WorldWideScience

Sample records for systematic experimental survey

  1. Systematic experimental survey on projectile fragmentation and fission induced in collisions of 238U at 1 A GeV with lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, T.; Benlliure, J.; Farget, F.; Schmidt, K.H.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Tassan-Got, L.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Jong, M. de; Dufour, J.P.

    1999-03-01

    Projectile fragmentation and fission, induced in collisions of 238 U at 1 A GeV with lead, have systematically been studied. A complete survey on the isotopic production cross sections of all elements between vanadium (Z = 23) and rhenium (Z = 75) down to a cross section of 0.1 mb is given. About 600 isotopes produced in fragmentation and about 600 isotopes produced in fission were identified in the GSI fragment separator FRS from magnetic rigidities, time-of-flight values, and the energy loss in an ionisation chamber. In addition, the velocity distributions of all these reaction products have been mapped, and the products are unambiguously attributed to the different reaction mechanisms due to their kinematical properties. The results are compared with empirical systematics and previous data. The velocity of the fragments obtained in the fission process by the Coulomb repulsion allows to reconstruct the TKE-value of the break-up and to identify the atomic number of the fissioning nucleus in hot fission. The mean velocities of light projectile fragments were found to be higher than the beam velocity. (orig.)

  2. Systematic Experimental Designs For Mixed-species Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery C. Goelz

    2001-01-01

    Systematic experimental designs provide splendid demonstration areas for scientists and land managers to observe the effects of a gradient of species composition. Systematic designs are based on large plots where species composition varies gradually. Systematic designs save considerable space and require many fewer seedlings than conventional mixture designs. One basic...

  3. Updating systematic reviews: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Garritty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack

  4. Systematics of experimental charge radii of elements and elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.

    1987-02-01

    The systematics of experimental charge radii of elements and elementary particles ..pi../sup -/, K/sup -/, K/sup 0/, p and n is discussed. The root-meansquare charge radius of a quark core in nucleous derived from the systematics is estimated to be 0.3 fm. Charge radii evaluated from Coulomb displacement energies are also tabulated.

  5. Skin microbiome surveys are strongly influenced by experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Jacquelyn S.; Hannigan, Geoffrey D.; Tyldsley, Amanda S.; SanMiguel, Adam J.; Hodkinson, Brendan P.; Zheng, Qi; Grice, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Culture-independent studies to characterize skin microbiota are increasingly common, due in part to affordable and accessible sequencing and analysis platforms. Compared to culture-based techniques, DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or whole metagenome shotgun (WMS) sequencing provide more precise microbial community characterizations. Most widely used protocols were developed to characterize microbiota of other habitats (i.e. gastrointestinal), and have not been systematically compared for their utility in skin microbiome surveys. Here we establish a resource for the cutaneous research community to guide experimental design in characterizing skin microbiota. We compare two widely sequenced regions of the 16S rRNA gene to WMS sequencing for recapitulating skin microbiome community composition, diversity, and genetic functional enrichment. We show that WMS sequencing most accurately recapitulates microbial communities, but sequencing of hypervariable regions 1-3 of the 16S rRNA gene provides highly similar results. Sequencing of hypervariable region 4 poorly captures skin commensal microbiota, especially Propionibacterium. WMS sequencing, which is resource- and cost-intensive, provides evidence of a community’s functional potential; however, metagenome predictions based on 16S rRNA sequence tags closely approximate WMS genetic functional profiles. This work highlights the importance of experimental design for downstream results in skin microbiome surveys. PMID:26829039

  6. Systematic effects in CALOR simulation code to model experimental configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, P.K.; Proudfoot, J.; Handler, T.

    1991-01-01

    CALOR89 code system is being used to simulate test beam results and the design parameters of several calorimeter configurations. It has been bench-marked against the ZEUS, Dθ and HELIOS data. This study identifies the systematic effects in CALOR simulation to model the experimental configurations. Five major systematic effects are identified. These are the choice of high energy nuclear collision model, material composition, scintillator saturation, shower integration time, and the shower containment. Quantitative estimates of these systematic effects are presented. 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Surgically facilitated experimental movement of teeth : systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, A. M. L.; Hoogeveen, E. J.; Jansma, J.; Ren, Y.

    Several surgical techniques based on corticotomy and dental distraction have been developed to improve the movement of teeth and reduce the duration of orthodontic treatment. In this systematic review we have critically assessed published studies on the experimental movement of teeth to find out

  8. Technical Privacy Metrics: a Systematic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Isabel; Eckhoff, David

    2015-01-01

    The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature makes an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, redundant new metrics are proposed frequently, and privacy studies are often incomparable. In this survey we allevia...

  9. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Muna, Demitri; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study

  10. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bahcall, Neta [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, Patrick [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: nishanta@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  11. Precision in systematic trawl surveys as assessed from replicate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precision in systematic trawl surveys as assessed from replicate sampling by parallel trawling off Namibia. ... The main statistical techniques applied were less susceptible to outlier catches than straightforward correlations or regressions and could therefore, perhaps with some advantage, also be used to estimate the vessel ...

  12. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate these

  13. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  14. Markets and Morals: An Experimental Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J.; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another “repugnant” transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the “commercialization” of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent—in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate

  15. Weak gravitational lensing systematic errors in the dark energy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas, Andres Alejandro

    Dark energy is one of the most important unsolved problems in modern Physics, and weak gravitational lensing (WL) by mass structures along the line of sight ("cosmic shear") is a promising technique to learn more about its nature. However, WL is subject to numerous systematic errors which induce biases in measured cosmological parameters and prevent the development of its full potential. In this thesis, we advance the understanding of WL systematics in the context of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We develop a testing suite to assess the performance of the shapelet-based DES WL measurement pipeline. We determine that the measurement bias of the parameters of our Point Spread Function (PSF) model scales as (S/N )-2, implying that a PSF S/N > 75 is needed to satisfy DES requirements. PSF anisotropy suppression also satisfies the requirements for source galaxies with S/N ≳ 45. For low-noise, marginally-resolved exponential galaxies, the shear calibration errors are up to about 0.06% (for shear values ≲ 0.075). Galaxies with S/N ≳ 75 present about 1% errors, sufficient for first-year DES data. However, more work is needed to satisfy full-area DES requirements, especially in the high-noise regime. We then implement tests to validate the high accuracy of the map between pixel coordinates and sky coordinates (astrometric solution), which is crucial to detect the required number of galaxies for WL in stacked images. We also study the effect of atmospheric dispersion on cosmic shear experiments such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the four griz bands. For DES (LSST), we find systematics in the g and r (g, r, and i) bands that are larger than required. We find that a simple linear correction in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r ( i) band for DES (LSST). More complex corrections will likely reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band

  16. Systematic heterogenization for better reproducibility in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S Helene

    2017-08-31

    The scientific literature is full of articles discussing poor reproducibility of findings from animal experiments as well as failures to translate results from preclinical animal studies to clinical trials in humans. Critics even go so far as to talk about a "reproducibility crisis" in the life sciences, a novel headword that increasingly finds its way into numerous high-impact journals. Viewed from a cynical perspective, Fett's law of the lab "Never replicate a successful experiment" has thus taken on a completely new meaning. So far, poor reproducibility and translational failures in animal experimentation have mostly been attributed to biased animal data, methodological pitfalls, current publication ethics and animal welfare constraints. More recently, the concept of standardization has also been identified as a potential source of these problems. By reducing within-experiment variation, rigorous standardization regimes limit the inference to the specific experimental conditions. In this way, however, individual phenotypic plasticity is largely neglected, resulting in statistically significant but possibly irrelevant findings that are not reproducible under slightly different conditions. By contrast, systematic heterogenization has been proposed as a concept to improve representativeness of study populations, contributing to improved external validity and hence improved reproducibility. While some first heterogenization studies are indeed very promising, it is still not clear how this approach can be transferred into practice in a logistically feasible and effective way. Thus, further research is needed to explore different heterogenization strategies as well as alternative routes toward better reproducibility in animal experimentation.

  17. Systematic integration of experimental data and models in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peter; Dada, Joseph O; Jameson, Daniel; Spasic, Irena; Swainston, Neil; Carroll, Kathleen; Dunn, Warwick; Khan, Farid; Malys, Naglis; Messiha, Hanan L; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Weichart, Dieter; Winder, Catherine; Wishart, Jill; Broomhead, David S; Goble, Carole A; Gaskell, Simon J; Kell, Douglas B; Westerhoff, Hans V; Mendes, Pedro; Paton, Norman W

    2010-11-29

    The behaviour of biological systems can be deduced from their mathematical models. However, multiple sources of data in diverse forms are required in the construction of a model in order to define its components and their biochemical reactions, and corresponding parameters. Automating the assembly and use of systems biology models is dependent upon data integration processes involving the interoperation of data and analytical resources. Taverna workflows have been developed for the automated assembly of quantitative parameterised metabolic networks in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). A SBML model is built in a systematic fashion by the workflows which starts with the construction of a qualitative network using data from a MIRIAM-compliant genome-scale model of yeast metabolism. This is followed by parameterisation of the SBML model with experimental data from two repositories, the SABIO-RK enzyme kinetics database and a database of quantitative experimental results. The models are then calibrated and simulated in workflows that call out to COPASIWS, the web service interface to the COPASI software application for analysing biochemical networks. These systems biology workflows were evaluated for their ability to construct a parameterised model of yeast glycolysis. Distributed information about metabolic reactions that have been described to MIRIAM standards enables the automated assembly of quantitative systems biology models of metabolic networks based on user-defined criteria. Such data integration processes can be implemented as Taverna workflows to provide a rapid overview of the components and their relationships within a biochemical system.

  18. Surgically facilitated experimental movement of teeth: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, A M L; Hoogeveen, E J; Jansma, J; Ren, Y

    2015-07-01

    Several surgical techniques based on corticotomy and dental distraction have been developed to improve the movement of teeth and reduce the duration of orthodontic treatment. In this systematic review we have critically assessed published studies on the experimental movement of teeth to find out whether operations such as corticotomy and dental distraction osteogenesis increase the rate of movement, and to find out which biological mechanisms are engaged during surgically facilitated orthodontics, and which complications may be seen. We searched PubMed and Embase for publications until January 2014 and screened the titles and abstracts. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved in full and assessed independently by 2 of the authors. A total of 22 studies were included, and corticotomy and distraction techniques were the main surgical methods. Generally, all studies reported that movement of teeth was faster after operation than with conventional orthodontics. The peak velocity was always at an early postoperative stage regardless of the surgical technique used. Immunohistological data showed simultaneous regional increases in catabolic and anabolic activity. Histomorphometric data showed more direct resorption of bone and less hyalinisation after operation, and a reduced bone volume density around the surgical site. When present, complications such as root resorption or periodontal problems were minimal. Current experimental animal studies show that procedures such as corticotomy and dental distraction can accelerate the movement of teeth without severe complications because of the regional increase in catabolic and anabolic remodelling. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SYSTEMATIC FIELD SURVEY ON LIMES TRANSALUTANUS. SĂPATA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two adjoined forts and their surroundings, elements of the 3rd century Roman frontier in Dacia – Limes Transalutanus, which were last archaeologically investigated in 1930, were recently systematic surface surveyed, resulting in the identification of the associated civilian settlement in what seemed, at first glance, as an unexpected location, more distant than other military vici the team had previously identified along the same frontier line.Not only the limits of the settlement at Săpata were established, but also the density of occupation and territory division into various functional areas, allowing further interpretations regarding the network of ancient local roads and a better understanding of the way in which the Romans adjusted their built facilities to available resources (water or exploited the strategical features of the relief.Using an efficient, quick and rather inexpensive combination of survey methods (field walking and measurements of the magnetic susceptibility of the soil applied on a 4.8 ha surface, followed by pottery typological and spatial distribution analysis, the investigation team tried to mitigate the challenging vegetation situation, adjusting likewise to the limited resources of a scheduled research project.  Data relevance was increased by applying statistical corrections and using complementary investigation methods in order to cover the various available types of land (relief, vegetation, visibility; while data integration was ensured employing a unitary spatial gridded system for fieldwork and also by relating the obtained results to the high resolution digital terrain model of the sites obtained during UAV photogrammetric aerial survey.In particular, the study takes the opportunity opened by the analysis of the Roman Age pottery found in Săpata vicus to debate on the significance of the traditional, yet not unitary perceived, scholarly division between ‘Chilia-Militari’ ware (dwelling on Dacian

  20. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Methods Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Results Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. Conclusion These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most

  1. Methods to perform systematic reviews of patient preferences: a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Tsung; Enkh-Amgalan, Nomin; Zorigt, Ganchimeg

    2017-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are a commonly used research design in the medical field to synthesize study findings. At present—although several systematic reviews of patient preference studies are published—there is no clear guidance available for researchers to conduct this type of systematic review. The aim of our study was to learn the most current practice of conducting these systematic reviews by conducting a survey of the literature regarding reviews of quantitative patient preference ...

  2. Systematic experimental based modeling of a rotary piezoelectric ultrasonic motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojallali, Hamed; Amini, Rouzbeh; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for equivalent circuit modeling of a traveling wave ultrasonic motor is presented. The free stator of the motor is modeled by an equivalent circuit containing complex circuit elements. A systematic approach for identifying the elements of the equivalent circuit is sugg...

  3. Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Carol; Parsons, Nick; Kadyszewski, Ed; Festing, Michael F. W.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Fry, Derek; Hutton, Jane; Altman, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and

  4. Students’ epistemologies about experimental physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for experimental physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students’ beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students’ epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder and elsewhere, we developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for experimental physics (E-CLASS. Previous work with this assessment has included establishing the accuracy and clarity of the instrument through student interviews and preliminary testing. Several years of data collection at multiple institutions has resulted in a growing national data set of student responses. Here, we report on results of the analysis of these data to investigate the statistical validity and reliability of the E-CLASS as a measure of students’ epistemologies for a broad student population. We find that the E-CLASS demonstrates an acceptable level of both validity and reliability on measures of item and test discrimination, test-retest reliability, partial-sample reliability, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and convergent validity. We also examine students’ responses using principal component analysis and find that, as expected, the E-CLASS does not exhibit strong factors (a.k.a. categories.

  5. Students' epistemologies about experimental physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder and elsewhere, we developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for experimental physics (E-CLASS). Previous work with this assessment has included establishing the accuracy and clarity of the instrument through student interviews and preliminary testing. Several years of data collection at multiple institutions has resulted in a growing national data set of student responses. Here, we report on results of the analysis of these data to investigate the statistical validity and reliability of the E-CLASS as a measure of students' epistemologies for a broad student population. We find that the E-CLASS demonstrates an acceptable level of both validity and reliability on measures of item and test discrimination, test-retest reliability, partial-sample reliability, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and convergent validity. We also examine students' responses using principal component analysis and find that, as expected, the E-CLASS does not exhibit strong factors (a.k.a. categories).

  6. Simulation of PVT and swelling experimental data: a systematic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Paulo S.M.V. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bahia]. E-mail: psrocha@petrobras.com.br; Alves, Danilo C.R.; Sacramento, Vinicio S.; Costa, Gloria M.N. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Petroleo e Gas Natural (CEPGN)]. E-mail: gloria.costa@unifacs.br

    2004-07-01

    Accurate data of the phase behavior of oil and gas mixtures are needed, for example, for the design of process plants and reservoir simulation studies. Often, experimental PVT data are available, but in practice a few PVT measurements are carried out for a given mixture. Therefore, it is necessary to use a thermodynamic model when planning production strategies for a given petroleum reservoir. This raises the question of what accuracy can be obtained using a cubic equation of state for phase equilibrium calculations, for example at conditions in which oil and gas are being produced. The only way to improve the agreement between measured and calculated results is to adjust the equation of state parameters. Currently, there is not a clear methodology to make these modifications. The objective of this study is to investigate the best tuning to describe the PVT experimental data: differential liberation, constant composition expansion and swelling test. The following programs were used: SPECS and MI-PVT (Technical University of Denmark) and WinProp (windows version of CMGPROP). The Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of sate was also used. Experimental data for 06 oil samples from Reconcavo Basin (Bahia- Brazil) were obtained in the CEPGN (Study Center on Oil and Natural Gas at UNIFACS) and used in the tuning (author)

  7. Avian surveys of large geographical areas: A systematic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Jacobi, J.D.; Ramsey, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team approach was used to simultaneously map the distribution of birds, selected food items, and major vegetation types in 34,000- to 140,000-ha tracts in native Hawaiian forests. By using a team approach, large savings in time can be realized over attempts to conduct similar surveys of smaller scope, and a systems approach to management problems is made easier. The methods used in survey design, training observers, and documenting bird numbersand habitat descriptions are discussed in detail.

  8. A radioimmunoassay method for the rapid detection of Candida antibodies is experimental systematic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Berry, W.; Cooper, H.; Zachariah, Y.; Newman, T.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were employed as experimental models to evaluate a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for the diagnosis of systematic candidiasis. Ten rabbits were incubated subcutaneously to mimic superficial candidiasis and were found to produce no antibodies to Candida as determined by both immunodiffusion and RIA procedures. However, 94 per cent of 18 rabbits systematically infected by intravenous injection of Candida cells were observed to produce antibody as assessed by the RIA technique. These data encourage further tests with human sera and the continued development of this RIA procedure as a useful tool in the early serodiagnosis of systematic candidiasis. (Auth.)

  9. Collaboration challenges in systematic reviews: a survey of health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joey; McCrillis, Aileen; Williams, Jeff D

    2017-10-01

    While many librarians have been asked to participate in systematic reviews with researchers, often these researchers are not familiar with the systematic review process or the appropriate role for librarians. The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges and barriers that librarians face when collaborating on systematic reviews. To take a wider view of the whole process of collaborating on systematic reviews, the authors deliberately focused on interpersonal and methodological issues other than searching itself. To characterize the biggest challenges that librarians face while collaborating on systematic review projects, we used a web-based survey. The thirteen-item survey included seventeen challenges grouped into two categories: methodological and interpersonal. Participants were required to indicate the frequency and difficulty of the challenges listed. Open-ended questions allowed survey participants to describe challenges not listed in the survey and to describe strategies used to overcome challenges. Of the 17 challenges listed in the survey, 8 were reported as common by over 40% of respondents. These included methodological issues around having too broad or narrow research questions, lacking eligibility criteria, having unclear research questions, and not following established methods. The remaining challenges were interpersonal, including issues around student-led projects and the size of the research team. Of the top 8 most frequent challenges, 5 were also ranked as most difficult to handle. Open-ended responses underscored many of the challenges included in the survey and revealed several additional challenges. These results suggest that the most frequent and challenging issues relate to development of the research question and general communication with team members. Clear protocols for collaboration on systematic reviews, as well as a culture of mentorship, can help librarians prevent and address these challenges.

  10. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's (SYRCLE risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies.A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n and percentage (% of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff was performed using chi-square test.A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff. Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003, and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004. In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0% had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1% had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies.The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese basic medical researchers. Therefore

  11. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Xu, Jia-Ke; Wu, Wen-Jing; Liu, Hong-Yan; Kou, Cheng-Kun; Liu, Na; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's (SYRCLE) risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC) in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies. A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n) and percentage (%) of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff) was performed using chi-square test. A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff). Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003), and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004). In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0%) had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1%) had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies. The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese basic medical researchers. Therefore, specific

  12. Systematization on survey and analytical technique of the deep stratum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaragi, Yoshikazu

    2000-08-01

    This research aimed at investigation on survey and analytical technique to efficiently and rationally grasp the stratum environment from surface to depth of the earth and at extraction of survey and analytical technique necessary when newly evaluating the stratum environment of an area. In this fiscal year, systematization of survey and analytical method to effectively and rationally grasp the stratum environment at objects of the wide to local groundwater flows was investigated on a base of research results and programs on the deep stratum which was already performed or is planned in future by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In this report, it was the first step of the systematization to prepare individual research results accumulated before now. And, the individual R and D result in this fiscal year was laid at main body of this report and was a specimen to promote the research in future. Here were reported on evaluation of water permeability of hard non-continuous rock board in the deep stratum, survey and analysis on three-dimensional property of rock board penetrating flow, R and D on hydrologic testing method and apparatus, survey method and modeling at the deep hydrology, survey on geo-chemical property of groundwater, recovery water phenomena of the groundwater, thin/thick salt boundary, and systematization technique. (G.K.)

  13. ERESYE - a expert system for the evaluation of uncertainties related to systematic experimental errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, T.; Panini, G.C.; Amoroso, A.

    1989-11-01

    Information about systematic errors are not given In EXFOR, the data base of nuclear experimental measurements: their assessment is committed to the ability of the evaluator. A tool Is needed which performs this task in a fully automatic way or, at least, gives a valuable aid. The expert system ERESYE has been implemented for investigating the feasibility of an automatic evaluation of the systematic errors in the experiments. The features of the project which led to the implementation of the system are presented. (author)

  14. A systematic survey of lipids across mouse tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mohit; Ngoy, Soeun; Sheth, Sunil A.; Swanson, Raymond A.; Rhee, Eugene P.; Liao, Ronglih; Clish, Clary B.; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are a diverse collection of macromolecules essential for normal physiology, but the tissue distribution and function for many individual lipid species remain unclear. Here, we report a mass spectrometry survey of lipid abundance across 18 mouse tissues, detecting ∼1,000 mass spectrometry features, of which we identify 179 lipids from the glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, lysophospholipids, acylcarnitines, sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester classes. Our data reveal tissue-specific organization of lipids and can be used to generate testable hypotheses. For example, our data indicate that circulating triglycerides positively and negatively associated with future diabetes in humans are enriched in mouse adipose tissue and liver, respectively, raising hypotheses regarding the tissue origins of these diabetes-associated lipids. We also integrate our tissue lipid data with gene expression profiles to predict a number of substrates of lipid-metabolizing enzymes, highlighting choline phosphotransferases and sterol O-acyltransferases. Finally, we identify several tissue-specific lipids not present in plasma under normal conditions that may be of interest as biomarkers of tissue injury, and we show that two of these lipids are released into blood following ischemic brain injury in mice. This resource complements existing compendia of tissue gene expression and may be useful for integrative physiology and lipid biology. PMID:24518676

  15. Are physicians willing to ration health care? Conflicting findings in a systematic review of survey research☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel; Persad, Govind; Marckmann, Georg; Danis, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Background Several quantitative surveys have been conducted internationally to gather empirical information about physicians’ general attitudes towards health care rationing. Are physicians ready to accept and implement rationing, or are they rather reluctant? Do they prefer implicit bedside rationing that allows the physician–patient relationship broad leeway in individual decisions? Or do physicians prefer strategies that apply explicit criteria and rules? Objectives To analyse the range of survey findings on rationing. To discuss differences in response patterns. To provide recommendations for the enhancement of transparency and systematic conduct in reviewing survey literature. Methods A systematic search was performed for all English and non-English language references using CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. Three blinded experts independently evaluated title and abstract of each reference. Survey items were extracted that match with: (i) willingness to ration health care or (ii) preferences for different rationing strategies. Results 16 studies were eventually included in the systematic review. Percentages of respondents willing to accept rationing ranged from 94% to 9%. Conclusions The conflicting findings among studies illustrate important ambivalence in physicians that has several implications for health policy. Moreover, this review highlights the importance to interpret survey findings in context of the results of all previous relevant studies. PMID:19070396

  16. Systematic Biology Training and Personnel. Higher Education Surveys Report, Survey Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebuski, Carin A.; Farris, Elizabeth

    The Task Force on Global Biodiversity of the National Science Board is charged with developing a course of action for the National Science Foundation to follow to promote responsible management of global biological diversity. Effective management of the problem is hampered by a shortage of systematic biologists--scientists who identify, document,…

  17. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Hovdestad

    Full Text Available Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research.To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work.We included surveys that: 1 were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2 included a broad age range (≥ 40 years; 3 measured health; 4 assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5 were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014, expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content.Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment. Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity.Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but

  18. Inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews of health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Røttingen, John-Arne; Shemilt, Ian; Tugwell, Peter; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-04-01

    Systematic reviews of health systems research commonly limit studies for evidence synthesis to randomized controlled trials. However, well-conducted quasi-experimental studies can provide strong evidence for causal inference. With this article, we aim to stimulate and inform discussions on including quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. We define quasi-experimental studies as those that estimate causal effect sizes using exogenous variation in the exposure of interest that is not directly controlled by the researcher. We incorporate this definition into a non-hierarchical three-class taxonomy of study designs - experiments, quasi-experiments, and non-experiments. Based on a review of practice in three disciplines related to health systems research (epidemiology, economics, and political science), we discuss five commonly used study designs that fit our definition of quasi-experiments: natural experiments, instrumental variable analyses, regression discontinuity analyses, interrupted times series studies, and difference studies including controlled before-and-after designs, difference-in-difference designs and fixed effects analyses of panel data. We further review current practices regarding quasi-experimental studies in three non-health fields that utilize systematic reviews (education, development, and environment studies) to inform the design of approaches for synthesizing quasi-experimental evidence in health systems research. Ultimately, the aim of any review is practical: to provide useful information for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers. Future work should focus on building a consensus among users and producers of systematic reviews regarding the inclusion of quasi-experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How useful are systematic reviews for informing palliative care practice? Survey of 25 Cochrane systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley Gina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews

  20. Survey of cabbage experimental hybrids (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage takes up significant area in vegetable sowing structure, and one of the factors of improving this production is adequate varieties selection. During the breeding process, experimental hybrids are tested in relation to currently grown varieties and hybrids in production. In this paper the characteristics of 18 cabbage genotypes are presented, out of which there are 9 experimental hybrids, 4 varieties and 5 hybrids from broader production. Cabbage genotypes in the trial are of differing length of growing season, as well as differing head weight. Properties variability analysis was performed using PCA method, where two main components were chosen based on screen test, and these were used to define 57.7%. Head weight and head diameter are properties based on which the tested hybrids were graded into quantitatively different groups.

  1. A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Coaxial Rotor Aerodynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The recent appearance of the Kamov Ka-50 helicopter and the application of coaxial rotors to unmanned aerial vehicles have renewed international interest in the coaxial rotor configuration. This report addresses the aerodynamic issues peculiar to coaxial rotors by surveying American, Russian, Japanese, British, and German research. (Herein, 'coaxial rotors' refers to helicopter, not propeller, rotors. The intermeshing rotor system was not investigated.) Issues addressed are separation distance, load sharing between rotors, wake structure, solidity effects, swirl recovery, and the effects of having no tail rotor. A general summary of the coaxial rotor configuration explores the configuration's advantages and applications.

  2. Survey of systematic review authors in dentistry: challenges in methodology and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Michael P; Warren, Sharon; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2009-04-01

    The study reported in this article had three objectives: 1) identify the challenges faced by authors of dental systematic reviews (SR) during the process of literature search and selection; 2) determine whether dental SR authors' responses to survey questions about their study methodology were consistent with the reported published methodology; and 3) assess whether dental SR authors' evidence-based publication experience was associated with reported methodology. Seventy-eight authors (53 percent) of dental SRs out of 147 potential authors published from 2000 to 2006 responded to an online survey. According to the respondents, the most challenging aspects of literature search and selection were the initial design and performing extended literature searches. Agreement between the protocol identified by SR authors on the survey and the actual protocol described in their publications was fair to moderate. There were virtually no correlations between authors' publication experience, systematic review literature search, and selection thoroughness except for the number of past SRs published, and no differences in thoroughness between SRs written by clinicians (dental practitioners in the community) and dental school faculty members. Dental SR authors do not appear to fully appreciate the importance of extensive literature searches as central to the validity of their systematic review methods and potential findings.

  3. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 8: identifying quasi-experimental studies to inform systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Julie; Eyers, John; Jones, Andrew M; Shemilt, Ian; Wang, Grace; Johansen, Marit; Fiander, Michelle; Rothstein, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews the available evidence and guidance on methods to identify reports of quasi-experimental (QE) studies to inform systematic reviews of health care, public health, international development, education, crime and justice, and social welfare. Research, guidance, and examples of search strategies were identified by searching a range of databases, key guidance documents, selected reviews, conference proceedings, and personal communication. Current practice and research evidence were summarized. Four thousand nine hundred twenty-four records were retrieved by database searches, and additional documents were obtained by other searches. QE studies are challenging to identify efficiently because they have no standardized nomenclature and may be indexed in various ways. Reliable search filters are not available. There is a lack of specific resources devoted to collecting QE studies and little evidence on where best to search. Searches to identify QE studies should search a range of resources and, until indexing improves, use strategies that focus on the topic rather than the study design. Better definitions, better indexing in databases, prospective registers, and reporting guidance are required to improve the retrieval of QE studies and promote systematic reviews of what works based on the evidence from such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cross-Correlation Redshifts - Methods and Systematics Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M.; Vielzeuf, P.; Davis, C.; Cawthon, R.; Rau, M. M.; DeRose, J.; De Vicente, J.; Alarcon, A.; Rozo, E.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hoyle, B.; Miquel, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gruen, D.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Roodman, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Glazebrook, K.; Hinton, S. R.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Möller, A.; O'Neill, C. R.; Sommer, N. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoormann, J. K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, B. E.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    We use numerical simulations to characterize the performance of a clustering-based method to calibrate photometric redshift biases. In particular, we cross-correlate the weak lensing (WL) source galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) sample with redMaGiC galaxies (luminous red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts) to estimate the redshift distribution of the former sample. The recovered redshift distributions are used to calibrate the photometric redshift bias of standard photo-z methods applied to the same source galaxy sample. We apply the method to two photo-z codes run in our simulated data: Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) and Directional Neighborhood Fitting (DNF). We characterize the systematic uncertainties of our calibration procedure, and find that these systematic uncertainties dominate our error budget. The dominant systematics are due to our assumption of unevolving bias and clustering across each redshift bin, and to differences between the shapes of the redshift distributions derived by clustering vs photo-z's. The systematic uncertainty in the mean redshift bias of the source galaxy sample is Δz ≲ 0.02, though the precise value depends on the redshift bin under consideration. We discuss possible ways to mitigate the impact of our dominant systematics in future analyses.

  5. Use of network meta-analysis in systematic reviews: a survey of authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew W

    2016-01-19

    The reporting of network meta-analysis in systematic reviews has increased rapidly since 2009. This qualitative study was undertaken to identify authors' perceptions of the use of these methods and of what standards for conduct and reporting should apply. This is a survey of authors of systematic reviews reporting network meta-analysis. The response rate was 32 % of the authors contacted, with these authors responsible for 34 % of the fully published systematic reviews identified within the period searched. Almost all authors would use the method again. Elements of reporting standards were proposed. Responses revealed some tensions between the view that use of network meta-analysis should be more easily accessible, particularly in the form of software tools, and concern that there is some inappropriate use of the methods, which wider use and greater accessibility could exacerbate. Authors demonstrated strong support for adoption of standards for conduct and reporting. The elements of reporting standards proposed are consistent with those included in the 2015 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension statement. Adoption of standards for conduct and reporting will be a significant step towards clarifying what is appropriate use of the methods and what is not. This should be followed by the development of a critical appraisal tool to support end users of systematic reviews reporting network meta-analysis.

  6. Delayed school start times and adolescent sleep: A systematic review of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Karl E; Redeker, Nancy S

    2016-08-01

    Many schools have instituted later morning start times to improve sleep, academic, and other outcomes in response to the mismatch between youth circadian rhythms and early morning start times. However, there has been no systematic synthesis of the evidence on the effects of this practice. To examine the impact of delayed school start time on students' sleep, health, and academic outcomes, electronic databases were systematically searched and data were extracted using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six studies satisfied selection criteria and used pre-post, no control (n = 3), randomized controlled trial (n = 2), and quasi-experimental (n = 1) designs. School start times were delayed 25-60 min, and correspondingly, total sleep time increased from 25 to 77 min per weeknight. Some studies revealed reduced daytime sleepiness, depression, caffeine use, tardiness to class, and trouble staying awake. Overall, the evidence supports recent non-experimental study findings and calls for policy that advocates for delayed school start time to improve sleep. This presents a potential long-term solution to chronic sleep restriction during adolescence. However, there is a need for rigorous randomized study designs and reporting of consistent outcomes, including objective sleep measures and consistent measures of health and academic performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Systematic Survey Instrument Translation Process for Multi-Country, Comparative Health Workforce Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison; Aiken, Linda H.; van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Bruyneel, Luk; Lindqvist, Rikard; Schoonoven, Lisette; Stromseng, Ingeborg; Busse, Reinhard; Brozstek, Tomas; Ensio, Anneli; Moreno-Casbas, Mayte; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Schubert, Maria; Zikos, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Background As health services research (HSR) expands across the globe, researchers will adopt health services and health worker evaluation instruments developed in one country for use in another. This paper explores the cross-cultural methodological challenges involved in translating HSR in the language and context of different health systems. Objectives To describe the pre-data collection systematic translation process used in a twelve country, eleven language nursing workforce survey. Design & Settings We illustrate the potential advantages of Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques to validate a nursing workforce survey developed for RN4CAST, a twelve country (Belgium, England, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland), eleven language (with modifications for regional dialects, including Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Spanish, and Swedish), comparative nursing workforce study in Europe. Participants Expert review panels comprised of practicing nurses from twelve European countries who evaluated cross-cultural relevance, including translation, of a nursing workforce survey instrument developed by experts in the field. Methods The method described in this paper used Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques with chance correction and provides researchers with a systematic approach for standardizing language translation processes while simultaneously evaluating the cross-cultural applicability of a survey instrument in the new context. Results The cross-cultural evaluation process produced CVI scores for the instrument ranging from .61 to .95. The process successfully identified potentially problematic survey items and errors with translation. Conclusions The translation approach described here may help researchers reduce threats to data validity and improve instrument reliability in multinational health services research studies involving comparisons across

  8. A systematic survey instrument translation process for multi-country, comparative health workforce studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison; Aiken, Linda H; van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Bruyneel, Luk; Lindqvist, Rikard; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Stromseng, Ingeborg; Busse, Reinhard; Brzostek, Tomasz; Ensio, Anneli; Moreno-Casbas, Mayte; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Schubert, Maria; Zikos, Dimitris; Matthews, Anne

    2013-02-01

    As health services research (HSR) expands across the globe, researchers will adopt health services and health worker evaluation instruments developed in one country for use in another. This paper explores the cross-cultural methodological challenges involved in translating HSR in the language and context of different health systems. To describe the pre-data collection systematic translation process used in a twelve country, eleven language nursing workforce survey. We illustrate the potential advantages of Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques to validate a nursing workforce survey developed for RN4CAST, a twelve country (Belgium, England, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland), eleven language (with modifications for regional dialects, including Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Spanish, and Swedish), comparative nursing workforce study in Europe. Expert review panels comprised of practicing nurses from twelve European countries who evaluated cross-cultural relevance, including translation, of a nursing workforce survey instrument developed by experts in the field. The method described in this paper used Content Validity Indexing (CVI) techniques with chance correction and provides researchers with a systematic approach for standardizing language translation processes while simultaneously evaluating the cross-cultural applicability of a survey instrument in the new context. The cross-cultural evaluation process produced CVI scores for the instrument ranging from .61 to .95. The process successfully identified potentially problematic survey items and errors with translation. The translation approach described here may help researchers reduce threats to data validity and improve instrument reliability in multinational health services research studies involving comparisons across health systems and language translation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg 2 , and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg 2 and probes a volume of 3 h –3 Gpc 3 , making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼15%, with a bin size of δ l = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l ∼ 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat ΛCDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H 0 constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find Ω Λ = 0.73 ± 0.019 and H 0 to be 70.5 ± 1.6 s –1 Mpc –1 km. For an open ΛCDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find Ω K = 0.0035 ± 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = –1.071 ± 0.078, and H 0 to be 71.3 ± 1.7 s –1 Mpc –1 km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power

  10. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  11. Survey of instructions for authors on how to report an update of a systematic review: guidance is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Mathes, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based healthcare. Approximately half of the systematic reviews are out of date after 5.5 years, and keeping them up to date remains a huge challenge. Despite new guidance on when and how to update systematic reviews, there seems to be a lack of guidance on how to report updates of systematic reviews. Therefore, we decided to systematically analyse instruction for authors in biomedical journals regarding guidance on reporting updates of systematic reviews. We conducted a survey investigating 250 journals. The journal list was derived by a twofold strategy. First, we chose a list of journals that were included in a recently published survey of systematic reviews. This list was augmented by a PubMed search for published updates of systematic reviews. For each journal, we checked the instructions for authors for any content or links related to updating systematic reviews in September 2016. Out of 250 journals, we found only one with guidance clearly related to updates of systematic reviews, namely the BioMed Central journal, Systematic Reviews Nevertheless, concrete guidance on reporting is lacking as it is stated that authors are encouraged to be innovative in how to report and present systematic review updates. This makes clear that there remains a fundamental uncertainty of how authors willing to update a previously published systematic review should act as even the leading journal in evidence syntheses does not have clear guidance. Debate is necessary on how to report updates of systematic reviews. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Developing Rapport with Children in Forensic Interviews: Systematic Review of Experimental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen J; Larson, Rakel P; Hobbs, Sue D; Wells, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    The vast majority of guidelines recommend that developing rapport with children is essential for successful forensic child interviewing; however, the question remains as to whether there is a sufficient body of scientific research to generate evidence-based guidelines for developing rapport with children in legal contexts. To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify experimental studies of the effects of rapport-building methods on the reliability of children's reports. Independent raters applied 12 exclusion criteria to the 2,761 potentially relevant articles located by electronic and hand searches of the literature. Experimental studies were few. Although studies to date are a beginning, the overall scientific base is weak regarding even basic issues such as how to best define rapport and the efficacy of common rapport-building techniques. This systematic review highlights what we know, what we do not know, and how much more we need to know to create evidence-based best practice. Recommendations for reshaping the research agenda are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  14. Determinants for swine mycoplasmal pneumonia reproduction under experimental conditions: A systematic review and recursive partitioning analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Segalés, Joaquim; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    One of the main Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) swine experimental model objectives is to reproduce mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP). Unfortunately, experimental validated protocols to maximize the chance to successfully achieve lung lesions induced by M. hyopneumoniae are not available at the moment. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify those factors that might have a major influence on the effective development of MP, measured as macroscopic lung lesions, under experimental conditions. Data from 85 studies describing M. hyopneumoniae inoculation experiments were compiled by means of a systematic review and analyzed thereafter. Several variables were considered in the analyses such as the number of pigs in the experiment, serological status against M. hyopneumoniae, source of the animals, age at inoculation, type of inoculum, strain of M. hyopneumoniae, route, dose and times of inoculation, study duration and co-infection with other swine pathogens. Descriptive statistics were used to depict M. hyopneumoniae experimental model main characteristics whereas a recursive partitioning approach, using regression trees, assessed the importance of the abovementioned experimental variables as MP triggering factors. A strong link between the time period between challenge and necropsies and lung lesion severity was observed. Results indicated that the most important factors to explain the observed lung lesion score variability were: (1) study duration, (2) M. hyopneumoniae strain, (3) age at inoculation, (4) co-infection with other swine pathogens and (5) animal source. All other studied variables were not relevant to explain the variability on M. hyopneumoniae lung lesions. The results provided in the present work may serve as a basis for debate in the search for a universally accepted M. hyopneumoniae challenge model. PMID:28742802

  15. Determinants for swine mycoplasmal pneumonia reproduction under experimental conditions: A systematic review and recursive partitioning analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garcia-Morante

    Full Text Available One of the main Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae swine experimental model objectives is to reproduce mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP. Unfortunately, experimental validated protocols to maximize the chance to successfully achieve lung lesions induced by M. hyopneumoniae are not available at the moment. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify those factors that might have a major influence on the effective development of MP, measured as macroscopic lung lesions, under experimental conditions. Data from 85 studies describing M. hyopneumoniae inoculation experiments were compiled by means of a systematic review and analyzed thereafter. Several variables were considered in the analyses such as the number of pigs in the experiment, serological status against M. hyopneumoniae, source of the animals, age at inoculation, type of inoculum, strain of M. hyopneumoniae, route, dose and times of inoculation, study duration and co-infection with other swine pathogens. Descriptive statistics were used to depict M. hyopneumoniae experimental model main characteristics whereas a recursive partitioning approach, using regression trees, assessed the importance of the abovementioned experimental variables as MP triggering factors. A strong link between the time period between challenge and necropsies and lung lesion severity was observed. Results indicated that the most important factors to explain the observed lung lesion score variability were: (1 study duration, (2 M. hyopneumoniae strain, (3 age at inoculation, (4 co-infection with other swine pathogens and (5 animal source. All other studied variables were not relevant to explain the variability on M. hyopneumoniae lung lesions. The results provided in the present work may serve as a basis for debate in the search for a universally accepted M. hyopneumoniae challenge model.

  16. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millan Mario

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT can reduce pain, the mechanisms involved are not well established. There is a need to review the scientific literature to establish the evidence-base for the reduction of pain following SMT. Objectives To determine if SMT can reduce experimentally induced pain, and if so, if the effect is i only at the level of the treated spinal segment, ii broader but in the same general region as SMT is performed, or iii systemic. Design A systematic critical literature review. Methods A systematic search was performed for experimental studies on healthy volunteers and people without chronic syndromes, in which the immediate effect of SMT was tested. Articles selected were reviewed blindly by two authors. A summary quality score was calculated to indicate level of manuscript quality. Outcome was considered positive if the pain-reducing effect was statistically significant. Separate evidence tables were constructed with information relevant to each research question. Results were interpreted taking into account their manuscript quality. Results Twenty-two articles were included, describing 43 experiments, primarily on pain produced by pressure (n = 27 or temperature (n = 9. Their quality was generally moderate. A hypoalgesic effect was shown in 19/27 experiments on pressure pain, produced by pressure in 3/9 on pain produced by temperature and in 6/7 tests on pain induced by other measures. Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear. Manipulation of a “restricted motion segment” (“manipulable lesion” seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs. lower quality scores. Conclusions These results indicate that SMT has a direct local

  17. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  18. DOES AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING PROMOTE CHANGES IN STRUCTURAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TENDONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio A. Bezerra; Kamilla D.S. Lira; Patrícia V. C. Silveira; Marcos P.G. Coutinho; Andrea Lemos; Silvia R. A. Moraes

    2012-01-01

    To develop a systematic review to evaluate, through the best scientific evidence available, the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in improving the biomechanical characteristics of tendons in experimental animals. Two independent assessors conducted a systematic search in the databases Medline/PUBMED and Lilacs/BIREME, using the following descriptors of Mesh in animal models. The ultimate load of traction and the elastic modulus tendon were used as primary outcomes and transverse section area,...

  19. Reliability and Validity of Survey Instruments to Measure Work-Related Fatigue in the Emergency Medical Services Setting: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Background: This study sought to systematically search the literature to identify reliable and valid survey instruments for fatigue measurement in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) occupational setting. Methods: A systematic review study design wa...

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data

  1. A systematic experimental study of thick-target neutron yield for high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Fukumura, A.

    1999-01-01

    Angular and energy distributions of neutrons produced by 100 and 180 MeV/nucleon He, 100, 180 and 400 MeV/nucleon C, 100, 180 and 400 MeV/nucleon Ne ions stopping in thick carbon, aluminium, copper and lead targets have been measured using the heavy ion medical accelerator of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The neutron spectra in the forward direction have broad peaks located at about 60-70% of the incident particle energy per nucleon due to break-up process and spreading up to almost twice as much as the projectile energy per nucleon. The neutron spectra at all angles consists of two components of cascade neutrons and evaporation neutrons. The experimental results are also compared with the calculations using the HIC and LCS codes, and the calculated results generally agree with the measured ones within a factor of 2 margin of accuracy, except around the high energy end in the forward direction. This systematic study on neutron production from thick targets by high-energy heavy ions is a first experimental work and will be useful in the shielding design of high-energy heavy ion accelerator facilities. (author)

  2. Techniques of extracorporeal cytokine removal: a systematic review of the literature on animal experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, Rafidah; Crosbie, David; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2013-03-01

    Extracorporeal cytokine removal may be desirable. We sought to assess extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques for cytokine removal in experimental animal studies.
 We conducted a targeted, systematic search and identified 17 articles. We analyzed cytokine clearance, sieving coefficient (SC), ultrafiltrate (UF) concentration, and percentage removal. As this review concerns technical appraisal of EBP techniques, we made no attempts to appraise the methodology of the studies included. Results are in descriptive terms only.
 Applying predicted clearance for 80 kg human, high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) techniques and plasmafiltration (PF) showed the highest rates of cytokine removal. High cutoff (HCO)/HF and PF techniques showed modest ability to clear cytokines using low to medium flows. Standard hemofiltration had little efficacy. At higher flows, HCO/HF achieved clearances between 30 and 70 ml/min for IL-6 and IL-10. There was essentially no removal of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha outside of PF.
 Experimental animal studies indicate that HVHF (especially with HCO filters) and plasmafiltration have the potential to achieve appreciable IL-6 and IL-10 clearances. However, only PF can remove TNF-alpha reliably.

  3. Experimental facility and methodology for systematic studies of cold startability in direct injection Diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J. V.; García-Oliver, J. M.; Pastor, J. M.; Ramírez-Hernández, J. G.

    2009-09-01

    Cold start at low temperatures in current direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is a problem which has not yet been properly solved and it becomes particularly critical with the current trend to reduce the engine compression ratio. Although it is clear that there are some key factors whose control leads to a proper cold start process, their individual relevance and relationships are not clearly understood. Thus, efforts on optimization of the cold start process are mainly based on a trial-and-error procedure in climatic chambers at low ambient temperature, with serious limitations in terms of measurement reliability during such a transient process, low repeatability and experimental cost. This paper presents a novel approach for an experimental facility capable of simulating real engine cold start, at room temperature and under well-controlled low speed and low temperature conditions. It is based on an optical single cylinder engine adapted to reproduce in-cylinder conditions representative of those of a real engine during start at cold ambient temperatures (of the order of -20 °C). Such conditions must be realistic, controlled and repeatable in order to perform systematic studies in the borderline between ignition success and misfiring. An analysis methodology, combining optical techniques and heat release analysis of individual cycles, has been applied.

  4. Experimental facility and methodology for systematic studies of cold startability in direct injection Diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, J V; García-Oliver, J M; Pastor, J M; Ramírez-Hernández, J G

    2009-01-01

    Cold start at low temperatures in current direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is a problem which has not yet been properly solved and it becomes particularly critical with the current trend to reduce the engine compression ratio. Although it is clear that there are some key factors whose control leads to a proper cold start process, their individual relevance and relationships are not clearly understood. Thus, efforts on optimization of the cold start process are mainly based on a trial-and-error procedure in climatic chambers at low ambient temperature, with serious limitations in terms of measurement reliability during such a transient process, low repeatability and experimental cost. This paper presents a novel approach for an experimental facility capable of simulating real engine cold start, at room temperature and under well-controlled low speed and low temperature conditions. It is based on an optical single cylinder engine adapted to reproduce in-cylinder conditions representative of those of a real engine during start at cold ambient temperatures (of the order of −20 °C). Such conditions must be realistic, controlled and repeatable in order to perform systematic studies in the borderline between ignition success and misfiring. An analysis methodology, combining optical techniques and heat release analysis of individual cycles, has been applied

  5. Scientific publications laboratory of remote experimentation - RExLab: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine De Lavechia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Information and Communication Technologies TICs are allowing day by day the improvement in all levels of the institutions, providing in a general context a greater communication, and enabling the creation of new knowledge. And with the emergence of the Remote Experimentation Laboratory - RExLab, which allows the student to perform experiments, makes possible the construction of new knowledge. Objective: Identify and present the NICT (New Information and Communication Technologies studied in the laboratory and explained in the publications of the members linked RExLab. Methodology: In this article a systematic research was done on the articles published in RExLab, and located at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Araranguá. And the articles with the highest citations, the NICT used in each research were presented. Result: It was possible to identify that a great majority of articles published was related to questions of remote experimentation through the usage of mobile devices, and today it allows almost all the students to have a great access to it. Conclusion: It was possible to analyze that the greatest objective of published research is the achievement of democratization and the dissemination of knowledge through their experiments. These are projects that can be applied at all levels of education and also in public and private schools.With this, there are many ICTs that are inserted in the projects and that they have as purpose the aid to the education.

  6. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalmantza, P.; Decarli, R.; Hogg, David W.; Dotti, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for massive black hole binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic database. We focus on bound binaries, under the assumption that one of the black holes is active. In this framework, the broad lines associated with the accreting black hole are expected to show systematic velocity shifts with respect to the narrow lines, which trace the rest frame of the galaxy. For a sample of 54,586 quasars and 3929 galaxies at redshifts 0.1 < z < 1.5, we brute-force model each spectrum as a mixture of two quasars at two different redshifts. The spectral model is a data-driven dimensionality reduction of the SDSS quasar spectra based on a matrix factorization. We identified 32 objects with peculiar spectra. Nine of them can be interpreted as black hole binaries. This doubles the number of known black hole binary candidates. We also report on the discovery of a new class of extreme double-peaked emitters with exceptionally broad and faint Balmer lines. For all the interesting sources, we present detailed analysis of the spectra and discuss possible interpretations.

  7. Strategies to optimize MEDLINE and EMBASE search strategies for anesthesiology systematic reviews. An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Enilze de Souza Nogueira; Betini, Marluci; Puga, Maria Eduarda; Agarwal, Arnav; Cataneo, Antônio José Maria; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Bazan, Rodrigo; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Pereira, José Eduardo Guimarães; El Dib, Regina

    2018-01-15

    A high-quality electronic search is essential for ensuring accuracy and comprehensiveness among the records retrieved when conducting systematic reviews. Therefore, we aimed to identify the most efficient method for searching in both MEDLINE (through PubMed) and EMBASE, covering search terms with variant spellings, direct and indirect orders, and associations with MeSH and EMTREE terms (or lack thereof). Experimental study. UNESP, Brazil. We selected and analyzed 37 search strategies that had specifically been developed for the field of anesthesiology. These search strategies were adapted in order to cover all potentially relevant search terms, with regard to variant spellings and direct and indirect orders, in the most efficient manner. When the strategies included variant spellings and direct and indirect orders, these adapted versions of the search strategies selected retrieved the same number of search results in MEDLINE (mean of 61.3%) and a higher number in EMBASE (mean of 63.9%) in the sample analyzed. The numbers of results retrieved through the searches analyzed here were not identical with and without associated use of MeSH and EMTREE terms. However, association of these terms from both controlled vocabularies retrieved a larger number of records than did the use of either one of them. In view of these results, we recommend that the search terms used should include both preferred and non-preferred terms (i.e. variant spellings and direct/indirect order of the same term) and associated MeSH and EMTREE terms, in order to develop highly-sensitive search strategies for systematic reviews.

  8. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  9. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available

  10. Assessment of Systematic Chromatic Errors that Impact Sub-1% Photometric Precision in Large-Area Sky Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. S. [et al.

    2016-05-27

    Meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1-2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes, when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the systematic chromatic errors caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane, can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We compare the calculated systematic chromatic errors with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput. The residual after correction is less than 0.3%. We also find that the errors for non-stellar objects are redshift-dependent and can be larger than those for stars at certain redshifts.

  11. A systematic review of counterfeit and substandard medicines in field quality surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghannam AFA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdulaziz Fahad Abdulaziz Alghannam, Zoe Aslanpour, Sara Evans, Fabrizio Schifano Department of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom Objectives: Counterfeit and substandard medicines pose a great threat to public health and the economy worldwide. Reports suggest their prevalence is increasing and can no longer be ignored. A detailed account on the current nature of the problem and identification of knowledge limitations in terms of geographical location, medicine classes, and type of medicine analysis performed is not available. Our objective was to systematically review articles that have reported investigations of counterfeit and substandard medicines. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge. Data Selection: Prospective field quality surveys on counterfeit and substandard medicines were selected from all available records within the selected databases up to December 31, 2013. All prospective studies performing chemical analysis on medicine samples were identified using the key search terms “counterfeit” or “substandard” and “medicine” or “drug” or “pharmaceutical.” The title, abstract, and/or full articles were reviewed for relevance according to a predetermined set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Medicines procured from the Internet are beyond the scope of this review. Results: Sixty-six research articles were found that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The majority of medicine quality surveys were conducted in specific areas of Africa and Asia. Within these two continents, medicine quality reports covering the Northern part of Africa and the Western part of Asia in the Middle East are extremely scarce. Other continents such as North or South America and Europe were covered in limited articles, whereas the Australian continent had no reports. Moreover, most studies examined medicines that treat infectious diseases; very few articles

  12. Endogenous opioid antagonism in physiological experimental pain models: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads U Werner

    Full Text Available Opioid antagonists are pharmacological tools applied as an indirect measure to detect activation of the endogenous opioid system (EOS in experimental pain models. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effect of mu-opioid-receptor (MOR antagonists in placebo-controlled, double-blind studies using 'inhibitory' or 'sensitizing', physiological test paradigms in healthy human subjects. The databases PubMed and Embase were searched according to predefined criteria. Out of a total of 2,142 records, 63 studies (1,477 subjects [male/female ratio = 1.5] were considered relevant. Twenty-five studies utilized 'inhibitory' test paradigms (ITP and 38 studies utilized 'sensitizing' test paradigms (STP. The ITP-studies were characterized as conditioning modulation models (22 studies and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation models (rTMS; 3 studies, and, the STP-studies as secondary hyperalgesia models (6 studies, 'pain' models (25 studies, summation models (2 studies, nociceptive reflex models (3 studies and miscellaneous models (2 studies. A consistent reversal of analgesia by a MOR-antagonist was demonstrated in 10 of the 25 ITP-studies, including stress-induced analgesia and rTMS. In the remaining 14 conditioning modulation studies either absence of effects or ambiguous effects by MOR-antagonists, were observed. In the STP-studies, no effect of the opioid-blockade could be demonstrated in 5 out of 6 secondary hyperalgesia studies. The direction of MOR-antagonist dependent effects upon pain ratings, threshold assessments and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP, did not appear consistent in 28 out of 32 'pain' model studies. In conclusion, only in 2 experimental human pain models, i.e., stress-induced analgesia and rTMS, administration of MOR-antagonist demonstrated a consistent effect, presumably mediated by an EOS-dependent mechanisms of analgesia and hyperalgesia.

  13. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E.; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. Objective To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Design Systematic review Data Sources Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. Study Selection We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Data Analysis Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. Results 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Conclusion Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the

  14. Contacting of authors by systematic reviewers: protocol for a cross-sectional study and a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint; Ladu, Luisa; Di Girolamo, Nicola

    2017-12-08

    Synthesizing outcomes of underreported primary studies can pose a serious threat to the validity of outcomes and conclusions of systematic reviews. To address this problem, the Cochrane Collaboration recommends reviewers to contact authors of eligible primary studies to obtain additional information on poorly reported items. In this protocol, we present a cross-sectional study and a survey to assess (1) how reviewers of new Cochrane intervention reviews report on procedures and outcomes of contacting of authors of primary studies to obtain additional data, (2) how authors reply, and (3) the consequences of these additional data on the outcomes and quality scores in the review. All research questions and methods were pilot tested on 2 months of Cochrane reviews and were subsequently fine-tuned. Eligibility criteria are (1) all new (not-updates) Cochrane intervention reviews published in 2016, (2) reviews that included one or more primary studies, and (3) eligible interventions refer to contacting of authors of the eligible primary studies included in the review to obtain additional research data (e.g., information on unreported or missing data, individual patient data, research methods, and bias issues). Searching for eligible reviews and data extraction will be conducted by two authors independently. The cross-sectional study will primarily focus on how contacting of authors is conducted and reported, how contacted authors reply, and how reviewers report on obtained additional data and their consequences for the review. The same eligible reviews for the cross-sectional study will also be eligible for the survey. Surveys will be sent to the contact addresses of these reviews according to a pre-defined protocol. We will use Google Forms as our survey platform. Surveyees are asked to answer eight questions. The survey will primarily focus on the consequences of contacting authors of eligible primary studies for the risk of bias and Grading of Recommendations

  15. Survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs for estimating supersonic missile aerodynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.

  16. A Systematic Review of Experimental and Clinical Acupuncture in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Franconi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a common side effect that can be very disabling and can limit or delay the dose of chemotherapy that can be administered. Acupuncture may be effective for treating peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the use of acupuncture for CIPN. The systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database, CINHAL, and ISI Proceedings. Hand searching was conducted, and consensus was reached on all extracted data. Only papers in the English language were included, irrespective of study design. From 3989 retrieved papers, 8 relevant papers were identified. One was an experimental study which showed that electroacupuncture suppressed CIPN pain in rats. In addition, there were 7 very heterogeneous clinical studies, 1 controlled randomised study using auricular acupuncture, 2 randomized controlled studies using somatic acupuncture, and 3 case series/case reports which suggested a positive effect of acupuncture in CIPN. Conclusions. Only one controlled randomised study demonstrated that acupuncture may be beneficial for CIPN. All the clinical studies reviewed had important methodological limitations. Further studies with robust methodology are needed to demonstrate the role of acupuncture for treating CIPN resulting from cancer treatment.

  17. Assessment of the uncertainty associated with systematic errors in digital instruments: an experimental study on offset errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attivissimo, F; Giaquinto, N; Savino, M; Cataldo, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the uncertainty due to systematic errors, particularly in A/D conversion-based instruments. The problem of defining and assessing systematic errors is briefly discussed, and the conceptual scheme of gauge repeatability and reproducibility is adopted. A practical example regarding the evaluation of the uncertainty caused by the systematic offset error is presented. The experimental results, obtained under various ambient conditions, show that modelling the variability of systematic errors is more problematic than suggested by the ISO 5725 norm. Additionally, the paper demonstrates the substantial difference between the type B uncertainty evaluation, obtained via the maximum entropy principle applied to manufacturer's specifications, and the type A (experimental) uncertainty evaluation, which reflects actually observable reality. Although it is reasonable to assume a uniform distribution of the offset error, experiments demonstrate that the distribution is not centred and that a correction must be applied. In such a context, this work motivates a more pragmatic and experimental approach to uncertainty, with respect to the directions of supplement 1 of GUM. (paper)

  18. Towards the development of a comprehensive framework: Qualitative systematic survey of definitions of clinical research quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Mi Bonde, Marie; Brunner, Nicole; Hemkens, Lars G; Rutquist, Marielle; Bhatnagar, Neera; Guyatt, Gordon H; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Briel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    To systematically survey existing definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality, both developed by stakeholder groups as well as in the medical literature. This study serves as a first step in the development of a comprehensive framework for the quality of clinical research. We systematically and in duplicate searched definitions, concepts and criteria of clinical research quality on websites of stakeholders in clinical research until no further insights emerged and in MEDLINE up to February 2015. Stakeholders included governmental bodies, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, academic and commercial contract research organizations, initiatives, research ethics committees, patient organizations and funding agencies from 13 countries. Data synthesis involved descriptive and qualitative analyses following the Framework Method on definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality. Descriptive codes were applied and grouped into clusters to identify common and stakeholder-specific quality themes. Stakeholder concepts on how to assure quality throughout study conduct or articles on quality assessment tools were common, generally with no a priori definition of the term quality itself. We identified a total of 20 explicit definitions of clinical research quality including varying quality dimensions and focusing on different stages in the clinical research process. Encountered quality dimensions include ethical conduct, patient safety/rights/priorities, internal validity, precision of results, generalizability or external validity, scientific and societal relevance, transparency and accessibility of information, research infrastructure and sustainability. None of the definitions appeared to be comprehensive either in terms of quality dimensions, research stages, or stakeholder perspectives. Clinical research quality is often discussed but rarely defined. A framework defining clinical research quality across stakeholders

  19. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hirokawa, Takako; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) evaluates students' epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students' reflections on their course's expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  20. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  1. Acceptance of a systematic review as a thesis: survey of biomedical doctoral programs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljak, Livia; Sapunar, Damir

    2017-12-12

    Systematic reviews (SRs) have been proposed as a type of research methodology that should be acceptable for a graduate research thesis. The aim of this study was to analyse whether PhD theses in European biomedical graduate programs can be partly or entirely based on SRs. In 2016, we surveyed individuals in charge of European PhD programs from 105 institutions. The survey asked about acceptance of SRs as the partial or entire basis for a PhD thesis, their attitude towards such a model for PhD theses, and their knowledge about SR methodology. We received responses from 86 individuals running PhD programs in 68 institutions (institutional response rate of 65%). In 47% of the programs, SRs were an acceptable study design for a PhD thesis. However, only 20% of participants expressed a personal opinion that SRs meet the criteria for a PhD thesis. The most common reasons for not accepting SRs as the basis for PhD theses were that SRs are 'not a result of a PhD candidate's independent work, but more of a team effort' and that SRs 'do not produce enough new knowledge for a dissertation'. The majority of participants were not familiar with basic concepts related to SRs; questions about meta-analyses and the type of plots frequently used in SRs were correctly answered by only one third of the participants. Raising awareness about the importance of SRs and their methodology could contribute to higher acceptance of SRs as a type of research that forms the basis of a PhD thesis.

  2. Assessing the Economics of Dengue: Results from a Systematic Review of the Literature and Expert Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna; Garcia, Cristina; Lefcourt, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The economics of dengue is complex and multifaceted. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide a critical overview of the issues related to dengue economics research and to form a background with which to address the question of cost. Three literature databases were searched [PubMed, Embase and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS)], covering a period from 1980 to 2013, to identify papers meeting preset inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality on the basis of a quality checklist developed for this purpose. An expert survey was designed to identify priority areas in dengue economics research and to identify gaps between the methodology and actual practice. Survey responses were combined with the literature review findings to determine stakeholder priorities in dengue economics research. The review identified over 700 papers. Forty-two of these papers met the selection criteria. The studies that were reviewed presented results from 32 dengue-endemic countries, underscoring the importance of dengue as a global public health problem. Cost analyses were the most common, with 21 papers, followed by nine cost-effectiveness analyses and seven cost-of-illness studies, indicating a relatively strong mix of methodologies. Dengue annual overall costs (in 2010 values) ranged from US$13.5 million (in Nicaragua) to $56 million (in Malaysia), showing cost variations across countries. Little consistency exists in the way costs were estimated and dengue interventions evaluated, making generalizations around costs difficult. The current evidence suggests that dengue costs are substantial because of the cost of hospital care and lost earnings. Further research in this area will broaden our understanding of the true economic impact of dengue.

  3. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Results Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region’s schools using standard mail and email. Conclusions Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods. PMID:25230740

  4. Social networking versus facebook advertising to recruit survey respondents: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-09-17

    Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people's attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region's schools using standard mail and email. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods.

  5. An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-09-01

    This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Radiological characteristics of light-water reactor spent fuel: A literature survey of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; Mailen, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This survey brings together the experimentally determined light-water reactor spent fuel data comprising radionuclide composition, decay heat, and photon and neutron generation rates as identified in a literature survey. Many citations compare these data with values calculated using a radionuclide generation and depletion computer code, ORIGEN, and these comparisons have been included. ORIGEN is a widely recognized method for estimating the actinide, fission product, and activation product contents of irradiated reactor fuel, as well as the resulting heat generation and radiation levels. These estimates are used as source terms in safety evaluations of operating reactors, for evaluation of fuel behavior and regulation of the at-reactor storage, for transportation studies, and for evaluation of the ultimate geologic storage of spent fuel. 82 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  7. An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-09-01

    This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Performance of ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation for indoor air applications: Systematic experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Haghighat, Fariborz; Lee, Chang-Seo; Lakdawala, Ness

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative experimental set-up was designed and constructed for testing UV-PCO. • Test methodologies were developed to examine UV-PCO air cleaners for VOCs removal. • VOCs type, inlet concentration, flow rate, irradiance, and RH have influence on PCO. • Gas-phase ozonation with a variety of compounds was examined in a duct system. • Formation of by-products generated from incomplete conversion was investigated. -- Abstract: Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a promising technology that has potential to be applied in mechanically ventilated buildings to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). However, the major research studies were done in bench-top scale reactors under ideal reaction conditions. In addition, no study has been carried out on the investigation of the ozonation and photolysis effect using a pilot duct system. The objective of this study is the development of methodologies to evaluate the performance of PCO systems. A systematic parametric evaluation of the effects of various kinetic parameters, such as compound's type, inlet concentration, airflow rate, light intensity, and relative humidity, was conducted, and new interpretations were provided from a fundamental analysis. In addition, the photolysis effect under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation for a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was examined for the first time in a pilot duct system. The performance comparison of ultraviolet C (UVC)-PCO and VUV-PCO was also discussed due to the presence of ozone. Moreover, the formation of by-products generated with or without ozone generation was fully compared to evaluate the PCO technology

  9. Performance of ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation for indoor air applications: Systematic experimental evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lexuan [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Haghighat, Fariborz, E-mail: fariborz.haghighat@concordia.ca [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lee, Chang-Seo [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lakdawala, Ness [DECTRON International Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • An innovative experimental set-up was designed and constructed for testing UV-PCO. • Test methodologies were developed to examine UV-PCO air cleaners for VOCs removal. • VOCs type, inlet concentration, flow rate, irradiance, and RH have influence on PCO. • Gas-phase ozonation with a variety of compounds was examined in a duct system. • Formation of by-products generated from incomplete conversion was investigated. -- Abstract: Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a promising technology that has potential to be applied in mechanically ventilated buildings to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). However, the major research studies were done in bench-top scale reactors under ideal reaction conditions. In addition, no study has been carried out on the investigation of the ozonation and photolysis effect using a pilot duct system. The objective of this study is the development of methodologies to evaluate the performance of PCO systems. A systematic parametric evaluation of the effects of various kinetic parameters, such as compound's type, inlet concentration, airflow rate, light intensity, and relative humidity, was conducted, and new interpretations were provided from a fundamental analysis. In addition, the photolysis effect under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation for a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was examined for the first time in a pilot duct system. The performance comparison of ultraviolet C (UVC)-PCO and VUV-PCO was also discussed due to the presence of ozone. Moreover, the formation of by-products generated with or without ozone generation was fully compared to evaluate the PCO technology.

  10. Results of a 15-year systematic survey of commensal rodents in English dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M; Vial, F; Pietravalle, S; Cowan, D

    2017-11-21

    Population trends for commensal rodents are the subject of interest and speculation but accurate data are rarely available. Here we report data from a 15-year systematic survey of rats and mice in English dwellings and present national-level estimates of prevalence for 1996-2010. We found evidence for peaks in prevalence of mice inside and rats around dwellings in 2002 and 2008. Models containing twelve variables relating to the dwelling and local area explained some but not all of the variation in prevalence. Older dwellings, those in rural areas, those with litter, drainage faults and pets or other animals outdoors tended to have higher levels of rodent prevalence. Regional differences were found but there were no seasonal trends apart from lower prevalence of mice during summer. Rodent prevalence was generally higher in rented (compared to owner-occupied) dwellings, although apparently not due to reduced tendency to carry out rodent control. The percentage of households having taken some form of action against active rodent problems varied according to prevalence at the national level, and therefore appropriate data on number of rodent control treatments carried out each year could likely act as a useful index of household rodent prevalence.

  11. Radiation Shielding Materials Containing Hydrogen, Boron, and Nitrogen: Systematic Computational and Experimental Study. Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Sheila A.; Fay, Catharine C.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Earle, Kevin D.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kang, Jin Ho; Park, Cheol; McMullen, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    than possible with hydrogen storage; however, a systematic experimental hydrogenation study has not been reported. A combination of the two approaches may be explored to provide yet higher hydrogen content. The hydrogen containing BNNT produced in our study will be characterized for hydrogen content and thermal stability in simulated space service environments. These new materials systems will be tested for their radiation shielding effectiveness against high energy protons and high energy heavy ions at the HIMAC facility in Japan, or a comparable facility. These high energy particles simulate exposure to SEP and GCR environments. They will also be tested in the LaRC Neutron Exposure Laboratory for their neutron shielding effectiveness, an attribute that determines their capability to shield against the secondary neutrons found inside structures and on lunar and planetary surfaces. The potential significance is to produce a radiation protection enabling technology for future exploration missions. Crew on deep space human exploration missions greater than approximately 90 days cannot remain below current crew Permissible Exposure Limits without shielding and/or biological countermeasures. The intent of this research is to bring the Agency closer to extending space missions beyond the 90-day limit, with 1 year as a long-term goal. We are advocating a systems solution with a structural materials component. Our intent is to develop the best materials system for that materials component. In this Phase I study, we have shown, computationally, that hydrogen containing BNNT is effective for shielding against GCR, SEP, and neutrons over a wide range of energies. This is why we are focusing on hydrogen containing BNNT as an innovative advanced concept. In our future work, we plan to demonstrate, experimentally, that hydrogen, boron, and nitrogen based materials can provide mechanically strong, thermally stable, structural materials with effective radiation shielding against GCR

  12. Monitoring undergraduate student needs and activities at Experimental Biology: APS pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Matyas, Marsha L

    2017-06-01

    Life science professional societies play important roles for undergraduates in their fields and increasingly offer membership, fellowships, and awards for undergraduate students. However, the overall impacts of society-student interactions have not been well studied. Here, we sought to develop and test a pilot survey of undergraduate students to determine how they got involved in research and in presenting at the Experimental Biology (EB) meeting, what they gained from the scientific and career development sessions at the meeting, and how the American Physiological Society (APS) can best support and engage undergraduate students. This survey was administered in 2014 and 2015 to undergraduate students who submitted physiology abstracts for and attended EB. More than 150 students responded (38% response rate). Respondents were demographically representative of undergraduate students majoring in life sciences in the United States. Most students (72%) became involved in research through a summer research program or college course. They attended a variety of EB sessions, including poster sessions and symposia, and found them useful. Undergraduate students interacted with established researchers at multiple venues. Students recommended that APS provide more research fellowships (25%) and keep in touch with students via both e-mail (46%) and social media (37%). Our results indicate that APS' EB undergraduate activities are valued by students and are effective in helping them have a positive scientific meeting experience. These results also guided the development of a more streamlined survey for use in future years. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Japanese citizens’ preferences regarding voluntary carbon offsets: an experimental social survey of Yokohama and Kitakyushu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidenori; Kato, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    This study uses an experimental social survey in two large Japanese cities to explore citizens’ attitudes toward international voluntary carbon offsetting that encourages low carbon development in developing countries. In particular, the study focuses on whether the offsetting is a contribution to meet national target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction under the Kyoto Protocol or reduction beyond the national target, using Kyoto credits generated from climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. The study finds that around 40% of the survey respondents chose real carbon offsetting over a gift certificate as compensation for their participation in the survey, around half of whom chose carbon offsetting contribution to the world. However, most of the current Japanese carbon offsetting providers utilise only the carbon offsetting contribution to the Japanese government. Thus, Japanese citizens have significant untapped potential for undertaking more carbon offsetting to meet targets other than national targets. However, the results also show that there is a general lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of carbon offsetting. Carbon offsetting providers in Japan and other countries that may have national self-imposed targets and allowing the usage of international carbon offsetting should therefore be considered, so as to provide individuals with the options of either contributing to their government to help it meet its national target or contributing to the world to help reduce GHG emissions beyond the national targets.

  14. Workshop Synthesis: Stated Preference Surveys and Experimental Design, an Audit of the Journey so far and Future Research Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchi, Elisabetta; Hensher, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the discussions and ideas that were generated during the workshop on “Stated preference surveys and experimental design” at the 2014 Travel Survey Methods Conference in Leura (Australia). The workshop addressed the challenges related to the design and implementation o...

  15. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nancy D; Lloyd, Shannon K

    2017-04-01

    A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the

  16. Delayed School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep: A Systematic Review of the Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Minges, Karl E.; Redeker, Nancy S.

    2015-01-01

    Many schools have instituted later morning start times to improve sleep, academic, and other outcomes in response to the mismatch between youth circadian rhythms and early morning start times. However, there has been no systematic synthesis of the evidence on the effects of this practice. To examine the impact of delayed school start time on students’ sleep, health, and academic outcomes, electronic databases were systematically searched and data were extracted using the Preferred Reporting I...

  17. Life-threatening complications after ureteroscopy for urinary stones: survey and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindolo, Luca; Castellan, Pietro; Primiceri, Giulia; Hoznek, Andras; Cracco, Cecilia M; Scoffone, Cesare M; Galfano, Antonio; Petralia, Giovanni; DE Angelis, Michele; Annino, Filippo; Malacasa, Emilio; Cormio, Luigi; Acquati, Pietro; DE Lorenzis, Elisa; Maugeri, Orazio; Arena, Giuseppe; Celia, Antonio; Giusti, Guido; Schips, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) has become a common procedure for the management of urinary stones. Although its efficacy and safety are well known, the literature about major complications is still poor. This study highlighted some cases of life-threatening complications after semi-rigid ureteroscopy (s-URS) or flexible ureteroscopy (f-URS). Experienced endourologists (more than 75 cases/year in the last 3 years) we enrolled, and a survey was performed asking to review their series and report the cases encumbered by major complications (Clavien-Dindo IIIb-IV grade). A literature search was also conducted in the Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Libraries databases in July, 2016 to identify all studies reporting the presence of major complications in patients underwent URS procedures. A PubMed search was performed using the following key words in combination: "kidney injury," "ureteroscopy," "nephrectomy," "life-threatening," "urinary stones," "complications." Eleven urologists reported on 12 major complications (4 after s-URS, 8 after f-URS). Eight patients developed a kidney injury, 1 an arteriovenous fistula, 2 a ureter avulsion and 1 acute sepsis. Six patients underwent open nephrectomy, two surgical repair, one open pyeloplasty, one coil artery embolization and two superselective artery embolization. Guidelines and clinical practice give useful recommendations about intraoperative safety and prevention of life-threatening events. The careful postoperative observation and the surgical active treatment of this complications play a key role in reducing morbidity, kidney loss and mortality. This study encourages a strict and active care of patients, supports a routine reporting of complications, and highlights the need for systematic use of standardized classification systems.

  18. A survey of prevalence of narrative and systematic reviews in five major medical journals

    OpenAIRE

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Bakas, Nikolaos P.; Wasiak, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews may provide less biased evidence than narrative reviews because they observe a strict methodology, similarly to primary studies. Hence, for clinical research questions, systematic reviews should be the study design of choice. It would be important to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of narrative and systematic reviews published in prominent medical journals. Researchers and clinicians give great value to articles published in such scientific journals. ...

  19. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silagy Chris

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent. Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112. The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent, lack of financial support (36 percent, methodological problems (23 percent and problems with group dynamics (10 percent. Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review.

  20. The Mallory body: morphological, clinical and experimental studies (Part 1 of a literature survey)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    To aid understanding of markers of disease and predictors of outcome in alcohol-exposed systems, we undertook a literature survey of more than 700 articles to view the morphological characteristics and the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body. Mallory bodies are filaments...... of intermediate diameter that contain intermediate filament components (e.g., cytokeratins) observable by conventional light microscopy or immunohistochemical methods, identical in structure regardless of initiating factors or putative pathogenesis. Although three morphological types can be identified under...... suggest a hit-and-run effect of alcohol, whereas other chronic liver diseases show evidence of gradual increase in prevalence of Mallory bodies with severity of hepatic pathology. Mallory bodies in cirrhosis do not imply alcoholic pathogenesis. Obesity, however, is associated with alcoholism and diabetes...

  1. Studying cell-surface interactions in vitro: a survey of experimental approaches and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Stefanie; Robelek, Rudolf; Wegener, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the interactions of animal (or human) cells with in vitro surfaces is the key to the successful development, improvement and optimization of biomaterials for biomedical or biotechnological purposes. State-of-the-art experimental approaches and techniques are a prerequisite for further and deeper insights into the mechanisms and processes involved in cell-surface adhesion. This chapter provides a brief but not complete survey of optical, mechanical, electrochemical and acoustic devices that are currently used to study the structural and functional properties of the cell-surface junction. Each technique is introduced with respect to the underlying principles before example data are discussed. At the end of the chapter all techniques are compared in terms of their strengths, limitations and technical requirements.

  2. The Mallory body: morphological, clinical and experimental studies (Part 1 of a literature survey)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    and oncogenic chemicals, are presented. Mallory bodies occur only sporadically in abetalipoproteinemia, von Gierke's disease and focal nodular hyperplasia and during hepatitis due to calcium antagonists or perhexiline maleate. Other conditions and clinical drug side effects are still putative. Finally......To aid understanding of markers of disease and predictors of outcome in alcohol-exposed systems, we undertook a literature survey of more than 700 articles to view the morphological characteristics and the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body. Mallory bodies are filaments......): Indian childhood cirrhosis (73%), alcoholic hepatitis (65%), alcoholic cirrhosis (51%), Wilson's disease (25%), primary biliary cirrhosis (24%), nonalcoholic cirrhosis (24%), hepatocellular carcinoma (23%), morbid obesity (8%) and intestinal bypass surgery (6%). Studies in alcoholic hepatitis strongly...

  3. How do authors of systematic reviews deal with research malpractice and misconduct in original studies? A cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Nadia; von Elm, Erik; Chatagner, Alexandra; Pöpping, Daniel M; Tramèr, Martin R

    2016-03-02

    To study whether systematic reviewers apply procedures to counter-balance some common forms of research malpractice such as not publishing completed research, duplicate publications, or selective reporting of outcomes, and to see whether they identify and report misconduct. Cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors. 118 systematic reviews published in four journals (Ann Int Med, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet), and the Cochrane Library, in 2013. Number (%) of reviews that applied procedures to reduce the impact of: (1) publication bias (through searching of unpublished trials), (2) selective outcome reporting (by contacting the authors of the original studies), (3) duplicate publications, (4) sponsors' and (5) authors' conflicts of interest, on the conclusions of the review, and (6) looked for ethical approval of the studies. Number (%) of reviewers who suspected misconduct are reported. The procedures applied were compared across journals. 80 (68%) reviewers confirmed their data. 59 (50%) reviews applied three or more procedures; 11 (9%) applied none. Unpublished trials were searched in 79 (66%) reviews. Authors of original studies were contacted in 73 (62%). Duplicate publications were searched in 81 (69%). 27 reviews (23%) reported sponsors of the included studies; 6 (5%) analysed their impact on the conclusions of the review. Five reviews (4%) looked at conflicts of interest of study authors; none of them analysed their impact. Three reviews (2.5%) looked at ethical approval of the studies. Seven reviews (6%) suspected misconduct; only 2 (2%) reported it explicitly. Procedures applied differed across the journals. Only half of the systematic reviews applied three or more of the six procedures examined. Sponsors, conflicts of interest of authors and ethical approval remain overlooked. Research misconduct is sometimes identified, but rarely reported. Guidance on when, and how, to report suspected misconduct is needed. Published by the BMJ

  4. How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Daniele

    2009-05-29

    The frequency with which scientists fabricate and falsify data, or commit other forms of scientific misconduct is a matter of controversy. Many surveys have asked scientists directly whether they have committed or know of a colleague who committed research misconduct, but their results appeared difficult to compare and synthesize. This is the first meta-analysis of these surveys. To standardize outcomes, the number of respondents who recalled at least one incident of misconduct was calculated for each question, and the analysis was limited to behaviours that distort scientific knowledge: fabrication, falsification, "cooking" of data, etc... Survey questions on plagiarism and other forms of professional misconduct were excluded. The final sample consisted of 21 surveys that were included in the systematic review, and 18 in the meta-analysis. A pooled weighted average of 1.97% (N = 7, 95%CI: 0.86-4.45) of scientists admitted to have fabricated, falsified or modified data or results at least once--a serious form of misconduct by any standard--and up to 33.7% admitted other questionable research practices. In surveys asking about the behaviour of colleagues, admission rates were 14.12% (N = 12, 95% CI: 9.91-19.72) for falsification, and up to 72% for other questionable research practices. Meta-regression showed that self reports surveys, surveys using the words "falsification" or "fabrication", and mailed surveys yielded lower percentages of misconduct. When these factors were controlled for, misconduct was reported more frequently by medical/pharmacological researchers than others. Considering that these surveys ask sensitive questions and have other limitations, it appears likely that this is a conservative estimate of the true prevalence of scientific misconduct.

  5. How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanelli

    Full Text Available The frequency with which scientists fabricate and falsify data, or commit other forms of scientific misconduct is a matter of controversy. Many surveys have asked scientists directly whether they have committed or know of a colleague who committed research misconduct, but their results appeared difficult to compare and synthesize. This is the first meta-analysis of these surveys. To standardize outcomes, the number of respondents who recalled at least one incident of misconduct was calculated for each question, and the analysis was limited to behaviours that distort scientific knowledge: fabrication, falsification, "cooking" of data, etc... Survey questions on plagiarism and other forms of professional misconduct were excluded. The final sample consisted of 21 surveys that were included in the systematic review, and 18 in the meta-analysis. A pooled weighted average of 1.97% (N = 7, 95%CI: 0.86-4.45 of scientists admitted to have fabricated, falsified or modified data or results at least once--a serious form of misconduct by any standard--and up to 33.7% admitted other questionable research practices. In surveys asking about the behaviour of colleagues, admission rates were 14.12% (N = 12, 95% CI: 9.91-19.72 for falsification, and up to 72% for other questionable research practices. Meta-regression showed that self reports surveys, surveys using the words "falsification" or "fabrication", and mailed surveys yielded lower percentages of misconduct. When these factors were controlled for, misconduct was reported more frequently by medical/pharmacological researchers than others. Considering that these surveys ask sensitive questions and have other limitations, it appears likely that this is a conservative estimate of the true prevalence of scientific misconduct.

  6. Postmortem pink teeth phenomenon: an experimental study and a survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, P; Syrjänen, S; Keijälä, J P; Parviainen, A P

    1990-01-01

    The appearance of pink teeth after death is a phenomenon long familiar to forensic dentists. Although the application of modern techniques has shed some light on its aetiology, elucidation of the ultimate mechanism underlying the phenomenon is still awaited. In this paper, previous literature on the subject is surveyed, and an experimental approach under standardized conditions to allow analysis of possible causes and biological mechanisms of the pink-teeth phenomenon in rats is described. The experimental results were consistent with most previous observations. It seems probable that colouration of the teeth would be found in those regions of the jaws where the blood is seeking on the basis of gravitation hypostasis. The primary red colouration is most likely due to haemoglobin derivatives within the necrotic pulp tissue in cases in which blood has accumulated in the head and the dependent lividity (hypostasis) is obstructed. The authors discuss the likely causes for the development of the pink teeth phenomenon. It seems that this phenomenon is more dependent on physical than chemical factors after death.

  7. The importance of being systematically surprisable : Comparative social simulation as experimental technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, M.C.; Imhof, P.

    1999-01-01

    We argue that computer simulation can serve as a functional equivalent for the experimental method in sociology, with respect to theory development. To this end Eve present accounts of experimentation and simulation by experimenting/simulating scientists and sociologists of science. From these

  8. Experimental public administration from 1992 to 2014 : A systematic literature review and ways forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Robin; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Based on previous inventories, the purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge on public administration experiments by focusing on their experimental type, design, sample type and realism levels and external validity. The aim is to provide an overview of experimental public

  9. Experimental systematic uncertainties (and object reconstruction) on top physics, their correlations, comparison ATLAS vs CMS (vs Tevatron) and common agreements

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, M J

    2014-01-01

    The experimental systematic uncertainties associated to the reconstruction and calibration of the objects appearing in top quark final states at the LHC and Tevatron are discussed. The strategies followed in the ATLAS and CMS experiments are compared in detail for the cases of the jet energy scale and $b$-tagging calibrations, where a categorisation of the associated uncertainty sources as well as the corresponding correlations across experiments has been proposed. The estimate of the non-prompt and fake lepton background to the top quark leptonic channels is also discussed.

  10. Can Appealing to Patient Altruism Reduce Overuse of Health Care Services? An Experimental Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin R; Ubel, Peter A; Saloner, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    A challenge to reducing overuse of health services is communicating recommendations against unnecessary health services to patients. The predominant approach has been to highlight the limited benefit and potential harm of such services for that patient, but the prudent use of health resources can also benefit others. Whether appealing to patient altruism can reduce overuse is unknown. To determine whether altruistic appeals reduce hypothetical requests for overused services and affect physician ratings. Experimental survey using hypothetical vignettes describing three overused health services (antibiotics for acute sinusitis, imaging for acute low back pain, and annual exams for healthy adults). U.S. adults recruited from Research Now, an online panel of individuals compensated for performing academic and marketing research surveys. In the control version of the vignettes, the physician's rationale for recommending against the service was the minimal benefit and potential for harm. In the altruism version, the rationale additionally included potential benefit to others by forgoing that service. Differences in requests for overused services and physician ratings between participants randomized to the control and altruism versions of the vignettes. A total of 1001 participants were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences in requests for overused services for any of the clinical scenarios (P values ranged from 0.183 to 0.547). Physician ratings were lower in the altruism version for the acute sinusitis (6.68 vs. 7.03, P = 0.012) and back pain scenarios (6.14 vs. 6.83, P reduce requests for overused services, and resulted in more negative physician ratings. Further studies are warranted to determine whether alternative methods of appealing to patient altruism can reduce overuse.

  11. Does aerobic exercise training promote changes in structural and biomechanical properties of the tendons in experimental animals? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M A; Lemos, A; Lira, K D S; Silveira, P V C; Coutinho, M P G; E Moraes, S R A

    2012-12-01

    To develop a systematic review to evaluate, through the best scientific evidence available, the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in improving the biomechanical characteristics of tendons in experimental animals. Two independent assessors conducted a systematic search in the databases Medline/PUBMED and Lilacs/BIREME, using the following descriptors of Mesh in animal models. The ultimate load of traction and the elastic modulus tendon were used as primary outcomes and transverse section area, ultimate stress and tendon strain as secondary outcomes. The assessment of risk of bias in the studies was carried out using the following methodological components: light/dark cycle, temperature, nutrition, housing, research undertaken in conjunction with an ethics committee, randomization, adaptation of the animals to the training and preparation for the mechanical test. Eight studies, comprising 384 animals, were selected; it was not possible to combine them into one meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of the samples. There was a trend to increasing ultimate load without changes in the other outcomes studied. Only one study met more than 80% of the quality criteria. Physical training performed in a structured way with imposition of overloads seems to be able to promote changes in tendon structure of experimental models by increasing the ultimate load supported. However, the results of the influence of exercise on the elastic modulus parameters, strain, transverse section area and ultimate stress, remain controversial and inconclusive. Such a conclusion must be evaluated with reservation as there was low methodological control in the studies included in this review.

  12. Systematic Biases in Weak Lensing Cosmology with the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuroff, Simon [Manchester U.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis sets out a practical guide to applying shear measurements as a cosmological tool. We first present one of two science-ready galaxy shape catalogues from Year 1 of the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y1), which covers 1500 square degrees in four bands $griz$, with a median redshift of $0.59$. We describe the shape measurement process implemented by the DES Y1 imshape catalogue, which contains 21.9 million high-quality $r$-band bulge/disc fits. In Chapter 3 a new suite of image simulations, referred to as Hoopoe, are presented. The Hoopoe dataset is tailored to DES Y1 and includes realistic blending, spatial masks and variation in the point spread function. We derive shear corrections, which we show are robust to changes in calibration method, galaxy binning and variance within the simulated dataset. Sources of systematic uncertainty in the simulation-based shear calibration are discussed, leading to a final estimate of the $1\\sigma$ uncertainties in the residual multiplica tive bias after calibration of 0.025. Chapter 4 describes an extension of the analysis on the Hoopoe simulations into a detailed investigation of the impact of galaxy neighbours on shape measurement and shear cosmology. Four mechanisms by which neighbours can have a non-negligible influence on shear measurement are identified. These effects, if ignored, would contribute a net multiplicative bias of $m \\sim 0.03 - 0.09$ in DES Y1, though the precise impact will depend on both the measurement code and the selection cuts applied. We use the cosmological inference pipeline of DES Y1 to explore the cosmological implications of neighbour bias and show that omitting blending from the calibration simulation for DES Y1 would bias the inferred clustering amplitude $S_8 \\equiv \\sigma_8 (\\omegam /0.3)^{0.5}$ by $1.5 \\sigma$ towards low values. Finally, we use the Hoopoe simulations to test the effect of neighbour-induced spatial correlations in the multiplicative bias. We find the cosmo logical

  13. Nitric oxide treatments as adjuncts to reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review of experimental and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Justin S; Jones, Bethan R; Chamberlain, Georgia R; Baxter, Gary F

    2016-03-01

    Unmodified reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with irreversible myocardial injury beyond that sustained during ischemia. Studies in experimental models of ischemia/reperfusion and in humans undergoing reperfusion therapy for AMI have examined potential beneficial effects of nitric oxide (NO) supplemented at the time of reperfusion. Using a rigorous systematic search approach, we have identified and critically evaluated all the relevant experimental and clinical literature to assess whether exogenous NO given at reperfusion can limit infarct size. An inclusive search strategy was undertaken to identify all in vivo experimental animal and clinical human studies published in the period 1990-2014 where NO gas, nitrite, nitrate or NO donors were given to ameliorate reperfusion injury. Articles were screened at title and subsequently at abstract level, followed by objective full text analysis using a critical appraisal tool. In twenty-one animal studies, all NO treatments except nitroglycerin afforded protection against measures of reperfusion injury, including infarct size, creatinine kinase release, neutrophil accumulation and cardiac dysfunction. In three human AMI RCT's, there was no consistent evidence of infarct limitation associated with NO treatment as an adjunct to reperfusion. Despite experimental evidence that most NO treatments can reduce infarct size when given as adjuncts to reperfusion, the value of these interventions in clinical AMI is unproven. Our study raises issues for the design of further clinical studies and emphasises the need for improved design of animal studies to reflect more accurately the comorbidities and other confounding factors seen in clinical AMI.

  14. The influence of leadership on creativity: A systematic review of experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); P.M. Kruyen

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Various studies argue that leaders can stimulate the creativity of their followers. However, many of these studies rely on survey or case studies methods, which generally suffer from endogeneity threats, such as reverse causality or omitted variables. In order to

  15. A survey and experimental comparison of distributed SPARQL engines for very large RDF data

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim

    2017-10-19

    Distributed SPARQL engines promise to support very large RDF datasets by utilizing shared-nothing computer clusters. Some are based on distributed frameworks such as MapReduce; others implement proprietary distributed processing; and some rely on expensive preprocessing for data partitioning. These systems exhibit a variety of trade-offs that are not well-understood, due to the lack of any comprehensive quantitative and qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a survey of 22 state-of-the-art systems that cover the entire spectrum of distributed RDF data processing and categorize them by several characteristics. Then, we select 12 representative systems and perform extensive experimental evaluation with respect to preprocessing cost, query performance, scalability and workload adaptability, using a variety of synthetic and real large datasets with up to 4.3 billion triples. Our results provide valuable insights for practitioners to understand the trade-offs for their usage scenarios. Finally, we publish online our evaluation framework, including all datasets and workloads, for researchers to compare their novel systems against the existing ones.

  16. Contacting of authors by systematic reviewers: protocol for a cross-sectional study and a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint; Ladu, Luisa; Di Girolamo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Synthesizing outcomes of underreported primary studies can pose a serious threat to the validity of outcomes and conclusions of systematic reviews. To address this problem, the Cochrane Collaboration recommends reviewers to contact authors of eligible primary studies to obtain additional information

  17. Contacting of authors by systematic reviewers: protocol for a cross-sectional study and a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meursinge Reynders, R.; Ladu, L.; Di Girolamo, N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Synthesizing outcomes of underreported primary studies can pose a serious threat to the validity of outcomes and conclusions of systematic reviews. To address this problem, the Cochrane Collaboration recommends reviewers to contact authors of eligible primary studies to obtain additional

  18. 77 FR 47676 - Comment Request: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Jurisdictional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... Research Jurisdictional Survey AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under the... Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Jurisdictional Survey Evaluation for the National Science... objective of the Foundation to strengthen science and engineering research potential and education at all...

  19. Macronutrients and the FTO gene expression in hypothalamus; a systematic review of experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Doaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In Conclusion, The level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.

  20. Misspecifications of stimulus presentation durations in experimental psychology: a systematic review of the psychophysics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias

    2010-09-29

    In visual psychophysics, precise display timing, particularly for brief stimulus presentations, is often required. The aim of this study was to systematically review the commonly applied methods for the computation of stimulus durations in psychophysical experiments and to contrast them with the true luminance signals of stimuli on computer displays. In a first step, we systematically scanned the citation index Web of Science for studies with experiments with stimulus presentations for brief durations. Articles which appeared between 2003 and 2009 in three different journals were taken into account if they contained experiments with stimuli presented for less than 50 milliseconds. The 79 articles that matched these criteria were reviewed for their method of calculating stimulus durations. For those 75 studies where the method was either given or could be inferred, stimulus durations were calculated by the sum of frames (SOF) method. In a second step, we describe the luminance signal properties of the two monitor technologies which were used in the reviewed studies, namely cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. We show that SOF is inappropriate for brief stimulus presentations on both of these technologies. In extreme cases, SOF specifications and true stimulus durations are even unrelated. Furthermore, the luminance signals of the two monitor technologies are so fundamentally different that the duration of briefly presented stimuli cannot be calculated by a single method for both technologies. Statistics over stimulus durations given in the reviewed studies are discussed with respect to different duration calculation methods. The SOF method for duration specification which was clearly dominating in the reviewed studies leads to serious misspecifications particularly for brief stimulus presentations. We strongly discourage its use for brief stimulus presentations on CRT and LCD monitors.

  1. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escourbiac, F; Richou, M; Guigon, R; Durocher, A; Schlosser, J; Grosman, A [CEA/IRFM, F-13108, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Constans, S [AREVA-NP, Le Creusot (France); Merola, M [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Riccardi, B [Fusion For Energy, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: frederic.escourbiac@cea.fr

    2009-12-15

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  2. A systematic study of distribution characters of infiltration parameters in an experimental basin by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weizu; Lu Jieju; Lu Mingjiang; Chen Tingyang

    1988-01-01

    A case study of spatial variability of Philip's infiltration parameters was carried out in a small experimental catchment with an area of 0.8 ha by nuclear monitoring methods. Relationships between sorptivity S, parameter A and the average initial soil water content within 0.5 m depth of soil profiles over the catchment have been plotted. A watershed infiltration parameter distribution curve is set up and fitted approximately by f/F=1-(1-S/S M ) n . The parameters of composite infiltration response related to whole catchment are suggested. The author has studied it on an experimental basin by combined method of nuclear technology and micro-geomorphic analysis. The results are satisfactory. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escourbiac, F.; Richou, M.; Guigon, R.; Constans, S.; Durocher, A.; Merola, M.; Schlosser, J.; Riccardi, B.; Grosman, A.

    2009-12-01

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  4. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F; Richou, M; Guigon, R; Durocher, A; Schlosser, J; Grosman, A; Constans, S; Merola, M; Riccardi, B

    2009-01-01

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  5. Prediction of postoperative pain: a systematic review of predictive experimental pain studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mjöbo, Helena N; Nielsen, Per R

    2010-01-01

    preoperative responses to experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain and demonstrates that the preoperative pain tests may predict 4-54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience depending on the stimulation methods and the test paradigm used. The predictive strength is much higher than...... previously reported for single factor analyses of demographics and psychologic factors. In addition, some of these studies indicate that an increase in preoperative pain sensitivity is associated with a high probability of development of sustained postsurgical pain....

  6. Dose-specific effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on experimental pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Leica S; Chesterton, Linda S; Barlas, Panos; Sim, Julius

    2011-09-01

    To determine the hypoalgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) parameter combinations on experimental models in healthy humans. Searches were performed using the electronic databases Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, and Web of Science (from inception to December 2009). Manual searches of journals and reference lists of retrieved trials were also performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the review if they compared the hypoalgesic effect of TENS relative with placebo and control, using an experimental pain model in healthy human participants. Two reviewers independently selected the trials, assessed their methodologic quality and extracted data. Forty-three RCTs were eligible for inclusion. A best evidence synthesis revealed: Overall "conflicting" (inconsistent findings in multiple RCTs) evidence of TENS efficacy on experimental pain irrespective of TENS parameters used. Overall intense TENS has "moderate" evidence of efficacy (1 high-quality and 2 low-quality trials). Conventional TENS has overall conflicting evidence of efficacy, this is derived from "strong" evidence of efficacy (generally consistent findings in multiple high-quality RCTs) on pressure pain but strong evidence of inefficacy on other pain models. "Limited" evidence (positive findings from 1 RCT) of hypoalgesia exists for some novel parameters. Low-intensity, low-frequency, local TENS has strong evidence of inefficacy. Inappropriate TENS (using "barely perceptible" intensities) has moderate evidence of inefficacy. The level of hypoalgesic efficacy of TENS is clearly dependent on TENS parameter combination selection (defined in terms of intensity, frequency, and stimulation site) and experimental pain model. Future clinical RCTs may consider these TENS dose responses.

  7. Reporting of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest by authors of systematic reviews: a methodological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoum, Maram B; Anouti, Sirine; Al-Gibbawi, Mounir; Abou-Jaoude, Elias A; Hasbani, Divina Justina; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Agarwal, Arnav; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2016-08-10

    Conflicts of interest may bias the findings of systematic reviews. The objective of this methodological survey was to assess the frequency and different types of conflicts of interest that authors of Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews report. We searched for systematic reviews using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Ovid MEDLINE (limited to the 119 Core Clinical Journals and the year 2015). We defined a conflict of interest disclosure as the reporting of whether a conflict of interest exists or not, and used a framework to classify conflicts of interest into individual (financial, professional and intellectual) and institutional (financial and advocatory) conflicts of interest. We conducted descriptive and regression analyses. Of the 200 systematic reviews, 194 (97%) reported authors' conflicts of interest disclosures, typically in the main document, and in a few cases either online (2%) or on request (5%). Of the 194 Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews, 49% and 33%, respectively, had at least one author reporting any type of conflict of interest (p=0.023). Institutional conflicts of interest were less frequently reported than individual conflicts of interest, and Cochrane reviews were more likely to report individual intellectual conflicts of interest compared with non-Cochrane reviews (19% and 5%, respectively, p=0.004). Regression analyses showed a positive association between reporting of conflicts of interest (at least one type of conflict of interest, individual financial conflict of interest, institutional financial conflict of interest) and journal impact factor and between reporting individual financial conflicts of interest and pharmacological versus non-pharmacological intervention. Although close to half of the published systematic reviews report that authors (typically many) have conflicts of interest, more than half report that they do not. Authors reported individual conflicts of interest more frequently than institutional and

  8. Systematic Design Method and Experimental Validation of a 2-DOF Compliant Parallel Mechanism with Excellent Input and Output Decoupling Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The output and input coupling characteristics of the compliant parallel mechanism (CPM bring difficulty in the motion control and challenge its high performance and operational safety. This paper presents a systematic design method for a 2-degrees-of-freedom (DOFs CPM with excellent decoupling performance. A symmetric kinematic structure can guarantee a CPM with a complete output decoupling characteristic; input coupling is reduced by resorting to a flexure-based decoupler. This work discusses the stiffness design requirement of the decoupler and proposes a compound flexure hinge as its basic structure. Analytical methods have been derived to assess the mechanical performances of the CPM in terms of input and output stiffness, motion stroke, input coupling degree, and natural frequency. The CPM’s geometric parameters were optimized to minimize the input coupling while ensuring key performance indicators at the same time. The optimized CPM’s performances were then evaluated by using a finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was constructed and experimental validations were carried out to test the performance of the CPM and verify the effectiveness of the design method. The design procedure proposed in this paper is systematic and can be extended to design the CPMs with other types of motion.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of piracetam and piracetam-like compounds in experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheble, Philippa C R; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R

    2008-01-01

    Piracetam was a candidate neuroprotective drug for acute stroke ineffective in clinical trial. Here we use systematic review and meta-analysis to describe the evidence supporting a protective effect of piracetam and its derivatives in animal models of stroke. We present a systematic review of reports describing the use of piracetam and its derivatives in animal models of focal ischaemia, where the outcome was measured as an infarct size or neurological score (Der Simonian and Laird random effects meta-analysis). Only 2 studies, published 10 years after the first clinical trial of piracetam had been initiated, described its efficacy in animal models of stroke. A further 4 studies described the efficacy of related compounds. Piracetam and its derivatives improved the outcome by 30.2% (95% CI = 16.1-44.4). The median study quality was 4/10 (inter-quartile range = 4-6). Piracetam and its derivatives demonstrate neuroprotective efficacy in experimental stroke, but our findings raise concerns about the amount of available data, the quality of the studies and publication bias. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Acupuncture for neurogenesis in experimental ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Zhong, Linda L D; Chen, Zi-xian; Li, Yan; Zheng, Guo-qing; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2016-01-20

    Acupuncture has been used for patients with stroke and post-stroke rehabilitation for thousands of years. Previous studies reported that acupuncture enhanced stroke recovery through neurogenesis. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for preclinical studies to assess the current evidence for acupuncture effect on neurogenesis in treating ischaemic stroke. Studies were obtained from six databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP information database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Ultimately, 34 studies containing 1617 animals were identified. Neurogenesis markers of Brdu, Nestin, PSA-NCAM, NeuN and GFAP were selected as major outcomes. The pooled results of 15 studies marked with Brdu showed significant effects of acupuncture for improving proliferation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for increasing proliferation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for enhancing migration when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for stimulating differentiation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture is a prospective therapy targeting neurogenesis for ischemic stroke.

  11. Measuring nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation with molecules: Experimental methods and analysis of systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntaş, Emine; Ammon, Jeffrey; Cahn, Sidney B.; DeMille, David

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation (NSD-PV) effects in atoms and molecules arise from Z0 boson exchange between electrons and the nucleus and from the magnetic interaction between electrons and the parity-violating nuclear anapole moment. It has been proposed to study NSD-PV effects using an enhancement of the observable effect in diatomic molecules [D. DeMille et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023003 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.023003]. Here we demonstrate highly sensitive measurements of this type, using the test system 138Ba19F. We show that systematic errors associated with our technique can be suppressed to at least the level of the present statistical sensitivity. With ˜170 h of data, we measure the matrix element W of the NSD-PV interaction with uncertainty δ W /(2 π )<0.7 Hz for each of two configurations where W must have different signs. This sensitivity would be sufficient to measure NSD-PV effects of the size anticipated across a wide range of nuclei.

  12. Experimental and clinical assessment of three-dimensional cephalometry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smektała, T; Jędrzejewski, M; Szyndel, J; Sporniak-Tutak, K; Olszewski, R

    2014-12-01

    This study provides a systematic review of the current scientific literature on three-dimensional (3D) cephalometry. The null hypothesis was that 3D cephalometry is an accurate and reproducible diagnostic technique. To examine this hypothesis, the following three research questions were proposed: 1) What is the accuracy of 3D cephalometric measurements compared to in vitro measurements? 2) What is the intra- and inter-observer reliability of the selection of 3D cephalometric landmarks? 3) What is the reproducibility of the linear and angular measurements? A comprehensive database search was performed, using Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The titles and abstracts obtained from the search were screened and evaluated by two observers according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The evaluation process yielded 21 articles. A high level of agreement (cephalometry was observed and some landmarks provided highly reproducible results. However, the linear (0.04-7.49 mm) and angular (0.99-9.30°) measurements differed greatly. The null hypothesis was rejected. This study indicates critical points regarding 3D cephalometry and provides guidance for future research in this field. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic multiscale modeling and experimental approach to protect grain boundaries in magnesium alloys from corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstemeyer, Mark R. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Chaudhuri, Santanu [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A multiscale modeling Internal State Variable (ISV) constitutive model was developed that captures the fundamental structure-property relationships. The macroscale ISV model used lower length scale simulations (Butler-Volmer and Electronics Structures results) in order to inform the ISVs at the macroscale. The chemomechanical ISV model was calibrated and validated from experiments with magnesium (Mg) alloys that were investigated under corrosive environments coupled with experimental electrochemical studies. Because the ISV chemomechanical model is physically based, it can be used for other material systems to predict corrosion behavior. As such, others can use the chemomechanical model for analyzing corrosion effects on their designs.

  14. DOES AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING PROMOTE CHANGES IN STRUCTURAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TENDONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio A. Bezerra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To develop a systematic review to evaluate, through the best scientific evidence available, the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in improving the biomechanical characteristics of tendons in experimental animals. Two independent assessors conducted a systematic search in the databases Medline/PUBMED and Lilacs/BIREME, using the following descriptors of Mesh in animal models. The ultimate load of traction and the elastic modulus tendon were used as primary outcomes and transverse section area, ultimate stress and tendon strain as secondary outcomes. The assessment of risk of bias in the studies was carried out using the following methodological components: light/dark cycle, temperature, nutrition, housing, research undertaken in conjunction with an ethics committee, randomization, adaptation of the animals to the training and preparation for the mechanical test. Eight studies, comprising 384 animals, were selected; it was not possible to combine them into one meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of the samples. There was a trend to increasing ultimate load without changes in the other outcomes studied. Only one study met more than 80% of the quality criteria. Physical training performed in a structured way with imposition of overloads seems to be able to promote changes in tendon structure of experimental models by increasing the ultimate load supported. However, the results of the influence of exercise on the elastic modulus parameters, strain, transverse section area and ultimate stress, remain controversial and inconclusive. Such a conclusion must be evaluated with reservation as there was low methodological control in the studies included in this review.

  15. Gender role affects experimental pain responses: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabas, O A; Tashani, O A; Tabasam, G; Johnson, M I

    2012-10-01

    Gender role refers to the culturally and socially constructed meanings that describe how women and men should behave in certain situations according to feminine and masculine roles learned throughout life. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between gender role and experimental pain responses in healthy human participants. We searched computerized databases for studies published between January 1950 and May 2011 that had measured gender role in healthy human adults and pain response to noxious stimuli. Studies were entered into a meta-analysis if they calculated a correlation coefficient (r) for gender role and experimental pain. Searches yielded 4465 'hits' and 13 studies were eligible for review. Sample sizes were 67-235 participants and the proportion of female participants was 45-67%. Eight types of gender role instrument were used. Meta-analysis of six studies (406 men and 539 women) found a significant positive correlation between masculine and feminine personality traits and pain threshold and tolerance, with a small effect size (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Meta-analysis of four studies (263 men and 297 women) found a significant negative correlation between gender stereotypes specific to pain and pain threshold and tolerance, with a moderate effect size (r = -0.41, p Gender stereotypes specific to pain scales showed stronger associations with sex differences in pain sensitivity response than masculine and feminine personality trait scales. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  16. Pre-Survey Text Messages (SMS) Improve Participation Rate in an Australian Mobile Telephone Survey: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine Ruth; Campostrini, Stefano; Dollard, Maureen; Taylor, Anne Winifred

    2016-01-01

    Mobile telephone numbers are increasingly being included in household surveys samples. As approach letters cannot be sent because many do not have address details, alternatives approaches have been considered. This study assesses the effectiveness of sending a short message service (SMS) to a random sample of mobile telephone numbers to increase response rates. A simple random sample of 9000 Australian mobile telephone numbers: 4500 were randomly assigned to be sent a pre-notification SMS, and the remaining 4500 did not have a SMS sent. Adults aged 18 years and over, and currently in paid employment, were eligible to participate. American Association for Public Opinion Research formulas were used to calculated response cooperation and refusal rates. Response and cooperation rate were higher for the SMS groups (12.4% and 28.6% respectively) than the group with no SMS (7.7% and 16.0%). Refusal rates were lower for the SMS group (27.3%) than the group with no SMS (35.9%). When asked, 85.8% of the pre-notification group indicated they remembered receiving a SMS about the study. Sending a pre-notification SMS is effective in improving participation in population-based surveys. Response rates were increased by 60% and cooperation rates by 79%.

  17. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strömberg, Sten; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2 4 full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world

  18. Validity of tools used for surveying physicians about their interactions with pharmaceutical company: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Tamara; Morsi, Rami Z; Zmeter, Nada; Godah, Mohammad W; Alkhaled, Lina; Kahale, Lara A; Nass, Hala; Brax, Hneine; Fadlallah, Racha; Akl, Elie A

    2015-11-25

    There is evidence that physicians' prescription behavior is negatively affected by the extent of their interactions with pharmaceutical companies. In order to develop and implement policies and interventions for better management of interactions, we need to understand physicians' perspectives on this issue. Surveys addressing physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical companies need to use validated tools to ensure the validity of their findings. To assess the validity of tools used in surveys of physicians about the extent and nature of their interactions with pharmaceutical companies, and about their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards such interactions; and to identify those tools that have been formally validated. We developed a search strategy with the assistance of a medical librarian. We electronically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases in September 2015. Teams of two reviewers conducted data selection and data abstraction. They identified eligible studies in one table and then abstracted the relevant data from the studies with validated tools in another table. Tables were piloted and standardized. We identified one validated questionnaire out of the 11 assessing the nature and extent of the interaction, and three validated questionnaires out of the 47 assessing knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of physicians toward the interaction. None of these validated questionnaires were used in more than one survey. The available supporting evidence of the issue of physicians' interaction with pharmaceutical company is of low quality. There is a need for research to develop and validate tools to survey physicians about their interactions with pharmaceutical companies.

  19. JCMT SCUBA-Diving in Nearby Molecular Clouds: The Case for Large Systematic Surveys with FIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, D.

    2001-07-01

    Results from two sub-millimeter surveys of the nearby molecular clouds rho Oph, Taurus, Orion A and Orion B are presented. Combining large area (100's of square arc-minute) JCMT continuum emission images at 450 microns (8") and 850 microns (14"), sensitive to ~ 0.01 Msolar condensations, with molecular line data (CO isotopes, formaldehyde, etc.) allows for a glimpse into the physical properties of molecular clouds on small scales. Both barely resolved condensations and large scale features are visible in the maps, revealing the variety of dynamical events which operate in star forming regions. The important physics associated with these regions, as evidenced by the survey results, are discussed. Equilibrium Bonnor-Ebert models are fit to the compact clumps found in the dust continuum images in order to derive their physical properties - mass, temperature, and bounding pressure. The cumulative mass functions for the clumps in both Orion B and rho Oph are remarkably similar to the stellar IMF. The survey results are used to argue for a strong multi-wavelength and multi-instrument survey component to the FIRST mission in order to best unlock the secrets of star formation in molecular clouds.

  20. Prediction of postoperative pain: a systematic review of predictive experimental pain studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mjöbo, Helena N; Nielsen, Per R

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative testing of a patient's basal pain perception before surgery has the potential to be of clinical value if it can accurately predict the magnitude of pain and requirement of analgesics after surgery. This review includes 14 studies that have investigated the correlation between...... preoperative responses to experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain and demonstrates that the preoperative pain tests may predict 4-54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience depending on the stimulation methods and the test paradigm used. The predictive strength is much higher than...... previously reported for single factor analyses of demographics and psychologic factors. In addition, some of these studies indicate that an increase in preoperative pain sensitivity is associated with a high probability of development of sustained postsurgical pain....

  1. A systematic workflow process for heavy oil characterization : experimental techniques and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, A.I.; Gao, J.; Taylor, S.D.; Davies, T.L.; Jia, N. [Schlumberger, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Fluid characterization of heavy oil and bitumen is necessary when choosing the best extraction, production, and processing methods. High viscosity, low API, low saturation pressure, and low gas to oil ratios impose challenges in measuring fluid properties of heavy oil. This paper summarized the heavy oil fluid characterization technique that includes fluid sample handling, PVT analysis, fluid viscosity, emulsion and rheology, slow kinetics of gas evolution during constant composition expansion (CCE) experiments, solvent solubility, steam stripping, and high temperature vapor-liquid equilibrium of oil-solvent-steam systems. The paper also proposed a heavy oil characterization workflow to address a broad range of heavy oil production scenarios, including cold depletion, steam flow and heavy oil flow assurance. The workflow was based on various experimental techniques and challenges facing heavy oil sample preparation. Fluid property measurement requirements for each production technique were also compiled. 16 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Maximizing potential impact of experimental research into cognitive processes in health psychology: A systematic approach to material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia M; Gordon, Rola; Chalder, Trudie; Hirsch, Colette R; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2016-11-01

    There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours. However, to date, there has been no systematic approach to adapting existing experimental paradigms for use within physical health research. Many studies fail to report how materials were developed for the population of interest or have used untested materials developed ad hoc. The lack of protocol for developing stimuli specificity has contributed to large heterogeneity in methodologies and findings. In this article, we emphasize the need for standardized methods for stimuli development and replication in experimental work, particularly as it extends beyond its original anxiety and depression scope to other physical conditions. We briefly describe the paradigms commonly used to assess cognitive biases in attention and interpretation and then describe the steps involved in comprehensive/robust stimuli development for attention and interpretation paradigms using illustrative examples from two conditions: chronic fatigue syndrome and breast cancer. This article highlights the value of preforming rigorous stimuli development and provides tools to aid researchers engage in this process. We believe this work is worthwhile to establish a body of high-quality and replicable experimental research within the health psychology literature. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive

  3. A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Carroll, Scott; Fisher, Robert N.; Mesnick, Sarah L.; Owen, Megan A.; Saltz, David; St. Claire, Colleen Cassady; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of behavioral ecology in improving wildlife conservation and management has been the subject of much recent debate. We aim to answer two foundational questions about the current use of behavioral knowledge in conservation: 1. To what extent is behavioral knowledge used in wildlife conservation and management? 2. How does the use of behavior differ among conservation fields in both frequency and types of use? To answer these questions, we searched the literature for intersections between key fields of animal behavior and conservation biology and created a systematic ‘heat’ map to visualize relative efforts. Our analysis challenges previous suggestions that there is little association between the fields of behavioral ecology and conservation and reveals tremendous variation in the use of different behaviors in conservation. For instance, some behaviors, such as foraging and dispersal, are commonly considered, but other behaviors such as learning, social or anti-predatory behaviors are hardly considered. Our analysis suggests that in many cases awareness of the importance of behavior does not translate into applicable management tools. We recommend that researchers should focus on developing research in underutilized intersections of behavior and conservation themes for which preliminary work show a potential for improving conservation and management, on translating behavioral theory into applicable and testable predictions, and on creating systematic reviews to summarize the behavioral evidence within the behavior-conservation intersections for which many studies exist.

  4. Mapping extragalactic dark matter annihilation with galaxy surveys: A systematic study of stacked group searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2018-03-01

    Dark matter in the halos surrounding galaxy groups and clusters can annihilate to high-energy photons. Recent advancements in the construction of galaxy group catalogs provide many thousands of potential extragalactic targets for dark matter. In this paper, we outline a procedure to infer the dark matter signal associated with a given galaxy group. Applying this procedure to a catalog of sources, one can create a full-sky map of the brightest extragalactic dark matter targets in the nearby Universe (z ≲0.03 ), supplementing sources of dark matter annihilation from within the local group. As with searches for dark matter in dwarf galaxies, these extragalactic targets can be stacked together to enhance the signals associated with dark matter. We validate this procedure on mock Fermi gamma-ray data sets using a galaxy catalog constructed from the DarkSky N -body cosmological simulation and demonstrate that the limits are robust, at O (1 ) levels, to systematic uncertainties on halo mass and concentration. We also quantify other sources of systematic uncertainty arising from the analysis and modeling assumptions. Our results suggest that a stacking analysis using galaxy group catalogs provides a powerful opportunity to discover extragalactic dark matter and complements existing studies of Milky Way dwarf galaxies.

  5. Effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andréia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-09-01

    Increased acute anxiety is a commonly reported behavioral consequence of sleep deprivation in humans. However, rodent studies conducted so far produced inconsistent results, failing to reproduce the same sleep deprivation induced-anxiety observed in clinical experiments. While some presented anxiogenesis as result of sleep deprivation, others reported anxiolysis. In face of such inconsistencies, this article explores the effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research through a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses. A total of 50 of articles met our inclusion criteria, 30 on mice, 19 on rats and one on Zebrafish. Our review shows that sleep deprivation induces a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in preclinical models, which is opposite to results observed in human settings. These results were corroborated in stratified analyses according to species, sleep deprivation method and anxiety measurement technique. In conclusion, the use of animal models for the evaluation of the relationship between sleep deprivation lacks translational applicability and new experimental tools are needed to properly evaluate sleep deprivation-induced anxiogenesis in rodents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can migraine aura be provoked experimentally? A systematic review of potential methods for the provocation of migraine aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Marianne; Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-01-01

    Background The nature of the migraine aura and its role in migraine pathophysiology is incompletely understood. In particular, the mechanisms underlying aura initiation and the causal relation between aura and headache are unknown. The scientific investigation of aura in patients is only possible if aura can be triggered. This paper reviews potential methods for the experimental provocation of migraine aura. Methods We systematically searched PubMed for studies of experimental migraine provocation, including case reports of patients with aura and reports of the occurrence of aura following exposure to any kind of suspected trigger. Results We identified 21 provocation studies, using 13 different prospective provocation methods, and 34 case reports. In the prospective studies, aura were reported following the administration of intravenous and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate, visual stimulation, physical activity, calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion, chocolate ingestion, and the intravenous injection of insulin. In addition, carotid artery puncture has consistently been reported as a trigger of aura. Conclusions No safe and efficient method for aura provocation exists at present, but several approaches could prove useful for this purpose.

  7. The first systematic experimentation in music therapy: the genius of James Leonard Corning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William B

    2012-01-01

    The development of music therapy in the United States prior to 1950 has a fascinating but not well known history. The present study illuminates the music therapy research of James Leonard Corning (1855-1923), a prominent neurologist practicing during the late nineteenth-century in New York City. The purpose of this study was to provide biographical information and description of a series of music therapy experiments conducted by Corning. His 1899 article appearing in the Medical Record: A Weekly Journal of Medicine and Surgery summarized a series of inventive experiments using music to affect emotional states in people with mild behavioral-emotional and sleep disorders. Information was analyzed using a set of primary and secondary sources from contemporaneous books, newspapers and journals. These sources provided biographical information and insight into his experimental methods. Recent sources provided a framework to help understand his conclusions from the viewpoint of late nineteenth-century physicians and for current practitioners of music therapy. Findings indicate that Corning's rationale for using music, visual figures and, occasional medication in the treatment of behavioral-emotional disorders was successful in influencing feelings and emotions in a positive way. He believed that during pre-sleep and sleep, cognitive processes became dormant, allowing the penetration of "musical vibrations" into the subconscious eliminating morbid thoughts that plagued his patients. Understanding Corning's contributions to music therapy will assist contemporary educators and therapists to better understand the impact of early contributions to music therapy by late nineteenth-century practitioners such as Corning.

  8. Adakite Induced Metasomatism of the Mantle Wedge: a Systematic Experimental Study at 1.6 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, R. P.; Laporte, D.; Martin, H.

    2005-12-01

    In order to better understand the origin and nature of the slab-derived agent in subduction zones, and how the arc geochemical signature is imparted to the mantle wedge, it is necessary to have specific geochemical parameters to differentiate between fluids and partial melts generated by dehydration of the crustal component (MORB) of the downgoing oceanic lithosphere. ``Adakite'' magmatism in subduction zones is generally attributed to partial melting of basaltic oceanic crust during prograde metamorphism and dehydration of the subducting slab. In this study, we focus on adakites or ``slab melts'' as the agent of metasomatism of the overlying mantle wedge, armed beforehand with relatively comprehensive major- and trace-element constraints on the geochemical nature of these melts from our previous work. We have conducted a series of melt-rock reaction experiments in the piston-cylinder apparatus at 1.6 GPa and temperatures of 1000-1250°C in which we systematically vary the proportion of adakite melt relative to mantle peridotite. Our starting materials consist of mechanical mixtures of an adakite glass containing ~8 wt% H2O (pre-hydrated in an internally-heated pressure vessel at 900°C and 2.5 kbar for 3-4 hours), and a natural depleted peridotite powder made from a xenolith from the Kamchatkan sub-arc mantle. Experiments were conducted in thick-walled, pressure-welded gold capsules at temperatures below 1100°C, and in Ag-Pd capsules at higher temeperatures; the adakite melt:peridotite rock ratio has been varied from 2:1 to 1:4, with the mixtures allowed to equilibrate over the course of 5-10 days, depending on run temperature. Our results indicate that the reaction between adakite melt and peridotite is dominated by the consumption of olivine and crystallization of orthopyroxene and amphibole, and takes the general form: melts1 (pristine adakite) + olivine 0 melt2 (hybridized adakite) + orthopyroxene + amphibole. The chemical characteristics of metasomatic

  9. Gene therapy for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity: a systematic review of in vitro and experimental animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waissbluth, Sofia; Pitaro, Jacob; Daniel, Sam J

    2012-04-01

    Ototoxicity is a frequent adverse event of cisplatin treatment. No therapy is currently available for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. A systematic review of experimental animal studies and in vitro experiments was conducted to evaluate gene therapy as a potential future therapeutic option. Eligible studies were identified through searches of electronic databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PubMed, Biosis Previews, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. Articles obtained from the search were independently reviewed by 2 authors using specific criteria to identify experimental animal studies and in vitro experiments conducted to evaluate gene therapy for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. No restriction was applied to publication dates or languages. Data extracted included experiment type, cell type, species, targeted gene, gene expression, method, administration, inner ear site evaluated, outcome measures for cytotoxicity, and significant results. Fourteen articles were included in this review. In vitro and in vivo experiments have been performed to evaluate the potential of gene expression manipulation for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Twelve different genes were targeted including NTF3, GDNF, HO-1, XIAP, Trpv1, BCL2, Otos, Nfe2l2, Nox1, Nox3, Nox4, and Ctr1. All of the included articles demonstrated a benefit of gene therapy on cytotoxicity caused by cisplatin. Experimental animal studies and in vitro experiments have demonstrated the efficacy of gene therapy for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. However, further investigation regarding safety, immunogenicity, and consequences of genetic manipulation in the inner ear tissues must be completed to develop future therapeutic options.

  10. A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T; Carroll, Scott; Fisher, Robert N; Mesnick, Sarah L; Owen, Megan A; Saltz, David; St Claire, Colleen Cassady; Swaisgood, Ronald R

    2016-08-01

    The role of behavioral ecology in improving wildlife conservation and management has been the subject of much recent debate. We sought to answer 2 foundational questions about the current use of behavioral knowledge in conservation: To what extent is behavioral knowledge used in wildlife conservation and management, and how does the use of animal behavior differ among conservation fields in both frequency and types of use? We searched the literature for intersections between key fields of animal behavior and conservation and created a systematic heat map (i.e., graphical representation of data where values are represented as colors) to visualize relative efforts. Some behaviors, such as dispersal and foraging, were commonly considered (mean [SE] of 1147.38 [353.11] and 439.44 [108.85] papers per cell, respectively). In contrast, other behaviors, such as learning, social, and antipredatory behaviors were rarely considered (mean [SE] of 33.88 [7.62], 44.81 [10.65], and 22.69 [6.37] papers per cell, respectively). In many cases, awareness of the importance of behavior did not translate into applicable management tools. Our results challenge previous suggestions that there is little association between the fields of behavioral ecology and conservation and reveals tremendous variation in the use of different behaviors in conservation. We recommend that researchers focus on examining underutilized intersections of behavior and conservation themes for which preliminary work shows a potential for improving conservation and management, translating behavioral theory into applicable and testable predictions, and creating systematic reviews to summarize the behavioral evidence within the behavior-conservation intersections for which many studies exist. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Do nurses have a different physical health profile? A systematic review of experimental and observational studies on nurses' physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    To review the evidence on nurses' health systematically. Nurses are one of the most important resources of a health system. They are subjected to biological, socio-economic, cultural and health system factors that determine their health. Although mental and physical health problems seem to prevail among nurses, literature is often contradictory. The literature on health styles, health behaviours and self perceived health of nurses is also unclear. Systematic review of experimental and observational studies on nurses' health. Forty-three databases searched. 2692 references identified as of potential interest; 187 studies included. Only the results from studies on physical health are presented. No meta-analysis was possible. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network system was used to rate evidence. Nurses were at greater risk of musculoskeletal injuries and more prone to blood-borne pathogens infections than other health care workers. They were at greater risk of breast cancer than other female health care workers. Nurses in hospitals were more at risk of tuberculosis. They did not have excess risk of cancer in general, Hodgkin's disease, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreatic, ovary, kidney, brain or thyroid cancer or of lymphosarcoma. They have a higher prevalence of occupational allergies than clerical workers. Nurses suffer more from musculoskeletal disorders which is consistent with the nature of nursing work. They are at greater risk of acquiring tuberculosis, particularly if they work in pulmonary, medicine or Human Immunodeficiency Virus wards which might be due to repeated contact with infected patients. Nurses are also more prone to blood-borne pathogens infections which might be explained by exposure while working. The proneness to occupational allergies can be explained by exposure to a series of chemical agents. Without sound knowledge on nurses' health and it is not possible to develop specific occupational health programmes. © 2011 Blackwell

  12. Anatomicosurgical segmentectomy of the left ventricle for systematized partial resection of the heart: an experimental study

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    Liberato John Alphonse DI DIO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A surgical experimental investigation is being carried out in an attempt to provide a viable alternative to the current approaches to cardiac resection of the left ventricular myocardium in cases of cardiomyopathies with dilated ventricle. The experiments are based upon the presence of anatomicosurgical segments in the dog's heart similar to those existing in the atria and ventricles of humans. So far three mongrel dogs (weight 15 kg were submitted to cardiac catheterism to evaluate the anatomy of the coronary arteries and their branches, the function and cavity of the left ventricle (LV. A lateral thoracotomy on the left side was performed to expose the heart. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB of each animal was established through the right atrium and the femoral artery (4 mg/kg Heparin, at 32°C, intermittent aorta cross-clamping. The left marginal artery and veins were ligated, causing an area of acute myocardial infarction, showing well-defined sharp limits. Such an area was then resected and the left ventricle was reconstructed. The animals were weaned from CPB, one dog having remained in a stable condition during a 7-day period of observation. The second was sacrificed after 4-day period of observation and the third dog died four hours after CPB owing to an excessive reduction of the LV chamber related to an anatomical variation. Pre and post operation transthoracic echocardiograms were obtained after undergoing cardiac catheterism. The echocardiogram revealed discrete mitral insufficiency, reduction of the diameter of the left ventricle with approximation of the papillary muscles, a dysfunction and an impressive reduction of the cavity of the left ventricle. Peri-sutural areas of infarction were not observed. The orientation given by the anatomicosurgical segmentation of the coronary circulation is an important alternative to the present surgical treatment of cardiomyopathies with dilated ventricle.Uma investigação experimental cir

  13. A core outcome set for neonatal abstinence syndrome: study protocol for a systematic review, parent interviews and a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren E; Jansson, Lauren M; Moulsdale, Wendy; Pereira, Jodi; Simpson, Sarah; Guttman, Astrid; Allegaert, Karel; Askie, Lisa; Roukema, Henry; Lacaze, Thierry; Davis, Jonathan M; Finnegan, Loretta; Williamson, Paula; Offringa, Martin

    2016-11-08

    The prevalence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is increasing globally resulting in an increased incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes and health system costs. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of NAS prevention and management strategies is very weak and further research initiatives are critically needed to support meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines. In NAS research, the choice of outcomes and the use of valid, responsive and feasible measurement instruments are crucial. There is currently no consensus and evidence-based core outcome set (COS) for NAS. The development of the NAS-COS will include five stages led by an international Multidisciplinary Steering Committee: (1) qualitative interviews with parents/families and a systematic review (SR) to identify items for inclusion in a COS. The SR will also identify participants for the Delphi survey, (2) a three-round Delphi survey to gain expert opinion on the importance of health outcomes influencing NAS management decisions, (3), a consensus meeting to finalize the items and definitions with experts and COS users, (4) feasibility and pilot testing, development of the COS and explanatory document and (5) implementation planning. Since standardized outcome measurement and reporting will improve NAS clinical research consistency, efficacy and impact, this COS will reflect the minimum set of health outcomes which should be measured in trials evaluating interventions for preventing or treating NAS.

  14. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wright, Courtney J; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-03-15

    Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique) and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment) methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc.) in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group) will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group) will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations). Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions) to be tested. It is anticipated that the findings of this study will enable stakeholders to incorporate consumer housing

  15. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Zeeman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. Methods/Design This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc. in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations. Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions to be tested. Discussion It is anticipated that the findings of this study

  16. Longitudinal control behaviour: Analysis and modelling based on experimental surveys in Italy and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariota, Luigi; Bifulco, Gennaro Nicola; Galante, Francesco; Montella, Alfonso; Brackstone, Mark

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses driving behaviour in car-following conditions, based on extensive individual vehicle data collected during experimental field surveys carried out in Italy and the UK. The aim is to contribute to identify simple evidence to be exploited in the ongoing process of driving assistance and automation which, in turn, would reduce rear-end crashes. In particular, identification of differences and similarities in observed car-following behaviours for different samples of drivers could justify common tuning, at a European or worldwide level, of a technological solution aimed at active safety, or, in the event of differences, could suggest the most critical aspects to be taken into account for localisation or customisation of driving assistance solutions. Without intending to be exhaustive, this paper moves one step in this direction. Indeed, driving behaviour and human errors are considered to be among the main crash contributory factors, and a promising approach for safety improvement is the progressive introduction of increasing levels of driving automation in next-generation vehicles, according to the active/preventive safety approach. However, the more advanced the system, the more complex will be the integration in the vehicle, and the interaction with the driver may sometimes become unproductive, or risky, should the driver be removed from the driving control loop. Thus, implementation of these systems will require the interaction of human driving logics with automation logics and then an enhanced ability in modelling drivers' behaviour. This will allow both higher active-safety levels and higher user acceptance to be achieved, thus ensuring that the driver is always in the control loop, even if his/her role is limited to supervising the automatic logic. Currently, the driving mode most targeted by driving assistance systems is longitudinal driving. This is required in various driving conditions, among which car-following assumes key importance

  17. A Genomic Encyclopedia of the Root Nodule Bacteria: assessing genetic diversity through a systematic biogeographic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Eshragi, Leila; Yoon, Je Won; Ngamwisetkun, Pinyaruk; Seshadri, Rekha; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    Root nodule bacteria are free-living soil bacteria, belonging to diverse genera within the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, that have the capacity to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with legumes. The symbiosis is specific and is governed by signaling molecules produced from both host and bacteria. Sequencing of several model RNB genomes has provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of symbiosis. However, the small number of sequenced RNB genomes available does not currently reflect the phylogenetic diversity of RNB, or the variety of mechanisms that lead to symbiosis in different legume hosts. This prevents a broad understanding of symbiotic interactions and the factors that govern the biogeography of host-microbe symbioses. Here, we outline a proposal to expand the number of sequenced RNB strains, which aims to capture this phylogenetic and biogeographic diversity. Through the Vavilov centers of diversity (Proposal ID: 231) and GEBA-RNB (Proposal ID: 882) projects we will sequence 107 RNB strains, isolated from diverse legume hosts in various geographic locations around the world. The nominated strains belong to nine of the 16 currently validly described RNB genera. They include 13 type strains, as well as elite inoculant strains of high commercial importance. These projects will strongly support systematic sequence-based studies of RNB and contribute to our understanding of the effects of biogeography on the evolution of different species of RNB, as well as the mechanisms that determine the specificity and effectiveness of nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by RNB with diverse legume hosts.

  18. Survey on drug use among high school students: A systematic review

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    Clamarta Pasuch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments with drugs often occur in adolescence, in familiar surroundings, with legal substances such as alcohol and tobacco. Data indicate that adolescence is a phase of exposure and vulnerability to substance use. Objective: To determine the prevalence of drug use among high school students. Method: Systematic review. Results: We found 184 articles, and according to the exclusion criteria, 13 articles were adopted: 3 that address the theme in the South, one in the Northeast, one in the North, and the 8 in the Southeastern Brazilian regions. Discussion: We noticed a growth in drug use among adolescent students in the 13 articles examined. Research reveals significant increase in lifetime use, frequent use and heavy use of various drugs. We found that students have early contact with psychoactive substances, using them in large quantities, whether legal such as alcohol and tobacco, or illicit drugs like marijuana and solvents. The most important variable for this behavior was curiosity. Conclusion: There is an increase in substance use among high school students. Approaching the subject in schools is the best way to prevent drug use.

  19. A Systematic Meta-Survey of High Redshift Quasars Probing their Environments and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeille, Doug B. P.

    We have constructed a meta-survey of 298 quasars in the window from 7 to 17.5 hours in right ascension and 0 to 65 degrees in declination. These quasars span three decades of total power and redshifts from 0.158 to 5.284. All sources had a flux density of greater than 70 mJy at 1.4 GHz. At redshifts z > 2.5 our sample is complete. It is also complete for z 1027.55 W/Hz. Our quasar sample is built from archival Very Large Array (VLA) observations, as well as three observations in 2007 and 2008. This sample represents one of the most complete meta-surveys to date of the high redshift universe. In the 1980's, two competing groups (Ne, Gower and Hutchings, and Barthel, Miley, and Lonsdale) investigated the high redshift universe, seeking to investigate the dependence of largest linear size (LLS) and bending angles on redshift, core power, and extended power. Using our sample we test the differing results of these groups and build our own model of source evolution with redshift and power. We also seek a relationship between bending angles and core dominance, modeling this dependence on the thoughts of Orr & Browne showing that projected bending angles grow as the angle to the line of sight approaches the intrinsic bending angle of the quasar. We will also present an additional component of our high redshift quasar observations seeking arcsecond scale jets to be observed with the space based Chandra x-ray telescope. These observations will be used to investigate the nature of x-ray emission from the knots of kiloparsec jets in the high redshift universe.

  20. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Carroll, Judith E

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammatory disease risk and all-cause mortality. Here, we assess global evidence linking sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation in adult humans. A systematic search of English language publications was performed, with inclusion of primary research articles that characterized sleep disturbance and/or sleep duration or performed experimental sleep deprivation and assessed inflammation by levels of circulating markers. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled using a random effect model. A total of 72 studies (n > 50,000) were analyzed with assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Sleep disturbance was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .12; 95% CI = .05-.19) and IL-6 (ES .20; 95% CI = .08-.31). Shorter sleep duration, but not the extreme of short sleep, was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .09; 95% CI = .01-.17) but not IL-6 (ES .03; 95% CI: -.09 to .14). The extreme of long sleep duration was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .17; 95% CI = .01-.34) and IL-6 (ES .11; 95% CI = .02-20). Neither sleep disturbances nor sleep duration was associated with TNFα. Neither experimental sleep deprivation nor sleep restriction was associated with CRP, IL-6, or TNFα. Some heterogeneity among studies was found, but there was no evidence of publication bias. Sleep disturbance and long sleep duration, but not short sleep duration, are associated with increases in markers of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A systematic survey of expression and function of zebrafish frizzled genes.

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    Masataka Nikaido

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling is crucial for the regulation of numerous processes in development. Consistent with this, the gene families for both the ligands (Wnts and receptors (Frizzleds are very large. Surprisingly, while we have a reasonable understanding of the Wnt ligands likely to mediate specific Wnt-dependent processes, the corresponding receptors usually remain to be elucidated. Taking advantage of the zebrafish model's excellent genomic and genetic properties, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the expression patterns of frizzled (fzd genes in zebrafish. To explore their functions, we focused on testing their requirement in several developmental events known to be regulated by Wnt signaling, convergent extension movements of gastrulation, neural crest induction, and melanocyte specification. We found fourteen distinct fzd genes in the zebrafish genome. Systematic analysis of their expression patterns between 1-somite and 30 hours post-fertilization revealed complex, dynamic and overlapping expression patterns. This analysis demonstrated that only fzd3a, fzd9b, and fzd10 are expressed in the dorsal neural tube at stages corresponding to the timing of melanocyte specification. Surprisingly, however, morpholino knockdown of these, alone or in combination, gave no indication of reduction of melanocytes, suggesting the important involvement of untested fzds or another type of Wnt receptor in this process. Likewise, we found only fzd7b and fzd10 expressed at the border of the neural plate at stages appropriate for neural crest induction. However, neural crest markers were not reduced by knockdown of these receptors. Instead, these morpholino knockdown studies showed that fzd7a and fzd7b work co-operatively to regulate convergent extension movement during gastrulation. Furthermore, we show that the two fzd7 genes function together with fzd10 to regulate epiboly movements and mesoderm differentiation.

  2. The educational effects of mobile learning on students of medical sciences: A systematic review in experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Hamid Reza; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran; Fata, Ladan; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2018-04-01

    The demand for mobile learning in the medical science educational program is increasing. The present review study gathers evidence highlighted by the experimental studies on the educational effects of mobile learning for medical science students. The study was carried out as a systematic literature search published from 2007 to July 2017 in the databases PubMed/Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters) , Educational Resources and Information Center (ERIC), EMBASE (Elsevier), Cochrane library, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. To examine quality of the articles, a tool validated by the BEME Review was employed. Totally, 21 papers entered the study. Three main themes emerged from the content of papers: (1) improvement in student clinical competency and confidence, (2) acquisition and enhancing of students' theoretical knowledge, and (3) students' positive attitudes to and perception of mobile learning. Level 2B of Kirkpatrick hierarchy had been examined by all the papers and seven of them had reported two or more outcome levels, but level 4 was not reported in the papers. Our review showed that the students of medical sciences had positive response and attitudes to mobile learning. Moreover, implementation of mobile learning in medical sciences program might lead to valuable educational benefits and improve clinical competence and confidence along with theoretical knowledge, attitudes, and perception of mobile learning. The results indicated that mobile learning strategy in medical education can positively affect learning in all three domains of Bloom's Taxonomy.

  3. Effect of a high-fat diet and alcohol on cutaneous repair: A systematic review of murine experimental models.

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    Daiane Figueiredo Rosa

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol intake associated with an inappropriate diet can cause lesions in multiple organs and tissues and complicate the tissue repair process. In a systematic review, we analyzed the relevance of alcohol and high fat consumption to cutaneous and repair, compared the main methodologies used and the most important parameters tested. Preclinical investigations with murine models were assessed to analyze whether the current evidence support clinical trials.The studies were selected from MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases, according to Fig 1. All 15 identified articles had their data extracted. The reporting bias was investigated according to the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of in Vivo Experiments strategy.In general, animals offered a high-fat diet and alcohol showed decreased cutaneous wound closure, delayed skin contraction, chronic inflammation and incomplete re-epithelialization.In further studies, standardized experimental design is needed to establish comparable study groups and advance the overall knowledge background, facilitating data translatability from animal models to human clinical conditions.

  4. A veritable menagerie of heritable bacteria from ants, butterflies, and beyond: broad molecular surveys and a systematic review.

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    Jacob A Russell

    Full Text Available Maternally transmitted bacteria have been important players in the evolution of insects and other arthropods, affecting their nutrition, defense, development, and reproduction. Wolbachia are the best studied among these and typically the most prevalent. While several other bacteria have independently evolved a heritable lifestyle, less is known about their host ranges. Moreover, most groups of insects have not had their heritable microflora systematically surveyed across a broad range of their taxonomic diversity. To help remedy these shortcomings we used diagnostic PCR to screen for five groups of heritable symbionts-Arsenophonus spp., Cardinium hertigii, Hamiltonella defensa, Spiroplasma spp., and Wolbachia spp.-across the ants and lepidopterans (focusing, in the latter case, on two butterfly families-the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae. We did not detect Cardinium or Hamiltonella in any host. Wolbachia were the most widespread, while Spiroplasma (ants and lepidopterans and Arsenophonus (ants only were present at low levels. Co-infections with different Wolbachia strains appeared especially common in ants and less so in lepidopterans. While no additional facultative heritable symbionts were found among ants using universal bacterial primers, microbes related to heritable enteric bacteria were detected in several hosts. In summary, our findings show that Wolbachia are the dominant heritable symbionts of ants and at least some lepidopterans. However, a systematic review of symbiont frequencies across host taxa revealed that this is not always the case across other arthropods. Furthermore, comparisons of symbiont frequencies revealed that the prevalence of Wolbachia and other heritable symbionts varies substantially across lower-level arthropod taxa. We discuss the correlates, potential causes, and implications of these patterns, providing hypotheses on host attributes that may shape the distributions of these influential bacteria.

  5. Systematic instruction of assistive technology for cognition (ATC) in an employment setting following acquired brain injury: A single case, experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Laurie E; Glang, Ann; Pinkelman, Sarah; Albin, Richard; Harwick, Robin; Ettel, Deborah; Wild, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) can be an effective means of compensating for cognitive impairments following acquired brain injury. Systematic instruction is an evidence-based approach to training a variety of skills and strategies, including the use of ATC. This study experimentally evaluated systematic instruction applied to assistive technology for cognition (ATC) in a vocational setting. The study used a single-case, multiple-probe design across behaviors design. The participant was a 50-year old female with cognitive impairments following an acquired brain injury (ABI). As a part-time employee, she was systematically instructed on how to operate and routinely use selected applications (apps) on her iPod Touch to support three work-related skills: (a) recording/recalling the details of work assignments, (b) recording/recalling work-related meetings and conversations, and (c) recording/performing multi-step technology tasks. The experimental intervention was systematic instruction applied to ATC. The dependent measures were: (a) the use of ATC at work as measured by an ATC routine task analysis; and (b) recall of work-related tasks and information. Treatment effects were replicated across the three work-related skills and were maintained up to one year following the completion of intensive training across behaviors with periodic review (booster sessions). Systematic instruction is a critical component to teaching the routine use of ATC to compensate for cognitive impairments following ABI.

  6. The current provision of community-based teaching in UK medical schools: an online survey and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors' knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for 'Tomorrow's Doctors', a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed in a consistent and comprehensive way. However, a weakness is that data from the online survey was obtained from

  7. The current provision of community-based teaching in UK medical schools: an online survey and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. Design and data sources An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Study selection Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Results Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors’ knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Conclusions Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for ‘Tomorrow's Doctors’, a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. Strengths and limitations of this study This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed

  8. A Systematic Mid-Infrared Survey of A Sample of Tidal Disruption Events Discovered by ZTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Van, Sjoert; Kulkarni, Shri; Kasliwal, Mansi; Gezari, Suvi; Cenko, Brad; Blagorodnova, Nadia; Hung, Tiara

    2017-12-01

    Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) saw its first light (press release on Nov 14, 2017) and is currently in the commissioning phase. The science operation is scheduled to start on Feb 1, 2018. Based on the data from Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), ZTF is expected to discover 30 new tidal disruption events (TDE) in the centers of galaxies containing supermassive blackholes. TDEs are rare transient events, and have only been discovered in recent years by large area transient surveys. Observations of optically discovered TDEs appear to show common characteristics, including blackbody temperatures of a few 10,000K, derived bolometric peak luminosities of several 10^43 - 10^44 erg/s, and photospheric radius of 10^15 - 10^16 cm. These properties are in conflict with the classic TDE model predictions, which suggest an order of magnitude higher temperature and peak luminosity. One proposed explanation is the possible existence of a reprocessing gas layer which absorbs X-ray, UV/optical photons and produces a cooler spectral energy distribution (SED). So far, there are only two published mid-IR light curves of TDEs, each with two epochal data. To solve this mystery, we require higher cadence Spitzer observations of a sample of uniformly selected TDEs. Next year is the only opportunity to obtain the critical observations because Spitzer is expected to operate only to March 2019. We request 24.1 hours of Spitzer time to observe 7 ZTF TDEs. This will produce a unique legacy dataset for many future studies of physics of TDEs.

  9. Experimental Study on Electrode Method for Electrical Resistivity Survey to Detect Cavities under Road Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Seon Park; Jin-Hoon Jeong; Hae-Won Park; Kyoungchul Kim

    2017-01-01

    There are two types of electrode methods for electrical resistivity survey (ERS): the pole electrode method (PEM) and flat electrode method (FEM). During the past few decades, most studies were conducted by using PEM for various purposes while only a few were conducted by using FEM. Laboratory and field experiments were performed in this study to investigate the advantage of FEM in detecting cavities under pavements. In the laboratory experiment, the results of PEM and FEM were compared graph...

  10. Rat an experimental model for burns: A systematic review Rato como modelo experimental de queimadura: Revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Kiyoshi Mitsunaga Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To revise and systematize scientific knowledge of the experimental model for cutaneous burns in rats. METHODS: A bibliographical review from 2008 up to January 2011 in PubMed, EMBASE and LILACS was undertaken. Were used the keywords: animal models, burns and rats. 221 studies were identified, and 116 were selected. RESULTS: It was found that: 54/86 (62.7% had third degree burns; 55/73 (75.3% studied the back; 45/78 (57.6% used heated water and 27/78 (35.9% incandescent instruments; 39/78 (50% studied systemic effects; 22/71 (31% used ketamine associated with xylazine; 61/64 (95.3% performed depilation with appropriate equipment; 36/72 (50% used microscopy; more than 50% did not describe analgesia or antibiotics during the postoperative period; in 42/116 (36.2% postoperative fluid therapy was performed; and the time interval after the burn, up to the beginning of the results analysis varied from 7s up to four weeks. Legislation issues on burn experiments are discussed. CONCLUSION: The hot water was the main method to induce burns those of third degree on the back, with anesthesia using ketamine and xylazine, after depilation. These were evaluated microscopically, without using analgesia or an antibiotic during the postoperative period. The studies were not very reproducible.OBJETIVO: Revisar e sistematizar o conhecimento científico do modelo experimental em queimadura da pele em ratos. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura foi realizada de 2008 a Janeiro de 2011 na PubMed, EMBASE e LILACS. Os descritores usados foram: modelo animal, queimadura e ratos. 221 estudos foram identificados e 116 foram selecionados. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrado que: 54/86 (62,7% tinham queimadura de terceiro grau; 55/73 (75,3% estudaram o dorso; 45/78 (57.6% usaram líquido aquecido e 27/78 (35,9% usaram instrumento incandescente; 39/78 (50% estudaram efeitos sistêmicos; 22/71 (31% usaram ketamina associada a xilazina; 61/64 (95,3% realizaram depilação com

  11. A systematic survey of the response of a model NF-κB signalling pathway to TNFα stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunjiao; Paszek, Pawel; Horton, Caroline A; Yue, Hong; White, Michael R H; Kell, Douglas B; Muldoon, Mark R; Broomhead, David S

    2012-03-21

    White's lab established that strong, continuous stimulation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) can induce sustained oscillations in the subcellular localisation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). But the intensity of the TNFα signal varies substantially, from picomolar in the blood plasma of healthy organisms to nanomolar in diseased states. We report on a systematic survey using computational bifurcation theory to explore the relationship between the intensity of TNFα stimulation and the existence of sustained NF-κB oscillations. Using a deterministic model developed by Ashall et al. in 2009, we find that the system's responses to TNFα are characterised by a supercritical Hopf bifurcation point: above a critical intensity of TNFα the system exhibits sustained oscillations in NF-kB localisation. For TNFα below this critical value, damped oscillations are observed. This picture depends, however, on the values of the model's other parameters. When the values of certain reaction rates are altered the response of the signalling pathway to TNFα stimulation changes: in addition to the sustained oscillations induced by high-dose stimulation, a second oscillatory regime appears at much lower doses. Finally, we define scores to quantify the sensitivity of the dynamics of the system to variation in its parameters and use these scores to establish that the qualitative dynamics are most sensitive to the details of NF-κB mediated gene transcription. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ morphometric survey elucidates the evolutionary systematics of the Eurasian Himantoglossum clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade. Methods Between one and 12 plants found in 25 populations that encompassed the entire distribution of the Himantoglossum s.l. clade were measured in situ for 51 morphological characters. Results for 45 of those characters were subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses. Key Results Multivariate analyses readily separate subgenus Barlia and subgenus Comperia from subgenus Himantoglossum, and also the early-divergent H. formosum from the less divergent remainder of subgenus Himantoglossum. The sequence of divergence of these four lineages is confidently resolved. Our experimental approach to morphometric character analysis demonstrates clearly that phenotypic evolution within Himantoglossum is unusually multi-dimensional. Conclusions Degrees of divergence between taxa shown by morphological analyses approximate those previously shown using molecular analyses. Himantoglossum s.l. is readily divisible into three subgenera. The three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum—hircinum, caprinum and formosum—are arrayed from west to east with only limited geographical overlap. At this taxonomic level, their juxtaposition combines with conflict between contrasting datasets to complicate attempts to distinguish between clinal variation and the discontinuities that by definition separate bona fide species. All taxa achieve allogamy via food deceit and have only weak pollinator specificity

  13. The use of data from national and other large-scale user experience surveys in local quality work: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugum, Mona; Danielsen, Kirsten; Iversen, Hilde Hestad; Bjertnaes, Oyvind

    2014-12-01

    An important goal for national and large-scale surveys of user experiences is quality improvement. However, large-scale surveys are normally conducted by a professional external surveyor, creating an institutionalized division between the measurement of user experiences and the quality work that is performed locally. The aim of this study was to identify and describe scientific studies related to the use of national and large-scale surveys of user experiences in local quality work. Ovid EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Scientific publications about user experiences and satisfaction about the extent to which data from national and other large-scale user experience surveys are used for local quality work in the health services. Themes of interest were identified and a narrative analysis was undertaken. Thirteen publications were included, all differed substantially in several characteristics. The results show that large-scale surveys of user experiences are used in local quality work. The types of follow-up activity varied considerably from conducting a follow-up analysis of user experience survey data to information sharing and more-systematic efforts to use the data as a basis for improving the quality of care. This review shows that large-scale surveys of user experiences are used in local quality work. However, there is a need for more, better and standardized research in this field. The considerable variation in follow-up activities points to the need for systematic guidance on how to use data in local quality work. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  14. Implementation and experimental survey of passive design specifications used in new low-cost housing under tropical climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, F.; Adelard, L.; Boyer, H. [Universite de la Reunion (France). Laboratoire de Genie Industriel; Rat, C. [Agence Regionale de l' Energie a La Reunion, Saint-Pierre (France)

    2004-04-01

    This paper deals with a global approach in the thermal and airflow design of new dwellings and especially low-cost housing built in the French tropical overseas islands. The sizing of passive cooling techniques has been evaluated thanks to a simulation code. The solutions have been edited in a reference document that serves as work-base for the design of dwelling developments in the French tropical territories. An experimental and sociological survey has been carried out over two years (from 1998 to 1999) in order to validate the impact of these passive cooling specifications on the comfort of tenants and to have an immediate feedback and correct the solutions if necessary. The paper presents the implementation, the experimental survey and the results for the two first housing projects built according to the passive design specifications. This step is important because the aim of the public utilities is to expand the ECODOM specifications on a much broader scale and to prepare to future housing thermal regulations. The results indicated that the solar protection of the roof remains one of the main points in the thermal design of buildings in a tropical climate as well as the natural ventilation. The sociological study showed that the tenants were globally satisfied with their flat as far as the thermal aspects are concerned. However, dissatisfaction resulted from the bad acoustic design of the flats. (author)

  15. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  16. Records matching model for data survey on applied and experimental microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Salvatore A; Reina, Vito M; Debbia, Eugenio A

    2007-01-01

    Experimental microbiology yields a huge quantity of raw data which needs to be evaluated and classified in a wide variety of situation from marine research, environmental pollution and pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents to epidemiological clinical trials on infectious diseases. It is indispensable in all kinds of disciplines to validate, transform and correlate data clusters to demonstrate the statistical significance of results. Whether academic or biotechnological, the scientific credibility of a work is strongly affected by the statistical methods and their adequacy. For a simple univariate analysis, many commercial or open source software products are available to perform sophisticated statistics for discriminant and multi-factorial analysis, but the majority of scientists use statistics partially. This is due to the high competence level required by a multivariate approach. It is known that the choice of a test, correct distribution assumption, valid experimental design and preliminary raw data validation are prejudicial to good science. All kinds of experimentation need analytical interpretation of descriptive evidence so that a classical numerical approach is not enough when raw data are not validated or incomplete. Microbiologists always wish to quickly discriminate, or correlate, group and data clusters concerning clinical patient profiles, auditing multi-sensor derived numbers, monitoring biosphere indicators on either chemical and physical parameters or dynamics of microbe populations. Mathematical and statistical analysis is essential to distinguish phenotypes or constraints. Data are in general stored in spreadsheet and database files which change continuously depending on the data collection and scope. We here propose a Records Matching Method (RMM) suitable for any kind of cluster analysis and pattern identification which can be used for either parametric or non parametric analysis without necessarily stating the pre-process statistical

  17. Survey of existing underground openings for in-situ experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Graf, A.; Strisower, B.; Korbin, G.

    1981-07-01

    In an earlier project, a literature search identified 60 underground openings in crystalline rock capable of providing access for an in-situ experimental facility to develop geochemical and hydrological techniques for evaluating sites for radioactive waste isolation. As part of the current project, discussions with state geologists, owners, and operators narrowed the original group to 14. Three additional sites in volcanic rock and one site in granite were also identified. Site visits and application of technical criteria, including the geologic and hydrologic settings and depth, extent of the rock unit, condition, and accessibility of underground workings, determined four primary candidate sites: the Helms Pumped Storage Project in grandiodorite of the Sierra Nevada, California; the Tungsten Queen Mine in Precambrian granodiorite of the North Carolina Piedmont; the Mount Hope Mine in Precambrian granite and gneiss of northern New Jersey; and the Minnamax Project in the Duluth gabbro complex of northern Minnesota

  18. Developing skills versus reinforcing concepts in physics labs: Insight from a survey of students' beliefs about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-06-01

    Physics laboratory courses have been generally acknowledged as an important component of the undergraduate curriculum, particularly with respect to developing students' interest in, and understanding of, experimental physics. There are a number of possible learning goals for these courses including reinforcing physics concepts, developing laboratory skills, and promoting expertlike beliefs about the nature of experimental physics. However, there is little consensus among instructors and researchers interested in the laboratory learning environment as to the relative importance of these various learning goals. Here, we contribute data to this debate through the analysis of students' responses to the laboratory-focused assessment known as the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Using a large, national data set of students' responses, we compare students' E-CLASS performance in classes in which the instructor self-reported focusing on developing skills, reinforcing concepts, or both. As the classification of courses was based on instructor self-report, we also provide additional description of these courses with respect to how often students engage in particular activities in the lab. We find that courses that focus specifically on developing lab skills have more expertlike postinstruction E-CLASS responses than courses that focus either on reinforcing physics concepts or on both goals. Within first-year courses, this effect is larger for women. Moreover, these findings hold when controlling for the variance in postinstruction scores that is associated with preinstruction E-CLASS scores, student major, and student gender.

  19. Experimental investigation of false positive errors in auditory species occurrence surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.W.; Weir, Linda A.; McClintock, Brett T.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    False positive errors are a significant component of many ecological data sets, which in combination with false negative errors, can lead to severe biases in conclusions about ecological systems. We present results of a field experiment where observers recorded observations for known combinations of electronically broadcast calling anurans under conditions mimicking field surveys to determine species occurrence. Our objectives were to characterize false positive error probabilities for auditory methods based on a large number of observers, to determine if targeted instruction could be used to reduce false positive error rates, and to establish useful predictors of among-observer and among-species differences in error rates. We recruited 31 observers, ranging in abilities from novice to expert, that recorded detections for 12 species during 180 calling trials (66,960 total observations). All observers made multiple false positive errors and on average 8.1% of recorded detections in the experiment were false positive errors. Additional instruction had only minor effects on error rates. After instruction, false positive error probabilities decreased by 16% for treatment individuals compared to controls with broad confidence interval overlap of 0 (95% CI: -46 to 30%). This coincided with an increase in false negative errors due to the treatment (26%; -3 to 61%). Differences among observers in false positive and in false negative error rates were best predicted by scores from an online test and a self-assessment of observer ability completed prior to the field experiment. In contrast, years of experience conducting call surveys was a weak predictor of error rates. False positive errors were also more common for species that were played more frequently, but were not related to the dominant spectral frequency of the call. Our results corroborate other work that demonstrates false positives are a significant component of species occurrence data collected by auditory

  20. Experimental survey of the L-H transition conditions in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Gohil, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Watkins, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    We present the global analysis of a recent survey of the H-mode power threshold in DIII-D using D{sup o} {yields} D{sup +} NBI after boronization of the vacuum vessel. Single parameter scans of B{sub T}, I{sub p}, density, and plasma shape have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak for neutral beam heated single-null and double-null diverted plasmas. In single-null discharges, the power threshold is found to increase approximately linearly with B{sub T} and n{sub e} but remains independent of I{sub p}. In double-null discharges, the power threshold is found to be approximately independent of both B{sub T} and n{sub e}. Various shape parameters such as plasma-wall gaps had only a weak effect on the power threshold. Imbalancing the double null configuration resulted in a large increase in the threshold power.

  1. Experimental Study on Electrode Method for Electrical Resistivity Survey to Detect Cavities under Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seon Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of electrode methods for electrical resistivity survey (ERS: the pole electrode method (PEM and flat electrode method (FEM. During the past few decades, most studies were conducted by using PEM for various purposes while only a few were conducted by using FEM. Laboratory and field experiments were performed in this study to investigate the advantage of FEM in detecting cavities under pavements. In the laboratory experiment, the results of PEM and FEM were compared graphically and statistically. A significant difference between the results of PEM and FEM was observed for concrete at an age of seven days, while there was no significant difference in the results for soil materials. Electrical resistivity could not be obtained from asphalt because it is an insulator. In a field experiment, four different cases were simulated: field ground with/without cavity and concrete pavement with/without cavity. The results of PEM and FEM for these cases were compared using 2D electrical resistivity contour images. It was observed that the distribution of electrical resistivity obtained using FEM was wider than that using PEM. Moreover, the locations of the cavities artificially made in the ground and under the pavement were accurately detected using both PEM and FEM.

  2. Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques when promoting physical activity: A systematic review comparing experimental and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Breanne E; Cook, Jill L; Freene, Nicole; Finch, Caroline F; Kemp, Joanne L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Gaida, James E

    2017-12-07

    Physiotherapists promote physical activity as part of their practice. This study reviewed the behaviour change techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity in experimental and observational studies. Systematic review of experimental and observational studies. Twelve databases were searched using terms related to physiotherapy and physical activity. We included experimental studies evaluating the efficacy of physiotherapist-led physical activity interventions delivered to adults in clinic-based private practice and outpatient settings to individuals with, or at risk of, non-communicable diseases. Observational studies reporting the techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity were also included. The behaviour change techniques used in all studies were identified using the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy. The behaviour change techniques appearing in efficacious and inefficacious experimental interventions were compared using a narrative approach. Twelve studies (nine experimental and three observational) were retained from the initial search yield of 4141. Risk of bias ranged from low to high. Physiotherapists used seven behaviour change techniques in the observational studies, compared to 30 behaviour change techniques in the experimental studies. Social support (unspecified) was the most frequently identified behaviour change technique across both settings. Efficacious experimental interventions used more behaviour change techniques (n=29) and functioned in more ways (n=6) than did inefficacious experimental interventions (behaviour change techniques=10 and functions=1). Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques. Less behaviour change techniques were identified in observational studies compared to experimental studies, suggesting physiotherapists use less BCTs clinically than experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballini, R.

    1953-06-01

    Various methods of the physics brought many informations on the nuclear elements which one can arrange some ponderable quantities, what is the case of the steady elements and some, unsteady elements, as most of natural radioelements. On the other hand, elements of shorter life duration, and notably those that are carried to an excited state, are more badly known, and one can get information to their consideration that by the mediator of the properties of the transitions that they undergo, when they give birth has best-known nuclear cash: among these transitions represent the isomeric transitions. The goal of this work is the survey of the isomeric transitions from metastable states of short period, included in the domain of the microsecond to some milliseconds. The method of the deferred coincidences has been put to the point and applied in this goal while using the advantages of the selectors to several channels, under two main aspects where the device to several channels was either a selector of time, either a selector of amplitudes. This method served to study the working of Geiger-Muller counter and to measure with precision the period of 181 Ta * in of the varied experimental conditions. The adopted value is 17,2 ±0,2 μs. This work also found an immediate practical application to the setting in evidence of very weak quantities of hafnium in zirconium, of which it constitutes a tenacious and difficult impurity to analyze by the ordinary ways. (M.B.) [fr

  4. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion. The soil map was made using the geographic information system ArcGIS 9.3. This GIS software was also used to generate the digital elevation model (DEM for identifying the slope classes. SAGA software was used to calculate the topographic wetness index (WI which aided in a more accurate separation of Haplic Organosol from other soils. The predominant soil class in the watershed was the dystrophic/dystrocohesive Yellow Argisol (97%, containing morphological, chemical and physical characteristics representative of the most expressive Coastal Plains soils. Geoprocessing tools and techniques aided to make the watershed soil map.

  5. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: theoretical systematics and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio J.; O'Connell, Ross; Ross, Ashley J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Percival, Will J.; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Beutler, Florian; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Rossi, Graziano; Seo, Hee-Jong; Brownstein, Joel R.; Olmstead, Matthew; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the potential sources of theoretical systematics in the anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) distance scale measurements from the clustering of galaxies in configuration space using the final Data Release (DR12) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We perform a detailed study of the impact on BAO measurements from choices in the methodology such as fiducial cosmology, clustering estimators, random catalogues, fitting templates, and covariance matrices. The theoretical systematic uncertainties in BAO parameters are found to be 0.002 in the isotropic dilation α and 0.003 in the quadrupolar dilation ɛ. The leading source of systematic uncertainty is related to the reconstruction techniques. Theoretical uncertainties are sub-dominant compared with the statistical uncertainties for BOSS survey, accounting 0.2σstat for α and 0.25σstat for ɛ (σα, stat ˜0.010 and σɛ, stat ˜ 0.012 respectively). We also present BAO-only distance scale constraints from the anisotropic analysis of the correlation function. Our constraints on the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble parameter H(z), including both statistical and theoretical systematic uncertainties, are 1.5% and 2.8% at zeff = 0.38, 1.4% and 2.4% at zeff = 0.51, and 1.7% and 2.6% at zeff = 0.61. This paper is part of a set that analyzes the final galaxy clustering dataset from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are cross-checked with other BAO analysis in Alam et al. (2016). The systematic error budget concerning the methodology on post-reconstruction BAO analysis presented here is used in Alam et al. (2016). to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  6. Public Attitudes toward Consent and Data Sharing in Biobank Research: A Large Multi-site Experimental Survey in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Brothers, Kyle B; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny; Aufox, Sharon A; Brilliant, Murray H; Campos, Diego; Carrell, David S; Connolly, John; Conway, Pat; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Horowitz, Carol R; Jarvik, Gail P; Kaufman, David; Kitchner, Terrie E; Li, Rongling; Ludman, Evette J; McCarty, Catherine A; McCormick, Jennifer B; McManus, Valerie D; Myers, Melanie F; Scrol, Aaron; Williams, Janet L; Shrubsole, Martha J; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Smith, Maureen E; Holm, Ingrid A

    2017-03-02

    Individuals participating in biobanks and other large research projects are increasingly asked to provide broad consent for open-ended research use and widespread sharing of their biosamples and data. We assessed willingness to participate in a biobank using different consent and data sharing models, hypothesizing that willingness would be higher under more restrictive scenarios. Perceived benefits, concerns, and information needs were also assessed. In this experimental survey, individuals from 11 US healthcare systems in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network were randomly allocated to one of three hypothetical scenarios: tiered consent and controlled data sharing; broad consent and controlled data sharing; or broad consent and open data sharing. Of 82,328 eligible individuals, exactly 13,000 (15.8%) completed the survey. Overall, 66% (95% CI: 63%-69%) of population-weighted respondents stated they would be willing to participate in a biobank; willingness and attitudes did not differ between respondents in the three scenarios. Willingness to participate was associated with self-identified white race, higher educational attainment, lower religiosity, perceiving more research benefits, fewer concerns, and fewer information needs. Most (86%, CI: 84%-87%) participants would want to know what would happen if a researcher misused their health information; fewer (51%, CI: 47%-55%) would worry about their privacy. The concern that the use of broad consent and open data sharing could adversely affect participant recruitment is not supported by these findings. Addressing potential participants' concerns and information needs and building trust and relationships with communities may increase acceptance of broad consent and wide data sharing in biobank research. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  7. Status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    A short review is presented on the status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions above 20 MeV based on the EXFOR data base and journals. Experimental data which were obtained in a systematic manner and/or by plural authors are surveyed and tabulated for the nuclear data evaluation and the benchmark test of the evaluated data. (author). 61 refs.

  8. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A.; Wright, Courtney J.; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions...

  9. Quality Measurements in Radiology: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Survey of Radiology Benefit Management Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Anand; Cinelli, Christina; Carrino, John A; Nagy, Paul; Coresh, Josef; Riese, Victoria G; Durand, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    As the US health care system transitions toward value-based reimbursement, there is an increasing need for metrics to quantify health care quality. Within radiology, many quality metrics are in use, and still more have been proposed, but there have been limited attempts to systematically inventory these measures and classify them using a standard framework. The purpose of this study was to develop an exhaustive inventory of public and private sector imaging quality metrics classified according to the classic Donabedian framework (structure, process, and outcome). A systematic review was performed in which eligibility criteria included published articles (from 2000 onward) from multiple databases. Studies were double-read, with discrepancies resolved by consensus. For the radiology benefit management group (RBM) survey, the six known companies nationally were surveyed. Outcome measures were organized on the basis of standard categories (structure, process, and outcome) and reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The search strategy yielded 1,816 citations; review yielded 110 reports (29 included for final analysis). Three of six RBMs (50%) responded to the survey; the websites of the other RBMs were searched for additional metrics. Seventy-five unique metrics were reported: 35 structure (46%), 20 outcome (27%), and 20 process (27%) metrics. For RBMs, 35 metrics were reported: 27 structure (77%), 4 process (11%), and 4 outcome (11%) metrics. The most commonly cited structure, process, and outcome metrics included ACR accreditation (37%), ACR Appropriateness Criteria (85%), and peer review (95%), respectively. Imaging quality metrics are more likely to be structural (46%) than process (27%) or outcome (27%) based (P quality metrics. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING: USING A NUTRITION COURSE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING: USING A NUTRITION COURSE TO COLLECT DATA ON FOOD EATING PATTERNS ON THE CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE. ... Students designed their class projects based on lectures, which systematically introduced them to basic concepts of survey research methodology, ...

  11. The use of systematic and heuristic methods in the basic design cycle: A comparative survey of students' method usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Person, O.; Daalhuizen, Jaap; Gattol, V.

    2013-01-01

    for this is that the experiences of design educators when using methods in their teaching do not always sit well with how methods are portrayed in the literature. Based on self-reports of the students, we study the use of systematic and heuristic methods for the five activities in the basic design cycle: (1) analysis, (2......In the present paper, we study the reported use of systematic and heuristic methods for 304 students enrolled in a master-level course on design theory and methodology. What to teach design and engineering students about methods is an important topic for discussion. One reason......) synthesis, (3) simulation, (4) evaluation, and (5) decision-making. The results of our study suggest that systematic and heuristic methods fulfil different roles for the students when designing. The students reported to use heuristic methods significantly more for synthesis, while they reported to use...

  12. The use of systematic and heuristic methods in the basic design cycle: A comparative survey of students' method usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Person, O.; Daalhuizen, Jaap; Gattol, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the reported use of systematic and heuristic methods for 304 students enrolled in a master-level course on design theory and methodology. What to teach design and engineering students about methods is an important topic for discussion. One reason...... for this is that the experiences of design educators when using methods in their teaching do not always sit well with how methods are portrayed in the literature. Based on self-reports of the students, we study the use of systematic and heuristic methods for the five activities in the basic design cycle: (1) analysis, (2......) synthesis, (3) simulation, (4) evaluation, and (5) decision-making. The results of our study suggest that systematic and heuristic methods fulfil different roles for the students when designing. The students reported to use heuristic methods significantly more for synthesis, while they reported to use...

  13. Reactivity to interpersonal stress in patients with eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using an experimental paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Treasure, Janet; Kan, Carol; Cardi, Valentina

    2018-04-01

    Reactivity to interpersonal stress in patients with eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using an experimental paradigm. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2018.- Social difficulties have been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorder symptoms. The aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies testing patientsö reactivity to interpersonal stress, compared to healthy controls. Thirty-four studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted on 16 studies and on following outcomes: attention bias and interference to threatening faces, cortisol, heart rate and negative affect before and after exposure to interpersonal stress. Patients showed heightened attention bias and interference to threatening faces. Lower heart rate after exposure to interpersonal stress and greater negative affect before and after interpersonal stress were observed in the clinical group compared to controls. Surprisingly, only a small minority of studies included measures of abnormal eating behaviour and attitudes. This seems a missed opportunity for testing the causal and maintaining role that abnormalities in interpersonal stress response play in eating disorders. Nonetheless, findings corroborate the hypothesis that patients' response to interpersonal stress differs from that of healthy controls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Butsic; Jacob C. Brenner

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt...

  15. The use of systematic and heuristic methods in the basic design cycle : A comparative survey of students' method usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Person, F.E.O.K.; Daalhuizen, J.J.; Gattol, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the reported use of systematic and heuristic methods for 304 students enrolled in a master-level course on design theory and methodology. What to teach design and engineering students about methods is an important topic for discussion. One reason for this is that the

  16. Statistical and systematic errors in the measurement of weak-lensing Minkowski functionals: Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki, E-mail: masato.shirasaki@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    The measurement of cosmic shear using weak gravitational lensing is a challenging task that involves a number of complicated procedures. We study in detail the systematic errors in the measurement of weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). Specifically, we focus on systematics associated with galaxy shape measurements, photometric redshift errors, and shear calibration correction. We first generate mock weak-lensing catalogs that directly incorporate the actual observational characteristics of the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We then perform a Fisher analysis using the large set of mock catalogs for various cosmological models. We find that the statistical error associated with the observational effects degrades the cosmological parameter constraints by a factor of a few. The Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey with a sky coverage of ∼1400 deg{sup 2} will constrain the dark energy equation of the state parameter with an error of Δw {sub 0} ∼ 0.25 by the lensing MFs alone, but biases induced by the systematics can be comparable to the 1σ error. We conclude that the lensing MFs are powerful statistics beyond the two-point statistics only if well-calibrated measurement of both the redshifts and the shapes of source galaxies is performed. Finally, we analyze the CFHTLenS data to explore the ability of the MFs to break degeneracies between a few cosmological parameters. Using a combined analysis of the MFs and the shear correlation function, we derive the matter density Ω{sub m0}=0.256±{sub 0.046}{sup 0.054}.

  17. 14 CFR 21.195 - Experimental certificates: Aircraft to be used for market surveys, sales demonstrations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... used for market surveys, sales demonstrations, and customer crew training. 21.195 Section 21.195... be used for market surveys, sales demonstrations, and customer crew training. Link to an amendment..., sales demonstrations, or customer crew training. (b) A manufacturer of aircraft engines who has altered...

  18. Alveolar bone tissue engineering in critical-size defects of experimental animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Siddharth; Pandis, Nikolaos; Mustafa, Kamal; Nyengaard, Jens R; Stavropoulos, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Regeneration of large, 'critical-size' bone defects remains a clinical challenge. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is emerging as a promising alternative to autogenous, allogeneic and biomaterial-based bone grafting. The objective of this systematic review was to answer the focused question: in animal models, do cell-based BTE strategies enhance regeneration in alveolar bone critical-size defects (CSDs), compared with grafting with only biomaterial scaffolds or autogenous bone? Following PRISMA guidelines, electronic databases were searched for controlled animal studies reporting maxillary or mandibular CSD and implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or osteoblasts (OBs) seeded on biomaterial scaffolds. A random effects meta-analysis was performed for the outcome histomorphometric new bone formation (%NBF). Thirty-six studies were included that reported on large- (monkeys, dogs, sheep, minipigs) and small-animal (rabbits, rats) models. On average, studies presented with an unclear-to-high risk of bias and short observation times. In most studies, MSCs or OBs were used in combination with alloplastic mineral-phase scaffolds. In five studies, cells were modified by ex vivo gene transfer of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The meta-analysis indicated statistically significant benefits in favour of: (1) cell-loaded vs. cell-free scaffolds [weighted mean difference (WMD) 15.59-49.15% and 8.60-13.85% NBF in large- and small-animal models, respectively]; and (2) BMP-gene-modified vs. unmodified cells (WMD 10.06-20.83% NBF in small-animal models). Results of cell-loaded scaffolds vs. autogenous bone were inconclusive. Overall, heterogeneity in the meta-analysis was high (I 2  > 90%). In summary, alveolar bone regeneration is enhanced by addition of osteogenic cells to biomaterial scaffolds. The direction and estimates of treatment effect are useful to predict therapeutic efficacy and guide future clinical trials of BTE. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  19. Analgesic Effects of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Experimental Studies in Healthy Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trevor; Oram, Charlotte; Correll, Christoph U; Tsermentseli, Stella; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-05-01

    Despite the long-standing belief in the analgesic properties of alcohol, experimental studies have produced mixed results. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify whether alcohol produces a decrease in experimentally-induced pain and to determine the magnitude of any such effect. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase databases were searched from inception until April 21, 2016 for controlled studies examining the effect of quantified dosages of alcohol on pain response to noxious stimulation. Eighteen studies involving 404 participants were identified providing alcohol versus no-alcohol comparisons for 13 tests of pain threshold (n = 212) and 9 tests of pain intensity ratings (n = 192). Random effects meta-analysis of standardized mean difference (SMD) provided robust support for analgesic effects of alcohol. A mean blood alcohol content (BAC) of approximately .08% (3-4 standard drinks) produced a small elevation of pain threshold (SMD [95% CI] = .35 [.17-.54], P = .002), and a moderate to large reduction in pain intensity ratings (SMD [95% CI] = .64 [.37-.91], P alcohol is an effective analgesic that delivers clinically-relevant reductions in ratings of pain intensity, which could explain alcohol misuse in those with persistent pain despite its potential consequences for long-term health. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings for clinical pain states. This meta-analysis provides robust evidence for the analgesic properties of alcohol, which could potentially contribute to alcohol misuse in pain patients. Strongest analgesia occurs for alcohol levels exceeding World Health Organization guidelines for low-risk drinking and suggests raising awareness of alternative, less harmful pain interventions to vulnerable patients may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Do behavioral scientists really understand HIV-related sexual risk behavior? A systematic review of longitudinal and experimental studies predicting sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Perry, Nicholas S

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior depend on strong health behavior theory. By identifying the psychosocial variables that lead causally to sexual risk, theories provide interventionists with a guide for how to change behavior. However, empirical research is critical to determining whether a particular theory adequately explains sexual risk behavior. A large body of cross-sectional evidence, which has been reviewed elsewhere, supports the notion that certain theory-based constructs (e.g., self-efficacy) are correlates of sexual behavior. However, given the limitations of inferring causality from correlational research, it is essential that we review the evidence from more methodologically rigorous studies (i.e., longitudinal and experimental designs). This systematic review identified 44 longitudinal studies in which investigators attempted to predict sexual risk from psychosocial variables over time. We also found 134 experimental studies (i.e., randomized controlled trials of HIV interventions), but of these only 9 (6.7 %) report the results of mediation analyses that might provide evidence for the validity of health behavior theories in predicting sexual behavior. Results show little convergent support across both types of studies for most traditional, theoretical predictors of sexual behavior. This suggests that the field must expand the body of empirical work that utilizes the most rigorous study designs to test our theoretical assumptions. The inconsistent results of existing research would indicate that current theoretical models of sexual risk behavior are inadequate, and may require expansion or adaptation.

  1. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Brenner, Jacob C.

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt County California, a principal cannabis-producing region, involved digitizing 4428 grow sites in 60 watersheds with Google Earth imagery. Grows were clustered, suggesting disproportionate impacts in ecologically important locales. Sixty-eight percent of grows were >500 m from developed roads, suggesting risk of landscape fragmentation. Twenty-two percent were on steep slopes, suggesting risk of erosion, sedimentation, and landslides. Five percent were consume an estimated 700 000 m3 of water, suggesting risk of stream impacts. The extent and magnitude of cannabis agriculture documented in our study demands that it be regulated and researched on par with conventional agriculture.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma to treat experimentally-induced skin wounds in animals: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambella, Adolfo Maria; Attili, Anna Rita; Dupré, Gilles; Cantalamessa, Andrea; Martin, Stefano; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Marcazzan, Sabrina; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to review current literature to determine whether the topical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) promotes healing in experimentally-induced full-thickness skin wounds in animals. The hypothesis was that the adjunct of PRP has a positive effect on wound healing. An electronic search was carried out on the following databases: Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Research Gate, Cochrane Wounds Group, Veterinary Information Network. No publication date nor language restrictions were applied. Randomised and not randomised controlled clinical trials comparing PRP with placebo or with other treatments were included. The reduction of open wound area in PRP-treated (test) wounds compared to control wounds was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were healing time and number of healed cases in test group compared to control. The following effect sizes were calculated: the Hedges' g for continuous variables; the odds ratio for binary data. Eighteen controlled clinical trials were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis, with a total of 661 wounds. All studies were published in the period 2007-2016. Eight studies were carried out on rodent/lagomorph mammals and 10 on non-rodent/lagomorph mammals. In all included studies, control wounds underwent placebo or were left untreated. The PRP group showed a better healing performance than the control group in each outcome. The effect size was statistically significant considering the primary outcome and the overall aggregation of the three outcomes. The effect size, although in favour of the treatment with PRP, was not significant considering the healing time and the number of healings. The overall heterogeneity was mild or moderate. Five studies reported a high risk of selection bias. The publication bias was always mild or absent. The results support the hypothesis of the positive effects of the PRP when compared to control groups in the treatment of experimentally

  3. Platelet-rich plasma in orthopedic therapy: a comparative systematic review of clinical and experimental data in equine and human musculoskeletal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossi, Patrícia M; Moreira, Juliana J; Machado, Thaís S L; Baccarin, Raquel Y A

    2015-04-22

    This systematic review aimed to present and critically appraise the available information on the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in equine and human orthopedic therapeutics and to verify the influence of study design and methodology on the assumption of PRP's efficacy. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, Bireme and Google Scholar without restrictions until July 2013. Randomized trials, human cohort clinical studies or case series with a control group on the use of PRP in tendons, ligaments or articular lesions were included. Equine clinical studies on the same topics were included independently of their design. Experimental studies relevant to the clarification of PRP's effects and mechanisms of action in tissues of interest, conducted in any animal species, were selected. This review included 123 studies. PRP's beneficial effects were observed in 46.7% of the clinical studies, while the absence of positive effects was observed in 43.3%. Among experimental studies, 73% yielded positive results, and 7.9% yielded negative results. The most frequent flaws in the clinical trials' designs were the lack of a true placebo group, poor product characterization, insufficient blinding, small sampling, short follow-up periods, and adoption of poor outcome measures. The methods employed for PRP preparation and administration and the selected outcome measures varied greatly. Poor study design was a common feature of equine clinical trials. From studies in which PRP had beneficial effects, 67.8% had an overall high risk of bias. From the studies in which PRP failed to exhibit beneficial effects, 67.8% had an overall low risk of bias. Most experimental studies revealed positive effects of PRP. Although the majority of equine clinical studies yielded positive results, the human clinical trials' results failed to corroborate these findings. In both species, beneficial results were more frequently observed in studies with a high risk of bias. The use of PRP in musculoskeletal

  4. Systematic determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound examination from infancy to adolescence in Japan: the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The subjects were 38,063 children who were examined by ultrasonography as the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The width, thickness, and height of each lobe were measured and the volume of each lobe was calculated by the mean of the elliptical shape volume formula. The values of thyroid volume at the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of age and body surface area for each gender group were obtained from 0-19 year-old children. Positive correlation was observed between thyroid volume and either age or body surface. The right lobe was significantly larger than the left lobe. The thyroid volume in females was larger than that in males after adjusting body surface area. The reference values of childhood thyroid for each age or body surface area were obtained by this extensive survey using ultrasound. These reference values may be used to define the normal size of thyroid gland by echosonography in Japanese children, although thyroid volume may be affected by dimorphic factors such as sex hormones.

  5. The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009–2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009–2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as “cosmopolitan”, 11.4% “endemic”, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non

  6. Nationwide Survey of Patient Knowledge and Attitudes towards Human Experimentation Using Stem Cells or Bee Venom Acupuncture for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveStem cell treatment is a well-recognized experimental treatment among patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, for which there are high expectations of a positive impact. Acupuncture with bee venom is one of the most popular complementary and alternative treatments for PD. Patient knowledge and attitudes towards these experimental treatments are unknown. MethodsUsing a 12-item questionnaire, a nationwide survey was conducted of 963 PD patients and 267 caregivers in 44 Korean Movement Disorders Society member hospitals from April 2013 to June 2013. The survey was performed by trained interviewers using conventional methods. ResultsRegarding questions on experimental treatments using stem cells or bee venom acupuncture, 5.1–17.7% of PD patients answered questions on safety, efficacy, and evidence-based practice incorrectly; however, more than half responded that they did not know the correct answer. Although safety and efficacy have not been established, 55.5% of PD patients responded that they were willing to receive stem cell treatment. With regard to participating in experimental treatments, there was a strong correlation between stem cell treatment and bee venom acupuncture (p < 0.0001, odds ratio = 5.226, 95% confidence interval 3.919–6.969. Younger age, higher education, and a longer duration of PD were all associated with a correct understanding of experimental treatments. ConclusionsOur data suggest that relatively few PD patients correctly understand the safety and efficacy of experimental treatments and that PD patients are greatly interested in new treatments. We hope that our data will be used to educate or to plan educational programs for PD patients and caregivers.

  7. The trend of quality of publications in endodontic surgery: a 10-year systematic survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Corbella, Stefano; Tsesis, Igor; Taschieri, Silvio

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the present systematic literature analysis were to evaluate, over a 10-year period, the trend of the proportion of RCT, SR, MA published on endodontic surgery, and to investigate if the impact factor (IF) of the main endodontic Journals correlates with the proportion of RCT, SR, MA they publish. An electronic search of the RCT, SR and MA published on the topic "endodontic surgery" from 2001 to 2010 was performed on Medline and Cochrane CENTRAL database using specific search terms combined with Boolean operators. Endodontic Journals impact factor was retrieved by the Thomson Scientific database. The proportion of each study type over the total number of articles on endodontic surgery published per year was estimated. The correlation between the number of high-evidence level studies published on the main endodontic Journals and the IF of such Journals per year was estimated. From a total of 900 articles published in 2001-2010 on endodontic surgery, there were 114 studies of high evidence level. A significant increase of the proportion of either RCT, SR and MA over the years was found. A modest to unclear correlation was found between the Journal IF and the number of high-evidence articles published. There is a positive trend over the years among researchers in performing studies of good quality in endodontic surgery. The impact factor of endodontic Journals is not consistently influenced by publication of high-evidence level articles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Orthotic management of instability of the knee related to neuromuscular and central nervous system disorders: systematic review, qualitative study, survey and costing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Joanne; McCaughan, Dorothy; McDaid, Catriona; Booth, Alison; Fayter, Debra; Rodriguez-Lopez, Roccio; Bowers, Roy; Dyson, Lisa; Iglesias, Cynthia P; Lalor, Simon; O'Connor, Rory J; Phillips, Margaret; Ramdharry, Gita

    2016-07-01

    Patients who have knee instability that is associated with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and central nervous system (CNS) conditions can be treated using orthoses, such as knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs). To assess existing evidence on the effectiveness of orthoses; patient perspectives; types of orthotic devices prescribed in the UK NHS; and associated costs. Qualitative study of views of orthoses users - a qualitative in-depth interview study was undertaken. Data were analysed for thematic content. A coding scheme was developed and an inductive approach was used to identify themes. Systematic review - 18 databases were searched up to November 2014: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, EMBASE, PASCAL, Scopus, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Recal Legacy, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Conference Proceedings Citation Index: Science, Health Management Consortium, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and National Technical Information Service. Studies of adults using an orthosis for instability of the knee related to NMD or a CNS disorder were included. Data were extracted and quality was assessed by two researchers. Narrative synthesis was undertaken. Survey and costing analysis - a web survey of orthotists, physiotherapists and rehabilitation medicine physicians was undertaken. Telephone interviews with orthotists informed a costing analysis. Qualitative study - a total of 24 people participated. Potential for engagement in daily activities was of vital importance to patients; the extent to which their device enabled this was the yardstick by which it was measured. Patients' prime desired outcome was a reduction in pain, falls or trips, with improved balance and stability. Effectiveness

  9. BANYAN. V. A SYSTEMATIC ALL-SKY SURVEY FOR NEW VERY LATE-TYPE LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-01-10

    We present the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) catalog, consisting of 228 new late-type (M4-L6) candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs) with an expected false-positive rate of ∼13%. This sample includes 79 new candidate young brown dwarfs and 22 planetary-mass objects. These candidates were identified through the first systematic all-sky survey for late-type low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in YMGs. We cross-matched the Two Micron All Sky Survey and AllWISE catalogs outside of the galactic plane to build a sample of 98,970 potential ≥M5 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and calculated their proper motions with typical precisions of 5-15 mas yr{sup –1}. We selected highly probable candidate members of several YMGs from this sample using the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II). We used the most probable statistical distances inferred from BANYAN II to estimate the spectral type and mass of these candidate YMG members. We used this unique sample to show tentative signs of mass segregation in the AB Doradus moving group and the Tucana-Horologium and Columba associations. The BASS sample has already been successful in identifying several new young brown dwarfs in earlier publications, and will be of great interest in studying the initial mass function of YMGs and for the search of exoplanets by direct imaging; the input sample of potential close-by ≥M5 dwarfs will be useful to study the kinematics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and search for new proper motion pairs.

  10. Undergraduate medical textbooks do not provide adequate information on intravenous fluid therapy: a systematic survey and suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Arfon G M T; Paterson-Brown, Simon; Drummond, Gordon B

    2014-02-20

    Inappropriate prescribing of intravenous (IV) fluid, particularly 0.9% sodium chloride, causes post-operative complications. Fluid prescription is often left to junior medical staff and is frequently poorly managed. One reason for poor intravenous fluid prescribing practices could be inadequate coverage of this topic in the textbooks that are used. We formulated a comprehensive set of topics, related to important common clinical situations involving IV fluid therapy, (routine fluid replacement, fluid loss, fluids overload) to assess the adequacy of textbooks in common use. We assessed 29 medical textbooks widely available to students in the UK, scoring the presence of information provided by each book on each of the topics. The scores indicated how fully the topics were considered: not at all, partly, and adequately. No attempt was made to judge the quality of the information, because there is no consensus on these topics. The maximum score that a book could achieve was 52. Three of the topics we chose were not considered by any of the books. Discounting these topics as "too esoteric", the maximum possible score became 46. One textbook gained a score of 45, but the general score was poor (median 11, quartiles 4, 21). In particular, coverage of routine postoperative management was inadequate. Textbooks for undergraduates cover the topic of intravenous therapy badly, which may partly explain the poor knowledge and performance of junior doctors in this important field. Systematic revision of current textbooks might improve knowledge and practice by junior doctors. Careful definition of the remit and content of textbooks should be applied more widely to ensure quality and "fitness for purpose", and avoid omission of vital knowledge.

  11. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  12. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p < 0.01), and that this association is seen for both genders (boys OR = 0.74, p < 0.1; girls OR = 0.52, p < 0.001). POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  13. Experimental diet based on the foods listed in the Family Budget Survey is more detrimental to growth than to the reflex development of rats

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    Michelle Figueiredo Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the pregnancy and lactation performances of rats fed an experimental diet based on the foods listed in the Family Budget Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar 2002/2003 and the impact of said diet on the growth and development of the pups until weaning. METHODS: Wistar (n=12 rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (control group, n=6 fed a commercial chow (Labina®, Brazil and an experimental group (n=6 fed the Family Budget Survey diet during the entire pregnancy and lactation period. All animals had free access to food and water during the entire study period. RESULTS: The Family Budget Survey diet increased the duration of pregnancy (control group=21.00±0.00; POFG=21.57±0.55, p=0.025 and made the dams lose weight during the lactation period (control group=27.92±18.47g; POFG=-15.66±16.90g. The Family Budget Survey group presented low food, energy and nutrient intakes during pregnancy, which became even lower during lactation. Pups from Family Budget Survey dams presented lower body weight at weaning (control group=52.38±4.49g; POFG=39.88±2.78g, p=0.001 and lower nose-to-anus length (control group= 117.37±0.64mm; POFG=125.62±0.96mm, p=0.001. However, some physical milestones and reflexes occurred earlier, such as the placing response reflex [control group= 12.00 (9.00-15.00 days; POFG=9.50 (9.00-14.00 days] aerial righting reflex [control group=18.00 (17.00-20.00 days; POFG=16.00 (13.00-18.00 days] and unfolding of the external ear [control group=3.00 (3.00-3.00 days; POFG=2.00 (2.00-3.00 days]. CONCLUSION: The Family Budget Survey diet seems to be more detrimental to the physical growth of the pups than to their brain growth, according to the assessed reflexes and physical milestones and measures. This may be due to the low protein content of the diet for rat reproduction and growth combined with adequate fat and essential fatty acid contents. Providing an adequate amount of

  14. Systematic survey of the effects of wind mass loss algorithms on the evolution of single massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzo, M.; Ott, C. D.; Shore, S. N.; de Mink, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    Mass loss processes are a key uncertainty in the evolution of massive stars. They determine the amount of mass and angular momentum retained by the star, thus influencing its evolution and presupernova structure. Because of the high complexity of the physical processes driving mass loss, stellar evolution calculations must employ parametric algorithms, and usually only include wind mass loss. We carried out an extensive parameter study of wind mass loss and its effects on massive star evolution using the open-source stellar evolution code MESA. We provide a systematic comparison of wind mass loss algorithms for solar-metallicity, nonrotating, single stars in the initial mass range of 15 M⊙ to 35 M⊙. We consider combinations drawn from two hot phase (I.e., roughly the main sequence) algorithms, three cool phase (I.e., post-main-sequence) algorithms, and two Wolf-Rayet mass loss algorithms. We discuss separately the effects of mass loss in each of these phases. In addition, we consider linear wind efficiency scale factors of 1, 0.33, and 0.1 to account for suggested reductions in mass loss rates due to wind inhomogeneities. We find that the initial to final mass mapping for each zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) mass has a 50% uncertainty if all algorithm combinations and wind efficiencies are considered. The ad-hoc efficiency scale factor dominates this uncertainty. While the final total mass and internal structure of our models vary tremendously with mass loss treatment, final luminosity and effective temperature are much less sensitive for stars with ZAMS mass ≲ 30 M⊙. This indicates that uncertainty in wind mass loss does not negatively affect estimates of the ZAMS mass of most single-star supernova progenitors from pre-explosion observations. Our results furthermore show that the internal structure of presupernova stars is sensitive to variations in both main sequence and post main-sequence mass loss. The compactness parameter ξ ∝ ℳ /R(ℳ) has been

  15. Perceptions of Animal Experimentation: A Longitudinal Survey with Veterinary Students in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gisele F.; Melo, Guilherme D.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Fernandes, Fernando V.; Moraes, Olívia C.; Souza, Milena S.; Grano, Fernanda G.; Silva, José E. S.; Nunes, Cáris M.

    2017-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a controversial topic, especially among the general public and the scientific community. Thirty-eight undergraduate students attending the College of Veterinary Medicine--São Paulo State University in the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, were followed up between 2008 and 2011 and were asked to complete an…

  16. The framing of research questions using the PICOT format in randomized controlled trials of venous ulcer disease is suboptimal: A systematic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbade, Luciana P F; Wang, Mei; Sriganesh, Kamath; Jin, Yanling; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana

    2017-09-01

    Despite several publications on venous ulcers, there is still a lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support certain treatments for patients with this disorder. Well-designed research questions using the PICOT (Population; Intervention; Comparator; Outcome; Time-frame) format in RCTs can improve the quality of research. The objectives of this study were to assess how the PICOT format is used to frame research questions in RCTs published on venous ulcer disease and to determine the factors associated with better adherence to the PICOT format. We conducted a systematic survey of RCTs on venous ulcers published in the PubMed database between January 2009 and May 2016. All RCTs published in English addressing therapeutic interventions for venous ulcer disease in human subjects were included. We examined whether the five elements of the PICOT format were used in formulating the research question and scored them between 0 and 5. The primary outcome of this systematic survey was the percentage of studies that adequately reported all five PICOT elements. Eighty-five (85) RCTs were included with median PICOT score of 3 (IQR = 1.5). Four elements of PICOT were present in 28 reports (32.9%) and only 2 RCTS (2.3%) reported all the PICOT elements. Population and intervention were often appropriately described, in (70/85) 82.4% and (83/85) 97.6% of the studies, respectively; however, comparison intervention and outcome were presented in only (53/85) 62.3% and (48/85) 56.5% of studies, respectively. Very few RCTs (7.1%; 6/85) reported the study time frame. No journal or RCT characteristics were found to be significantly associated with better reporting. Use of the PICOT format to frame research questions in RCTs published on venous ulcers is suboptimal, and our study reinforces the importance of framing a good research question to improve the design of trials and quality of evidence in venous ulcer disease. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  17. New tools for systematic evaluation of teaching qualities of medical faculty: results of an ongoing multi-center survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyebuchi A Arah

    Full Text Available Tools for the evaluation, improvement and promotion of the teaching excellence of faculty remain elusive in residency settings. This study investigates (i the reliability and validity of the data yielded by using two new instruments for evaluating the teaching qualities of medical faculty, (ii the instruments' potential for differentiating between faculty, and (iii the number of residents' evaluations needed per faculty to reliably use the instruments.Multicenter cross-sectional survey among 546 residents and 629 medical faculty representing 29 medical (non-surgical specialty training programs in The Netherlands. Two instruments--one completed by residents and one by faculty--for measuring teaching qualities of faculty were developed. Statistical analyses included factor analysis, reliability and validity exploration using standard psychometric methods, calculation of the numbers of residents' evaluations needed per faculty to achieve reliable assessments and variance components and threshold analyses.A total of 403 (73.8% residents completed 3575 evaluations of 570 medical faculty while 494 (78.5% faculty self-evaluated. In both instruments five composite-scales of faculty teaching qualities were detected with high internal consistency and reliability: learning climate (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85 for residents' instrument, 0.71 for self-evaluation instrument, professional attitude and behavior (0.84/0.75, communication of goals (0.90/0.84, evaluation of residents (0.91/0.81, and feedback (0.91/0.85. Faculty tended to evaluate themselves higher than did the residents. Up to a third of the total variance in various teaching qualities can be attributed to between-faculty differences. Some seven residents' evaluations per faculty are needed for assessments to attain a reliability level of 0.90.The instruments for evaluating teaching qualities of medical faculty appear to yield reliable and valid data. They are feasible for use in medical residencies

  18. New tools for systematic evaluation of teaching qualities of medical faculty: results of an ongoing multi-center survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Hoekstra, Joost B L; Bos, Albert P; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2011-01-01

    Tools for the evaluation, improvement and promotion of the teaching excellence of faculty remain elusive in residency settings. This study investigates (i) the reliability and validity of the data yielded by using two new instruments for evaluating the teaching qualities of medical faculty, (ii) the instruments' potential for differentiating between faculty, and (iii) the number of residents' evaluations needed per faculty to reliably use the instruments. Multicenter cross-sectional survey among 546 residents and 629 medical faculty representing 29 medical (non-surgical) specialty training programs in The Netherlands. Two instruments--one completed by residents and one by faculty--for measuring teaching qualities of faculty were developed. Statistical analyses included factor analysis, reliability and validity exploration using standard psychometric methods, calculation of the numbers of residents' evaluations needed per faculty to achieve reliable assessments and variance components and threshold analyses. A total of 403 (73.8%) residents completed 3575 evaluations of 570 medical faculty while 494 (78.5%) faculty self-evaluated. In both instruments five composite-scales of faculty teaching qualities were detected with high internal consistency and reliability: learning climate (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85 for residents' instrument, 0.71 for self-evaluation instrument, professional attitude and behavior (0.84/0.75), communication of goals (0.90/0.84), evaluation of residents (0.91/0.81), and feedback (0.91/0.85). Faculty tended to evaluate themselves higher than did the residents. Up to a third of the total variance in various teaching qualities can be attributed to between-faculty differences. Some seven residents' evaluations per faculty are needed for assessments to attain a reliability level of 0.90. The instruments for evaluating teaching qualities of medical faculty appear to yield reliable and valid data. They are feasible for use in medical residencies, can

  19. An experimental comparison of web-push vs. paper-only survey procedures for conducting an in-depth health survey of military spouses

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    Hope Seib McMaster

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found that a “web-push” approach to data collection, which involves contacting people by mail to request an Internet survey response while withholding a paper response option until later in the contact process, consistently achieves lower response rates than a “paper-only” approach, whereby all respondents are contacted and requested to respond by mail. Method An experiment was designed, as part of the Millennium Cohort Family Study, to compare response rates, sample representativeness, and cost between a web-push and a paper-only approach; each approach comprised 3 stages of mail contacts. The invited sample (n = 4,935 consisted of spouses married to U.S. Service members, who had been serving in the military between 2 and 5 years as of October, 2011. Results The web-push methodology produced a significantly higher response rate, 32.8% compared to 27.8%. Each of the 3 stages of postal contact significantly contributed to response for both treatments with 87.1% of the web-push responses received over the Internet. The per-respondent cost of the paper-only treatment was almost 40% higher than the web-push treatment group. Analyses revealed no meaningfully significant differences between treatment groups in representation. Conclusion These results provide evidence that a web-push methodology is more effective and less expensive than a paper-only approach among young military spouses, perhaps due to their heavy reliance on the internet, and we suggest that this approach may be more effective with the general population as they become more uniformly internet savvy.

  20. An experimental comparison of web-push vs. paper-only survey procedures for conducting an in-depth health survey of military spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Hope Seib; LeardMann, Cynthia A; Speigle, Steven; Dillman, Don A

    2017-04-26

    Previous research has found that a "web-push" approach to data collection, which involves contacting people by mail to request an Internet survey response while withholding a paper response option until later in the contact process, consistently achieves lower response rates than a "paper-only" approach, whereby all respondents are contacted and requested to respond by mail. An experiment was designed, as part of the Millennium Cohort Family Study, to compare response rates, sample representativeness, and cost between a web-push and a paper-only approach; each approach comprised 3 stages of mail contacts. The invited sample (n = 4,935) consisted of spouses married to U.S. Service members, who had been serving in the military between 2 and 5 years as of October, 2011. The web-push methodology produced a significantly higher response rate, 32.8% compared to 27.8%. Each of the 3 stages of postal contact significantly contributed to response for both treatments with 87.1% of the web-push responses received over the Internet. The per-respondent cost of the paper-only treatment was almost 40% higher than the web-push treatment group. Analyses revealed no meaningfully significant differences between treatment groups in representation. These results provide evidence that a web-push methodology is more effective and less expensive than a paper-only approach among young military spouses, perhaps due to their heavy reliance on the internet, and we suggest that this approach may be more effective with the general population as they become more uniformly internet savvy.

  1. The impact of frequency rating scale formats on the measurement of latent variables in web surveys - an experimental investigation using a measure of affectivity as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menold Natalja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of verbal and/or numerical labeling and number of categories on the measurement of latent variables in web surveys are addressed. Data were collected online in a quota sample of the German adult population (N = 741. A randomized 2x2x2 experimental design was applied, with variation of the number of categories, as well as of verbal and numerical labeling, using an abbreviated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS. Experimental manipulation of the rating scale formats resulted in an effect on measurement model testing and reliability, as well as on factorial and convergent validity. In addition, measurement invariance between several rating scale formats was limited. With the five category end verbalized and fully labeled seven category formats, acceptable results for all measurement quality metrics could be obtained.

  2. Framing of research question using the PICOT format in randomised controlled trials of venous ulcer disease: a protocol for a systematic survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbade, Luciana P F; Wang, Mei; Sriganesh, Kamath; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-11-11

    Although venous ulcers have a great social and economic impact, there is a lack of evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to support appropriate management for this disease. Framing the research question using the Population; Intervention; Comparator; Outcome; Time frame (PICOT) format in RCTs can improve the quality of the research design. To evaluate how the PICOT format is used to frame a research question in reports of RCTs of venous ulcer disease and to determine the factors associated with better adherence to the PICOT format in framing the research question. We will conduct a systematic survey of RCTs on venous ulcers published in the National Institute of Health, PubMed database between January 2009 and May 2016. We will include all RCTs addressing therapeutic intervention for venous ulcer disease involving human subjects, and published in the English language. The selection process will be carried out in duplicate by two independent investigators. First, titles and abstracts will be screened, then full-text articles. We will examine whether the five elements of the PICOT format are used in formulating the research question and give a score between 0 and 5. The primary outcome will be the proportion of studies that have adequately reported all five PICOT elements. This will be the first survey to assess how the PICOT format is used to frame research questions on the management of venous ulcers in reports of RCTs. On completion, this review will be submitted to a peer-reviewed biomedical journal for publication and the findings will also be presented at scientific conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Crew and patient safety in ambulances: results of a personnel survey and experimental side impact crash test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marc; Chenaitia, Hichem; Masson, Catherine; Michelet, Pierre; Behr, Michel; Auffray, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Ambulance drivers often travel under stressful conditions at high speed while using vehicles with poor high-speed maneuverability. The occupant safety of ambulance vehicles has not yet been addressed by the automotive safety paradigm; particularly for the rear patient compartment. This study had two objectives: (1) to assess by survey the French Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to determine the layout of the vehicle most often used and the EMS personnel's behavior during transport; and (2) to conduct a crash test to analyze the injuries which may affect EMS personnel and patients in the rear patient compartment. Firstly, a survey was distributed to the 50 largest metropolitan French EMS programs. Secondly, a crash test was performed with a Mobile Intensive Care Unit (MICU) in conditions closest to reality. Forty-nine of the 50 biggest metropolitan French EMS programs responded to the survey. This represents 108 French MICUs. During the last three years, 12 of 49 EMS programs (24%) identified at least one accident with an MICU, and six of these 12 (50%) suffered at least one death in those accidents. A crash test using a typical French EMS MICU showed that after impact of a collision, the ambulance was moved more than five meters with major consequences for all passengers. A study-approved human cadaver placed in the position of a potential patient was partially thrown from the stretcher with a head impact. The accelerometric reaction of the anthropomorphic manikin head was measured at 48G. The crash test demonstrated a lack of safety for EMS personnel and patients in the rear compartment. It would be preferable if each piece of medical equipment were provided with a quick release system resistant to three-dimensional 10G forces. The kinetic changes undergone by the "patient" substitute on the stretcher would probably have an effect of causing injury pathology. This study highlights the need for more research and development in this area.

  4. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Brown, Kyle G; King, Sarah E; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-06-09

    Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised, experimental studies assessing immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing communications on objective alcohol consumption (primary outcome), explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions, or selection without purchasing (secondary outcomes). Study limitations were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate effect sizes. Twenty four studies met the eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis integrating seven studies (758 participants, all students) found that viewing alcohol advertisements increased immediate alcohol consumption relative to viewing non-alcohol advertisements (SMD = 0.20, 95 % CI = 0.05, 0.34). A meta-analysis integrating six studies (631 participants, all students) did not find that viewing alcohol portrayals in television programmes or films increased consumption (SMD = 0.16, 95 % CI = -0.05, 0.37). Meta-analyses of secondary outcome data found that exposure to alcohol portrayals increased explicit alcohol-related cognitions, but did not find that exposure to alcohol advertisements influenced explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions. Confidence in results is diminished by underpowered analyses and unclear risk of bias. Viewing alcohol advertisements (but not alcohol portrayals) may increase immediate alcohol consumption by small amounts, equivalent to between 0.39 and 2.67 alcohol units for males and between 0.25 and 1.69 units for females. The generalizability of this finding

  5. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidy Stautz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Methods Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised, experimental studies assessing immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing communications on objective alcohol consumption (primary outcome, explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions, or selection without purchasing (secondary outcomes. Study limitations were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate effect sizes. Results Twenty four studies met the eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis integrating seven studies (758 participants, all students found that viewing alcohol advertisements increased immediate alcohol consumption relative to viewing non-alcohol advertisements (SMD = 0.20, 95 % CI = 0.05, 0.34. A meta-analysis integrating six studies (631 participants, all students did not find that viewing alcohol portrayals in television programmes or films increased consumption (SMD = 0.16, 95 % CI = −0.05, 0.37. Meta-analyses of secondary outcome data found that exposure to alcohol portrayals increased explicit alcohol-related cognitions, but did not find that exposure to alcohol advertisements influenced explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions. Confidence in results is diminished by underpowered analyses and unclear risk of bias. Conclusions Viewing alcohol advertisements (but not alcohol portrayals may increase immediate alcohol consumption by small amounts, equivalent to between 0.39 and 2.67 alcohol units for males and between 0.25 and 1

  6. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

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    Nicolai Petry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0 and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0, respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age, and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.

  7. Quality of reporting in abstracts of RCTs published in emergency medicine journals: a protocol for a systematic survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germini, Federico; Marcucci, Maura; Fedele, Marta; Galli, Maria Giulia; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Salvatori, Valentina; Veronese, Giacomo; Worster, Andrew; Thabane, Lehana

    2017-04-27

    The quality of reporting of abstracts of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in major general medical journals and in some category-specific journals was shown to be poor before the publication of the ConsolidatedStandards of ReportingTrials (CONSORT) extension for abstracts in 2008, and an improvement in the quality of reporting of abstracts was observed after its publication. The effect of the publication of the CONSORT extension for abstracts on the quality of reporting of RCTs in emergency medicine journals has not been studied. In this paper, we present the protocol of a systematic survey of the literature, aimed at assessing the quality of reporting in abstracts of RCTs published in emergency medicine journals and at evaluating the effect of the publication of the CONSORT extension for abstracts on the quality of reporting. The Medline database will be searched for RCTs published in the years 2005-2007 and 2014-2015 in the top 10 emergency medicine journals, according to their impact factor. Candidate studies will be screened for inclusion in the review. Exclusion criteria will be the following: the abstract is not available, they are published only as abstracts, still recruiting, or duplicate publications. The study outcomes will be the overall quality of reporting (number of items reported) according to the CONSORT extension and the compliance with its individual items. Two independent reviewers will screen each article for inclusion and will extract data on the CONSORT items and on other variables, which can possibly affect the quality of reporting. This is a library-based study and therefore exempt from research ethics board review. The review results will be disseminated through abstract submission to conferences and publication in a peer-reviewed biomedical journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Olofin, Ibironke; Hurrell, Richard F.; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P.; Moursi, Mourad; Donahue Angel, Moira; Rohner, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0) and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0), respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age), and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age). Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia. PMID:27827838

  9. Neuropathic pain phenotyping by international consensus (NeuroPPIC) for genetic studies: a NeuPSIG systematic review, Delphi survey, and expert panel recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Oliver; Kamerman, Peter R; Attal, Nadine; Baron, Ralf; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bennett, David L H; Bennett, Michael I; Bouhassira, Didier; Diatchenko, Luda; Freeman, Roy; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Jensen, Troels S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rice, Andrew S C; Seltzer, Zeʼev; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Yarnitsky, David; Smith, Blair H

    2015-11-01

    For genetic research to contribute more fully to furthering our knowledge of neuropathic pain, we require an agreed, valid, and feasible approach to phenotyping, to allow collaboration and replication in samples of sufficient size. Results from genetic studies on neuropathic pain have been inconsistent and have met with replication difficulties, in part because of differences in phenotypes used for case ascertainment. Because there is no consensus on the nature of these phenotypes, nor on the methods of collecting them, this study aimed to provide guidelines on collecting and reporting phenotypes in cases and controls for genetic studies. Consensus was achieved through a staged approach: (1) systematic literature review to identify all neuropathic pain phenotypes used in previous genetic studies; (2) Delphi survey to identify the most useful neuropathic pain phenotypes and their validity and feasibility; and (3) meeting of experts to reach consensus on the optimal phenotype(s) to be collected from patients with neuropathic pain for genetic studies. A basic "entry level" set of phenotypes was identified for any genetic study of neuropathic pain. This set identifies cases of "possible" neuropathic pain, and controls, and includes: (1) a validated symptom-based questionnaire to determine whether any pain is likely to be neuropathic; (2) body chart or checklist to identify whether the area of pain distribution is neuroanatomically logical; and (3) details of pain history (intensity, duration, any formal diagnosis). This NeuroPPIC "entry level" set of phenotypes can be expanded by more extensive and specific measures, as determined by scientific requirements and resource availability.

  10. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  11. Impact of a decision aid about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management on women's knowledge and intentions: a randomised online experimental survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Susanne F; Freeman, Maddie; Waller, Jo; Fraser, Lindsay; Gessler, Sue; Jacobs, Ian; Kalsi, Jatinderpal; Manchanda, Ranjit; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Wardle, Jane; Lanceley, Anne; Sanderson, Saskia C

    2017-11-16

    Risk stratification using genetic and other types of personal information could improve current best available approaches to ovarian cancer risk reduction, improving identification of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer and reducing unnecessary interventions for women at lower risk. Amounts of information given to women may influence key informed decision-related outcomes, e.g. knowledge. The primary aim of this study was to compare informed decision-related outcomes between women given one of two versions (gist vs. extended) of a decision aid about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management. This was an experimental survey study comparing the effects of brief (gist) information with lengthier, more detailed (extended) information on cognitions relevant to informed decision-making about participating in risk-stratified ovarian cancer screening. Women with no personal history of ovarian cancer were recruited through an online survey company and randomised to view the gist (n = 512) or extended (n = 519) version of a website-based decision aid and completed an online survey. Primary outcomes were knowledge and intentions. Secondary outcomes included attitudes (values) and decisional conflict. There were no significant differences between the gist and extended conditions in knowledge about ovarian cancer (time*group interaction: F = 0.20, p = 0.66) or intention to participate in ovarian cancer screening based on genetic risk assessment (t(1029) = 0.43, p = 0.67). There were also no between-groups differences in secondary outcomes. In the sample overall (n = 1031), knowledge about ovarian cancer increased from before to after exposure to the decision aid (from 5.71 to 6.77 out of a possible 10: t = 19.04, p type of content for decision aids about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management. This study was registered with the ISRCTN registry; registration number: ISRCTN48627877 .

  12. Levantamento pedológico da estação experimental de Pindamonhangaba A soil survey of the Pindamonhangaba agr. Exp. Sta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Küpper

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são estudados, classificados e delimitados os solos da Estação Experimental de Pindamonhangaba. Êsse campo experimental possui uma área de 226 hectares, ou 93,9 alqueires paulistas, dedicando-se a pesquisas agrícolas. Os solos estão classificados em séries monotípicas ou tipos de solo, grande grupo, subordem e ordem, segundo a classificação climática. Acompanham cada série descrições morfológica e genética, bem como principais propriedades físicas e químicas. A fertilidade foi analisada somente pelas propriedades químicas de amostras compostas, colhidas em locais diversos dentro da Estação Os solos zonais, da subordem Latossolo, de boa drenagem, compreendem as séries Pinhão, Pinda, Polêmica e Ponte Alta, e os moderadamente drenados estão definidos pelas séries Guatemala e Gleba. Na categoria de intrazonais são encontrados os grandes grupos Glei Pouco Húmico (série Mosqueada e o Glei Húmico (série Estação. A eerie Dourada é a única que se enquadra no grande grupo Aluvião, da ordem azonal.A detailed soil survey of lhe Paraíba Valley (Taubaté basin is being carried on as a cooperative project between the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, and the Serviço do Vale do Paraíba. As a part of this project, a soil survey of the Pindamonhangaba Agr, Exp. Sta. (226 hectares was made, the results of which are reported in this paper. The soils were classified in monotype series or soil types, Great Soil Group, sub-order, and order, according to the climatic classification. The fertility problems were studied on the basis of composile soil samples several site of the slatian. The zonal soils belong to the sub-order Latosol and were defined in soil types Pinhão, Pinda. Polêmica, and Ponte Alta, as well drained soils, and Guatemala and Gleba as moderately drained ones. As intraional soils was the Mosqueada series present, defined as Low Humíc Gley and Estação Series as Humic Gley. The Dourada

  13. A Literature Survey and Experimental Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art in Uplift Modeling: A Stepping Stone Toward the Development of Prescriptive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Floris; Moldovan, Darie; Verbeke, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Prescriptive analytics extends on predictive analytics by allowing to estimate an outcome in function of control variables, allowing as such to establish the required level of control variables for realizing a desired outcome. Uplift modeling is at the heart of prescriptive analytics and aims at estimating the net difference in an outcome resulting from a specific action or treatment that is applied. In this article, a structured and detailed literature survey on uplift modeling is provided by identifying and contrasting various groups of approaches. In addition, evaluation metrics for assessing the performance of uplift models are reviewed. An experimental evaluation on four real-world data sets provides further insight into their use. Uplift random forests are found to be consistently among the best performing techniques in terms of the Qini and Gini measures, although considerable variability in performance across the various data sets of the experiments is observed. In addition, uplift models are frequently observed to be unstable and display a strong variability in terms of performance across different folds in the cross-validation experimental setup. This potentially threatens their actual use for business applications. Moreover, it is found that the available evaluation metrics do not provide an intuitively understandable indication of the actual use and performance of a model. Specifically, existing evaluation metrics do not facilitate a comparison of uplift models and predictive models and evaluate performance either at an arbitrary cutoff or over the full spectrum of potential cutoffs. In conclusion, we highlight the instability of uplift models and the need for an application-oriented approach to assess uplift models as prime topics for further research.

  14. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2013-12-04

    This study examined the perceptions of cigarette packaging and the potential impact of plain packaging regulations. The hypothesis was that the branded cigarette packages would be rated more positively than the corresponding plain packs with and without descriptors. Between-subjects experimental online survey. Male and female participants were separately randomised to one of the three experimental conditions: fully branded cigarette packs, plain packs with descriptors and plain packs without descriptors; participants were asked to evaluate 12 individual cigarette packages. The participants were also asked to compare five pairs of packs from the same brand family. Norway. 1010 youths and adults aged 15-22. Ratings of appeal, taste and harmfulness for individual packages. Ratings of taste, harm, quality, 'would rather try' and 'easier to quit' for pairs of packages. Plain with and without descriptors packs were rated less positively than the branded packs on appeal (index score 1.63/1.61 vs 2.42, pbranded condition was significant for appeal (index score 2.08/1.92 vs 2.58, pbranded condition for taste (index score 1.18 vs 1.70, pbranded compared with the plain condition on dimensions less harmful (β -0.77, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.56), would rather try (β -0.32, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.14) and easier to quit (β -0.58, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.39). The results indicate that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging could lead to a reduction in positive perceptions of cigarettes among young people.

  15. Impact of a decision aid about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management on women’s knowledge and intentions: a randomised online experimental survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne F. Meisel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk stratification using genetic and other types of personal information could improve current best available approaches to ovarian cancer risk reduction, improving identification of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer and reducing unnecessary interventions for women at lower risk. Amounts of information given to women may influence key informed decision-related outcomes, e.g. knowledge. The primary aim of this study was to compare informed decision-related outcomes between women given one of two versions (gist vs. extended of a decision aid about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management. Methods This was an experimental survey study comparing the effects of brief (gist information with lengthier, more detailed (extended information on cognitions relevant to informed decision-making about participating in risk-stratified ovarian cancer screening. Women with no personal history of ovarian cancer were recruited through an online survey company and randomised to view the gist (n = 512 or extended (n = 519 version of a website-based decision aid and completed an online survey. Primary outcomes were knowledge and intentions. Secondary outcomes included attitudes (values and decisional conflict. Results There were no significant differences between the gist and extended conditions in knowledge about ovarian cancer (time*group interaction: F = 0.20, p = 0.66 or intention to participate in ovarian cancer screening based on genetic risk assessment (t(1029 = 0.43, p = 0.67. There were also no between-groups differences in secondary outcomes. In the sample overall (n = 1031, knowledge about ovarian cancer increased from before to after exposure to the decision aid (from 5.71 to 6.77 out of a possible 10: t = 19.04, p < 0.001, and 74% of participants said that they would participate in ovarian cancer screening based on genetic risk assessment. Conclusions No differences in knowledge or

  16. From QUOROM to PRISMA: a survey of high-impact medical journals' instructions to authors and a review of systematic reviews in anesthesia literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kun-ming; Li, Xiao-qian; Zhou, Qing-hui; Moher, David; Ling, Chang-quan; Yu, Wei-feng

    2011-01-01

    The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was published to help authors improve how they report systematic reviews. It is unknown how many journals mention PRISMA in their instructions to authors, or whether stronger journal language regarding use of PRISMA improves author compliance. An Internet-based investigation examined the extent to which 146 leading medical journals have incorporated the PRISMA Statement into their instructions to authors. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Also, systematic reviews published in the leading anesthesiology journals and the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analyses) Statement were used to explore the hypothesis that indicating compliance with the QUOROM Statement in the manuscript is associated with improved compliance with the reporting guideline. In a sample of 146 journals publishing systematic reviews, the PRISMA Statement was referred to in the instructions to authors for 27% (40/146) of journals; more often in general and internal medicine journals (7/14; 50%) than in specialty medicine journals (33/132; 25%). In the second part of the study, 13 systematic reviews published in the leading anesthesiology journals in 2008 were included for appraisal. Mention of the QUOROM Statement in the manuscript was associated with higher compliance with the QUOROM checklist (P = 0.022). Most of the leading medical journals used ambiguous language regarding what was expected of authors. Further improvement on quality of reporting of systematic reviews may entail journals clearly informing authors of their requirements. Stronger directions, such as requiring an indication of adherence to a research quality of reporting statement in the manuscript, may improve reporting and utility of systematic reviews.

  17. Quasi-experimental Study of Systematic Screening for Family Planning Services among Postpartum Women Attending Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam; Kumar, Somesh; Sethi, Reena; Charurat, Elaine; Lalchandani, Kamlesh; Schuster, Anne; Sood, Bulbul

    2018-01-25

    Systematic screening helps increase family planning uptake through integration with other services, including immunization. Though successfully demonstrated at health facilities, this strategy has not been demonstrated in communities. This study assessed the effectiveness of systematic screening to increase postpartum family planning use during community health days in India without adversely affecting immunization services. The study was conducted during 180 individual Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India. All health workers were trained in postpartum family planning counseling. Intervention providers were also trained in systematic screening. 217 postpartum women aged 15-49 years participated in baseline and endline exit interviews and routine service statistics were analyzed from 2,485 facility visits at affiliated health centers. No difference in family planning service use was found in the intervention group, but significantly fewer interviewed women reported receiving family planning services at endline in the comparison group (p = 0.014). Family planning acceptance at affiliated health centers increased significantly in intervention areas (p family planning services when integrated with community-based services in Jharkhand.

  18. Evaluation of Systematic Effects and Data Acquisition System for CALIOPE, an Experimental Search for CP Violation in ortho-Positronium Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Chelsea; Henning, Reyco; Othman, Gulden; Murphy, Jake

    2016-09-01

    CALIOPE, or CP Aberrant Leptons in o-Ps Experiment, will search for CP -violating angular correlations between gamma rays in the decay of positronium. CALIOPE uses a tagged source inserted between two disks of aerogel centered in an annular array of 24 sodium iodide bars. We present an in-depth study of the systematics as well as developments on the DAQ. Specifically, we will discuss the implications of the results from our detailed Monte Carlo simulation as well as the outcomes of several toy Monte Carlo models. We will also present the DAQ design and results from early tests to characterize the position and energy reconstruction of the array.

  19. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation following Partial Hepatectomy: A New Concept to Promote Liver Regeneration-Systematic Review of the Literature Focused on Experimental Studies in Rodent Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis G; Katselis, Charalambos; Apostolou, Konstantinos; Feretis, Themistoklis; Lymperi, Maria; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Papalois, Apostolos E; Zografos, George C

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source for regenerative medicine because they are easily accessible through minimally invasive methods and have the potential to enhance liver regeneration (LG) and improve liver function, following partial hepatectomy (PH) and acute or chronic liver injury. A systematic review of the literature was conducted for articles published up to September 1st, 2016, using the MEDLINE database. The keywords that were used in various combinations were as follows: "Mesenchymal stem cells", "transplantation", "stem cells", "adipose tissue derived stem cells", "bone marrow-derived stem cells", "partial hepatectomy", "acute liver failure", "chronic liver failure", "liver fibrosis", "liver cirrhosis", "rats", "mice", and "liver regeneration". All introduced keywords were searched for separately in MeSH Database to control relevance and terminological accuracy and validity. A total of 41 articles were identified for potential inclusion and reviewed in detail. After a strict selection process, a total of 28 articles were excluded, leaving 13 articles to form the basis of this systematic review. MSCs transplantation promoted LG and improved liver function. Furthermore, MSCs had the ability to differentiate in hepatocyte-like cells, increase survival, and protect hepatocytes by paracrine mechanisms. MSCs transplantation may provide beneficial effects in the process of LG after PH and acute or chronic liver injury. They may represent a new therapeutic option to treat posthepatectomy acute liver failure.

  1. Oral contraception and menstrual bleeding during treatment of venous thromboembolism: Expert opinion versus current practice: Combined results of a systematic review, expert panel opinion and an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, F. A.; Schreiber, K.; Stach, K.; Ageno, W.; Middeldorp, S.; Eichinger, S.; Delluc, A.; Blondon, M.; Ay, C.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal management of oral contraception and menstrual bleeding during treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is largely unknown. We aimed to elicit expert opinion and compare that to current practice as assessed by a world-wide international web-based survey among physicians. 10

  2. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 38. The McClelland drawings and a reappraisal of the 1835-36 survey of the birds of Assam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Walters, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    McClelland brought back specimens and drawings from a survey in 1835-36 (and perhaps 1836-37). New birds were described in a paper read by Horsfield (1840). A comparison of the McClelland drawings of birds, held at the British Library, with the type specimens of birds newly named in 1840 and with

  3. An evaluation of the quality of statistical design and analysis of published medical research: results from a systematic survey of general orthopaedic journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Nick R; Price, Charlotte L; Hiskens, Richard; Achten, Juul; Costa, Matthew L

    2012-04-25

    The application of statistics in reported research in trauma and orthopaedic surgery has become ever more important and complex. Despite the extensive use of statistical analysis, it is still a subject which is often not conceptually well understood, resulting in clear methodological flaws and inadequate reporting in many papers. A detailed statistical survey sampled 100 representative orthopaedic papers using a validated questionnaire that assessed the quality of the trial design and statistical analysis methods. The survey found evidence of failings in study design, statistical methodology and presentation of the results. Overall, in 17% (95% confidence interval; 10-26%) of the studies investigated the conclusions were not clearly justified by the results, in 39% (30-49%) of studies a different analysis should have been undertaken and in 17% (10-26%) a different analysis could have made a difference to the overall conclusions. It is only by an improved dialogue between statistician, clinician, reviewer and journal editor that the failings in design methodology and analysis highlighted by this survey can be addressed.

  4. Experimental validation of plant peroxisomal targeting prediction algorithms by systematic comparison of in vivo import efficiency and in vitro PTS1 binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulding, Nicola S; Chowdhary, Gopal; Deus, Mara J; Baker, Alison; Reumann, Sigrun; Warriner, Stuart L

    2015-03-13

    Most peroxisomal matrix proteins possess a C-terminal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Accurate prediction of functional PTS1 sequences and their relative strength by computational methods is essential for determination of peroxisomal proteomes in silico but has proved challenging due to high levels of sequence variability of non-canonical targeting signals, particularly in higher plants, and low levels of availability of experimentally validated non-canonical examples. In this study, in silico predictions were compared with in vivo targeting analyses and in vitro thermodynamic binding of mutated variants within the context of one model targeting sequence. There was broad agreement between the methods for entire PTS1 domains and position-specific single amino acid residues, including residues upstream of the PTS1 tripeptide. The hierarchy Leu>Met>Ile>Val at the C-terminal position was determined for all methods but both experimental approaches suggest that Tyr is underweighted in the prediction algorithm due to the absence of this residue in the positive training dataset. A combination of methods better defines the score range that discriminates a functional PTS1. In vitro binding to the PEX5 receptor could discriminate among strong targeting signals while in vivo targeting assays were more sensitive, allowing detection of weak functional import signals that were below the limit of detection in the binding assay. Together, the data provide a comprehensive assessment of the factors driving PTS1 efficacy and provide a framework for the more quantitative assessment of the protein import pathway in higher plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using non-systematic surveys to investigate effects of regional climate variability on Australasian gannets in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Dassis, Mariela; Benn, Emily; Stockin, Karen A.; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional and natural climate variability on seabird populations using ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)) that integrate atmospheric information to supplement ocean observations and provide improved estimates of ocean conditions. Herein we use a non-systematic dataset on Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) from 2001 to 2009 to identify potential connections between Gannet Sightings Per Unit Effort (GSPUE) and climate and oceanographic variability in a region of known importance for breeding seabirds, the Hauraki Gulf (HG), New Zealand. While no statistically significant relationships between GSPUE and global climate indices were determined, there was a significant correlation between GSPUE and regional SST anomaly for HG. Also, there appears to be a strong link between global climate indices and regional climate in the HG. Further, based on cross-correlation function coefficients and lagged multiple regression models, we identified potential leading and lagging climate variables, and climate variables but with limited predictive capacity in forecasting future GSPUE. Despite significant inter-annual variability and marginally cooler SSTs since 2001, gannet sightings appear to be increasing. We hypothesize that at present underlying physical changes in the marine ecosystem may be insufficient to affect supply of preferred gannet main prey (pilchard Sardinops spp.), which tolerate a wide thermal range. Our study showcases the potential scientific value of lengthy non-systematic data streams and when designed properly (i.e., contain abundance, flock size, and spatial data), can yield useful information in climate impact studies on seabirds and other marine fauna. Such information can be invaluable for enhancing conservation measures for protected species in fiscally constrained research environments.

  6. Systematic survey of the design, statistical analysis, and reporting of studies published in the 2008 volume of the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Hanna M; Vesterinen, Hanna V; Egan, Kieren; Deister, Amelie; Schlattmann, Peter; Macleod, Malcolm R; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    Translating experimental findings into clinically effective therapies is one of the major bottlenecks of modern medicine. As this has been particularly true for cerebrovascular research, attention has turned to the quality and validity of experimental cerebrovascular studies. We set out to assess the study design, statistical analyses, and reporting of cerebrovascular research. We assessed all original articles published in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism during the year 2008 against a checklist designed to capture the key attributes relating to study design, statistical analyses, and reporting. A total of 156 original publications were included (animal, in vitro, human). Few studies reported a primary research hypothesis, statement of purpose, or measures to safeguard internal validity (such as randomization, blinding, exclusion or inclusion criteria). Many studies lacked sufficient information regarding methods and results to form a reasonable judgment about their validity. In nearly 20% of studies, statistical tests were either not appropriate or information to allow assessment of appropriateness was lacking. This study identifies a number of factors that should be addressed if the quality of research in basic and translational biomedicine is to be improved. We support the widespread implementation of the ARRIVE (Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiments) statement for the reporting of experimental studies in biomedicine, for improving training in proper study design and analysis, and that reviewers and editors adopt a more constructively critical approach in the assessment of manuscripts for publication.

  7. Does Talking on a Cell Phone, With a Passenger, or Dialing Affect Driving Performance? An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Simmons, Sarah M; Wiley, Katelyn; Johnston, Kate A; Horrey, William J

    2018-02-01

    Objective An up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental research on talking and driving is needed to provide a comprehensive, empirical, and credible basis for policy, legislation, countermeasures, and future research. Background The effects of cell, mobile, and smart phone use on driving safety continues to be a contentious societal issue. Method All available studies that measured the effects of cell phone use on driving were identified through a variety of search methods and databases. A total of 93 studies containing 106 experiments met the inclusion criteria. Coded independent variables included conversation target (handheld, hands-free, and passenger), setting (laboratory, simulation, or on road), and conversation type (natural, cognitive task, and dialing). Coded dependent variables included reaction time, stimulus detection, lane positioning, speed, headway, eye movements, and collisions. Results The overall sample had 4,382 participants, with driver ages ranging from 14 to 84 years ( M = 25.5, SD = 5.2). Conversation on a handheld or hands-free phone resulted in performance costs when compared with baseline driving for reaction time, stimulus detection, and collisions. Passenger conversation had a similar pattern of effect sizes. Dialing while driving had large performance costs for many variables. Conclusion This meta-analysis found that cell phone and passenger conversation produced moderate performance costs. Drivers minimally compensated while conversing on a cell phone by increasing headway or reducing speed. A number of additional meta-analytic questions are discussed. Application The results can be used to guide legislation, policy, countermeasures, and future research.

  8. Neuroplasticity - exercise-induced response of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a systematic review of experimental studies in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Goekint, Maaike; Heyman, Elsa Marie; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-09-01

    Exercise is known to induce a cascade of molecular and cellular processes that support brain plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential neurotrophin that is also intimately connected with central and peripheral molecular processes of energy metabolism and homeostasis, and could play a crucial role in these induced mechanisms. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the effects of acute exercise and/or training on BDNF in healthy subjects and in persons with a chronic disease or disability. A systematic and critical literature search was conducted. Articles were considered for inclusion in the review if they were human studies, assessed peripheral (serum and/or plasma) BDNF and evaluated an acute exercise or training intervention. Nine RCTs, one randomized trial, five non-randomized controlled trials, five non-randomized non-controlled trials and four retrospective observational studies were analysed. Sixty-nine percent of the studies in healthy subjects and 86% of the studies in persons with a chronic disease or disability, showed a 'mostly transient' increase in serum or plasma BDNF concentration following an acute aerobic exercise. The two studies regarding a single acute strength exercise session could not show a significant influence on basal BDNF concentration. In studies regarding the effects of strength or aerobic training on BDNF, a difference should be made between effects on basal BDNF concentration and training-induced effects on the BDNF response following an acute exercise. Only three out of ten studies on aerobic or strength training (i.e. 30%) found a training-induced increase in basal BDNF concentration. Two out of six studies (i.e. 33%) reported a significantly higher BDNF response to acute exercise following an aerobic or strength training programme (i.e. compared with the BDNF response to an acute exercise at baseline). A few studies of low quality (i.e. retrospective observational studies) show that

  9. Core outcome research measures in anal cancer (CORMAC): protocol for systematic review, qualitative interviews and Delphi survey to develop a core outcome set in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Rebecca; Sanders, Caroline; Williamson, Paula R; Renehan, Andrew G

    2017-11-22

    The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) has increased threefold in the last 30 years. Initial treatment is chemoradiotherapy, associated with short-term and long-term side effects. Future therapy innovations aim to reduce morbidity in treatment of early tumours while maintaining treatment efficacy, and to escalate treatment intensity in locally advanced tumours with acceptable quality of life (QoL). However, all phase III randomised controlled trials to-date have utilised different primary outcomes, which hinders evidence synthesis and presents challenges to the selection of optimal outcomes in future trials. No trial comprehensively assessed long-term side effects and QoL, suggesting outcomes reflecting issues important to patients are under-represented. This project aims to determine the priority outcomes for all stakeholders and reach agreement on a standardised core set of outcomes to be measured and reported on in all future ASCC trials. A systematic review will identify all outcomes reported in trials and observational studies of chemoradiotherapy as primary treatment for ASCC. Outcomes of importance to patients will be identified through patient interviews. The long list of outcomes generated from the systematic review and interviews will be used to create a two-round Delphi process, including key stakeholders (patients and healthcare professionals). The results of the Delphi will be discussed at a face-to-face consensus meeting. Discussion will focus on outcomes that did not achieve consensus through the Delphi process and conclude with anonymous voting to ratify the final core outcome set (COS). The final COS will feed directly into the PersonaLising Anal cancer radioTherapy dOse (PLATO) national anal cancer trials and the Association of coloproctologists of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) supported national anal cancer database. Utilisation of the COS will increase the relevance of research output to all stakeholders and increase the

  10. A population-based survey of the epidemiology of symptom-defined gastroesophageal reflux disease: the Systematic Investigation of Gastrointestinal Diseases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD has yet to be investigated using the symptomatic threshold criteria recommended by the Montreal Definition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD across five regions of China, and to investigate variables associated with GERD. Methods A representative sample of 18 000 adults (aged 18-80 years were selected equally from rural and urban areas in each region (n = 1800. According to the Montreal Definition, GERD is present when mild symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occur on ≥2 days a week, or moderate-to-severe symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occur on ≥1 day a week. Results In total, 16 091 participants completed the survey (response rate: 89.4% and 16 078 responses were suitable for analysis. Applying the Montreal criteria, the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD was 3.1% and varied significantly (p Conclusions This population-based survey found that the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD in China was 3.1%, which is lower than that found in Western countries.

  11. Establishing core outcome sets for phenylketonuria (PKU) and medium-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in children: study protocol for systematic reviews and Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Beth K; Hutton, Brian; Clifford, Tammy J; Pallone, Nicole; Smith, Maureen; Stockler, Sylvia; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Barbeau, Pauline; Garritty, Chantelle M; Pugliese, Michael; Rahman, Alvi; Skidmore, Becky; Tessier, Laure; Tingley, Kylie; Coyle, Doug; Greenberg, Cheryl R; Korngut, Lawrence; MacKenzie, Alex; Mitchell, John J; Nicholls, Stuart; Offringa, Martin; Schulze, Andreas; Taljaard, Monica

    2017-12-19

    Inherited metabolic diseases (IMD) are a large group of rare single-gene disorders that are typically diagnosed early in life. There are important evidence gaps related to the comparative effectiveness of therapies for IMD, which are in part due to challenges in conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for rare diseases. Registry-based RCTs present a unique opportunity to address these challenges provided the registries implement standardized collection of outcomes that are important to patients and their caregivers and to clinical providers and healthcare systems. Currently there is no core outcome set (COS) for studies evaluating interventions for paediatric IMD. This protocol outlines a study that will establish COS for each of two relatively common IMD in children, phenylketonuria (PKU) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. This two-part study is registered with the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative. Part 1 includes a rapid review and development of an evidence map to identify a comprehensive listing of outcomes reported in past studies of PKU and MCAD deficiency. The review follows established methods for knowledge synthesis, including a comprehensive search strategy, two stages of screening citations against inclusion/exclusion criteria by two reviewers working independently, and extraction of important data elements from eligible studies, including details of the outcomes collected and outcome measurement instruments. The review findings will inform part 2 of our study, a set of Delphi surveys to establish consensus on the highest priority outcomes for each condition. Healthcare providers, families of children with PKU or MCAD deficiency, and health system decision-makers will be invited to participate in two to three rounds of Delphi surveys. The design of the surveys will involve parents of children with IMD who are part of a family advisory forum. This protocol is a crucial step in developing the

  12. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis: Are we overdoing? An Asian survey on trends in bariatric surgery with a systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Kumar, S Saravana; Swamy, Parimala Devi Kumara; Palanivelu, C; Raj, P Praveen

    2017-12-11

    Obesity is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is the most common cause of mortality in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. There is considerable variation in practice regarding methods, dosages and duration of prophylaxis in this patient population. Most of the literature is based on Western patients and specific guidelines for Asians do not exist. We conducted a web-based survey amongst 11 surgeons from high-volume centres in Asia regarding their DVT prophylaxis measures in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We collected and analysed the data. The reported incidence of DVT and VTE ranged from 0% to 0.2%. Most surgeons (63.64%) preferred to use both mechanical and chemoprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin being the most preferred form of chemoprophylaxis (81.82%). There was an equal distribution of weight-based, body mass index-based and fixed-dose regimens. Duration of chemoprophylaxis ranged from 3-5 days after surgery to 2 weeks after surgery. For high-risk patients, 60% surgeons preferred to start chemoprophylaxis at least 1 week before surgery. Routine use of inferior vena cava filters in high-risk patients was not preferred with some surgeons adopting a selective use (36.36%). The purpose of this survey was to understand the trends in DVT prophylaxis amongst different high-volume bariatric centres in Asia and to relate the same with the existing literature on the different steps in prophylaxis. There is, however, a need for consensus guidelines for DVT prophylaxis in Asian obese.

  13. Environmental radioactivity survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.G.; Lee, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic survey on the environmental radioactivity at Chosun University and its surrounding areas during the year of 1981 was carried out through various environmental samples, which were precipitation, surface soil, stream water, pine needles, and others. Out of these samples natural background radiation was surveyed. No significant radioactive materials from the Atomic Energy Research Institute attached to Chosun University and the Radioisotopes Laboratory of Chosun University Hospital were detected during this period. (author)

  14. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...

  15. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  16. Entre a teoria parasitária e a oncologia experimental: uma proposta de sistematização da ciência oncológica em Portugal, 1889-1945 Between parasitic theory and experimental oncology: a proposal for systematizing oncological science in Portugal, 1889-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Pinto Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Focaliza a produção de investigação biomédica sobre o estudo do câncer em Portugal entre 1889 e 1945. Recuperando os principais trabalhos realizados entre finais do século XIX e a primeira metade do XX, foi possível trazer a lume e delimitar um campo de ação científica ainda pouco estudado. Desde a introdução e consolidação dos princípios que definiram a oncologia experimental, detectam-se fases distintas de produção científica, oscilando entre a comprovação de teorias dominantes e a aplicação de métodos de criação artificial da doença. Propõe-se breve sistematização da orientação dos estudos dedicados à oncologia, organizados em patamares de investigação predominantes.This article deals with the bio-medical investigation of cancer studies in Portugal between 1889 and 1945. By examining the main works produced between the end of the nineteenth century and the middle of the twentieth century, it has been possible to illuminate and define a field of scientific endeavour which has been the scope of little study to date. Starting from the introduction and consolidation of the defining principles of experimental oncology, distinct phases can be discerned in the production of scientific material, alternating between support for the dominant theories and the application of methods for artificially creating the disease. In accordance with the principal phases of investigation, a brief systematic overview of the scope of these oncological studies is presented.

  17. Experimental survey on percutaneous injection of calcium phosphate cement in preventing the articular surface collapsing secondary to avascular necrosis of femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Changlong; Lv Weifu; Zhang Xuebin; Wang Weiyu; Zhang Xingming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the technical way for animal model of ANFH with TAE (transcatheter arterial embolization)and to observe the image and pathologic changes of percutaneous injection with CPC (Calcium Phosphate Cement)in preventing the articular surface collapsing secondary to ANFH (avascular necrosis of femoral head)in pigs and its feasibility and safety. Methods: Branch arteries of the pig's left femoral head were embolized with woolly threads. Twenty pigs were randomly divided into A and B groups, and after about 1 month changes were assessed by imagings. Group A(n=8)was served as control of model contrast group, with only TAE and then surveyed the avascular necrosis features of femoral head by imaging together with pathologic and histologic examinations. Group B (n=12) was designated as percutaneous injection with CPC for interventional treatment group of ANFH at the stage Ficat II. Results: The animal models of ANFH in early stage were established by embolization of feeding arteries. In Group A, bone collapse occurred in 1.5 months after TAE, with imaging features of femoral head necrosis aggravated gradually. In group B, technical success of percutaneous injection with CPC was high and technical criteria included precise injection time, vigorous percutaneous fixing of bone, suitable proportion of CPC powder to liquid. CT scan of femoral head with injection CPC showed that it diffused well. Volume of bone trabecula (TBV)and percentage of bone lacuna (PBL)at unit area under microscopy were also inspected in two groups. TBV and PBL of two groups were compared in different special times and calculated especially for group B (P<0.05). Conclusion: The percutaneous injection of CPC to femoral head is a quite safe and effective palliative therapy for ANFH in early stage. (authors)

  18. Towards a capabilities database to inform inclusive design: experimental investigation of effective survey-based predictors of human-product interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Raji; Johnson, Daniel; Goldenberg, Liz; Parker, Richard A; Huppert, Felicia A

    2012-07-01

    A key issue in the field of inclusive design is the ability to provide designers with an understanding of people's range of capabilities. Since it is not feasible to assess product interactions with a large sample, this paper assesses a range of proxy measures of design-relevant capabilities. It describes a study that was conducted to identify which measures provide the best prediction of people's abilities to use a range of products. A detailed investigation with 100 respondents aged 50-80 years was undertaken to examine how they manage typical household products. Predictor variables included self-report and performance measures across a variety of capabilities (vision, hearing, dexterity and cognitive function), component activities used in product interactions (e.g. using a remote control, touch screen) and psychological characteristics (e.g. self-efficacy, confidence with using electronic devices). Results showed, as expected, a higher prevalence of visual, hearing, dexterity, cognitive and product interaction difficulties in the 65-80 age group. Regression analyses showed that, in addition to age, performance measures of vision (acuity, contrast sensitivity) and hearing (hearing threshold) and self-report and performance measures of component activities are strong predictors of successful product interactions. These findings will guide the choice of measures to be used in a subsequent national survey of design-relevant capabilities, which will lead to the creation of a capability database. This will be converted into a tool for designers to understand the implications of their design decisions, so that they can design products in a more inclusive way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in basal cell carcinoma: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, Daniel I; Iyengar, Sanjana; Yanes, Arianna F; Lazaroff, Jake M; Godinez-Puig, Victoria; Chen, Brian R; Kurta, Anastasia O; Henley, Jill K; Chiren, Sarah G; Furlan, Karina C; Schmitt, Jochen; Deckert, Stefanie; Poon, Emily; Sobanko, Joseph F; Cartee, Todd V; Alam, Murad; Maher, Ian A

    2017-10-23

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer worldwide. Treatment options include both surgical and topical modalities. Although risk of metastasis is low, basal cell carcinoma can be invasive and infiltrate important underlying structures such as bone or cartilage. While many clinical trials examining therapies for basal cell carcinoma exist, the lack of consensus in outcome reporting across all trials poses a concern. Proper evaluation and comparison of treatment modalities is challenging. In order to address the inconsistencies present, this project aims to determine a core set of outcomes which should be evaluated in all clinical trials of basal cell carcinoma. Outcomes will be extracted over four phases: (1) a systematic literature review, (2) patient interviews, (3) other published sources, and (4) stakeholder involvement. Potential outcomes will then be examined by the Steering Committee, who may add or remove outcomes. The Delphi process will then be performed to condense the list of outcomes generated. Two rounds of Delphi surveys will be performed with two groups of participants - physicians and patients. A consensus meeting with relevant stakeholders will be conducted after the Delphi exercise to further select outcomes, taking into account participant scores. By the end of the meeting, members will vote and decide on a final recommended set of core outcomes. For the duration of the study, we will be in collaboration with both the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative and the Cochrane Skin Group - Core Outcome Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN). This study aims to develop a core outcome set to guide assessment in clinical trials on basal cell carcinoma. The end-goal is to improve the consistency of outcome reporting and allow proper evaluation of treatment effectiveness.

  20. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christopher; Panaccione, Remo; Fedorak, Richard N; Parker, Claire E; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Sandborn, William J; Feagan, Brian G; Jairath, Vipul

    2017-06-09

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic, progressive and disabling disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the foundation of evidence that validates medical therapy for IBD, considerable heterogeneity exists in the measured outcomes used in these studies. Furthermore, in recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in IBD treatment targets, moving from symptom-based scoring to improvement or normalisation of objective measures of inflammation such as endoscopic appearance, inflammatory biomarkers and histological and radiographic end points. The abundance of new treatment options and evolving end points poses opportunities and challenges for all stakeholders involved in drug development. Accordingly, there exists a need to harmonise measures used in clinical trials through the development of a core outcome set (COS). The development of an IBD-specific COS includes four steps. First, a systematic literature review is performed to identify outcomes previously used in IBD RCTs. Second, semistructured qualitative interviews are conducted with key stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, researchers, pharmaceutical industry representatives, healthcare payers and regulators to identify additional outcomes of importance. Using the outcomes generated from literature review and stakeholder interviews, an international two-round Delphi survey is conducted to prioritise outcomes for inclusion in the COS. Finally, a consensus meeting is held to ratify the COS and disseminate findings for application in future IBD trials. Given that over 30 novel therapeutic compounds are in development for IBD treatment, the design of robust clinical trials measuring relevant and standardised outcomes is crucial. Standardising outcomes through a COS will reduce heterogeneity in trial reporting, facilitate valid comparisons of new therapies and improve

  1. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Advice lines for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been introduced internationally. However, only a few publications have described the advice line service and evaluated the efficiency of it with many results presented as conference posters. A systematic synthesis...... of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...

  2. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  3. Systematic Avocating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Green

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeling obliged to undertake complex research tasks outside core working hours is a common occurrence in academia. Detailed and timely research projects are expected; the creation and defence of sufficient intervals within a crowded working schedule is one concern explored in this short version paper. Merely working longer hours fails to provide a satisfactory solution for individuals experiencing concerns of this nature. Personal effort and drive are utilised and requires the application of mental mustering and systematic procedures. The attitude to research work is treating the task as a hobby conceptualised as avocating. Whilst this provides a personal solution through immersion in the task, this approach should raise concerns for employers. The flexibility of grounded theory is evident and the freedom to draw on various bodies of knowledge provides fresh insight into a problem that occurs in organizations in many sectors experiencing multiple priorities. The application of the core category, systematic avocating, may prove beneficial.

  4. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  5. Experimental diet based on the foods listed in the Family Budget Survey is more detrimental to growth than to the reflex development of rats Dieta experimental baseada em alimentos listados pela Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar é mais agressiva ao crescimento que ao desenvolvimento reflexo de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Figueiredo Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the pregnancy and lactation performances of rats fed an experimental diet based on the foods listed in the Family Budget Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar 2002/2003 and the impact of said diet on the growth and development of the pups until weaning. METHODS: Wistar (n=12 rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (control group, n=6 fed a commercial chow (Labina®, Brazil and an experimental group (n=6 fed the Family Budget Survey diet during the entire pregnancy and lactation period. All animals had free access to food and water during the entire study period. RESULTS: The Family Budget Survey diet increased the duration of pregnancy (control group=21.00±0.00; POFG=21.57±0.55, p=0.025 and made the dams lose weight during the lactation period (control group=27.92±18.47g; POFG=-15.66±16.90g. The Family Budget Survey group presented low food, energy and nutrient intakes during pregnancy, which became even lower during lactation. Pups from Family Budget Survey dams presented lower body weight at weaning (control group=52.38±4.49g; POFG=39.88±2.78g, p=0.001 and lower nose-to-anus length (control group= 117.37±0.64mm; POFG=125.62±0.96mm, p=0.001. However, some physical milestones and reflexes occurred earlier, such as the placing response reflex [control group= 12.00 (9.00-15.00 days; POFG=9.50 (9.00-14.00 days] aerial righting reflex [control group=18.00 (17.00-20.00 days; POFG=16.00 (13.00-18.00 days] and unfolding of the external ear [control group=3.00 (3.00-3.00 days; POFG=2.00 (2.00-3.00 days]. CONCLUSION: The Family Budget Survey diet seems to be more detrimental to the physical growth of the pups than to their brain growth, according to the assessed reflexes and physical milestones and measures. This may be due to the low protein content of the diet for rat reproduction and growth combined with adequate fat and essential fatty acid contents. Providing an adequate amount of

  6. Systematic reviews informing occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sally; Hoffmann, Tammy; McCluskey, Annie; Coghlan, Nicole; Tooth, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    We sought to identify and describe the number, topics, and publishing trends of systematic reviews relevant to occupational therapy indexed in the OTseeker database. We performed a cross-sectional survey of the systematic reviews contained in OTseeker in December 2011. Of the 1,940 systematic reviews indexed in OTseeker, only 53 (2.7%) were published in occupational therapy journals. The most common diagnostic categories were stroke (n = 195, 10.1%) and affective disorders (n = 204, 10.5%). The most common intervention categories were consumer education (n = 644, 33.2%) and psychosocial techniques (n = 571, 29.4%). Only 390 (20.1%) of the 1,940 systematic reviews specifically involved occupational therapy. Occupational therapists need to search broadly to locate relevant systematic reviews or, alternatively, to use databases such as OTseeker. Clarity about the involvement of occupational therapy in reports of future research will improve the ability to identify occupational therapy research for all stakeholders. Finally, occupational therapy practitioners need to read systematic reviews critically to determine whether review conclusions are justified. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases (BM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) are a rare event. However, the implications for affected patients are severe, and the incidence has been reported to be increasing. For clinicians, knowledge about the characteristics associated with BM is important and could lead...... to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...... of brain involvement in patients with these characteristics is necessary....

  8. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby

    2017-01-01

    : To assess the occurrence of COPD among construction workers. Methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Embase between 1 January 1990 and 31 August 2016 in order to identify epidemiological studies with a risk estimate for either COPD morbidity/mortality or a spirometry-based definition....... Conclusions: This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential...

  9. Potential resource and cost saving analysis of subcutaneous versus intravenous administration for rituximab in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and for trastuzumab in breast cancer in 17 Italian hospitals based on a systematic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzetti C

    2016-05-01

    : ±9.42] vs 21.6 hours subcutaneous [95% CI: ±9.9]. Furthermore, in both settings, the time of medical staff was reduced and could hence be used elsewhere. Finally, in case wastage was experienced with intravenous therapies, there were potential significant reductions in wastage through the subcutaneous administration (93%–100% with cost savings of €6,057 with rituximab subcutaneous and €28,399 with trastuzumab subcutaneous administration for the full treatment course. Conclusion: There are significant resource and cost savings due to subcutaneous administration with rituximab and trastuzumab in Italy based on a systematic survey. With the availability of a subcutaneous use of rituximab and trastuzumab, hospitals, patients and payers in general still have the current standard of care therapies available in the approved indications for a more efficient use of time and resources. Keywords: health economics, cost savings, oncology, intravenous therapy, subcutaneous therapy

  10. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available spectrum and supernovae (SNe). We show that near-future radio surveys will bring complementary measurements to other experiments, probing different cosmological volumes and having different systematics. Our results show that the unprecedented sky coverage...

  11. Victimisation surveys: What are they good for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Kauko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the usefulness of victimization surveys. The paper is focused of surveys in which nationally representative population samples are surveyed for their personal victimisation experiences, and their attitudes and opinions of issues related to crime and crime control. The author points out the benefits of using victimization surveys, but also explains why most countries have failed to make systematic use of this instrument.

  12. Automatic surveying techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of automatic surveying methods in a more systematic manner, the PEP organization signed a contract in late 1975 for TRW Systems Group to undertake a feasibility study. The completion of this study resulted in TRW Report 6452.10-75-101, dated December 29, 1975, which was largely devoted to an analysis of a survey system based on an Inertial Navigation System. This PEP note is a review and, in some instances, an extension of that TRW report. A second survey system which employed an ''Image Processing System'' was also considered by TRW, and it will be reviewed in the last section of this note. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Experimental model for architectural systematization and its basic thermal performance. Part 1. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Kenchiku system ka model no gaiyo to kihon seino ni tsuite. 1. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, N.; Ito, N.; Kimura, G.; Fukao, S.; Shimizu, T.; Tsunoda, M.; Muro, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The outline of a model for architectural systematization of natural energy conversion and the experiment result on the basic thermal performance in winter are described. The model is about 20 m{sup 2} in floor space. Foam polystyrene of 100 mm and 200 mm thick was used for the outer wall as heat insulating materials. The model has a solar battery and air conditioner and uses red brick as a heat reservoir. An experiment was made on seven modes obtained when three elements (heating, heat storage, and night insulated door) are combined. The information obtained by the experiment showed that a model for architectural systematization has high heat insulation and tightness and can be used as an energy element or an evaluation model for architectural systematization. In this model for architectural systematization, the power consumption of an air conditioner in winter can be fully supplied by only the power generation based on a solar battery. In an architectural element, the heating energy consumption can be remarkably reduced and the indoor thermal environment can be greatly improved, by the combination of a heat reservoir and night heat insulated door. 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Northern goshawk broadcast surveys: Hawk response variables and survey cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds; Douglas G. Leslie

    1994-01-01

    We examined responses of Northern Goshawks (Accipter gentilis) to taped broadcast calls of conspecifics in tree-harvest areas and around alternate goshawk nests on Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, in 1991 and 1992. Forest areas totaling 476 km2 were systematically surveyed for goshawks. Ninety responses by adult and juvenile goshawks were elicited...

  15. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  16. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  17. TOP2017 Experimental summary

    CERN Document Server

    Giammanco, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the unprecedentedly fast accumulation of high-energy data at the LHC during the ongoing Run~2, most of the traditional top-quark analyses are experiencing the luxury of having to worry about how to punch through the ``Systematics Wall'', and think about new ways to maximize the utility of their data. New processes involving top quarks are being studied for the first time, and the good old pair-production processes are being explored in unusual settings, such as collisions involving heavy ions, or ``reference data'' collected by the LHC at relatively low centre-of-mass energy. The TOP2017 conference featured 37 talks delivered by experimental physicists, including seven in the ``Young Scientists Forum'' where young colleagues were given the opportunity to elaborate more deeply than usual on their own work. As it is impossible to do justice to all the experimental resu...

  18. The GBFEL-TIE (Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) Sample Survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    U.S. Army Engineer Mexico to Zacatecas (some 800 km). Located primarily District, Ft. Worth as Contract No. DACW63 -86-D- between the two major mountain...provided seriously mis- nada Experimental Range has demonstrated that soil leading assemblage data. The comparative analyses movement of...scaled aerial photos and the use of systematic maps during survey, it was difficult to locate the bound- soil coring for subsurface investigations. To be

  19. Systematic systemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabell, Kenneth R.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    This book, The Catalyzing Mind: Beyond Models of Causality, began from our quest to achieve three goals for the discipline of psychology, and more specifically, as elaborated within a semiotic cultural psychology. Cultural psychology is a new–“up and coming” (Cole, 1996, Cultural psychology: A once...... science: History of psychology in the mirror of its making. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers) it was the experimental psychology tradition that expelled the study of complex human phenomena out of the realm of concerns of hardcore experimentalists who happily substituted the behavior of a white rat...... to stand in for the psyche of all human beings. The rat had no aesthetic attitudes towards the mazes he or she was forced “to run”, nor sophisticated ideas about investment of one’s behavioral capacities for the sake of future gains. The rat did not drink champagne, show herself in fashion shows, construct...

  20. High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: Experimental methods and systems investigated (2005-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José; Dohrn, Ralf; Peper, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    A review of systems is given, for which experimental high-pressure phase-equilibrium data were published in the period between 2005 and 2008, continuing a series of reviews. To find candidates for articles that are of interest for this survey a three-stage search strategy was used including...... a systematic search of the contents of the 17 most important journals of the field. Experimental methods for the investigation of high-pressure phase equilibria were classified, described and illustrated using examples from articles of the period between 2005 and 2008. For the systems investigated......, the reference, the temperature and pressure range of the data, and the experimental method used for the measurements is given in 54 tables. Vapor–liquid equilibria, liquid–liquid equilibria, vapor–liquid–liquid equilibria, solid–liquid equilibria, solid–vapor equilibria, solid–vapor–liquid equilibria, critical...

  1. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous...

  2. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. II. The Survey and a Systematic Analysis of Kinematic Anomalies and Asymmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; Lisker, T.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Simon, J. D.; van de Ven, G.; Paudel, S.; Emsellem, E.; Janz, J.; den Brok, M.; Gorgas, J.; Hensler, G.; Laurikainen, E.; Niemi, S.-M.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present spatially resolved kinematics and global stellar populations and mass-to-light ratios for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. This sample is representative of the

  3. Comparing the Effectiveness of Systematic Desensitization and Distraction on Pain and Fear in Children with Dental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fallah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One of the difficulties of community of dentists, especially dentists dealing with children, is the pain and fear of dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and distraction on reducing fear and pain in children with dental problems. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study designed with pretest-posttest multi groups according to control group. For this purpose, 45 children with dental problems referred to the dental clinic of Ardabil was selected and divided into three groups of 15 people: systematic desensitization (n=15, distraction (n=15 and control group (n=15. All of three groups answered to dental fears survey and numeric scale of pain as pre-test. Then, the therapeutic method of systematic desensitization and distraction was performed on two experimental groups. After completion of the treatments, three groups answered to dental fear survey and numeric scale of pain. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used for the analysis of the data. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the score of post-test between three groups in pain (F=197.27; p<0.001 anddental fear (F=178.36; p<0.001. LSD post hoc test results showed that systematic desensitization method was more effective in reduction of pain and the distraction method was more affective in reduction of dental fear. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that psychological interventions of distracting and systematic desensitization can be used to reduce fear and pain at pediatric clinics.

  4. Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Renato Santos de; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND...

  5. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  6. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A.; Jeffries, R.; Micela, G.; Negueruela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. The motivation, organisation and implementation of the Gaia-ESO Survey are described, emphasising the compleme...

  7. Interaction between short fatigue cracks and grain boundaries. Systematic experiments with focussed ion beam microscope and microstructural tomography; Ueber die Wechselwirkung kurzer Ermuedungsrisse mit Korngrenzen. Systematische Experimente mit Focussed Ion Beam Microscope und mikrostruktureller Tomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaef, Wolfgang

    2011-04-15

    Increasing the microstructural resistance of metallic materials to short fatigue crack growth is a major task of today's materials science. In this regard, grain boundaries and precipitates are well known to decelerate short cracks, but a quantitative understanding of the blocking effect is still missing. This is due to the fact that crack deceleration is influenced by many parameters: cyclic load, crack length, distance to obstacles, orientations of grains and obstacles. Even the examination of a huge number of short cracks would not be sufficient to identify the effect of these parameters independently, especially since fatigue crack growth is a 3D problem and investigations of the sub surface orientation of cracks and grain boundaries are scarce. The Focused Ion Beam Microscope (FIB) offers new methods for systematic experiments and 3D-investigation of short fatigue cracks that will help to quantify the microstructural impact on short fatigue crack growth. The ion beam is used to cut micro notches in selected grains on the surface of samples characterised by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). Plane fatigue cracks initiate under cyclic loading in defined distances to the grain boundaries. By this technique it is possible for the first time to present quantitative data to describe the effect of grain boundaries on short fatigue cracks in nickel based superalloys (CMSX-4) as well as in mild steels.

  8. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  9. Future cosmic microwave background delensing with galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, A.

    2018-02-01

    The primordial B-modes component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a promising experimental data set to probe the inflationary paradigm. B modes are indeed a direct consequence of the presence of gravitational waves in the early Universe. However, several secondary effects in the low-redshift universe will produce nonprimordial B modes. In particular, the gravitational interactions of CMB photons with large-scale structures will distort the primordial E modes, adding a lensing B-mode component to the primordial signal. Removing the lensing component ("delensing") will then be necessary to constrain the amplitude of the primordial gravitational waves. Here, we examine the role of current and future large-scale structure surveys in a multitracers approach to CMB delensing. We find that, in general, galaxy surveys should be split into tomographic bins, as this can increase the reduction of lensing B modes by ˜25 % in power in the most futuristic case. Ongoing or recently completed CMB experiments will particularly benefit from large-scale structure tracers that, once properly combined, will have a better performance than a CMB internal reconstruction. With the decrease of instrumental noise, the lensing B-modes power removed using CMB internal reconstruction alone will rapidly increase. Nevertheless, optical galaxy surveys will still play an important role even for fourth-generation CMB experiments. In particular, an LSST-like survey can a achieve a delensing performance comparable to a third-generation CMB experiment but with entirely different systematics. This redundancy will be essential to demonstrate the robustness against systematics of an eventual detection of primordial B modes.

  10. Survey of Tokamak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The survey covers the following topics:- Introduction and history of tokamak research; review of tokamak apparatus, existing and planned; remarks on measurement techniques and their limitations; main results in terms of electron and ion temperatures, plasma density, containment times, etc. Empirical scaling; range of operating densities; impurities, origin, behaviour and control (including divertors); data on fluctuations and instabilities in tokamak plasmas; data on disruptive instabilities; experiments on shaped cross-sections; present experimental evidence on β limits; auxiliary heating; experimental and theoretical problems for the future. (author)

  11. Three experimental approaches to measure the social context dependence of prejudice communication and discriminatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Heiko; Liebe, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research on discrimination is faced with crucial problems stemming from the specific character of its object of study. In democratic societies the communication of prejudices and other forms of discriminatory behavior is considered socially undesirable and depends on situational factors such as whether a situation is considered private or whether a discriminatory consensus can be assumed. Regular surveys thus can only offer a blurred picture of the phenomenon. But also survey experiments intended to decrease the social desirability bias (SDB) so far failed in systematically implementing situational variables. This paper introduces three experimental approaches to improve the study of discrimination and other topics of social (un-)desirability. First, we argue in favor of cognitive context framing in surveys in order to operationalize the salience of situational norms. Second, factorial surveys offer a way to take situational contexts and substitute behavior into account. And third, choice experiments - a rather new method in sociology - offer a more valid method of measuring behavioral characteristics compared to simple items in surveys. All three approaches - which may be combined - are easy to implement in large-scale surveys. Results of empirical studies demonstrate the fruitfulness of each of these approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WORKING MEMORY AND CREATIVITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Crema Remoli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Creativity and working memory are academic and professional success markers. Paradoxically, correlational studies do not always find associations between these constructs; some studies show positive associations between them and others show negative associations. Probably, the contradictory findings arise from different parameters, because of that it is important to identify them in order to have a more coherent understanding of this relationship. Thus, this systematic literature review aimed to answer the questions: “What is the relationship between working memory and creativity? Do update and serial recall mnemonic processes also interfere in the production of convergent or divergent thinking?” For this purpose, a survey of specific descriptors generated 384 articles found in Scopus, Web of Science and Pubmed databases, from which fifteen studies were selected. Despite the methodological variability between the selected studies, the results found suggest associations between working memory and creativity, which are explained by the attentional, inhibitory, analytical and motivational processes involved. A systematic review of these studies concluded that the characteristics of experimental tasks to study creativity and working memory used can influence the results of this association. It is also possible to infer that working memory overload can impair creative performance.

  13. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Poston, J.W.; Deus, S.F.; Chen, W.L.; Roswell, R.L.; Goans, R.E.; Cantrell, J.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral fluence measurements in an adult phantom are reported. A NaI(Tl) probe was used in various locations within the phantom and pulse-height spectra were obtained for seven beam configurations and three generating potentials. Some typical spectra results are presented. A comparison of calculated dose to experimental measurements is presented

  14. Experimental guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes a model experimental design to study the effects of pesticides on particular ecosystem. It takes maize as a model crop and an alternative crop while studying the adverse effects on untargeted arthropods, residues in the soil and other plants. 5 refs, 7 figs

  15. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in squamous cell carcinoma: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, Daniel I; Iyengar, Sanjana; Yanes, Arianna F; Chiren, Sarah G; Godinez-Puig, Victoria; Chen, Brian R; Kurta, Anastasia O; Schmitt, Jochen; Deckert, Stefanie; Furlan, Karina C; Poon, Emily; Cartee, Todd V; Maher, Ian A; Alam, Murad; Sobanko, Joseph F

    2017-07-12

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer that poses a risk of metastasis. Clinical investigations into SCC treatment are common, but the outcomes reported are highly variable, omitted, or clinically irrelevant. The outcome heterogeneity and reporting bias of these studies leave clinicians unable to accurately compare studies. Core outcome sets (COSs) are an agreed minimum set of outcomes recommended to be measured and reported in all clinical trials of a given condition or disease. Although COSs are under development for several dermatologic conditions, work has yet to be done to identify core outcomes specific for SCC. Outcome extraction for COS generation will occur via four methods: (1) systematic literature review; (2) patient interviews; (3) other published sources; and (4) input from stakeholders in medicine, pharmacy, and other relevant industries. The list of outcomes will be revaluated by the Measuring PRiority Outcome Variables via Excellence in Dermatologic surgery (IMPROVED) Steering Committee. Delphi processes will be performed separately by expert clinicians and patients to condense the list of outcomes generated. A consensus meeting with relevant stakeholders will be conducted after the Delphi exercise to further select outcomes, taking into account participant scores. At the end of the meeting, members will vote and decide on a final recommended set of core outcomes. The Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) organization and the Cochrane Skin Group - Core Outcome Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN) will serve as advisers throughout the COS generation process. Comparison of clinical trials via systematic reviews and meta-analyses is facilitated when investigators study outcomes that are relevant and similar. The aim of this project is to develop a COS to guide use for future clinical trials.

  16. The systematization of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2002-01-01

    this paper presents an approach for the systematization of practical experiences whitin Operations Research, Community work, Systems Sciences, Action Research, etc. A case study is presented: the systematization of the activities of a development center in Denmark.......this paper presents an approach for the systematization of practical experiences whitin Operations Research, Community work, Systems Sciences, Action Research, etc. A case study is presented: the systematization of the activities of a development center in Denmark....

  17. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  18. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  19. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  20. A history of Soil Survey in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, S.; Deeks, L.

    2012-04-01

    Early soil mapping in Britain was dominated, as in the USA, by soil texture with maps dating back to the early 1900's identifying surface texture and parent rock materials. Only in the 1920's did Dokuchaev's work in Russia involving soil morphology and the development of the soil profile start to gain popularity, drawing in the influence of climate and topography on pedogenesis. Intentions to create a formal body at this time responsible for soil survey were not implemented and progress remained slow. However, in 1939 definite steps were taken to address this and the soil survey was created. In 1947, its activities were transferred from Bangor to the research branch of the Rothamsted experimental station in Hertfordshire under Professor G.W. Robinson. Soon after, a number of regional offices were also established to act as a link with the National Agricultural Advisory Service. At this time a Pedology Department was established at Rothamsted, focussing on petrological, X-ray, spectrographic and chemical analyses. Although not a Rothamsted Department itself, the Survey did fall under the 'Lawes Agricultural Trust'. A Soil Survey Research Advisory Board was also formed to act as a liaison with the Agricultural Field Council. In Scotland by contrast, soil survey activities became centred on the Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen. Developments in the survey of British soils were accompanied in parallel by the development of soil classification systems. In 1930 a Soils Correlation Committee had been formed to ensure consistency in methods and naming of soil series and to ensure the classification was applied uniformly. In England and Wales the zonal system adopted was similar to that used in the USA, where soil series were named after the location where they were first described. American soil scientists such as Veitch and Lee provided stimulus to the development of mapping methods. In Scotland a differing classification was adopted, being similar to that used in Canada

  1. Western states uranium resource survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinney, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to provide a comprehensive description of uranium resources in the United States. To carry out this task, ERDA has contracted with various facilities, including universities, private companies, and state agencies, to undertake projects such as airborne radiometric surveys, geological and geochemical studies, and the development of advanced geophysical technology. LLL is one of four ERDA laboratories systematically studying uranium distribution in surface water, groundwater, and lake and stream sediments. We are specifically responsible for surveying seven western states. This past year we have designed and installed facilities for delayed-neutron counting and neutron-activation analysis, completed seven orientation surveys, and analyzed several thousand field samples. Full-scale reconnaissance surveys began last fall

  2. Development of a core outcome set for studies involving patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial disease: study protocol for a systematic review and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Graeme K; Bosanquet, David C; Brookes-Howell, Lucy; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Edwards, Adrian G K; Twine, Christopher P

    2017-12-28

    The development of a standardised reporting set is important to ensure that research is directed towards the most important outcomes and that data is comparable. To ensure validity, the set must be agreed by a consensus of stakeholders including patients, healthcare professionals and lay representatives. There is currently no agreed core outcome set for patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) for either short- or medium-term research outcomes. By developing these sets we aim to rationalise future trial outcomes, facilitate meta-analysis and improve the quality and applicability of amputation research. We will undertake a comprehensive systematic review of studies of patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for PAD. Data regarding all primary and secondary outcomes reported in relevant studies will be extracted and summarised as outcome domains. We will then undertake focus groups with key stakeholders (patients, carers, health and social care workers) to collect qualitative data to identify the main short- and medium-term research outcomes for patients undergoing major lower limb amputation. Results of the systematic review and focus groups will be combined to create a comprehensive list of potential key outcomes. Stakeholders (patients, researchers and health and social care workers) will then be polled to determine which of the outcomes are considered to be important in a general context using a three-phase Delphi process. After preliminary analysis, results will be presented at a face-to-face meeting of key stakeholders for discussion and voting on the final set of core outcomes. This project is being run in parallel with a feasibility trial assessing perineural catheters in patients undergoing lower limb amputation (the PLACEMENT trial). Full ethical approval has been granted for the study (Wales REC 3 reference number 16/WA/0353). Core outcome sets will be developed for short- and medium-term outcomes of

  3. Reflections on International Comparative Education Survey Methodology: A Case Study of the European Survey on Language Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on the methodology used in international comparative education surveys by conducting a systematic review of the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC). The ESLC was administered from February to March 2011, with final results released in June 2012. The survey tested approximately 55,000 students across 14 European…

  4. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  5. Tokamak experimental power reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The principal results of a scoping and project definition study for the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor are presented. Objectives are discussed; a preliminary conceptual design is described; detailed parametric, survey and sensitivity studies are presented; and research and development requirements are outlined. (U.S.)

  6. A Survey of WEC Reliability, Survival and Design Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G. Coe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A wave energy converter must be designed to survive and function efficiently, often in highly energetic ocean environments. This represents a challenging engineering problem, comprising systematic failure mode analysis, environmental characterization, modeling, experimental testing, fatigue and extreme response analysis. While, when compared with other ocean systems such as ships and offshore platforms, there is relatively little experience in wave energy converter design, a great deal of recent work has been done within these various areas. This paper summarizes the general stages and workflow for wave energy converter design, relying on supporting articles to provide insight. By surveying published work on wave energy converter survival and design response analyses, this paper seeks to provide the reader with an understanding of the different components of this process and the range of methodologies that can be brought to bear. In this way, the reader is provided with a large set of tools to perform design response analyses on wave energy converters.

  7. Experimental techniques and theoretical models for the study of integral 14 MeV neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.

    1981-01-01

    Owing to technical reasons, most of the data for fast neutron-induced reactions were measured at 14 MeV and the free parameters in nuclear reaction models have been determined at this energy. The discrepancies between experiment and theory are often due to the unmeasured or unreliable experimental data; therefore, it is important to survey the present techniques used for the measurement of total, elastic, nonelastic and partial nonelastic [(n,xn); (n,x charged); (n,f); (n,γ)] cross sections for 14 MeV neutrons. Systematics in the data as well as theoretical and semi-empirical models are also outlined. (author)

  8. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in facial aging: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, Daniel I; Iyengar, Sanjana; Yanes, Arianna F; Henley, Jill K; Ashchyan, Hovik J; Kurta, Anastasia O; Patel, Payal M; Sheikh, Umar A; Franklin, Matthew J; Hanna, Courtney C; Chen, Brian R; Chiren, Sarah G; Schmitt, Jochen; Deckert, Stefanie; Furlan, Karina C; Poon, Emily; Maher, Ian A; Cartee, Todd V; Sobanko, Joseph F; Alam, Murad

    2017-08-01

    Facial aging is a concern for many patients. Wrinkles, loss of volume, and discoloration are common physical manifestations of aging skin. Genetic heritage, prior ultraviolet light exposure, and Fitzpatrick skin type may be associated with the rate and type of facial aging. Although many clinical trials assess the correlates of skin aging, there is heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed, which limits the quality of evaluation and comparison of treatment modalities. To address the inconsistency in outcomes, in this project we will develop a core set of outcomes that are to be evaluated in all clinical trials relevant to facial aging. A long list of measureable outcomes will be created from four sources: (1) systematic medical literature review, (2) patient interviews, (3) other published sources, and (4) stakeholder involvement. Two rounds of Delphi processes with homogeneous groups of physicians and patients will be performed to prioritize and condense the list. At a consensus meeting attended by physicians, patients, and stakeholders, outcomes will be further condensed on the basis of participant scores. By the end of the meeting, members will vote and decide on a final recommended set of core outcomes. Subsequent to this, specific measures will be selected or created to assess these outcomes. The aim of this study is to develop a core outcome set and relevant measures for clinical trials relevant to facial aging. We hope to improve the reliability and consistency of outcome reporting of skin aging, thereby enabling improved evaluation of treatment efficacy and patient satisfaction. Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) Initiative, accessible at http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/737 . Core Outcomes Set Initiative, (CSG-COUSIN) accessible at https://www.uniklinikum-dresden.de/de/das-klinikum/universitaetscentren/zegv/cousin/meet-the-teams/project-groups/core-outcome-set-for-the-appearance-of-facial-aging . Protocol version date is 28

  9. MOMENT--Management of Otitis Media with Effusion in Cleft Palate: protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Nicola L; Bruce, Iain A; Callery, Peter; Tierney, Stephanie; Sharif, Mohammad Owaise; O'Brien, Kevin; Williamson, Paula R

    2013-03-12

    Cleft palate (CP) has an incidence of approximately 1 in 700. Children with CP are also susceptible to otitis media with effusion (OME), with approximately 90% experiencing nontrivial OME. There are several approaches to the management of OME in children with CP. The Management of Otitis Media with Effusion in Children with Cleft Palate (MOMENT) study is a feasibility study that includes the development of a core outcome set for use in future trials of the management of OME in children with CP. The MOMENT study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify a list of outcomes that have previously been reported. This list of outcomes will be used in a Delphi study with cleft clinicians. The Delphi study is anticipated to include three rounds. The first round will ask clinicians to score the outcome list and to add any outcomes they think are relevant. The second round involves presentation of scores according to stakeholder group and the opportunity for participants to rescore outcomes. To ensure that the opinion of parents and children are sought, qualitative interviews will be completed with a purposive sample in parallel. In the final round of the Delphi process, participants will be shown the distribution of scores, for each outcome, for all stakeholder groups separately as well as a summary of the results concerning outcomes from the qualitative interviews with parents. A final consensus meeting will be held with all stakeholders, including parents and children, to review outcomes. A core outcome set represents the minimum that should be measured in a clinical trial for a particular condition. The MOMENT study will aim to identify a core outcome set that can be used in future trials of the management of OME, improving the consistency of research in this clinical area.

  10. MOMENT – Management of Otitis Media with Effusion in Cleft Palate: protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cleft palate (CP) has an incidence of approximately 1 in 700. Children with CP are also susceptible to otitis media with effusion (OME), with approximately 90% experiencing nontrivial OME. There are several approaches to the management of OME in children with CP. The Management of Otitis Media with Effusion in Children with Cleft Palate (MOMENT) study is a feasibility study that includes the development of a core outcome set for use in future trials of the management of OME in children with CP. Methods/Design The MOMENT study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify a list of outcomes that have previously been reported. This list of outcomes will be used in a Delphi study with cleft clinicians. The Delphi study is anticipated to include three rounds. The first round will ask clinicians to score the outcome list and to add any outcomes they think are relevant. The second round involves presentation of scores according to stakeholder group and the opportunity for participants to rescore outcomes. To ensure that the opinion of parents and children are sought, qualitative interviews will be completed with a purposive sample in parallel. In the final round of the Delphi process, participants will be shown the distribution of scores, for each outcome, for all stakeholder groups separately as well as a summary of the results concerning outcomes from the qualitative interviews with parents. A final consensus meeting will be held with all stakeholders, including parents and children, to review outcomes. Discussion A core outcome set represents the minimum that should be measured in a clinical trial for a particular condition. The MOMENT study will aim to identify a core outcome set that can be used in future trials of the management of OME, improving the consistency of research in this clinical area. PMID:23497540

  11. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  12. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  13. Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendsen, N.T.; Christensen, R.; Bartels, E.M.; Kok, F.J.; Sierksma, A.; Raben, A.; Astrup, A.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed

  14. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'isomerie nucleaire. Application de la methode des coincidences differees a la recherche et a l'etude d'etats metastables de periode courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    Various methods of the physics brought many informations on the nuclear elements which one can arrange some ponderable quantities, what is the case of the steady elements and some, unsteady elements, as most of natural radioelements. On the other hand, elements of shorter life duration, and notably those that are carried to an excited state, are more badly known, and one can get information to their consideration that by the mediator of the properties of the transitions that they undergo, when they give birth has best-known nuclear cash: among these transitions represent the isomeric transitions. The goal of this work is the survey of the isomeric transitions from metastable states of short period, included in the domain of the microsecond to some milliseconds. The method of the deferred coincidences has been put to the point and applied in this goal while using the advantages of the selectors to several channels, under two main aspects where the device to several channels was either a selector of time, either a selector of amplitudes. This method served to study the working of Geiger-Muller counter and to measure with precision the period of {sup 181}Ta{sup *} in of the varied experimental conditions. The adopted value is 17,2 {+-}0,2 {mu}s. This work also found an immediate practical application to the setting in evidence of very weak quantities of hafnium in zirconium, of which it constitutes a tenacious and difficult impurity to analyze by the ordinary ways. (M.B.) [French] Les diverses methodes de la physique ont apporte de nombreux renseignements sur les especes nucleaires dont on peut disposer en quantites ponderables, ce qui est le cas des especes stables et de certaines especes instables, comme la plupart des radioelements naturels. Par contre, les noyaux de duree de vie plus courte, et notamment ceux qui sont portes a un etat excite, sont plus mal connus, et on ne peut obtenir de renseignements a leur egard que par l'intermediaire des proprietes des

  15. SEAMAP 2013 Fall Plankton Survey (PC1305, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2013 Fall Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  16. SEAMAP Spring 2015 Plankton Survey (GU1501, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2015 Spring Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  17. SEAMAP 2015 Fall Plankton Survey (PC1504, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2015 Fall Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  18. SEAMAP 2013 Fall Plankton Survey (PC1305, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2013 Fall Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  19. SEAMAP Spring 2016 Plankton Survey (R21601, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2016 Spring Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  20. SEAMAP Fall 2014 Plankton Survey (GU1405, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2014 Fall Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  1. Small Sample Experimental Design Optimization and Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Honson; D. DeCarli; S. V. Crowder

    1999-04-01

    The primary goal of using Design of Experiment (DOEx) methods is to extract the maximum amount of information concerning experimental factors and their interactions from as few observations as possible. DOEx methodology allows an experimenter to selectively and systematically adjust process settings to learn which factors have the greatest impact on process and product performance. Using information about these factors, process settings can be adjusted until optimum performance is obtained.

  2. [Study of spatial stratified sampling strategy of Oncomelania hupensis snail survey based on plant abundance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun-Ping, W; An, Z

    2017-07-27

    Objective To optimize and simplify the survey method of Oncomelania hupensis snails in marshland endemic regions of schistosomiasis, so as to improve the precision, efficiency and economy of the snail survey. Methods A snail sampling strategy (Spatial Sampling Scenario of Oncomelania based on Plant Abundance, SOPA) which took the plant abundance as auxiliary variable was explored and an experimental study in a 50 m×50 m plot in a marshland in the Poyang Lake region was performed. Firstly, the push broom surveyed data was stratified into 5 layers by the plant abundance data; then, the required numbers of optimal sampling points of each layer through Hammond McCullagh equation were calculated; thirdly, every sample point in the line with the Multiple Directional Interpolation (MDI) placement scheme was pinpointed; and finally, the comparison study among the outcomes of the spatial random sampling strategy, the traditional systematic sampling method, the spatial stratified sampling method, Sandwich spatial sampling and inference and SOPA was performed. Results The method (SOPA) proposed in this study had the minimal absolute error of 0.213 8; and the traditional systematic sampling method had the largest estimate, and the absolute error was 0.924 4. Conclusion The snail sampling strategy (SOPA) proposed in this study obtains the higher estimation accuracy than the other four methods.

  3. On the Systematics of Mass Spectrometry: A New Graph-Theoretical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkay Sütay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The systematic background of mass spectrometry (MS was established by using the Valency Interaction Formula theory in an efficient manner. A new graph theoretical method was developed as a pure quantum mechanical survey and applied on a variety of molecules and assemblies to elucidate the quantum mechanical systematics behind mass spectrometry. The topological indexes and graph theoretical methods in chemistry and physics as the striking features of this new method was applied onto the mass spectra of several molecules and assemblies due to the insufficiencies of the obselete fragmentation procedures. These fundamental topological indexes were determined to make quick deductions pictorially on the mass spectra of molecules. The major fragmentation pathways for several molecules, as the striking features of Mass Spectometry, were examined in a pure theoretical way and a priori decomposition products were predicted. The systematic theory was provided in the light of our examination and a great deal of qualitative information was obtained just by knowing which interactions are soft among the others. The results are of general validity in comparison with the experimental data.

  4. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  5. Gene Fusion: A Genome Wide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ping; Riley, Monica

    2001-01-01

    As a well known fact, organisms form larger and complex multimodular (composite or chimeric) and mostly multi-functional proteins through gene fusion of two or more individual genes which have independent evolution histories and functions. We call each of these components a module. The existence of multimodular proteins may improves the efficiency in gene regulation and in cellular functions, and thus may give the host organism advantages in adaptation to environments. Analysis of all gene fusions in present-day organisms should allow us to examine the patterns of gene fusion in context with cellular functions, to trace back the evolution processes from the ancient smaller and uni-functional proteins to the present-day larger and complex multi-functional proteins, and to estimate the minimal number of ancestor proteins that existed in the last common ancestor for all life on earth. Although many multimodular proteins have been experimentally known, identification of gene fusion events systematically at genome scale had not been possible until recently when large number of completed genome sequences have been becoming available. In addition, technical difficulties for such analysis also exist due to the complexity of this biological and evolutionary process. We report from this study a new strategy to computationally identify multimodular proteins using completed genome sequences and the results surveyed from 22 organisms with the data from over 40 organisms to be presented during the meeting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Neuropsychology in Finland - over 30 years of systematically trained clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Laura; Nybo, Taina; Poutiainen, Erja

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this invited paper for a special issue of international practice in The Clinical Neuropsychologist is to provide information on training models, clinical practice, and professional issues within neuropsychology in Finland. Relevant information was gathered via literature searches, a survey by the Neuropsychology Working Group of the Finnish Psychological Association, archives of the Finnish Neuropsychological Society, and personal communication with professionals in Finland. The roots of Finnish neuropsychology are linked to the early German tradition of experimental psychology. Since the 1970s, it has been strongly influenced by both the psychometric approach in the U.S. and the qualitative approach by Luria. Systematic specialization training program began in Finland in 1983. It was first organized by the Finnish Neuropsychological Society and since 1997 by Finnish universities. At present, around 260 neuropsychologists have completed this training. According to the survey by the Finnish Psychological Association in 2014, 67% of Finnish neuropsychologists work in the public sector, 36% in the private sector, and 28% reported that they had private practice. Work includes assessments for 90% of the respondents, rehabilitation for 74%, and many are involved in teaching and research. Of the respondents, 20% worked both with adults and children, 44% with adults only and 36% with children only. Within test development, pediatric neuropsychology is an especially prominent field. A unique blend of approaches and a solid systematic training tradition has led to a strong position of neuropsychologists as distinguished experts in the Finnish health care system.

  7. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property...... measurements, can now be performed through the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory [[1], [2] and [3

  8. Experimental and phenomenological status of neutrino anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    did not pursue this discrepancy with much vigor. In 1988, Kamiokande ... This technique had two advantages: it is less prone to experimental systematics and can be used to probe oscillations of μ and e into any channels. In 1998, super-K utilized precisely this method to truly establish oscillations as the primary cause for ...

  9. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  10. The Importance of Systematics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-02-18

    Feb 18, 1999 ... Similarly, the work of Nathan Charles Rothschild, a taxonomic authority on flea species, was responsible for the discovery ... The use of genetic data for taxonomic purposes also brings systematics closer to realizing Darwin's desire that classification should reflect evolutionary relationships. Systematics is.

  11. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    . In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer...... learning perspective. This paper looks into the challenges in some details. It is stated that facing these challenges requires an innovative and adaptable approach to both curriculum design and course delivery within the framework of an overall quality culture. The success will eventually depend...

  12. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    and personhood imagined to be already there, and communication as the free-flow of information? Is it therefore considered non-problematic that people commit themselves to remembering their past and present experience of illness and share it in detail within an - to them - unknown context? Can it even...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures....... Subjectivity is rather regulated and constituted in this practice. The relevant question becomes in what particular ways subjectivity and humanness are performed here? We want to look into this question exploring the agency of surveys, their effects and the politics involved in such a scientific practice....

  13. Readership survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews the last readership survey, which helped to check readers' reactions and the level and style of the journal. The majority of readers (32 per cent), not surprisingly, work in high energy physics. In fact, if the estimate of the world high energy physics population as some 5000 people is correct, CERN Courier reaches every one of them. The next large category of readers is the teaching profession (21 percent), with industrialists (12 per cent) in third place

  14. The state of head injury biomechanics: past, present, and future part 2: physical experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Werner; Monson, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    This presentation is the continuation of the article published in Critical Reviews of Biomedical Engineering, 29(5-6), 2001. That issue contained topics dealing with components and geometry of the human head, classification of head injuries, some early experimental studies, and tolerance considerations. It then dealt with head motion and load characterization, investigations during the period from 1939 to 1966, injury causation and early modeling efforts, the 1966 Head Injury Conference and its sequels, mechanical properties of solid tissues, fluid characterization, and early investigation of the mechanical properties of cranial materials. It continued with a description of the systematic investigations of solid cranial components and structural properties since 1966, fetal cranial properties, analytical head modeling, and numerical solutions of head injury. The paper concluded with experimental dynamic loading of human living and cadaver heads, dynamic loading of surrogate heads, and head injury mechanics. This portion of the paper describes physical head injury experimentation involving animals, primarily primates, human cadavers, volunteers, and inanimate physical models. In order to address the entire domain of head injury biomechanics in the two-part survey, it was intended that this information be supplemented by discussions of head injury tolerance and criteria, automotive and sports safety considerations, and the design of protective equipment, but Professor Goldsmith passed away before these sections could be completed. It is nevertheless anticipated that this attenuated installment will provide, in conjunction with the first part of the survey, a valuable resource for students and practitioners of head injury biomechanics.

  15. FY16 Moldova Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Moldova assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Moldova perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Moldova on 1) their views regarding the general environment in ...

  16. FY15 Tunisia Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Tunisia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Tunisia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Tunisia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in ...

  17. FY15 Benin Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Benin assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Benin perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Benin on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Benin;...

  18. FY15 Mauritania Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Mauritania assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Mauritania perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Mauritania on 1) their views regarding the general enviro...

  19. FY16 Honduras Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Honduras assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Honduras perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Honduras on 1) their views regarding the general environment ...

  20. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

  1. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  2. EEZ survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has contracted with the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) to charter the research vessel Farnella. The project is to map the ocean floor at depths greater than 500 m along the recently established United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The short range objectives include obtaining seafloor contours along the deep sea thermal spring zones in the Pacific Ocean basin. Should any of the zones prove economic for their sulfide mineral deposits, the charts should be of value to industry for years to come.

  3. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...

  4. Systematic Evaluation of Methods for Integration of Transcriptomic Data into Constraint-Based Models of Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Daniel; Herrgard, Markus

    2014-01-01

    of these methods has not been critically evaluated and compared. This work presents a survey of recently published methods that use transcript levels to try to improve metabolic flux predictions either by generating flux distributions or by creating context-specific models. A subset of these methods...... is then systematically evaluated using published data from three different case studies in E. coli and S. cerevisiae. The flux predictions made by different methods using transcriptomic data are compared against experimentally determined extracellular and intracellular fluxes (from 13C-labeling data). The sensitivity...... of the results to method-specific parameters is also evaluated, as well as their robustness to noise in the data. The results show that none of the methods outperforms the others for all cases. Also, it is observed that for many conditions, the predictions obtained by simple flux balance analysis using growth...

  5. Developing survey grids to substantiate freedom from exotic pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Frank H. Koch; William D. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Systematic, hierarchical intensification of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program hexagon for North America yields a simple procedure for developing national-scale survey grids. In this article, we describe the steps to create a national-scale survey grid using a risk map as the starting point. We illustrate the steps using an exotic pest example in which...

  6. Systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, K. D.; Lloyd, C. E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two professi...

  7. Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Dentistry: An Experimental Teaching Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)

  8. Determination of experimental K-shell fluorescence yield for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K-shell fluorescence yields were experimentally determined for potassium and calcium compounds using a Si(Li) X-ray detector system (FWHM=5.96 keV at 160 eV). The samples were excited by 5.96 keV photons produced by a 55Fe radioisotope source. The experimental values are systematically lower than the ...

  9. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  10. Towards a new role for vector systematics in parasite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Loaiza, Jose R; Conn, Jan E

    2011-11-01

    Vector systematics research is being transformed by the recent development of theoretical, experimental and analytical methods, as well as conceptual insights into speciation and reconstruction of evolutionary history. We review this progress using examples from the mosquito genus Anopheles. The conclusion is that recent progress, particularly in the development of better tools for understanding evolutionary history, makes systematics much more informative for vector control purposes, and has increasing potential to inform and improve targeted vector control programmes.

  11. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Lyα NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-01-01

    Giant Lyα nebulae (or Lyα 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Lyα nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Lyα nebulae at 2 ∼ 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. With a total survey comoving volume of ≈10 8 h –3 70 Mpc 3 , this is the largest volume survey for Lyα nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Lyα nebula.

  12. Systematics of atom-atom collision strengths at high speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Inokuti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The collision strengths for atom-atom collisions at high speeds are calculated in the first Born approximation. We studied four classes of collisions, distinguished depending upon whether each of the collision partners becomes excited or not. The results of numerical calculations of the collision strengths are presented for all neutral atoms with Z< or =18. The calculations are based on atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions found in the literature. The relative contribution of each class of collision processes to the total collision cross section is examined in detail. In general, inelastic processes dominate for low-Z atoms, while elastic scattering is more important for large Z. Other systematics of the collision strengths are comprehensively discussed. The relevant experimental literature has been surveyed and the results of this work for the three collision systems H-He, He-He, and H-Ar are compared with the data for electron-loss processes. Finally, suggestions are made for future work in measurements of atom-atom and ion-atom collision cross sections

  13. The Legal Content of School Psychology Journals: A Systematic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Imad; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2014-01-01

    The many challenges that school psychologists face inevitably include legal issues. In light of the agreement between the two primary professional organizations for school psychologists that understanding of law is a critical competency, this study analyzed the extent of law-based articles in leading school psychology journal articles published…

  14. Gotta survey somebody : Methodological challenges in population studies of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Kelfve, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Conducting representative surveys of older people is challenging. This thesis aims to analyze a) the characteristics of individuals at risk of being underrepresented in surveys of older people, b) the systematic errors likely to occur as a result of these selections, and c) whether these systematic errors can be minimized by weighting adjustments.   In Study I, we investigated a) who would be missing from a survey that excluded those living in institutions and that did not use indirect interv...

  15. [Improving the teaching quality by multiple tools and technology in oral histopathology experimental course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Li-Zhen; Hu, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Ye; Li, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Oral histopathology is a course which needs to be combined with theory and practice closely. Experimental course plays an important role in teaching oral histopathology. Here, we aim to explore a series of effective measures to improve the teaching quality of experimental course and tried to train observation, thinking, analysis and problem solving skills of dental students. We re-edited and updated the experimental textbook "guidelines of experimental course of oral histopathology", and published the reference book for experimental course--"color pocket atlas of oral histopathology: experiment and diadactic teaching". The number of clinicopathological cases for presentation and class discussion was increased, and high-quality teaching slides were added and replaced the poor-quality or worn out slides. We established a variety of teaching methods based on the internet, which provided an environment of self-directed learning for dental students. Instead of simple slice-reading examination, a new evaluation system based on computer was established. The questionnaire survey showed that the students spoke positively on the teaching reform for experimental course. They thought that the reform played a significant role in enriching the teaching content, motivating learning interest and promoting self-study. Compared with traditional examination, computer-based examination showed a great advantage on mastering professional knowledge systematically and comprehensively. The measures adopted in our teaching reform not only effectively improve the teaching quality of experimental course of oral histopathology, but also help the students to have a clear, logical thinking when facing complicated diseases and have the ability to apply theoretical knowledge into clinical practice.

  16. The effects of psychological treatments for adult depression on physical activity: A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; de Wit, L.M.; Taylor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity and depression have been consistently shown to be inversely associated in epidemiological surveys. It is not clear, however, whether successful treatment of depression results in increases in physical activity. Method Systematic review of randomized trials examining

  17. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  18. experimental evaluation experimental evaluation of alternative mix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper presents a comparison of seawater and laboratory brine on concrete using experimental methods. using experimental methods. using experimental methods. The seawater employed was obtained from Escravos in the coast of Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria. A concrete mix of. 1:2:4and water/cement ratio of 0.6 was ...

  19. Use and Impacts of Campbell Systematic Reviews on Policy, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study examines use and impacts of systematic reviews produced by the Campbell Collaboration's Social Welfare Coordinating Group (SWCG) on practice, policy, and research. Methods: A mixed-method research design was used to examine impacts of 52 systematic reviews published by the SWCG. We conducted author surveys and retrieved multiple…

  20. Cuticle microstructure as a new tool in systematic paleontology

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, David A.; Feldmann, Rodney M.

    2003-01-01

    Fossil decapod cuticle has received little systematic study. The purpose of the present note is to survey the cuticle architecture of eleven extant decapod crabs arrayed within ten families, and to develop a classification scheme of cuticle types suitable for describing fossil and Recent decapod cuticle morphology.

  1. Cuticle microstructure as a new tool in systematic paleontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waugh, David A.; Feldmann, Rodney M.

    2003-01-01

    Fossil decapod cuticle has received little systematic study. The purpose of the present note is to survey the cuticle architecture of eleven extant decapod crabs arrayed within ten families, and to develop a classification scheme of cuticle types suitable for describing fossil and Recent decapod

  2. Systematic Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The speed of innovation and the global allocation of resources to accelerate development or to reduce cost put pressure on the software industry. In the global competition, especially so-called high-price countries have to present arguments why the higher development cost is justified and what...... project- and quality management and their implementation in practice. So far, our results suggest that the necessity for a systematic software development is well recognized, while software development still follows an ad-hoc rather than a systematized style. Our results provide initial findings, which we...

  3. The political economy of international environmental agreements: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangler, L.; Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on the political economy of the formation of international environmental agreements. The survey covers theoretical modelling approaches and empirical studies including experimental work. Central to our survey is the question how the political process impacts

  4. Experimental Summary and Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Bosted

    2005-02-01

    A brief experimental overview of the workshop is given, with emphasis on polarized targets from the experimental equipment perspective, and kinematic coverage, precision, and newly investigated channels from the experimental results perspective.

  5. BENSC. Experimental reports 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Gast, H.; Michaelsen, R.

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the guest groups' experimental reports describing experimental work carried out on the Berlin Scattering Center in 1994. These experimental reports are intended as interim summaries. (HP)

  6. BENSC experimental reports 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Michaelsen, R.

    1994-05-01

    This volume contains the guest groups' experimental reports describing experimental work carried out on the Berlin Scattering Center in 1993. These experimental reports are intended as interim summaries. (HP)

  7. Experimental evaluation of clinical colon anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    : This study is a systematic review using the databases MEDLINE and Rex. MEDLINE was searched up to October 2010 to identify studies on experimental animal models of clinical colon anastomotic leakage. From the Rex database, textbooks on surgical aspects as well as gastrointestinal physiology and anatomy...... interventions are needed to create clinical leakage in these animals. The knowledge from this study formed the basis for selecting the animal species most suited for the models in the next studies. STUDY 2: In this experimental study, technically insufficient colonic anastomoses were performed in 110 C57BL/6...... instead of clinical leakage. However, anastomotic breaking strength was reduced in the ischemic anastomoses. STUDY 4: In this systematic review MEDLINE, Embase and Cinahl were searched up to September 2011 to identify studies evaluating external coating of colonic anastomoses. Most studies were...

  8. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of

  9. The HiPER Experimental Road Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batani, D.; Baton, S.; Badziak, J.; Davies, J.; Gizzi, L.; Hallo, L.; Norreys, P.; Roth, M.; Santos, J.; Tickhoncuk, V.; Woolsey, N.

    2010-02-01

    WP10 is one of the working packages of the HiPER project and it has the goal of addressing, in a systematic and programmatic way, some of the key experimental uncertainties on the way towards fast ignition (and shock ignition) in a perspective of risk reduction, so to contribute to the definition of the basic characteristics of the HiPER project. The paper describes the key points contained in the short term HiPER experimental road map, as well as the results of two first experiments performed in "HiPER dedicated time slots" in European Laser Facilities.

  10. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Weng, C.K. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lindsay, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  11. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Weng, C.K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lindsay, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-06-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  12. Systematic reviews on leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIDUGLI Fabio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To find the existing clinical evidence on interventions for leptospirosis. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any intervention on leptospirosis through systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs. DATA SOURCE: The sources of studies used (where there were no limitations concerning language, date, or other restrictions were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Database, and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Randomized Trials register. SELECTION OF STUDIES: Type of Study: All systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials. Participants: patients with clinical and/or laboratorial diagnosis of leptospirosis, and subjects potencially exposed to leptospirosis as defined by the authors Interventions: any intervention for leptospirosis (as antibiotics or vaccines for prevention or treatment. DATA COLLECTION: The assessment will be independently made by the reviewers and cross-checked. The external validity was assessed by analysis of: studies, interventions, and outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Located 163 studies using the search strategy described above, at the electronic databases above. Only 2 hits were selected, which are protocols of systematic reviews of Cochrane Collaboration, and not full reviews. One of the protocols evaluates antibiotics for treatment, and the other evaluates antibiotics for prevention of leptospirosis. CONCLUSIONS: There were not complete systematic reviews on interventions for leptospirosis. Any interventions for leptospirosis, such as prevention and treatment remains unclear for guidelines and practice.

  13. Systematic Description of Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    A sensor performs the exchange of information (thus energy) from one domain to another and therefore it operates on the interface between different physical domains. Several frameworks have been developed for a systematic description of sensors. Basically, they are based on either of two different

  14. Project Systematics of Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recently a multidisciplinary investigation program on the systematics of Annonaceae was started at Utrecht with special emphasis on the Neotropics. This project will be carried out largely within the framework of the UNESCO-project Flora Neotronica. The first goal is to provide a modern

  15. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  16. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  17. Swaddling : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  18. Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of bromine molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of bromine molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for bromine systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of bromine systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.

  19. A deep X-ray spectroscopic survey of the ESO imaging survey fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    V, we propose to perform a spectroscopic survey with SODART and push these telescopes to the limit at the high energies. By selecting the four ESO Imaging Survey fields EIS teach 6 deg(2)) we will take full advantage of the large, systematic effort ESO is putting into the optical survey of these fields......The deepest ROSAT surveys have shown, that, in the energy range 0.5-2.0 keV, QSO's can account for similar to 30 per cent of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB), and Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELG) and clusters of galaxies for about 10 per cent each. But, by assuming characteristic spectral....... This spectroscopic X-ray survey will provide a large, statistically complete, sample of sources detected at high energies, more than an order of magnitude fainter than obtained by previous missions. The study of these sources will significantly improve our understanding not only of the origin of DXRB, but also...

  20. 2012 Alumni Perspectives Survey. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Conducted in September 2011, this Alumni Perspectives Survey by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is a longitudinal study of respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey, the annual GMAC[R] exit survey of graduate management students in their final year of business school. This 12th annual report includes responses…

  1. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  2. Posthurricane Survey of Experimental Dunes on Padre Island, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Fimbristylis castanea 5 35 2 ______________ Scirpus americanus_____________ _______ ______ _ _______ Leguminosae ... Leguminosae _____________ Baptisa aleucophaea ___________ _________ Cassia fasciculata 4 1 T 4_____9 __ Euphorb iaceae _______ Croton capitatus - -TTI TCroton... Leguminosae ______ Baptisia leucophaea ______ ______ _______ _______ Cassia fasciculata 43_____ Euphorbiaceae______ Croton capitatus_______

  3. Marginal Aggregates in Flexible Pavements: Background Survey and Experimental Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    significant when compared to low LA abrasion values. Rollings3 and Dolar -Mantuani2 reported that the sulfate soundness test is used in many...concluded that degradation of aggregates with high LA abrasion values was not significant when compared to low LA abrasion values. Rollings3 and Dolar

  4. Experimental Affinities in Music

    OpenAIRE

    de Assis, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Experimental Affinities in Music brings together diverse artistic, musicological, historical, and philosophical essays, enhancing a broad discourse on artistic experimentation, and exploring various experimental attitudes in music composed between the thirteenth and twentieth centuries. The golden thread running through the different chapters is the quest for inherently experimental musical practices, a quest pursued from interrogating, descriptive, or challenging perspectives, and always...

  5. A Survey on the Security of Blockchain Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Peng; Chen, Ting; Luo, Xiapu; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    Since its inception, the blockchain technology has shown promising application prospects. From the initial cryptocurrency to the current smart contract, blockchain has been applied to many fields. Although there are some studies on the security and privacy issues of blockchain, there lacks a systematic examination on the security of blockchain systems. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study on the security threats to blockchain and survey the corresponding real attacks by examining popu...

  6. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  7. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  8. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies...

  9. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Edward B.

    With an emphasis on the problems of control of extraneous variables and threats to internal and external validity, the arrangement or design of experiments is discussed. The purpose of experimentation in an educational institution, and the principles governing true experimentation (randomization, replication, and control) are presented, as are…

  10. Computational aspects of systematic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, Timothy G; Harrison, Scott H; Cole, James R; Garrity, George M

    2006-06-01

    We review the resources available to systematic biologists who wish to use computers to build classifications. Algorithm development is in an early stage, and only a few examples of integrated applications for systematic biology are available. The availability of data is crucial if systematic biology is to enter the computer age.

  11. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  12. Effects of sleep manipulation on cognitive functioning of adolescents : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; van Run, C.; Staaks, J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be at risk for deteriorated cognitive functioning due to insufficient sleep. This systematic review examined the effects of experimental sleep manipulation on adolescent cognitive functioning. Sleep manipulations consisted of total or partial sleep restriction, sleep

  13. Income Aspirations and Cooperation : Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the first attempt to study the empirical link between income aspirations and cooperation in a one shot public good game. By combining experimental with survey data, we find evidence that the more frustrated people are with their income, the lower is their propensity to cooperate with

  14. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  15. Systematic reviews on leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Guidugli, Fabio; Castro, Aldemar Araujo [UNIFESP; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib [UNIFESP

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To find the existing clinical evidence on interventions for leptospirosis. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any intervention on leptospirosis through systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DATA SOURCE: The sources of studies used (where there were no limitations concerning language, date, or other restrictions) were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Database, and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Ra...

  16. Subject-Experimenter Perceptions of Ethical Issues in Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, David S.; Deiker, Thomas E.

    1973-01-01

    Findings of this survey indicate that important differences exist between experimenters and students on various issues of human research--psychologists expressing views much more ethically stringent than those by their most typical human subjects. (Authors)

  17. Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2011-01-04

    Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.

  18. Systematic safety evaluation of old nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dredemis, G.; Fourest, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French safety authorities have undertaken a systematic evaluation of the safety of old nuclear power plants. Apart from a complete revision of safety documents (safety analysis report, general operating rules, incident and accident procedures, internal emergency plan, quality organisation manual), this examination consisted of analysing the operating experience of systems frequently challenged and a systematic examination of the safety-related systems. This paper is based on an exercise at the Ardennes Nuclear Power Plant which has been in operation for 15 years. This paper also summarizes the main surveys and modifications relating to this power plant. (orig.)

  19. Evaluating hearing aid handling skills: A systematic and descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca J; Taljaard, Dunay S; Brennan-Jones, Christopher G; Tegg-Quinn, Susan; Eikelboom, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    To review and appraise the content and quality of surveys that evaluate hearing aid handling. A systematic and descriptive review. Twelve surveys were identified as containing at least one item evaluating hearing aid handling. Fifteen aspects of hearing aid handling were evaluated. None of the surveys evaluated all aspects of handling skills identified. While the majority of studies reported some psychometric evaluation during survey development, the quality of the methodology used and extent of psychometric evaluation reported varied considerably. There is currently no single survey that evaluates handling skills comprehensively. In the absence of an ideal survey, the Practical Hearing aid Skills Test appears to be the most inclusive clinician-administered survey and the Hearing aid User's Questionnaire appears to be the most inclusive self-report survey evaluating hearing aid handling precision; however, there are limitations in the analysis of their psychometric properties. Nonetheless, use of these surveys in clinical practice could identify areas of handling that warrant additional training in order to improve hearing aid success. Research identifying the full range of hearing aid handling skills necessary for successful hearing aid use will further contribute knowledge to the complex construct of successful hearing aid-use.

  20. Radio Surveys: an Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    Radio astronomy has provided important surveys that have made possible key (and sometimes serendipitous) discoveries. I will briefly mention some of the past continuum and line (HI) radio surveys as well as new, on-going surveys and surveys planned for the near future. This new generation of large

  1. Handbook of web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.; Biffignandi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Best practices to create and implementhighly effective web surveys Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to

  2. Systematics of pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for pion-induced double-charge-exchange (DCX) reactions leading to double-isobaric-analog states (DIAS) and low-lying nonanalog states in the residual nuclei. A description of the experimental details and data analysis is presented. The experimentally observed systematics of reactions leading to DIAS, to nonanalog ground states, and to low-lying 2 + states are described. Lowest-order optical-model calculations of DIAS DCX are compared to the data. Efforts to understand the anomalies by invoking additional reaction-mechanism amplitudes and a higher-order optical potential are described. Calculations of nonanalog DCX reactions leading to J/sup π/ = 0 + states were performed within a distorted-wave impulse-approximation framework. The sensitivities of these calculations to input parameters are discussed. 58 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs

  3. Systematics of pion double charge exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for pion-induced double-charge-exchange (DCX) reactions leading to double-isobaric-analog states (DIAS) and low-lying nonanalog states in the residual nuclei. A description of the experimental details and data analysis is presented. The experimentally observed systematics of reactions leading to DIAS, to nonanalog ground states, and to low-lying 2 states are described. Lowest-order optical-model calculations of DIAS DCX are compared to the data. Efforts to understand the anomalies by invoking additional reaction-mechanism amplitudes and a higher-order optical potential are described. Calculations of nonanalog DCX reactions leading to J/sup / = 0 states were performed within a distorted-wave impulse-approximation framework. The sensitivities of these calculations to input parameters are discussed. 58 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. HIRENASD Experimental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental Data for HIRENASD configuration Zip files below contain the experimental data for the pressure coefficients, both the static and the forced oscillation...

  5. Design of Formulated Products: Experimental Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Cheng, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    : computer-aided design (Stage 1), which generates a list of feasible candidates, experimental planning (Stage 2), which generates a list of experiments and checks the available experimental set-ups, and experimental testing (Stage 3), which measures the necessary data and verifies the desirable attributes......A systematic methodology for the design and verification of chemical-based products is proposed. By integrating modeling, and experiments, the search space is efficiently scanned to identify the feasible product candidates. The product design (or verification) problem consists of three stages...... of the final product. The first stage (Stage 1) has been covered in previous publications, along with detailed case studies. The development of Stage 2 and Stage 3 is considered in this article and highlighted through two case studies involving the design and validation of an insect repellent lotion...

  6. Experimental Facilities at the High Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main theme of the lectures covered the experimental work at hadron colliders, with a clear focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on the roadmap that led finally to the discovery of the Higgs boson. The lectures were not a systematic course on machine and detector technologies, but rather tried to give a physics-motivated overview of many experimental aspects that were all relevant for making the discovery. The actual lectures covered a much broader scope than what is documented here in this write- up. The successful concepts for the experiments at the LHC have benefitted from the experience gained with previous generations of detectors at lower- energy machines. The lectures included also an outlook to the future experimental programme at the LHC, with its machine and experiments upgrades, as well as a short discussion of possible facilities at the high energy frontier beyond LHC.

  7. Experimental energy-dependent nuclear spin distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T. von; Bucurescu, D.

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the energy-dependent spin distribution in experimental nuclear-level schemes. This method compares various experimental and calculated moments in the energy-spin plane to obtain the spin-cutoff parameter σ as a function of mass A and excitation energy using a total of 7202 levels with spin assignment in 227 nuclei between F and Cf. A simple formula, σ 2 =0.391 A 0.675 (E-0.5Pa ' ) 0.312 , is proposed up to about 10 MeV that is in very good agreement with experimental σ values and is applied to improve the systematics of level-density parameters.

  8. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  9. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  10. Investigation of systematic errors and estimation of $\\pi K$ atom lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Yazkov, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    This note describes details of analysis of data sample collected by DIRAC experiment on Ni target in 2008-2010 in order to estimate lifetime of $\\pi K$ atoms. Experimental results consists of six distinct data samples: both charge combinations ($\\pi^+K^−$ and $K^+\\pi^−$ atoms) obtained in dierent experimental conditions corresponding to each year of data-taking. Sources of systematic errors are analyzed, and estimations of systematic errors are presented. Taking into account both statistical and systematic uncertainties, the lifetime of $\\pi K$ atoms is estimated by maximum likelihood method.

  11. MAPPING AND SIMULATING SYSTEMATICS DUE TO SPATIALLY VARYING OBSERVING CONDITIONS IN DES SCIENCE VERIFICATION DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Elsner, F.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Amara, A.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Bruderer, C.; Busha, M. T.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Chang, C.; Crocce, M.; da Costa, L. N.; Gaztanaga, E.; Huff, E. M.; Lahav, O.; Palmese, A.; Percival, W. J.; Refregier, A.; Ross, A. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sánchez, C.; Sadeh, I.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-10-01

    Spatially varying depth and the characteristics of observing conditions, such as seeing, airmass, or sky background, are major sources of systematic uncertainties in modern galaxy survey analyses, particularly in deep multi-epoch surveys. We present a framework to extract and project these sources of systematics onto the sky, and apply it to the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to map the observing conditions of the Science Verification (SV) data. The resulting distributions and maps of sources of systematics are used in several analyses of DES-SV to perform detailed null tests with the data, and also to incorporate systematics in survey simulations. We illustrate the complementary nature of these two approaches by comparing the SV data with BCC-UFig, a synthetic sky catalog generated by forward-modeling of the DES-SV images. We analyze the BCC-UFig simulation to construct galaxy samples mimicking those used in SV galaxy clustering studies. We show that the spatially varying survey depth imprinted in the observed galaxy densities and the redshift distributions of the SV data are successfully reproduced by the simulation and are well-captured by the maps of observing conditions. The combined use of the maps, the SV data, and the BCC-UFig simulation allows us to quantify the impact of spatial systematics on N(z), the redshift distributions inferred using photometric redshifts. We conclude that spatial systematics in the SV data are mainly due to seeing fluctuations and are under control in current clustering and weak-lensing analyses. However, they will need to be carefully characterized in upcoming phases of DES in order to avoid biasing the inferred cosmological results. The framework presented here is relevant to all multi-epoch surveys and will be essential for exploiting future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will require detailed null tests and realistic end-to-end image simulations to correctly interpret the deep, high-cadence observations

  12. Systematized linear epidermolytic hyperkeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Piyush; Kumar, Rajesh; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Hassan, Shahid

    2014-01-15

    A 5-year-old boy presented with widespread asymptomatic hyperpigmented verrucous plaques since 3 months of age. The lesions were distributed in a linear manner along Blaschko's lines on trunk and extremities and were accentuated in flexures and around joints. There was no history of blistering or redness and no other family member was affected. Ichthyosis hystrix (of Curth and Macklin) and generalized linear/mosaic epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK) were considered in the differential diagnosis. Biopsy from both trunk lesion and lesion on knee revealed characteristic epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, thereby clinching the diagnosis of systematized linear EHK.

  13. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  14. Communication and Decisionmaking in C4ISR Sustained Operations: An Experimental Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harville, Donald L; Elliott, Linda R; Barnes, Christopher; Miller, James C

    2003-01-01

    ... over a sustained period of time. To date, there have been few systematic and experimental programs of research on the effects of fatigue on complex decision making, team communication, coordination, shared awareness, or performance...

  15. Survey of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boek, H.; Villa, M.

    2004-06-01

    A survey of reasearch reactors based on the IAEA Nuclear Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) was done. This database includes information on 273 operating research reactors ranging in power from zero to several hundred MW. From these 273 operating research reactors 205 reactors have a power level below 5 MW, the remaining 68 reactors range from 5 MW up to several 100 MW thermal power. The major reactor types with common design are: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktors, 1.2 Argonaut reactors, Slowpoke reactors, the miniature neutron source reactors, TRIGA reactors, material testing reactors and high flux reactors. Technical data such as: power, fuel material, fuel type, enrichment, maximum neutron flux density and experimental facilities for each reactor type as well as a description of their utilization in physics and chemistry, medicine and biology, academic research and teaching, training purposes (students and physicists, operating personnel), industrial application (neutron radiography, silicon neutron transmutation doping facilities) are provided. The geographically distribution of these reactors is also shown. As conclusions the author discussed the advantages (low capital cost, low operating cost, low burn up, simple to operate, safe, less restrictive containment and sitting requirements, versatility) and disadvantages (lower sensitivity for NAA, limited radioisotope production, limited use of neutron beams, limited access to the core, licensing) of low power research reactors. 24 figs., refs. 15, Tab. 1 (nevyjel)

  16. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  17. Gynecomastia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Anders; Lewin, Richard; Rufolo, Guglielmo; Elander, Anna; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a common medical problem presenting in nearly a third of the male population. Treatment for gynecomastia can be either pharmacological or surgical. Patients with gynecomastia often experience affected quality-of-life. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the quality of evidence of the current literature in relation to different treatment modalities and Quality-of-Life in patients with gynecomastia. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and SveMed+ in accordance with the PRISMA statement. All searches were undertaken between September-November 2014. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to specify inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was graded according to MINORS. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. Data from the included studies were extracted based on study characteristics, participants specifics, type of intervention/treatment, and type of outcome measures into data extraction forms. A total of 134 abstracts were identified in the literature search. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, 14 concerning treatment and three concerning Quality-of-Life. All studies were non-randomised with a high risk of bias and very low quality of evidence according to GRADE. Several different surgical methods have been described with good results, minimal scars, and various levels of complications. Traditional surgical excision of glandular tissue combined with liposuction provides most consistent results and a low rate of complications. Pubertal gynecomastia may safely be managed by pharmacological anti-oestrogen treatment.

  18. How effective are active videogames among the young and the old? Adding meta-analyses to two recent systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Crutzen, R.M.M.; Lu, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. Materials and Methods:

  19. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  20. Survey of hydrogen monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.

    1981-01-01

    Presented are results of a survey of commercially available monitoring devices suitable for hydrogen detection in the secondary containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during the post postulated accident period. Available detectors were grouped into the following five classes: combustion, solid state, electrochemical, thermal conductivity, and absorption. The performance of most available sensors is likely to deteriorate when exposed to the postulated conditions which include moisture, which could be at high temperature, and radioactive noncondensibles. Of the commercial devices, those using metallic filament thermal conductivity detectors seem least susceptible to performance change. Absorption detectors are best suited for this monitoring task but the only available device is designed for pipeline corrosion assessment. Initiation of experimental study to assess apparent deficiencies of commercial detectors is recommended. Also recommended is an analytical/experimental effort to determine the optimum detector array for monitoring in the secondary containment vessels

  1. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  2. Critical Reflective Working Behaviour: A Survey Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Survey responses from 742 of 1,670 Dutch workers validated the following dimensions of critically reflective work behavior: learning from mistakes, vision sharing, challenging group-think, asking for feedback, experimentation, knowledge sharing, and awareness of employability. Individual self-efficacy had more impact than job/organizational…

  3. Experimental study of Coal Pyrolysis 1.: Review of the experimental information from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugony, F.; Migliavacca, G.

    2007-01-01

    A brief analysis of some of the main experimental works published in the past decades about coal pyrolysis is here reported. In particular the results of some series of experiments are cited and reported in details, coming from the activity of some important international research teams; they supply a survey wide and complete enough of the different operating and experimental conditions proposed in this field. With the aim of giving a comparison benchmark for the original experimental data published in the companion paper of this series and in order to grant a good support to the validation of the predictive models of coal devolatilization [it

  4. Endogenous opioid antagonism in physiological experimental pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Pereira, Manuel P; Andersen, Lars Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Opioid antagonists are pharmacological tools applied as an indirect measure to detect activation of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in experimental pain models. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effect of mu-opioid-receptor (MOR) antagonists in placebo-controlled, double...

  5. A Survey of Educational Uses of Molecular Visualization Freeware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Paul A.; Michel, Lea Vacca; Bateman, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    As biochemists, one of our most captivating teaching tools is the use of molecular visualization. It is a compelling medium that can be used to communicate structural information much more effectively with interactive animations than with static figures. We have conducted a survey to begin a systematic evaluation of the current classroom usage of…

  6. FY15 Sao Tome and Principe Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Sao Tome and Principe assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Sao Tome and Principe perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Sao Tome and Principe on 1) their v...

  7. Survey on Material Used to Fill Wooden Objects During Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fulcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The data here described are the results of a survey sent to conservators to discover the range of materials being using to fill gaps in wooden objects, and to assess how popular hydroxypropyl cellulose and paper pulp were in regards to this. The survey was created using Survey Monkey, a free online survey tool. The complete dataset is available from UCL Discovery in Excel and CSV format. It is hoped that these survey results can be used by conservators to inform their work on wooden objects and inspire experimental work that will demonstrate the suitability of different materials for the purpose of filling wood.

  8. Young Children and Tablets: A Systematic Review of Effects on Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herodotou, C.

    2018-01-01

    Mobile applications are popular among young children, yet there is a dearth of studies examining their impact on learning and development. A systematic review identified 19 studies reporting learning effects on children 2 to 5 years old. The number of children participating in experimental, quasi-experimental, or mixed-method studies was 862 and…

  9. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  10. Haze and health impacts in ASEAN countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakreshnan, Logaraj; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Fong, Chng Saun; Bulgiba, Awang; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad; Wong, Li Ping; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal haze episodes and the associated inimical health impacts have become a regular crisis among the ASEAN countries. Even though many emerging experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the plausible health effects of the predominating toxic pollutants of haze, the consistency among the reported findings by these studies is poorly understood. By addressing such gap, this review aimed to critically highlight the evidence of physical and psychological health impacts of haze from the available literature in ASEAN countries. Systematic literature survey from six electronic databases across the environmental and medical disciplines was performed, and 20 peer-reviewed studies out of 384 retrieved articles were selected. The evidence pertaining to the health impacts of haze based on field survey, laboratory tests, modelling and time-series analysis were extracted for expert judgement. In specific, no generalization can be made on the reported physical symptoms as no specific symptoms recorded in all the reviewed studies except for throat discomfort. Consistent evidence was found for the increase in respiratory morbidity, especially for asthma, whilst the children and the elderly are deemed to be the vulnerable groups of the haze-induced respiratory ailments. A consensual conclusion on the association between the cardiovascular morbidity and haze is unfeasible as the available studies are scanty and geographically limited albeit of some reported increased cases. A number of modelling and simulation studies demonstrated elevating respiratory mortality rates due to seasonal haze exposures over the years. Besides, evidence on cancer risk is inconsistent where industrial and vehicular emissions are also expected to play more notable roles than mere haze exposure. There are insufficient regional studies to examine the association between the mental health and haze. Limited toxicological studies in ASEAN countries often impede a comprehensive understanding of

  11. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  13. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  14. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA reports information on the condition of our nation's waters using probabilistic surveys. The National Aquatic Resource Surveys assess the status of and changes in water quality of the nation's coastal waters, lakes, rivers and streams, and wetlands.

  16. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, ATTALA COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  20. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  1. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  3. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, Lancaster County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  5. HCAHPS Hospital Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) Hospital Survey The intent of the HCAHPS initiative is to provide a standardized survey...

  6. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  8. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  10. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  11. SURVEY, RICE COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. Experimental heavy quarkonium physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugge, L.

    1986-08-01

    Following some brief arguments on why heavy quarkonium spectroscopy is an important field of particle physics, some points on experimental techniques are discussed. Parts of the basic quarkonium phenomenology, including discussions of various items related to potensial models, are then presented. An up-to-date presentation is given of the state-of-the-art of experimental charmonium and bottomonium spectroscopy below open flavour threshold, including the confrontation of experimental results to representative theoretical predictions

  13. Human parallels to experimental myopia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Goldschmidt, Ernst; Haargaard, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    in the prevalent types of human myopia, nor is myopia a regular sequel where early eye pathology has led to poor imaging and optical deprivation. Optical aberrations of a higher order are a relatively new issue in myopia research, and microstructural deprivation is only marginally dealt within the survey. Links......Raviola and Wiesel's monkey eyelid suture studies of the 1970s laid the cornerstone for the experimental myopia science undertaken since then. The aim has been to clarify the basic humoral and neuronal mechanisms behind induced myopization, its eye tissue transmitters in particular. Besides...... acquiring new and basic knowledge, the practical object of the research is to reduce the burden of human myopia around the world. Acquisition and cost of optical correction is one issue, but associated morbidity counts more, with its global load of myopia-associated visual loss and blindness. The object...

  14. The ISOGAL survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omont, A.; ISOGAL Collaboration

    1999-03-01

    ISOGAL is a 7-15 μm ISOCAM survey, with 6'' pixels and sensitivity below 10 mJy, of ~20 deg2, in the galactic plane mostly interior to |l| = 30o. In combination with KJI DENIS data, the ISO images allow detailed studies of cold stellar populations and galactic structures in regions highly obscured throughout the inner Galaxy, with a sensitivity and pixel surface two orders of magnitude better than IRAS. Data reduction is particularly difficult because of the high density of strong sources, of memory effects and of short integration times. However, an improved data reduction is almost complete for all the fields observed, with the use of CIA ISOCAM software and of a special source extraction. The data quality is acceptable, as concerns reliability, completeness and photometric accuracy of the sources, to allow a systematic scientific analysis. A few fields, in the bulge and in the galactic disk, exemplify the results expected from the ~200 fields observed. These results include: A complete census of mass-losing AGB stars in fields of the inner bulge. Even very weak mass-loss are very well characterised, down to the RGB tip. Such stars are by far the most numerous there. They form a very well defined sequence in ISOGAL-DENIS infrared colour-magnitude diagrams. The knowledge of Long Period Variables in two Baade's Window fields confirm that their luminosity is just above the tip of this sequence, and that the spectral type of the stars of the sequence is M6-9III. The same AGB sequence is also quite visible in 7-15 μm colour-magnitude diagrams in the galactic disk, even with a very large extinction. Such AGB stars are thus particularly numerous among the ~105 sources detected by ISOGAL. However, foreground red giants and dusty young stars are also quite numerous. The latter with a few solar masses are detectable through the galactic centre distance. A number of bright young stars are identified on lines of sight close to the Galactic Centre, The combination of ISOGAL

  15. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  16. Optimizing experimental parameters for the projection requirement in HAADF-STEM tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveyard, R., E-mail: r.a.aveyard@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Zhong, Z.; Batenburg, K.J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rieger, B., E-mail: b.rieger@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The extent to which HAADF-STEM meets the projection requirement has been studied. • Multislice simulations used to model beam propagation and study signal linearity. • Propagation in crystalline and amorphous materials considered. • Optimal experimental set-up for the projection requirement is discussed. - Abstract: Tomographic reconstruction algorithms offer a means by which a tilt-series of transmission images can be combined to yield a three dimensional model of the specimen. Conventional reconstruction algorithms assume that the measured signal is a linear projection of some property, typically the density, of the material. Here we report the use of multislice simulations to investigate the extent to which this assumption is met in HAADF-STEM imaging. The use of simulations allows for a systematic survey of a range of materials and microscope parameters to inform optimal experimental design. Using this approach it is demonstrated that the imaging of amorphous materials is in good agreement with the projection assumption in most cases. Images of crystalline specimens taken along zone-axes are found to be poorly suited for conventional linear reconstruction algorithms due to channelling effects which produce enhanced intensities compared with off-axis images, and poor compliance with the projection requirement. Off-axis images are found to be suitable for reconstruction, though they do not strictly meet the linearity requirement in most cases. It is demonstrated that microscope parameters can be selected to yield improved compliance with the projection requirement.

  17. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  18. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  20. The experimental investigation of supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    If Nature is supersymmetric at the weak interaction scale, what can we hope to learn from experiments on supersymmetric particles? The most mysterious aspect of phenomenological supersymmetry is the mechanism of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. This mechanism ties the observable pattern of supersymmetric particle masses to aspects of the underlying unified theory at very small distance scales. In this article, I will discuss a systematic experimental program to determine the mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. Both pp and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders of the next generation play an essential role.

  1. The experimental investigation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    If Nature is supersymmetric at the weak interaction scale, what can we hope to learn from experiments on supersymmetric particles? The most mysterious aspect of phenomenological supersymmetry is the mechanism of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. This mechanism ties the observable pattern of supersymmetric particle masses to aspects of the underlying unified theory at very small distance scales. In this article, I will discuss a systematic experimental program to determine the mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. Both pp and e + e - colliders of the next generation play an essential role

  2. Experimental correlation of the thermionic conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitrilakis, S.S.

    1965-01-01

    The work reported here constitutes an approach to the thermionic conversion process usually associated with the engineer rather than the physicist. This approach recognises a certain number of significant variables and then proceeds to generate, in a systematic fashion, the experimental data necessary to define the dependence of each of these variables on all others. Finally, correlations of these dependencies are presented in a graphical form suitable to the practical user of thermionic conversion as well as the theoretician involved in the basic physics of the process. (author)

  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolen, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE.

  4. A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M

    2008-01-01

    A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS

  5. Reading, writing and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-10-01

    This paper offers a discussion of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review. Although increasingly popular, systematic review has engendered a critique of the claims made for it as a more objective method for summing up research findings than other kinds of reviews. An alternative understanding of systematic review is as a highly subjective, albeit disciplined, engagement between resisting readers and resistant texts. Reviewers of research exemplify the resisting reader when they exclude reports on grounds of relevance, quality, or methodological difference. Research reports exemplify resistant texts as they do not simply yield their findings, but rather must be made docile to review. These acts of resistance make systematic review possible, but challenge claims of its greater capacity to control bias. An understanding of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review still holds truth and objectivity as regulative ideals, but is aware of the reading and writing practices that both enable and challenge those ideals.

  6. Systematics of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hisashi [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The phenomenological models of the nuclear mass and level density are close related to each other, the nuclear ground and excited state properties are described by using the parameter systematics on the mass and level density formulas. The main aim of this work is to provide in an analytical framework the improved energy dependent shell, pairing and deformation corrections generalized to the collective enhancement factors, which offer a systematic prescription over a great number of nuclear reaction cross sections. The new formulas are shown to be in close agreement with not only the empirical nuclear mass data but the measured slow neutron resonance spacings, and experimental systematics observed in the excitation energy dependent properties. (author)

  7. Study of systematic errors in the luminosity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Tatsumi

    1993-01-01

    The experimental systematic error in the barrel region was estimated to be 0.44 %. This value is derived considering the systematic uncertainties from the dominant sources but does not include uncertainties which are being studied. In the end cap region, the study of shower behavior and clustering effect is under way in order to determine the angular resolution at the low angle edge of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. We also expect that the systematic error in this region will be less than 1 %. The technical precision of theoretical uncertainty is better than 0.1 % comparing the Tobimatsu-Shimizu program and BABAMC modified by ALEPH. To estimate the physical uncertainty we will use the ALIBABA [9] which includes O(α 2 ) QED correction in leading-log approximation. (J.P.N.)

  8. Study of systematic errors in the luminosity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, Tatsumi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1993-04-01

    The experimental systematic error in the barrel region was estimated to be 0.44 %. This value is derived considering the systematic uncertainties from the dominant sources but does not include uncertainties which are being studied. In the end cap region, the study of shower behavior and clustering effect is under way in order to determine the angular resolution at the low angle edge of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. We also expect that the systematic error in this region will be less than 1 %. The technical precision of theoretical uncertainty is better than 0.1 % comparing the Tobimatsu-Shimizu program and BABAMC modified by ALEPH. To estimate the physical uncertainty we will use the ALIBABA [9] which includes O({alpha}{sup 2}) QED correction in leading-log approximation. (J.P.N.).

  9. Intensity of systematic joints: Methods and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Dixon, Jeanette M.

    1980-05-01

    Intensity (joint surface area per unit volume of rock) of a multiset system of joints can be calculated from measurements of perpendicular spacings between adjacent joints in the same sets. Several estimators of intensity are easily calculated. The estimator that uses the trimean of spacings is least distorted by irregular spacing data that are observed and expected in joint systems. Such a measure of joint intensity can be used in academic, engineering, environmental, and economic geology, and in mine design. We apply it to evaluating an exposed analogue of probable fractured gas reservoirs. A field test shows that a major cross-strike structural discontinuity in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians crosses into the easternmost Appalachian Plateau province as a zone of about twice-normal intensity of systematic jointing. *Present address: U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, Mail Stop 966, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225

  10. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  12. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  13. Use of social network analysis methods to study professional advice and performance among healthcare providers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sabot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social network analysis quantifies and visualizes relationships between and among individuals or organizations. Applications in the health sector remain underutilized. This systematic review seeks to analyze what social network methods have been used to study professional communication and performance among healthcare providers. Methods Ten databases were searched from 1990 through April 2016, yielding 5970 articles screened for inclusion by two independent reviewers who extracted data and critically appraised each study. Inclusion criteria were study of health care worker professional communication, network methods used, and patient outcomes measured. The search identified 10 systematic reviews. The final set of articles had their citations prospectively and retrospectively screened. We used narrative synthesis to summarize the findings. Results The six articles meeting our inclusion criteria described unique health sectors: one at primary healthcare level and five at tertiary level; five conducted in the USA, one in Australia. Four studies looked at multidisciplinary healthcare workers, while two focused on nurses. Two studies used mixed methods, four quantitative methods only, and one involved an experimental design. Four administered network surveys, one coded observations, and one used an existing survey to extract network data. Density and centrality were the most common network metrics although one study did not calculate any network properties and only visualized the network. Four studies involved tests of significance, and two used modeling methods. Social network analysis software preferences were evenly split between ORA and UCINET. All articles meeting our criteria were published in the past 5 years, suggesting that this remains in clinical care a nascent but emergent research area. There was marked diversity across all six studies in terms of research questions, health sector area, patient outcomes, and network

  14. Questionnaire surveys on health and working conditions: development of an instrument for risk assessment in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, A. N.; Broersen, J. P.; van Dijk, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Periodic Occupational Health Surveys (POHS) are frequently used by occupational health and safety services in the Netherlands as a risk assessment instrument. These surveys include a questionnaire on work and health. Systematic attention is paid in this questionnaire to a broad range of working

  15. Availability and accessibility of e-books in Nigerian libraries: a survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates availability and accessibility of e-books in Nigeria Libraries. A social survey method of research was adopted for the study and the questionnaire as a research instrument was used. A systematic random sampling technique was used to determine respondents in the survey. The result shows that ...

  16. Surveying the Field: The Research Model of Women in Librarianship, 1882-1898

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Women who promoted library services to children in the United States in the late nineteenth century introduced the systematic use of survey research on library practice to the field of professional librarianship. They created a series of qualitative survey-based reports, the "Reading of the Young" reports, which were presented at ALA conferences…

  17. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M

    2014-10-01

    Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.

  18. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasteh Goli N.*BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

  19. Experimental realization of a minimal microscopic heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argun, Aykut; Soni, Jalpa; Dabelow, Lennart; Bo, Stefano; Pesce, Giuseppe; Eichhorn, Ralf; Volpe, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    Microscopic heat engines are microscale systems that convert energy flows between heat reservoirs into work or systematic motion. We have experimentally realized a minimal microscopic heat engine. It consists of a colloidal Brownian particle optically trapped in an elliptical potential well and simultaneously coupled to two heat baths at different temperatures acting along perpendicular directions. For a generic arrangement of the principal directions of the baths and the potential, the symmetry of the system is broken, such that the heat flow drives a systematic gyrating motion of the particle around the potential minimum. Using the experimentally measured trajectories, we quantify the gyrating motion of the particle, the resulting torque that it exerts on the potential, and the associated heat flow between the heat baths. We find excellent agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.

  20. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  1. A systematic review of speech recognition technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maree; Lapkin, Samuel; Long, Vanessa; Sanchez, Paula; Suominen, Hanna; Basilakis, Jim; Dawson, Linda

    2014-10-28

    To undertake a systematic review of existing literature relating to speech recognition technology and its application within health care. A systematic review of existing literature from 2000 was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: all papers that referred to speech recognition (SR) in health care settings, used by health professionals (allied health, medicine, nursing, technical or support staff), with an evaluation or patient or staff outcomes. Experimental and non-experimental designs were considered. Six databases (Ebscohost including CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, OVID Technologies, PreMED-LINE, PsycINFO) were searched by a qualified health librarian trained in systematic review searches initially capturing 1,730 references. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were retained. The heterogeneity of the studies made comparative analysis and synthesis of the data challenging resulting in a narrative presentation of the results. SR, although not as accurate as human transcription, does deliver reduced turnaround times for reporting and cost-effective reporting, although equivocal evidence of improved workflow processes. SR systems have substantial benefits and should be considered in light of the cost and selection of the SR system, training requirements, length of the transcription task, potential use of macros and templates, the presence of accented voices or experienced and in-experienced typists, and workflow patterns.

  2. A Systematic Review of Occupational Health and Safety Business Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geunjae

    2018-02-01

    Business cases are arguments developed to secure management commitment and approval for investment in an intervention. This systematic review evaluated 12 experimental and quasi-experimental studies on occupational health and safety interventions (OHSI) in various settings. The search engines used in this systematic review include PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus. A cost and benefit analysis of OHSI was completed at the organizational level in these studies. The focus of this analysis included sample, design, theoretical framework, interventional strategies, and threats to validity and outcomes. Positive returns on investment of OHSI outcomes were shown in 10 of the studies. The other two studies concluded that their chosen OHSI were not cost-effective.

  3. Stem cell clonality -- theoretical concepts, experimental techniques, and clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauche, Ingmar; Bystrykh, Leonid; Eaves, Connie; Roeder, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Here we report highlights of discussions and results presented at an International Workshop on Concepts and Models of Stem Cell Organization held on July 16th and 17th, 2012 in Dresden, Germany. The goal of the workshop was to undertake a systematic survey of state-of-the-art methods and results of clonality studies of tissue regeneration and maintenance with a particular emphasis on the hematopoietic system. The meeting was the 6th in a series of similar conceptual workshops, termed StemCellMathLab,(2) all of which have had the general objective of using an interdisciplinary approach to discuss specific aspects of stem cell biology. The StemCellMathLab 2012, which was jointly organized by the Institute for Medical Informatics and Biometry, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology and the Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, brought together 32 scientists from 8 countries, with scientific backgrounds in medicine, cell biology, virology, physics, computer sciences, bioinformatics and mathematics. The workshop focused on the following questions: (1) How heterogeneous are stem cells and their progeny? and (2) What are the characteristic differences in the clonal dynamics between physiological and pathophysiological situations? In discussing these questions, particular emphasis was placed on (a) the methods for quantifying clones and their dynamics in experimental and clinical settings and (b) general concepts and models for their description. In this workshop summary we start with an introduction to the current state of clonality research and a proposal for clearly defined terminology. Major topics of discussion include clonal heterogeneity in unperturbed tissues, clonal dynamics due to physiological and pathophysiological pressures and conceptual and technical issues of clone quantification. We conclude that an interactive cross-disciplinary approach to research in this

  4. Impacts of Colonialism: A Research Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ziltener

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of colonialism in Africa and Asia have never been compared in a systematic manner for a large sample of countries. This research survey presents the results of a new and thorough assessment of the highly diverse phenomenon - including length ofdomination , violence, partition, proselytization, instrumentalization of ethno-linguistic and religious cleavages, trade, direct investment, settlements, plantations, and migration -organized through a dimensional analysis (political, social, and economic impacts. It is shown that while in some areas, colonial domination has triggered profound changes in economy and social structure, others have remained almost untouched.

  5. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, John

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  6. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  7. "Systematizing" ethics consultation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Eves, Margot M; Allen, Nathan G; Smith, Martin L; Peña, Adam M; Cheney, John R; Majumder, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    While valuable work has been done addressing clinical ethics within established healthcare systems, we anticipate that the projected growth in acquisitions of community hospitals and facilities by large tertiary hospitals will impact the field of clinical ethics and the day-to-day responsibilities of clinical ethicists in ways that have yet to be explored. Toward the goal of providing clinical ethicists guidance on a range of issues that they may encounter in the systematization process, we discuss key considerations and potential challenges in implementing system-wide ethics consultation services. Specifically, we identify four models for organizing, developing, and enhancing ethics consultation activities within a system created through acquisitions: (1) train-the-trainer, (2) local capacity-building, (3) circuit-riding, and (4) consolidated accountability. We note each model's benefits and challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the broader landscape of issues affected by consolidation. We anticipate that clinical ethicists, volunteer consultants, and hospital administrators will benefit from our recommendations.

  8. Aromatherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, B; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly popular; however there are few clear indications for its use. To systematically review the literature on aromatherapy in order to discover whether any clinical indication may be recommended for its use, computerised literature searches were performed to retrieve all randomised controlled trials of aromatherapy from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CISCOM, and AMED. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad score. All trials were evaluated independently by both authors and data were extracted in a pre-defined, standardised fashion. Twelve trials were located: six of them had no independent replication; six related to the relaxing effects of aromatherapy combined with massage. These studies suggest that aromatherapy massage has a mild, transient anxiolytic effect. Based on a critical assessment of the six studies relating to relaxation, the effects of aromatherapy are probably not strong enough for it to be considered for the treatment of anxiety. The hypothesis that it is effective for any other indication is not supported by the findings of rigorous clinical trials. PMID:10962794

  9. Systematic Reviews in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B

    2016-02-01

    The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Sports Health and KSSTA on the PRISMA and AMSTAR. The average PRISMA score by year varied from 85% to 89%, and the average AMSTAR score varied from 70% to 76%. Systematic reviews

  10. Experimental semiotics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  11. Systematic reviewers commonly contact study authors but do so with limited rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Rebecca J; Flynn, David N; Carlberg, Bo; Tleyjeh, Imad M; Kamath, Celia C; LaBella, Matthew L; Erwin, Patricia J; Guyatt, Gordon H; Montori, Victor M

    2009-02-01

    Author contact can enhance the quality of systematic reviews. We conducted a systematic review of the practice of author contact in recently published systematic reviews to characterize its prevalence, quality, and results. Eligible studies were systematic reviews of efficacy published in 2005-2006 in the 25 journals with the highest impact factor publishing systematic reviews in clinical medicine and the Cochrane Library, identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Two researchers determined whether and why reviewers contacted authors. To assess the accuracy of the abstracted data, we surveyed reviewers by e-mail. Forty-six (50%) of the 93 eligible systematic reviews published in top journals and 46 (85%) of the 54 eligible Cochrane reviews reported contacting authors of eligible studies. Requests were made most commonly for missing information: 40 (76%) clinical medicine reviews and 45 (98%) Cochrane reviews. One hundred and nine of 147 (74%) reviewers responded to the survey, and reported a higher rate of author contact than apparent from the published record. Although common, author contact is not a universal feature of systematic reviews published in top journals and the Cochrane Library. The conduct and reporting of author contact purpose, procedures, and results require improvement.

  12. Delayed neutron emission, theory and precursor systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnsen, T.; Pappas, A.C.; Tunaal, T.

    1968-01-01

    Information on the properties of observed delayed neutron precursor and emitters is reviewed. As far as possible emphasis is laid on charge, mass, half-life, β-energetics, neutron-branching, levels, spin and neutron energy spectra. The theory of delayed neutron emission given by Bohr and Wheeler and later refined is presented and analysed with respect to its potentialities and limitations. Even if the theory gives a good general picture of the process itself, it has not been possible to develop it to such detail as would be necessary for satisfactory delayed neutron precursor systematics. Consequently, the systematics which are available today are based mainly on energetics as criteria, and suggest a wide range (in charge and mass) of precursors, much wider than anticipated, earlier or even now, from those that have already been identified. Nevertheless systematics have their use in a search for precursors and have in recent years resulted in a substantial increase in the member of known species. The process is analysed step by step (i.e. matrix element, Fermi function, level density, spin distribution, ''the energy and the angular momentum paths'', and neutron-to-total width). Improvements are suggested that would give rise to a more realistic treatment, and outlines are given for guiding future work. Emphasis is put onto that experimental and theoretical information which must be obtained before a satisfactory and advanced theoretical treatment can be obtained. Some attempts made along these lines are presented. Their importance in the estimate of P n values and shapes of neutron spectra are shown and discussed. For the latter the more different factors (i.e. |M| 2 , ω(E,J), Γ n / Γ tot , J, π, levels, etc.) are considered, the more evidence is obtained for a ''piling up'' of the neutron spectrum towards low energies. Finally the importance is stressed of detailed delayed neutron studies for considering nuclear structure phenomena. (author)

  13. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  14. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  15. Serious Games for Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.

  16. Systematic approach to establishing criticality biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    A systematic approach has been developed to determine benchmark biases and apply those biases to code results to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24 regarding documenting criticality safety margins. Previously, validation of the code against experimental benchmarks to prove reasonable agreement was sufficient. However, DOE Order 5480.24 requires contractors to adhere to the requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 and establish subcritical margins. A method was developed to incorporate biases and uncertainties from benchmark calculations into a k eff value with quantifiable uncertainty. The method produces a 95% confidence level in both the k eff value of the scenario modeled and the distribution of the k eff S calculated by the Monte Carlo code. Application of the method to a group of benchmarks modeled using the KENO-Va code and the SCALE 27 group cross sections is also presented

  17. Modelling a Society of Simple Agents: From Conceptual Specification to Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.; van Eck, P.A.T.; Treur, J.

    Much research concerning the design of multi-agent systems (at a conceptual level) addresses complex agents that exhibit complex interaction patterns. Due to this complexity, it is difficult to perform rigorous experimentation. On the other hand, systematic experimental work regarding behaviour of

  18. Experimental economics in antitrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normann, H.T.; Müller, W.; Blair, R.D.; Sokol, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter assesses the scope and the specific contribution of laboratory experiments for antitrust. It reviews experiments that have addressed specific antitrust issues, problems, and institutions. The chapter mainly covers experimental studies on collusion (tacit and explicit, conscious

  19. Nuclear test experimental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research

  20. Experimental evidence on QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeding, P.; Wolf, G.

    1981-03-01

    The authors discuss the experimental results concerning tests of quantum chromodynamics. Especially they consider deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and electron-positron annihilation into hadrons in this framework. (HSI)