was found to be mainly unidimensional. The IBD-DI had excellent responsiveness, while its interpretability was only useful on a group level. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic...

  5. A practice-driven systematic review of dependency analysis solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callo Arias, Trosky B.; Spek, Pieter van der; Avgeriou, Paris

    2011-01-01

    When following architecture-driven strategies to develop large software-intensive systems, the analysis of the dependencies is not an easy task. In this paper, we report a systematic literature review on dependency analysis solutions. Dependency analysis concerns making dependencies due to

  6. Maca (L. meyenii for improving sexual function: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Byung-Cheul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maca (Lepidium meyenii is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. Methods We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Results Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. Conclusion The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  7. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-08-01

    Although ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair in patients is often evaluated in terms of hernia recurrence rate and health-related quality of life, there is no clear consensus regarding optimal operative treatment based on these parameters. It was proposed that health-related quality of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. A total of seven studies described AMF in relation to VIH. Five studies examined AMF using objective isokinetic dynamometers to determine muscle strength, and two studies examined AMF by clinical examination-based muscle tests. Both equipment-related and functional muscle tests exist for use in patients with VIH, but very few studies have evaluated AMF in VIH. There are no randomized controlled studies to describe the impact of VIH repair on AMF, and no optimal surgical treatment in relation to AMF after VIH repair can be advocated for at this time.

  8. Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Yang, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun-Suk; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-08-06

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  9. Sleep and executive functions in older adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Wilson Nogueira Holanda Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A recent increase in studies suggests a role of age-related sleep changes in executive functions (EF. However, this relationship remains unclear and mixed results have emerged. Objective: To investigate how age-related sleep changes may play an important role in the extent to which healthy older adults exhibit decline in EF. Methods: A systematic strategy was employed to identify the available literature on age-related sleep changes and EF. Results: Of the 465 studies identified, 26 were included. Results suggest that multiple sleep parameters differ in the way they benefit or impair EF. Parameters such as greater wake after sleep onset and lower sleep efficiency, in addition to circadian fragmentation of sleep, showed more consistent results and are potentially correlated with worsening in EF measures. However, other results seem inconclusive. Conclusion: These findings were discussed based on the prefrontal circuitry vulnerability model, in which sleep has been identified as a beneficial factor for prefrontal cortex functioning and hence for EF, which relies mostly on this brain area and its related networks.

  10. Functional MRI in ADHD: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2007-10-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) research in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fast developing and very complex field. Every study appears to show differences in patterns of brain activation between cases and controls, but the interpretation of such differences is not as straightforward as it may seem. We present here a systematic review of the fMRI literature in ADHD; areas covered include executive functions, reward processing, the effects of methylphenidate, comorbidity and spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. To facilitate the interpretation of research in this area, we discuss important conceptual issues, such as the need to take group differences in performance into account or to consider the role of errors. We present common themes that emerge from these studies and we discuss possible reasons for the many discrepancies that were observed. Finally, based on existing literature and current advancements in fMRI research, we discuss the role that fMRI could play in the future as a diagnostic tool or in treatment outcome predictions, and we make predictions for the future directions of research in this field.

  11. Systematic inference of functional phosphorylation events in yeast metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yonghong; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    to phosphorylation events of 17 metabolic enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, among which 10 are novel. Phosphorylation regulation analysis cannot only be extended for inference of other functional post-translational modifications but also be a promising scaffold formulti-omics data integration in systems...

  12. Prevalence of Sleepwalking: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stallman, Helen M.; Kohler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleepwalking is thought to be a common arousal disorder; however, the epidemiology of this disorder has not yet been systematically examined. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted for ?sleepwalking? OR ?somnambulism? in any field, to identify studies that reported the epidemiology of sleepwalking or sleepwalking disorders. Fifty-one studies assessed the prevalence rates of sleepwalking in a total sample of 100 490. The meta-analysis ...

  13. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... be obtained using proteome analysis. Chapter 1 and 2 provide the basic theoretical aspects of proteome analysis, its principles, the main techniques involved and their use in the studies of the molecular biology of yeast cells. Chapter 3 presents the methods and tools involved in proteome analysis and used...... to multiple drug resistance in yeast. It analyses the cellular response to the overexpression of the Pdr5p - an ABC transporter protein that is responsible for resistance of yeast cells to several drugs and chemical compounds. It shows that the overexpression of Pdr5p triggers a strong cell stress response...

  14. Solid-phase extraction procedures in systematic toxicological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1998-01-01

    In systematic toxicological analysis (STA) the substance(s) present is (are) not known at the start of the analysis. in such an undirected search the extraction procedure cannot be directed to a given substance but must be a general procedure where a compromise must be reached in that the substances

  15. Systematic Epigenomic Analysis Reveals Chromatin States Associated with Melanoma Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Fiziev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The extent and nature of epigenomic changes associated with melanoma progression is poorly understood. Through systematic epigenomic profiling of 35 epigenetic modifications and transcriptomic analysis, we define chromatin state changes associated with melanomagenesis by using a cell phenotypic model of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic states. Computation of specific chromatin state transitions showed loss of histone acetylations and H3K4me2/3 on regulatory regions proximal to specific cancer-regulatory genes in important melanoma-driving cell signaling pathways. Importantly, such acetylation changes were also observed between benign nevi and malignant melanoma human tissues. Intriguingly, only a small fraction of chromatin state transitions correlated with expected changes in gene expression patterns. Restoration of acetylation levels on deacetylated loci by histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors selectively blocked excessive proliferation in tumorigenic cells and human melanoma cells, suggesting functional roles of observed chromatin state transitions in driving hyperproliferative phenotype. Through these results, we define functionally relevant chromatin states associated with melanoma progression.

  16. Systematic Epigenomic Analysis Reveals Chromatin States Associated with Melanoma Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiziev, Petko; Akdemir, Kadir C; Miller, John P; Keung, Emily Z; Samant, Neha S; Sharma, Sneha; Natale, Christopher A; Terranova, Christopher J; Maitituoheti, Mayinuer; Amin, Samirkumar B; Martinez-Ledesma, Emmanuel; Dhamdhere, Mayura; Axelrad, Jacob B; Shah, Amiksha; Cheng, Christine S; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Seth, Sahil; Barton, Michelle C; Protopopov, Alexei; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Davies, Michael A; Garcia, Benjamin A; Amit, Ido; Chin, Lynda; Ernst, Jason; Rai, Kunal

    2017-04-25

    The extent and nature of epigenomic changes associated with melanoma progression is poorly understood. Through systematic epigenomic profiling of 35 epigenetic modifications and transcriptomic analysis, we define chromatin state changes associated with melanomagenesis by using a cell phenotypic model of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic states. Computation of specific chromatin state transitions showed loss of histone acetylations and H3K4me2/3 on regulatory regions proximal to specific cancer-regulatory genes in important melanoma-driving cell signaling pathways. Importantly, such acetylation changes were also observed between benign nevi and malignant melanoma human tissues. Intriguingly, only a small fraction of chromatin state transitions correlated with expected changes in gene expression patterns. Restoration of acetylation levels on deacetylated loci by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors selectively blocked excessive proliferation in tumorigenic cells and human melanoma cells, suggesting functional roles of observed chromatin state transitions in driving hyperproliferative phenotype. Through these results, we define functionally relevant chromatin states associated with melanoma progression. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parathyroid hormone, cognitive function and dementia: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilianna Lourida

    Full Text Available Metabolic factors are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH levels play a role in neuronal calcium dysregulation, hypoperfusion and disrupted neuronal signaling. Some studies support a significant link between PTH levels and dementia whereas others do not.We conducted a systematic review through January 2014 to evaluate the association between PTH and parathyroid conditions, cognitive function and dementia. Eleven electronic databases and citation indexes were searched including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Hand searches of selected journals, reference lists of primary studies and reviews were also conducted along with websites of key organizations. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts of identified studies. Data extraction and study quality were performed by one and checked by a second reviewer using predefined criteria. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies.The twenty-seven studies identified were of low and moderate quality, and challenging to synthesize due to inadequate reporting. Findings from six observational studies were mixed but suggest a link between higher serum PTH levels and increased odds of poor cognition or dementia. Two case-control studies of hypoparathyroidism provide limited evidence for a link with poorer cognitive function. Thirteen pre-post surgery studies for primary hyperparathyroidism show mixed evidence for improvements in memory though limited agreement in other cognitive domains. There was some degree of cognitive impairment and improvement postoperatively in observational studies of secondary hyperparathyroidism but no evident pattern of associations with specific cognitive domains.Mixed evidence offers weak support for a link between PTH, cognition and dementia due to the paucity of high quality research in this area.

  18. Functional and shape data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This textbook for courses on function data analysis and shape data analysis describes how to define, compare, and mathematically represent shapes, with a focus on statistical modeling and inference. It is aimed at graduate students in analysis in statistics, engineering, applied mathematics, neuroscience, biology, bioinformatics, and other related areas. The interdisciplinary nature of the broad range of ideas covered—from introductory theory to algorithmic implementations and some statistical case studies—is meant to familiarize graduate students with an array of tools that are relevant in developing computational solutions for shape and related analyses. These tools, gleaned from geometry, algebra, statistics, and computational science, are traditionally scattered across different courses, departments, and disciplines; Functional and Shape Data Analysis offers a unified, comprehensive solution by integrating the registration problem into shape analysis, better preparing graduate students for handling fu...

  19. The systematization of information: functional clothes through the mind map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Auxiliadora Assunção Ourives

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, if checks the evolution in women's clothing design aiming at the well-being, comfort and quality of life. However, women still complain of discomfort of breast movement during physical activities carried out in factory floors and sporting activities, among other activities. This discomfort, according to the women, increases during the menstrual period. Therefore, to structure the information on the subject is important, because it will suit the functional clothing designs for these activities. The mind map is a tool suitable for this because assists the organization process of thought and understanding of the information about a particular subject. With that, this work aims to structure information for project requirements with a focus on functional female clothing. The method of research is descriptive and exploratory character. In the end, this work presented project guidelines of functional guidelines female clothing through the process of analysis the mind map.

  20. Improving Cognitive Function from Children to Old Age: A Systematic Review of Recent Smart Ageing Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive functions are important for daily life at any age. One purpose of Smart Ageing is to investigate how to improve cognitive functions. This systematic review evaluates beneficial effects of the intervention on cognitive functions. Method. We conducted a systematic review of intervention studies of improvements of cognitive functions published or in press before December 2013. Because of the heterogeneity of the intervention programs, a systematic and critical review of the interventions and outcomes was conducted instead of a meta-analysis. Results. We identified nine completed and published studies, which were divided into four categories: cognitive training using video game, cognitive training using PC, cognitive training using paper and pencil, and exercise training. Review results showed that various intervention programs can improve cognitive functions such as executive functions, working memory, episodic memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability/IQ. Conclusions. The systematic review demonstrated that some intervention programs can be effective for improving various aspects of cognitive functioning at any age. Some limitations to this review include its small sample size and heterogeneity of programs and cognitive function measures, in addition to unresolved issues such as transfer of everyday skills and effectiveness for nonhealthy people.

  1. Effects of sleep manipulation on cognitive functioning of adolescents : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; van Run, C.; Staaks, J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be at risk for deteriorated cognitive functioning due to insufficient sleep. This systematic review examined the effects of experimental sleep manipulation on adolescent cognitive functioning. Sleep manipulations consisted of total or partial sleep restriction, sleep

  2. Systematic feature analysis on timber defect images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Rabaah Hashim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is unquestionably an important process in a pattern recognition system. A defined set of features makes the identification task more efficiently. This paper addresses the extraction and analysis of features based on statistical texture to characterize images of timber defects. A series of procedures including feature extraction and feature analysis was executed to construct an appropriate feature set that could significantly separate amongst defects and clear wood classes. The feature set aimed for later use in a timber defect detection system. For Accessing the discrimination capability of the features extracted, visual exploratory analysis and confirmatory statistical analysis were performed on defect and clear wood images of Meranti (Shorea spp. timber species. Results from the analysis demonstrated that there was a significant distinction between defect classes and clear wood utilizing the proposed set of texture features.

  3. Wavelets in functional data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Morettin, Pedro A; Vidakovic, Brani

    2017-01-01

    Wavelet-based procedures are key in many areas of statistics, applied mathematics, engineering, and science. This book presents wavelets in functional data analysis, offering a glimpse of problems in which they can be applied, including tumor analysis, functional magnetic resonance and meteorological data. Starting with the Haar wavelet, the authors explore myriad families of wavelets and how they can be used. High-dimensional data visualization (using Andrews' plots), wavelet shrinkage (a simple, yet powerful, procedure for nonparametric models) and a selection of estimation and testing techniques (including a discussion on Stein’s Paradox) make this a highly valuable resource for graduate students and experienced researchers alike.

  4. Pooling systematic reviews of systematic reviews: a Bayesian panoramic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Bowater, Russell James; Lilford, Richard J

    2012-02-10

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses usually synthesise evidence from studies reporting outcomes from particular interventions in specific diseases. For example, a meta-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics (intervention) in elective arterial reconstruction (disease) for rates of wound infection (outcome). However, because systematic reviews and meta-analyses are so widespread, a body of evidence often exists around specific intervention effects on particular outcomes over a range of diseases. So for example, a multitude of independent meta-analyses have evaluated rates of wound infection with and without the use of prophylactic antibiotics over multiple surgery types. A systematic review of systematic reviews is a means of synthesising evidence for the same intervention over multiple disease types. We propose a panoramic meta-analysis as a means of pooling effect estimates over systematic reviews of systematic reviews. We explore several methods ranging from a simple two-step approach, to a meta-regression or mixed effects approach, where variation between diseases are modelled as fixed covariate effects and between-study variation by random effects, and to a three-level hierarchical model in which exchangeability is assumed, which allows both a between-disease component of variance and a between-study (within disease) component of variance. In the surgery example, we pool 18 meta-analyses (each including between 4 and 26 studies) of prophylactic antibiotics reporting rates of wound infection from 18 different surgery sites to obtain a single pooled estimate of effect and estimates of between-disease, within-disease and within-study variability. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted....... The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma...... formation and physical function. RESULTS: A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency...

  6. Psychometric properties of the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jason; Bertrand-Charette, Michaël; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties of the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (MFA) and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA). A systematic search of the following databases was undertaken concerning psychometric evidence of the MFA and SMFA: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Cinahl. References of retrieved articles were inspected for additional data. Articles evaluating the validity, reliability or responsiveness of the MFA or SMFA in patients with musculoskeletal disorders were included in this systematic review. The methodological quality of included articles was critically appraised and the psychometric data were extracted using standardized forms. An established set of criteria were used to synthetize the evidence in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of included questionnaires and the gaps in the literature. Nine articles on MFA and 24 articles on SMFA met the inclusion criteria. The SMFA fulfilled 75% of the psychometric criteria analyzed, while the MFA fulfilled only 50%. MFA and SMFA have excellent content validity and relative reliability (weighted average intraclass correlation coefficient ⩾ 0.87), and are moderately to highly responsive (standardized response mean between 0.65 and 1.13). Absolute reliability and clinically important difference of both questionnaires need to be defined, while the construct validity of MFA still needs to be established. MFA and SMFA are reliable and responsive tools for monitoring the function of patients with various musculoskeletal disorders. Still, research is needed to justify their usage in a clinical setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Functional Analysis: Entering Hilbert Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    between Hilbert spaces. Fredholm operators are of interest far beyond mathematical analysis, they also play a significant role in theoretical physics, differential geometry and topology with the famous Index Theorem proved by Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer in 1963 as a highlight. With the addition...... of the new material on normed vector spaces and their operators, the book can hopefully serve as a general introduction to functional analysis viewed as a theory of infinite dimensional linear spaces and linear operators acting on them....

  8. Dual-use tools and systematics-aware analysis workflows in the ATLAS Run-2 analysis model

    CERN Document Server

    FARRELL, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration; Calafiura, Paolo; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Elsing, Markus; Koeneke, Karsten; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krumnack, Nils; Lancon, Eric; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lei, Xiaowen; Strandberg, Sara Kristina; Verkerke, Wouter; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Woudstra, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS analysis model has been overhauled for the upcoming run of data collection in 2015 at 13 TeV. One key component of this upgrade was the Event Data Model (EDM), which now allows for greater flexibility in the choice of analysis software framework and provides powerful new features that can be exploited by analysis software tools. A second key component of the upgrade is the introduction of a dual-use tool technology, which provides abstract interfaces for analysis software tools to run in either the Athena framework or a ROOT-based framework. The tool interfaces, including a new interface for handling systematic uncertainties, have been standardized for the development of improved analysis workflows and consolidation of high-level analysis tools. This paper will cover the details of the dual-use tool functionality, the systematics interface, and how these features fit into a centrally supported analysis environment.

  9. Fifteen papers on functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Allakhverdiev, B P; Fainshtein, A S; Khelemskii, AYa; Klenina, LI

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover topics on functional analysis. They have been selected, translated, and edited from publications not otherwise translated into English under the auspices of the AMS-ASL-IMS Committee on Translations from Russian and Other Foreign Languages.

  10. Special functions in Fuzzy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of Fuzzy Logic an useful tool appears: the membership function, with the information about the degree of completion of a condition which defines the respective Fuzzy Set or Fuzzy Relation. With their introduction, it is possible to prove some results on the foundations of Fuzzy Logic and open new ways in Fuzzy Analysis.

  11. Citizen Participation: A Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lede, Naomi W.; Dixon, Hortense W.

    Citizen participation in Model Cities programs in ten southwestern cities is analyzed to determine the impact of federal assistance on housing in urban areas. The first section of the study provides a functional analysis of citizen participation in Model Cities, with special emphasis on performance criteria of resident involvement. Section two…

  12. Introduction to systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanne E; Beller, Elaine M; Forbes, Andrew B

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews provide a method for collating and synthesizing research, and are used to inform healthcare decision making by clinicians, consumers and policy makers. A core component of many systematic reviews is a meta-analysis, which is a statistical synthesis of results across studies. In this review article, we introduce meta-analysis, focusing on the different meta-analysis models, their interpretation, how a model should be selected and discuss potential threats to the validity of meta-analyses. We illustrate the application of meta-analysis using data from a review examining the effects of early use of inhaled corticosteroids in the emergency department treatment of acute asthma. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Parametric functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Peijun; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach in functional data analysis to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). Most existing FPCA approaches use a set of flexible basis functions such as B-spline basis to represent the FPCs, and control the smoothness of the FPCs by adding roughness penalties. However, the flexible representations pose difficulties for users to understand and interpret the FPCs. In this article, we consider a variety of applications of FPCA and find that, in many situations, the shapes of top FPCs are simple enough to be approximated using simple parametric functions. We propose a parametric approach to estimate the top FPCs to enhance their interpretability for users. Our parametric approach can also circumvent the smoothing parameter selecting process in conventional nonparametric FPCA methods. In addition, our simulation study shows that the proposed parametric FPCA is more robust when outlier curves exist. The parametric FPCA method is demonstrated by analyzing several datasets from a variety of applications. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  14. The systematic functional characterisation of Xq28 genes prioritises candidate disease genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiemann Stefan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well known for its gene density and the large number of mapped diseases, the human sub-chromosomal region Xq28 has long been a focus of genome research. Over 40 of approximately 300 X-linked diseases map to this region, and systematic mapping, transcript identification, and mutation analysis has led to the identification of causative genes for 26 of these diseases, leaving another 17 diseases mapped to Xq28, where the causative gene is still unknown. To expedite disease gene identification, we have initiated the functional characterisation of all known Xq28 genes. Results By using a systematic approach, we describe the Xq28 genes by RNA in situ hybridisation and Northern blotting of the mouse orthologs, as well as subcellular localisation and data mining of the human genes. We have developed a relational web-accessible database with comprehensive query options integrating all experimental data. Using this database, we matched gene expression patterns with affected tissues for 16 of the 17 remaining Xq28 linked diseases, where the causative gene is unknown. Conclusion By using this systematic approach, we have prioritised genes in linkage regions of Xq28-mapped diseases to an amenable number for mutational screens. Our database can be queried by any researcher performing highly specified searches including diseases not listed in OMIM or diseases that might be linked to Xq28 in the future.

  15. EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich

    2011-06-01

    Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.

  16. Home- and Community-Based Occupational Therapy Improves Functioning in Frail Older People: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coninck, Leen; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Bouckaert, Leen; Declercq, Anja; Graff, Maud J L; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2017-08-01

    The objective is to assess the effectiveness of occupational therapy to improve performance in daily living activities in community-dwelling physically frail older people. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included randomized controlled trials reporting on occupational therapy as intervention, or as part of a multidisciplinary approach. This systematic review was carried out in accordance with the Cochrane methods of systematic reviews of interventions. Meta-analyses were performed to pool results across studies using the standardized mean difference. The primary outcome measures were mobility, functioning in daily living activities, and social participation. Secondary outcome measures were fear of falling, cognition, disability, and number of falling persons. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the studies were of reasonable quality with low risk of bias. There was a significant increase in all primary outcomes. The pooled result for functioning in daily living activities was a standardized mean difference of -0.30 (95% CI -0.50 to -0.11; P = .002), for social participation -0.44 (95% CI -0.69, -0.19; P = .0007) and for mobility -0.45 (95% CI -0.78 to -0.12; P = .007). All secondary outcomes showed positive trends, with fear of falling being significant. No adverse effects of occupational therapy were found. There is strong evidence that occupational therapy improves functioning in community-dwelling physically frail older people. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Functional analysis theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, RE

    2011-01-01

    ""The book contains an enormous amount of information - mathematical, bibliographical and historical - interwoven with some outstanding heuristic discussions."" - Mathematical Reviews.In this massive graduate-level study, Emeritus Professor Edwards (Australian National University, Canberra) presents a balanced account of both the abstract theory and the applications of linear functional analysis. Written for readers with a basic knowledge of set theory, general topology, and vector spaces, the book includes an abundance of carefully chosen illustrative examples and excellent exercises at the

  18. [The concept of nursing. A systematic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaño, R; Piqué, J

    1999-01-01

    Nursing is a field which employs numerous people whose formation and professional roles are regulated by a wide set of rules and norms, and one which benefits innumerable patients. A paradox exists when, upon consulting various dictionaries, one of these the Royal Academy Dictionary (Diccionario de la Real Academia), the term nursing is defined as a physical space/set of nurses without any reference whatsoever to nurses' role in the health and educational systems. The definition we find in a dictionary should correspond to the concept the general public holds and reflect the true meaning of the profession. During a three year period, academic years 1994-96, on the first day of class, we asked each student to define or describe what he/she understood nursing to be. We consider that their responses, in a large sense, should correspond to the idea which the general public holds about nursing. An analysis of the content of these definitions allowed us to establish that there is a clear confrontation between what dictionaries state and what students, as a sample of society as a whole, think. Our results permit us to offer a definition for nursing which may be incorporated into new dictionary editions for the purpose of completing the already existing ones.

  19. Fifty-five per cent return to competitive sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis including aspects of physical functioning and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to update our original systematic review of return to sport rates following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Electronic databases were searched from April 2010 to November 2013 for articles reporting the number of patients returning to sport following ACL reconstruction surgery. Return to sport rates, physical functioning and contextual data were extracted and combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Data from the original review (articles published up to April 2010) were combined with data from the updated search. Sixty-nine articles, reporting on 7556 participants, were reviewed. On average, 81% of people returned to any sport, 65% returned to their preinjury level of sport and 55% returned to competitive level sport after surgery. Symmetrical hopping performance (d=0.3) and the contextual factors of younger age (d=-0.3), male gender (OR=1.4), playing elite sport (OR=2.5) and having a positive psychological response (d=0.3) favoured returning to the preinjury level sport. Receiving a hamstring tendon autograft favoured returning to competitive level sport (OR=2.4), whereas receiving a patellar tendon autograft favoured returning to the preinjury level sport (OR=1.2). Returning to sport varied according to different physical functioning and contextual factors, which could warrant additional emphasis in postoperative rehabilitation programmes to maximise participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS: PITFALLS OF METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods that allow to systematize the accumulated information on specifically formulated questions, analyze it and make reliable findings are of great interest and popularity with the emergence of a huge number of studies and publications in various fields of medicine, a significant increase in information, failure to identify weak effects in the individual studies. The use of systematic reviews and high-quality meta-analysis is an analytical basis of evidence-based medicine, it is a very valuable tool for decision-making at the level of practitioner, health care leaders and experts in the preparation of guidelines and legislation concerning the use of the most effective and safe treatments, when planning future research, in the development of rational health policy. Features of methods of systematic review and meta-analysis and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed in the article. The authors present the historical facts of occurrence of the Cochrane Collaboration, whose main task is to systematize and analyze accumulated information from a variety of medical research. The contribution of Russian researchers into this field of medical science is also assessed.

  1. Derived functors in functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wengenroth, Jochen

    2003-01-01

    The text contains for the first time in book form the state of the art of homological methods in functional analysis like characterizations of the vanishing of the derived projective limit functor or the functors Ext1 (E, F) for Fréchet and more general spaces. The researcher in real and complex analysis finds powerful tools to solve surjectivity problems e.g. on spaces of distributions or to characterize the existence of solution operators. The requirements from homological algebra are minimized: all one needs is summarized on a few pages. The answers to several questions of V.P. Palamodov who invented homological methods in analysis also show the limits of the program.

  2. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, L.C. de; Staveren, W.A. van; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in improving cognitive functioning is evaluated in elderly people. METHODS: The authors systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation with a placebo treatment. Trials were identified from a

  3. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.J.M.J.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in improving cognitive functioning is evaluated in elderly people. Methods. The authors systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation with a placebo treatment. Trials were identified from a

  4. Topics in nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nirenberg, Louis

    2001-01-01

    Since its first appearance as a set of lecture notes published by the Courant Institute in 1974, this book served as an introduction to various subjects in nonlinear functional analysis. The current edition is a reprint of these notes, with added bibliographic references. Topological and analytic methods are developed for treating nonlinear ordinary and partial differential equations. The first two chapters of the book introduce the notion of topological degree and develop its basic properties. These properties are used in later chapters in the discussion of bifurcation theory (the possible br

  5. Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anna L; Sun, Guifan; Zhang, Ying; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Although fluoride may cause neurotoxicity in animal models and acute fluoride poisoning causes neurotoxicity in adults, very little is known of its effects on children's neurodevelopment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to investigate the effects of increased fluoride exposure and delayed neurobehavioral development. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Water Resources Abstracts, and TOXNET databases through 2011 for eligible studies. We also searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, because many studies on fluoride neurotoxicity have been published in Chinese journals only. In total, we identified 27 eligible epidemiological studies with high and reference exposures, end points of IQ scores, or related cognitive function measures with means and variances for the two exposure groups. Using random-effects models, we estimated the standardized mean difference between exposed and reference groups across all studies. We conducted sensitivity analyses restricted to studies using the same outcome assessment and having drinking-water fluoride as the only exposure. We performed the Cochran test for heterogeneity between studies, Begg's funnel plot, and Egger test to assess publication bias, and conducted meta-regressions to explore sources of variation in mean differences among the studies. The standardized weighted mean difference in IQ score between exposed and reference populations was -0.45 (95% confidence interval: -0.56, -0.35) using a random-effects model. Thus, children in high-fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ scores than those who lived in low-fluoride areas. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses also indicated inverse associations, although the substantial heterogeneity did not appear to decrease. The results support the possibility of an adverse effect of high fluoride exposure on children's neurodevelopment. Future research should include detailed individual-level information on prenatal

  6. Usability flaws of medication-related alerting functions: A systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Ammenwerth, Elske; Vasseur, Francis; Roehrer, Erin; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Medication-related alerting functions may include usability flaws that limit their optimal use. A first step on the way to preventing usability flaws is to understand the characteristics of these usability flaws. This systematic qualitative review aims to analyze the type of usability flaws found in medication-related alerting functions. Papers were searched via PubMed, Scopus and Ergonomics Abstracts databases, along with references lists. Paper selection, data extraction and data analysis was performed by two to three Human Factors experts. Meaningful semantic units representing instances of usability flaws were the main data extracted. They were analyzed through qualitative methods: categorization following general usability heuristics and through an inductive process for the flaws specific to medication-related alerting functions. From the 6380 papers initially identified, 26 met all eligibility criteria. The analysis of the papers identified a total of 168 instances of usability flaws that could be classified into 13 categories of usability flaws representing either violations of general usability principles (i.e. they could be found in any system, e.g. guidance and workload issues) or infractions specific to medication-related alerting functions. The latter refer to issues of low signal-to-noise ratio, incomplete content of alerts, transparency, presentation mode and timing, missing alert features, tasks and control distribution. The list of 168 instances of usability flaws of medication-related alerting functions provides a source of knowledge for checking the usability of medication-related alerting functions during their design and evaluation process and ultimately constructs evidence-based usability design principles for these functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis Preservation and Systematic Reinterpretation within the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC data analysis software used in order to derive and publish experimental results is an important asset that is necessary to preserve in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of a given measurement. Among others, important use cases of analysis preservation are the reproducibility of the original results and the reusability of the analysis procedure in the context of new scientific studies. A prominent use-case for the latter is the systematic reinterpretation of searches for new Physics in terms of signal models that not studied in the original publication (RECAST). This paper presents the usage of the graph-based workflow description language yadage to drive the reinterpretation of preserved HEP analyses. The analysis software for individual states in the analysis is preserved using Docker containers, while the workflow structure is preserved using plain JSON documents. This allows the re-execution of complex analysis workflows on industry standard container-based distributed computing clust...

  8. Functional Analysis: Entering Hilbert Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    in a new chapter on Fredholm theory (Chapter 6). Fredholm theory originates in pioneering work of the Swedish mathematician Erik Ivar Fred-holm on integral equations, which inspired the study of a new class of bounded linear operators, known as Fredholm operators. Chapter 6 presents the basic elements...... between Hilbert spaces. Fredholm operators are of interest far beyond mathematical analysis, they also play a significant role in theoretical physics, differential geometry and topology with the famous Index Theorem proved by Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer in 1963 as a highlight. With the addition...... of the new material on normed vector spaces and their operators, the book can hopefully serve as a general introduction to functional analysis viewed as a theory of infinite dimensional linear spaces and linear operators acting on them....

  9. The role of statins in erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Cai; Ye Tian; Tao Wu; Chen-Xi Cao; Si-Yuan Bu; Kun-Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of statins for erectile dysfunction (ED), a systematic review of the literature was conducted in the Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed from the inception of each database to June 2013. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment for ED with statins were identified. Placebo RCTs with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) as the outcome measure were eligible for meta-analysis. A total of seven RCTs including two statins with a total of 586...

  10. P300 development across the lifespan: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rik van Dinteren; Martijn Arns; Marijtje L. A. Jongsma; Roy P C Kessels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The P300 component of the event-related potential is a large positive waveform that can be extracted from the ongoing electroencephalogram using a two-stimuli oddball paradigm, and has been associated with cognitive information processing (e.g. memory, attention, executive function). This paper reviews the development of the auditory P300 across the lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the P300 was performed including 75 studies (n = 2...

  11. Common and distinct neural correlates of facial emotion processing in social anxiety disorder and Williams syndrome: A systematic review and voxel-based meta-analysis of functional resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, C; Subirà, S; Batalla, A; Muñiz, A; Sugranyés, G; Crippa, J A; Farré, M; Pérez-Jurado, L; Martín-Santos, R

    2014-11-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WS) are two conditions which seem to be at opposite ends in the continuum of social fear but show compromised abilities in some overlapping areas, including some social interactions, gaze contact and processing of facial emotional cues. The increase in the number of neuroimaging studies has greatly expanded our knowledge of the neural bases of facial emotion processing in both conditions. However, to date, SAD and WS have not been compared. We conducted a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies comparing SAD and WS cases to healthy control participants (HC) using facial emotion processing paradigms. Two researchers conducted comprehensive PubMed/Medline searches to identify all fMRI studies of facial emotion processing in SAD and WS. The following search key-words were used: "emotion processing"; "facial emotion"; "social anxiety"; "social phobia"; "Williams syndrome"; "neuroimaging"; "functional magnetic resonance"; "fMRI" and their combinations, as well as terms specifying individual facial emotions. We extracted spatial coordinates from each study and conducted two separate voxel-wise activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, one for SAD and one for WS. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: 17 studies of SAD and five of WS. We found evidence for both common and distinct patterns of neural activation. Limbic engagement was common to SAD and WS during facial emotion processing, although we observed opposite patterns of activation for each disorder. Compared to HC, SAD cases showed hyperactivation of the amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus and the globus pallidus. Compared to controls, participants with WS showed hypoactivation of these regions. Differential activation in a number of regions specific to either condition was also identified: SAD cases exhibited greater activation of the insula, putamen, the superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal regions and

  12. Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubin Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted systematic searches of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to June 2016 and included randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in adult type 2 diabetic patients reporting estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and/or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR changes. Data were synthesized using the random-effects model. Results Forty-seven studies with 22,843 participants were included. SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with a significant change in eGFR in general (weighted mean difference (WMD, −0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−0.90 to 0.23] or in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD (WMD −0.78 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−2.52 to 0.97]. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with eGFR reduction in short-term trials (WMD −0.98 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−1.42 to −0.54], and with eGFR preservation in long-term trials (WMD 2.01 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [0.86 to 3.16]. Urine ACR reduction after SGLT2 inhibition was not statistically significant in type 2 diabetic patients in general (WMD −7.24 mg/g, 95% CI [−15.54 to 1.06], but was significant in patients with CKD (WMD −107.35 mg/g, 95% CI [−192.53 to −22.18]. Conclusions SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with significant changes in eGFR in patients with type 2 diabetes, likely resulting from a mixture of an initial reduction of eGFR and long-term renal function preservation. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with statistically significant albuminuria reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD.

  13. Analysis Preservation and Systematic Reinterpretation within the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC data analysis software used in order to derive and publish experimental results is an important asset that is necessary to preserve in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of a given measurement. An important use-case is the re-usability of the analysis procedure in the context of new scientific studies such as the reinterpretation of searches for new Physics in terms of signal models that not studied in the original publication (RECAST). We present the usage of the graph-based workflow description language yadage to drive the reinterpretation of preserved HEP analyses. The analysis software is preserved using Docker containers, while the workflow structure is preserved using plain JSON documents. This allows the re-execution of complex analysis workflows on modern distributed container orchestration systems and enables a systematic reinterpretation service based on such preserved analysis.

  14. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  15. A Systematic Approach for Engagement Analysis Under Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Leddo, John; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    An overload condition can lead to high stress for an operator and further cause substantial drops in performance. On the other extreme, in automated systems, an operator may become underloaded; in which case, it is difficult for the operator to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, a disengaged operation may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss a systematic approach monitor for extremes of cognitive workload and engagement in multitasking environments. Inferences of cognitive workload ar engagement are based on subjective evaluations, objective performance measures, physiological signals, and task analysis results. The systematic approach developed In this paper aggregates these types of information collected under the multitasking environment and can provide a real-time assessment or engagement.

  16. Accessible Home Environments for People with Functional Limitations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hea Young; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Clarke, Michael; Mannan, Hasheem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the health and social effects of accessible home environments for people with functional limitations, in order to provide evidence to promote well-informed decision making for policy guideline development and choices about public health interventions. MEDLINE and nine other electronic databases were searched between December 2014 and January 2015, for articles published since 2004. All study types were included in this review. Two reviewers independently screened 12,544 record titles or titles and abstracts based on our pre-defined eligibility criteria. We identified 94 articles as potentially eligible; and assessed their full text. Included studies were critically appraised using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool, version 2011. Fourteen studies were included in the review. We did not identify any meta-analysis or systematic review directly relevant to the question for this systematic review. A narrative approach was used to synthesise the findings of the included studies due to methodological and statistical heterogeneity. Results suggest that certain interventions to enhance the accessibility of homes can have positive health and social effects. Home environments that lack accessibility modifications appropriate to the needs of their users are likely to result in people with physical impairments becoming disabled at home. PMID:27548194

  17. Systematics of the breakup probability function for {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capurro, O.A., E-mail: capurro@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pacheco, A.J.; Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carnelli, P.F.F. [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernández Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2016-01-15

    Experimental non-capture breakup cross sections can be used to determine the probability of projectile and ejectile fragmentation in nuclear reactions involving weakly bound nuclei. Recently, the probability of both type of dissociations has been analyzed in nuclear reactions involving {sup 9}Be projectiles onto various heavy targets at sub-barrier energies. In the present work we extend this kind of systematic analysis to the case of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li projectiles with the purpose of investigating general features of projectile-like breakup probabilities for reactions induced by stable weakly bound nuclei. For that purpose we have obtained the probabilities of projectile and ejectile breakup for a large number of systems, starting from a compilation of the corresponding reported non-capture breakup cross sections. We parametrize the results in accordance with the previous studies for the case of beryllium projectiles, and we discuss their systematic behavior as a function of the projectile, the target mass and the reaction Q-value.

  18. Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Gabrielle; Porter, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Literature on the level of adaptive functioning and relative strengths and weaknesses in functioning of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) was reviewed. The electronic databases PsycINFO, PubMed, Expanded Academic, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest were searched electronically for relevant articles and dissertations using the search terms…

  19. Functional Analysis in Applied Mathematics and Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the course 01245 Functional Analysis. Consists of the first part of amonograph with the same title.......Lecture notes for the course 01245 Functional Analysis. Consists of the first part of amonograph with the same title....

  20. The effects of active mobilisation and rehabilitation in ICU on mortality and function: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, Claire J; Harrold, Meg; Holland, Anne; Romero, Lorena; Nisbet, Travis; Hodgson, Carol L

    2017-02-01

    Early active mobilisation and rehabilitation in the intensive care unit (ICU) is being used to prevent the long-term functional consequences of critical illness. This review aimed to determine the effect of active mobilisation and rehabilitation in the ICU on mortality, function, mobility, muscle strength, quality of life, days alive and out of hospital to 180 days, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and discharge destination, linking outcomes with the World Health Organization International Classification of Function Framework. A PRISMA checklist-guided systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised and controlled clinical trials. Fourteen studies of varying quality including a total of 1753 patients were reviewed. Active mobilisation and rehabilitation had no impact on short- or long-term mortality (p > 0.05). Meta-analysis showed that active mobilisation and rehabilitation led to greater muscle strength (body function) at ICU discharge as measured using the Medical Research Council Sum Score (mean difference 8.62 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-15.86), greater probability of walking without assistance (activity limitation) at hospital discharge (odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.19-3.83), and more days alive and out of hospital to day 180 (participation restriction) (mean difference 9.69, 95% CI 1.7-17.66). There were no consistent effects on function, quality of life, ICU or hospital length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation or discharge destination. Active mobilisation and rehabilitation in the ICU has no impact on short- and long-term mortality, but may improve mobility status, muscle strength and days alive and out of hospital to 180 days. CRD42015029836.

  1. Inspiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    de Medeiros, Ana Irene Carlos; Fuzari, Helen Kerlen Bastos; Rattesa, Catarina; Brandão,Daniella Cunha; de Melo Marinho, Patrícia Érika

    2017-01-01

    Question: Does inspiratory muscle training improve respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity, lung function and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease? Does inspiratory muscle training improve these outcomes more than breathing exercises? Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis treatment. Outcome measures: The primary outcomes were: maximal inspiratory pressure, maxi...

  2. A systematic review protocol examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, A; Soares, M J; Sherriff, J L; Zhao, Y; Hallett, J; Coombes, F

    2015-06-12

    Vitamin D has potential benefits for extraskeletal health. These could include an anti-inflammatory effect as well as a reduction in endothelial dysfunction. We aim to provide quality evidence for the hypothesis that supplementation with vitamin D will improve endothelial function (EF), possibly through the abrogation of systemic inflammation. We will conduct a systematic review of all randomised controlled trials on vitamin D supplementation and EF lasting 12 weeks or more. The search will cover the period 2000-2015 and include studies that describe direct measures of EF, markers of endothelial cell (EC) activation and if concurrently reported, indicators of systemic inflammation. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and study quality will be assessed by the Jadad score in addition to an evaluation of allocation concealment and data analysis. If sufficient data are available, a meta-analysis will be conducted. The effect sizes will be generated using Hedges' g score, for both fixed and random effect models. I(2) statistics and Galbraith plots will be used to assess heterogeneity and identify their potential sources. Potential publication and small sample size bias will be assessed by visual inspections of funnel plots and also Egger's test. Meta-regression analysis (if feasible) will be conducted with restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation method, controlling for potential confounders (demographics, study methods, location, etc). A backward elimination process will be applied in the regression modelling procedure. Subgroup analysis, conditional on number of studies retrieved and their sample size, will be stratified on participant disease category, total dose administered, degree of 25(OH)D change and type of supplement used. Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication

  3. Addressing the Challenging Behavior of Young Children through Systematic Function-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brenna K.; Ferro, Jolenea B.; Umbreit, John; Liaupsin, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    A decision model was used to systematically construct function-based interventions for the disruptive behaviors of three young children (ages 3.75-4.75 years) receiving special education services in inclusive preschool settings. The study was conducted in three phases. In Part 1, descriptive functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) were conducted.…

  4. Brain Structure and Executive Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierink, Lonneke; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to establish the current knowledge about brain structure and executive function (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five databases were searched (up till July 2012). Six articles met the inclusion criteria, all included structural brain imaging though no functional brain imaging. Study quality was assessed using…

  5. Multiplanar sinus CT: a systematic approach to imaging before functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Jenny K; Eastwood, James D; Tebbit, Christopher L; Glastonbury, Christine M

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this essay is to present a systematic approach to the use of coronal, axial, and sagittal images for CT evaluation of the sinuses before functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). We present a systematic approach to the use of coronal, axial, and sagittal images in CT evaluation before FESS. Each imaging plane is valuable for displaying anatomic variants, which can predispose a patient to recurrent disease and affect the surgical approach, and critical variants, which can make surgery hazardous.

  6. Psychometric Properties of Questionnaires on Functional Health Status in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement proper...

  7. The Natural History of Erectile Dysfunction After Prostatic Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Murphy, Gregory P; Allen, Isabel E; Chang, Albert; Rosen, Raymond C; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) after treatment for prostate cancer with radiotherapy (RT) is well known, and pooled estimates of ED after RT will provide more accurate patient education. To systematically evaluate the natural history of ED in men with previous erectile function after prostate RT and to determine clinical factors associated with ED. We performed a review of the PubMed and Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases in April 2016 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Identified reports included a measurement of ED before and after prostate RT. Two hundred seventy-eight abstracts were screened and 105 publications met the criteria for inclusion. Only men with known erectile function before RT were included in the analysis. ED after RT of the prostate. In total, 17,057 men underwent brachytherapy (65%), 8,166 men underwent external-beam RT (31%), and 1,046 men underwent both (4%). Seven common instruments were used to measure ED, including 23 different cutoffs for ED. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) was used in 31 studies (30%). Pooled estimates of SHIM-confirmed ED (score History of Erectile Dysfunction After Prostatic Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med 2017;14:1071-1078. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic review with meta-analysis: cytokines in fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üçeyler Nurcan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on cytokine levels in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. Methods Through December 2010 we systematically reviewed the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO and screened the reference lists of 22 review articles for suitable original articles. Original articles investigating cytokines in patients with FMS were included. Data were extracted by two independent authors. Differences of the cytokine levels of FMS patients and controls were summarized by standardized mean differences (SMD using a random effects model. Study quality was assessed applying methodological scores: modified Center of Evidence Based Medicine, Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale, and Würzburg Methodological Quality Score. Results Twenty-five articles were included investigating 1255 FMS patients and 800 healthy controls. Data of 13/25 studies entered meta-analysis. The overall methodological quality of studies was low. The results of the majority of studies were not comparable because methods, investigated material, and investigated target cytokines differed. Systematic review of the selected 25 articles revealed that FMS patients had higher serum levels of interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, and IL-8, and higher plasma levels of IL-8. Meta-analysis of eligible studies showed that FMS patients had higher plasma IL-6 levels compared to controls (SMD = -0.34 [-0.64, -0.03] 95% CI; p = 0.03. The majority of investigated cytokines were not different between patients and controls. Conclusions The pathophysiological role of cytokines in FMS is still unclear. Studies of higher quality and with higher numbers of subjects are needed.

  9. Systematic Functional Characterization of Human 21st Chromosome Orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Sarah K; Smith, Sofia R; Pierce, Jonathan T

    2018-01-24

    Individuals with Down syndrome have neurological and muscle impairments due to an additional copy of the human 21st chromosome (HSA21). Only a few of ~200 HSA21 genes encoding protein have been linked to specific Down syndrome phenotypes, while the remainder are understudied. To identify poorly characterized HSA21 genes required for nervous system function, we studied behavioral phenotypes caused by loss-of-function mutations in conserved HSA21 orthologs in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans We identified ten HSA21 orthologs that are required for neuromuscular behaviors: cle-1 (COL18A1), cysl-2 (CBS), dnsn-1 (DONSON), eva-1 (EVA1C), mtq-2 (N6ATM1), ncam-1 (NCAM2), pad-2 (POFUT2), pdxk-1 (PDXK), rnt-1 (RUNX1), and unc-26 (SYNJ1).  We also found that three of these genes are required for normal release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This includes a known synaptic gene unc-26 (SYNJ1), as well as uncharacterized genes pdxk-1 (PDXK) and mtq-2 (N6ATM1). As the first systematic functional analysis of HSA21 orthologs, this study may serve as a platform to understand genes that underlie phenotypes associated with Down syndrome. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  10. Is functional brain connectivity atypical in autism? A systematic review of EEG and MEG studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O'Reilly

    Full Text Available Although it is well recognized that autism is associated with altered patterns of over- and under-connectivity, specifics are still a matter of debate. Little has been done so far to synthesize available literature using whole-brain electroencephalography (EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings.1 To systematically review the literature on EEG/MEG functional and effective connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, 2 to synthesize and critically appraise findings related with the hypothesis that ASD is characterized by long-range underconnectivity and local overconnectivity, and 3 to provide, based on the literature, an analysis of tentative factors that are likely to mediate association between ASD and atypical connectivity (e.g., development, topography, lateralization.Literature reviews were done using PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Abstracts were screened, and only relevant articles were analyzed based on the objectives of this paper. Special attention was paid to the methodological characteristics that could have created variability in outcomes reported between studies.Our synthesis provides relatively strong support for long-range underconnectivity in ASD, whereas the status of local connectivity remains unclear. This observation was also mirrored by a similar relationship with lower frequencies being often associated with underconnectivity and higher frequencies being associated with both under- and over-connectivity. Putting together these observations, we propose that ASD is characterized by a general trend toward an under-expression of lower-band wide-spread integrative processes compensated by more focal, higher-frequency, locally specialized, and segregated processes. Further investigation is, however, needed to corroborate the conclusion and its generalizability across different tasks. Of note, abnormal lateralization in ASD, specifically an elevated left-over-right EEG and MEG functional connectivity ratio, has been also

  11. Is functional brain connectivity atypical in autism? A systematic review of EEG and MEG studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Lewis, John D; Elsabbagh, Mayada

    2017-01-01

    Although it is well recognized that autism is associated with altered patterns of over- and under-connectivity, specifics are still a matter of debate. Little has been done so far to synthesize available literature using whole-brain electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings. 1) To systematically review the literature on EEG/MEG functional and effective connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 2) to synthesize and critically appraise findings related with the hypothesis that ASD is characterized by long-range underconnectivity and local overconnectivity, and 3) to provide, based on the literature, an analysis of tentative factors that are likely to mediate association between ASD and atypical connectivity (e.g., development, topography, lateralization). Literature reviews were done using PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Abstracts were screened, and only relevant articles were analyzed based on the objectives of this paper. Special attention was paid to the methodological characteristics that could have created variability in outcomes reported between studies. Our synthesis provides relatively strong support for long-range underconnectivity in ASD, whereas the status of local connectivity remains unclear. This observation was also mirrored by a similar relationship with lower frequencies being often associated with underconnectivity and higher frequencies being associated with both under- and over-connectivity. Putting together these observations, we propose that ASD is characterized by a general trend toward an under-expression of lower-band wide-spread integrative processes compensated by more focal, higher-frequency, locally specialized, and segregated processes. Further investigation is, however, needed to corroborate the conclusion and its generalizability across different tasks. Of note, abnormal lateralization in ASD, specifically an elevated left-over-right EEG and MEG functional connectivity ratio, has been also reported

  12. Systematic Functional Testing of Rare Variants: Contributions of CFI to Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Perciliz L; Garrett, Melanie E; Willer, Jason R; Campochiaro, Peter A; Campochiaro, Betsy; Zack, Donald J; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Genome-wide association (GWAS) and sequencing studies for AMD have highlighted the importance of coding variants at loci that encode components of the complement pathway. However, assessing the contribution of such alleles to AMD, especially when they are rare, remains coarse, in part because of the persistent challenge in establishing their functional relevance. Others and we have shown previously that rare alleles in complement factor I (CFI) can be tested functionally using a surrogate in vivo assay of retinal vascularization in zebrafish embryos. Here, we have implemented and scaled these tools to assess the overall contribution of rare alleles in CFI to AMD. We performed targeted sequencing of CFI in 731 AMD patients, followed by replication in a second patient cohort of 511 older healthy individuals. Systematic functional testing of all alleles and post-hoc statistical analysis of functional variants was also performed. We discovered 20 rare coding nonsynonymous variants, including the previously reported G119R allele. In vivo testing led to the identification of nine variants that alter CFI; six of which are associated with hypoactive complement factor I (FI). Post-hoc analysis in ethnically matched, population controls showed six of these to be present exclusively in cases. Taken together, our data argue that multiple rare and ultra-rare alleles in CFI contribute to AMD pathogenesis; they improve the precision of the assessment of the contribution of CFI to AMD; and they offer a rational route to establishing both causality and direction of allele effect for genes associated with this disorder.

  13. Systematic review of mirror therapy compared with conventional rehabilitation in upper extremity function in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruzado, David; Merchán-Baeza, Jose Antonio; González-Sánchez, Manuel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2017-04-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability in developed countries. One of the most widespread techniques in clinical practice is mirror therapy (MT). To determine the effectiveness of MT over other methods of intervention in the recovery of upper limb function in people who have had a stroke. A systematic review was conducted. The search string was established based on the last systematic review about MT that dated from 2009: "upper extremity" OR "upper limb "AND "mirror therapy" AND stroke. For this search Pubmed, Scopus and SciELO databases were used. Fifteen studies were included in the systematic review. Recovery of the upper limb, upper limb function and gross manual dexterity were frequently measured in these studies. In the primary variables in promoting recovery, MT alone showed better results in acute and chronic stroke patients in upper limb functioning than either conventional rehabilitation (CR) or CR plus MT. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015026869. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. Psoriasis and suicidality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanminder; Taylor, Catherine; Kornmehl, Heather; Armstrong, April W

    2017-09-01

    Psoriasis is associated with psychiatric comorbidities; however, the relationship between psoriasis and suicidality is not well understood. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that elucidates the relationship between psoriasis and suicidality. Applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. We searched literature published between 1946 and 2017. We identified 18 studies with a total of 1,767,583 participants, of whom 330,207 had psoriasis. On the basis of random effects modeling, the pooled odds ratio (OR) for suicidal ideation among patients with psoriasis was 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-2.74). Patients with psoriasis were more likely to exhibit suicidal behaviors (combined attempted and completed suicides) with a pooled OR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.13-1.40). Subgroup analysis showed that patients with psoriasis were more likely to attempt suicides (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.54) and complete suicide (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39) than those without psoriasis. More severe psoriasis and younger age were associated with greater likelihood of suicidality. There are few studies examining suicidality in conjunction with psoriasis severity. Patients with psoriasis have a significantly higher likelihood of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicides. Among patients with psoriasis, those who are younger and whose psoriasis is more severe are at particular risk for suicidality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Suboccipital Decompressive Craniectomy for Cerebellar Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayling, Oliver G S; Alotaibi, Naif M; Wang, Justin Z; Fatehi, Mostafa; Ibrahim, George M; Benavente, Oscar; Field, Thalia S; Gooderham, Peter A; Macdonald, R Loch

    2018-02-01

    Suboccipital decompressive craniectomy (SDC) for cerebellar infarction has been traditionally performed with minimal high-quality evidence. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the impact of SDC on functional outcomes, mortality, and adverse events in patients with cerebellar infarcts. A systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Our primary outcome was the proportion of patients with moderate-severe disability after SDC. Secondary outcomes included mortality and adverse events. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the roles of age, preoperative neurologic status, external ventricular drain insertion, and debridement of infarcted tissue on SDC outcomes. Eleven studies (with 283 patients) met our inclusion criteria. The pooled event rate for moderate-severe disability was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-37%) and for mortality, it was 20% (95% CI, 12%-31%). The estimated overall rate of adverse events for SDC was 23% (95% CI, 14%-35%). Sensitivity analysis found less mortality with mean age SDC is based on retrospective observational studies. SDC for cerebellar infarction is associated with better outcomes compared with decompressive surgery for hemispheric infarctions. Lack of standardized reporting methods for SDC is a considerable drawback to the development of a better understanding of the impact of this surgery on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A descriptive analysis of child-relevant systematic reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Denise

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews (SRs are considered an important tool for decision-making. There has been no recent comprehensive identification or description of child-relevant SRs. A description of existing child-relevant SRs would help to identify the extent of available child-relevant evidence available in SRs and gaps in the evidence base where SRs are required. The objective of this study was to describe child-relevant SRs from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 2, 2009. Methods SRs were assessed for relevance using pre-defined criteria. Data were extracted and entered into an electronic form. Univariate analyses were performed to describe the SRs overall and by topic area. Results The search yielded 1666 SRs; 793 met the inclusion criteria. 38% of SRs were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2007. Corresponding authors were most often from the UK (41%. Most SRs (59% examined pharmacological interventions. 53% had at least one external source of funding. SRs included a median of 7 studies (IQR 3, 15 and 679 participants (IQR 179, 2833. Of all studies, 48% included only children, and 27% only adults. 94% of studies were published in peer-reviewed journals. Primary outcomes were specified in 72% of SRs. Allocation concealment and the Jadad scale were used in 97% and 25% of SRs, respectively. Adults and children were analyzed separately in 12% of SRs and as a subgroup analysis in 14%. Publication bias was assessed in only 14% of SRs. A meta-analysis was conducted in 68% of SRs with a median of 5 trials (IQR 3, 9 each. Variations in these characteristics were observed across topic areas. Conclusions We described the methodological characteristics and rigour of child-relevant reviews in the CDSR. Many SRs are not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria. Our study describes variation in conduct and reporting across SRs and reveals clinicians' ability to access child-specific data.

  17. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia M Danna

    Full Text Available Depression and diabetes are independent risk factors for one another, and both are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Diabetes patients with lower cognitive function are more likely to suffer poorer health outcomes. However, the role of depression in cognitive decline among people with diabetes is not well understood. This systematic review assessed whether adults with comorbid diabetes and depression or depressive symptoms exhibit greater cognitive decline relative to individuals with diabetes alone. Searches were run in CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed (MEDLINE with no time or language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were of any quantitative study design, included participants aged 18 years or older with diabetes mellitus of which some must have presented with current depression, and measured cognition as an outcome. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions tool was used for quality assessment of each study and its collected outcome. Fifteen articles were included in the final analysis. The high degree of heterogeneity in exposures, outcomes, and participant characteristics precluded a meta-analysis of any of the studies, and the risk of bias observed in these studies limits the strength of the evidence. Nonetheless, this review found the presence of comorbid depression was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes than for persons with diabetes alone. While large-scale preventive efforts must address epidemic levels of diabetes and its comorbidities, on the patient level healthcare professionals must be cognizant of the added difficulties that depression poses to patients and the extra support required to management diabetes in these cases. This systematic review is registered with the University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination under registration number 2015:CRD42015025122.

  18. Specific-detection of clinical samples, systematic functional investigations, and transcriptome analysis reveals that splice variant MUC4/Y contributes to the malignant progression of pancreatic cancer by triggering malignancy-related positive feedback loops signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Xie, Kun-Ling; Tang, Jie; Liang, Wen-Biao; Zhu, Rong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Bin; Tao, Jin-Qiu; Zhi, Xiao-Fei; Li, Zheng; Gao, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Kui-Rong; Miao, Yi; Xu, Ze-Kuan

    2014-11-04

    MUC4 plays important roles in the malignant progression of human pancreatic cancer. But the huge length of MUC4 gene fragment restricts its functional and mechanism research. As one of its splice variants, MUC4/Y with coding sequence is most similar to that of the full-length MUC4 (FL-MUC4), together with alternative splicing of the MUC4 transcript has been observed in pancreatic carcinomas but not in normal pancreas. So we speculated that MUC4/Y might be involved in malignant progression similarly to FL-MUC4, and as a research model of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer. The conjecture was confirmed in the present study. MUC4/Y expression was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using gene-specific probe in the clinic samples. The effects of MUC4/Y were observed by serial in vitro and in vivo experiments based on stable over-expressed cell model. The underlying mechanisms were investigated by sequence-based transcriptome analysis and verified by qRT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The detection of clinical samples indicates that MUC4/Y is significantly positive-correlated with tumor invasion and distant metastases. Based on stable forced-expressed pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell model, functional studies show that MUC4/Y enhances malignant activity in vitro and in vivo, including proliferation under low-nutritional-pressure, resistance to apoptosis, motility, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and distant metastasis. Mechanism studies indicate the novel finding that MUC4/Y triggers malignancy-related positive feedback loops for concomitantly up-regulating the expression of survival factors to resist adverse microenvironment and increasing the expression of an array of cytokines and adhesion molecules to affect the tumor milieu. In light of the enormity of the potential regulatory circuitry in cancer afforded by MUC4 and/or MUC4/Y, repressing MUC4 transcription, inhibiting post

  19. Manual function outcome measures in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): Systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bieber, Eleonora; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Cioni, Giovanni; Feys, Hilde; Guzzetta, Andrea; Klingels, Katrijn

    2016-01-01

    This study systematically reviewed the clinical and psychometric properties of manual function outcome measures for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) aged 3-18 years. Three electronic databases were searched to identify manual function tools at the ICF-CY body function, activity and participation level used in children with DCD. Study selection and data extraction was conducted by two blind assessors according to the CanChild Outcome Measures Rating Form. Nineteen clinic...

  20. Glucocorticosteroids for sepsis : systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volbeda, M.; Wetterslev, J.; Gluud, C.; Zijlstra, J. G.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Keus, F.

    Glucocorticosteroids (steroids) are widely used for sepsis patients. However, the potential benefits and harms of both high and low dose steroids remain unclear. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) might shed light on this

  1. Weight gain during incarceration: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, M K; Nianogo, R A; Arah, O A

    2017-10-12

    Existing evidence suggests that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among prisoners in different settings is high. Evaluating weight change during incarceration would allow for the investigation of whether the prison environment indeed contributes to unfavourable weight changes. This study aimed to do a systematic review and a meta-analysis of existing evidence regarding weight change during incarceration. We conducted a systematic literature search by using five different online databases and included grey literature. A total of 16 studies, all conducted in developed countries, were identified. Weight change was computed in 11 of these studies and was self-reported in five studies. Only two studies included youth. In all but 1 of the 11 studies using actual assessment of weight change, there was an increase in body weight or body mass index on average or weight gain occurred among a significant proportion of participants. A meta-analysis of eight of these studies showed an average weight gain of 0.43 (95% CI 0.14, 0.72) lb/week. In all studies including perceived weight change, a high proportion (43% to 73%) of participants reported weight gain during incarceration. Health promotion activities within prisons should incorporate initiatives aimed at combating unhealthy weight developments. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Accurate evaluation and analysis of functional genomics data and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Casey S.; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    The development of technology capable of inexpensively performing large-scale measurements of biological systems has generated a wealth of data. Integrative analysis of these data holds the promise of uncovering gene function, regulation, and, in the longer run, understanding complex disease. However, their analysis has proved very challenging, as it is difficult to quickly and effectively assess the relevance and accuracy of these data for individual biological questions. Here, we identify biases that present challenges for the assessment of functional genomics data and methods. We then discuss evaluation methods that, taken together, begin to address these issues. We also argue that the funding of systematic data-driven experiments and of high-quality curation efforts will further improve evaluation metrics so that they more-accurately assess functional genomics data and methods. Such metrics will allow researchers in the field of functional genomics to continue to answer important biological questions in a data-driven manner. PMID:22268703

  3. Male circumcision does not result in inferior perceived male sexual function - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Düring, Signe; Frimodt-Møller, Cai

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The debate on non-medical male circumcision has gaining momentum during the past few years. The objective of this systematic review was to determine if circumcision, medical indication or age at circumcision had an impact on perceived sexual function in males. METHODS: Systematic...... searches were performed in MEDLINE and Embase. The included studies compared long-term sexual function in circumcised and non-circumcised males, before and after circumcision, or compared different ages at circumcision. The quality of the studies was assessed according to the level of evidence (Grade A...

  4. Systematic Evaluation of Uncertainty in Material Flow Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a tool to investigate material flows and stocks in defined systems as a basis for resource management or environmental pollution control. Because of the diverse nature of sources and the varying quality and availability of data, MFA results are inherently uncertain...... in MFA. Based on this, recommendations for consideration of uncertainty in MFA are provided. A five-step framework for uncertainty handling is outlined, reflecting aspects such as data quality and goal/scope of the MFA. We distinguish between descriptive (quantification of material turnover in a region...... for exploratory MFAs. Irrespective of the level of sophistication, lack of information about MFA data poses a major challenge for meaningful uncertainty analysis. The step-wise framework suggested here provides a systematic way to consider available information and produce results as precise as the data warrant....

  5. Physical activity and exercise for erectile dysfunction: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, André B; Sousa, Nelson; Azevedo, Luís F; Martins, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise may improve erectile function. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of physical activity modalities and exercise on erectile function in erectile dysfunction trials. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. We searched 6 electronic databases between January 1990 and July 2016 and hand-searched reference lists for randomised controlled trials. Only patients with a diagnosis of erectile dysfunction were included. The mean differences between intervention and control groups were calculated for meta-analysis. 7 studies were eligible, including 478 participants allocated to aerobic, pelvic or combined exercise interventions. Follow-up ranged from 8 weeks to 2 years. The risk of bias in the trials was deemed moderate to high mainly due to impossible blinding of patients and personnel, as well as questionable blinding of outcome assessors. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed. Pooled data showed a statistically significant improvement in erectile function score (mean difference 3.85, 95% CI 2.33 to 5.37). A benefit was still demonstrable after a sensitivity analysis because the mean difference in International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score ranged from 3.39 (95% CI 1.92 to 4.87) to 4.28 (95% CI 2.54 to 6.02). A benefit was also detected in short-term and long-term interventions as well as in trials evaluating physical activity and exercise alone or in addition to usual care. The present study suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions improve patient-reported erectile dysfunction, particularly aerobic exercise with moderate-to-vigorous intensity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Functional analysis and treatment of diurnal bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Davenport, Katy; Britt, Courtney; Ninci, Jennifer; Garner, Jennifer; Moore, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    An analogue functional analysis identified attention as a function for a 5-year-old boy's bruxism (teeth grinding). Functional communication training resulted in a reduction of bruxism and an increase in alternative mands for attention. Results were maintained 3 weeks following the intervention. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Exploiting orthologue diversity for systematic detection of gain-of-function phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantarella Daniela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic search for genes whose gain-of-function by exogenous expression confers an advantage in cell-based selective screenings is a powerful method for unbiased functional exploration of the genome, and has the potential to disclose new targets for cancer therapy. A major limit of this approach resides in the labor-intensive cloning of resistant cells, identification of the integrated genes and validation of their ability to confer a selective advantage. Moreover, the selection has to be drastic and genes conferring a limited advantage are typically missed. Results We developed a new functional screening strategy based on transduction of mammalian cells of a given species with an expression library from another species, followed by one-shot quantitative tracing with DNA microarrays of all library-derived transcripts before and after selection. In this way, exogenous transcripts enriched after selection, and therefore likely to confer resistance, are readily detected. We transduced a retroviral cDNA expression library from mouse testis into human and canine cells, and optimized the use of commercial murine gene expression arrays for species-specific detection of library-derived transcripts. We then conducted a functional screening by growing library-transduced canine MDCK cells in suspension, to enrich for cDNAs conferring anchorage independence. Notably, these cells show partial resistance to loss of anchorage, and the selection can be of limited stringency, compromising approaches based on clonal selection or anyway requiring high stringency. Microarray analysis revealed reproducible enrichment after three weeks of growth on polyhema for seven genes, among which the Hras proto-oncogene and Sox5. When individually transduced into MDCK cells, Sox5 specifically promoted anchorage-independent growth, thereby confirming the validity and specificity of the approach. Conclusion The procedure described here brings substantial

  8. Factors determining outcome of corrective osteotomy for malunited paediatric forearm fractures: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. Roth (Kasper C.); M.M.J. Walenkamp (Monique); Van Geenen, R.C.I. (R. C.I.); M. Reijman (Max); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); J.W. Colaris (Joost)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to identify predictors of a superior functional outcome after corrective osteotomy for paediatric malunited radius and both-bone forearm fractures. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, searching databases up to 1

  9. Bayesian Analysis of an Anisotropic Universe Model: Systematics and Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneboom, Nicolaas E.; Ackerman, Lotty; Wehus, Ingunn Kathrine; Eriksen, Hans Kristian

    2010-10-01

    We revisit the anisotropic universe model previously developed by Ackerman, Carroll, and Wise (ACW), and generalize both the theoretical and computational framework to include polarization and various forms of systematic effects. We apply our new tools to simulated Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data in order to understand the potential impact of asymmetric beams, noise misestimation, and potential zodiacal light emission. We find that neither has any significant impact on the results. We next show that the previously reported ACW signal is also present in the one-year WMAP temperature sky map presented by Liu & Li, where data cuts are more aggressive. Finally, we re-analyze the five-year WMAP data taking into account a previously neglected (-i)^{l-l'}-term in the signal covariance matrix. We still find a strong detection of a preferred direction in the temperature map. Including multipoles up to ell = 400, the anisotropy amplitude for the W band is found to be g = 0.29 ± 0.031, nonzero at 9σ. However, the corresponding preferred direction is also shifted very close to the ecliptic poles at (l, b) = (96, 30), in agreement with the analysis of Hanson & Lewis, indicating that the signal is aligned along the plane of the solar system. This strongly suggests that the signal is not of cosmological origin, but most likely is a product of an unknown systematic effect. Determining the nature of the systematic effect is of vital importance, as it might affect other cosmological conclusions from the WMAP experiment. Finally, we provide a forecast for the Planck experiment including polarization.

  10. Imaging of the Eustachian tube and its function: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.; Tysome, J.R. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of ENT Surgery, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scoffings, D.J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The Eustachian tube is a complex and inaccessible structure, which maintains middle ear ventilation to facilitate transmission of sound from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. A renewed interest in treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction has led to a demand for methods of imaging the Eustachian tube, and assessing tube opening non-invasively. This review aims to summarise the use of imaging in the anatomical assessment of the Eustachian tube, and to explore how radiological techniques can be used to assess tube function. A systematic review of the literature was performed with narrative data analysis. With high-resolution images, the soft and bony anatomy of the Eustachian tube can be assessed in detail. CT and MRI are best suited to identifying features associated with obstructive or patulous Eustachian tube dysfunction, though true assessments of function have only been achieved with contrast enhanced radiographs and scintigraphy. A single modality has yet to provide a complete assessment. No test has entered routine clinical use, but further development and research is underway. Significant information can be gained from imaging the Eustachian tube, and as faster acquisition techniques are developed, it is possible that dynamic imaging of tubal opening could play an important role in the assessment of patients with ET dysfunction. (orig.)

  11. Toxoplasmosis and epilepsy--systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoungou, Edgard B; Bhalla, Devender; Nzoghe, Amandine; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important, widespread, parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, usually considered as asymptomatic, is now suspected to be a risk factor for various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to estimate the risk of epilepsy due to toxoplasmosis. A systematic literature search was conducted of several databases and journals to identify studies published in English or French, without date restriction, which looked at toxoplasmosis (as exposure) and epilepsy (as disease) and met certain other inclusion criteria. The search was based on keywords and suitable combinations in English and French. Fixed and random effects models were used to determine odds ratios, and statistical significance was set at 5.0%. Six studies were identified, with an estimated total of 2888 subjects, of whom 1280 had epilepsy (477 positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1608 did not (503 positive for toxoplasmosis). The common odds ratio (calculated) by random effects model was 2.25 (95% CI 1.27-3.9), p = 0.005. Despite the limited number of studies, and a lack of high-quality data, toxoplasmosis should continue to be regarded as an epilepsy risk factor. More and better studies are needed to determine the real impact of this parasite on the occurrence of epilepsy.

  12. Prevalence of Sleepwalking: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallman, Helen M; Kohler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleepwalking is thought to be a common arousal disorder; however, the epidemiology of this disorder has not yet been systematically examined. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted for 'sleepwalking' OR 'somnambulism' in any field, to identify studies that reported the epidemiology of sleepwalking or sleepwalking disorders. Fifty-one studies assessed the prevalence rates of sleepwalking in a total sample of 100 490. The meta-analysis showed the estimated lifetime prevalence of sleepwalking was 6.9% (95% CI 4.6%-10.3%). The current prevalence rate of sleepwalking-within the last 12 months-was significantly higher in children 5.0% (95% CI 3.8%-6.5%) than adults 1.5% (95% CI 1.0%-2.3%). There was no evidence of developmental trends in sleepwalking across childhood. The significant risk of bias across all studies suggests these results should be used cautiously. Further epidemiological research that addresses methodological problems found in studies of sleepwalking to date is needed.

  13. Systematic analysis of somatic mutations impacting gene expression in 12 tumour types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiarui; McConechy, Melissa K.; Horlings, Hugo M.; Ha, Gavin; Chun Chan, Fong; Funnell, Tyler; Mullaly, Sarah C.; Reimand, Jüri; Bashashati, Ali; Bader, Gary D.; Huntsman, David; Aparicio, Samuel; Condon, Anne; Shah, Sohrab P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel hierarchical Bayes statistical model, xseq, to systematically quantify the impact of somatic mutations on expression profiles. We establish the theoretical framework and robust inference characteristics of the method using computational benchmarking. We then use xseq to analyse thousands of tumour data sets available through The Cancer Genome Atlas, to systematically quantify somatic mutations impacting expression profiles. We identify 30 novel cis-effect tumour suppressor gene candidates, enriched in loss-of-function mutations and biallelic inactivation. Analysis of trans-effects of mutations and copy number alterations with xseq identifies mutations in 150 genes impacting expression networks, with 89 novel predictions. We reveal two important novel characteristics of mutation impact on expression: (1) patients harbouring known driver mutations exhibit different downstream gene expression consequences; (2) expression patterns for some mutations are stable across tumour types. These results have critical implications for identification and interpretation of mutations with consequent impact on transcription in cancer. PMID:26436532

  14. Algorithm for systematic peak extraction from atomic pair distribution functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, L; Billinge, S J L; Duxbury, P M

    2015-07-01

    The study presents an algorithm, ParSCAPE, for model-independent extraction of peak positions and intensities from atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). It provides a statistically motivated method for determining parsimony of extracted peak models using the information-theoretic Akaike information criterion (AIC) applied to plausible models generated within an iterative framework of clustering and chi-square fitting. All parameters the algorithm uses are in principle known or estimable from experiment, though careful judgment must be applied when estimating the PDF baseline of nanostructured materials. ParSCAPE has been implemented in the Python program SrMise. Algorithm performance is examined on synchrotron X-ray PDFs of 16 bulk crystals and two nanoparticles using AIC-based multimodeling techniques, and particularly the impact of experimental uncertainties on extracted models. It is quite resistant to misidentification of spurious peaks coming from noise and termination effects, even in the absence of a constraining structural model. Structure solution from automatically extracted peaks using the Liga algorithm is demonstrated for 14 crystals and for C60. Special attention is given to the information content of the PDF, theory and practice of the AIC, as well as the algorithm's limitations.

  15. Systematic Approach toward the Clinical Diagnosis of Functional Dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Paré

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional dyspepsia (FD is the most common condition in patients consulting with upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, resulting in up to 5% of visits to family physicians. By definition, patients with FD have no clinical, biochemical or endoscopic evidence of an organic disease that is likely to explain their symptoms. The process to be used in a structured interview for establishing a clinical diagnosis of FD is presented. The steps are as follows: determine the duration and the course of the disease; characterize the current syndrome and review the alarm symptoms; elicit the patient-perceived dominant symptom and/or condition; and identify the patient’s reason for consulting and address the psychosocial factors. According to the clinical characteristics of the three most frequent causes of dyspepsia (peptic ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux and FD and acknowledging that these conditions may coexist rather than overlap in some patients, an algorithm is suggested for establishing a working diagnosis of FD and indications for investigation, and initiating a management strategy.

  16. Wavelet analysis of multifractal functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffard, Stephane

    1995-09-01

    Multifractal signals are characterized by a local Holder exponent that may change completely from point to point. We show that wavelet methods are an extremely efficient tool for determining the exact Holder exponent of a function, or at least, for getting some information about this Holder exponent, such as the Spectrum of Singularities. We construct functions that have a given Holder exponent in a deterministic setting and also in a probabilistic setting (we then obtain the Multifractional Brownian Motion); we also study the Multifractal Formalism for Functions and give some results about its validity.

  17. Educational Functioning of Children of Parents with Chronic Physical Illness: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cliff Yung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the question: What are the effects of parental chronic physical illness on children's educational functioning? Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria for the purpose of this review were identified, indicating the paucity of research on the topic. The results found that…

  18. The impact of waiting for total joint replacement on pain and functional status: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, T.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Sluis, G. van der; Elings, J.; Dronkers, J.J.; Aiken, A.B.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To systematically describe changes in pain and functioning in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) awaiting total joint replacement (TJR), and to assess determinants of this change. Methods: MEDLINE®, EMBASE, CINAHL® and Cochrane Database were searched through June 2008. The reference lists

  19. Reward functioning in PTSD: A systematic review exploring the mechanisms underlying anhedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, L.; van Zuiden, M.; Frijling, J.L.; Koch, S.B.J.; Veltman, D.J.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder. An important diagnostic feature of PTSD is anhedonia, which may result from deficits in reward functioning. This has however never been studied systematically in PTSD. To determine if PTSD is associated with reward

  20. Reward functioning in PTSD: a systematic review exploring the mechanisms underlying anhedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Laura; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Frijling, Jessie L.; Koch, Saskia B. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder. An important diagnostic feature of PTSD is anhedonia, which may result from deficits in reward functioning. This has however never been studied systematically in PTSD. To determine if PTSD is associated with reward

  1. Systematic review of the effectiveness of mirror therapy in upper extremity function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, Danielle; Bongers, Raoul M.; Jannink, Michiel J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. This review gives an overview of the current state of research regarding the effectiveness of mirror therapy in upper extremity function. Method. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies concerning mirror therapy in upper extremity. The included journal articles were

  2. A Systematic Approach for Understanding Slater-Gaussian Functions in Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brianna; Hylton, Derrick J.; Ravi, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    A systematic way to understand the intricacies of quantum mechanical computations done by a software package known as "Gaussian" is undertaken via an undergraduate research project. These computations involve the evaluation of key parameters in a fitting procedure to express a Slater-type orbital (STO) function in terms of the linear…

  3. Assessment of functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review of measurement procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen-van Melick, N.; Cingel, R.E. van; Tijssen, M.P.W.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the measurements that are used in clinical practice to assess the quantity and quality of functional performance in men and women more than 2 years after ACL reconstruction with bone patellar-tendon bone (BPTB) or semitendinosus/gracilis

  4. Soft denture liners' effect on the masticatory function in patients wearing complete dentures: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Eleni Sotiria; Karaoglani, Eleni; Naka, Olga; Anastassiadou, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    To explore the effect of soft denture liners on the masticatory performance and muscle activity of edentulous patients wearing complete dentures, as determined by using objective measurement methods. Randomized controlled clinical trials and Cross-over studies that evaluated the masticatory capacity and muscle activity in denture wearers with and without soft denture liners were included in this systematic review. A comprehensive literature search was performed via electronic databases using the appropriate key words. The last search took place in September 2014. The potentially appropriate articles were identified and evaluated for eligibility through a predefined review process conducted by two examiners. Six out of the 176 identified records were included for quality and systematic assessment. The observed clinical and methodological diversity determined the narrative approach for the pooling of the findings. According to the studies brought together for the current systematic review, soft denture liners provided denture wearers with increased masticatory function compared to conventional denture base materials. Specifically, the use of long-term silicone liners significantly improved the mastication parameters. The observed intervention effects suggest further studies of higher quality to allow reliable conclusions to be drawn and to strengthen the clinical significance of these materials to patient's functionality. Soft denture lining materials have been suggested to address functional problems arising during complete denture function. This study was designed to systematically review the impact of soft liners' use on the masticatory efficiency in denture wearers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic approaches to data analysis from the Critical Decision Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce how to analyse the qualitative data from the Critical Decision Method. At first, characterizing the method provides the meaningful introduction into the issue. This method used in naturalistic decision making research is one of the cognitive task analysis methods, it is based on the retrospective semistructured interview about critical incident from the work and it may be applied in various domains such as emergency services, military, transport, sport or industry. Researchers can make two types of methodological adaptation. Within-method adaptations modify the way of conducting the interviews and cross-method adaptations combine this method with other related methods. There are many decsriptions of conducting the interview, but the descriptions how the data should be analysed are rare. Some researchers use conventional approaches like content analysis, grounded theory or individual procedures with reference to the objectives of research project. Wong (2004 describes two approaches to data analysis proposed for this method of data collection, which are described and reviewed in the details. They enable systematic work with a large amount of data. The structured approach organizes the data according to an a priori analysis framework and it is suitable for clearly defined object of research. Each incident is studied separately. At first, the decision chart showing the main decision points and then the incident summary are made. These decision points are used to identify the relevant statements from the transcript, which are analysed in terms of the Recognition-Primed Decision Model. Finally, the results from all the analysed incidents are integrated. The limitation of the structured approach is it may not reveal some interesting concepts. The emergent themes approach helps to identify these concepts while maintaining a systematic framework for analysis and it is used for exploratory research design. It

  6. Modifications and evaluation of smell and taste functions in total laryngectomy: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Ada Salvetti Cavalcanti; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Melo, Thais Myriam Aragão; Dourado Filho, Mário Genuíno; Pinheiro Júnior, Paulo Fernando; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the alterations in smell and taste functions in individuals who underwent total laryngectomy, as well as to identify in the literature some aspects involved in the evaluation of these functions in this population. We performed a systematic review on the databases Medline, LILACS and SciELO, and this data search occurred in October/2010. The search used keywords and free terms, and retrieved 84 articles, 79 from Medline, via Pubmed, and five form LILACS and SciELO. Sixteen of these articles were selected. Most studies in this review attested decline in sensory of smell and taste functions in individuals who underwent total laryngectomy and, although there is consensus regarding the damage caused to these functions by the nasal airflow interruption, it is not yet possible to evidence details in the mechanisms and structures involved, especially regarding the modifications in the olfactory mucous.

  7. Functional electrical stimulation for the upper limb in tetraplegic spinal cord injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Siddeshwar; Raza, Wajid A; Jamil, Firas; Caley, Richard; O'Connor, Rory J

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have helped to improve functional ability in spinal cord injury survivors. The aim of this study is to systematically review the evidence for functional electrical stimulation (FES) on functional tasks involving the upper limb in people with spinal cord injuries. The authors systematically searched from September 2009 to September 2014 in relevant databases using a combination of keywords covering spinal cord injury and FES. Studies were selected using pre-determined criteria. The search yielded 144 studies. Only five studies met the inclusion criteria. All five reported improvements immediately and at follow-up in functional ability as a result of FES or FES combined with conventional therapy. There is some preliminary evidence that FES may reduce disability due to upper limb-related activity limitations in tetraplegic spinal cord injury. Further work needs to examine the role of FES in more detail and in combination with other treatments.

  8. Posterolateral Fusion Versus Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ryan C; Mobbs, Ralph J; Lu, Victor M; Xu, Joshua; Rao, Prashanth J; Phan, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Systematic review and meta-analysis. Current surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) involves decompression of the spinal canal followed by fusion with or without interbody. The additional functional and operative benefits derived from interbody inclusion has yet to be thoroughly established with a number of recent studies producing conflicting results. Thus, we aim to compare the functional and operative outcomes after fusion against interbody fusion in the treatment of DS. This systematic review of the literature comparing posterolateral fusion (PLF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) outcomes in the treatment of DS was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Electronic searches of 6 databases yielded 386 articles from database inception to July 2016, which were screening against established criteria for inclusion into this study. A total of 6 studies, satisfied criteria and reported outcomes for 721 patients. Fusion alone was performed in 458 (63.5%) patients and interbody fusion was performed in 263 (36.5%) patients. Functional outcomes Oswestry Disability Index (P = .29) and visual analog scale (P = .13) were not statistically different between the 2 approaches. Furthermore, there was no significant inferiority between fusion alone and with interbody in terms of the operative outcomes of blood loss (P = .38), reoperation rate (P = .66), hospital stay (P = .96), complication rate (P = .78), or fusion rate (P = .15). There was no statistically significant difference in functional and operative outcomes following fusion alone versus with interbody. Additional subgroup analysis of intrinsic DS features in future large, prospective, randomized controlled trials will improve the validity of these findings.

  9. Which exercise prescriptions improve quality of life and physical function in patients with cancer during and following treatment? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweegers, Maike G; Altenburg, Teatske M; Chinapaw, Mai J; Kalter, Joeri; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Courneya, Kerry S; Newton, Robert U; Aaronson, Neil K; Jacobsen, Paul B; Brug, Johannes; Buffart, Laurien M

    2017-09-27

    Certain exercise prescriptions for patients with cancer may improve self-reported quality of life (QoL) and self-reported physical function (PF). We investigated the effects of exercise on QoL and PF in patients with cancer and studied differences in effects between different intervention-related and exercise-related characteristics. We searched four electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials investigating exercise effects on QoL and PF in patients with cancer. Pooled effects (Hedges' g) were calculated using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on intervention dimensions, including timing, duration and delivery mode, and exercise dimensions, including frequency, intensity, type and time (FITT factors). We included 74 exercise arms. Patients who were randomised to exercise interventions had significantly improved QoL (g=0.15, 95% CI (0.10 to 0.20), n=67 exercise arms) and PF (g=0.21, 95% CI (0.15 to 0.27), n=59 exercise arms) compared with patients in control groups. We found a significant between-group difference for exercise delivery mode, with significant beneficial effects for supervised exercise interventions (g=0.20, 95% CI (0.14 to 0.26) for QoL and g=0.27, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.33) for PF), but not for unsupervised interventions (g=0.04, 95% CI (-0.06 to 0.13) for QoL and g=0.09, 95% CI (-0.01 to 0.19) for PF). No statistically significant differences in intervention effects were found for variations in intervention timing, duration or exercise FITT factors. Unsupervised exercise with higher weekly energy expenditure was more effective than unsupervised exercise with lower energy expenditure (z=2.34, p=0.02). Exercise interventions, especially when supervised, have statistically significant and small clinical benefit on self-reported QoL and PF in patients with cancer. Unsupervised exercise intervention effects on PF were larger when prescribed at a higher weekly energy expenditure. © Article

  10. Ageing, Muscle Power and Physical Function: A Systematic Review and Implications for Pragmatic Training Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Christopher; Faure, Charles; Keene, David J; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-09-01

    The physiological impairments most strongly associated with functional performance in older people are logically the most efficient therapeutic targets for exercise training interventions aimed at improving function and maintaining independence in later life. The objectives of this review were to (1) systematically review the relationship between muscle power and functional performance in older people; (2) systematically review the effect of power training (PT) interventions on functional performance in older people; and (3) identify components of successful PT interventions relevant to pragmatic trials by scoping the literature. Our approach involved three stages. First, we systematically reviewed evidence on the relationship between muscle power, muscle strength and functional performance and, second, we systematically reviewed PT intervention studies that included both muscle power and at least one index of functional performance as outcome measures. Finally, taking a strong pragmatic perspective, we conducted a scoping review of the PT evidence to identify the successful components of training interventions needed to provide a minimally effective training dose to improve physical function. Evidence from 44 studies revealed a positive association between muscle power and indices of physical function, and that muscle power is a marginally superior predictor of functional performance than muscle strength. Nine studies revealed maximal angular velocity of movement, an important component of muscle power, to be positively associated with functional performance and a better predictor of functional performance than muscle strength. We identified 31 PT studies, characterised by small sample sizes and incomplete reporting of interventions, resulting in less than one-in-five studies judged as having a low risk of bias. Thirteen studies compared traditional resistance training with PT, with ten studies reporting the superiority of PT for either muscle power or functional

  11. Basic methods of linear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pryce, John D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to the themes of mathematical analysis, geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Topics include operators, function spaces, Hilbert spaces, and elementary Fourier analysis. Numerous exercises and worked examples.1973 edition.

  12. Static Analysis of Android Apps: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise; Papadakis, Mike; Rasthofer, Siegfried; Bartel, Alexandre; Octeau, Damien; Klein, Jacques; Le Traon, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Context: Static analysis exploits techniques that parse program source code or bytecode, often traversing program paths to check some program properties. Static analysis approaches have been proposed for different tasks, including for assessing the security of Android apps, detecting app clones, automating test cases generation, or for uncovering non-functional issues related to performance or energy. The literature thus has proposed a large body of works, each of which attempts to tackle one...

  13. Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in China:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao Lü; Weijie Fu; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to benefit cognitive function in older adults. However, the cognitive benefits of exercising for older Chinese adults have not been systematically documented. This study was to conduct a systematic review on evidence that PA is beneficial for cognitive functioning in older Chinese adults. Methods: Major databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WanFang, CNKI, and VIP, were searched for studies published in English or Chinese between January 2000 and December 2015. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs), cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies that evaluated PA and cognitive function among older Chinese adults were included in this review. Results: Of 53 studies included and reviewed, 33 were observational (22 cross-sectional, 7 case-control, and 4 cohort) and 20 were experimental (15 RCTs, 5 non-RCTs). Observational studies showed an association of reduced risk of cognitive-related diseases (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia) through PA, whereas experimental studies reported exercise-induced improvement in multiple domains of cognitive function (i.e., global cognitive function, memory, executive function, attention, language, and processing recourse). Conclusion: This systematic review provides initial evidence that PA may benefit cognition in older Chinese adults. Further studies of individuals with cognitive impairments and prospective and RCT studies having high scientific rigor are needed to corroborate the findings reported in this review.

  14. Theory of mind tasks and executive functions: a systematic review of group studies in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Christe, B; Martory, M-D; Annoni, J-M

    2011-03-01

    A growing number of studies have been addressing the relationship between theory of mind (TOM) and executive functions (EF) in patients with acquired neurological pathology. In order to provide a global overview on the main findings, we conducted a systematic review on group studies where we aimed to (1) evaluate the patterns of impaired and preserved abilities of both TOM and EF in groups of patients with acquired neurological pathology and (2) investigate the existence of particular relations between different EF domains and TOM tasks. The search was conducted in Pubmed/Medline. A total of 24 articles met the inclusion criteria. We considered for analysis classical clinically accepted TOM tasks (first- and second-order false belief stories, the Faux Pas test, Happe's stories, the Mind in the Eyes task, and Cartoon's tasks) and EF domains (updating, shifting, inhibition, and access). The review suggests that (1) EF and TOM appear tightly associated. However, the few dissociations observed suggest they cannot be reduced to a single function; (2) no executive subprocess could be specifically associated with TOM performances; (3) the first-order false belief task and the Happe's story task seem to be less sensitive to neurological pathologies and less associated to EF. Even though the analysis of the reviewed studies demonstrates a close relationship between TOM and EF in patients with acquired neurological pathology, the nature of this relationship must be further investigated. Studies investigating ecological consequences of TOM and EF deficits, and intervention researches may bring further contributions to this question. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Systematic analysis of transcription start sites in avian development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lizio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE in combination with single-molecule sequencing technology allows precision mapping of transcription start sites (TSSs and genome-wide capture of promoter activities in differentiated and steady state cell populations. Much less is known about whether TSS profiling can characterize diverse and non-steady state cell populations, such as the approximately 400 transitory and heterogeneous cell types that arise during ontogeny of vertebrate animals. To gain such insight, we used the chick model and performed CAGE-based TSS analysis on embryonic samples covering the full 3-week developmental period. In total, 31,863 robust TSS peaks (>1 tag per million [TPM] were mapped to the latest chicken genome assembly, of which 34% to 46% were active in any given developmental stage. ZENBU, a web-based, open-source platform, was used for interactive data exploration. TSSs of genes critical for lineage differentiation could be precisely mapped and their activities tracked throughout development, suggesting that non-steady state and heterogeneous cell populations are amenable to CAGE-based transcriptional analysis. Our study also uncovered a large set of extremely stable housekeeping TSSs and many novel stage-specific ones. We furthermore demonstrated that TSS mapping could expedite motif-based promoter analysis for regulatory modules associated with stage-specific and housekeeping genes. Finally, using Brachyury as an example, we provide evidence that precise TSS mapping in combination with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR-on technology enables us, for the first time, to efficiently target endogenous avian genes for transcriptional activation. Taken together, our results represent the first report of genome-wide TSS mapping in birds and the first systematic developmental TSS analysis in any amniote species (birds and mammals. By facilitating promoter-based molecular analysis and genetic

  16. Prevalence of frailty in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on prevalence of frailty among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD is associated with malnutrition, chronic inflammation, acidemia, impaired hormonal changes, and low physical activity, all of which can directly and indirectly contribute to the development of frailty. Coexistence of ESRD and frailty has been shown to increase risks of adverse health outcomes. Given potential reversibility of frailty, it is important to examine frailty status in this high-risk population. Three databases (EMBASE, Medline, and CINAHL) were systematically searched for studies providing cross-sectional data of prevalence of frailty defined by cardiovascular health study (CHS) criteria among ESRD patients. Meta-analysis calculated pooled prevalence of frailty according to modifications of CHS criteria. Of 837 studies identified through the systematic review, seven studies were included. Three studies used both objectively measured and self-reported CHS criteria, and two studies each used only either criteria. Pooled prevalence of frailty was 36.8% (five studies: 95% CI = 29.9-44.1%, I (2) = 82.6%, p frailty almost doubled with the CHS criteria substituting self-reported physical function questionnaire score for objective measurements. Given substantial difference in prevalence of frailty depending on the modifications to CHS criteria, this information should be taken into account when evaluating frailty status among ESRD population.

  17. The influence of humanitarian crises on social functioning among civilians in low and middle income countries: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Shaon; Van Ommeren, Mark; Roberts, Bayard

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to systematically review how social functioning is measured, conceptualised, impacted, and associated with mental disorders in populations affected by humanitarian crises. Quantitative studies conducted with civilian populations affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries with outcomes of social functioning were examined up to 2014. Data sources included Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, and Global Health, and 8 grey literature sources, yielding 14,350 records, of which 20 studies met inclusion criteria. A descriptive synthesis analysis was used, and the final selected studies assessed for quality using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. In the 20 studies, social functioning was conceptualised in six categories: family functioning, friendship quality, functional impairment, overall social functioning, social adaptation, and social relations. Seventeen studies were cross-sectional, two were cohort, and one a controlled trial. The quality of the studies was generally moderate. The limited evidence suggests that social functioning is relevant variable. Greater crisis exposure is associated with more severe depression and lower social functioning. The protective role of familial and social resources for social functioning is highlighted in different crisis settings. However, greater research on social functioning and mental health is required. PMID:26963867

  18. The influence of humanitarian crises on social functioning among civilians in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Shaon; van Ommeren, Mark; Roberts, Bayard

    2017-12-01

    Our aim was to systematically review how social functioning is measured, conceptualised, impacted, and associated with mental disorders in populations affected by humanitarian crises. Quantitative studies conducted with civilian populations affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries with outcomes of social functioning were examined up to 2014. Data sources included Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, and Global Health, and 8 grey literature sources, yielding 14,350 records, of which 20 studies met inclusion criteria. A descriptive synthesis analysis was used, and the final selected studies assessed for quality using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. In the 20 studies, social functioning was conceptualised in 6 categories: family functioning, friendship quality, functional impairment, overall social functioning, social adaptation, and social relations. Seventeen studies were cross-sectional, two were cohort, and one a controlled trial. The quality of the studies was generally moderate. The limited evidence suggests that social functioning is a relevant variable. Greater crisis exposure is associated with more severe depression and lower social functioning. The protective role of familial and social resources for social functioning is highlighted in different crisis settings. However, greater research on social functioning and mental health is required.

  19. Functional analysis, spectral theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Einsiedler, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a careful treatment of functional analysis and some of its applications in analysis, number theory, and ergodic theory. In addition to discussing core material in functional analysis, the authors cover more recent and advanced topics, including Weyl’s law for eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator, amenability and property (T), the measurable functional calculus, spectral theory for unbounded operators, and an account of Tao’s approach to the prime number theorem using Banach algebras. The book further contains numerous examples and exercises, making it suitable for both lecture courses and self-study. Functional Analysis, Spectral Theory, and Applications is aimed at postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students with some background in analysis and algebra, but will also appeal to everyone with an interest in seeing how functional analysis can be applied to other parts of mathematics.

  20. Wearable inertial sensors in swimming motion analysis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhaes, Fabricio Anicio; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The use of contemporary technology is widely recognised as a key tool for enhancing competitive performance in swimming. Video analysis is traditionally used by coaches to acquire reliable biomechanical data about swimming performance; however, this approach requires a huge computational effort, thus introducing a delay in providing quantitative information. Inertial and magnetic sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, have been recently introduced to assess the biomechanics of swimming performance. Research in this field has attracted a great deal of interest in the last decade due to the gradual improvement of the performance of sensors and the decreasing cost of miniaturised wearable devices. With the aim of describing the state of the art of current developments in this area, a systematic review of the existing methods was performed using the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. Twenty-seven articles published in indexed journals and conference proceedings, focusing on the biomechanical analysis of swimming by means of inertial sensors were reviewed. The articles were categorised according to sensor's specification, anatomical sites where the sensors were attached, experimental design and applications for the analysis of swimming performance. Results indicate that inertial sensors are reliable tools for swimming biomechanical analyses.

  1. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95%) on crackle, 9 (11.69%) on stridor, 9 (11

  2. Cartilage failures. Systematic literature review, critical survey analysis, and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Andriolo, Luca; Balboni, Federica; Marcacci, Maurilio; Kon, Elizaveta

    2015-12-01

    While midterm results of matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) are now available, less attention has been paid to the evaluation of failures of this surgical approach. Aim of this study was to analyse how "failures" are generally defined in cartilage surgery, in order to understand how the survival rate may change according to different definitions of failure. A systematic review on MACT in the knee was conducted to report failure rates as well as different failure definitions in the available literature. Afterwards, we analysed the survival curve at 8.5-year follow-up of a survey of 193 patients treated with MACT. Using different definitions to identify failures, we compared how the survival rate changed according to the different definitions of failure. The systematic review on 93 papers showed that the average failure rate reported on 3,289 patients was 5.2 % at a mean 34 months of follow-up. However, 41 studies (44.1 %) did not even consider this aspect, and failures were variously defined, thus generating confusing data that make a meta-analysis or a study comparison meaningless. The failure analysis of the MACT survey showed that the survival curve changed significantly depending on the definition applied; in fact, the failure rate ranged from 3.6 to 33.7 %. According to a critical literature and survey analysis, we proposed a combined surgical- and improvement-based definition which led to a failure rate of 25.9 % at midterm/long-term follow-up. Nowadays, failure definitions of cartilage treatments differ in scientific articles, thus generating confusion and heterogeneous data even when applied to the same cohort of patients. While the literature analysis shows a low number of failures, this study demonstrated that if properly addressed with a comprehensive definition, the real failure rate of cartilage surgical procedures in the knee is higher than previously reported. Recognizing failures would give a better understanding and a more

  3. [Secondary hypothyroidism after cervical irradiation: systematic evaluation of thyroid function in follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sara Monteiro; Ferreira, Brígida Costa; Guardado, Maria João; Marques, Rui; Serra, Tânia; Serra, Maria João; Roda, Domingos; Brandão, Joana; Melo, Gilberto; Lopes, Maria Carmo; Khouri, Leila

    2014-01-01

    complication after irradiation and affects a large percentage of patients undergoing cervical radiotherapy with curative intent. It has been shown that the risk of hypothyroidism increases with time after exposure, but the highest incidence appears to be in the first two years after treatment. From our analysis we obtained at 12 months, a rate of incidence of hypothyroidism of 18.6% (16.55% grade 1 and grade 2, 2.1%). This study found an incidence of hypothyroidism corresponding to the lowest values reported in other published studies. The short duration of follow-up considered in this analysis, may justify these results. With these results and their correlation with the available literature, the authors consider justified and recommend the inclusion of the systematic evaluation of thyroid function in the follow-up protocol of these patients.

  4. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We continue the analysis in [F. Hansen, and J. Tomiyama, Differential analysis of matrix convex functions. Linear Algebra Appl., 420:102--116, 2007] of matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divide...

  5. Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....

  6. Cardiac Harms of Sofosbuvir: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Daniel; Rodrigues, Filipe B; Duarte, Marta M; Sterrantino, Carmelo; Barra, Márcio; Gonçalves, Nilza; Pinto, Fausto J; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Costa, João

    2017-08-07

    Sofosbuvir is a new direct-acting pyrimidine nucleotide analogue antiviral drug that has shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of hepatitis C in clinical trials. However, observational anecdotal data have recently suggested an increased risk of serious bradycardia among patients treated with sofosbuvir and amiodarone. We aimed to estimate and characterize the cardiac safety of sofosbuvir by performing a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a systematic review of RCTs (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016033109) comparing sofosbuvir and non-sofosbuvir regimens in patients with chronic hepatitis C by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to January 2017. Non-published data were obtained from the sofosbuvir marketing authorization holder. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to derive pooled estimates of relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Six trials, enrolling 2346 patients (1625 treated with sofosbuvir), were included. The overall risk of bias across studies was moderate. The risk of reported cardiac events (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.41-1.85), arrhythmias (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.34-2.51), bradycardia (RR 0.47; 95% CI 0.04-5.20), and tachycardia (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.20-4.20) were not significantly different between sofosbuvir and non-sofosbuvir regimens. The risks of reported syncope, presyncope, loss of consciousness, or palpitations were similar among those receiving sofosbuvir regimens and controls. The pooled data from RCTs did not show an increased risk of cardiac outcomes, including arrhythmias (and bradycardia), among sofosbuvir-treated patients, although the overall quality of the evidence supporting this conclusion was very low. Registration: PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016033109 at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ .

  7. The symptomatic and functional effects of manual physical therapy on plantar heel pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, John J; Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Sault, Josiah D; Emerson Kavchak, Alicia J

    2017-02-01

    Plantar heel pain is common and can be severely disabling. Unfortunately, a gap in the literature exists regarding the optimal intervention for this painful condition. Consequently, a systematic review of the current literature regarding manual therapy for the treatment of plantar heel pain was performed. A computer-assisted literature search for randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Source, was concluded on 7 January 2014. After identification of titles, three independent reviewers selected abstracts and then full-text articles for review. Eight articles were selected for the final review and underwent PEDro scale assessment for quality. Heterogeneity of the articles did not allow for quantitative analysis. Only two studies scored ≥7/10 on the PEDro scale and included joint, soft tissue, and neural mobilization techniques. These two studies showed statistically greater symptomatic and functional outcomes in the manual therapy group. This review suggests that manual therapy is effective in the treatment of plantar heel pain; however, further research is needed to validate these findings given the preponderance of low quality studies.

  8. A Systematic Review of Parent-Implemented Functional Communication Training for Children With ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerow, Stephanie; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Rispoli, Mandy; Gregori, Emily; Mason, Rose; Ninci, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    Supporting parents in reducing challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires the identification of effective, feasible, and sustainable interventions. Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most well-established interventions in the behavioral literature and is used increasingly by parents. However, there is a need for additional evaluation of the literature related to parent-implemented FCT. In the present review, we identified 26 peer-reviewed studies on parent-implemented FCT. We conducted systematic descriptive and social validity analyses to summarize the extant literature. Across studies, parent-implemented FCT was effective in reducing child challenging behavior, and in some cases, intervention outcomes maintained and generalized to novel settings and implementers. However, few studies reported fidelity data on parent implementation of FCT, and data regarding sustained use of FCT by parents were limited. Results of the social validity analysis indicate that while FCT is often implemented by natural change agents in typical settings, parent training is often provided by professionals not typically accessible to parents. These findings suggest that future research is warranted in the areas of parent training and long-term sustainability of parent-implemented FCT.

  9. Reliability of physical functioning tests in patients with low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denteneer, Lenie; Van Daele, Ulrike; Truijen, Steven; De Hertogh, Willem; Meirte, Jill; Stassijns, Gaetane

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of physical functioning tests in patients with low back pain (LBP) and to investigate their reliability. A systematic computerized search was finalized in four different databases on June 24, 2017: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and MEDLINE. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed during all stages of this review. Clinical studies that investigate the reliability of physical functioning tests in patients with LBP were eligible. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the use of the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. To come to final conclusions on the reliability of the identified clinical tests, the current review assessed three factors, namely, outcome assessment, methodological quality, and consistency of description. A total of 20 studies were found eligible and 38 clinical tests were identified. Good overall test-retest reliability was concluded for the extensor endurance test (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.93-0.97), the flexor endurance test (ICC=0.90-0.97), the 5-minute walking test (ICC=0.89-0.99), the 50-ft walking test (ICC=0.76-0.96), the shuttle walk test (ICC=0.92-0.99), the sit-to-stand test (ICC=0.91-0.99), and the loaded forward reach test (ICC=0.74-0.98). For inter-rater reliability, only one test, namely, the Biering-Sörensen test (ICC=0.88-0.99), could be concluded to have an overall good inter-rater reliability. None of the identified clinical tests could be concluded to have a good intrarater reliability. Further investigation should focus on a better overall study methodology and the use of identical protocols for the description of clinical tests. The assessment of reliability is only a first step in the recommendation process for the use of clinical tests. In future research, the identified clinical tests in the

  10. Functional Data Analysis with R and MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, James; Graves, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Scientists often collect samples of curves and other functional observations, and develop models where parameters are also functions. This title provides computer code in both the R and Matlab languages for a set of data analyses that showcase functional data analysis techniques.

  11. Linear functional analysis for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Limaye, Balmohan V

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise and meticulous introduction to functional analysis. Since the topic draws heavily on the interplay between the algebraic structure of a linear space and the distance structure of a metric space, functional analysis is increasingly gaining the attention of not only mathematicians but also scientists and engineers. The purpose of the text is to present the basic aspects of functional analysis to this varied audience, keeping in mind the considerations of applicability. A novelty of this book is the inclusion of a result by Zabreiko, which states that every countably subadditive seminorm on a Banach space is continuous. Several major theorems in functional analysis are easy consequences of this result. The entire book can be used as a textbook for an introductory course in functional analysis without having to make any specific selection from the topics presented here. Basic notions in the setting of a metric space are defined in terms of sequences. These include total boundedness, c...

  12. Construction and analysis of cryptographic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Budaghyan, Lilya

    2015-01-01

    This book covers novel research on construction and analysis of optimal cryptographic functions such as almost perfect nonlinear (APN), almost bent (AB), planar and bent functions. These functions have optimal resistance to linear and/or differential attacks, which are the two most powerful attacks on symmetric cryptosystems. Besides cryptographic applications, these functions are significant in many branches of mathematics and information theory including coding theory, combinatorics, commutative algebra, finite geometry, sequence design and quantum information theory. The author analyzes equ

  13. A Systematic Approach for the Design and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems with Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a systematic model-based analysis and the results obtained from it for an integrated design and analysis of reaction-separation systems with recycle. The methodology (systematic approach) consists of three stages where stage 1 identifies the limiting values...

  14. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Y; García-Hermoso, A; Saavedra, J M

    2011-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease. The reduced aerobic capacity of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis affects their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (ability to perform activities of daily living that require sustained aerobic metabolism) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. A computerized search was made of seven databases. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic applied to the ES means. The 20 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. These studies were grouped into five categories according to the characteristics of the exercise program: land-based interventions (strength programs, tai chi, aerobic programs, mixed exercise programs) and aquatic intervention (hydrotherapy). The functional aerobic capacity improved in tai chi programs (ES=0.66; 95% CI, 0.23-1.09), aerobic programs (ES=0.90; 95% CI, 0.70-1.10), and mixed programs (ES=0.47; 95% CI, -0.38-0.39). The conclusions were: (i) despite recommendations for the use of exercise programs for aerobic fitness in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, few randomized clinical trials have been conducted; (ii) the structure of the exercise programs (program content and duration, and session frequency and duration) is very heterogeneous; (iii) overall, exercise programs based on tai chi, aerobic, and mixed exercise seem to give better results than hydrotherapy programs, but without the differences being altogether clear. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What domains of clinical function should be assessed after sport-related concussion? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Echemendia, Ruben J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Solomon, Gary S; Hayden, K Alix; Turner, Michael; Dvořák, Jiří; Straumann, Dominik; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2017-06-01

    Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a clinical diagnosis made after a sport-related head trauma. Inconsistency exists regarding appropriate methods for assessing SRC, which focus largely on symptom-scores, neurocognitive functioning and postural stability. Systematic literature review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane-DSR, Cochrane CRCT, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus (accessed July 9, 2016). Original (prospective) studies reporting on postinjury assessment in a clinical setting and evaluation of diagnostic tools within 2 weeks after an SRC. Forty-six studies covering 3284 athletes were included out of 2170 articles. Only the prospective studies were considered for final analysis (n=33; 2416 athletes). Concussion diagnosis was typically made on the sideline by an (certified) athletic trainer (55.0%), mainly on the basis of results from a symptom-based questionnaire. Clinical domains affected included cognitive, vestibular and headache/migraine. Headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating and dizziness were the symptoms most frequently reported. Neurocognitive testing was used in 30/33 studies (90.9%), whereas balance was assessed in 9/33 studies (27.3%). The overall quality of the studies was considered low. The absence of an objective, gold standard criterion makes the accurate diagnosis of SRC challenging. Current approaches tend to emphasise cognition, symptom assessment and postural stability with less of a focus on other domains of functioning. We propose that the clinical assessment of SRC should be symptom based and interdisciplinary. Whenever possible, the SRC assessment should incorporate neurological, vestibular, ocular motor, visual, neurocognitive, psychological and cervical aspects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Loneliness and cognitive function in the older adult: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Lisa; Kang, Duck-Hee; Branson, Sandy

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is a significant concern among the elderly, particularly in societies with rapid growth in aging populations. Loneliness may influence cognitive function, but the exact nature of the association between loneliness and cognitive function is poorly understood. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize current findings on the association between loneliness and cognitive function in older adults. A comprehensive, electronic review of the literature was performed. Criteria for inclusion were original quantitative or qualitative research, report written in English, human participants with a mean age ≥ 60 years, and published from January 2000 through July 2013. The total number of studies included in this systematic review was ten. Main findings from the ten studies largely indicate that loneliness is significantly and negatively correlated with cognitive function, specifically in domains of global cognitive function or general cognitive ability, intelligence quotient (IQ), processing speed, immediate recall, and delayed recall. However, some initial correlations were not significant after controlling for a wide range of demographic and psychosocial risk factors thought to influence loneliness. Greater loneliness is associated with lower cognitive function. Although preliminary evidence is promising, additional studies are necessary to determine the causality and biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function. Findings should be verified in culturally diverse populations in different ages and settings using biobehavioral approaches.

  17. Associations between gender, coping patterns and functioning for individuals with chronic pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shormilisy, Nina; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Developing strategies for coping with chronic pain is an integral part of successfully living with this often debilitating health condition. While gender differences in pain coping strategies have long been investigated, the relationship between gender-specific engagement in coping and associated functioning in individuals experiencing chronic pain is yet to be clearly understood. The present systematic review focused on studies that address these relationships to critically evaluate the available evidence. A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL, with 7247 titles retrieved. To be included, studies had to be in English, focus on adult participants, consider chronic nonmalignant pain, use measures of coping and functioning (or disability), report on gender-specific outcomes (for coping and functioning [or disability]), and investigate a relationship among gender, coping and functioning. One researcher screened abstracts and full-text articles, and extracted and tabulated data, while two researchers independently assessed potential articles for eligibility and methodological quality. Only seven studies met the inclusion criteria - six of high quality and one of moderate quality. The presented findings suggest that women in pain are more likely to use coping strategies considered to be maladaptive, resulting in poorer functioning, while men tend to engage in coping strategies considered to be adaptive, leading to better functional outcomes. While there is some evidence supporting gender-specific engagement in coping and associated functioning, future research is necessary to expand understanding of these interrelations.

  18. Manual function outcome measures in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Eleonora; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Cioni, Giovanni; Feys, Hilde; Guzzetta, Andrea; Klingels, Katrijn

    2016-08-01

    This study systematically reviewed the clinical and psychometric properties of manual function outcome measures for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) aged 3-18 years. Three electronic databases were searched to identify manual function tools at the ICF-CY body function, activity and participation level used in children with DCD. Study selection and data extraction was conducted by two blind assessors according to the CanChild Outcome Measures Rating Form. Nineteen clinical tests (seven fine hand use tools and 12 handwriting measures), three naturalistic observations and six questionnaires were identified. The fine-motor subdomain of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 and the Functional Strength Measurement, with adequate reliability and validity properties, might be useful for manual function capacity assessment. The Systematic Detection of Writing Problems (SOS) and the Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting (DASH) could be adopted for handwriting assessment, respectively from 6 and 9 years old. Naturalistic observations and questionnaires, whose psychometric properties have been investigated into limited extent, offer an assessment of the daily performances. This review shows that a combination of different tools is needed for a comprehensive assessment of manual function in children with DCD including the three levels of the ICF-CY. Further investigation of psychometric properties of those tools in children with DCD is warranted. Tests validated in other populations should be explored for their applicability for assessing manual function in children with DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional analysis of molecular interactions in synthetic auxin response circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Moss, Britney L; Lanctot, Amy; Hageman, Amber; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2016-10-04

    Auxin-regulated transcription pivots on the interaction between the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) repressor proteins and the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors. Recent structural analyses of ARFs and Aux/IAAs have raised questions about the functional complexes driving auxin transcriptional responses. To parse the nature and significance of ARF-DNA and ARF-Aux/IAA interactions, we analyzed structure-guided variants of synthetic auxin response circuits in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Our analysis revealed that promoter architecture could specify ARF activity and that ARF19 required dimerization at two distinct domains for full transcriptional activation. In addition, monomeric Aux/IAAs were able to repress ARF activity in both yeast and plants. This systematic, quantitative structure-function analysis identified a minimal complex-comprising a single Aux/IAA repressing a pair of dimerized ARFs-sufficient for auxin-induced transcription.

  20. On the effects of systematic errors in analysis of nuclear scattering data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.T.; Steward, C.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.

    1995-07-05

    The effects of systematic errors on elastic scattering differential cross-section data upon the assessment of quality fits to that data have been studied. Three cases are studied, namely the differential cross-section data sets from elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from {sup 12}C, of 350 MeV {sup 16}O-{sup 16}O scattering and of 288.6 MeV {sup 12}C-{sup 12}C scattering. First, to estimate the probability of any unknown systematic errors, select sets of data have been processed using the method of generalized cross validation; a method based upon the premise that any data set should satisfy an optimal smoothness criterion. In another case, the S function that provided a statistically significant fit to data, upon allowance for angle variation, became overdetermined. A far simpler S function form could then be found to describe the scattering process. The S functions so obtained have been used in a fixed energy inverse scattering study to specify effective, local, Schroedinger potentials for the collisions. An error analysis has been performed on the results to specify confidence levels for those interactions. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 15 figs.

  1. Functional Analysis: Entering Hilbert Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    of the theory of Fredholm operators on general Banach spaces, not only on Hilbert spaces, since this is important for applications of the theory. The more general setting with Banach spaces requires that we develop the theory of dual operators between Banach spaces to replace the use of adjoint operators...... between Hilbert spaces. Fredholm operators are of interest far beyond mathematical analysis, they also play a significant role in theoretical physics, differential geometry and topology with the famous Index Theorem proved by Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer in 1963 as a highlight. With the addition......In the second edition, I have expanded the material on normed vector spaces and their operators presented in Chapter 1 to include proofs of the Open Map-ping Theorem, the Closed Graph Theorem and the Hahn-Banach The orem. The material on operators between normed vector spaces is further expanded...

  2. What is the association between sedentary behaviour and cognitive function? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Ryan S; Davis, Jennifer C; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    The increasing rate of all-cause dementia worldwide and the lack of effective pharmaceutical treatments emphasise the value of lifestyle approaches as prevention strategies. Emerging evidence suggests sedentary behaviour is associated with impaired cognitive function. A better understanding of this association would significantly add to our knowledge of how to best promote healthy cognitive ageing. Thus, we conducted a systematic review ascertaining the contribution of sedentary behaviour towards associated changes in cognitive function over the adult lifespan. Systematic review of peer-reviewed literature examining the association of sedentary behaviour with cognition. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO and Web of Science, and reference lists of relevant reviews on sedentary behaviour. Two independent reviewers extracted (1) study characteristics and (2) information regarding measurement of sedentary behaviour and cognitive function. We also assessed study quality using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. We limited search results to adults ≥40 years, observational studies published in English since 1990 and studies investigating associations between sedentary behaviour and cognitive function. 8 studies examined the association of sedentary behaviour with cognitive function. 6 studies reported significant negative associations between sedentary behaviour and cognitive function. 8 different measures of sedentary behaviour and 13 different measures of cognitive function were used across all eight studies. Sedentary behaviour is associated with lower cognitive performance, although the attributable risk of sedentary time to all-cause dementia incidence is unclear. Our systematic review provides evidence that limiting sedentary time and concomitantly engaging in regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may best promote healthy cognitive ageing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  3. Associations among Gender, Coping Patterns and Functioning for Individuals with Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nina El-Shormilisy; Jenny Strong; Pamela J Meredith

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developing strategies for coping with chronic pain is an integral part of successfully living with this often debilitating health condition. While gender differences in pain coping strategies have long been investigated, the relationship between gender-specific engagement in coping and associated functioning in individuals experiencing chronic pain is yet to be clearly understood. OBJECTIVE: The present systematic review focused on studies that address these relationships to criti...

  4. Systematic functional characterization of resistance to PI3K inhibition in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Xiuning; Antony, Rajee; Razavi, Pedram; Treacy, Daniel J.; Luo, Flora; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Castel, Pau; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Baselga, Jose; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    PIK3CA (which encodes the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) alpha isoform) is the most frequently mutated oncogene in breast cancer. Small-molecule PI3K inhibitors have shown promise in clinical trials; however, intrinsic and acquired resistance limits their utility. We used a systematic gain-of-function approach to identify genes whose upregulation confers resistance to the PI3K inhibitor BYL719 in breast cancer cells. Among the validated resistance genes, PIM kinases conferred resistance by ...

  5. Social network analysis in healthcare settings: a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Duncan; Wilson, Paul; Thompson, Carl; Harden, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) has been widely used across a range of disciplines but is most commonly applied to help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of decision making processes in commercial organisations. We are utilising SNA to inform the development and implementation of tailored behaviour-change interventions to improve the uptake of evidence into practice in the English National Health Service. To inform this work, we conducted a systematic scoping review to identify and evaluate the use of SNA as part of an intervention to support the implementation of change in healthcare settings. We searched ten bibliographic databases to October 2011. We also searched reference lists, hand searched selected journals and websites, and contacted experts in the field. To be eligible for the review, studies had to describe and report the results of an SNA performed with healthcare professionals (e.g. doctors, nurses, pharmacists, radiographers etc.) and others involved in their professional social networks. We included 52 completed studies, reported in 62 publications. Almost all of the studies were limited to cross sectional descriptions of networks; only one involved using the results of the SNA as part of an intervention to change practice. We found very little evidence for the potential of SNA being realised in healthcare settings. However, it seems unlikely that networks are less important in healthcare than other settings. Future research should seek to go beyond the merely descriptive to implement and evaluate SNA-based interventions.

  6. Amiodarone and cardiac arrest: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laina, Ageliki; Karlis, George; Liakos, Aris; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Chalkias, Athanasios; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-10-15

    The 2015 Guidelines for Resuscitation recommend amiodarone as the antiarrhythmic drug of choice in the treatment of resistant ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. We reviewed the effects of amiodarone on survival and neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. We systematically searched MEDLINE and Cochrane Library from 1940 to March 2016 without language restrictions. Randomized control trials (RCTs) and observational studies were selected. Our search initially identified 1663 studies, 1458 from MEDLINE and 205 from Cochrane Library. Of them, 4 randomized controlled studies and 6 observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were selected for further review. Three randomized studies were included in the meta-analysis. Amiodarone significantly improves survival to hospital admission (OR=1.402, 95% CI: 1.068-1.840, Z=2.43, P=0.015), but neither survival to hospital discharge (RR=0.850, 95% CI: 0.631-1.144, Z=1.07, P=0.284) nor neurological outcome compared to placebo or nifekalant (OR=1.114, 95% CI: 0.923-1.345, Z=1.12, P=0.475). Amiodarone significantly improves survival to hospital admission. However there is no benefit of amiodarone in survival to discharge or neurological outcomes compared to placebo or other antiarrhythmics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono

    Full Text Available Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established.To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works.A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016 and IEEExplore (1984-2016 databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification.Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated.Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved.A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43% of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95% on crackle, 9 (11.69% on stridor, 9

  8. Consumers' acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Nocella, Giuseppe; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Nardone, Gianluca; De Devitiis, Biagia; Carlucci, Domenico

    2017-06-01

    This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional dairy products, such as yogurt enriched with calcium, fiber and probiotics. Acceptance for functional dairy products increases among consumers with higher diet/health related knowledge, as well as with aging. General interest in health, food-neophobia and perceived self-efficacy seem also to contribute shaping the acceptance for functional dairy products. Furthermore, products with "natural" matches between carriers and ingredients have the highest level of acceptance among consumers. Last, we find that brand familiarity drives consumers with low interest in health to increase their acceptance and preference for health-enhanced dairy products, such as probiotic yogurts, or those with a general function claim. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of conservation targets in systematic conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Noam; Mazor, Tessa; Brokovich, Eran; Jablon, Pierre-Elie; Kark, Salit

    2015-10-01

    flexibility in a conservation network is adequate when ~10-20% of the study area is considered irreplaceable (selection frequency values over 90%). This approach offers a useful sensitivity analysis when applying target-based systematic conservation planning tools, ensuring that the resulting protected area conservation network offers more choices for managers and decision makers.

  10. Radiographic caries detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Tzschoppe, Markus; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    This systematic review aimed at evaluating the accuracy of radiographic caries detection for different lesions at different locations. Studies reporting on the accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of radiographic detection of natural primary caries lesions under clinical or in vitro conditions were included. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Analyses were performed separately for occlusal and proximal lesions, with further discrimination between any kind of lesions, dentine lesions, and cavitated lesions. Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central) and grey literature were systematically searched, complemented by cross-referencing from bibliographies. From 947 identified articles, 442 were analyzed full-text. 117 studies (13,375 teeth, 19,108 surfaces) were included, the majority of them reporting on permanent teeth and having high risk of bias. The detection of any kind (i.e. also initial) lesions had low sensitivities (pooled DOR [95% CI]: 0.24 [0.21/0.26] to 0.42 [0.31/0.34]), but moderate to high specificities (0.70 [0.76/0.84] to 0.97 [0.95/0.98]). For dentine lesions, sensitivities were higher (from 0.36 [0.24/0.49] for proximal to 0.56 [0.53/0.59] for occlusal lesions), and specificities ranged between 0.87 [0.85/0.89] and 0.95 [0.94/0.96]. No studies reported on cavitated occlusal lesions, whilst for cavitated proximal lesions, sensitivities increased above 0.60, whilst sensitivities remained high (above 0.90). Radiographic caries detection is highly accurate for cavitated proximal lesions, and seems also suitable to detect dentine caries lesions. For detecting initial lesions, more sensitive methods could be considered in population with high caries risk and prevalence. Radiographic caries detection is especially suitable for detecting more advanced caries lesions, and has limited risks for false positive diagnoses. For

  11. A systematic analysis of FDA-approved anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingchun; Wei, Qiang; Zhou, Yubo; Wang, Jingqi; Liu, Qi; Xu, Hua

    2017-10-03

    The discovery of novel anticancer drugs is critical for the pharmaceutical research and development, and patient treatment. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated effects as potential candidates is one way to meet this important goal. Systematic investigation of efficient anticancer drugs could provide valuable insights into trends in the discovery of anticancer drugs, which may contribute to the systematic discovery of new anticancer drugs. In this study, we collected and analyzed 150 anticancer drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Based on drug mechanism of action, these agents are divided into two groups: 61 cytotoxic-based drugs and 89 target-based drugs. We found that in the recent years, the proportion of targeted agents tended to be increasing, and the targeted drugs tended to be delivered as signal drugs. For 89 target-based drugs, we collected 102 effect-mediating drug targets in the human genome and found that most targets located on the plasma membrane and most of them belonged to the enzyme, especially tyrosine kinase. From above 150 drugs, we built a drug-cancer network, which contained 183 nodes (150 drugs and 33 cancer types) and 248 drug-cancer associations. The network indicated that the cytotoxic drugs tended to be used to treat more cancer types than targeted drugs. From 89 targeted drugs, we built a cancer-drug-target network, which contained 214 nodes (23 cancer types, 89 drugs, and 102 targets) and 313 edges (118 drug-cancer associations and 195 drug-target associations). Starting from the network, we discovered 133 novel drug-cancer associations among 52 drugs and 16 cancer types by applying the common target-based approach. Most novel drug-cancer associations (116, 87%) are supported by at least one clinical trial study. In this study, we provided a comprehensive data source, including anticancer drugs and their targets and performed a detailed analysis in term of historical tendency and networks. Its

  12. Gait analysis of the lower limb in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, H.; Dubbeldam, Rosemary; Nene, Anand; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), signs and symptoms of feet and ankle are common. To evaluate the dynamic function of feet and ankles, namely walking, a variety of gait studies have been published. In this systematic review, we provide a systematic overview of the available gait studies in

  13. A systematic analysis of the science of sandboxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandboxes are increasingly important building materials for secure software systems. In recognition of their potential to improve the security posture of many systems at various points in the development lifecycle, researchers have spent the last several decades developing, improving, and evaluating sandboxing techniques. What has been done in this space? Where are the barriers to advancement? What are the gaps in these efforts? We systematically analyze a decade of sandbox research from five top-tier security and systems conferences using qualitative content analysis, statistical clustering, and graph-based metrics to answer these questions and more. We find that the term “sandbox” currently has no widely accepted or acceptable definition. We use our broad scope to propose the first concise and comprehensive definition for “sandbox” that consistently encompasses research sandboxes. We learn that the sandboxing landscape covers a range of deployment options and policy enforcement techniques collectively capable of defending diverse sets of components while mitigating a wide range of vulnerabilities. Researchers consistently make security, performance, and applicability claims about their sandboxes and tend to narrowly define the claims to ensure they can be evaluated. Those claims are validated using multi-faceted strategies spanning proof, analytical analysis, benchmark suites, case studies, and argumentation. However, we find two cases for improvement: (1 the arguments researchers present are often ad hoc and (2 sandbox usability is mostly uncharted territory. We propose ways to structure arguments to ensure they fully support their corresponding claims and suggest lightweight means of evaluating sandbox usability.

  14. Norovirus in Latin America: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Riera-Montes, Margarita; Lopman, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Noroviruses are increasingly recognized as a major cause of sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Although there have been multiple studies published on norovirus epidemiology in Latin America, no comprehensive assessment of the role of norovirus has been conducted in the region. We aim to estimate the role of norovirus in the Latin American region through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. We carried out a literature search in MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS. We included papers that provided information on the prevalence or incidence of norovirus (including seroprevalence studies and outbreaks), with a recruitment and/or follow-up period of at least 12 months and where the diagnosis of norovirus was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The data were pooled for meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of norovirus AGE and norovirus asymptomatic infection with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirty-eight studies were included in the review. Overall, the prevalence of norovirus among AGE cases was 15% (95% CI: 13-18). By location, it was 15% in the community (95% CI: 11%-21%), 14% in outpatient settings (95% CI: 10%-19%) and 16% in hospital locations (95% CI: 12%-21%). The prevalence of norovirus among asymptomatic subjects was 8% (95% CI: 4-13). Norovirus GII.4 strains were associated with 37%-100% of norovirus AGE cases, but only 7% of norovirus asymptomatic detections. Noroviruses are associated with almost 1 out of every 6 hospitalizations because of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age in Latin America.

  15. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serumselenium (≥121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61–1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70–3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79–1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. Conclusions Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in this context. PMID:22073154

  16. Systematic Functional Interrogation of Rare Cancer Variants Identifies Oncogenic Alleles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer genome characterization efforts now provide an initial view of the somatic alterations in primary tumors. However, most point mutations occur at low frequency, and the function of these alleles remains undefined. We have developed a scalable systematic approach to interrogate the function of cancer-associated gene variants. We subjected 474 mutant alleles curated from 5,338 tumors to pooled in vivo tumor formation assays and gene expression profiling. We identified 12 transforming alleles, including two in genes (PIK3CB, POT1) that have not been shown to be tumorigenic.

  17. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality....

  18. Bioprospecting and Functional Analysis of Neglected Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Josef Korbinian

    annotation of a late Pleistocene horse metagenome and the functional annotation of the donkey genome. The functional analysis and the identification of novel proteolytic enzymes in the polar marine environment and the full transcriptome analysis of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula is also presented...... of arctic marine metagenomes reveals bacterial strategies for deep sea persistence (Manuscript II). Furthermore, this extreme environment is a fertile ground to mine for novel proteolytic enzymes. Manuscript III presents a bioinformatics approach to identify sequences for potential commercialization...

  19. Early motor developmental milestones and schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Filatova S; Koivumaa-Honkanen H; Hirvonen N; Freeman A; Ivandic I; Hurtig T; Khandaker GM; Jones PB; Moilanen K; Miettunen J

    2017-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes that impaired brain development is a cause of the illness. Early motor developmental milestones, such as learning to walk, are predictors of later schizophrenia but studies have not been systematically reviewed. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the association between early motor developmental milestones and the risk of adult schizophrenia. In addition, we updated a systematic review on motor ...

  20. Aquatic Therapy for People with Lymphedema: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Wai; Semciw, Adam I

    2017-03-27

    Aquatic therapy has several proposed benefits for people with lymphedema. A systematic review of the evidence for aquatic therapy in lymphedema management has not been conducted. Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Five electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of people with lymphedema, which compared aquatic therapy with other lymphedema interventions. Qualitative analysis was undertaken where quantitative analysis was not possible. Study quality was assessed using physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scores. The strength of evidence was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four RCTs of moderate quality (average PEDro score 6.5/10) were included in the review. Two studies provided results for inclusion in meta-analysis. There was moderate-level evidence of no significant short-term differences in lymphedema status (as measured by lymphedema relative volume) between patients who completed aqua lymphatic therapy (ALT) compared to land-based standard care (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.37 to 0.64, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.59); and low-quality evidence of no significant difference between ALT and standard care for improving upper limb (UL) physical function (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.78 to 0.23, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.29). No adverse events reported. Current evidence indicates no significant benefit of ALT over standard land-based care for improving lymphedema status or physical function in people with UL lymphedema. Patient preference should guide the choice of care to facilitate adherence. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence from four studies in people with UL lymphedema, and to establish the efficacy of this intervention in people with lower limb lymphedema. Review registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015019900).

  1. Smoking and olfactory dysfunction: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Suh, Helen H; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Pinto, Jayant M

    2017-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken, examining the association between tobacco smoking and olfactory function in humans, utilizing PubMed and Web of Science (1970-2015) as data sources. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. This database review of studies of smoking and olfaction, with a focus on identifying high-quality studies (based on modified versions of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale), used validated olfactory tests among the generally healthy population. We identified 11 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Of 10 cross-sectional studies, two were excluded from meta-analysis because the cohorts they studied were included in another article in the review. In meta-analysis, current smokers had substantially higher odds of olfactory dysfunction compared to never smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-1.85). In contrast, former smokers were found to have no difference in risk of impaired olfaction compared to never smokers (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.91-1.21). The single longitudinal study reviewed found a trend toward increased risk of olfactory decline over time in ever smokers; this trend was stronger in current as compared to former smokers. Current smoking, but not former smoking, is associated with significantly increased risk of olfactory dysfunction, suggesting that the effects of smoking on olfaction may be reversible. Future studies that prospectively evaluate the impact of smoking cessation on improvement in olfactory function are warranted. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:1753-1761, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans

    2005-01-01

    Stolwijk-SwUste JM, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ, Nollet F, for the CARPA Study Group. The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1693-701. Objectives: To review systematically studies of

  3. The impact of common mental disorders on the work functioning of nurses and allied health professionals: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gärtner, Fania R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to inventory aspects of work functioning of nurses and allied health professionals that are affected by common mental disorders. Design: A systematic review of psychological and occupational health literature was performed. Data sources: A sensitive systematic literature

  4. Effects of glyphosate exposure on sperm concentration in rodents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenyan; Ji, Ying; Song, Xianping; Guo, Haoran; Han, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Hengdong; Zhu, Baoli; Xu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Correlation between exposure to glyphosate and sperm concentrations is important in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for male reproductive functions. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate, however, results are still controversial. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological studies on the association between glyphosate exposure and sperm concentrations of rodents. The aim of this study is to explore the potential adverse effects of glyphosate on reproductive function of male rodents. Systematic and comprehensive literature search was performed in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, Embase, WANFANG and CNKI databases with different combinations of glyphosate exposure and sperm concentration. 8 studies were eventually identified and random-effect model was conducted. Heterogeneity among study results was calculated via chi-square tests. Ten independent experimental datasets from these eight studies were acquired to synthesize the random-effect model. A decrease in sperm concentrations was found with mean difference of sperm concentrations(MDsperm)=-2.774×10 6 /sperm/g/testis(95%CI=-0.969 to -4.579) in random-effect model after glyphosate exposure. There was also a significant decrease after fitting the random-effect model: MDsperm=-1.632×10 6 /sperm/g/testis (95%CI=-0.662 to -2.601). The results of meta-analysis support the hypothesis that glyphosate exposure decreased sperm concentration in rodents. Therefore, we conclude that glyphosate is toxic to male rodent's reproductive system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Reducing Systematic Errors in Oxide Species with Density Functional Theory Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Hansen, Heine Anton

    2015-01-01

    for different types of alkali and alkaline earth metal oxide species has been examined. Most examined functionals result in significant overestimation of the stability of superoxide species compared to peroxides and monoxides, which can result in erroneous prediction of reaction pathways. We show that if metal...... chlorides are used as reference structures instead of metals, the systematic errors are significantly reduced and functional variations decreased. Using a metal chloride reference, where the metal atoms are in the same oxidation state as in the oxide species, will provide a computationally inexpensive......Density functional theory calculations can be used to gain valuable insight into the fundamental reaction processes in metal−oxygen systems, e.g., metal−oxygen batteries. Here, the ability of a range of different exchange-correlation functionals to reproduce experimental enthalpies of formation...

  6. Constructing functional programs for grammar analysis problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the derivation of functional programs for grammar analysis problems, such as the Empty problem and the Reachable problem. Grammar analysis problems can be divided into two classes: top-down problems such as Follow and Reachable, which are described in terms of the contexts of

  7. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  8. A systematic identification and analysis of scientists on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

    2017-01-01

    Metrics derived from Twitter and other social media—often referred to as altmetrics—are increasingly used to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. Such efforts, however, may produce highly misleading results, as the entities that participate in conversations about science on these platforms are largely unknown. For instance, if altmetric activities are generated mainly by scientists, does it really capture broader social impacts of science? Here we present a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing scientists on Twitter. Our method can identify scientists across many disciplines, without relying on external bibliographic data, and be easily adapted to identify other stakeholder groups in science. We investigate the demographics, sharing behaviors, and interconnectivity of the identified scientists. We find that Twitter has been employed by scholars across the disciplinary spectrum, with an over-representation of social and computer and information scientists; under-representation of mathematical, physical, and life scientists; and a better representation of women compared to scholarly publishing. Analysis of the sharing of URLs reveals a distinct imprint of scholarly sites, yet only a small fraction of shared URLs are science-related. We find an assortative mixing with respect to disciplines in the networks between scientists, suggesting the maintenance of disciplinary walls in social media. Our work contributes to the literature both methodologically and conceptually—we provide new methods for disambiguating and identifying particular actors on social media and describing the behaviors of scientists, thus providing foundational information for the construction and use of indicators on the basis of social media metrics. PMID:28399145

  9. A systematic identification and analysis of scientists on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ke

    Full Text Available Metrics derived from Twitter and other social media-often referred to as altmetrics-are increasingly used to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. Such efforts, however, may produce highly misleading results, as the entities that participate in conversations about science on these platforms are largely unknown. For instance, if altmetric activities are generated mainly by scientists, does it really capture broader social impacts of science? Here we present a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing scientists on Twitter. Our method can identify scientists across many disciplines, without relying on external bibliographic data, and be easily adapted to identify other stakeholder groups in science. We investigate the demographics, sharing behaviors, and interconnectivity of the identified scientists. We find that Twitter has been employed by scholars across the disciplinary spectrum, with an over-representation of social and computer and information scientists; under-representation of mathematical, physical, and life scientists; and a better representation of women compared to scholarly publishing. Analysis of the sharing of URLs reveals a distinct imprint of scholarly sites, yet only a small fraction of shared URLs are science-related. We find an assortative mixing with respect to disciplines in the networks between scientists, suggesting the maintenance of disciplinary walls in social media. Our work contributes to the literature both methodologically and conceptually-we provide new methods for disambiguating and identifying particular actors on social media and describing the behaviors of scientists, thus providing foundational information for the construction and use of indicators on the basis of social media metrics.

  10. Production and citation of cochrane systematic reviews: a bibliometrics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiantong; Li, Youping; Clarke, Mike; Du, Liang; Wang, Li; Zhong, Dake

    2014-05-06

    To evaluate the production and utilization of Cochrane systematic reviews(CSRs) and to analyze its influential factors, so as to improve the capacity of translating CSRs into practice. All CSRs and protocols were retrieved from the Cochrane Library ISSUE 2, 2011 and citation data were retrieved from SCI database. Citation analysis was used to analyze the situation of CSRs production and utilization. CSR publication had grown from an annual average of 32 to 718 documents. Only one developing country was among the ten countries with the largest amount of publications. High income countries accounted for 83% of CSR publications and 90.8% of cited counts. 34.7% of CSRs had a cited count of 0, while only 0.9% had been cited more than 50 times. Highly cited CSRs were published in England, Australia, Canada, USA and other high income countries. The countries with a Cochrane center or a Cochrane methodology group had a greater capability of CSRs production and citing than others. The CSRs addressing the topics of diseases were more than those targeted at public health issues. There was a big gap in citations of different interventions even for the same topic. The capability of CSR production and translation grew rapidly, but varied among countries and institutions, which was affected by several factors such as the capability of research, the resourcesand the applicability of the evidence. It is important to improve evidence translation through educating, training and prioritizing the problems based on real demands of end user. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  12. Consolidity analysis for fully fuzzy functions, matrices, probability and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Ibrahim Gabr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive review of the know-how for developing the systems consolidity theory for modeling, analysis, optimization and design in fully fuzzy environment. The solving of systems consolidity theory included its development for handling new functions of different dimensionalities, fuzzy analytic geometry, fuzzy vector analysis, functions of fuzzy complex variables, ordinary differentiation of fuzzy functions and partial fraction of fuzzy polynomials. On the other hand, the handling of fuzzy matrices covered determinants of fuzzy matrices, the eigenvalues of fuzzy matrices, and solving least-squares fuzzy linear equations. The approach demonstrated to be also applicable in a systematic way in handling new fuzzy probabilistic and statistical problems. This included extending the conventional probabilistic and statistical analysis for handling fuzzy random data. Application also covered the consolidity of fuzzy optimization problems. Various numerical examples solved have demonstrated that the new consolidity concept is highly effective in solving in a compact form the propagation of fuzziness in linear, nonlinear, multivariable and dynamic problems with different types of complexities. Finally, it is demonstrated that the implementation of the suggested fuzzy mathematics can be easily embedded within normal mathematics through building special fuzzy functions library inside the computational Matlab Toolbox or using other similar software languages.

  13. Effects of fibrates on cardiovascular outcomes : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jun, Min; Foote, Celine; Lv, Jicheng; Neal, Bruce; Patel, Anushka; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Cass, Alan; Chalmers, John; Perkovic, Vlado

    2010-01-01

    Background Several clinical trials have reported inconsistent findings for the effect of fibrates on cardiovascular risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effects of fibrates on major clinical outcomes. Methods We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the

  14. Anxiety as a Predictor for Cognitive Decline and Dementia : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulpers, Bernice; Ramakers, Inez; Hamel, Renske; Kohler, Sebastian; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Verhey, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Because anxiety is postulated as a risk factor for dementia, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether anxiety predicts cognitive decline and/or dementia, taking the stage of cognitive decline as well as setting into account. Methods: A systematic literature search up

  15. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Steenen (Serge A.); A.J. van Wijk (Arjen); G.J.M.G. Van Der Heijden (Geert J.M.G.); R. van Westrhenen (Roos); J. de Lange (Jan); A. de Jongh (Ad)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication

  16. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenen, S.A.; van Wijk, A.J.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.; van Westrhenen, R.; de Lange, J.; de Jongh, A.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a

  17. Systematic Identification of Machine-Learning Models Aimed to Classify Critical Residues for Protein Function from Protein Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corral-Corral

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein structure and protein function should be related, yet the nature of this relationship remains unsolved. Mapping the critical residues for protein function with protein structure features represents an opportunity to explore this relationship, yet two important limitations have precluded a proper analysis of the structure-function relationship of proteins: (i the lack of a formal definition of what critical residues are and (ii the lack of a systematic evaluation of methods and protein structure features. To address this problem, here we introduce an index to quantify the protein-function criticality of a residue based on experimental data and a strategy aimed to optimize both, descriptors of protein structure (physicochemical and centrality descriptors and machine learning algorithms, to minimize the error in the classification of critical residues. We observed that both physicochemical and centrality descriptors of residues effectively relate protein structure and protein function, and that physicochemical descriptors better describe critical residues. We also show that critical residues are better classified when residue criticality is considered as a binary attribute (i.e., residues are considered critical or not critical. Using this binary annotation for critical residues 8 models rendered accurate and non-overlapping classification of critical residues, confirming the multi-factorial character of the structure-function relationship of proteins.

  18. Systematic Identification of Machine-Learning Models Aimed to Classify Critical Residues for Protein Function from Protein Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, Ricardo; Beltrán, Jesús A; Brizuela, Carlos A; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2017-10-09

    Protein structure and protein function should be related, yet the nature of this relationship remains unsolved. Mapping the critical residues for protein function with protein structure features represents an opportunity to explore this relationship, yet two important limitations have precluded a proper analysis of the structure-function relationship of proteins: (i) the lack of a formal definition of what critical residues are and (ii) the lack of a systematic evaluation of methods and protein structure features. To address this problem, here we introduce an index to quantify the protein-function criticality of a residue based on experimental data and a strategy aimed to optimize both, descriptors of protein structure (physicochemical and centrality descriptors) and machine learning algorithms, to minimize the error in the classification of critical residues. We observed that both physicochemical and centrality descriptors of residues effectively relate protein structure and protein function, and that physicochemical descriptors better describe critical residues. We also show that critical residues are better classified when residue criticality is considered as a binary attribute (i.e., residues are considered critical or not critical). Using this binary annotation for critical residues 8 models rendered accurate and non-overlapping classification of critical residues, confirming the multi-factorial character of the structure-function relationship of proteins.

  19. Spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Gomez, Julian

    2001-01-01

    This Research Note addresses several pivotal problems in spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis in connection with the analysis of the structure of the set of zeroes of a general class of nonlinear operators. It features the construction of an optimal algebraic/analytic invariant for calculating the Leray-Schauder degree, new methods for solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, and general properties of components of solutions sets presented with minimal use of topological tools. The author also gives several applications of the abstract theory to reaction diffusion equations and systems.The results presented cover a thirty-year period and include recent, unpublished findings of the author and his coworkers. Appealing to a broad audience, Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis contains many important contributions to linear algebra, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, and topology and opens the door for further advances.

  20. Relationship between chronic pain and brain reorganization after deafferentation: A systematic review of functional MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutzeler, C R; Curt, A; Kramer, J L K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the development of phantom limb pain and neuropathic pain after limb amputation and spinal cord injury, respectively, are poorly understood. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the robustness of evidence in support of "maladaptive plasticity" emerging from applications of advanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using MeSH heading search terms in PubMed and SCOPUS, a systematic review was performed querying published manuscripts. From 146 candidate publications, 10 were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Results from fMRI investigations provided some level of support for maladaptive cortical plasticity, including longitudinal studies that demonstrated a change in functional organization related to decreases in pain. However, a number of studies have reported no relationship between reorganization, pain and deafferentation, and emerging evidence has also suggested the opposite - that is, chronic pain is associated with preserved cortical function. Based solely on advanced functional neuroimaging results, there is only limited evidence for a relationship between chronic pain intensity and reorganization after deafferentation. The review demonstrates the need for additional neuroimaging studies to clarify the relationship between chronic pain and reorganization.

  1. Early motor developmental milestones and schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, S; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Hirvonen, N; Freeman, A; Ivandic, I; Hurtig, T; Khandaker, G M; Jones, P B; Moilanen, K; Miettunen, J

    2017-10-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia proposes that impaired brain development is a cause of the illness. Early motor developmental milestones, such as learning to walk, are predictors of later schizophrenia but studies have not been systematically reviewed. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the association between early motor developmental milestones and the risk of adult schizophrenia. In addition, we updated a systematic review on motor function and risk of schizophrenia. The PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched for original research articles published up to July 2015. Motor milestones were measured between ages 0 and 13years. Random effect meta-analysis calculated effect estimates (Hedges' g) for the association between individual motor milestones and schizophrenia risk. An electronic database and selected articles reference list search identified 5990 articles after removing duplicates. Sixty-nine full text articles were assessed for eligibility of which six were included in the review. Five studies provided sufficient data for meta-analyses. The following motor milestones were significantly associated with adult schizophrenia risk: walking unsupported (g=0.46; 95% CI 0.27-0.64; pmilestones 'holding head up' and 'grabbing object' were not statistically significant. Delayed walking, sitting and standing unsupported were associated with adult onset schizophrenia. The findings emphasise the importance of timely achievement of these motor milestones in childhood and can contribute to the identification of individuals at risk of psychosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Selenium and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Fritz

    Full Text Available Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies.Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serum<106 ng/mL, but increase risk of lung cancers in those with higher selenium (≥ 121.6 ng/mL. Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.43; other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70-3.24; and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79-1.10. In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy.Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in

  3. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise, or no training, with endothelial function as outcome measure. Endothelial function was measured either physiologically by flow-mediated dilatation and/or by systemic biomarkers. Data were analyzed descriptively due to non-comparability for a meta-analysis to be performed. A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Although there was great heterogenecity in design, population and exercise protocols, all studies found high-intensity training to be safe. High-intensity training was equal to moderate-intensity continuous exercise through improvement in endothelial function in 15 of the 20 selected studies, as measured by flow-mediated dilatation, nitric oxide bioavailability and circulating biomarkers. Only a few studies examined high-intensity training in cerebrovascular patients, none with endothelial function as outcome. High-intensity training is promising as a time-efficient exercise strategy in cardiovascular rehabilitation, but data on endothelial effects in cerebrovascular rehabilitation are warranted. Agreement on a more uniform exercise protocol is

  4. The role of statins in erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Cai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of statins for erectile dysfunction (ED, a systematic review of the literature was conducted in the Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed from the inception of each database to June 2013. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing treatment for ED with statins were identified. Placebo RCTs with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF as the outcome measure were eligible for meta-analysis. A total of seven RCTs including two statins with a total of 586 patients strictly met our criteria for systematic review and five of them qualified for the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis using a random effects model showed that statins were associated with a significant increase in IIEF-5 scores (mean difference (MD: 3.27; 95% confidential interval (CI:1.51 to 5.02; P < 0.01 and an overall improvement of lipid profiles including total cholesterol (MD: −1.08; 95% CI: −1.68 to −0.48; P < 0.01, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (MD: −1.43; 95% CI: −2.07 to −0.79; P < 0.01, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (MD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.35; P < 0.01 and triglycerides (TGs (MD: −0.55; 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.48; P < 0.01. In summary, our study revealed positive consequences of these lipid-lowering drugs on erectile function, especially for nonresponders to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is. However, it has been reported that statin therapy may reduce levels of testosterone and aggravate symptoms of ED. Therefore, larger, well-designed RCTs are needed to investigate the double-edged role of statins in the treatment of ED.

  5. The role of statins in erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiang; Tian, Ye; Wu, Tao; Cao, Chen-Xi; Bu, Si-Yuan; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of statins for erectile dysfunction (ED), a systematic review of the literature was conducted in the Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed from the inception of each database to June 2013. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment for ED with statins were identified. Placebo RCTs with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) as the outcome measure were eligible for meta-analysis. A total of seven RCTs including two statins with a total of 586 patients strictly met our criteria for systematic review and five of them qualified for the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis using a random effects model showed that statins were associated with a significant increase in IIEF-5 scores (mean difference (MD): 3.27; 95% confidential interval (CI):1.51 to 5.02; P < 0.01) and an overall improvement of lipid profiles including total cholesterol (MD: −1.08; 95% CI: −1.68 to −0.48; P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (MD: −1.43; 95% CI: −2.07 to −0.79; P < 0.01), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (MD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.35; P < 0.01) and triglycerides (TGs) (MD: −0.55; 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.48; P < 0.01). In summary, our study revealed positive consequences of these lipid-lowering drugs on erectile function, especially for nonresponders to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is). However, it has been reported that statin therapy may reduce levels of testosterone and aggravate symptoms of ED. Therefore, larger, well-designed RCTs are needed to investigate the double-edged role of statins in the treatment of ED. PMID:24556747

  6. A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews and Panoramic Meta-Analysis: Staples versus Sutures for Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Pinkney, Thomas; Futaba, Kay; Pennant, Mary; Morton, Dion G.; Lilford, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the evidence across surgical specialties as to whether staples or sutures better improve patient and provider level outcomes. Design A systematic review of systematic reviews and panoramic meta-analysis of pooled estimates. Results Eleven systematic reviews, including 13,661 observations, met the inclusion criteria. In orthopaedic surgery sutures were found to be preferable, and for appendicial stump sutures were protective against both surgical site infection and post surgical complications. However, staples were protective against leak in ilecolic anastomosis. For all other surgery types the evidence was inconclusive with wider confidence intervals including the possibly of preferential outcomes for surgical site infection or post surgical complication for either staples or sutures. Whilst reviews showed substantial variation in mean differences in operating time (I2 94%) there was clear evidence of a reduction in average operating time across all surgery types. Few reviews reported on length of stay, but the three reviews that did (I2 0%, including 950 observations) showed a non significant reduction in length of stay, but showed evidence of publication bias (P-value for Egger test 0.05). Conclusions Evidence across surgical specialties indicates that wound closure with staples reduces the mean operating time. Despite including several thousand observations, no clear evidence of superiority emerged for either staples or sutures with respect to surgical site infection, post surgical complications, or length of stay. PMID:24116028

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid and adult memory: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurko-Mauro, Karin; Alexander, Dominik D; Van Elswyk, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are common with aging. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) and an integral part of neural membrane phospholipids that impacts brain structure and function. Past research demonstrates a positive association between DHA plasma status/dietary intake and cognitive function. The current meta-analysis was designed to determine the effect of DHA intake, alone or combined with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3), on specific memory domains: episodic, working, and semantic in healthy adults aged 18 years and older. A secondary objective was to systematically review/summarize the related observational epidemiologic literature. A systematic literature search of clinical trials and observational studies that examined the relationship between n-3 LCPUFA on memory outcomes in healthy adults was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies of subjects free of neurologic disease at baseline, with or without mild memory complaints (MMC), were included. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to generate weighted group mean differences, standardized weighted group mean differences (Hedge's g), z-scores, and p-values for heterogeneity comparing DHA/EPA to a placebo. A priori sub-group analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of age at enrollment, dose level, and memory type tested. Episodic memory outcomes of adults with MMC were significantly (P 1 g/day DHA/EPA improved episodic memory (Pmemory changes from baseline were significant with DHA but no between group differences were detected. Observational studies support a beneficial association between intake/blood levels of DHA/EPA and memory function in older adults. DHA, alone or combined with EPA, contributes to improved memory function in older adults with mild memory complaints.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid and adult memory: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Yurko-Mauro

    Full Text Available Subjective memory complaints are common with aging. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3 is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA and an integral part of neural membrane phospholipids that impacts brain structure and function. Past research demonstrates a positive association between DHA plasma status/dietary intake and cognitive function.The current meta-analysis was designed to determine the effect of DHA intake, alone or combined with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3, on specific memory domains: episodic, working, and semantic in healthy adults aged 18 years and older. A secondary objective was to systematically review/summarize the related observational epidemiologic literature.A systematic literature search of clinical trials and observational studies that examined the relationship between n-3 LCPUFA on memory outcomes in healthy adults was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies of subjects free of neurologic disease at baseline, with or without mild memory complaints (MMC, were included. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to generate weighted group mean differences, standardized weighted group mean differences (Hedge's g, z-scores, and p-values for heterogeneity comparing DHA/EPA to a placebo. A priori sub-group analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of age at enrollment, dose level, and memory type tested.Episodic memory outcomes of adults with MMC were significantly (P 1 g/day DHA/EPA improved episodic memory (P<.04. Semantic and working memory changes from baseline were significant with DHA but no between group differences were detected. Observational studies support a beneficial association between intake/blood levels of DHA/EPA and memory function in older adults.DHA, alone or combined with EPA, contributes to improved memory function in older adults with mild memory complaints.

  9. Systematic review on sports performance in beach volleyball from match analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Igor Araripe Medeiros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article aimed to perform a systematic review of the available literature in relation to the analysis of sports performance in beach volleyball from match analysis. Web of Science, SportDiscus®, PubMed, Scopus and Academic Search Complete databases were used to identify peer-reviewed published articles. The authors conducted a content analysis according to goals, variables of analysis and methods used in studies. In general, three research lines were determined: analysis of the functional dependence of the game actions and their relation with success, performance according to gender, and the effect of changing the rules on the game performance. In relation to methodology, an evolution from descriptive studies to studies of comparative nature can be seen and, more recently, there has been a focus on predictive nature. This new trend breaks with the research based on simple cause and effect relations, and focuses on the analysis of the game events, namely related to tactical-technical performance indicators, in a non-linear and interactive way, considering the game as a complex and dynamic system. The limitations of the studies analyzed show the need for further studies to investigate the identification of game patterns for the different game levels; integration of situational variables in the study of the performance of teams (such as match status and the quality of opposition.

  10. Atypical depression and non-atypical depression: Is HPA axis function a biomarker? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juruena, Mario F; Bocharova, Mariia; Agustini, Bruno; Young, Allan H

    2017-10-06

    The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i.e. hypo-function, of the HPA-axis, similarly to PTSD. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise existing studies addressing the abnormalities of the HPA-axis in melancholic and/or atypical depression. We conducted a systematic review in the literature by searching MEDLINE, PsycINFO, OvidSP and Embase databases until June 2017. The following search items were used: "hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal" OR "HPA" OR "cortisol" OR "corticotropin releasing hormone" OR "corticotropin releasing factor" OR "glucocorticoid*" OR "adrenocorticotropic hormone" OR "ACTH" AND "atypical depression" OR "non-atypical depression" OR "melancholic depression" OR "non-melancholic depression" OR "endogenous depression" OR "endogenomorphic depression" OR "non-endogenous depression". Search limits were set to include papers in English or German language published in peer-reviewed journals at any period. All studies were scrutinized to determine the main methodological characteristics, and particularly possible sources of bias influencing the results reported. We selected 48 relevant studies. Detailed analysis of the methodologies used in the studies revealed significant variability especially regarding the samples' definition comparing the HPA axis activity of melancholic patients to atypical depression, including healthy controls. The results were subdivided into 4 sections: (1) 27 studies which compared melancholic OR endogenous depression vs. non

  11. Effects of walking trainings on walking function among stroke survivors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilunga Tshiswaka, Daudet; Bennett, Crystal; Franklin, Cheyanne

    2018-03-01

    Physical function is often compromised as a result of stroke event. Although interventions propose different strategies that seek to improve stroke survivors' physical function, a need remains to evaluate walking training studies aimed at improving such physical function. The aim of this review was to assess the available literature that highlights the impact of walking training on enhancing walking for stroke survivors. We performed a systematic literature review of online databases - Google Scholar, PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EBSCO - with the following inclusion criteria: manuscript published from 2005 to 2016, written in English, with treatment and control groups, for walking training studies aimed at improving physical function among stroke survivors. Findings indicated that walking speed, walking distance, and gait speed were the most used outcome variables for measuring improved physical function among stroke survivors. Importantly, proposed interventions involved either overground or treadmill walking trainings, if not both. Preserved locomotor improvements were not noted in all interventions at follow-up. Some interventions that used walking treadmill training augmented by auditory stimulations reported significant improvements in physical function compared with overground walking training augmented by auditory stimulations. The imperative to improve physical function among stroke survivors with physical impairment is paramount, as it allows survivors to be socially, emotionally, and physically more independent. In general, we note an insufficiency of research on the interaction between physical function and socialization among stroke survivors.

  12. DynaMod: dynamic functional modularity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Choong-Hyun; Hwang, Taeho; Oh, Kimin; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis of enriched functional categories in differentially expressed genes is important to extract the underlying biological processes of genome-wide expression profiles. Moreover, identification of the network of significant functional modules in these dynamic processes is an interesting challenge. This study introduces DynaMod, a web-based application that identifies significant functional modules reflecting the change of modularity and differential expressions that are correlated with gene expression profiles under different conditions. DynaMod allows the inspection of a wide variety of functional modules such as the biological pathways, transcriptional factor-target gene groups, microRNA-target gene groups, protein complexes and hub networks involved in protein interactome. The statistical significance of dynamic functional modularity is scored based on Z-statistics from the average of mutual information (MI) changes of involved gene pairs under different conditions. Significantly correlated gene pairs among the functional modules are used to generate a correlated network of functional categories. In addition to these main goals, this scoring strategy supports better performance to detect significant genes in microarray analyses, as the scores of correlated genes show the superior characteristics of the significance analysis compared with those of individual genes. DynaMod also offers cross-comparison between different analysis outputs. DynaMod is freely accessible at http://piech.kaist.ac.kr/dynamod.

  13. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted...... to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases....... The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma...

  14. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted....... The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma...... to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases...

  15. A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behaviour among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Cheung, Gary; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2016-01-01

    were included in the review. RESULTS: Sixty-five articles (across 61 independent samples) met inclusion criteria. Results from 59 quantitative studies conducted in four continents suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with functional disability and numerous specific conditions including......OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of studies that examined associations between physical illness/functional disability and suicidal behaviour (including ideation, nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviour) among individuals aged 65 and older. METHOD: Articles published through November 2014...... were identified through electronic searches using the ERIC, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Search terms used were suicid* or death wishes or deliberate self-harm. Studies about suicidal behaviour in individuals aged 65 and older with physical illness/functional disabilities...

  16. Functional Data Analysis Applied in Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Martha

    of heart plots for spectral data. The important aspect of registration, also called warping or alignment, emerges from both the chemometric and statistical perspectives. In Paper III we apply functional registration in the context of biomechanics, specically to data from a juggling experiment. The novelty....... Dietary eects on biomarkers of bone turnover in children were investigated as part of the pan-European DiOGenes dietary intervention trial. The metabolomics data in paper I originated from a pilot study of the DiOGenes trial. Overall this thesis gives an indication of the huge possibilities for functional......In this thesis we explore the use of functional data analysis as a method to analyse chemometric data, more specically spectral data in metabolomics. Functional data analysis is a vibrant eld in statistics. It has been rapidly expanding in both methodology and applications since it was made well...

  17. A systematic review protocol on the effectiveness of therapeutic exercises utilised by physiotherapists to improve function in patients with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawarima, Tapfuma; Chiwaridzo, Matthew; Jelsma, Jennifer; Grimmer, Karen; Muchemwa, Faith Chengetayi

    2017-10-23

    Therapeutic exercises play a crucial role in the management of burn injuries. The broad objective of this review is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness, safety and applicability to low-income countries of therapeutic exercises utilised by physiotherapists to improve function in patients with burns. Population = adults and children/adolescents with burns of any aspect of their bodies. Interventions = any aerobic and/or strength exercises delivered as part of a rehabilitation programme by anyone (e.g. physiotherapists, occupational therapists, nurses, doctors, community workers and patients themselves). Comparators = any comparator. Outcomes = any measure of outcome (e.g. quality of life, pain, muscle strength, range of movement, fear or quality of movement). Settings = any setting in any country. A systematic review will be conducted by two blinded independent reviewers who will search articles on PubMed, CiNAHL, Cochrane library, Medline, Pedro, OTseeker, EMBASE, PsychINFO and EBSCOhost using predefined criteria. Studies of human participants of any age suffering from burns will be eligible, and there will be no restrictions on total body surface area. Only randomised controlled trials will be considered for this review, and the methodological quality of studies meeting the selection criteria will be evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. The PRISMA reporting standards will be used to write the review. A narrative analysis of the findings will be done, but if pooling is possible, meta-analysis will be considered. Burns may have a long-lasting impact on both psychological and physical functioning and thus it is important to identify and evaluate the effects of current and past aerobic and strength exercises on patients with burns. By identifying the characteristics of effective exercise programmes, guidelines can be suggested for developing intervention programmes aimed at improving the function of patients with burns

  18. Pineal function: impact of microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, David C; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A

    2009-01-01

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the re......Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity...... to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new...... foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal function....

  19. Mutant Resources for the Functional Analysis of the Rice Genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nili Wang Tuan Long Wen Yao Lizhong Xiong Qifa Zhang Changyin Wu

    2013-01-01

    .... In order to systematically assign functions to all predicted genes in the rice genome, a large number of rice mutant lines, including those created by T-DNA insertion, Ds/dSpm tagging, Tos17 tagging...

  20. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Soo Lee

    Full Text Available Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE. Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of SEE and to discriminate SEE between obese and non-obese children. Minute-by-minute SEE in 109 children, ages 5-18, was measured in room respiration calorimeters. A smoothing spline method was applied to the calorimetric data to extract the true smoothing function for each subject. Functional principal component analysis was used to capture the important modes of variation of the functional data and to identify differences in SEE patterns. Combinations of functional principal component analysis and classifier algorithm were used to classify SEE. Smoothing effectively removed instrumentation noise inherent in the room calorimeter data, providing more accurate data for analysis of the dynamics of SEE. SEE exhibited declining but subtly undulating patterns throughout the night. Mean SEE was markedly higher in obese than non-obese children, as expected due to their greater body mass. SEE was higher among the obese than non-obese children (p0.1, after post hoc testing. Functional principal component scores for the first two components explained 77.8% of the variance in SEE and also differed between groups (p = 0.037. Logistic regression, support vector machine or random forest classification methods were able to distinguish weight-adjusted SEE between obese and non-obese participants with good classification rates (62-64%. Our results implicate other factors, yet to be uncovered, that affect the weight-adjusted SEE of obese and non-obese children. Functional data analysis revealed differences in the structure of SEE between obese and non-obese children that may contribute to disruption of metabolic homeostasis.

  1. Hand dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundmi, Shubha; Maiya, Arun G; Bhat, Anil K; Ravishankar, N; Hande, Manjunatha H; Rajagopal, K V

    2018-01-20

    People with type 2 diabetes mellitus frequently show complications in feet and hands. However, the literature has mostly focused on foot complications. The disease can affect the strength and dexterity of the hands, thereby reducing function. This systematic review and meta-analysis focused on identifying the existing evidence on how type 2 diabetes mellitus affects hand strength, dexterity and function. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, CINHAL, Scopus and Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for reports of studies of grip and pinch strength as well as hand dexterity and function evaluated by questionnaires comparing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy controls that were published between 1990 and 2017. Data are reported as standardized mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among 2077 records retrieved, only 7 full-text articles were available for meta-analysis. For both the dominant and non-dominant hand, type 2 diabetes mellitus negatively affected grip strength (SMD -1.03, 95% CI -2.24 to 0.18 and -1.37, -3.07 to 0.33) and pinch strength (-1.09, -2.56 to 0.38 and -1.12, -2.73 to 0.49), although not significantly. Dexterity of the dominant hand did not differ between diabetes and control groups but was poorer for the non-dominant hand, although not significantly. Hand function was worse for diabetes than control groups in 2 studies (MD -8.7, 95% CI -16.88 to -1.52 and 4.69, 2.03 to 7.35). This systematic review with meta-analysis suggested reduced hand function, specifically grip and pinch strength, for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus versus healthy controls. However, the sample size for all studies was low. Hence, we need studies with adequate sample size and randomized controlled trials to provide statistically significant results. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Acupuncture for ankle sprain: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is one of the most frequently encountered musculoskeletal injuries; however, the efficacy of acupuncture in treating ankle sprains remains uncertain. We therefore performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence regarding acupuncture for ankle sprains. Methods We searched 15 data sources and two trial registries up to February 2012. Randomized controlled trials of acupuncture were included if they involved patients with ankle sprains and reported outcomes of symptom improvement, including pain. A Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used. Risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed based on acupuncture type, grade of sprain, and control type. Sensitivity analyses were also performed with respect to risk of bias, sample size, and outcomes reported. Results Seventeen trials involving 1820 participants were included. Trial quality was generally poor, with just three reporting adequate methods of randomization and only one a method of allocation concealment. Significantly more participants in acupuncture groups reported global symptom improvement compared with no acupuncture groups (RR of symptoms persisting with acupuncture = 0.56, 95% CI 0.42–0.77). However, this is probably an overestimate due to the heterogeneity (I2 = 51%) and high risk of bias of the included studies. Acupuncture as an add-on treatment also improved global symptoms compared with other treatments only, without significant variability (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.51–0.73, I2 = 1%). The benefit of acupuncture remained significant when the analysis was limited to two studies with a low risk of bias. Acupuncture was more effective than various controls in relieving pain, facilitating return to normal activity, and promoting quality of life, but these analyses were based on only a small number of studies. Acupuncture did not appear to be associated with

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Myc oncoprotein function

    OpenAIRE

    Shiio, Yuzuru; Donohoe, Sam; Yi, Eugene C.; Goodlett, David R.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    This study applies a new quantitative proteomics technology to the analysis of the function of the Myc oncoprotein in mammalian cells. Employing isotope-coded affinity tag (ICATTM) reagent labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, the global pattern of protein expression in rat myc-null cells was compared with that of myc-plus cells (myc-null cells in which myc has been introduced) to generate a differential protein expression catalog. Expression differences among many functionally related prote...

  4. Inflammatory mediators in human epilepsy : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Evelien E.; van den Munckhof, Bart; Braun, Kees P J; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E.

    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that investigated inflammatory mediators in human epilepsy. Studies reporting on inflammatory mediators in serum,

  5. Overweight, Obesity, and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, F.S.; de Wit, L.M.; Bouvy, P.F.; Stijnen, T.; Cuijpers, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Association between obesity and depression has repeatedly been established. For treatment and prevention purposes, it is important to acquire more insight into their longitudinal interaction. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the longitudinal relationship

  6. Overweight, Obesity, and Depression A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, Floriana S.; de Wit, Leonore M.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Stijnen, Theo; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Context: Association between obesity and depression has repeatedly been established. For treatment and prevention purposes, it is important to acquire more insight into their longitudinal interaction. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the longitudinal relationship

  7. Professionals' views of fetal monitoring during labour: a systematic review and thematic analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Valerie; Begley, Cecily M; Clarke, Mike; Devane, Declan

    2012-01-01

    ... evidence-based maternity care. The aim of this paper is to offer insight and understanding, through systematic review and thematic analysis, of research into professionals' views on fetal heart rate monitoring during labour...

  8. Prospective risk of stillbirth and neonatal complications in twin pregnancies : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheong-See, Fiona; Schuit, Ewoud; Arroyo-Manzano, David; Khalil, Asma; Barrett, Jon; Joseph, K S; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Hack, Karien; Lewi, Liesbeth; Lim, Arianne; Liem, Sophie; Norman, Jane E; Morrison, John; Combs, C Andrew; Garite, Thomas J; Maurel, Kimberly; Serra, Vicente; Perales, Alfredo; Rode, Line; Worda, Katharina; Nassar, Anwar; Aboulghar, Mona; Rouse, Dwight; Thom, Elizabeth; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Nakayama, Soichiro; Russo, Francesca Maria; Robinson, Julian N; Dodd, Jodie M; Newman, Roger B; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Tang, Selphee; Mol, Ben Willem J; Zamora, Javier; Thilaganathan, Basky; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the risks of stillbirth and neonatal complications by gestational age in uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (until December 2015). REVIEW METHODS:

  9. Is crossed laterality associated with academic achievement and intelligence? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marta Ferrero; Gillian West; Miguel A Vadillo

    2017-01-01

    .... However, the available evidence is fragmentary. To determine the impact of crossed laterality on academic achievement and intelligence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles published since 1900...

  10. Risk of Hypothyroidism following Hemithyroidectomy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prognostic Studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, H.; Louwerens, M.; Schoones, J.W.; Kievit, J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Dekkers, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The reported risk of hypothyroidism after hemithyroidectomy shows considerable heterogeneity in literature. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the overall risk of hypothyroidism, both clinical and subclinical, after hemithyroidectomy.

  11. Research Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Elder Abuse Prevalence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Yongjie; Mikton, Christopher; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2017-06-01

    Elder abuse is an important public health and human rights issue, yet its true extent is not well understood. To address this, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of elder abuse prevalence studies from around the world. This protocol describes the methodological approach to be adopted for conducting this systematic review and meta-analysis. In particular, the protocol describes the search strategies and eligibility criteria to be used to identify and select studies and how data from the selected studies will be extracted for analysis. The protocol also describes the analytical approach that will be used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates and discusses the use of meta-regression to assess how studies' characteristics influence the prevalence estimates. This protocol conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis - or PRISMA - guidelines and has been registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of systematic reviews.

  12. Effectiveness and feasibility of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Chapelle, C.F.; Veersema, S.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether hysteroscopic sterilization is feasible and effective in preventing pregnancy. Secondarily, to identify risk factors for failure of hysteroscopic sterilization. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Women undergoing hysteroscopic

  13. Drugs Commonly Associated With Weight Change: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domecq, Juan Pablo; Prutsky, Gabriela; Leppin, Aaron; Sonbol, M. Bassam; Altayar, Osama; Undavalli, Chaitanya; Wang, Zhen; Elraiyah, Tarig; Brito, Juan Pablo; Mauck, Karen F; Lababidi, Mohammed H; Prokop, Larry J; Asi, Noor; Wei, Justin; Fidahussein, Salman; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Context: Various drugs affect body weight as a side effect. Objective: We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence about commonly prescribed drugs and their association with weight change. Data Sources...

  14. Iberis amara L. and Iberogast--results of a systematic review concerning functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, J; Iten, F; Reichling, J; Saller, R

    2004-01-01

    A systematic review referring to efficacy and tolerability of the herbal combination Iberogast (Iberis amara planta totalis, Chelidonii herba, Cardui mariae fructus, Melissae folium, Carvi fructus, Liquiritiae radix, Angelicae radix, Matricariae flos, Menthae piperitae folium) was performed in patients with functional dyspepsia. Three placebo-controlled trials and a reference-controlled trial showed a statistical significant and therapeutical relevant reduction of the gastrointestinal symptom-scores in 595 patients. The therapeutic efficacy was also found in one observational study (2267 patients). In accordance with the available evidence Iberogast seems to be an effective phytotherapeutic preparation to reduce the symptoms of dyspepsia yet, without central nervous side effects.

  15. The relationship between family functioning and child and adolescent overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, J A; Palma, C L; Mellor, D; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that family functioning is linked to childhood overweight and obesity, and that both of these are associated with health-related behaviours and adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents. This paper systematically examines the peer-reviewed evidence regarding the relationship between child and adolescent overweight and obesity and family functioning. Peer-reviewed literature published between 1990 and 2011 hosted in Scopus, Pub Med or Psyc INFO were searched, in addition to the reference lists of included papers. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. Of the 17 identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, 12 reported significant associations between family functioning and childhood overweight and obesity. The instruments used to measure family functioning in the identified studies were heterogeneous. Poor family functioning was associated with increased risk of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents, and obese children and adolescents were more likely to come from families with poor family functioning. Aspects of family functioning which were associated with increased risk of child and adolescent obesity included poor communication, poor behaviour control, high levels of family conflict and low family hierarchy values. Half (2/4) of the identified intervention studies showed a significant relationship between family functioning and changes in child weight. The results demonstrate that family functioning is linked to obesity; however, higher level evidence and greater understanding of the mechanisms behind this relationship are required. The results indicate a need for a standardised family functioning measure applicable across populations. The results provide evidence of the value of considering family functioning in childhood obesity research and intervention.

  16. Systematic mapping review on student's performance analysis using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper classify the various existing predicting models that are used for monitoring and improving students' performance at schools and higher learning institutions. It analyses all the areas within the educational data mining methodology. Two databases were chosen for this study and a systematic mapping study was ...

  17. Overviews in Education Research: A Systematic Review and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Overviews, or syntheses of research syntheses, have become a popular approach to synthesizing the rapidly expanding body of research and systematic reviews. Despite their popularity, few guidelines exist and the state of the field in education is unclear. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence and current state of overviews of…

  18. An introduction to systematic reviews and meta-analysis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing urgency for evidence based practice, especially in resource limited settings has inspired many initiatives to this effect. In Africa there is limited skill in research synthesis and the production of systematic reviews. The Centre for the Development of Best Practices in Health, together with the South African ...

  19. Analysis of decision making process for a systematic engineering design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Spitas, Christos; Roozenburg, Norbert; Chen, Lin-Lin; Stappers, Pieter Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new methodology for a systematic design process that shows if the acquired knowledge, modeled in the K-space, is enough or further exploration of the C-space is required. We treat the uncertainty [4] and apply it to the Cold Facts project [5] as a distinguished project

  20. Gender and telomere length : Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, Michael; Bann, David; Wiley, Laura; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Nitsch, Dorothea; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Shiels, Paul; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Barbieri, Michelangela; Bekaert, Sofie; Bischoff, Claus; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Chen, Wei; Cooper, Cyrus; Christensen, Kaare; De Meyer, Tim; Deary, Ian; Der, Geoff; Roux, Ana Diez; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hajat, Anjum; Halaschek-Wiener, Julius; Harris, Sarah; Hunt, Steven C.; Jagger, Carol; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kaplan, Robert; Kimura, Masayuki; Lansdorp, Peter; Li, Changyong; Maeda, Toyoki; Mangino, Massimo; Nawrot, Tim S.; Nilsson, Peter; Nordfjall, Katarina; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Ren, Fu; Riabowol, Karl; Robertson, Tony; Roos, Goran; Staessen, Jan A.; Spector, Tim; Tang, Nelson; Unryn, Brad; van der Harst, Pim; Woo, Jean; Xing, Chao; Yadegarfar, Mohammad E.; Park, Jae Yong; Young, Neal; Kuh, Diana; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    Background: It is widely believed that females have longer telomeres than males, although results from studies have been contradictory. Methods: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that in humans, females have longer telomeres than males and that this

  1. Meta-Analysis: A Systematic Method for Synthesizing Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Susan C.; Li, Peiwei

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide a template for counseling researchers who are interested in quantitatively aggregating research findings. Meta-analytic studies can provide relevant information to the counseling field by systematically synthesizing studies performed by researchers from diverse fields. Methodologically sound meta-analyses require careful…

  2. A Systematic Approach to Explorative Scenario Analysis in Emergy Assessment with Emphasis on Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Fossil energy depletion (specifically peak oil) and climate change are imagined to profoundly affect human civilisation. This motivates assessment of resilience, a concept associated with the ability to persist and maintain function. Explorative scenarios may be used to cast light on what...... the future may bring. We develop a systematic approach to explorative scenario analysis and attempt to quantify aspects of resilience specifically for emergy assessment (EmA) of production systems. We group system inputs into five categories: (1) fossil fuels, their derivatives, metals and minerals, (2) on....... A comparison of two specific production systems showed that different expectations of the future lead to contrasting conclusions regarding prioritisation. We use the insight gained in the study to suggest venues for sustainable development under changing societal conditions....

  3. Effects of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone for Osteoporosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Hayden F; Moyer, Rebecca F; Yacoub, Daniel; Coughlin, Dexter; Birmingham, Trevor B

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) on bone mineral density (BMD) in persons age 50 and older, with normal pituitary function, with or at risk for developing osteoporosis. We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCTs), searching six databases, and conducted meta-analyses to examine GH effects on BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Data for fracture incidence, bone metabolism biomarkers, and adverse events were also extracted and analysed. Thirteen RCTs met the eligibility criteria. Pooled effect sizes suggested no significant GH effect on BMD. Pooled effect sizes were largest, but nonsignificant, when compared to placebo. GH had a significant effect on several bone metabolism biomarkers. A significantly higher rate of adverse events was observed in the GH groups. Meta-analysis of RCTs suggests that GH treatment for persons with or at risk for developing osteoporosis results in very small, nonsignificant increases in BMD.

  4. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  5. Probiotics for broiler chickens in Brazil: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Faria Filho,DE; KAA Torres; Faria, DE; DMB Campos; PS Rosa

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of probiotic utilization as growth promoters in broiler chicken feeding using systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Thirty-five studies were recovered by the systematic review, 27 of which met the following criteria to be included in the meta-analysis: (1) Brazilian studies published between 1995 and 2005; (2) probiotics administered in the diet without growth promoter; (3) results included performance data with the respective coefficient of variati...

  6. Long-term functional outcomes after replacement of the esophagus in pediatric patients: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritano, Stefano; Irino, Tomoyuki; Scandavini, Chiara Maria; Tsekrekos, Andrianos; Lundell, Lars; Rouvelas, Ioannis

    2017-09-01

    The indications of esophageal replacement (ER) in pediatric patients include long gap esophageal atresia (LGEA), intractable post-corrosive esophageal strictures (PCES), and some rare esophageal diseases. Various conduits and procedures are currently used worldwide with a lack of consensus regarding the ideal substitute to replace the esophagus replacement. The short-term outcomes of these advanced procedures are well known; there are few data available describing long-term functional outcomes of these patients with long life expectancy. The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term functional outcomes of the most widely used techniques for ER in pediatric patients based on a comprehensive literature search covering the last 10years. Eligible were all clinical studies reporting outcomes after esophagectomy in pediatric patients, which contained information on at least 3years of follow-up after the operation. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic web-based search using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases was performed, reviewing all medical literature published between January 2006 and December 2015. The scientific quality of the data was generally poor, converging toward only 14 full-text articles for the final analysis. The stomach was the preferred organ for esophageal replacement, where the tubulization of the stomach resulted in significant gastroesophageal reflux. Dysphagia symptoms were more seldom reported, but several authors presented growing figures with the length of follow-up. Dumping syndrome and delayed gastric emptying were only scarcely reported upon. Following colonic graft, chronic gastrocolic reflux affects these patients, in the range of 35-70.8%, while 4 studies reported any dysphagia from 2.7% to 50% of the children. Only one study reported the outcome of the use of a long jejunal segment, where presence

  7. In silico method for systematic analysis of feature importance in microRNA-mRNA interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhining

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA, which is short non-coding RNA, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of many biological processes and affects the stability and/or translation of mRNA. Recently, machine learning algorithms were developed to predict potential miRNA targets. Most of these methods are robust but are not sensitive to redundant or irrelevant features. Despite their good performance, the relative importance of each feature is still unclear. With increasing experimental data becoming available, research interest has shifted from higher prediction performance to uncovering the mechanism of microRNA-mRNA interactions. Results Systematic analysis of sequence, structural and positional features was carried out for two different data sets. The dominant functional features were distinguished from uninformative features in single and hybrid feature sets. Models were developed using only statistically significant sequence, structural and positional features, resulting in area under the receiver operating curves (AUC values of 0.919, 0.927 and 0.969 for one data set and of 0.926, 0.874 and 0.954 for another data set, respectively. Hybrid models were developed by combining various features and achieved AUC of 0.978 and 0.970 for two different data sets. Functional miRNA information is well reflected in these features, which are expected to be valuable in understanding the mechanism of microRNA-mRNA interactions and in designing experiments. Conclusions Differing from previous approaches, this study focused on systematic analysis of all types of features. Statistically significant features were identified and used to construct models that yield similar accuracy to previous studies in a shorter computation time.

  8. Functional Data Analysis in Electronic Commerce Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jank, Wolfgang; Shmueli, Galit

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes opportunities and challenges of using functional data analysis (FDA) for the exploration and analysis of data originating from electronic commerce (eCommerce). We discuss the special data structures that arise in the online environment and why FDA is a natural approach for representing and analyzing such data. The paper reviews several FDA methods and motivates their usefulness in eCommerce research by providing a glimpse into new domain insights that they allow. We argue...

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Polarized Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G

    1998-01-01

    We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order. We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involved in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature.

  10. Exercise Therapy in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntze, Gregor; Nesbitt, Colleen; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Toomey, Clodagh; Esau, Shane; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Shank, Jena; Brooks, Julia; Benseler, Susanne; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-07-18

    To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of exercise interventions in improving outcomes across domains of functioning and disability in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Seven electronic databases were systematically searched up to November 16, 2016. Original data, analytic prospective design, physical therapy-led exercise intervention evaluation, children and adolescents with JIA, and assessment of functional, structural, activity, participation, or quality of life outcomes. Two authors screened search results, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Of 5037 potentially relevant studies, 9 randomized controlled trials and 1 cohort study were included and scored. Study quality (Downs and Black quality assessment tool) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model) were assessed and meta-analysis conducted where appropriate. Alternatively, a descriptive summary approach was chosen. All randomized controlled trials were moderate-quality intervention studies (level 2b evidence; median Downs and Black score, 20 out of 32; range, 15-27). Interventions included aquatic, strengthening, proprioceptive, aerobic, and Pilates exercises. Pediatric activity capacity (Child Health Assessment Questionnaire) improved with exercise (mean difference, .45; 95% confidence interval, .05-.76). Furthermore, descriptive summaries indicated improved activity capacity, body function and structure (pain and muscle strength), and quality of life outcomes. Exercise therapy appears to be well tolerated and beneficial across clinically relevant outcomes in patients with JIA. The paucity of high-quality evidence and study heterogeneity limited the ability to provide conclusive, generalizing evidence for the efficacy of exercise therapy and to provide specific recommendations for clinical practice at this time. Future research evaluating exercise program implementation using validated outcomes and detailed adherence and

  11. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for subthreshold depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subthreshold depression has a considerable impact on individuals’ subjective well-being and psychosocial functioning and is a predictor of major depressive disorder. Internet-based cognitive behavioural treatments (iCBTs have been used to reduce the symptoms of subthreshold depression. This meta-analysis aims to systematically review evidence indicating the efficacy of iCBT programs on the improvement of depressive symptoms in this population. Methods Articles published from January 2005 to July 2016 were searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PsycArticles and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of iCBT programs with control groups for participants with subthreshold depression were selected. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to examine the efficacy of iCBT interventions. Results Tenarticles from 8 randomized controlled trials were identified in this systematic review. The results suggested that iCBT programs had a superior efficacy compared to results from a non-active control group at the post-intervention stage (SMD = − 0.28, CI [− 0.42, − 0.14]; I2 = 49 %. However, evidence on the long-term efficacy of iCBT programs is still insufficient and needs further exploration. Conclusion There has been substantial evidence that iCBT intervention has a superior short-term efficacy compared to the results of control groups, while its long-term efficacy of iCBT for subthreshold depressive symptoms is inconclusive and must be examined in further research. Trial registration The protocol of this review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO, Protocol No. CRD42015023390 .

  12. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for subthreshold depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Li, Xue; Pei, Ye; Gao, Jianan; Kong, Junhui

    2016-10-21

    Subthreshold depression has a considerable impact on individuals' subjective well-being and psychosocial functioning and is a predictor of major depressive disorder. Internet-based cognitive behavioural treatments (iCBTs) have been used to reduce the symptoms of subthreshold depression. This meta-analysis aims to systematically review evidence indicating the efficacy of iCBT programs on the improvement of depressive symptoms in this population. Articles published from January 2005 to July 2016 were searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PsycArticles and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of iCBT programs with control groups for participants with subthreshold depression were selected. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to examine the efficacy of iCBT interventions. Tenarticles from 8 randomized controlled trials were identified in this systematic review. The results suggested that iCBT programs had a superior efficacy compared to results from a non-active control group at the post-intervention stage (SMD = - 0.28, CI [- 0.42, - 0.14]; I2 = 49 %). However, evidence on the long-term efficacy of iCBT programs is still insufficient and needs further exploration. There has been substantial evidence that iCBT intervention has a superior short-term efficacy compared to the results of control groups, while its long-term efficacy of iCBT for subthreshold depressive symptoms is inconclusive and must be examined in further research. The protocol of this review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), Protocol No. CRD42015023390 .

  13. Cerebral hemodynamics in sepsis assessed by transcranial Doppler: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Daniel Silva; Salinet, Angela Salomao Macedo; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; de Carvalho Nogueira, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Cerebral microcirculation is gradually compromised during sepsis, with significant reductions in the function of capillaries and blood perfusion in small vessels. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has been used to assess cerebral circulation in a typical clinical setting. This study was to systematically review TCD studies, assess their methodological quality, and identify trends that can be associated with the temporal evolution of sepsis and its clinical outcome. A meta-analysis of systematic reviews was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Articles were searched from 1982 until the conclusion of this review in December 2015. Twelve prospective and observational studies were selected. Evaluations of cerebral blood flow, cerebral autoregulation, and carbon dioxide (CO2) vasoreactivity were summarized. A temporal pattern of the evolution of the illness was found. In early sepsis, the median blood flow velocity (Vm) and pulsatility index (PI) increased, and the cerebral autoregulation (CA) remained unchanged. In contrast, Vm normalization, PI reduction and CA impairment were found in later sepsis (patients with severe sepsis or septic shock). Cerebral haemodynamic is impaired in sepsis. Modifications in cerebral blood flow may be consequence to the endothelial dysfunction of the microvasculature induced by the release of inflammatory mediators. A better understanding of cerebral hemodynamics may improve the clinical management of patients with sepsis and, consequently, improve clinical outcomes.

  14. Control-flow analysis of function calls and returns by abstract interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Jensen, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    We derive a control-flow analysis that approximates the interprocedural control-flow of both function calls and returns in the presence of first-class functions and tail-call optimization. In addition to an abstract environment, our analysis computes for each expression an abstract control stack......, effectively approximating where function calls return across optimized tail calls. The analysis is systematically calculated by abstract interpretation of the stack-based CaEK abstract machine of Flanagan et al. using a series of Galois connections. Abstract interpretation provides a unifying setting in which...

  15. A systematic review of parent and family functioning in pediatric solid organ transplant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousino, Melissa K; Rea, Kelly E; Schumacher, Kurt R; Magee, John C; Fredericks, Emily M

    2017-05-01

    The process of pediatric solid organ transplantation (SOT) places new and increased stressors on patients and family members. Measures of family functioning may predict psychological and health outcomes for pediatric patients and their families, and provide opportunity for targeted intervention. This systematic review investigated parent and family functioning and factors associated with poorer functioning in the pediatric SOT population. Thirty-seven studies were identified and reviewed. Studies featured a range of organ populations (eg, heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine) at various stages in the transplant process. Findings highlighted that parents of pediatric SOT populations commonly report increased stress and mental health symptoms, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Pediatric SOT is also associated with increased family stress and burden throughout the transplant process. Measures of parent and family functioning were associated with several important health-related factors, such as medication adherence, readiness for discharge, and number of hospitalizations. Overall, findings suggest that family stress and burden persists post-transplant, and parent and family functioning is associated with health-related factors in SOT, highlighting family-level functioning as an important target for future intervention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Executive functioning impairment in women treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Christie; Bernstein, Lori J; Rich, Jill B

    2017-11-01

    Women with breast cancer have reported adverse cognitive effects following chemotherapy. Evidence is mixed on whether executive functioning is particularly impaired in women treated with chemotherapy, in part due to the wide range of tasks used to measure executive processes. We performed a systematic review of the published literature to evaluate whether some subcomponents of executive functioning are more vulnerable to impairment than others among breast cancer survivors who had been treated with chemotherapy. Studies published as of April 2017 were identified using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) and a manual search of relevant reference lists. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a checklist of predefined criteria. Of 1280 identified articles, a total of 41 were included for review. Study findings were categorized into three primary subdomains of executive functioning: inhibition, shifting, and updating. Although there was heterogeneity in the neuropsychological measures used to assess executive functioning, tests could be grouped into the subcomponents they assessed. Inhibition appears relatively spared from the effects of chemotherapy, whereas impairments in shifting and updating are more commonly found following chemotherapy. Examination of subcomponents of executive functioning is recommended to better characterize the nature of executive dysfunction in women treated with chemotherapy. Future studies should include executive functioning tasks of varying complexity, use of multiple tasks to increase reliability, and alternative indices to capture performance, such as within-person variability.

  17. Systematic analysis of head-to-head gene organization: evolutionary conservation and potential biological relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several "head-to-head" (or "bidirectional" gene pairs have been studied in individual experiments, but genome-wide analysis of this gene organization, especially in terms of transcriptional correlation and functional association, is still insufficient. We conducted a systematic investigation of head-to-head gene organization focusing on structural features, evolutionary conservation, expression correlation and functional association. Of the present 1,262, 1,071, and 491 head-to-head pairs identified in human, mouse, and rat genomes, respectively, pairs with 1- to 400-base pair distance between transcription start sites form the majority (62.36%, 64.15%, and 55.19% for human, mouse, and rat,respectively of each dataset, and the largest group is always the one with a transcription start site distance of 101 to 200 base pairs. The phylogenetic analysis among Fugu, chicken, and human indicates a negative selection on the separation of head-to-head genes across vertebrate evolution, and thus the ancestral existence of this gene organization. The expression analysis shows that most of the human head-to-head genes are significantly correlated,and the correlation could be positive, negative, or alternative depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, head to-head genes statistically tend to perform similar functions, and gene pairs associated with the significant cofunctions seem to have stronger expression correlations. The findings indicate that the head-to-head gene organization is ancient and conserved, which subjects functionally related genes to correlated transcriptional regulation and thus provides an exquisite mechanism of transcriptional regulation based on gene organization. These results have significantly expanded the knowledge about head-to-head gene organization. Supplementary materials for this study are available at http://www.scbit.org/h2h.

  18. A Complexity Analysis of Functional Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernest, Mircea-Dan; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of G ̈odel’s functional interpretation and its monotone variant. The two have been used for the extraction of programs and numerical bounds as well as for conservation results. They apply both to (semi-)intuitionistic as well as (combined with negative translation...

  19. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of ...

  20. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Severe Pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; Knight, David

    1986-01-01

    A two-phase functional analysis of a profoundly retarded 19-year-old male's pica behavior resulted in an effective staff-implemented treatment consisting of limited staff-client interaction and removal of a protective helmet which had previously been prescribed to help control pica. (Author/JW)

  1. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome ... Abstract. Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by ...

  2. Pineal function : Impact of microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony K.; Chik, Constance L.; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Moller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Weller, Joan L.; Coon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the

  3. Functional Analysis-Spectral Theory1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Functional Analysis - Spectral Theory1. Cherian Varughese. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 91-92 ... Author Affiliations. Cherian Varughese1. Indian Statistical Institute, 8th Mile, Mysore Road, Bangalore 560 059, India.

  4. Platelet activation, function, and reactivity in atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-09-27

    An important proportion of transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is attributable to moderate or severe (50-99%) atherosclerotic carotid stenosis or occlusion. Platelet biomarkers have the potential to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular events in this patient population. A detailed systematic review was performed to collate all available data on ex vivo platelet activation and platelet function\\/reactivity in patients with carotid stenosis. Two hundred thirteen potentially relevant articles were initially identified; 26 manuscripts met criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. There was no consistent evidence of clinically informative data from urinary or soluble blood markers of platelet activation in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe carotid stenosis who might be considered suitable for carotid intervention. Data from flow cytometry studies revealed evidence of excessive platelet activation in patients in the early, sub-acute, or late phases after transient ischemic attack or stroke in association with moderate or severe carotid stenosis and in asymptomatic moderate or severe carotid stenosis compared with controls. Furthermore, pilot data suggest that platelet activation may be increased in recently symptomatic than in asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis. Excessive platelet activation and platelet hyperreactivity may play a role in the pathogenesis of first or subsequent transient ischemic attack or stroke in patients with moderate or severe carotid stenosis. Larger longitudinal studies assessing platelet activation status with flow cytometry and platelet function\\/reactivity in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic carotid stenosis are warranted to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for transient ischemic attack or stroke.

  5. The effect of vision on knee biomechanics during functional activities - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Quinette; Gillion, Nadia; van Niekerk, Sjan-Mari; Morris, Linzette; Baumeister, Jochen

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of occluded vision on lower limb kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint during functional tasks including drop landing (single or double leg), squatting (single or double leg), stepping down, cutting movement and hopping in healthy individuals, or individuals who had an ACL reconstruction or deficiency with no vision impairments. A systematic review was conducted. A systematic review was conducted and electronic databases were searched between March 2012 and April 2013 for eligible papers. Methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Downs and Black revised checklist. Six studies met the eligibility criteria and a wide variation in methodological approaches was reported. This small evidence base indicated equivocal evidence about the effect of vision on knee biomechanics in individuals with healthy and compromised somatosensory function post an ACL reconstruction or injury. Clinicians should consider innovative, individualised ACL rehabilitation strategies when prescribing exercises which involve visual occlusion. Further research to increase the relatively small evidence base for the effect of vision on knee biomechanics is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic review protocol on the effectiveness of therapeutic exercises utilised by physiotherapists to improve function in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapfuma Mudawarima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic exercises play a crucial role in the management of burn injuries. The broad objective of this review is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness, safety and applicability to low-income countries of therapeutic exercises utilised by physiotherapists to improve function in patients with burns. Population = adults and children/adolescents with burns of any aspect of their bodies. Interventions = any aerobic and/or strength exercises delivered as part of a rehabilitation programme by anyone (e.g. physiotherapists, occupational therapists, nurses, doctors, community workers and patients themselves. Comparators = any comparator. Outcomes = any measure of outcome (e.g. quality of life, pain, muscle strength, range of movement, fear or quality of movement. Settings = any setting in any country. Methods/design A systematic review will be conducted by two blinded independent reviewers who will search articles on PubMed, CiNAHL, Cochrane library, Medline, Pedro, OTseeker, EMBASE, PsychINFO and EBSCOhost using predefined criteria. Studies of human participants of any age suffering from burns will be eligible, and there will be no restrictions on total body surface area. Only randomised controlled trials will be considered for this review, and the methodological quality of studies meeting the selection criteria will be evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. The PRISMA reporting standards will be used to write the review. A narrative analysis of the findings will be done, but if pooling is possible, meta-analysis will be considered. Discussion Burns may have a long-lasting impact on both psychological and physical functioning and thus it is important to identify and evaluate the effects of current and past aerobic and strength exercises on patients with burns. By identifying the characteristics of effective exercise programmes, guidelines can be suggested for developing intervention

  7. Systematic error analysis for 3D nanoprofiler tracing normal vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ryota; Tokuta, Yusuke; Nakano, Motohiro; Yamamura, Kazuya; Endo, Katsuyoshi

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, demand for an optical element having a high degree of freedom shape is increased. High-precision aspherical shape is required for the X-ray focusing mirror etc. For the head-mounted display etc., optical element of the free-form surface is used. For such an optical device fabrication, measurement technology is essential. We have developed a high- precision 3D nanoprofiler. By nanoprofiler, the normal vector information of the sample surface is obtained on the basis of the linearity of light. Normal vector information is differential value of the shape, it is possible to determine the shape by integrating. Repeatability of sub-nanometer has been achieved by nanoprofiler. To pursue the accuracy of shapes, systematic error is analyzed. The systematic errors are figure error of sample and assembly errors of the device. This method utilizes the information of the ideal shape of the sample, and the measurement point coordinates and normal vectors are calculated. However, measured figure is not the ideal shape by the effect of systematic errors. Therefore, the measurement point coordinate and the normal vector is calculated again by feeding back the measured figure. Correction of errors have been attempted by figure re-derivation. It was confirmed theoretically effectiveness by simulation. This approach also applies to the experiment, it was confirmed the possibility of about 4 nm PV figure correction in the employed sample.

  8. Heart Rate Variability Indexes in Dementia: A Systematic Review with a Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vanessa Pereira; Ramalho Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro; Tavares Mello, Roger Gomes; Moraes, Helena; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson

    2018-01-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) indexes indicate low vagal activity and may be associated with development of dementia. The neurodegenerative process is associated with the cardiovascular autonomic control. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect size (ES) magnitude of the HRV indexes in the evaluation of autonomic dysfunction in older persons with dementia. PubMed (Medline), Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, Lilacs, and APA Psycnet were consulted. Complete original articles published in English or Portuguese, investigating the association between autonomic dysfunction and dementia, using the HRV indexes were included. The search identified 97 potentially relevant articles. After screening the full text, eight articles were included in the qualitative analysis and six were included in the quantitative analysis. Almost all indexes showed a negative ES for all types of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The most common frequency band of the power spectrum density function was the high frequency, which was reported by six studies. The meta-analysis of high frequency power in Alzheimer's disease group showed high heterogeneity and inconsistent results. The negative effect size suggests an autonomic dysfunction in all types of dementia as well as mild cognitive impairment. However, further analysis is necessary to support these results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Cognitive and emotional functioning in binge-eating disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Rebekka; Brauhardt, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-09-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and is associated with eating disorder and general psychopathology and overweight/obesity. Deficits in cognitive and emotional functioning for eating disorders or obesity have been reported. However, a systematic review on cognitive and emotional functioning for individuals with BED is lacking. A systematic literature search was conducted across three databases (Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO). Overall, n = 57 studies were included in the present review. Regarding cognitive functioning (CoF), individuals with BED consistently demonstrated higher information processing biases compared to obese and normal-weight controls in the context of disorder-related stimuli (i.e., food and body cues), whereas CoF in the context of neutral stimuli appeared to be less affected. Thus, results suggest disorder-related rather than general difficulties in CoF in BED. With respect to emotional functioning (EmF), individuals with BED reported difficulties similar to individuals with other eating disorders, with a tendency to show less severe difficulties in some domains. In addition, individuals with BED reported greater emotional deficits when compared to obese and normal-weight controls. Findings suggest general difficulties in EmF in BED. Thus far, however, investigations of EmF in disorder-relevant situations are lacking. Overall, the cross-sectional findings indicate BED to be associated with difficulties in CoF and EmF. Future research should determine the nature of these difficulties, in regards to general and disorder-related stimuli, and consider interactions of both domains to foster the development and improvement of appropriate interventions in BED. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee: systematic review and meta-analysis of benefits and harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, J B; Juhl, C B; Roos, E M; Lohmander, LS

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine benefits and harms of arthroscopic knee surgery involving partial meniscectomy, debridement, or both for middle aged or older patients with knee pain and degenerative knee disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Main outcome measures Pain and physical function. Data sources Systematic searches for benefits and harms were carried out in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to August 2014. Only studies published in 2000 or later were included for harms. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials assessing benefit of arthroscopic surgery involving partial meniscectomy, debridement, or both for patients with or without radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were included. For harms, cohort studies, register based studies, and case series were also allowed. Results The search identified nine trials assessing the benefits of knee arthroscopic surgery in middle aged and older patients with knee pain and degenerative knee disease. The main analysis, combining the primary endpoints of the individual trials from three to 24 months postoperatively, showed a small difference in favour of interventions including arthroscopic surgery compared with control treatments for pain (effect size 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.26). This difference corresponds to a benefit of 2.4 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 4.3) mm on a 0–100 mm visual analogue scale. When analysed over time of follow-up, interventions including arthroscopy showed a small benefit of 3–5 mm for pain at three and six months but not later up to 24 months. No significant benefit on physical function was found (effect size 0.09, −0.05 to 0.24). Nine studies reporting on harms were identified. Harms included symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (4.13 (95% confidence interval 1.78 to 9.60) events per 1000 procedures), pulmonary embolism, infection, and death. Conclusions The

  11. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  12. Structures and expectations: A systematic analysis of Margaret Paston’s formulaic and expressive language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a model based on a critical discourse analysis approach, in conjunction with frame analysis, offers a systematic way to analyse 15th century letters. It is argued that in this framework all contexts are “local contexts”. Letters present particular difficulties because they are for......It is shown how a model based on a critical discourse analysis approach, in conjunction with frame analysis, offers a systematic way to analyse 15th century letters. It is argued that in this framework all contexts are “local contexts”. Letters present particular difficulties because...

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the funtional MRI investigation of motor neuron disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchao eShen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in motor neuron disease (MND, a systematic review and voxelwise meta-analysis of studies comparing brain activity in patients with MND and in healthy controls (HCs was conducted to identify common findings across studies.Methods: A search for related papers published in English and Chinese was performed in Ovid Medline, Pubmed and Embase database. Voxelwise meta-analysis was performed using signed differential mapping.Results: The findings from 55 fMRI studies on MND were tabulated, and some common findings were discussed in further details. Conclusions: These findings are preliminary, sometimes even contradictory, and do not allow a complete understanding of the functional alterations in MND. However, we documented reliable findings that MND is not confined to the motor system, but is a multisystem disorder involving extra-motor cortex areas, causing cognitive dysfunction and deficits in socioemotional and sensory processing pathways.

  14. Risk factors for functional status decline in community-living elderly people: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, A E; Walthert, J M; Nikolaus, T; Büla, C J; Hohmann, C; Beck, J C

    1999-02-01

    To lay the groundwork for devising, improving and implementing strategies to prevent or delay the onset of disability in the elderly, we conducted a systematic literature review of longitudinal studies published between 1985 and 1997 that reported statistical associations between individual base-line risk factors and subsequent functional status in community-living older persons. Functional status decline was defined as disability or physical function limitation. We used MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, SOCA, EMBASE, bibliographies and expert consultation to select the articles, 78 of which met the selection criteria. Risk factors were categorized into 14 domains and coded by two independent abstractors. Based on the methodological quality of the statistical analyses between risk factors and functional outcomes (e.g. control for base-line functional status, control for confounding, attrition rate), the strength of evidence was derived for each risk factor. The association of functional decline with medical findings was also analyzed. The highest strength of evidence for an increased risk in functional status decline was found for (alphabetical order) cognitive impairment, depression, disease burden (comorbidity), increased and decreased body mass index, lower extremity functional limitation, low frequency of social contacts, low level of physical activity, no alcohol use compared to moderate use, poor self-perceived health, smoking and vision impairment. The review revealed that some risk factors (e.g. nutrition, physical environment) have been neglected in past research. This review will help investigators set priorities for future research of the Disablement Process, plan health and social services for elderly persons and develop more cost-effective programs for preventing disability among them.

  15. Frailty as a predictor of disabilities among community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro

    2017-09-01

    Frailty has been shown to be associated with disability in the previous studies. However, it is not clear how consistently or to how much degree frailty is actually associated with the future disability risks. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library for any prospective studies published from 2010 to September 2015 examining associations between baseline frailty status and subsequent risk of developing or worsening disabilities among community-dwelling older people. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize pooled estimates. Of 7012 studies identified through the systematic review, 20 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Twelve studies examined activities of daily living (ADL) disability risks, two studies examined instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability risks, and six studies examined both ADL and IADL disability risks. Overall, frail older people were more likely to develop or worsen disabilities in ADL (12 studies, pooled OR = 2.76, 95% CI = 2.23-3.44, p frailty was explored using subgroup analyses, which suggested methodological quality and mean age of the cohort were the possible causes. This systematic review meta-analysis quantitatively showed that frail older people are at higher risks of disabilities. These results are important for all related parties given population aging worldwide. Interventions for frailty are important to prevent disability and preserve physical functions, autonomy, and quality of life. Implications for Rehabilitation Although frailty has been shown to be associated with disability and considered as a precursor of disability, it is not clear how consistently or to how much degree frailty is actually associated with the future disability risks. This systematic review and meta-analysis quantitatively shows frailty is a significant predictor of incident and worsening ADL and IADL disabilities. It is a pressing priority to

  16. Comparison of Nerve-Sparing Radical Hysterectomy and Radical Hysterectomy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowei Xue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Radical hysterectomy (RH for the treatment of cervical cancer frequently caused pelvic organ dysfunctions. This study aimed to compare the results of pelvic organ function and recurrence rate after Nerve sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH and RH treatment through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database were searched from inception to 25 February 2015. Studies of cervical cancer which reported radical hysterectomy or nerve sparing radical hysterectomy were included. The quality of included studies was evaluated using the guidelines of Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software (Cochrane Collaboration. Results: A total of 20 studies were finally included. Meta-analysis demonstrated that NSRH was associated with less bladder and anorectal dysfunction than RH. The time to bladder and anorectal function recovery after NSRH was shorter than RH. Patients undergoing NSRH also scored higher than patients undergoing RH at Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. On the other hand, the local recurrence and overall recurrence rate were similar between NSRH and RH. Conclusion: NSRH may be an effective technique for lowering pelvic organ dysfunction and improving the function recovery without increasing the recurrence rate of cervical cancer.

  17. Some Logical Metatheorems with Applications in Functional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    In previous papers we have developed proof-theoretic techniques for extracting effective uniform bounds from large classes of ineffective existence proofs in functional analysis. Here `uniform' means independence from parameters in compact spaces. A recent case study in fixed-point theory...... systematically yielded uniformity even w.r.t. parameters in metrically bounded (but noncompact) subsets which had been known before only in special cases. In the present paper we prove general logical metatheorems which cover these applications to fixed-point theory as special cases but are not restricted...... to this area at all. Our theorems guarantee under general logical conditions such strong uniform versions of non-uniform existence statements. Moreover, they provide algorithms for actually extracting effective uniform bounds and transforming the original proof into one for the stronger uniformity result. Our...

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Alexandra; Tzoufi, Meropi; Ntzani, Evangelia; Varvarousis, Dimitrios; Beris, Alexandros; Ploumis, Avraam

    2017-10-01

    Equine-assisted therapies, such as therapeutic riding and hippotherapy, are believed to have positive physical and emotional effects in individuals with neuromotor, developmental, and physical disabilities. The purpose of this review was to determine whether therapeutic riding and hippotherapy improve balance, motor function, gait, muscle symmetry, pelvic movement, psychosocial parameters, and the patients' overall quality of life. In this study, a literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, CINAHL, MBASE, SportDiscus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PEDro, DARE, Google Scholar, and Dissertation Abstracts. Only studies with a control/comparison group or self-controlled studies performing preintervention and postintervention assessment were included. Excluded were (1) studies not providing data on baseline score or end-point outcome, (2) single-subject studies, (3) studies providing only qualitative data, and (4) studies that used a mechanical horse. Sixteen trials were included. The methodologic quality of each study was evaluated using Downs and Black quality assessment tool. Most of the studies showed a trend toward a beneficial effect of therapeutic riding and hippotherapy on balance and gross motor function. The meta-analysis showed improvement in both the Berg Balance Scale and the Gross Motor Function Measure in therapeutic riding and hippotherapy programs. Programs such as therapeutic riding and hippotherapy are a viable intervention option for patients with balance, gait, and psychomotor disorders.

  19. A systematic computational analysis of biosynthetic gene cluster evolution: lessons for engineering biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix H Medema

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial secondary metabolites are widely used as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, insecticides and food additives. Attempts to engineer their biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs to produce unnatural metabolites with improved properties are often frustrated by the unpredictability and complexity of the enzymes that synthesize these molecules, suggesting that genetic changes within BGCs are limited by specific constraints. Here, by performing a systematic computational analysis of BGC evolution, we derive evidence for three findings that shed light on the ways in which, despite these constraints, nature successfully invents new molecules: 1 BGCs for complex molecules often evolve through the successive merger of smaller sub-clusters, which function as independent evolutionary entities. 2 An important subset of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases evolve by concerted evolution, which generates sets of sequence-homogenized domains that may hold promise for engineering efforts since they exhibit a high degree of functional interoperability, 3 Individual BGC families evolve in distinct ways, suggesting that design strategies should take into account family-specific functional constraints. These findings suggest novel strategies for using synthetic biology to rationally engineer biosynthetic pathways.

  20. A systematic computational analysis of biosynthetic gene cluster evolution: lessons for engineering biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medema, Marnix H; Cimermancic, Peter; Sali, Andrej; Takano, Eriko; Fischbach, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial secondary metabolites are widely used as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, insecticides and food additives. Attempts to engineer their biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) to produce unnatural metabolites with improved properties are often frustrated by the unpredictability and complexity of the enzymes that synthesize these molecules, suggesting that genetic changes within BGCs are limited by specific constraints. Here, by performing a systematic computational analysis of BGC evolution, we derive evidence for three findings that shed light on the ways in which, despite these constraints, nature successfully invents new molecules: 1) BGCs for complex molecules often evolve through the successive merger of smaller sub-clusters, which function as independent evolutionary entities. 2) An important subset of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases evolve by concerted evolution, which generates sets of sequence-homogenized domains that may hold promise for engineering efforts since they exhibit a high degree of functional interoperability, 3) Individual BGC families evolve in distinct ways, suggesting that design strategies should take into account family-specific functional constraints. These findings suggest novel strategies for using synthetic biology to rationally engineer biosynthetic pathways.

  1. Massage Therapy in Children with Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Yang, Xi-Wen; Zhang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    To systematically evaluate the efficacy of massage, a traditional treatment method of traditional Chinese medicine on children with asthma. Literatures from 5 databases using the date ranging from 1 January, 1990, to 13 December, 2016, were reviewed, which were all randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy on children with asthma and effect on lung function mainly by massage therapy. 14 researches with 1299 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control group, a better efficacy was found in treatment group, which focused on massage therapy. Compared with control group, there was remarkable increase on FEV1 as well as PEF in treatment group. All studies have shown that massage therapy has a significantly positive effect on children with asthma, improves the pulmonary function parameters of large airway, reduces the plasma concentrations of PAF and prostaglandin, and increases the levels of PAF-AH and DP1; therefore, it greatly improves pulmonary function. However, the limited research designs of included studies lead to high risk of bias. More randomized controlled trials with better methodological quality are needed to further confirm the effectiveness of massage.

  2. Massage Therapy in Children with Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To systematically evaluate the efficacy of massage, a traditional treatment method of traditional Chinese medicine on children with asthma. Methods. Literatures from 5 databases using the date ranging from 1 January, 1990, to 13 December, 2016, were reviewed, which were all randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy on children with asthma and effect on lung function mainly by massage therapy. Results. 14 researches with 1299 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control group, a better efficacy was found in treatment group, which focused on massage therapy. Compared with control group, there was remarkable increase on FEV1 as well as PEF in treatment group. Conclusion. All studies have shown that massage therapy has a significantly positive effect on children with asthma, improves the pulmonary function parameters of large airway, reduces the plasma concentrations of PAF and prostaglandin, and increases the levels of PAF-AH and DP1; therefore, it greatly improves pulmonary function. However, the limited research designs of included studies lead to high risk of bias. More randomized controlled trials with better methodological quality are needed to further confirm the effectiveness of massage.

  3. Systematic Characterization and Comparative Analysis of the Rabbit Immunoglobulin Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinder, Jason J.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Wine, Yariv; Georgiou, George

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed) IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH) and light chain variable (VL) germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp), was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice. PMID:24978027

  4. Systematic characterization and comparative analysis of the rabbit immunoglobulin repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Lavinder

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH and light chain variable (VL germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp, was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice.

  5. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murer Kurt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the

  6. First Meeting in Topology and Functional Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    López-Pellicer, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Descriptive topology and functional analysis, with extensive material demonstrating new connections between them, are the subject of the first section of this work. Applications to spaces of continuous functions, topological Abelian groups, linear topological equivalence and to the separable quotient problem are included and are presented as open problems. The second section is devoted to Banach spaces, Banach algebras and operator theory. Each chapter presents a lot of worthwhile and important recent theorems with an abstract discussing the material in the chapter. Each chapter can almost be seen as a survey covering a particular area.

  7. Vitamin D and food allergies in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Erin K; Wang, Zhen; Jin, Jay; Patel, Bhavisha; Motosue, Megan; Bhagia, Amrita; Almasri, Jehad; Erwin, Patricia J; Kumar, Seema; Joshi, Avni Y

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with immune dysfunction and linked to the epidemic of atopic diseases in the Western hemisphere, yet there are studies with conflicting results, and the risk has not been quantified uniformly across studies. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate and quantify if vitamin D deficiency is associated with the presence and persistence of food allergy. A systematic review was undertaken to assess for the association between food allergy and vitamin D status in children. A total of 368 citations relevant to this systematic review were identified. In the whole review, 5105 children were included. We did not find a significant association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and risk of food allergy in children (odds ratio [OR] 1.35 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.79-2.29]; p = 0.27, I2 = 58.3%). We conducted subgroup analyses based on different cutoffs of the 25(OH)D status (20 versus 30 ng/mL). Only one study used 30 ng/mL and found that children with <30 ng/mL were more likely to report food allergy than children with a 25(OH)D status of ≥30 ng/mL (OR 2.04 [95% CI, 1.02-4.04]; p = 0.04). Four studies compared children with a 25(OH)D status of <20 ng/mL to children with a 25(OH)D status of ≥20 ng/mL and found no significant differences (OR 1.18 [95% CI, 0.62-2.27]; p = 0.62, I2 = 62.7%). Based on the studies analyzed, this systematic review did not identify a significant association between vitamin D status and food allergy. Interpretation of the included studies was limited by a lack of a standard definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficient knowledge regarding the optimal vitamin D status needed to impact immune function. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess if vitamin D might contribute to the development of food allergy.

  8. Epinephrine in cardiac arrest: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cané, Ignacio; Valverde-León, María Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2016-12-08

    evaluate the effectiveness of epinephrine used during cardiac arrest and its effect on the survival rates and neurological condition. systematic review of scientific literature with meta-analysis, using a random effects model. The following databases were used to research clinical trials and observational studies: Medline, Embase and Cochrane, from 2005 to 2015. when the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) with administration of epinephrine was compared with ROSC without administration, increased rates were found with administration (OR 2.02. 95% CI 1.49 to 2.75; I2 = 95%). Meta-analysis showed an increase in survival to discharge or 30 days after administration of epinephrine (OR 1.23; 95% IC 1.05-1.44; I2=83%). Stratification by shockable and non-shockable rhythms showed an increase in survival for non-shockable rhythm (OR 1.52; 95% IC 1.29-1.78; I2=42%). When compared with delayed administration, the administration of epinephrine within 10 minutes showed an increased survival rate (OR 2.03; 95% IC 1.77-2.32; I2=0%). administration of epinephrine appears to increase the rate of ROSC, but when compared with other therapies, no positive effect was found on survival rates of patients with favorable neurological status. avaliar a efetividade da adrenalina na parada cardíaca e seu efeito na sobrevivência e no estado neurológico. revisão sistemática da literatura científica com meta-análise utilizando um modelo de efeitos aleatórios. Revisão em Medline, Embase e Cochrane, desde 2005 até 2015 de ensaios clínicos e estudos observacionais. observou-se aumento nas taxas de retorno de circulação espontânea com a administração de adrenalina (OR 2,02; 95% IC 1,49-2,75; I2=95%) comparadas com a não administração de adrenalina. A meta-análise mostrou um aumento da sobrevivência na alta ou depois de 30 dias da administração de adrenalina (OR 1,23; 95% IC 1,05-1,44; I2=83%). Quando estratificados por ritmos desfibrilháveis e não desfibrilh

  9. Assessment of functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system in the context of work, daily living, and sport: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Haije; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to survey methods to assess the functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system within the context of work, daily activities, and sport. The following key words and synonyms were used: functional physical assessment, healthy/disabled subjects, and instruments.

  10. Panel studies of air pollution in patients with COPD: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemsma, Lizan D; Hoek, Gerard; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an increase in morbidity and mortality rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following exposure to elevated levels of air pollution. Panel studies have been used to assess short-term effects of air pollution which are not detected by registry studies, specifically lung function and symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence of panel studies on acute effects of air pollution among patients with COPD. We searched the PubMed database, and identified additional studies by inspecting reference lists and literature reviews. We identified and summarized 25 panel studies that were published between 1993 and February 2016. Results were presented in forest plots and effect estimates of sufficiently comparable outcomes and pollutants were summarized by a random-effects meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed that a 10µg/m(3) increase in ambient levels of particles less than 10µm in diameter (PM10) had a small, but statistically significant impact on FEV1 (-3.38mL, 95% CI -6.39 to -0.37) and PEF (-0.61L/min, -1.20 to -0.01). There was significant heterogeneity across the included studies. A forest plot showing associations between PM10 and respiratory symptoms was also suggestive of an adverse effect of particulate air pollution, but this was not formally tested in a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of outcomes. Results for gaseous pollutants were inconsistent for lung function or symptoms. Evidence from the identified panel studies indicated statistically significant associations of particulate matter air pollution with lung function in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF SYSTEMATIC HEIGHT MODEL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of digital height models (DHM determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC. Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP, but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital surface model (DSM or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS

  12. Variations in the Slope of the Psychometric Functions for Speech Intelligibility: A Systematic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MacPherson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have looked at the effects of different listening conditions on the intelligibility of speech, their analyses have often concentrated on changes to a single value on the psychometric function, namely, the threshold. Far less commonly has the slope of the psychometric function, that is, the rate at which intelligibility changes with level, been considered. The slope of the function is crucial because it is the slope, rather than the threshold, that determines the improvement in intelligibility caused by any given improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by, for instance, a hearing aid. The aim of the current study was to systematically survey and reanalyze the psychometric function data available in the literature in an attempt to quantify the range of slope changes across studies and to identify listening conditions that affect the slope of the psychometric function. The data for 885 individual psychometric functions, taken from 139 different studies, were fitted with a common logistic equation from which the slope was calculated. Large variations in slope across studies were found, with slope values ranging from as shallow as 1% per dB to as steep as 44% per dB (median = 6.6% per dB, suggesting that the perceptual benefit offered by an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio depends greatly on listening environment. The type and number of maskers used were found to be major factors on the value of the slope of the psychometric function while other minor effects of target predictability, target corpus, and target/masker similarity were also found.

  13. Variations in the slope of the psychometric functions for speech intelligibility: a systematic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Alexandra; Akeroyd, Michael A

    2014-06-06

    Although many studies have looked at the effects of different listening conditions on the intelligibility of speech, their analyses have often concentrated on changes to a single value on the psychometric function, namely, the threshold. Far less commonly has the slope of the psychometric function, that is, the rate at which intelligibility changes with level, been considered. The slope of the function is crucial because it is the slope, rather than the threshold, that determines the improvement in intelligibility caused by any given improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by, for instance, a hearing aid. The aim of the current study was to systematically survey and reanalyze the psychometric function data available in the literature in an attempt to quantify the range of slope changes across studies and to identify listening conditions that affect the slope of the psychometric function. The data for 885 individual psychometric functions, taken from 139 different studies, were fitted with a common logistic equation from which the slope was calculated. Large variations in slope across studies were found, with slope values ranging from as shallow as 1% per dB to as steep as 44% per dB (median = 6.6% per dB), suggesting that the perceptual benefit offered by an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio depends greatly on listening environment. The type and number of maskers used were found to be major factors on the value of the slope of the psychometric function while other minor effects of target predictability, target corpus, and target/masker similarity were also found. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behaviour among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Cheung, Gary; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Lindner, Reinhard; Draper, Brian; Gallo, Joseph J; Wong, Christine; Wu, Jing; Duberstein, Paul; Wærn, Margda

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of studies that examined associations between physical illness/functional disability and suicidal behaviour (including ideation, nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviour) among individuals aged 65 and older. Articles published through November 2014 were identified through electronic searches using the ERIC, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Search terms used were suicid* or death wishes or deliberate self-harm. Studies about suicidal behaviour in individuals aged 65 and older with physical illness/functional disabilities were included in the review. Sixty-five articles (across 61 independent samples) met inclusion criteria. Results from 59 quantitative studies conducted in four continents suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with functional disability and numerous specific conditions including malignant diseases, neurological disorders, pain, COPD, liver disease, male genital disorders, and arthritis/arthrosis. Six qualitative studies from three continents contextualized these findings, providing insights into the subjective experiences of suicidal individuals. Implications for interventions and future research are discussed. Functional disability, as well as a number of specific physical illnesses, was shown to be associated with suicidal behaviour in older adults. We need to learn more about what at-risk, physically ill patients want, and need, to inform prevention efforts for older adults.

  15. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea and its treatment over the erectile function: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Campos-Juanatey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is considered a condition with a broad range of etiologies. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA syndrome is one of the lesser studied risk factors for ED. We intend to summarize the current evidence on the relationship between OSA and sexual impairment, focusing on the results in terms of erectile function of the different therapies offered to OSA patients. A systematic review was conducted, selecting articles related to the physiology of OSA and ED, and to the treatments of OSA syndrome and their reported outcomes in erectile and sexual function. Higher prevalences of ED in the OSA groups have been published. However, whether this effect on the erectile function occurs in the entire range of OSA severities remains unclear. Several hypotheses were proposed to explain the physiology of this association. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure as a treatment for OSA patients with ED has achieved a significative improvement in the sexual parameters in most of the studies. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (iPDE5 on demand are useful as a treatment for ED in this subgroup of patients, with high satisfaction rates. The surgical treatment for the OSA evidenced benefits over the erectile function, and the effect on the sexual satisfaction of the therapy using Mandibular Advancement Devices is still undefined.

  16. Pharmacists and Natural Health Products: A systematic analysis of professional responsibilities in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell J; Ries NM; Boon H

    2008-01-01

    Natural health products such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines are widely available in Canadian pharmacies. Purpose: to conduct a systematic analysis of Canadian pharmacy policies and guidelines to explore pharmacists’ professional responsibilities with respect to natural health products.Methods: Legislation, codes of ethics, standards of practice and guidance documents that apply to the practice of pharmacy in each Canadian jurisdiction were systematically collected and examined ...

  17. Prevalence of asthenopia in children: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Manuel A.P.; Pellanda, Lucia C.; Fassa, Anaclaudia G.; Castagno, Victor D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of asthenopia in 0-18 year-old children through a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies.SOURCES: Inclusion criteria were population-based studies from 1960 to May of 2014 reporting the prevalence of asthenopia in children. The search was performed independently by two reviewers in the PubMed, EMBASE, and LILACS databases, with no language restriction. This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration gu...

  18. Smokefree legislation effects on respiratory and sensory disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando-Matos, Yolanda; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; López, María José; Córdoba, Rodrigo; Ballve-Moreno, José Luis; Puigdomènech-Puig, Elisa; Benito-López, Vega Estíbaliz; Arias-Agudelo, Olga Lucía; López-Grau, Mercè; Guardia-Riera, Anna; Trujillo, José Manuel; Martin-Cantera, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize the available evidence in scientific papers of smokefree legislation effects on respiratory diseases and sensory and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, red eyes, runny nose) among all populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search between January 1995 and February 2015 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1) original scientific studies about smokefree legislation, 2) Data before and after legislation were collected, and 3) Impact on respiratory and sensory outcomes were assessed. Paired reviewers independently carried out the screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction from full-text articles, and methodological quality assessment. A total number of 1606 papers were identified. 50 papers were selected, 26 were related to symptoms (23 concerned workers). Most outcomes presented significant decreases in the percentage of people suffering from them, especially in locations with comprehensive measures and during the immediate post-ban period (within the first six months). Four (50%) of the papers concerning pulmonary function reported some significant improvement in expiratory parameters. Significant decreases were described in 13 of the 17 papers evaluating asthma hospital admissions, and there were fewer significant reductions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions (range 1-36%) than for asthma (5-31%). Six studies regarding different respiratory diseases showed discrepant results, and four papers about mortality reported significant declines in subgroups. Low bias risk was present in 23 (46%) of the studies. Smokefree legislation appears to improve respiratory and sensory symptoms at short term in workers (the overall effect being greater in comprehensive smokefree legislation in sensory symptoms) and, to a lesser degree, rates of hospitalization for asthma.

  19. Smokefree legislation effects on respiratory and sensory disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Rando-Matos

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize the available evidence in scientific papers of smokefree legislation effects on respiratory diseases and sensory and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, red eyes, runny nose among all populations.Systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search between January 1995 and February 2015 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1 original scientific studies about smokefree legislation, 2 Data before and after legislation were collected, and 3 Impact on respiratory and sensory outcomes were assessed. Paired reviewers independently carried out the screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction from full-text articles, and methodological quality assessment.A total number of 1606 papers were identified. 50 papers were selected, 26 were related to symptoms (23 concerned workers. Most outcomes presented significant decreases in the percentage of people suffering from them, especially in locations with comprehensive measures and during the immediate post-ban period (within the first six months. Four (50% of the papers concerning pulmonary function reported some significant improvement in expiratory parameters. Significant decreases were described in 13 of the 17 papers evaluating asthma hospital admissions, and there were fewer significant reductions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions (range 1-36% than for asthma (5-31%. Six studies regarding different respiratory diseases showed discrepant results, and four papers about mortality reported significant declines in subgroups. Low bias risk was present in 23 (46% of the studies.Smokefree legislation appears to improve respiratory and sensory symptoms at short term in workers (the overall effect being greater in comprehensive smokefree legislation in sensory symptoms and, to a lesser degree, rates of hospitalization for

  20. Resistance training for rehabilitation after burn injury: A systematic literature review & meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Paul M; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Edgar, Dale W; Wood, Fiona M; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-10-07

    Resistance training is beneficial for rehabilitation in many clinical conditions, though this has not been systematically reviewed in burns. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of resistance training on muscle strength, lean mass, function, quality of life and pain, in children and adults after burn injury. Medline & EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and CENTRAL were searched from inception to October 2016. Studies were identified that implemented resistance training in rehabilitation. Data were combined and included in meta-analyses for muscle strength and lean mass. Otherwise, narrative analysis was completed. The quality of evidence for each outcome was summarised and rated using the GRADE framework. Eleven studies matched our inclusion criteria. Primary analysis did not demonstrate significant improvements for increasing muscle strength (SMD 0.74, 95% CI -0.02 to 1.50, p=0.06). Sensitivity analysis to correct an apparent anomaly in published data suggested a positive effect (SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.08-0.65, p=0.01). Psychological quality of life demonstrated benefit from training (MD=25.3, 95% CI 3.94-49.7). All studies were rated as having high risk of bias. The quality of the evidence was rated as low or very low. Further research with robust methodology is recommended to assess the potential benefit suggested in this review. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A Systematic Approach for Real-Time Operator Functional State Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean; Li, Jiang; Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    A task overload condition often leads to high stress for an operator, causing performance degradation and possibly disastrous consequences. Just as dangerous, with automated flight systems, an operator may experience a task underload condition (during the en-route flight phase, for example), becoming easily bored and finding it difficult to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, the disengaged operator may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss an approach for Operator Functional State (OFS) monitoring in a typical aviation environment. A systematic ground truth finding procedure has been designed based on subjective evaluations, performance measures, and strong physiological indicators. The derived OFS ground truth is continuous in time compared to a very sparse estimation of OFS based on an expert review or subjective evaluations. It can capture the variations of OFS during a mission to better guide through the training process of the OFS assessment model. Furthermore, an OFS assessment model framework based on advanced machine learning techniques was designed and the systematic approach was then verified and validated with experimental data collected in a high fidelity Boeing 737 simulator. Preliminary results show highly accurate engagement/disengagement detection making it suitable for real-time applications to assess pilot engagement.

  2. Psychometric properties of questionnaires on functional health status in oropharyngeal dysphagia: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature.

  3. Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Khalane Sanjay Anandrao; R. K. Gupta; P. Ramachandran; G. Venkateswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Free vibration analysis of functionally graded beams is carried out for various classical boundary conditions. Two separate finite element formulations, one based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and other based on Timoshenko beam theory are developed. Principle of virtual work is used to obtain the finite element system of equations. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effect of transverse shear on the natural frequencies and mode shapes for different length-to-thickness ratios a...

  4. Effectiveness of aquatic exercise for treatment of knee osteoarthritis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meili; Su, Youxin; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Ziyi; Wang, Wenting; He, Zhen; Liu, Feiwen; Li, Yanan; Liu, Changyan; Wang, Yiru; Sheng, Lu; Zhan, Zhengxuan; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Naixi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of aquatic exercise for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, CAMbase, and the Web of Science were screened through to June 2014. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing aquatic exercise with control conditions were included. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the included trials, and extracted data. Outcome measures included pain, physical function, joint stiffness, quality of life (QOL), and safety. Pooled outcomes were analyzed using standardized mean difference (SMD). There is a lack of high quality studies in this area. Six RCTs (398 participants) were included. There was moderate evidence for a moderate effect on physical function in favor of aquatic exercise immediately after the intervention, but no evidence for pain or QOL when comparing aquatic exercise with nonexercise. Only one trial reported 3 months of follow-up measurements, which demonstrated limited evidence for pain improvement with aquatic exercise and no evidence for QOL or physical function when comparing aquatic exercise with nonexercise. There was limited evidence for pain improvement with land-based exercise and no evidence for QOL or physical function, when comparing aquatic exercise with land-based exercise according to follow-up measurements. No evidence was found for pain, physical function, stiffness, QOL, or mental health with aquatic exercise immediately after the intervention when comparing aquatic exercise with land-based exercise. Two studies reported aquatic exercise was not associated with serious adverse events. Aquatic exercise appears to have considerable short-term benefits compared with land-based exercise and nonexercise in patients with knee OA. Based on these results, aquatic exercise is effective and safe and can be considered as an adjuvant treatment for patients with knee OA. Studies in this area are still

  5. Cognitive Training for Post-Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hallock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively aggregate effects of cognitive training (CT on cognitive and functional outcome measures in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI more than 12-months post-injury.Design: We systematically searched six databases for non-randomized and randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CT in TBI patients at least 12-months post-injury reporting cognitive and/or functional outcomes. Main Measures: Efficacy was measured as standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g of post-training change. We investigated heterogeneity across studies using subgroup analyses and meta-regressions. Results: Fourteen studies encompassing 575 patients were included. The effect of CT on overall cognition was small and statistically significant (g=0.22, 95%CI 0.05 to 0.38; p=0.01, with low heterogeneity (I2=11.71% and no evidence of publication bias. A moderate effect size was found for overall functional outcomes (g=0.32, 95%CI 0.08 to 0.57, p=0.01 with low heterogeneity (I2=14.27% and possible publication bias. Statistically significant effects were also found only for executive function (g=0.20, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.39, p=0.03 and verbal memory (g=0.32, 95%CI 0.14 to 0.50, p<0.01. Conclusions: Despite limited studies in this field, this meta-analysis indicates that CT is modestly effective in improving cognitive and functional outcomes in patients with post-acute TBI and should therefore play a more significant role in TBI rehabilitation.

  6. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in health care: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Xiao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in health care has become common. However, the literature lacks systematic review trend analysis on the application of MCDA in health care. To systematically identify applications of MCDA to the areas of health care, and to report on publication trends. English language studies published from January 1, 1980 until October 1, 2013 were included. Electronic databases searches were supplemented by searching conference proceedings and relevant journals. Studies considered for inclusion were those using MCDA techniques within the areas of health care, and involving the participation of decision makers. A bibliometric analysis was undertaken to present the publication trends. A total of 66 citations met the inclusion criteria. An increase in publication trend occurred in the years 1990, 1997, 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2012. For the remaining years, the publication trend was either steady or declining. The trend shows that the number of publications reached its highest peak in 2012 (n = 9). Medical Decision Making was the dominant with the highest number published papers (n = 7). The majority of the studies were conducted in the US (n = 29). Medical Decision Making journal published the highest number of articles (n = 7). Analytic Hierarchy Process (n = 33) was the most used MCDA technique. Cancer was the most researched disease topic (n = 12). The most covered area of application was diagnosis and treatment (n = 26). The review shows that MCDA has been applied to a broad range of areas in the health care, with the use of a variety of methodological approaches. Further research is needed to develop practice guidelines for the appropriate application and reporting of MCDA methods. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Industrial entrepreneurial network: Structural and functional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Berg, D. B.; Nazarova, J. J.; Parusheva, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Structure and functioning of two model industrial entrepreneurial networks are investigated in the present paper. One of these networks is forming when implementing an integrated project and consists of eight agents, which interact with each other and external environment. The other one is obtained from the municipal economy and is based on the set of the 12 real business entities. Analysis of the networks is carried out on the basis of the matrix of mutual payments aggregated over the certain time period. The matrix is created by the methods of experimental economics. Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods and instruments were used in the present research. The set of basic structural characteristics was investigated: set of quantitative parameters such as density, diameter, clustering coefficient, different kinds of centrality, and etc. They were compared with the random Bernoulli graphs of the corresponding size and density. Discovered variations of random and entrepreneurial networks structure are explained by the peculiarities of agents functioning in production network. Separately, were identified the closed exchange circuits (cyclically closed contours of graph) forming an autopoietic (self-replicating) network pattern. The purpose of the functional analysis was to identify the contribution of the autopoietic network pattern in its gross product. It was found that the magnitude of this contribution is more than 20%. Such value allows using of the complementary currency in order to stimulate economic activity of network agents.

  8. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly.

  9. The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Joshua E; Elangovan, Naveen; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system. Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: (1) A quantified pre- and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. (2) An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. (3) Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review. Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30 Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. s) induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109%) showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases. There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

  10. The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Aman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system.Methods: Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: 1 A quantified pre and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. 2 An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. 3 Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review.Results: Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. sec induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109% showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases.Conclusions: There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor

  11. Real analysis foundations and functions of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Laczkovich, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Based on courses given at Eötvös Loránd University (Hungary) over the past 30 years, this introductory textbook develops the central concepts of the analysis of functions of one variable - systematically, with many examples and illustrations, and in a manner that builds upon, and sharpens, the students' mathematical intuition. The modular organization of the book makes it adaptable for either semester or year-long introductory courses, while the wealth of material allows for it to be used at various levels of student sophistication in all programs where analysis is a part of the curriculum, including teachers' education. In the spirit of learning-by-doing, Real Analysis includes more than 500 engaging exercises for the student keen on mastering the basics of analysis. There are frequent hints and occasional complete solutions provided for the more challenging exercises making it an ideal choice for independent study. The book includes a solid grounding in the basics of logic and proofs, sets, and real numb...

  12. Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise following total knee replacement: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Neil; Elvers, Karen T; Lowe, Catherine Minns; Sackley, Cath; Jepson, Paul; Beswick, Andrew D

    2015-02-07

    Rehabilitation, with an emphasis on physiotherapy and exercise, is widely promoted after total knee replacement. However, provision of services varies in content and duration. The aim of this study is to update the review of Minns Lowe and colleagues 2007 using systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of post-discharge physiotherapy exercise in patients with primary total knee replacement. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL to October 4(th) 2013 for randomised evaluations of physiotherapy exercise in adults with recent primary knee replacement. Outcomes were: patient-reported pain and function, knee range of motion, and functional performance. Authors were contacted for missing data and outcomes. Risk of bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Data was combined using random effects meta-analysis and reported as standardised mean differences (SMD) or mean differences (MD). Searches identified 18 randomised trials including 1,739 patients with total knee replacement. Interventions compared: physiotherapy exercise and no provision; home and outpatient provision; pool and gym-based provision; walking skills and more general physiotherapy; and general physiotherapy exercise with and without additional balance exercises or ergometer cycling. Compared with controls receiving minimal physiotherapy, patients receiving physiotherapy exercise had improved physical function at 3-4 months, SMD -0.37 (95% CI -0.62, -0.12), and pain, SMD -0.45 (95% CI -0.85, -0.06). Benefit up to 6 months was apparent when considering only higher quality studies. There were no differences for outpatient physiotherapy exercise compared with home-based provision in physical function or pain outcomes. There was a short-term benefit favouring home-based physiotherapy exercise for range of motion flexion. There were no differences in outcomes when the comparator was hydrotherapy, or when additional balancing or cycling components were included. In

  13. Dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traa, Marjan J; De Vries, Jolanda; Bodenmann, Guy; Den Oudsten, Brenda L

    2015-02-01

    Cancer not only affects the patient but also the partner. In fact, couples may react as a unit rather than as individuals while coping with cancer (i.e., dyadic coping). We assessed (1) the relationship between dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer and (2) whether intervention studies aimed at improving dyadic coping were able to enhance the relationship