WorldWideScience

Sample records for systematic epidemiological review

  1. Epidemiology of childhood constipation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maartje M.; Benninga, M. A.; Di Lorenzo, C.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of the published literature was performed to assess the prevalence, incidence, natural history, and comorbid conditions of functional constipation in children. METHODS: Articles were identified through electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Library,

  2. Epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Europe, a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laranjo-González, Minerva; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Trevisan, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    in this region.  Methods:  We conducted a systematic review of scientific and grey literature published from 1990 to 2015 on the epidemiology of T. saginata and T. solium in humans and animals. Additionally, data about disease occurrence were actively sought by contacting local experts in the different countries...

  3. Systematic reviews of epidemiology in diabetes: finding the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Norman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methodological research to support searching for those doing systematic reviews of epidemiological studies is a relatively neglected area. Our aim was to determine how many databases it is necessary to search to ensure a comprehensive coverage of the literature in diabetes epidemiology, with the aim of examining the efficiency of searching in support of systematic reviews of the epidemiology of diabetes Methods Three approaches were used. First, we defined a set of English language diabetes journals and examined their coverage in bibliographic databases. Second, we searched extensively for diabetes epidemiology articles (in all languages to determine which are the most useful databases; and third, we analysed the scattering of these articles to determine the core journals in the area. Results The overlap between MEDLINE and Embase for diabetes journals was 59%. A search for diabetes epidemiology articles across both MEDLINE and Embase, showed that MEDLINE alone retrieved about 94% of the total articles. Searching for diabetes epidemiology studies beyond MEDLINE and Embase retrieved no additional English language journal articles. The only diabetes epidemiology studies found by searching beyond MEDLINE and Embase were found in LILACS, and were Spanish or Portuguese language studies from Latin America; no additional English language studies were found. Only 30% of the meeting abstracts were converted to full publication after three years. One third of journal articles were published in just six journals, with Diabetes Care contributing 14.3% of the articles, followed by Diabetic Medicine (5.0%; Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (4.1%; Diabetologia (4.0%; Diabetes & Metabolism (2.4% and Diabetes (2.0%. Conclusions Our results show that when searching for articles on diabetes epidemiology, MEDLINE and Embase would suffice for English language papers, with LILACS giving some additional non-English articles from Latin America

  4. History, Epidemiology, and Clinical Manifestations of Zika: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Enny S; Barreto, Florisneide; Teixeira, Maria da Glória; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2016-04-01

    To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was "strongly suspected." However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge.

  5. What Do Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiology Say About an Ethics Review? A Qualitative Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin; Dranseika, Vilius

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research is subject to an ethics review. The aim of this qualitative review is to compare existing ethical guidelines in English for epidemiological research and public health practice in regard to the scope and matter of an ethics review. Authors systematically searched PubMed, Google Scholar and Google Search for ethical guidelines. Qualitative analysis (constant comparative method) was applied to categorize important aspects of the an ethics review process. Eight ethical gu...

  6. Epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourtzoukou Eleni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to review the literature regarding the epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania and the associated prevalence/risk factors. Methods Two reviewers performed PubMed searches and a hand search of references. A study was considered eligible for inclusion if it reported data about the prevalence of constipation in any population, free of other gastrointestinal disorders, in Europe and Oceania. Studies were evaluated for quality. Data regarding the setting, type of study, definition of constipation, study population, prevalence of constipation, factors associated with increased odds for constipation, and the female to male ratio, were collected. Results The 21 reviewed studies depict prevalence rates in 34 different population groups ranging widely from a low 0.7% to a high 81%. In the general population of Europe the mean value of the reported constipation rates is 17,1 % and the median value 16.6%. Among the studies conducted in Oceania, the mean value of constipation prevalence was 15.3%. Female gender, age and socioeconomic and educational class seem to have major effect on constipation prevalence. A number of various other risk factors are, less clearly, associated with constipation. Conclusion This systematic review depicts the high prevalence and related risk factors of a disorder that decreases the health-related quality of life and has major economic consequences.

  7. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in the Philippines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Aldaba, Josephine G; Roque, Vito G; Tandoc, Amado O; Sy, Ava Kristy; Espino, Fe Esperanza; DeQuiroz-Castro, Maricel; Jee, Youngmee; Ducusin, Maria Joyce; Fox, Kimberley K

    2015-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia, with high case fatality rates and often significant neurologic sequelae among survivors. The epidemiology of JE in the Philippines is not well defined. To support consideration of JE vaccine for introduction into the national schedule in the Philippines, we conducted a systematic literature review and summarized JE surveillance data from 2011 to 2014. We conducted searches on Japanese encephalitis and the Philippines in four databases and one library. Data from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and JE surveillance and from the national reference laboratory from January 2011 to March 2014 were tabulated and mapped. We identified 29 published reports and presentations on JE in the Philippines, including 5 serologic surveys, 18 reports of clinical cases, and 8 animal studies (including two with both clinical cases and animal data). The 18 clinical studies reported 257 cases of laboratory-confirmed JE from 1972 to 2013. JE virus (JEV) was the causative agent in 7% to 18% of cases of clinical meningitis and encephalitis combined, and 16% to 40% of clinical encephalitis cases. JE predominantly affected children under 15 years of age and 6% to 7% of cases resulted in death. Surveillance data from January 2011 to March 2014 identified 73 (15%) laboratory-confirmed JE cases out of 497 cases tested. This comprehensive review demonstrates the endemicity and extensive geographic range of JE in the Philippines, and supports the use of JE vaccine in the country. Continued and improved surveillance with laboratory confirmation is needed to systematically quantify the burden of JE, to provide information that can guide prioritization of high risk areas in the country and determination of appropriate age and schedule of vaccine introduction, and to measure the impact of preventive measures including immunization against this important public health threat.

  8. Epidemiology of diverticular disease -- systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tănase, I; Păun, S; Stoica, B; Negoi, I; Gaspar, B; Beuran, M

    2015-01-01

    Associated with the Western diet and life style,diverticular disease is affecting more and more developing countries worldwide. Recent studies show an increase in incidence of the disease at young age, that raises the risk of complications, along with major consequences for the patient but also for the healthcare system. Systematic review of the literature with US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health International PubMed Medline, using abstracts and articles available in PubMed Medline, Cochrane databases searching for ("Diverticulosis, Colonic epidemiology" [MeSH] OR"Diverticulosis, Colonic etiology" [MeSH] OR "Diverticulosis,Colonic genetics" [MeSH] OR "Diverticulosis, Colonic history" [MeSH]). Even from the rise of diverticular disease as a public healthcare problem, at the end of the previous century, it was associated with a diet rich in refined sugars, lacking vegetable fibres. The higher incidence in countries like U.S.A., Canada, United Kingdom and the northern states compared with its rare occurrence in the sub-Saharan African continent, strengthen the anterior assumptions. In regions like Asia, the disease pattern is characterized by are latively low incidence of colonic diverticular disease, with distribution of diverticula mainly on the right colon. The different incidence by sex and age show the possible existence of hormonal protective factors. Studies from countries with a rich ethnic diversity, bring into question the probable genetic predisposition to diverticular disease, fact backed-up by the few studies on twins and 1st degree relatives available in the literature. The rising incidence of colonic diverticular disease in Romania makes our country adhere the epidemiologic model existing in countries with a close socio-economic status.Although with a lower incidence than countries that have adopted a Western diet, Romania is likely to encounter a public health problem, if certain measures to identify and minimise the

  9. Infective endocarditis epidemiology over five decades: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Slipczuk

    Full Text Available AIMS: To Assess changes in infective endocarditis (IE epidemiology over the last 5 decades. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched the published literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception until December 2011. DATA FROM: Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA were also included. Criteria for inclusion in this systematic review included studies with reported IE microbiology, IE definition, description of population studied, and time frame. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed manuscript quality. One hundred sixty studies (27,083 patients met inclusion criteria. Among hospital-based studies (n=142; 23,606 patients staphylococcal IE percentage increased over time, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS increasing over each of the last 5 decades (p<0.001 and Staphylococcus aureus (SA in the last decade (21% to 30%; p<0.05. Streptococcus viridans (SV and culture negative (CN IE frequency decreased over time (p<0.001, while enterococcal IE increased in the last decade (p<0.01. Patient age and male predominance increased over time as well. In subgroup analysis, SA frequency increased in North America, but not the rest of the world. This was due, in part, to an increase in intravenous drug abuse IE in North America (p<0.001. Among population-based studies (n=18; 3,477 patients no significant changes were found. CONCLUSION: Important changes occurred in IE epidemiology over the last half-century, especially in the last decade. Staphylococcal and enterococcal IE percentage increased while SV and CN IE decreased. Moreover, mean age at diagnosis increased together with male:female ratio. These changes should be considered at the time of decision-making in treatment of and prophylaxis for IE.

  10. Obesity effects on depression: systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, E; Baker, M

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease burden and premature death, but effects on psychological morbidity remain uncertain. This article reports findings following a systematic review of epidemiological studies to determine whether obesity causes depression. Multiple databases were searched for English-language studies of etiology of obesity (exposure variable, analyzed as an ordered category) on depression outcomes (dependent variables, continuous or categorical). Studies in children and in women during pregnancy or postpartum were excluded, as were nonrepresentative cross-sectional studies. Searches and identification of studies for inclusion were performed by EA, whereas a descriptive synthesis of important study characteristics was undertaken independently by us. We reviewed 24 out of approximately 4500 potentially relevant studies; 4 were prospective cohort studies and 20 were cross-sectional studies (10 from the United States). Effect measures reported in all prospective cohort studies were consistent and suggested that obesity may increase the odds of future depression outcomes (symptoms or nonclinical diagnosis of depression). Effect measures reported in most cross-sectional studies from the United States supported the hypothesized association between obesity and prevalence of depression outcomes for women but not men, in contrast most cross-sectional studies from populations other than the United States consistently failed to find such associations. Overall, there is a weak level of evidence supporting the hypothesis that obesity increases the incidence of depression outcomes. Few high-quality prospective cohort studies exist, and cross-sectional studies account for the vast body of published evidence, and therefore firm conclusions for causality cannot yet be drawn. Our finding warrants additional high-quality etiological research on this topic.

  11. Epidemiology and burden of alopecia areata: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villasante Fricke AC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra C Villasante Fricke, Mariya MitevaDepartment of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USABackground: Alopecia areata (AA is an autoimmune disorder characterized by patches of non-scarring alopecia affecting scalp and body hair that can be psychologically devastating. AA is clinically heterogenous, and its natural history is unpredictable. There is no preventative therapy or cure.Objective: The objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based systematic review on the epidemiology and the burden of AA.Methods and selection criteria: A search was conducted of the published, peer-reviewed literature via PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Studies published in English within the last 51 years that measured AA’s incidence, prevalence, distribution, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, quality of life, and associated psychiatric and medical comorbidities were included. Two authors assessed studies and extracted the data.Results: The lifetime incidence of AA is approximately 2% worldwide. Both formal population studies found no sex predominance. First onset is most common in the third and fourth decades of life but may occur at any age. An earlier age of first onset corresponds with an increased lifetime risk of extensive disease. Global DALYs for AA were calculated at 1,332,800 in 2010. AA patients are at risk for depression and anxiety, atopy, vitiligo, thyroid disease, and other autoimmune conditions.Conclusion: AA is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder and the second most prevalent hair loss disorder after androgenetic alopecia, and the lifetime risk in the global population is approximately 2%. AA is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and several autoimmune disorders, and an increased global burden of disease.Keywords: hair loss, hair, prevalence, incidence, burden of disease

  12. Dengue in Latin America: Systematic Review of Molecular Epidemiological Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Castañeda, José; Barreto dos Santos, Flavia; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Galvão de Araujo, Josélio Maria; Joint, Graham; Sarti, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, the predominant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is caused by one of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3 or -4). A literature analysis and review was undertaken to describe the molecular epidemiological trends in dengue disease and the knowledge generated in specific molecular topics in Latin America, including the Caribbean islands, from 2000 to 2013 in the context of regional trends in order to identify gaps in molecular epidemiological knowledge and future research needs. Searches of literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2013 were conducted using specific search strategies for each electronic database that was reviewed. A total of 396 relevant citations were identified, 57 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All four dengue virus serotypes were present and co-circulated in many countries over the review period (with the predominance of individual serotypes varying by country and year). The number of countries in which more than one serotype circulated steadily increased during the period under review. Molecular epidemiology data were found for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean region, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Central America, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Distinct lineages with different dynamics were found in each country, with co-existence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurring over the review period. Despite some gaps in the literature limiting the possibility for comparison, our review has described the molecular epidemiological trends of dengue infection. However, several gaps in molecular epidemiological information across Latin America and the Caribbean were identified that provide avenues for future research; in particular, sequence determination of the dengue virus genome is important for more precise phylogenetic classification and correlation with clinical outcome and disease severity. PMID:28068335

  13. Epidemiology of constipation in children and adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugie, Suzanne M.; Benninga, Marc A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to review the published literature regarding the epidemiology of constipation in the general paediatric and adult population and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution, and associated factors. A search of the Medline database was performed. Study selection criteria included:

  14. Epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Peppas, George; Alexiou, Vangelis G; Mourtzoukou, Eleni; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We aimed to review the literature regarding the epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania and the associated prevalence/risk factors. Methods Two reviewers performed PubMed searches and a hand search of references. A study was considered eligible for inclusion if it reported data about the prevalence of constipation in any population, free of other gastrointestinal disorders, in Europe and Oceania. Studies were evaluated for quality. Data regarding the setting, ty...

  15. What Do Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiology Say About an Ethics Review? A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin; Dranseika, Vilius

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological research is subject to an ethics review. The aim of this qualitative review is to compare existing ethical guidelines in English for epidemiological research and public health practice in regard to the scope and matter of an ethics review. Authors systematically searched PubMed, Google Scholar and Google Search for ethical guidelines. Qualitative analysis (constant comparative method) was applied to categorize important aspects of the an ethics review process. Eight ethical guidelines in English for epidemiological research were retrieved. Five main categories that are relevant to the review of epidemiological research by Institutional Review Boards/Research Ethics Committees were distinguished. Within the scope of main categories, fifty-nine subcategories were analyzed. There are important differences between the guidelines in terms of the scope and matter of an ethics review. Not all guidelines encompass all identified ethically important issues, and some do not define precisely the scope and matter of an ethics review, leaving much to the ethics of the individual researchers and the discretion of IRBs/RECs.

  16. Environmental chemicals and DNA methylation in adults: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence supports the notion that environmental exposures are associated with DNA-methylation and expression changes that can impact human health. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between environmental chemicals with DNA met...

  17. Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease - a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Kolstad, H.A.; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this review was to evaluate the epidemiologic evidence for a causal relation between shift work and ischemic heart disease. Methods We conducted a systematic search until the end of March 2008 for studies providing information on the relative risk of ischemic heart...

  18. Asthma and rhinitis in cleaning workers: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folletti, I.; Zock, J.P.; Moscato, G.; Siracusa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a systematic review of epidemiological studies linking cleaning work and risk of asthma and rhinitis. Methods: Published reports were identified from PubMed covering the years from 1976 through June 30, 2012. In total, we identified 24 papers for inclusion in the

  19. Epidemiology of balance symptoms and disorders in the community : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdin, Louisa; Schilder, Anne G M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Balance disorders presenting with symptoms of dizziness or vertigo may have significant impact on quality of life and are a recognized risk factor for falls. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the published literature on the epidemiology of balance

  20. A systematic review of the epidemiology of mansonelliasis | Downes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite many similarities, the three agents that cause mansonelliasis have distinct biological, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics. Knowledge about mansonelliasis is important for making differential diagnoses, identifying the possible risks of co-infection with multiple filariases, and addressing the concerns of ...

  1. Epidemiology of falls and osteoporotic fractures: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alan; Fan, Tao; Sen, Shuvayu S; Weisenfluh, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Background and methods Fractures in elderly populations result from the combination of falls and osteoporosis. We report a systematic review of studies indexed in PubMed reporting annual rates of low-trauma falls and associated osteoporotic fractures among older community-dwelling people (age ≥ 50 years). An osteoporotic fracture was defined as either a fracture resulting from a low-impact fall in subjects with clinical osteoporosis, a fall resulting in an investigator-defined osteoporotic fracture, or a fall resulting in a low-trauma fracture. Rates are presented using descriptive statistics. Meta-analysis was conducted for statistically homogeneous data sets. Results The median (range) annual fall prevalence rates (median proportion of people who experienced one or more falls during the past year) for cohorts of women and men (10 determinations), women alone (seven determinations), and men alone (four determinations) were, respectively, 0.334 (0.217–0.625), 0.460 (0.372–0.517), and 0.349 (0.284–0.526). In studies that reported fall prevalence rates for Western men and women separately (four determinations), the pooled risk ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for men versus women was 0.805 (95% CI 0.721–0.900). The ranges of fall prevalence rates in East Asian women (two studies) and East Asian men (two studies) were, respectively, 0.163–0.258 and 0.087–0.184. The risk ratio (95% CI) for fall prevalence in East Asian men versus women was 0.634 (0.479–0.838) in studies (two determinations) reporting results for East Asian men and women separately. In cohorts of Western women and men (five determinations), the pooled rate (95% CI) of low-impact falls resulting in fractures was 0.041 (0.031–0.054). The proportion of low-trauma fractures attributable to falls among the Western community-dwelling elderly was within the range of 0.860–0.950 for fractures at all sites or the hip (five determinations). A range of 0.716–0.924 of all fractures were

  2. Environmental lead and children's intelligence: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Pocock, S. J.; Smith, M.; Baghurst, P.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To quantify the magnitude of the relation between full scale IQ in children aged 5 or more and their body burden of lead. DESIGN--A systematic review of 26 epidemiological studies since 1979: prospective studies of birth cohorts, cross sectional studies of blood lead, and cross sectional studies of tooth lead. SETTING--General populations of children > or = 5 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--For each study, the regression coefficient of IQ on lead, after adjustment for confounders whe...

  3. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514

  4. Epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder in Africa: a systematic review of data from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluyomi; Esan, Arinola

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder impacts negatively on the patient, the family, as well as the society. It taxes the health care services due to a combination of the illness with associated medical and psychiatric comorbidities. In Africa, unfortunately, knowledge of the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder is based mainly on studies from the USA and Europe. In this systematic review of literature from Africa, we highlight the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder. A systematic review of publications from Africa relating to the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder was conducted. Data from community surveys conducted in Nigeria and Ethiopia indicated a lifetime prevalence estimate of 0.1 % to 1.83 for bipolar disorder. Missed diagnosis rate of bipolar disorder was up to 36.2 %. In one study, 8.1 % of the males and 5.4 % of the females reported a previous suicide attempt. A study showed that up to 60 % of patients with bipolar disorder had at least one comorbidity. There were no reports on all-cause mortality and cost of illness. Bipolar disorder is a major mental health problem in Africa. Scientific findings on bipolar disorder from Africa are consistent with the existing literature from other parts of the world. There still exists a dearth of high quality studies addressing the epidemiological, clinical, social, and economic burden of the disorder.

  5. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Colombia (2000-2011): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Luis Angel; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Besada-Lombana, Sandra; Sarti, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia. Searches of published literature in epidemiological studies of dengue disease encompassing the terms “dengue”, “epidemiology,” and “Colombia” were conducted. Studies in English or Spanish published between 1 January 2000 and 23 February 2012 were included. The searches identified 225 relevant citations, 30 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria defined in the review protocol. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia was characterized by a stable “baseline” annual number of dengue fever cases, with major outbreaks in 2001–2003 and 2010. The geographical spread of dengue disease cases showed a steady increase, with most of the country affected by the 2010 outbreak. The majority of dengue disease recorded during the review period was among those dengue disease in Colombia may provide several avenues for future research, namely studies of asymptomatic dengue virus infection, primary versus secondary infections, and under-reporting of the disease. Improved understanding of the factors that determine disease expression and enable improvement in disease control and management is also important. PMID:25790245

  6. A systematic review of data mining and machine learning for air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Colin; Mohomed Jabbar, Mohomed Shazan; Zaïane, Osmar; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro

    2017-11-28

    Data measuring airborne pollutants, public health and environmental factors are increasingly being stored and merged. These big datasets offer great potential, but also challenge traditional epidemiological methods. This has motivated the exploration of alternative methods to make predictions, find patterns and extract information. To this end, data mining and machine learning algorithms are increasingly being applied to air pollution epidemiology. We conducted a systematic literature review on the application of data mining and machine learning methods in air pollution epidemiology. We carried out our search process in PubMed, the MEDLINE database and Google Scholar. Research articles applying data mining and machine learning methods to air pollution epidemiology were queried and reviewed. Our search queries resulted in 400 research articles. Our fine-grained analysis employed our inclusion/exclusion criteria to reduce the results to 47 articles, which we separate into three primary areas of interest: 1) source apportionment; 2) forecasting/prediction of air pollution/quality or exposure; and 3) generating hypotheses. Early applications had a preference for artificial neural networks. In more recent work, decision trees, support vector machines, k-means clustering and the APRIORI algorithm have been widely applied. Our survey shows that the majority of the research has been conducted in Europe, China and the USA, and that data mining is becoming an increasingly common tool in environmental health. For potential new directions, we have identified that deep learning and geo-spacial pattern mining are two burgeoning areas of data mining that have good potential for future applications in air pollution epidemiology. We carried out a systematic review identifying the current trends, challenges and new directions to explore in the application of data mining methods to air pollution epidemiology. This work shows that data mining is increasingly being applied in air

  7. A systematic review of the epidemiology of echinococcosis in domestic and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Otero-Abad

    Full Text Available Human echinococcosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by parasites of the genus Echinococcus. The most frequent clinical forms of echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE and alveolar echinococcosis (AE, are responsible for a substantial health and economic burden, particularly to low-income societies. Quantitative epidemiology can provide important information to improve the understanding of parasite transmission and hence is an important part of efforts to control this disease. The purpose of this review is to give an insight on factors associated with echinococcosis in animal hosts by summarising significant results reported from epidemiological studies identified through a systematic search.The systematic search was conducted mainly in electronic databases but a few additional records were obtained from other sources. Retrieved entries were examined in order to identify available peer-reviewed epidemiological studies that found significant risk factors for infection using associative statistical methods. One hundred studies met the eligibility criteria and were suitable for data extraction. Epidemiological factors associated with increased risk of E. granulosus infection in dogs included feeding with raw viscera, possibility of scavenging dead animals, lack of anthelmintic treatment and owners' poor health education and indicators of poverty. Key factors associated with E. granulosus infection in intermediate hosts were related to the hosts' age and the intensity of environmental contamination with parasite eggs. E. multilocularis transmission dynamics in animal hosts depended on the interaction of several ecological factors, such as hosts' population densities, host-prey interactions, landscape characteristics, climate conditions and human-related activities.Results derived from epidemiological studies provide a better understanding of the behavioural, biological and ecological factors involved in the transmission of this parasite and hence

  8. Characteristics of the Japanese Diet Described in Epidemiologic Publications: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Goto, Yoshihito; Ota, Haruka; Kito, Kumiko; Mano, Fumika; Joo, Erina; Ikeda, Kaori; Inagaki, Nobuya; Nakayama, Takeo

    2018-01-01

    International interest in the Japanese diet has grown in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and organize the Japanese diet and dietary characteristics from an epidemiological perspective, mainly focusing on the nutritional and dietary elements. PubMed, Web of Science, Japan Medical Abstracts Society, JDream III, and CiNii databases were searched. The eligibility criteria included research with an epidemiological study design that was either cross-sectional, cohort, or case-control-based that defined the dietary patterns of the Japanese diet using dietary pattern analysis. A total of 39 research articles that described the Japanese diet were included. The data that were extracted included the following: implementing country, location, study design, participant characteristics, key outcomes, methods used in the analysis of dietary patterns, and descriptions of the Japanese diet. As a result of the systematic review analyzing the descriptions of the Japanese diet from 39 selected articles, we were able to aggregate the descriptions into 16 categories from 33 factors. After performing a content analysis using a further aggregation of categories, we found that the top three applicable categories were soybeans/soybean-derived products, seafood, and vegetables; these were followed by rice and miso soup. The Japanese dietary content was found to be diverse based on an examination of epidemiological studies; however, we were able to aggregate the content into 16 categories. The Japanese diet is considered to be a dietary pattern that contains a combination of factors: the dietary staple, side dishes, and soup.

  9. The use of genetic markers in the molecular epidemiology of histoplasmosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, L S; Leitão, T M J S; Taylor, M L; Muniz, M M; Zancopé-Oliveira, R M

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungal pathogen that can infect both humans and animals. This disease has worldwide distribution and affects mainly immunocompromised individuals. In the environment, H. capsulatum grows as mold but undergoes a morphologic transition to the yeast morphotype under special conditions. Molecular techniques are important tools to conduct epidemiologic investigations for fungal detection, identification of infection sources, and determination of different fungal genotypes associated to a particular disease symptom. In this study, we performed a systematic review in the PubMed database to improve the understanding about the molecular epidemiology of histoplasmosis. This search was restricted to English and Spanish articles. We included a combination of specific keywords: molecular typing [OR] genetic diversity [OR] polymorphism [AND] H. capsulatum; molecular epidemiology [AND] histoplasmosis; and molecular epidemiology [AND] Histoplasma. In addition, we used the specific terms: histoplasmosis [AND] outbreaks. Non-English or non-Spanish articles, dead links, and duplicate results were excluded from the review. The results reached show that the main methods used for molecular typing of H. capsulatum were: restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellites polymorphism, sequencing of internal transcribed spacers region, and multilocus sequence typing. Different genetic profiles were identified among H. capsulatum isolates, which can be grouped according to their source, geographical origin, and clinical manifestations.

  10. A systematic review of epidemiologic studies assessing condom use and risk of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Catherine A; Dunne, Eileen F; Warner, Lee

    2009-07-01

    Although systematic reviews of epidemiologic studies have been conducted for condom use and the risk of several sexually transmitted diseases, there have been no such reviews for condom use and syphilis. A systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies published from 1972 to 2008 was conducted to evaluate study methods and measures of association reported for condom use and risk of syphilis. All 12 included studies had significant methodologic limitations. Nine (75%) studies were cross-sectional. Although 11 (92%) studies assessed consistent condom use, no studies assessed correct use or condom use problems, nor did any document exposure to a partner infected with syphilis. Ten studies had insufficient information to distinguish prevalent from incident infections. Two studies that assessed both incident infection and consistent condom use suggested a reduced risk of syphilis with consistent condom use; 1 study was statistically significant. Significant methodologic limitations exist for all reviewed studies of syphilis and condom use. Among the 2 most rigorously designed studies, both suggested a reduced risk of syphilis with consistent condom use. Additional studies incorporating rigorous methods are needed to further assess the effect of condom use on risk of syphilis.

  11. The Epidemiology of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Asia: A Systematic Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Wee Ming; Bogich, Tiffany; Siegel, Karen; Jin, Jing; Chong, Elizabeth Y; Tan, Chong Yew; Chen, Mark Ic; Horby, Peter; Cook, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease caused primarily by human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). This study reports a systematic review of the epidemiology of HFMD in Asia. PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched up to December 2014. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for epidemiologic and serologic information about prevalence and incidence of HFMD against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers extracted answers for 8 specific research questions on HFMD epidemiology. The results are checked by 3 others. HFMD is found to be seasonal in temperate Asia with a summer peak and in subtropical Asia with spring and fall peaks, but not in tropical Asia; evidence of a climatic role was identified for temperate Japan. Risk factors for HFMD include hygiene, age, gender and social contacts, but most studies were underpowered to adjust rigorously for confounding variables. Both community-level and school-level transmission have been implicated, but their relative importance for HFMD is inconclusive. Epidemiologic indices are poorly understood: No supporting quantitative evidence was found for the incubation period of EV-A71; the symptomatic rate of EV-A71/Coxsackievirus A16 infection was from 10% to 71% in 4 studies; while the basic reproduction number was between 1.1 and 5.5 in 3 studies. The uncertainty in these estimates inhibits their use for further analysis. Diversity of study designs complicates attempts to identify features of HFMD epidemiology. Knowledge on HFMD remains insufficient to guide interventions such as the incorporation of an EV-A71 vaccine in pediatric vaccination schedules. Research is urgently needed to fill these gaps.

  12. The Epidemiology and Associated Phenomenology of Formal Thought Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Eric; Creed, Lisa; MacMahon, Donagh; Brennan, Daria; Clarke, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Authors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) have recommended to "integrate dimensions into clinical practice." The epidemiology and associated phenomenology of formal thought disorder (FTD) have been described but not reviewed. We aimed to carry out a systematic review of FTD to this end. A systematic review of FTD literature, from 1978 to 2013, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 881 abstracts were reviewed and 120 articles met inclusion criteria; articles describing FTD factor structure (n = 15), prevalence and longitudinal course (n = 41), role in diagnosis (n = 22), associated clinical variables (n = 56), and influence on outcome (n = 35) were included. Prevalence estimates for FTD in psychosis range from 5% to 91%. Dividing FTD into domains, by factor analysis, can accurately identify 91% of psychotic diagnoses. FTD is associated with increased clinical severity. Poorer outcomes are predicted by negative thought disorder, more so than the typical construct of "disorganized speech." FTD is a common symptom of psychosis and may be considered a marker of illness severity. Detailed dimensional assessment of FTD can clarify diagnosis and may help predict prognosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Periodontal infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vettore Mario Vianna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate analytical studies on periodontal disease as a possible risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A literature search of the MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS bibliographic databases and CAPES thesis database was conducted up to December 2005, covering epidemiological studies of periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Of the 964 papers identified, 36 analytical studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six epidemiological studies reported associations between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. There was a clear heterogeneity between studies concerning measurement of periodontal disease and selection of type of adverse pregnancy outcome. Therefore no meta-analysis was performed. Most studies did not control for confounders, thus raising serious doubts about their conclusions. The methodological limitations of most studies did not allow conclusions concerning the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Larger and methodologically rigorous analytical studies using reliable outcomes and exposure measures are recommended.

  14. The epidemiology of skin conditions in the aged: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2017-02-01

    The human population is aging. A systematic summary of the epidemiology of skin diseases in the aged is lacking. A systematic review was conducted including electronic database searches in MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS and Web of Science. The eligibility criteria were primary incidence and prevalence studies or secondary data analysis, English or German language, subjects being 65+ years and reported skin problems or diseases. Data extraction was conducted using a standardized data collection form and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed. After screening of 1491 records, 74 records were included reporting data for more than 20 skin conditions. The majority of prevalence and incidence figures was identified for hospital and long-term care settings. The most prevalent skin diseases were fungal infections (14.3%-64%), dermatitis (1%-58.7%), xerosis (5.4%-85.5%) and benign skin tumors (1.7%-74.5%). Additionally, pressure ulcer prevalence ranged from 0.3% to 46% and incidence from 0.8% to 34%. Skin conditions and diseases in aged populations are frequent. Health care practitioners should pay attention to those, although skin conditions might not be the primary reason for seeking care. Epidemiological data are lacking especially for home care and community settings although this can be regarded as the most important from a public health and prevention point of view. The methodological quality and reporting of epidemiological studies in the aged populations must be improved. CRD42014014553 (PROSPERO). Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jennifer; Brown, Leanne; Williams, Rebecca L.; Byles, Julie; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns influence cancer risk. However, systematic reviews have not evaluated relationships between a priori defined diet quality scores and adult cancer risk and mortality. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) describe diet quality scores used in cohort or cross-sectional research examining cancer outcomes; and (2) describe associations between diet quality scores and cancer risk and mortality. The protocol was registered in Prospero, and a systematic search using six electronic databases was conducted through to December 2014. Records were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers, and quality was evaluated using a validated tool. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria from which 55 different diet quality scores were identified. Of the 35 studies investigating diet quality and cancer risk, 60% (n = 21) found a positive relationship. Results suggest no relationship between diet quality scores and overall cancer risk. Inverse associations were found for diet quality scores and risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, head, and neck cancer. No consistent relationships between diet quality scores and cancer mortality were found. Diet quality appears to be related to site-specific adult cancer risk. The relationship with cancer mortality is less conclusive, suggesting additional factors impact overall cancer survival. Development of a cancer-specific diet quality score for application in prospective epidemiology and in public health is warranted. PMID:27399671

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the epidemiology of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jean K; Korngut, Lawrence; Dykeman, Jonathan; Day, Lundy; Pringsheim, Tamara; Jette, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    The muscular dystrophies are a broad group of hereditary muscle diseases with variable severity. Population-based prevalence estimates have been reported but pooled estimates are not available. We performed a systematic review of worldwide population-based studies reporting muscular dystrophies prevalence and/or incidence using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The search strategy included key terms related to muscular dystrophies, incidence, prevalence and epidemiology. Two reviewers independently reviewed all abstracts, full text articles and abstracted data using standardized forms. Pooling of prevalence estimates was performed using random effect models. 1104 abstracts and 167 full text articles were reviewed. Thirty-one studies met all eligibility criteria and were included in the final analysis. The studies differed widely in their approaches to case ascertainment, resulting in significant methodological heterogeneity and varied data quality. The pooled prevalence of DMD and BMD was 4.78 (95% CI 1.94-11.81) and 1.53 (95% CI 0.26-8.94) per 100,000 males respectively. The incidence of DMD ranged from 10.71 to 27.78 per 100,000. This is the first meta-analysis of worldwide prevalence estimates for muscular dystrophies. There is a need for more epidemiological studies addressing global estimates on incidence and prevalence of muscular dystrophies, utilizing standardized diagnostic criteria as well as multiple sources of case ascertainment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of otitis media in children from developing countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Yarzabal, Juan-Pablo; Cruz, James Philip; Schmidt, Johannes E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examined the epidemiology of otitis media (OM) in children children <6 years of age, OM prevalence was found to be 9.2% in Nigeria, 10% in Egypt, 6.7% in China, 9.2% in India, 9.1% in Iran and 5.1-7.8% in Russia. Few studies examined the etiology of OM and the antibacterial resistance. The most common bacterial pathogens were S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and S. aureus. A high resistance to penicillin was reported in Nigeria and Turkey. Despite the variability between the identified studies, this review indicates that OM and its various sub-types remain a significant burden in different settings. However, the heterogeneity of studies and a general lack of reliable data made generalisation very difficult. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystad, Reidar P; Gregory, Kobi; Wilson, Juno

    2014-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) has experienced a surge in popularity since emerging in the 1990s, but the sport has also faced concomitant criticism from public, political, and medical holds. Notwithstanding the polarized discourse concerning the sport, no systematic review of the injury problems in MMA has been published to date. To systematically review the epidemiologic data on injuries in MMA and to quantitatively estimate injury incidence and risk factor effect sizes. Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Electronic searching of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, and SPORTDiscus databases to identify studies reporting on the epidemiology of injuries in MMA. Random-effects models were used to obtain pooled summary estimates of the injury incidence rate per 1000 athlete-exposures (IIRAE) and rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I (2) statistic. A total of 6 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The IIRAE summary estimate was found to be 228.7 (95% CI, 110.4-473.5). No studies reported injury severity. The most commonly injured anatomic region was the head (range, 66.8%-78.0%) followed by the wrist/hand (range, 6.0%-12.0%), while the most frequent injury types were laceration (range, 36.7%-59.4%), fracture (range, 7.4%-43.3%), and concussion (range, 3.8%-20.4%). The most notable risk factors pertained to the outcome of bouts. Losers incurred 3 times as many injuries as winners, and fighters in bouts ending with knockout or technical knockout incurred more than 2 times as many injuries as fighters in bouts ending with submission. Notwithstanding the paucity of data, the injury incidence in MMA appears to be greater than in most, if not all, other popular and commonly practiced combat sports. In general, the injury pattern in MMA is very similar to that in professional boxing but unlike that found in other combat sports such as judo and taekwondo. More epidemiologic research is

  19. Epidemiology of diabetic foot disease and diabetes-related lower-extremity amputation in Australia: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    van Netten, Jaap J.; Baba, Mendel; Lazzarini, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot disease is associated with major morbidity, mortality, costs, and reduction of a person?s quality of life. Investigating the epidemiology of diabetic foot disease is the backbone of diabetic foot research and clinical practice, yet the full burden of diabetic foot disease in Australia is unknown. This study aims to describe the protocol for a systematic review of the epidemiology of diabetic foot disease and diabetes-related lower-extremity amputation in Australia. Me...

  20. The epidemiology of HIV infection in Morocco: systematic review and data synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumjian, S P; Mumtaz, G R; Hilmi, N; Zidouh, A; El Rhilani, H; Alami, K; Bennani, A; Gouws, E; Ghys, P D; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Morocco has made significant strides in building its HIV research capacity. Based on a wealth of empirical data, the objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature review and analytical synthesis of HIV epidemiological evidence in this country. Data were retrieved using three major sources of literature and data. HIV transmission dynamics were found to be focused in high-risk populations, with female sex workers (FSWs) and clients contributing the largest share of new HIV infections. There is a pattern of emerging epidemics among some high-risk populations, and some epidemics, particularly among FSWs, appear to be established and stable. The scale of the local HIV epidemics and populations affected show highly heterogeneous geographical distribution. To optimize the national HIV response, surveillance and prevention efforts need to be expanded among high-risk populations and in geographic settings where low intensity and possibly concentrated HIV epidemics are emerging or are already endemic. PMID:23970764

  1. Epidemiologic and therapeutic aspects of refractory coeliac disease - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowinski, Sara Anna; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a rare and severe malabsorptive disease. The condition has two subtypes: RCDI and RCDII. Different treatments have been tested: and because RCD has a poor prognosis due to progress to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, the aim was to review...... the epidemiologic aspects and the therapeutic options for RCD. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in 18 databases, and 122 records were identified. Incidence, prevalence, treatment methods and their efficacy were evaluated. RESULTS: Among coeliac disease patients, the cumulative incidence of RCD...... is 1-4% per ten-year period and the prevalence is 0.31-0.38%. In the general population, the prevalence of RCD is 0.002%. Treatment of RCDI is azathioprine (effect 100%), mesalamine (effect 60%) or tioguanine (effect 83%). Treatment for RCDII is the antimetabolite cladribine (effect 81%) and autologous...

  2. Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in Africa: a OneHealth systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sky Vanderburg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a common cause of febrile illness and community-acquired pneumonia in resource-limited settings. Coxiella burnetii, the causative pathogen, is transmitted among varied host species, but the epidemiology of the organism in Africa is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of C. burnetii epidemiology in Africa from a "One Health" perspective to synthesize the published data and identify knowledge gaps.We searched nine databases to identify articles relevant to four key aspects of C. burnetii epidemiology in human and animal populations in Africa: infection prevalence; disease incidence; transmission risk factors; and infection control efforts. We identified 929 unique articles, 100 of which remained after full-text review. Of these, 41 articles describing 51 studies qualified for data extraction. Animal seroprevalence studies revealed infection by C. burnetii (≤13% among cattle except for studies in Western and Middle Africa (18-55%. Small ruminant seroprevalence ranged from 11-33%. Human seroprevalence was <8% with the exception of studies among children and in Egypt (10-32%. Close contact with camels and rural residence were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. C. burnetii infection has been associated with livestock abortion. In human cohort studies, Q fever accounted for 2-9% of febrile illness hospitalizations and 1-3% of infective endocarditis cases. We found no studies of disease incidence estimates or disease control efforts.C. burnetii infection is detected in humans and in a wide range of animal species across Africa, but seroprevalence varies widely by species and location. Risk factors underlying this variability are poorly understood as is the role of C. burnetii in livestock abortion. Q fever consistently accounts for a notable proportion of undifferentiated human febrile illness and infective endocarditis in cohort studies, but incidence estimates are lacking. C. burnetii presents a real

  3. The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in the Maghreb region: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Fadlalla

    Full Text Available To systematically review and synthesize available epidemiological data on hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence and incidence in the Maghreb region and to estimate the country-specific population-level HCV prevalence.We conducted a systematic review of HCV antibody prevalence and incidence in the Maghreb countries as outlined by the PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analyses were conducted using DerSimonian-Laird random-effect models with inverse variance weighting to pool HCV prevalence estimates among general population groups.We identified 133 HCV prevalence measures and two HCV incidence measures. Among high risk groups, HCV prevalence ranged between 22% and 94% among people who inject drugs, 20% and 76% among dialysis patients, and 2% and 51% among hemophiliacs. Among intermediate-risk groups, considerable but widely variable HCV prevalence was found. Most common risk factors cited across studies were the duration of dialysis, number of transfusions, and having a history of surgery or dental work. The national HCV prevalence in Algeria was estimated at 0.3% (95%CI: 0.1-0.5, Libya 1.2% (95%CI: 1.1-1.3, Mauritania 1.1% (95%CI: 0-2.3, Morocco 0.8% (95%CI: 0.5-1.2, and Tunisia 0.6% (95%CI: 0.5-0.8.HCV prevalence in the Maghreb region of the Middle East and North Africa is comparable to that in developed countries of about 1%. HCV exposures appear often to be linked to medical care and are suggestive of ongoing transmission in such settings. Injecting drug use appears also to be a major, though not dominant, contributor to HCV transmission. Further research is needed to draw a more thorough understanding of HCV epidemiology, especially in the countries with limited number of studies. HCV prevention policy and programming in these countries should focus on the settings of exposure.

  4. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs. The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course.

  5. [Epidemiology of falls in the elderly in Spain: a systematic review, 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Gama, Zenewton André da; Gómez Conesa, Antonia; Sobral Ferreira, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Falls in the elderly are a serious problem that results in large health care expenditures. To prevent them, it has been shown that the key is an epidemiologic knowledge of the target population. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the incidence, risk factors and consequences of falls in the Spanish population, by analyzing the methodological quality of studies that provide these data. Two independent authors identified 54 studies through manual and electronic means (MEDLINE, Dialnet, Tesis en Red, TESEO y CSIC [ICYT, IME, ISOC]). A total of 13 studies performed in Spain with non-hospitalized elderly individuals older than 64 years of age were selected and assessed for their methodological quality. We found heterogeneity in the characteristics and quality of the studies, and a general inadequacy of data analyses. The risk factors and consequences must be viewed with caution, since in most of the studies a causal inference cannot be made. We showed that the current fall rates are at the same level as those of the first epidemiologic study published 15 years ago. We conclude that Spain has a high incidence of falls and needs studies on risk factors directed toward cause and effect in the community and comparisons among nursing homes. Finally, the physical, psychosocial and economic consequences must be investigated more thoroughly.

  6. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Chan, D.S.M.; Vieira, A.; Navarro Rosenblatt, D.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current evidence indicates that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the association with colorectal adenomas is unclear. Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of red and processed meat intake and

  7. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Chan, D.S.; Vieira, A.R.; Navarro Rosenblatt, D.A.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the association with colorectal adenomas is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of red and processed meat intake and

  8. Epidemiological and mycological characteristics of candidemia in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, A; Fakhim, H; Khodavaisy, S; Alizadeh, A; Nazeri, M; Soleimani, A; Boekhout, T; Badali, H

    2017-06-01

    To date, there has been no comprehensive review of the epidemiology, risk factors, species distribution, and outcomes of candidemia in Iran. This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reported candidemia cases in Iran until December 2015. The review process occurred in three steps, namely a literature search, data extraction and statistical analyses. After a comprehensive literature search, we identified 55 cases. The mean age of patients was 46.80±24.30 years (range 1-81 years). The main risk factors for candidemia were surgery and burns (23.6%), followed by malignancies (20%), use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (18.2%), and diabetes (7.3%). Candida parapsilosis (n=17, 30.8%) was the leading agent, followed by Candida albicans (n=15, 27.3%), Candida glabrata (n=10, 18.2%), and Candida tropicalis (n=8, 14.5%). The frequencies of candidemia cases due to C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. albicans were significantly higher among patients aged>60, 21-40, and 41-60 years, respectively. Comparison of risk factors for candidemia by multiple logistic regression showed that one of the most important risk factors was surgery (OR: 4.245; 95% CI: 1.141-15.789; P=0.031). The outcome was recorded in only 19 cases and 13 of those patients (68.4%) expired. This study confirms that knowledge of the local epidemiology is important when conducting surveillance studies to prevent and control candidemia and will be of interest for antifungal stewardship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A systematic review of data mining and machine learning for air pollution epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bellinger, Colin; Mohomed Jabbar, Mohomed Shazan; Zaïane, Osmar; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background Data measuring airborne pollutants, public health and environmental factors are increasingly being stored and merged. These big datasets offer great potential, but also challenge traditional epidemiological methods. This has motivated the exploration of alternative methods to make predictions, find patterns and extract information. To this end, data mining and machine learning algorithms are increasingly being applied to air pollution epidemiology. Methods We conducted a systematic...

  10. Epidemiology of bruxism in adults: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Winocur, Ephraim; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Paesani, Daniel; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2013-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the prevalence of bruxism in adult populations. A systematic search of the medical literature was performed to identify all peer-reviewed English-language papers dealing with the prevalence assessment of either awake or sleep bruxism at the general population level by the adoption of questionnaires, clinical assessments, and polysomnographic (PSG) or electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Quality assessment of the reviewed papers was performed according to the Methodological evaluation of Observational REsearch (MORE) checklist, which enables the identification of flaws in the external and internal validity. Cut-off criteria for an acceptable external validity were established to select studies for the discussion of prevalence data. For each included study, the sample features, diagnostic strategy, and prevalence of bruxism in relation to age, sex, and circadian rhythm, if available, were recorded. Thirty-five publications were included in the review. Several methodological problems limited the external validity of findings in most studies, and prevalence data extraction was performed only on seven papers. Of those, only one paper had a flaw less external validity, whilst internal validity was low in all the selected papers due to their self-reported bruxism diagnosis alone, mainly based on only one or two questionnaire items. No epidemiologic data were available from studies adopting other diagnostic strategies (eg, PSG, EMG). Generically identified "bruxism" was assessed in two studies reporting an 8% to 31.4% prevalence, awake bruxism was investigated in two studies describing a 22.1% to 31% prevalence, and prevalence of sleep bruxism was found to be more consistent across the three studies investigating the report of "frequent" bruxism (12.8% ± 3.1%). Bruxism activities were found to be unrelated to sex, and a decrease with age was described in elderly people. The present systematic review described

  11. The epidemiology of silent brain infarction: a systematic review of population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jonathon P; Wong, Andrew A; Fraser, John F

    2014-07-09

    Cerebral infarction is a commonly observed radiological finding in the absence of corresponding, clinical symptomatology, the so-called silent brain infarction (SBI). SBIs are a relatively new consideration as improved imaging has facilitated recognition of their occurrence. However, the true incidence, prevalence and risk factors associated with SBI remain controversial. Systematic searches of the Medline and EMBASE databases from 1946 to December 2013 were performed to identify original studies of population-based adult cohorts derived from community surveys and routine health screening that reported the incidence and prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined SBI. The prevalence of SBI ranges from 5% to 62% with most studies reported in the 10% to 20% range. Longitudinal studies suggest an annual incidence of between 2% and 4%. A strong association was seen to exist between epidemiological estimates of SBI and age of the population assessed. Hypertension, carotid stenosis, chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome all showed a strong association with SBI. Heart failure, coronary artery disease, hyperhomocysteinemia and obstructive sleep apnea are also likely of significance. However, any association between SBI and gender, ethnicity, tobacco or alcohol consumption, obesity, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus remains unclear. SBI is a remarkably common phenomenon and endemic among older people. This systematic review supports the association of a number of traditional vascular risk factors, but also highlights disparities between clinically apparent and silent strokes, potentially suggesting important differences in pathophysiology and warranting further investigation.

  12. Evaluation of a rule-based method for epidemiological document classification towards the automation of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karystianis, George; Thayer, Kristina; Wolfe, Mary; Tsafnat, Guy

    2017-06-01

    Most data extraction efforts in epidemiology are focused on obtaining targeted information from clinical trials. In contrast, limited research has been conducted on the identification of information from observational studies, a major source for human evidence in many fields, including environmental health. The recognition of key epidemiological information (e.g., exposures) through text mining techniques can assist in the automation of systematic reviews and other evidence summaries. We designed and applied a knowledge-driven, rule-based approach to identify targeted information (study design, participant population, exposure, outcome, confounding factors, and the country where the study was conducted) from abstracts of epidemiological studies included in several systematic reviews of environmental health exposures. The rules were based on common syntactical patterns observed in text and are thus not specific to any systematic review. To validate the general applicability of our approach, we compared the data extracted using our approach versus hand curation for 35 epidemiological study abstracts manually selected for inclusion in two systematic reviews. The returned F-score, precision, and recall ranged from 70% to 98%, 81% to 100%, and 54% to 97%, respectively. The highest precision was observed for exposure, outcome and population (100%) while recall was best for exposure and study design with 97% and 89%, respectively. The lowest recall was observed for the population (54%), which also had the lowest F-score (70%). The generated performance of our text-mining approach demonstrated encouraging results for the identification of targeted information from observational epidemiological study abstracts related to environmental exposures. We have demonstrated that rules based on generic syntactic patterns in one corpus can be applied to other observational study design by simple interchanging the dictionaries aiming to identify certain characteristics (i.e., outcomes

  13. Obesity and headache: part I--a systematic review of the epidemiology of obesity and headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Nu Cindy; Scher, Ann I; Moghekar, Abhay; Bond, Dale S; Peterlin, B Lee

    2014-02-01

    Individually, both obesity and headache are conditions associated with a substantial personal and societal impact. Recent data support that obesity is comorbid with headache in general and migraine specifically, as well as with certain secondary headache conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In the current manuscript, we first briefly review the epidemiology of obesity and common primary and secondary headache disorders individually. This is followed by a systematic review of the general population data evaluating the association between obesity and headache in general, and then obesity and migraine and tension-type headache disorders. Finally, we briefly discuss the data on the association between obesity and a common secondary headache disorder that is associated with obesity, idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Taken together, these data suggest that it is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of the headache/migraine-obesity association, given that it is potentially modifiable. Hypotheses for mechanisms of the obesity-migraine association and treatment considerations for overweight and obese headache sufferers are discussed in the companion manuscript, as part II of this topic. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  14. Obesity and Headache: Part I – A Systematic Review of the Epidemiology of Obesity and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Nu Cindy; Scher, Ann I.; Moghekar, Abhay; Bond, Dale S.; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Individually, both obesity and headache are conditions associated with a substantial personal and societal impact. Recent data support that obesity is comorbid with headache in general and migraine specifically, as well as with certain secondary headache conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In the current manuscript, we first briefly review the epidemiology of obesity and common primary and secondary headache disorders individually. This is followed by a systematic review of the general population data evaluating the association between obesity and headache in general, and then obesity and migraine and tension-type headache disorders. Finally, we briefly discuss the data on the association between obesity and a common secondary headache disorder that is associated with obesity, idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Taken together, these data suggest that it is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of the headache/migraine-obesity association, given that it is potentially modifiable. Hypotheses for mechanisms of the obesity-migraine association and treatment considerations for overweight and obese headache sufferers are discussed in the companion manuscript, as part II of this topic. PMID:24512574

  15. Epidemiology and reporting characteristics of overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions published 2012-2016: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Pollock, Michelle; Fernandes, Ricardo M; Büchter, Roland Brian; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-04-07

    Overviews of systematic reviews (overviews) attempt to systematically retrieve and summarize the results of multiple systematic reviews (SRs) for a given condition or public health problem. Two prior descriptive analyses of overviews found substantial variation in the methodological approaches used in overviews, and deficiencies in reporting of key methodological steps. Since then, new methods have been developed so it is timely to update the prior descriptive analyses. The objectives are to: (1) investigate the epidemiological, descriptive, and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 100 overviews published from 2012 to 2016 and (2) compare these recently published overviews (2012-2016) to those published prior to 2012 (based on the prior descriptive analyses). Medline, EMBASE, and CDSR will be searched for overviews published 2012-2016, using a validated search filter for overviews. Only overviews written in English will be included. All titles and abstracts will be screened by one review author; those deemed not relevant will be verified by a second person for exclusion. Full-texts will be assessed for inclusion by two reviewers independently. Of those deemed relevant, a random sample of 100 overviews will be selected for inclusion. Data extraction will be either performed by one reviewer with verification by a second reviewer or by one reviewer only depending on the complexity of the item. Discrepancies at any stage will be resolved by consensus or consulting a third person. Data will be extracted on the epidemiological, descriptive, and reporting characteristics of each overview. Data will be analyzed descriptively. When data are available for both time points (up to 2011 vs. 2012-2016), we will compare characteristics by calculating risk ratios or applying the Mann-Whitney test. Overviews are becoming increasingly valuable evidence syntheses, and the number of published overviews is increasing. However, former analyses found limitations in the conduct

  16. Epidemiology, quality, and reporting characteristics of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of nursing interventions published in Chinese journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juxia; Wang, Jiancheng; Han, Lin; Zhang, Fengwa; Cao, Jianxun; Ma, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of nursing interventions have become increasingly popular in China. This review provides the first examination of epidemiological characteristics of these SRs as well as compliance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews guidelines. The purpose of this study was to examine epidemiologic and reporting characteristics as well as the methodologic quality of SRs and MAs of nursing interventions published in Chinese journals. Four Chinese databases were searched (the Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Full-text Database, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, and Wanfang Database) for SRs and MAs of nursing intervention from inception through June 2013. Data were extracted into Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses checklists were used to assess methodologic quality and reporting characteristics, respectively. A total of 144 SRs were identified, most (97.2%) of which used "systematic review" or "meta-analyses" in the titles. None of the reviews had been updated. Nearly half (41%) were written by nurses, and more than half (61%) were reported in specialist journals. The most common conditions studied were endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and neoplasms. Most (70.8%) reported information about quality assessment, whereas less than half (25%) reported assessing for publication bias. None of the reviews reported a conflict of interest. Although many SRs of nursing interventions have been published in Chinese journals, the quality of these reviews is of concern. As a potential key source of information for nurses and nursing administrators, not only were many of these reviews incomplete in the information they provided, but also some results were misleading. Improving the quality of SRs of

  17. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby

    2017-01-01

    : To assess the occurrence of COPD among construction workers. Methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Embase between 1 January 1990 and 31 August 2016 in order to identify epidemiological studies with a risk estimate for either COPD morbidity/mortality or a spirometry-based definition....... Conclusions: This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential...

  18. Epidemiology of bruxism in adults: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Paesani, D.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the prevalence of bruxism in adult populations. METHODS: A systematic search of the medical literature was performed to identify all peer-reviewed English-language papers dealing with the prevalence assessment of either awake or

  19. Meta-epidemiologic analysis indicates that MEDLINE searches are sufficient for diagnostic test accuracy systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enst, Wynanda A.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Whiting, Penny; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Hooft, Lotty

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how the summary estimates in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic reviews are affected when searches are limited to MEDLINE. A systematic search was performed to identify DTA reviews that had conducted exhaustive searches and included a meta-analysis. Primary studies included in

  20. Epidemiology, health systems and stakeholders in rheumatic heart disease in Africa: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloi, Annesinah Hlengiwe; Watkins, David; Engel, Mark E; Mall, Sumaya; Zühlke, Liesl

    2016-05-20

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic disease affecting the heart valves, secondary to group A streptococcal infection (GAS) and subsequent acute rheumatic fever (ARF). However, RHD cure and preventative measures are inextricably linked with socioeconomic development, as the disease mainly affects children and young adults living in poverty. In order to address RHD, public health officials and health policymakers require up-to-date knowledge on the epidemiology of GAS, ARF and RHD, as well as the existing enablers and gaps in delivery of evidence-based care for these conditions. We propose to conduct a systematic review to assess the literature comprehensively, synthesising all existing quantitative and qualitative data relating to RHD in Africa. We plan to conduct a comprehensive literature search using a number of databases and reference lists of relevant articles published from January 1995 to December 2015. Two evaluators will independently review and extract data from each article. Additionally, we will assess overall study quality and risk of bias, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme criteria for quantitative and qualitative studies, respectively. We will meta-analyse estimates of prevalence, incidence, case fatality and mortality for each of the conditions separately for each country. Qualitative meta-analysis will be conducted for facilitators and barriers in RHD health access. Lastly, we will create a list of key stakeholders. This protocol is registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of systematic reviews, registration number CRD42016032852. The information provided by this review will inform and assist relevant stakeholders in identifying key areas of intervention, and designing and implementing evidence-based programmes and policies at the local and regional level. With slight modifications (ie, to the country terms in the search strategy), this protocol can be used as part of a needs

  1. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  2. Defining micro-epidemiology for malaria elimination: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Verdonck, Kristien; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gryseels, Charlotte; Muela Ribera, Joan; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2017-04-20

    Malaria risk can vary markedly between households in the same village, or between villages, but the determinants of this "micro-epidemiological" variation in malaria risk remain poorly understood. This study aimed to identify factors that explain fine-scale variation in malaria risk across settings and improve definitions and methods for malaria micro-epidemiology. A systematic review of studies that examined risk factors for variation in malaria infection between individuals, households, clusters, hotspots, or villages in any malaria-endemic setting was conducted. Four databases were searched for studies published up until 6th October 2015. Crude and adjusted effect estimates for risk factors for malaria infection were combined in random effects meta-analyses. Bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. From 743 retrieved records, 51 studies were selected, representing populations comprising over 160,000 individuals in 21 countries, in high- and low-endemicity settings. Sixty-five risk factors were identified and meta-analyses were conducted for 11 risk factors. Most studies focused on environmental factors, especially increasing distance from a breeding site (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.86-0.92, 10 studies). Individual bed net use was protective (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.77, 12 studies), but not household bed net ownership. Increasing household size (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15, 4 studies) and household crowding (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.48-2.16, 4 studies) were associated with malaria infection. Health seeking behaviour, medical history and genetic traits were less frequently studied. Only six studies examined whether individual-level risk factors explained differences in malaria risk at village or hotspot level, and five studies reported different risk factors at different levels of analysis. The risk of bias varied from low to high in individual studies. Insufficient reporting and comparability of measurements limited the number of meta

  3. The definition and epidemiology of clusters of suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire; Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Platt, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Suicide clusters are a rare and underresearched phenomenon which attract wide media attention and result in heightened concern in the communities where they occur. We conducted a systematic literature review covering the definition and epidemiology of the time-space clustering of suicidal behavior. Of the 890 articles identified by electronic searching, 82 were selected for inclusion and the extracted data were analyzed by narrative synthesis. Less than a third of studies included a definition of a suicide cluster, and definitions varied considerably. Clusters occurred in various settings, including psychiatric hospitals, schools, prisons, indigenous communities, and among the general population. Most clusters involved young people. The proportion of all episodes that occurred in clusters varied considerably between studies and partly depended on study methodology (e.g., a larger proportion was found in studies of specific clusters compared with general population studies). Future studies should aim to combine the statistical analysis of time-space clustering with a case study of events, which examines potential links between individuals and the wider environmental context. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  4. [EPIDEMIOLOGY OF FALLS IN THE NON-INSTITUTIONALIZED SPANISH ELDERLY POPULATION, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer García, Begoña; Juarez Vela, Raúl; Gracia Carrasco, Elías; Guerrero Portillo, Sandra; García Moyano, Loreto María; Azón Belarre, José Carlos

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify scientific publications about falls among non-institutionalized Spanish elderly population and to summarize the study findings which analysed the incidence, the risk factors and the consequences of the falls in the geriatric spanish population aged 65 years and over who lives institutionalized in our country. Systematic review of the epidemiological observational studies in Spain, with recording of falls, with temporary retrospective and published as scientific articles between the years 2003 and 2014 included. The articles search took place in July 2014, with the limit of language and publication year, in the electronic databases PubMed, Dialnet, RedALyC, SciELO, Enfispo and Google Scholar. The percentage of people who suffered falls depending on the publication year. The frequency of falls recorded varied from 14.9 % to 66.2 %. The mean intake of daily drugs was between 2.7 to 4.5 drugs per day. The fear of falling that had the elderly population non-institutionalized was between 44.7 % and 49.4 %. The vast majority of falls occurred at home, with percentages between 55.1 % and 61 %. Between 30 % and 55.1 % of people who suffered falls maintained health care contact immediately and the fractures prevalence was between 0 % and 26.1 %. CONCLUSTON: It can be confirmed that the falls prevalence in the spanish elderly population is high, so the need ofnew researches are appreciated.

  5. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, David R; Rodriguez, Dania L Mejía; Chams, Moises Mebarak; Hoek, Hans W

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are currently not considered to be limited to Western culture. We systematically reviewed the existing literature on the prevalence of eating disorders in Latin America. Of 1583 records screened, 17 studies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela were included in the analysis. Most studies reported point-prevalence rates and only three studies provided lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates. We found a mean point-prevalence rate of 0.1% for anorexia nervosa, 1.16% for bulimia nervosa, and 3.53% for binge-eating disorder (BED) in the general population. Heterogeneity for bulimia nervosa and BED was large. This meta-analysis indicates that the prevalence of anorexia nervosa seems to be lower, whereas the prevalence of bulimia nervosa and especially of BED seems to be higher in Latin America than in Western countries. Our findings show that eating disorders are common mental disorders in Latin America. However, some facets of Latin American culture might be protective for the development of anorexia nervosa and increase the risk for bulimia nervosa and BED. Further studies investigating the epidemiology of eating disorders and their relation to culture in Latin America are needed. SPANISH ABSTRACT.

  6. Coffee, caffeine, and sleep: A systematic review of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian; Landolt, Hans Peter

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world. It is readily available in coffee and other foods and beverages, and is used to mitigate sleepiness, enhance performance, and treat apnea in premature infants. This review systematically explores evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials as to whether coffee and caffeine have deleterious effects on sleep. Caffeine typically prolonged sleep latency, reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency, and worsened perceived sleep quality. Slow-wave sleep and electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity were typically reduced, whereas stage-1, wakefulness, and arousals were increased. Dose- and timing-response relationships were established. The sleep of older adults may be more sensitive to caffeine compared to younger adults. Pronounced individual differences are also present in young people, and genetic studies isolated functional polymorphisms of genes implicated in adenosine neurotransmission and metabolism contributing to individual sensitivity to sleep disruption by caffeine. Most studies were conducted in male adults of Western countries, which limits the generalizability of the findings. Given the importance of good sleep for general health and functioning, longitudinal investigations aimed at establishing possible causal relationships among coffee- and caffeine-induced changes in sleep quality and health development are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public health implications. a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality), access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. Results Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (> 40%) with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion, or US$8836 per diabetic

  8. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public health implications. a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen Ole

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality, access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. Results Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (> 40% with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion

  9. Epidemiology of Dengue Disease in the Philippines (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lulu; Roque, Vito G.; Brett, Jeremy; Dizon, Ruby; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    This literature analysis describes the available dengue epidemiology data in the Philippines between 2000 and 2011. Of 253 relevant data sources identified, 34, including additional epidemiology data provided by the National Epidemiology Center, Department of Health, Philippines, were reviewed. There were 14 publications in peer reviewed journals, and 17 surveillance reports/sources, which provided variable information from the passive reporting system and show broad trends in dengue incidence, including age group predominance and disease severity. The peer reviewed studies focused on clinical severity of cases, some revealed data on circulating serotypes and genotypes and on the seroepidemiology of dengue including incidence rates for infection and apparent disease. Gaps in the data were identified, and include the absence incidence rates stratified by age, dengue serotype and genotype distribution, disease severity data, sex distribution data, and seroprevalence data. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002292 PMID:25375119

  10. Empirical Evidence of Study Design Biases in Randomized Trials: Systematic Review of Meta-Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Savović, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials. Design Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies. Methods We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome (“mortality” versus “other objective” versus “subjective”). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies). For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding) (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies), lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study) and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study). The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition) is unclear. Conclusions Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several characteristics, particularly attrition and selective reporting, is needed. PMID:27398997

  11. Epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby union sevens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Antonio; Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo; Santiago, Luiz; Taborda Barata, Luis

    2017-02-01

    In 2016 the Rugby Union variant of sevens will enter the official Olympic Programme. Until now, most of injury surveillance studies in Rugby Union focus on elite 15-a-side cohorts, with reported injury incidence rates reaching 96 per 1000 player-match-hours, and mean severity set at 20 days. Sparse data is available regarding rugby sevens. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data regarding the epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby sevens. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Scielo and IndexRMP) were searched in September 2015, complemented by manual searches of bibliographies and relevant "grey literature". Seven prospective cohort original articles addressing injuries in senior male rugby sevens players were included in this review. Overall injury incidence rates in elite rugby sevens tournaments ranged 101.5 to 119.8 per 1000 player-match-hours. Mean severity was greater than 34.1 days. Lower limb and joint/ligament injuries were the most frequent in elite players. The only study on amateur players revealed a lower injury incidence rate (74.7 per 1000 player-match-hours), and a higher proportion of muscle/tendon (37.5 %) injuries. Injury incidence rates in rugby sevens are higher than those reported for the 15-a-side variant, at the same level of competition. Injuries are also more severe, resulting in longer absence periods. This might result from the fact that rugby sevens is played with greater speed, leading to an increase in energy transfers during tackles, more running and turning manoeuvers, that can possibly cause more severe injuries.

  12. Dynamic epidemiological models for dengue transmission: a systematic review of structural approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Andraud

    Full Text Available Dengue is a vector-borne disease recognized as the major arbovirose with four immunologically distant dengue serotypes coexisting in many endemic areas. Several mathematical models have been developed to understand the transmission dynamics of dengue, including the role of cross-reactive antibodies for the four different dengue serotypes. We aimed to review deterministic models of dengue transmission, in order to summarize the evolution of insights for, and provided by, such models, and to identify important characteristics for future model development. We identified relevant publications using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, focusing on mathematical deterministic models of dengue transmission. Model assumptions were systematically extracted from each reviewed model structure, and were linked with their underlying epidemiological concepts. After defining common terms in vector-borne disease modelling, we generally categorised fourty-two published models of interest into single serotype and multiserotype models. The multi-serotype models assumed either vector-host or direct host-to-host transmission (ignoring the vector component. For each approach, we discussed the underlying structural and parameter assumptions, threshold behaviour and the projected impact of interventions. In view of the expected availability of dengue vaccines, modelling approaches will increasingly focus on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination options. For this purpose, the level of representation of the vector and host populations seems pivotal. Since vector-host transmission models would be required for projections of combined vaccination and vector control interventions, we advocate their use as most relevant to advice health policy in the future. The limited understanding of the factors which influence dengue transmission as well as limited data availability remain important concerns when applying dengue models to real-world decision problems.

  13. Visualization and analytics tools for infectious disease epidemiology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Au, Alan P; Detwiler, Landon Todd; Fu, Tsung-Chieh; Painter, Ian S; Abernethy, Neil F

    2014-10-01

    A myriad of new tools and algorithms have been developed to help public health professionals analyze and visualize the complex data used in infectious disease control. To better understand approaches to meet these users' information needs, we conducted a systematic literature review focused on the landscape of infectious disease visualization tools for public health professionals, with a special emphasis on geographic information systems (GIS), molecular epidemiology, and social network analysis. The objectives of this review are to: (1) identify public health user needs and preferences for infectious disease information visualization tools; (2) identify existing infectious disease information visualization tools and characterize their architecture and features; (3) identify commonalities among approaches applied to different data types; and (4) describe tool usability evaluation efforts and barriers to the adoption of such tools. We identified articles published in English from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 2013 from five bibliographic databases. Articles with a primary focus on infectious disease visualization tools, needs of public health users, or usability of information visualizations were included in the review. A total of 88 articles met our inclusion criteria. Users were found to have diverse needs, preferences and uses for infectious disease visualization tools, and the existing tools are correspondingly diverse. The architecture of the tools was inconsistently described, and few tools in the review discussed the incorporation of usability studies or plans for dissemination. Many studies identified concerns regarding data sharing, confidentiality and quality. Existing tools offer a range of features and functions that allow users to explore, analyze, and visualize their data, but the tools are often for siloed applications. Commonly cited barriers to widespread adoption included lack of organizational support, access issues, and misconceptions about tool

  14. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Latin America : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolar, David R.; Mejia Rodriguez, Dania L.; Mebarak Chams, Moises; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewEating disorders are currently not considered to be limited to Western culture. We systematically reviewed the existing literature on the prevalence of eating disorders in Latin America.Recent findingsOf 1583 records screened, 17 studies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,

  15. Epidemiology of Rotavirus in the Iranian Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Monavari, Seyed Hamid Reza; Hadifar, Shima; Mostafaei, Shayan; Miri, Ali; Keshavarz, Mohsen; Babaei, Farhad; Moghoofei, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus is associated with increased risk for severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence rate of rotavirus from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) for Iran. We performed a systematic literature review from several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, MAG IRAN, IranMedex, and Iranian Scientific Information Database. We searched the foll...

  16. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Devleesschauwer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal.We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal.So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10-100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray dog

  17. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Ale, Anita; Declercq, Anne; Depraz, Stephanie; Gaire, Tara Nath; Gongal, Gyanendra; Karki, Surendra; Pandey, Basu Dev; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2016-02-01

    Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal. We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal. So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10-100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray dog populations and the true

  18. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Ale, Anita; Declercq, Anne; Depraz, Stephanie; Gaire, Tara Nath; Gongal, Gyanendra; Karki, Surendra; Pandey, Basu Dev; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal. Methods We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal. Findings So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10–100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray

  19. Epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Europe, a systematic review: Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo-González, Minerva; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Trevisan, Chiara; Allepuz, Alberto; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Abraham, Annette; Afonso, Mariana Boaventura; Blocher, Joachim; Cardoso, Luís; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Gomes, Jacinto; Gómez-Morales, María Ángeles; Jokelainen, Pikka; Kaminski, Miriam; Krt, Brane; Magnussen, Pascal; Robertson, Lucy J; Schmidt, Veronika; Schmutzhard, Erich; Smit, G Suzanne A; Šoba, Barbara; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Starič, Jože; Troell, Karin; Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Vilhena, Manuela; Wardrop, Nicola Ann; Winkler, Andrea S; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-07-21

    Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are zoonotic parasites of public health importance. Data on their occurrence in humans and animals in western Europe are incomplete and fragmented. In this study, we aimed to update the current knowledge on the epidemiology of these parasites in this region. We conducted a systematic review of scientific and grey literature published from 1990 to 2015 on the epidemiology of T. saginata and T. solium in humans and animals. Additionally, data about disease occurrence were actively sought by contacting local experts in the different countries. Taeniosis cases were found in twelve out of eighteen countries in western Europe. No cases were identified in Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. For Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the UK, annual taeniosis cases were reported and the number of detected cases per year ranged between 1 and 114. Detected prevalences ranged from 0.05 to 0.27%, whereas estimated prevalences ranged from 0.02 to 0.67%. Most taeniosis cases were reported as Taenia spp. or T. saginata, although T. solium was reported in Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Slovenia, Portugal and the UK. Human cysticercosis cases were reported in all western European countries except for Iceland, with the highest number originating from Portugal and Spain. Most human cysticercosis cases were suspected to have acquired the infection outside western Europe. Cases of T. solium in pigs were found in Austria and Portugal, but only the two cases from Portugal were confirmed with molecular methods. Germany, Spain and Slovenia reported porcine cysticercosis, but made no Taenia species distinction. Bovine cysticercosis was detected in all countries except for Iceland, with a prevalence based on meat inspection of 0.0002-7.82%. Detection and reporting of taeniosis in western Europe should be improved. The existence of T. solium tapeworm carriers, of suspected autochthonous cases of human cysticercosis and

  20. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

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    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8%) in Sudan. National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    Full Text Available To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%, 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9% and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%, respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4% in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients, pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2% in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men, pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9% in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8% in Sudan.National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  3. The epidemiology of drowning in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

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    Matthew D. Tyler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the World Health Organization, drowning is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional injury-related deaths worldwide, accounting for 370,000 annual deaths and 7% of all injury-related deaths. Low- and middle-income countries are the most affected, accounting for 91% of unintentional drowning deaths. Methods The authors performed a systematic review of literature indexed in EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Traumatology journals formerly indexed in PubMed in January 2014 and again in September 2016. Abstracts were limited to human studies in English, conducted in low- and middle-income countries, and containing quantitative data on drowning epidemiology. Results A total of 62 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles originate from Asia (56% and Africa (26%. Risk factors for drowning included young age (<17–20 years old, male gender (75% vs. 25% female, rural environment (84% vs. 16% urban, occurring in the daytime (95% vs. 5% night time, lack of adult supervision (76% vs. 18% supervised, and limited swimming ability (86% vs. 10% with swimming ability. There was almost equal risk of drowning in a small body of water versus a large body of water (42% ponds, ditches, streams, wells; 46% lakes, rivers, sea, ocean. Conclusion Drowning is a significant cause of injury-related deaths, especially in LMICs. Young males who are unsupervised in rural areas and have limited formal swimming instruction are at greatest risk of drowning in small bodies of water around their homes. Preventative strategies include covering wells and cisterns, fencing off ditches and small ponds, establishing community daycares, providing formal swimming lessons, and increasing awareness of the risks of drowning.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Methods Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. Results We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%–1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%–1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%–2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%–0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%–28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%–4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%–0.8%) in Sudan. Conclusion National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown. PMID:26900839

  5. Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzarino Antonio I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of solid waste (mainly landfills and incineration releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological literature on the health effects in the vicinity of landfills and incinerators and among workers at waste processing plants to derive usable excess risk estimates for health impact assessment. Methods We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing health effects of waste management between 1983 and 2008. For each paper, we examined the study design and assessed potential biases in the effect estimates. We evaluated the overall evidence and graded the associated uncertainties. Results In most cases the overall evidence was inadequate to establish a relationship between a specific waste process and health effects; the evidence from occupational studies was not sufficient to make an overall assessment. For community studies, at least for some processes, there was limited evidence of a causal relationship and a few studies were selected for a quantitative evaluation. In particular, for populations living within two kilometres of landfills there was limited evidence of congenital anomalies and low birth weight with excess risk of 2 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The excess risk tended to be higher when sites dealing with toxic wastes were considered. For populations living within three kilometres of old incinerators, there was limited evidence of an increased risk of cancer, with an estimated excess risk of 3.5 percent. The confidence in the evaluation and in the estimated excess risk tended to be higher for specific cancer

  6. The Epidemiology of Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Systematic and Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Matthew; Smith, Glen; Nielssen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review of population based studies of homicide followed by suicide was conducted to examine the associations between rates of homicide-suicide, rates of other homicides and rates of suicide. The review analysed 64 samples, including the case of an outlier (Greenland) that were reported in 49 studies. There was a significant…

  7. Empirical Evidence of Study Design Biases in Randomized Trials: Systematic Review of Meta-Epidemiological Studies.

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    Matthew J Page

    Full Text Available To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials.Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies.We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012, and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective". Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR < 1 and dSMD < 0 denotes a larger intervention effect estimate in trials with an inadequate or unclear (versus adequate characteristic.We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies. For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies, lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study. The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition is unclear.Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several

  8. A systematic critical review of epidemiological studies on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.

  9. Global Epidemiology of Dengue Outbreaks in 1990-2015: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Congcong; Zhou, Zixing; Wen, Zihao; Liu, Yumei; Zeng, Chengli; Xiao, Di; Ou, Meiling; Han, Yajing; Huang, Shiqi; Liu, Dandan; Ye, Xiaohong; Zou, Xiaoqian; Wu, Jing; Wang, Huanyu; Zeng, Eddy Y; Jing, Chunxia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Approximately 50-100 million people are infected with DENV each year, resulting in a high economic burden on both governments and individuals. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information regarding the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and serotype distribution and risk factors for global dengue outbreaks occurring from 1990 to 2015. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases through December 2016 using the term "dengue outbreak." In total, 3,853 studies were identified, of which 243 studies describing 262 dengue outbreaks met our inclusion criteria. The majority of outbreak-associated dengue cases were reported in the Western Pacific Region, particularly after the year 2010; these cases were primarily identified in China, Singapore and Malaysia. The pooled mean age of dengue-infected individuals was 30.1 years; of the included patients, 54.5% were male, 23.2% had DHF, 62.0% had secondary infections, and 1.3% died. The mean age of dengue patients reported after 2010 was older than that of patients reported before 2010 (34.0 vs. 27.2 years); however, the proportions of patients who had DHF, had secondary infections and died significantly decreased after 2010. Fever, malaise, headache, and asthenia were the most frequently reported clinical symptoms and signs among dengue patients. In addition, among the identified clinical symptoms and signs, positive tourniquet test ( OR = 4.86), ascites ( OR = 13.91) and shock ( OR = 308.09) were identified as the best predictors of dengue infection, DHF and mortality, respectively (both P dengue infection, DHF and mortality were living with uncovered water container ( OR = 1.65), suffering from hypotension ( OR = 6.18) and suffering from diabetes mellitus ( OR = 2.53), respectively (all P < 0.05). The serotype distribution varied with time and

  10. Global Epidemiology of Dengue Outbreaks in 1990–2015: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Congcong Guo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an arthropod-borne infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV infection and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Approximately 50–100 million people are infected with DENV each year, resulting in a high economic burden on both governments and individuals. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information regarding the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and serotype distribution and risk factors for global dengue outbreaks occurring from 1990 to 2015. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases through December 2016 using the term “dengue outbreak.” In total, 3,853 studies were identified, of which 243 studies describing 262 dengue outbreaks met our inclusion criteria. The majority of outbreak-associated dengue cases were reported in the Western Pacific Region, particularly after the year 2010; these cases were primarily identified in China, Singapore and Malaysia. The pooled mean age of dengue-infected individuals was 30.1 years; of the included patients, 54.5% were male, 23.2% had DHF, 62.0% had secondary infections, and 1.3% died. The mean age of dengue patients reported after 2010 was older than that of patients reported before 2010 (34.0 vs. 27.2 years; however, the proportions of patients who had DHF, had secondary infections and died significantly decreased after 2010. Fever, malaise, headache, and asthenia were the most frequently reported clinical symptoms and signs among dengue patients. In addition, among the identified clinical symptoms and signs, positive tourniquet test (OR = 4.86, ascites (OR = 13.91 and shock (OR = 308.09 were identified as the best predictors of dengue infection, DHF and mortality, respectively (both P < 0.05. The main risk factors for dengue infection, DHF and mortality were living with uncovered water container (OR = 1.65, suffering from hypotension (OR = 6.18 and suffering from diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.53, respectively (all P < 0.05. The

  11. Epidemiology of childhood conduct problems in Brazil: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Joseph; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Bordin, Isabel A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to review evidence on the prevalence of and risk factors for conduct problems in Brazil. Methods We searched electronic databases and contacted Brazilian researchers up to 05/2012. Studies were included in the review if they reported the prevalence of or risk factors for conduct problems, conduct disorder, or oppositional defiant disorder for 100?+?Brazilian children aged ?18?years, systematically sampled in schools or the community. Prevalence rates and sex differenc...

  12. Systematic Review of the Exposure Assessment and Epidemiology of High-Frequency Voltage Transients

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    Frank eDe Vocht

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conclusions of epidemiological studies describing adverse health effects as a result of exposure to electromagnetic fields are not unanimous and often contradictory. It has been proposed that an explanation could be that high frequency voltage transients (dirty electricity [DE] which are superimposed on 50/60Hz fields, but are generally not measured, is the real causal agent. DE has been linked to many different health and wellbeing effects, and on the basis of this an industry selling measurement and filtering equipment is growing. We reviewed the available peer-reviewed evidence for DE as a causal agent for adverse human health effects.A literature search was performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and additional publications were obtained from reference lists and from the grey literature. This search resulted in 25 publications; 16 included primary epidemiological and/or exposure data. All studies were reviewed by both authors independently, and including a re-review of studies included in a review of data available up to July 31 2009 by one of the authors. DE has been measured differently in different studies and comparison data are not available. There is no evidence for 50 Graham/Stetzer (G/S units as a safety threshold being anything more than arbitrary. The epidemiological evidence on human health effects of DE is primarily based on, often re-used, case descriptions. Quantitative evidence relies on self-reporting in non-blinded interventions, ecological associations, and one cross-sectional cohort study of cancer risk which does not point to DE as the causal agent. The available evidence for DE as an exposure affecting human health at present does not stand up to scientific scrutiny.

  13. Epidemiology of ankle and foot overuse injuries in sports : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, S.; Dekker, R.; Postema, K.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries are quite diverse in research methodology, data reporting, and outcomes. The aims of this systematic review were to analyze the methodology of published studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries in different sports disciplines and to

  14. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kailasapillai, Shalini; Larsen, Elisabeth; Rehm, Maximilien X; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Roerecke, Michael; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-06-01

    Unrecorded alcohol constitutes about 30% of all alcohol consumed globally. The aims of this systematic review were to determine the epidemiology (occurrence, types, prevalence) of unrecorded alcohol consumption in different countries/regions, analyse the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol and examine health outcomes caused by the consumption of unrecorded alcohol, based on either epidemiology or toxicology. A systematic search for, and qualitative analysis of, papers with empirical results on the different categories of unrecorded alcohol, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Unrecorded alcohol was widespread in all regions of the world. Artisanal fermented beverages and spirits were the most common categories of unrecorded alcohol globally, and were available on all continents. In India, industrially produced spirits (country spirits) were most prevalent. In Russia and countries of the former Soviet Union, surrogate alcohols complemented artisanal spirits. Cross-border shopping was the most prevalent method of obtaining unrecorded alcohol in parts of Europe. Ethanol was the most harmful ingredient of unrecorded alcohol, and health consequences due to other ingredients found in unrecorded alcohol were scarce. However, as unrecorded alcohol is usually the least expensive form of alcohol available in many countries, it may contribute to higher rates of chronic and irregular heavy drinking. Very large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. The primary harm from this kind of alcohol arises from the fact that it is typically much cheaper than licit alcohol. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Epidemiological, humanistic, and economic burden of illness of lower limb spasticity in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alison Martin,1 Seye Abogunrin,1 Hannah Kurth,2 Jerome Dinet2 1Evidera, London, UK; 2Ipsen, Boulogne Billancourt Cedex, France Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological, humanistic, and economic burden of illness associated with adult lower limb spasticity (LLS and its complications. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE identified 23 studies published between January 2002 and October 2012 that assessed the epidemiology, impact, and resource use associated with LLS. A hand-search of four neurology conferences identified abstracts published between 2010 and 2012. Results: LLS was found to occur in one third of adults after stroke, half to two thirds with multiple sclerosis, and three quarters with cerebral palsy. LLS limits mobility and reduces quality of life. No clear association was found between LLS and occurrence of pain, development of contractures, or risk of falls. Conclusion: The evidence on the burden of LLS and its complications is surprisingly limited given the condition's high prevalence among adults with common disorders, such as stroke. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of LLS, including the likelihood of thrombosis in spastic lower limbs. The dearth of high-quality evidence for LLS suggests a lack of awareness of, and interest in, the problem, and therefore, the unmet need among patients and their carers. Keywords: muscle spasticity, cost of illness, complications, quality of life

  16. Meta-epidemiologic analysis indicates that MEDLINE searches are sufficient for diagnostic test accuracy systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enst, Wynanda A; Scholten, Rob J P M; Whiting, Penny; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Hooft, Lotty

    2014-11-01

    To investigate how the summary estimates in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) systematic reviews are affected when searches are limited to MEDLINE. A systematic search was performed to identify DTA reviews that had conducted exhaustive searches and included a meta-analysis. Primary studies included in selected reviews were assessed to determine whether they were indexed on MEDLINE. The effect of omitting non-MEDLINE studies from meta-analyses was investigated by calculating the summary relative diagnostic odds ratio (RDORs) = DORMEDLINE only/DORall studies. We also calculated the summary difference in sensitivity and specificity between all studies and only MEDLINE-indexed studies. Ten reviews contributing 15 meta-analyses met inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. The RDOR comparing MEDLINE-only studies with all studies was 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95, 1.15). Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity remained almost unchanged (difference in sensitivity: -0.08%; 95% CI -1% to 1%; difference in specificity: -0.1%; 95% CI -0.8% to 1%). Restricting to studies indexed on MEDLINE did not influence the summary estimates of the meta-analyses in our sample. In certain circumstances, for instance, when resources are limited, it may be appropriate to restrict searches to MEDLINE. However, the impact on individual reviews cannot be predicted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rafael Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified.

  18. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jaime Rafael; Orduna, Tomás Agustín; Piña-Pozas, Maricela; Vázquez-Vega, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. PMID:28392806

  19. Recent epidemiological trends of dengue in the French territories of the Americas (2000-2012: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïna L'Azou

    Full Text Available Dengue is a public health concern across the globe, and an escalating problem in the Americas. As part of a wider programme (covering Latin America and South East Asia to characterize the epidemiology of dengue in dengue endemic areas, we undertook a systematic literature review to assess epidemiological trends (incidence, timing and duration of outbreaks/epidemics, age and sex distribution, serotype distribution, seroprevalence and disease severity for dengue across the French Territories of the Americas (FTA, in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy between 2000 and 2012 (CRD42012002341: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002341. Of 413 relevant data sources identified, 45 were eligible for inclusion. A large proportion of the available data were from national surveillance reports, and 12 publications were from peer-reviewed journals. During the review period, 3-5 epidemics were identified in each of the island territories and French Guiana, and epidemics were often associated with a shift in the predominant circulating dengue virus serotype. Substantial gaps in epidemiological knowledge were identified. In particular, information regarding dengue virus genotype distribution, seroprevalence and age distribution of dengue were lacking. Additionally, much of the available data were from epidemic years; data from inter-epidemic periods were sparse. Nevertheless, the available epidemiological data showed that dengue is endemic across the FTA and suggest an evolution towards hyperendemicity, highlighting the need to continue the efforts with the existing surveillance programmes to assist in planning an effective vaccination programme once a dengue vaccine is deployed.PROSPERO CRD42012002341.

  20. Solvents and Parkinson disease: A systematic review of toxicological and epidemiological evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, Edward A., E-mail: e.lock@ljmu.ac.uk [Liverpool John Moores University, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Byrom Street, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jing [University of Washington, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Checkoway, Harvey [University of Washington, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative motor disorder, with its motor symptoms largely attributable to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The causes of PD remain poorly understood, although environmental toxicants may play etiologic roles. Solvents are widespread neurotoxicants present in the workplace and ambient environment. Case reports of parkinsonism, including PD, have been associated with exposures to various solvents, most notably trichloroethylene (TCE). Animal toxicology studies have been conducted on various organic solvents, with some, including TCE, demonstrating potential for inducing nigral system damage. However, a confirmed animal model of solvent-induced PD has not been developed. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated potential links between solvents and PD, yielding mostly null or weak associations. An exception is a recent study of twins indicating possible etiologic relations with TCE and other chlorinated solvents, although findings were based on small numbers, and dose–response gradients were not observed. At present, there is no consistent evidence from either the toxicological or epidemiologic perspective that any specific solvent or class of solvents is a cause of PD. Future toxicological research that addresses mechanisms of nigral damage from TCE and its metabolites, with exposure routes and doses relevant to human exposures, is recommended. Improvements in epidemiologic research, especially with regard to quantitative characterization of long-term exposures to specific solvents, are needed to advance scientific knowledge on this topic. -- Highlights: ► The potential for organic solvents to cause Parkinson's disease has been reviewed. ► Twins study suggests etiologic relations with chlorinated solvents and Parkinson's. ► Animal studies with TCE showed potential to cause damage to dopaminergic neurons. ► Need to determine if effects in animals are relevant to human

  1. Solvents and Parkinson disease: A systematic review of toxicological and epidemiological evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Edward A.; Zhang, Jing; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative motor disorder, with its motor symptoms largely attributable to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The causes of PD remain poorly understood, although environmental toxicants may play etiologic roles. Solvents are widespread neurotoxicants present in the workplace and ambient environment. Case reports of parkinsonism, including PD, have been associated with exposures to various solvents, most notably trichloroethylene (TCE). Animal toxicology studies have been conducted on various organic solvents, with some, including TCE, demonstrating potential for inducing nigral system damage. However, a confirmed animal model of solvent-induced PD has not been developed. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated potential links between solvents and PD, yielding mostly null or weak associations. An exception is a recent study of twins indicating possible etiologic relations with TCE and other chlorinated solvents, although findings were based on small numbers, and dose–response gradients were not observed. At present, there is no consistent evidence from either the toxicological or epidemiologic perspective that any specific solvent or class of solvents is a cause of PD. Future toxicological research that addresses mechanisms of nigral damage from TCE and its metabolites, with exposure routes and doses relevant to human exposures, is recommended. Improvements in epidemiologic research, especially with regard to quantitative characterization of long-term exposures to specific solvents, are needed to advance scientific knowledge on this topic. -- Highlights: ► The potential for organic solvents to cause Parkinson's disease has been reviewed. ► Twins study suggests etiologic relations with chlorinated solvents and Parkinson's. ► Animal studies with TCE showed potential to cause damage to dopaminergic neurons. ► Need to determine if effects in animals are relevant to human exposure

  2. Epidemiology of brucellosis in Iran: A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnejad, Reza; Jazi, Faramarz Masjedian; Mostafaei, Shayan; Sedighi, Mansour

    2017-08-01

    Brucellosis is still one of the most challenging issues for health and the economy in many developing countries such as Iran. Considering the high prevalence of brucellosis, the aim of the current study was to systematically review published data about the annual incidence rate of this infection from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) for Iran using meta-analysis. We searched several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, google scholar, IranMedex and Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID) by using the following keywords: "Brucella", "Brucellosis", "Malta fever", "Mediterranean fever", "undulant fever", "zoonosis" and "Iran" in Title/Abstract/Keywords fields. Articles/Abstracts, which used clinical specimens and reported the incidence of brucellosis, were included in this review. Quality of studies was assessed by STROB and PRISMA forms. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0 (STATA Corp, College Station, TX) and P-values under 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Out of the 8326 results, we found 34 articles suitable, according to inclusion and exlusion criteria, for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled incidence of brucellosis was estimated 0.001% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.0005-0.0015%) annually. Relative frequency of brucellosis in different studies varied from 7.0/100000 to 276.41/100000 in Qom and Kermanshah provinces, respectively. This systematic-review and meta-analysis study showed that the highest incidences of brucellosis are occurred in west and northwest regions of Iran. Totally, the incidence of the disease in Iran is in the high range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Oral health of Brazilian elderly: a systematic review of epidemiologic status and dental care access].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Nico, Lucélia Silva; Tomita, Nilce Emy; Ruiz, Tânia

    2005-01-01

    Population aging and declining birth rate have significantly altered the Brazilian age structure pyramid. In parallel with demographic transition, epidemiological transition is altering morbidity-mortality profiles, without adequate health support for the elderly population group. By searching databases, the objective of this study was a systemic literature review from 1986 to 2004 concerning the most prevalent oral problems experienced by elderly Brazilians, aimed at revealing the main obstacles for accessing health services. Mean DMFT index values in this study ranged from 25 to 31. Most articles reported a high percentage of edentulism. The main barriers for access to dental services were poor education, low income, and scarcity of public oral health services. Brazilian elderly oral health is thus precarious, with high edentulism rates, periodontal problems, decayed teeth, and great need for prostheses, reflecting the historical inefficacy of public dental services, limited to serial extractions and emergency services, based on the curative model.

  4. Epidemiology of obesity and overweight in sub-Saharan Africa: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Mgutshini, Tennyson; Haile, Demewoz; Gebremichael, Bereket; Moges, Yonatan; Tilahun, Kelemu

    2017-11-25

    Globally, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3.4 million deaths, 3.9% of years of life lost and 3.8% of disability-adjusted life years in 2010. Despite the fact that obesity and overweight is a problem of high-income countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), in particular urban settings of sub-Saharan African countries, face the challenge of an increasing trend. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight individuals in sub-Saharan Africa and to help guide policy planners in the decision-making process for the increase in non-communicable diseases in Africa. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the prevalence of obesity and overweight in sub-Saharan Africa will be conducted. A computerised internet search using Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases and reference lists of previous prevalence studies and detailed search strategy and cross-checking of reference lists of published peer-reviewed articles will be conducted to identify all epidemiological and/or clinical studies published in English and French. We will use the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement for reporting. The overall effect (pooled estimated effect size) of the prevalence of obesity and overweight will be analysed using the Der Simonian-Laird random effects meta-analysis (random effects model) and the obesity proportion (with 95% CI) will be measured. The underlying work is based on systematic reviews of published data and thus doed not require ethical review approval. The findings of the systematic review will be disseminated in different conferences and seminars and will be published in a reputable and refereed international peer-reviewed journal. CRD42017064942. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  5. The Global Epidemiology of Impetigo: A Systematic Review of the Population Prevalence of Impetigo and Pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C; Mahé, Antoine; Hay, Roderick J; Andrews, Ross M; Steer, Andrew C; Tong, Steven Y C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the global childhood population prevalence of impetigo and the broader condition pyoderma. PubMed was systematically searched for impetigo or pyoderma studies published between January 1 1970 and September 30 2014. Two independent reviewers extracted data from each relevant article on the prevalence of impetigo. Sixty-six articles relating to 89 studies met our inclusion criteria. Based on population surveillance, 82 studies included data on 145,028 children assessed for pyoderma or impetigo. Median childhood prevalence was 12·3% (IQR 4·2-19·4%). Fifty-eight (65%) studies were from low or low-middle income countries, where median childhood prevalences were 8·4% (IQR 4·2-16·1%) and 14·5% (IQR 8·3-20·9%), respectively. However, the highest burden was seen in underprivileged children from marginalised communities of high-income countries; median prevalence 19·4%, (IQR 3·9-43·3%). Based on data from studies published since 2000 from low and low-middle income countries, we estimate the global population of children suffering from impetigo at any one time to be in excess of 162 million, predominantly in tropical, resource-poor contexts. Impetigo is an under-recognised disease and in conjunction with scabies, comprises a major childhood dermatological condition with potential lifelong consequences if untreated.

  6. The Global Epidemiology of Impetigo: A Systematic Review of the Population Prevalence of Impetigo and Pyoderma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha C Bowen

    Full Text Available We conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the global childhood population prevalence of impetigo and the broader condition pyoderma.PubMed was systematically searched for impetigo or pyoderma studies published between January 1 1970 and September 30 2014. Two independent reviewers extracted data from each relevant article on the prevalence of impetigo.Sixty-six articles relating to 89 studies met our inclusion criteria. Based on population surveillance, 82 studies included data on 145,028 children assessed for pyoderma or impetigo. Median childhood prevalence was 12·3% (IQR 4·2-19·4%. Fifty-eight (65% studies were from low or low-middle income countries, where median childhood prevalences were 8·4% (IQR 4·2-16·1% and 14·5% (IQR 8·3-20·9%, respectively. However, the highest burden was seen in underprivileged children from marginalised communities of high-income countries; median prevalence 19·4%, (IQR 3·9-43·3%.Based on data from studies published since 2000 from low and low-middle income countries, we estimate the global population of children suffering from impetigo at any one time to be in excess of 162 million, predominantly in tropical, resource-poor contexts. Impetigo is an under-recognised disease and in conjunction with scabies, comprises a major childhood dermatological condition with potential lifelong consequences if untreated.

  7. Association between gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Gui-Xian; Cheng, Jing; Chai, Jing; Geng, Qing-Qing; Chen, Peng-Lai; Shen, Xin-Rong; Liang, Han; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at summarizing epidemiological evidence of the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and subsequent risk of cancer. We searched Medline, Embase, Cancer Lit and CINAHL for epidemiological studies published by February 1, 2014 examining the risk of cancer in patients with history of GDM using highly inclusive algorithms. Information about first author, year of publication, country of study, study design, cancer sites, sample sizes, attained age of subjects and methods used for determining GDM status were extracted by two researchers and Stata version 11.0 was used to perform the meta-analysis and estimate the pooled effects. A total of 9 articles documented 5 cohort and 4 case- control studies containing 10,630 cancer cases and 14,608 women with a history of GDM were included in this review. Taken together, the pooled odds ratio (OR) between GDM and breast cancer risk was 1.01 (0.87-1.17); yet the same pooled ORs of case-control and cohort studies were 0.87 (0.71-1.06) and 1.25 (1.00-1.56) respectively. There are indications that GDM is strongly associated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer (HR=8.68) and hematologic malignancies (HR=4.53), but no relationships were detected between GDM and other types of cancer. Although GDM increases the risk of certain types of cancer, these results should be interpreted with caution becuase of some methodological flaws. The issue merits added investigation and coordinated efforts between researchers, antenatal clinics and cancer treatment and registration agencies to help attain better understanding.

  8. Epidemiology of childhood conduct problems in Brazil: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Bordin, Isabel A

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to review evidence on the prevalence of and risk factors for conduct problems in Brazil. We searched electronic databases and contacted Brazilian researchers up to 05/2012. Studies were included in the review if they reported the prevalence of or risk factors for conduct problems, conduct disorder, or oppositional defiant disorder for 100 + Brazilian children aged ≤18 years, systematically sampled in schools or the community. Prevalence rates and sex differences were meta-analysed. Risk factor studies were reviewed one by one. The average prevalence of conduct problems in screening questionnaires was 20.8%, and the average prevalence of conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder was 4.1%. There was systematic variation in the results of screening studies according to methodology: recruitment location, informants, instruments, impairment criterion for case definition, and response rates. Risk factors previously identified in high-income countries were mainly replicated in Brazil, including comorbid mental health problems, educational failure, low religiosity, harsh physical punishment and abuse, parental mental health problems, single parent family, and low socioeconomic status. However, boys did not always have higher risk for conduct problems than girls. Studies using screening questionnaires suggest that Brazilian children have higher rates of conduct problems than children in other countries, but diagnostic studies do not show this difference. Risk factors in Brazil were similar to those in high-income countries, apart from child sex. Future research should investigate developmental patterns of antisocial behaviour, employ a variety of research designs to identify causal risk mechanisms, and examine a broader range of risk factors.

  9. Epidemiology of Major Non-communicable Diseases in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Damen Haile; Ali, Ahmed; Araya, Tekebash

    2014-01-01

    Impact of non-communicable diseases is not well-documented in Ethiopia. We aimed to document the prevalence and mortality associated with four major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Associated risk factors: hypertension, tobacco-use, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, and khat-chewing were also studied. Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature between 1960 and 2011 was done using PubMed search engines and local libraries to identify prevalence studies on the four diseases. In total, 32 studies were found, and half of these studies were from Addis Ababa. Two hospital-based studies reviewed the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and found a prevalence of 7.2% and 24%; a hospital-based study reviewed cancer prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.3%; two hospital-based studies reviewed diabetes prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.5% and 1.2%; and two hospital-based studies reviewed prevalence of asthma and found a prevalence of 1% and 3.5%. Few community-based studies were done on the prevalence of diabetes and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease among the population. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on mortality: cardiovascular disease accounts for 24% of deaths in Addis Ababa, cancer causes 10% of deaths in the urban settings and 2% deaths in rural setting, and diabetes causes 5% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes 3% of deaths. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on hospital admissions: cardiovascular disease accounts for 3%-12.6% and found to have increased between 1970s and 2000s; cancer accounts for 1.1%-2.8%, diabetes accounts for 0.5%-1.2%, and chronic obstructive diseases account for 2.7%-4.3% of morbidity. Overall, the major non-communicable diseases and related risk factors are highly prevalent, and evidence-based interventions should be designed. PMID:24847587

  10. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...

  11. The incidence and prevalence of ankle sprain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian; Hertel, Jay; Ryan, John; Bleakley, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, yet a contemporary review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies investigating ankle sprain does not exist. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date account of the incidence rate and prevalence period of ankle sprain injury unlimited by timeframe or context activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of English articles using relevant computerised databases. Search terms included Medical Search Headings for the ankle joint, injury and epidemiology. The following inclusion criteria were used: the study must report epidemiology findings of injuries sustained in an observed sample; the study must report ankle sprain injury with either incidence rate or prevalence period among the surveyed sample, or provide sufficient data from which these figures could be calculated; the study design must be prospective. Independent extraction of articles was performed by two authors using pre-determined data fields. One-hundred and eighty-one prospective epidemiology studies from 144 separate papers were included. The average rating of all the included studies was 6.67/11, based on an adapted version of the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for rating observational studies. 116 studies were considered high quality and 65 were considered low quality. The main findings of the meta-analysis demonstrated a higher incidence of ankle sprain in females compared with males (13.6 vs 6.94 per 1,000 exposures), in children compared with adolescents (2.85 vs 1.94 per 1,000 exposures) and adolescents compared with adults (1.94 vs 0.72 per 1,000 exposures). The sport category with the highest incidence of ankle sprain was indoor/court sports, with a cumulative incidence rate of 7 per 1,000 exposures or 1.37 per 1,000 athlete exposures and 4.9 per 1,000 h. Low-quality studies tended to underestimate the incidence of ankle sprain when compared with

  12. Epidemiology of Multidrug Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Iran: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadifar, Shima; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Sedighi, Mansour; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Miri, Ali

    2017-01-24

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in humans. It is primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which has a high multidrug resistance (MDR). In consideration of the prevalence of MDR-UPEC strains, the aims of the present study were to systematically review the published data about the prevalence rate of MDR-UPEC from different parts of Iran and to establish the overall relative frequency (RF) of these strains in Iran. We searched several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, IranMedex, and Iranian Scientific Information Database by using the following keywords: "Escherichia coli", "multidrug resistant", "MDR", "urinary tract infections", "UTI", "uropathogenic". and "Iran". Articles or abstracts that reported the prevalence of MDR-UPEC were included in this review. We found 15 articles suitable for inclusion in this study. A pooled estimation of 10,247 UPEC strains showed that 49.4% (95% confidence interval = 48.0-50.7%) of the stranis were MDR positive. The RF of MDR-UPEC in different studies varied from 10.5% to 79.2% in the Kashan and Hamedan provinces, respectively. According to the results of the present study, the RF of MDR-UPEC in Iran is high. Thus, measures should be taken to keep the emergence and transmission of these strains to a minimum.

  13. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  14. Epidemiology of Q fever in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis for estimating serological and molecular prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zary Nokhodian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is endemic in Iran, thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii among humans and animals in Iran. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was performed to identify all articles reporting C. burnetii prevalence in Iranian humans or animals, published from January 2000 to January 2015. Data from articles were extracted, and a pooled estimate of prevalence with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated using random effect method. Results: In this review, 27 papers were identified. The pooled seroprevalence of Q fever in animals was 27% (CI 95%: 23%–32%. The prevalence was 33% (CI 95%: 22%–45% in goats, 27% (CI 95%: 21%–32% in sheep, and 17% (CI 95%: 5%–28% in cattle. The bacterial DNA was detected in 5% (95% CI: 3%–9% of milk samples, and it was higher in cattle (10%; 95% CI: 6%–16% than sheep (2%; 95% CI: 0–7% and goats (4%; 95% CI: 0–12%. Conclusion:C. burnetii DNA or its antibody has been frequently detected among ruminants. Since these animals can transmit the infection to humans, Q fever could be a potential health problem in Iran.

  15. Hormonal contraceptive use and female-to-male HIV transmission: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Phillips, Sharon J; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2013-02-20

    To systematically review epidemiologic evidence assessing whether hormonal contraception alters the risk of HIV transmission from an HIV-positive woman to an HIV-negative male partner. Systematic review. We included articles published or in press through December 15, 2011. We assessed studies with direct evidence on hormonal contraception use and HIV transmission, and summarized studies with indirect evidence related to genital or plasma viral load. : One study provided direct evidence on oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) or injectable contraception and female-to-male HIV transmission; both injectables [Cox-adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.58; marginal structural model (MSM) adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.47-6.16] and OCPs (Cox adjHR 2.09, 95% CI 0.75-5.84; MSM adjOR 2.35, 95% CI 0.79-6.95) generated elevated point estimates, but only estimates for injectables were significant. Findings from 11 indirect studies assessing various hormonal contraception methods and viral genital shedding or setpoint were mixed, and seven of eight studies indicated no adverse effect of various hormonal contraception methods on plasma viral load. The only direct study on OCPs or injectable contraception and female-to-male HIV transmission suggests increased risk with the use of injectables. Given the potential for confounding in observational data, the paucity of direct evidence on this subject, and mixed indirect evidence, additional evidence is needed.

  16. Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, D J; Griffiths, M D; Karila, L; Billieux, J

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, Internet usage has grown tremendously on a global scale. The increasing popularity and frequency of Internet use has led to an increasing number of reports highlighting the potential negative consequences of overuse. Over the last decade, research into Internet addiction has proliferated. This paper reviews the existing 68 epidemiological studies of Internet addiction that (i) contain quantitative empirical data, (ii) have been published after 2000, (iii) include an analysis relating to Internet addiction, (iv) include a minimum of 1000 participants, and (v) provide a full-text article published in English using the database Web of Science. Assessment tools and conceptualisations, prevalence, and associated factors in adolescents and adults are scrutinised. The results reveal the following. First, no gold standard of Internet addiction classification exists as 21 different assessment instruments have been identified. They adopt official criteria for substance use disorders or pathological gambling, no or few criteria relevant for an addiction diagnosis, time spent online, or resulting problems. Second, reported prevalence rates differ as a consequence of different assessment tools and cut-offs, ranging from 0.8% in Italy to 26.7% in Hong Kong. Third, Internet addiction is associated with a number of sociodemographic, Internet use, and psychosocial factors, as well as comorbid symptoms and disorder in adolescents and adults. The results indicate that a number of core symptoms (i.e., compulsive use, negative outcomes and salience) appear relevant for diagnosis, which assimilates Internet addiction and other addictive disorders and also differentiates them, implying a conceptualisation as syndrome with similar etiology and components, but different expressions of addictions. Limitations include the exclusion of studies with smaller sample sizes and studies focusing on specific online behaviours. Conclusively, there is a need for nosological

  17. Epidemiology of Dengue Disease in Malaysia (2000–2012): A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Zaki, Abdul Hamid; Brett, Jeremy; Ismail, Ellyana; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Malaysia between 2000 and 2012. Published literature was searched for epidemiological studies of dengue disease, using specific search strategies for each electronic database; 237 relevant data sources were identified, 28 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Malaysia was characterized by a non-linear increase in the number of reported cases from 7,103 in 2000 to 46,171 in 2010, and a shift in the age range predominance from children toward adults. The overall increase in dengue disease was accompanied by a rise in the number, but not the proportion, of severe cases. The dominant circulating dengue virus serotypes changed continually over the decade and differed between states. Several gaps in epidemiological knowledge were identified; in particular, studies of regional differences, age-stratified seroprevalence, and hospital admissions. Protocol registration PROSPERO #CRD42012002293 PMID:25375211

  18. Systematic Literature Review of the Epidemiology of Nongenetic Forms of Hypogonadism in Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Zarotsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the literature on the prevalence, incidence, and proportion of patients receiving treatment for male hypogonadism and a systematic literature search was performed for articles published in the last 20 years. Of the 97 studies identified, 96 examined the prevalence, 2 examined the incidence, and 4 examined the proportion of males with hypogonadism patients receiving treatment. Based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, the prevalence of hypogonadism in the general population ranged from 2.1% to 12.8% of middle-aged to older men, with an estimated incidence of 12 new cases per 1,000 person-years. Prevalence was higher among patients with comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Approximately 10–12% of men with hypogonadism were receiving testosterone treatment. This literature review suggests that there is potentially a significant burden of hypogonadism in the general population. Burden seems to increase with age and in the presence of certain disease conditions. Data suggests that many hypogonadal men who may benefit from testosterone replacement are not receiving treatment. This may be the result of underdiagnosis of the disease, lack of awareness by patients or physicians, irregularities surrounding the diagnostic criteria, and deficiency of long-term safety studies.

  19. A suggestion for quality assessment in systematic reviews of observational studies in nutritional epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is important to control the quality level of the observational studies in conducting meta-analyses. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS is a representative tool used for this purpose. We investigated the relationship between high-quality (HQ defined using NOS and the results of subgroup analysis according to study design. METHODS: We selected systematic review studies with meta-analysis which performed a quality evaluation on observational studies of diet and cancer by NOS. HQ determinations and the distribution of study designs were examined. Subgroup analyses according to quality level as defined by the NOS were also extracted. Equivalence was evaluated based on the summary effect size (sES and 95% confidence intervals computed in the subgroup analysis. RESULTS: The meta-analysis results of the HQ and cohort groups were identical. The overall sES, which was obtained by combining the sES when equivalence was observed between the cohort and case-control groups, also showed equivalence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that it is more reasonable to control for quality level by performing subgroup analysis according to study design rather than by using HQ based on the NOS quality assessment tool.

  20. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research.

  1. Epidemiology of neurodegenerative diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are experiencing rapid transitions with increased life expectancy. As a result the burden of age-related conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases might be increasing. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on common neurodegenerative diseases, and HIV-related neurocognitive impairment in SSA, in order to identify research gaps and inform prevention and control solutions. Methods We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, ‘Banque de Données de Santé Publique’ and the database of the ‘Institut d’Epidemiologie Neurologique et de Neurologie Tropicale’ from inception to February 2013 for published original studies from SSA on neurodegenerative diseases and HIV-related neurocognitive impairment. Screening and data extraction were conducted by two investigators. Bibliographies and citations of eligible studies were investigated. Results In all 144 publications reporting on dementia (n = 49 publications, mainly Alzheimer disease), Parkinsonism (PD, n = 20), HIV-related neurocognitive impairment (n = 47), Huntington disease (HD, n = 19), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, n = 15), cerebellar degeneration (n = 4) and Lewy body dementia (n = 1). Of these studies, largely based on prevalent cases from retrospective data on urban populations, half originated from Nigeria and South Africa. The prevalence of dementia (Alzheimer disease) varied between dementia (Alzheimer disease) ranged from 8.7 to 21.8/1000/year (9.5 to 11.1), and major risk factors were advanced age and female sex. HIV-related neurocognitive impairment’s prevalence (all from hospital-based studies) ranged from dementia and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders but limited for other neurodegenerative disorders. Shortcomings include few population-based studies, heterogeneous diagnostic criteria and uneven representation of countries on the continent. There are important knowledge gaps that need urgent action, in

  2. Trichloroethylene and Cancer: Systematic and Quantitative Review of Epidemiologic Evidence for Identifying Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Siegel Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a meta-analysis focusing on studies with high potential for trichloroethylene (TCE exposure to provide quantitative evaluations of the evidence for associations between TCE exposure and kidney, liver, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL cancers. A systematic review documenting essential design features, exposure assessment approaches, statistical analyses, and potential sources of confounding and bias identified twenty-four cohort and case-control studies on TCE and the three cancers of interest with high potential for exposure, including five recently published case-control studies of kidney cancer or NHL. Fixed- and random-effects models were fitted to the data on overall exposure and on the highest exposure group. Sensitivity analyses examined the influence of individual studies and of alternative risk estimate selections. For overall TCE exposure and kidney cancer, the summary relative risk (RRm estimate from the random effects model was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.43, with a higher RRm for the highest exposure groups (1.58, 95% CI: 1.28, 1.96. The RRm estimates were not overly sensitive to alternative risk estimate selections or to removal of an individual study. There was no apparent heterogeneity or publication bias. For NHL, RRm estimates for overall exposure and for the highest exposure group, respectively, were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42 and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.82 and, for liver cancer, 1.29 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.56 and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.77. Our findings provide strong support for a causal association between TCE exposure and kidney cancer. The support is strong but less robust for NHL, where issues of study heterogeneity, potential publication bias, and weaker exposure-response results contribute uncertainty, and more limited for liver cancer, where only cohort studies with small numbers of cases were available.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Africa: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulgader, Shima M.; Shittu, Adebayo O.; Nicol, Mark P.; Kaba, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a serious global problem, with considerable impact on patients and substantial health care costs. This systematic review provides an overview on the clonal diversity of MRSA, as well as the prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA in Africa. A search on the molecular characterization of MRSA in Africa was conducted by two authors using predefined terms. We screened for articles published in English and French through to October 2014 from five electronic databases. A total of 57 eligible studies were identified. Thirty-four reports from 15 countries provided adequate genotyping data. CC5 is the predominant clonal complex in the healthcare setting in Africa. The hospital-associated MRSA ST239/ST241-III [3A] was identified in nine African countries. This clone was also described with SCCmec type IV [2B] in Algeria and Nigeria, and type V [5C] in Niger. In Africa, the European ST80-IV [2B] clone was limited to Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia. The clonal types ST22-IV [2B], ST36-II [2A], and ST612-IV [2B] were only reported in South Africa. No clear distinctions were observed between MRSA responsible for hospital and community infections. The community clones ST8-IV [2B] and ST88-IV [2B] were reported both in the hospital and community settings in Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, and São Tomé and Príncipe. The proportion of PVL-positive MRSA carriage and/or infections ranged from 0.3 to 100% in humans. A number of pandemic clones were identified in Africa. Moreover, some MRSA clones are limited to specific countries or regions. We strongly advocate for more surveillance studies on MRSA in Africa. PMID:25983721

  4. Epidemiology of Substance Use among Forced Migrants: A Global Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Horyniak

    Full Text Available Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality. This paper aimed to systematically review the literature examining substance use among forced migrants, and identify priority areas for intervention and future research.Seven medical, allied health and social science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify original peer-reviewed articles describing any findings relating to alcohol and/or illicit drug use among refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs, asylum seekers, people displaced by disasters and deportees. A descriptive synthesis of evidence from quantitative studies was conducted, focusing primarily on studies which used validated measures of substance use. Synthesis of evidence from qualitative studies focused on identifying prominent themes relating to the contexts and consequences of substance use. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP checklists were used to assess methodological quality of included studies.Forty-four quantitative (82% cross-sectional, 16 qualitative and three mixed-methods studies were included. Ten studies were rated as high methodological quality (16%, 39 as moderate quality (62% and 14 as low quality (22%. The majority of research was conducted among refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers (n = 55, 87%, predominantly in high-income settings. The highest-quality prevalence estimates of hazardous/harmful alcohol use ranged from 17%-36% in camp settings and 4%-7% in community settings. Few studies collected validated measures of illicit drug use. Seven studies compared substance use among forced migrants to other migrant or native-born samples. Among eight studies which conducted multivariable analysis, male sex, trauma exposure and symptoms of

  5. Epidemiology of Substance Use among Forced Migrants: A Global Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Melo, Jason S.; Farrell, Risa M.; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality. This paper aimed to systematically review the literature examining substance use among forced migrants, and identify priority areas for intervention and future research. Methods Seven medical, allied health and social science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify original peer-reviewed articles describing any findings relating to alcohol and/or illicit drug use among refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs), asylum seekers, people displaced by disasters and deportees. A descriptive synthesis of evidence from quantitative studies was conducted, focusing primarily on studies which used validated measures of substance use. Synthesis of evidence from qualitative studies focused on identifying prominent themes relating to the contexts and consequences of substance use. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists were used to assess methodological quality of included studies. Results Forty-four quantitative (82% cross-sectional), 16 qualitative and three mixed-methods studies were included. Ten studies were rated as high methodological quality (16%), 39 as moderate quality (62%) and 14 as low quality (22%). The majority of research was conducted among refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers (n = 55, 87%), predominantly in high-income settings. The highest-quality prevalence estimates of hazardous/harmful alcohol use ranged from 17%-36% in camp settings and 4%-7% in community settings. Few studies collected validated measures of illicit drug use. Seven studies compared substance use among forced migrants to other migrant or native-born samples. Among eight studies which conducted multivariable analysis, male sex, trauma exposure and

  6. Insulin treatment and breast cancer risk; A systematic review of in vitro, animal and epidemiological evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K.; Ter Braak, Bas; Karlstad, Øystein; Vestergaard, Peter; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Bazelier, Marloes T.; de Bruin, Marieke; De Boer, Anthonius; Siezen, Christine L.E.; Van De Water, Bob; Van Der Laan, Jan Willem; Schmidt, Marjanka K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the concern has been raised that insulin analogues, especially insulin glargine, might increase risk of (breast) cancer. Many in vitro and epidemiological and some animal studies have been performed, but there is still no clarity on this issue. Objectives: The aim of this study

  7. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Advice lines for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been introduced internationally. However, only a few publications have described the advice line service and evaluated the efficiency of it with many results presented as conference posters. A systematic synthesis...... of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...

  8. Epidemiology of chronic disease related to arsenic in Argentina: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardach, Ariel Esteban, E-mail: abardach@iecs.org.ar [Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ciapponi, Agustin; Soto, Natalie; Chaparro, Martin R.; Calderon, Maria [Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Briatore, Agustina [Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cadoppi, Norma; Tassara, Roberto [Foro Estratégico para el Desarrollo Nacional (Argentina); Litter, Marta I. [National Atomic Energy Commission, National Scientific and Technical Research Council (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Four million people in Argentina are exposed to arsenic contamination from drinking waters of several center-northern provinces. A systematic review to examine the geographical distribution of arsenic-related diseases in Argentina was conducted, searching electronic databases and gray literature up to November 2013. Key informants were also contacted. Of the 430 references identified, 47 (mostly cross-sectional and ecological designs) referred to arsenic concentration in water and its relationship with the incidence and mortality of cancer, dermatological diseases and genetic disorders. A high percentage of the water samples had arsenic concentrations above the WHO threshold value of 10 μg/L, especially in the province of Buenos Aires. The median prevalence of arsenicosis was 2.6% in exposed areas. The proportion of skin cancer in patients with arsenicosis reached 88% in case-series from the Buenos Aires province. We found higher incidence rate ratios per 100 μg/L increment in inorganic arsenic concentration for colorectal, lung, breast, prostate and skin cancer, for both genders. Liver and skin cancer mortality risk ratios were higher in regions with medium/high concentrations than in those with low concentrations. The relative risk of mortality by skin cancer associated to arsenic exposure in the province of Buenos Aires ranged from 2.5 to 5.2. In the north of this province, high levels of arsenic in drinking water were reported; however, removal interventions were scarcely documented. Arsenic contamination in Argentina is associated with an increased risk of serious chronic diseases, including cancer, showing the need for adequate and timely actions. - Highlights: • Arsenic content in Argentina was associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. • The median arsenicosis prevalence was 2.6% in exposed areas. • The relative risk of mortality by skin cancer was 2.5 to 5.2 in affected areas. • The median percentage of water samples above the cut

  9. Epidemiology of chronic disease related to arsenic in Argentina: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardach, Ariel Esteban; Ciapponi, Agustin; Soto, Natalie; Chaparro, Martin R.; Calderon, Maria; Briatore, Agustina; Cadoppi, Norma; Tassara, Roberto; Litter, Marta I.

    2015-01-01

    Four million people in Argentina are exposed to arsenic contamination from drinking waters of several center-northern provinces. A systematic review to examine the geographical distribution of arsenic-related diseases in Argentina was conducted, searching electronic databases and gray literature up to November 2013. Key informants were also contacted. Of the 430 references identified, 47 (mostly cross-sectional and ecological designs) referred to arsenic concentration in water and its relationship with the incidence and mortality of cancer, dermatological diseases and genetic disorders. A high percentage of the water samples had arsenic concentrations above the WHO threshold value of 10 μg/L, especially in the province of Buenos Aires. The median prevalence of arsenicosis was 2.6% in exposed areas. The proportion of skin cancer in patients with arsenicosis reached 88% in case-series from the Buenos Aires province. We found higher incidence rate ratios per 100 μg/L increment in inorganic arsenic concentration for colorectal, lung, breast, prostate and skin cancer, for both genders. Liver and skin cancer mortality risk ratios were higher in regions with medium/high concentrations than in those with low concentrations. The relative risk of mortality by skin cancer associated to arsenic exposure in the province of Buenos Aires ranged from 2.5 to 5.2. In the north of this province, high levels of arsenic in drinking water were reported; however, removal interventions were scarcely documented. Arsenic contamination in Argentina is associated with an increased risk of serious chronic diseases, including cancer, showing the need for adequate and timely actions. - Highlights: • Arsenic content in Argentina was associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. • The median arsenicosis prevalence was 2.6% in exposed areas. • The relative risk of mortality by skin cancer was 2.5 to 5.2 in affected areas. • The median percentage of water samples above the cut

  10. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  11. Systematic Review on Global Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius: Inference of Population Structure from Multilocus Sequence Typing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires dos Santos, Teresa; Damborg, Peter; Moodley, Arshnee; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background and rationale: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a major cause of infections in dogs, also posing a zoonotic risk to humans. This systematic review aimed to determine the global epidemiology of MRSP and provide new insights into the population structure of this important veterinary pathogen. Methodology: Web of Science was searched systematically for articles reporting data on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs or other animal or human patients and carriers. Data from the eligible studies were then integrated with data from the MLST database for this species. Analysis of MLST data was performed with eBURST and ClonalFrame, and the proportion of MRSP isolates resistant to selected antimicrobial drugs was determined for the most predominant clonal complexes. Results: Fifty-eight studies published over the last 10 years were included in the review. MRSP represented 76% of the 1428 isolates characterized by the current MLST scheme. The population of S. pseudintermedius was highly diverse and included five major MRSP clonal complexes (CCs). CC71, previously described as the epidemic European clone, is now widespread worldwide. In Europe, CC258, which is more frequently susceptible to enrofloxacin and aminoglycosides, and more frequently resistant to sulphonamides/trimethoprim than CC71, is increasingly reported in various countries. CC68, previously described as the epidemic North American clone, is frequently reported in this region but also in Europe, while CC45 (associated with chloramphenicol resistance) and CC112 are prevalent in Asia. It was estimated that clonal diversification in this species is primarily driven by homologous recombination (r/m = 7.52). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that S. pseudintermedius has an epidemic population structure, in which five successful MRSP lineages with specific traits regarding antimicrobial resistance, genetic diversity and

  12. Dietary fibre intake and risk of breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sumei; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ma, Shenglin; Zheng, Ruzhen; Zhao, Pengjun; Zhang, Lidan; Liu, Yuehua; Yu, Qingqing; Deng, Qinghua; Zhang, Ke

    2016-12-06

    Current evidence from randomised controlled trials on the effects of dietary fibre intake on breast cancer risk is inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of dietary fibre intake in reducing breast cancer risk. We searched for prospective and case-control studies on dietary fibre intake and breast cancer risk in the English language through March 2016. Twenty-four epidemiologic studies obtained through the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled risk estimates by extracting the risk estimate of the highest and lowest reported categories of intake from each study. The meta-analyses showed a 12% decrease in breast cancer risk with dietary fibre intake. The association between dietary fibre intake and breast cancer risk was significant when stratified according to Jadad scores, study types, and menopause status. Dose-response analysis showed that every 10 g/d increment in dietary fibre intake was associated with a 4% reduction in breast cancer risk, and little evidence of publication bias was found. Thus, dietary fibre consumption is significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women.

  13. Association between pancreatitis and subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Gui-Xian; Geng, Qing-Qing; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Peng-Lai; Liang, Han; Shen, Xing-Rong; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to summarize published epidemiological evidence for the relationship between pancreatitis and subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer (PC). We searched Medline and Embase for epidemiological studies published by February 5th, 2014 examining the risk of PC in pancreatitis patients using highly inclusive algorithms. Information about first author, year of publication, country of study, recruitment period, type of pancreatitis, study design, sample size, source of controls and attained age of subjects were extracted by two researchers and Stata 11.0 was used to perform the statistical analyses and examine publication bias. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with the random effects model. A total of 17 articles documenting 3 cohort and 14 case-control studies containing 14,667 PC cases and 17,587 pancreatitis cases were included in this study. The pooled OR between pancreatitis and PC risk was 7.05 (95%CI: 6.42-7.75). However, the pooled ORs of case-control and cohort studies were 4.62 (95%CI: 4.08-5.22) and 16.3 (95%CI: 14.3-18.6) respectively. The risk of PC was the highest in patients with chronic pancreatitis (pooled OR=10.35; 95%CI: 9.13-11.75), followed by unspecified type of pancreatitis (pooled OR=6.41; 95%CI: 4.93-8.34), both acute and chronic pancreatitis (pooled OR=6.13; 95%CI: 5.00-7.52), and acute pancreatitis (pooled OR=2.12; 95%CI: 1.59-2.83). The pooled OR of PC in pancreatitis cases diagnosed within 1 year was the highest (pooled OR=23.3; 95%CI: 14.0-38.9); and the risk in subjects diagnosed with pancreatitis for no less than 2, 5 and 10 years were 3.03 (95%CI: 2.41-3.81), 2.82 (95%CI: 2.12-3.76) and 2.25 (95%CI: 1.59-3.19) respectively. Pancreatitis, especially chronic pancreatitis, was associated with a significantly increased risk of PC; and the risk decreased with increasing duration since diagnosis of pancreatitis.

  14. Association between statistical significance and time to publication among systematic reviews: a study protocol for a meta-epidemiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yuki; Tsujimoto, Hiraku; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Papola, Davide; Guyatt, Gordon H; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2017-10-22

    Many studies have indicated the impact of bias in dissemination and publication in medical research. Existence of such bias among clinical trials has been repeatedly pointed out, but it has not been well studied in the field of systematic reviews (SRs). We therefore aim to investigate whether or not time lag bias and publication bias in SRs based on statistical significance in results exist. In addition, we will examine at what stage of paper publication process such bias, if any, creeps in. The present study is a meta-epidemiological study. We will include all SRs of interventions registered in the international prospective register of SRs (PROSPERO) before December 2014 if the SR has completed its analysis irrespective of its publication status. All contact authors of eligible SRs will be asked to participate in a survey administered through the Internet. Our primary outcome is time from protocol registration to full publication of SR as a journal article, defined as time from the registration date to the acceptance date among all the relevant SRs. We will examine the impact of statistically significant findings on the primary outcomes through time to event analyses. Ethics approval will be obtained from the Ethical Committee of the Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine. This protocol has been registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry. We will publish our findings in a peer-reviewed journal and also may present them at conferences. UMIN000028325. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in Africa: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, P I; MacCormick, I J C; Harding, S P; Bastawrous, A; Beare, N A V; Garner, P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim To summarize findings from studies reporting the prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy in African countries in light of the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Methods Using a predefined search strategy, we systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation index and Conference Proceedings Citation index, African Index Medicus and the grey literature database ‘OpenSIGLE’ for studies published between January 1990 and February 2011. Included studies reported prevalence or incidence of diabetic retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy of subjects with diabetes resident in African countries. Results Sixty-two studies from 21 countries were included: three population-based surveys; two cohort studies; five case–control studies; 32 diabetes clinic-based, nine eye clinic-based and 11 other hospital-based surveys. Included studies varied considerably in terms of patient selection, method of assessing the eye and retinopathy classification. In population-based studies, the reported prevalence range in patients with diabetes for diabetic retinopathy was 30.2 to 31.6%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 0.9 to 1.3%, and any maculopathy 1.2 to 4.5%. In diabetes clinic-based surveys, the reported prevalence range for diabetic retinopathy was 7.0 to 62.4%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 0 to 6.9%, and any maculopathy 1.2 to 31.1%. No obvious association between prevalence and income level of the country was detected. Conclusions Large, community-based cross-sectional and cohort studies are needed to investigate rates and determinants of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, incidence and progression in Africa. Consensus is needed on the most appropriate methods of identification and classification of retinopathy for research and clinical practice. Estimates of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy are comparable with recent European and American studies. PMID:22817387

  16. How to get started with a systematic review in epidemiology: an introductory guide for early career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic review is a powerful research tool which aims to identify and synthesize all evidence relevant to a research question. The approach taken is much like that used in a scientific experiment, with high priority given to the transparency and reproducibility of the methods used and to handling all evidence in a consistent manner. Early career researchers may find themselves in a position where they decide to undertake a systematic review, for example it may form part or all of a PhD thesis. Those with no prior experience of systematic review may need considerable support and direction getting started with such a project. Here we set out in simple terms how to get started with a systematic review. Discussion Advice is given on matters such as developing a review protocol, searching using databases and other methods, data extraction, risk of bias assessment and data synthesis including meta-analysis. Signposts to further information and useful resources are also given. Conclusion A well-conducted systematic review benefits the scientific field by providing a summary of existing evidence and highlighting unanswered questions. For the individual, undertaking a systematic review is also a great opportunity to improve skills in critical appraisal and in synthesising evidence. PMID:23919540

  17. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases (BM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) are a rare event. However, the implications for affected patients are severe, and the incidence has been reported to be increasing. For clinicians, knowledge about the characteristics associated with BM is important and could lead...... to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...... of brain involvement in patients with these characteristics is necessary....

  18. Evaluating characteristics of PROSPERO records as predictors of eventual publication of non-Cochrane systematic reviews: a meta-epidemiological study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Gómez-García, Francisco; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesús; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Fernández-Rueda, José Luis; Fernández-Chaichio, Jesús; Alcalde-Mellado, Patricia; Carmona-Fernandez, Pedro J; Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luis; Viguera-Guerra, Isabel; Franco-García, Francisco; Cárdenas-Aranzana, Manuel; Romero, José Luis Hernández; Gonzalez-Padilla, Marcelino; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz; Garcia-Nieto, Antonio Velez

    2018-03-09

    Epidemiology and the reporting characteristics of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are well known. However, no study has analyzed the influence of protocol features on the probability that a study's results will be finally reported, thereby indirectly assessing the reporting bias of International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registration records. The objective of this study is to explore which factors are associated with a higher probability that results derived from a non-Cochrane PROSPERO registration record for a systematic review will be finally reported as an original article in a scientific journal. The PROSPERO repository will be web scraped to automatically and iteratively obtain all completed non-Cochrane registration records stored from February 2011 to December 2017. Downloaded records will be screened, and those with less than 90% fulfilled or are duplicated (i.e., those sharing titles and reviewers) will be excluded. Manual and human-supervised automatic methods will be used for data extraction, depending on the data source (fields of PROSPERO registration records, bibliometric databases, etc.). Records will be classified into published, discontinued, and abandoned review subgroups. All articles derived from published reviews will be obtained through multiple parallel searches using the full protocol "title" and/or "list reviewers" in MEDLINE/PubMed databases and Google Scholar. Reviewer, author, article, and journal metadata will be obtained using different sources. R and Python programming and analysis languages will be used to describe the datasets; perform text mining, machine learning, and deep learning analyses; and visualize the data. We will report the study according to the recommendations for meta-epidemiological studies adapted from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for SRs and MAs. This meta-epidemiological study will explore, for the first time

  19. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence relating smoking to COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking is a known cause of the outcomes COPD, chronic bronchitis (CB) and emphysema, but no previous systematic review exists. We summarize evidence for various smoking indices. Methods Based on MEDLINE searches and other sources we obtained papers published to 2006 describing epidemiological studies relating incidence or prevalence of these outcomes to smoking. Studies in children or adolescents, or in populations at high respiratory disease risk or with co-existing diseases were excluded. Study-specific data were extracted on design, exposures and outcomes considered, and confounder adjustment. For each outcome RRs/ORs and 95% CIs were extracted for ever, current and ex smoking and various dose response indices, and meta-analyses and meta-regressions conducted to determine how relationships were modified by various study and RR characteristics. Results Of 218 studies identified, 133 provide data for COPD, 101 for CB and 28 for emphysema. RR estimates are markedly heterogeneous. Based on random-effects meta-analyses of most-adjusted RR/ORs, estimates are elevated for ever smoking (COPD 2.89, CI 2.63-3.17, n = 129 RRs; CB 2.69, 2.50-2.90, n = 114; emphysema 4.51, 3.38-6.02, n = 28), current smoking (COPD 3.51, 3.08-3.99; CB 3.41, 3.13-3.72; emphysema 4.87, 2.83-8.41) and ex smoking (COPD 2.35, 2.11-2.63; CB 1.63, 1.50-1.78; emphysema 3.52, 2.51-4.94). For COPD, RRs are higher for males, for studies conducted in North America, for cigarette smoking rather than any product smoking, and where the unexposed base is never smoking any product, and are markedly lower when asthma is included in the COPD definition. Variations by sex, continent, smoking product and unexposed group are in the same direction for CB, but less clearly demonstrated. For all outcomes RRs are higher when based on mortality, and for COPD are markedly lower when based on lung function. For all outcomes, risk increases with amount smoked and pack-years. Limited data show risk decreases

  20. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is a known lung cancer cause, but no detailed quantitative systematic review exists. We summarize evidence for various indices. Methods Papers published before 2000 describing epidemiological studies involving 100+ lung cancer cases were obtained from Medline and other sources. Studies were classified as principal, or subsidiary where cases overlapped with principal studies. Data were extracted on design, exposures, histological types and confounder adjustment. RRs/ORs and 95% CIs were extracted for ever, current and ex smoking of cigarettes, pipes and cigars and indices of cigarette type and dose–response. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions investigated how relationships varied by study and RR characteristics, mainly for outcomes exactly or closely equivalent to all lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (“squamous”) and adenocarcinoma (“adeno”). Results 287 studies (20 subsidiary) were identified. Although RR estimates were markedly heterogeneous, the meta-analyses demonstrated a relationship of smoking with lung cancer risk, clearly seen for ever smoking (random-effects RR 5.50, CI 5.07-5.96) current smoking (8.43, 7.63-9.31), ex smoking (4.30, 3.93-4.71) and pipe/cigar only smoking (2.92, 2.38-3.57). It was stronger for squamous (current smoking RR 16.91, 13.14-21.76) than adeno (4.21, 3.32-5.34), and evident in both sexes (RRs somewhat higher in males), all continents (RRs highest for North America and lowest for Asia, particularly China), and both study types (RRs higher for prospective studies). Relationships were somewhat stronger in later starting and larger studies. RR estimates were similar in cigarette only and mixed smokers, and similar in smokers of pipes/cigars only, pipes only and cigars only. Exceptionally no increase in adeno risk was seen for pipe/cigar only smokers (0.93, 0.62-1.40). RRs were unrelated to mentholation, and higher for non-filter and handrolled cigarettes. RRs increased with amount smoked, duration

  1. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a known lung cancer cause, but no detailed quantitative systematic review exists. We summarize evidence for various indices. Methods Papers published before 2000 describing epidemiological studies involving 100+ lung cancer cases were obtained from Medline and other sources. Studies were classified as principal, or subsidiary where cases overlapped with principal studies. Data were extracted on design, exposures, histological types and confounder adjustment. RRs/ORs and 95% CIs were extracted for ever, current and ex smoking of cigarettes, pipes and cigars and indices of cigarette type and dose–response. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions investigated how relationships varied by study and RR characteristics, mainly for outcomes exactly or closely equivalent to all lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (“squamous” and adenocarcinoma (“adeno”. Results 287 studies (20 subsidiary were identified. Although RR estimates were markedly heterogeneous, the meta-analyses demonstrated a relationship of smoking with lung cancer risk, clearly seen for ever smoking (random-effects RR 5.50, CI 5.07-5.96 current smoking (8.43, 7.63-9.31, ex smoking (4.30, 3.93-4.71 and pipe/cigar only smoking (2.92, 2.38-3.57. It was stronger for squamous (current smoking RR 16.91, 13.14-21.76 than adeno (4.21, 3.32-5.34, and evident in both sexes (RRs somewhat higher in males, all continents (RRs highest for North America and lowest for Asia, particularly China, and both study types (RRs higher for prospective studies. Relationships were somewhat stronger in later starting and larger studies. RR estimates were similar in cigarette only and mixed smokers, and similar in smokers of pipes/cigars only, pipes only and cigars only. Exceptionally no increase in adeno risk was seen for pipe/cigar only smokers (0.93, 0.62-1.40. RRs were unrelated to mentholation, and higher for non-filter and handrolled cigarettes. RRs increased with amount smoked

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology and burden of venous thromboembolism among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Relakis, John; Kontodimas, Stathis; Holm, Majbrit V; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. To review the epidemiology, and humanistic and economic burden of pregnancy-related VTE. Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Econlit, Science Direct, JSTOR, Oxford Journals, and Cambridge Journals were searched for reports published between January 2000 and December 2012. Keywords related to VTE, pregnancy, and epidemiology and the humanistic and economic burdens were combined. Eligible studies evaluated the incidence, mortality, recurrence, complications, quality-of-life, and economic burden of VTE among pregnant women, and had been published in English. Background information of the study, participants' characteristics, and study outcomes were collected. Meta-analyses of data were performed. Twenty studies were included, none of which investigated the economic burden. The pooled overall incidence of pregnancy-related VTE was 1.2 per 1000 deliveries. The pooled VTE case fatality rate was 0.68% and the recurrence rate was 4.27%. The pooled risk of major bleeding was 1.05%. Post-thrombotic syndrome seemed to have a negative effect on quality of life. Although the incidence of VTE was found to be relatively low during pregnancy and the postpartum period, the clinical burden is high. Further research is required to assess the economic burden of pregnancy-relate VTE. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the sero-epidemiological association between Epstein Barr virus and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohmeed, Yahya H; Avenell, Alison; Aucott, Lorna; Vickers, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    A role for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been postulated. Previous systematic reviews found higher prevalences of anti-EBV antibodies in MS patients compared to controls, but many studies have since been published, and there is a need to apply more rigorous systematic review methods. We examined the link between EBV and MS by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies that examined the prevalence of anti-EBV antibodies in the serum of cases and controls. We searched Medline and Embase databases from 1960 to 2012, with no language restriction. The Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (OR) for anti-EBV antibodies sero-positivity were calculated, and meta-analysis conducted. Quality assessment was performed using a modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Thirty-nine studies were included. Quality assessment found most studies reported acceptable selection and comparability of cases and controls. However the majority had poor reporting of ascertainment of exposure. Most studies found a higher sero-prevalence of anti-EBNA IgG and anti-VCA IgG in cases compared to controls. The results for anti-EA IgG were mixed with only half the studies finding a higher sero-prevalence in cases. The meta-analysis showed a significant OR for sero-positivity to anti-EBNA IgG and anti-VCA IgG in MS cases (4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.3 to 6.6, p<0.00001] and 4.5 [95% CI 2.8 to 7.2, p<0.00001] respectively). However, funnel plot examination suggested publication bias for the reporting of the anti-EBNA IgG. No significant difference in the OR for sero-positivity to anti-EA IgG was found (1.4 [95% CI 0.9 to 2.1, p = 0.09]). These findings support previous systematic reviews, however publication bias cannot be excluded. The methodological conduct of studies could be improved, particularly with regard to reporting and conduct of laboratory analyses.

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the sero-epidemiological association between Epstein Barr virus and multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya H Almohmeed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A role for Epstein Barr virus (EBV in multiple sclerosis (MS has been postulated. Previous systematic reviews found higher prevalences of anti-EBV antibodies in MS patients compared to controls, but many studies have since been published, and there is a need to apply more rigorous systematic review methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the link between EBV and MS by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies that examined the prevalence of anti-EBV antibodies in the serum of cases and controls. We searched Medline and Embase databases from 1960 to 2012, with no language restriction. The Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (OR for anti-EBV antibodies sero-positivity were calculated, and meta-analysis conducted. Quality assessment was performed using a modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Thirty-nine studies were included. Quality assessment found most studies reported acceptable selection and comparability of cases and controls. However the majority had poor reporting of ascertainment of exposure. Most studies found a higher sero-prevalence of anti-EBNA IgG and anti-VCA IgG in cases compared to controls. The results for anti-EA IgG were mixed with only half the studies finding a higher sero-prevalence in cases. The meta-analysis showed a significant OR for sero-positivity to anti-EBNA IgG and anti-VCA IgG in MS cases (4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.3 to 6.6, p<0.00001] and 4.5 [95% CI 2.8 to 7.2, p<0.00001] respectively. However, funnel plot examination suggested publication bias for the reporting of the anti-EBNA IgG. No significant difference in the OR for sero-positivity to anti-EA IgG was found (1.4 [95% CI 0.9 to 2.1, p = 0.09]. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support previous systematic reviews, however publication bias cannot be excluded. The methodological conduct of studies could be improved, particularly with regard to reporting and conduct of

  5. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Spain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalá-López Ferrán

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood, but the frequency of the condition is not well established in many countries. The aim of the present study was to quantify the overall prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in Spain by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods PubMed/MEDLINE, IME, IBECS and TESEO were comprehensively searched. Original reports were selected if they provided data on prevalence estimates of ADHD among people under 18 years old in Spain and were cross-sectional, observational epidemiological studies. Information from included studies was systematically extracted and evaluated. Overall pooled-prevalence estimates of ADHD were calculated using random-effects models. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by means sub-groups analyses and univariate meta-regressions. Results Fourteen epidemiological studies (13,026 subjects were selected. The overall pooled-prevalence of ADHD was estimated at 6.8% [95% confidence interval (CI 4.9 – 8.8%] representing 361,580 (95% CI 260,550 – 467,927 children and adolescents in the community. There was significant heterogeneity (P Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in Spain is consistent with previous studies conducted in other countries and regions. This study represents a first step in estimating the national burden of ADHD that will be essential to building evidence-based programs and services.

  6. Epidemiological Characteristics of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) in the Middle-East and North-Africa (MENA) Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahidi, Mohamed H; Monir, Nada Y; Elzhery, Mohamed A; Sharaqi, Ahmed A; Haedaya, Hames; Awad, Basem I; Zaghloul, Khaled

    2018-04-01

    To systematically search the literature and to summarize current evidence pertaining to the epidemiology of SCI in the MENA region incidence, gender, age, type of the injury and etiology of the injury. Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were systematically searched from their dates of inception till July 2017 for English and non-English language articles. Also, regional databases were searched. Data were extracted from eligible articles and pooled under the random effect model using R . References of the included articles were also screened for potentially relevant studies. We identified 29 articles from seven countries in the MENA region (Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait and Qatar). The mean age of the cases at time of injury was 31.32 (95% CI: 28.74-33.91). The random pooled annual incidence of TSCI per million was 23.24 (95% CI: 5.64-49.21). Pooled proportion of male gender was 77% (95% CI 73-80%) of the cases. Complete paraplegia was the most common type of injury. Thoracic level injury predominated. Also, the most commonly affected age group was 20-29 then 30-39. Motor vehicle accidents were found to be the leading cause of injury, then falls, gunshot, violence and sports. Further meta-regression analysis showed no association between age and etiology of the injury. This review shows lack of evidence about SCI in most countries of the MENA region. More epidemiological studies are needed.

  7. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Coral-Almeida

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB. A meta-analysis was performed per continent.A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31], 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95] and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61], respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20], 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88] and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24] respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62] to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23].A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main

  8. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, John Thomas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Lippert, Solvej

    2016-01-01

    trials have challenged this dogma. The aim of this study was to evaluate how endocrine therapy (ET) affects survival in different clinical settings of PCa. Materials and methods A review of published phase II, III and IV studies evaluating the effect of ET on survival was performed. Results In localized...

  9. The epidemiology of substance use among street children in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Lonnie; Mwangi, Ann; Vreeman, Rachel; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2013-10-01

    To compile and analyze critically the literature published on street children and substance use in resource-constrained settings. We searched the literature systematically and used meta-analytical procedures to synthesize literature that met the review's inclusion criteria. Pooled-prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the random-effects model for life-time substance use by geographical region as well as by type of substance used. Fifty studies from 22 countries were included into the review. Meta-analysis of combined life-time substance use from 27 studies yielded an overall drug use pooled-prevalence estimate of 60% (95% CI = 51-69%). Studies from 14 countries contributed to an overall pooled prevalence for street children's reported inhalant use of 47% (95% CI = 36-58%). This review reveals significant gaps in the literature, including a dearth of data on physical and mental health outcomes, HIV and mortality in association with street children's substance use. Street children from resource-constrained settings reported high life-time substance use. Inhalants are the predominant substances used, followed by tobacco, alcohol and marijuana. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J Allan

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1 the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human leptospirosis in Africa; and (2 the geographic distribution, host range, prevalence and diversity of Leptospira spp. infection in animal hosts in Africa.Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines, we searched for studies that described (1 acute human leptospirosis and (2 pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection in animals. We performed a literature search using eight international and regional databases for English and non-English articles published between January 1930 to October 2014 that met out pre-defined inclusion criteria and strict case definitions.We identified 97 studies that described acute human leptospirosis (n = 46 or animal Leptospira infection (n = 51 in 26 African countries. The prevalence of acute human leptospirosis ranged from 2 3% to 19 8% (n = 11 in hospital patients with febrile illness. Incidence estimates were largely restricted to the Indian Ocean islands (3 to 101 cases per 100,000 per year (n = 6. Data from Tanzania indicate that human disease incidence is also high in mainland Africa (75 to 102 cases per 100,000 per year. Three major species (Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri are predominant in reports from Africa and isolates from a diverse range of serogroups have been reported in human and animal infections. Cattle appear to be important hosts of a large number of Leptospira serogroups in Africa, but few data are available to allow comparison of Leptospira infection in linked human and animal populations. We advocate a 'One Health' approach to promote multidisciplinary research efforts to improve understanding of the animal to human transmission of leptospirosis on the

  11. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kathryn J; Biggs, Holly M; Halliday, Jo E B; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Maro, Venance P; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1) the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human leptospirosis in Africa; and (2) the geographic distribution, host range, prevalence and diversity of Leptospira spp. infection in animal hosts in Africa. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched for studies that described (1) acute human leptospirosis and (2) pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection in animals. We performed a literature search using eight international and regional databases for English and non-English articles published between January 1930 to October 2014 that met out pre-defined inclusion criteria and strict case definitions. We identified 97 studies that described acute human leptospirosis (n = 46) or animal Leptospira infection (n = 51) in 26 African countries. The prevalence of acute human leptospirosis ranged from 2 3% to 19 8% (n = 11) in hospital patients with febrile illness. Incidence estimates were largely restricted to the Indian Ocean islands (3 to 101 cases per 100,000 per year (n = 6)). Data from Tanzania indicate that human disease incidence is also high in mainland Africa (75 to 102 cases per 100,000 per year). Three major species (Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri) are predominant in reports from Africa and isolates from a diverse range of serogroups have been reported in human and animal infections. Cattle appear to be important hosts of a large number of Leptospira serogroups in Africa, but few data are available to allow comparison of Leptospira infection in linked human and animal populations. We advocate a 'One Health' approach to promote multidisciplinary research efforts to improve understanding of the animal to human transmission of leptospirosis on the African

  12. Advancing Systematic Review Workshop (December 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA hosted an event to examine the systematic review process for development and applications of methods for different types of evidence (epidemiology, animal toxicology, and mechanistic). The presentations are also available.

  13. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  14. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0

  15. Epidemiology of syphilis infection among drug users at methadone maintenance treatment clinics in China: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-xiang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yu-jie; Yan, Jun-wei; Wan, Ya-nan; Peng, Wen-jia; Wang, Jing

    2014-07-01

    Illicit drug trade has re-emerged in China since 1979 and the number of drug addicts had increased. Syphilis is mainly spread through sexual contact and blood. The incidence of syphilis is high among drug users. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics have been implemented in China since 2004. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of syphilis among drug users at MMT clinics in China between 2004 and 2013. Chinese and English databases (CBM, CNKI, Weipu, Pubmed) of literature were searched for studies reporting syphilis among drug users in MMT clinics from 2004 to 2013. The prevalence estimates and risk factors were summarized through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literatures. In all, 29 eligible articles with a total of 8899 drug users, were selected in this review. The pooled prevalence of syphilis infection was 7.78% (95%CI: 5.83%-9.99%). The meta-analyses demonstrated significant differences in syphilis infection rates between men and women (OR = 0.34 [95%CI: 0.26-0.45]) but not between drug users and non-intravenous drug users (OR = 0.82 [95%CI: 0.51-1.32]). Enhanced detection of syphilis and health promotion is warranted in MMT clinics in China. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer in Japan: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Megumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Wakai, Kenji; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Katanoda, Kota

    2016-10-01

    Systematic evaluation of the association between secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer in Japan has yet to be conducted. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between secondhand smoke and lung cancer in Japanese non-smokers. Relevant studies were collected from the MEDLINE and Ichushi Web databases using a combination of search terms and Medical Subject Headings. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risks or odds ratios were extracted to calculate pooled risk estimates. This procedure was performed independently by at least two authors. Stratified analyses were carried out according to study design, publication year, and whether or not potential confounding variables were accounted for. The presence of publication bias was assessed via funnel plots. We identified four cohort studies and five case-control studies. Quantitative synthesis was conducted only for secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood. Of the 12 populations included in meta-analysis, positive secondhand smoke exposure-lung cancer associations were observed in 11, whereas an inverse association was found in the remaining 1. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer associated with secondhand smoke exposure was 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.48). We found no evidence of publication bias, and a significant association remained even when potentially missing studies were included (pooled relative risk: 1.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.46). The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, including by study design, publication year, and when adjusting for confounding variables. Secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood results in a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. The Global Epidemiology of Syphilis in the Past Century – A Systematic Review Based on Antenatal Syphilis Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris Richard; Osbak, Kara; Tsoumanis, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Background How can we explain the uneven decline of syphilis around the world following the introduction of penicillin? In this paper we use antenatal syphilis prevalence (ASP) to investigate how syphilis prevalence varied worldwide in the past century, and what risk factors correlate with this variance. Methods 1) A systematic review using PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted to identify countries with published data relating to ASP estimates from before 1952 until the present. Eleven countries were identified (Canada, Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, Singapore, South Africa, United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK) and Zimbabwe). The ASP epidemic curve for each population was depicted graphically. In South Africa and the USA, results are reported separately for the black and white populations. 2) National antenatal syphilis prevalence estimates for 1990 to 1999 and 2008 were taken from an Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation database on the prevalence of syphilis in low risk populations compiled for the Global Burden of Diseases study and from a recent review paper respectively. National ASPs were depicted graphically and regional median ASPs were calculated for both time periods. 3) Linear regression was used to test for an association between ASP in 1990–1999 and 2008 and four risk factors (efficacy of syphilis screening/treatment, health expenditure, GDP per capita and circumcision prevalence). WHO world regions were included as potential explanatory variables. Results In most populations, ASP dropped to under 1% before 1960. In Zimbabwe and black South Africans, ASP was high in the pre-penicillin period, dropped in the post-penicillin period, but then plateaued at around 6% until the end of the 20th century when ASP dropped to just above 1%. In black Americans, ASP declined in the post penicillin period, but plateaued at 3–5% thereafter. ASP was statistically significantly higher in sub-Saharan Africa in 1990–1999 and 2008

  18. Role of nutritional status in predicting quality of life outcomes in cancer--a systematic review of the epidemiological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Christopher G; Gupta, Digant; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A; Markman, Maurie; Vashi, Pankaj G

    2012-04-24

    Malnutrition is a significant factor in predicting cancer patients' quality of life (QoL). We systematically reviewed the literature on the role of nutritional status in predicting QoL in cancer. We searched MEDLINE database using the terms "nutritional status" in combination with "quality of life" together with "cancer". Human studies published in English, having nutritional status as one of the predictor variables, and QoL as one of the outcome measures were included. Of the 26 included studies, 6 investigated head and neck cancer, 8 gastrointestinal, 1 lung, 1 gynecologic and 10 heterogeneous cancers. 24 studies concluded that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL, 1 study showed that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL only in high-risk patients, while 1 study concluded that there was no association between nutritional status and QoL. Nutritional status is a strong predictor of QoL in cancer patients. We recommend that more providers implement the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) guidelines for oncology patients, which includes nutritional screening, nutritional assessment and intervention as appropriate. Correcting malnutrition may improve QoL in cancer patients, an important outcome of interest to cancer patients, their caregivers, and families.

  19. Role of nutritional status in predicting quality of life outcomes in cancer – a systematic review of the epidemiological literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant factor in predicting cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL). We systematically reviewed the literature on the role of nutritional status in predicting QoL in cancer. We searched MEDLINE database using the terms “nutritional status” in combination with “quality of life” together with “cancer”. Human studies published in English, having nutritional status as one of the predictor variables, and QoL as one of the outcome measures were included. Of the 26 included studies, 6 investigated head and neck cancer, 8 gastrointestinal, 1 lung, 1 gynecologic and 10 heterogeneous cancers. 24 studies concluded that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL, 1 study showed that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL only in high-risk patients, while 1 study concluded that there was no association between nutritional status and QoL. Nutritional status is a strong predictor of QoL in cancer patients. We recommend that more providers implement the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) guidelines for oncology patients, which includes nutritional screening, nutritional assessment and intervention as appropriate. Correcting malnutrition may improve QoL in cancer patients, an important outcome of interest to cancer patients, their caregivers, and families. PMID:22531478

  20. Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the global HIV-infected population: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigna, Jean Joel R; Kenne, Angeladine Malaha; Asangbeh, Serra Lem

    2017-03-29

    Evidence suggests a relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the high burden of COPD and the HIV disease is clearly demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of summary and meta-analysis data on the epidemiology of COPD in the global HIV-infected population to date. The present protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis intends to summarize existing data on the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of COPD in the global HIV-infected population. The present review will include cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies conducted among HIV infected people, which report prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with COPD or enough data for their estimation. We will consider published and unpublished studies in English and French language, regardless of geographical location. Relevant records will be searched using PubMed/Medline, and Scopus from inception to December 31st, 2016. Reference lists of eligible papers and relevant review articles will be screened. Two investigators will independently screen, select studies, and extract data, with discrepancies resolved by consensus or arbitrarily by a third investigator. Risk of bias and methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Funnel-plots and Egger's test will be used to determine publication bias. The study-specific estimates will be pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis model to obtain an overall summary estimate. To keep the effect of studies with extremely small or extremely large estimates on the overall estimate to a minimum, the variance of the study-specific prevalence/incidence will be stabilized with the Freeman-Tukey single arc-sine transformation. The heterogeneity will be evaluated by the χ 2 test on Cochrane's Q statistic. Results will be presented by geographic region and by antiretroviral therapy status. We plan to

  1. Arsenic in drinking water and urinary tract cancers: a systematic review of 30 years of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jacques, Nathalie; Parker, Louise; Brown, Patrick; Dummer, Trevor Jb

    2014-06-02

    Arsenic in drinking water is a public health issue affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This review summarizes 30 years of epidemiological studies on arsenic exposure in drinking water and the risk of bladder or kidney cancer, quantifying these risks using a meta-analytical framework. Forty studies met the selection criteria. Seventeen provided point estimates of arsenic concentrations in drinking water and were used in a meta-analysis of bladder cancer incidence (7 studies) and mortality (10 studies) and kidney cancer mortality (2 studies). Risk estimates for incidence and mortality were analyzed separately using Generalized Linear Models. Predicted risks for bladder cancer incidence were estimated at 10, 50 and 150 μg/L arsenic in drinking water. Bootstrap randomizations were used to assess robustness of effect size. Twenty-eight studies observed an association between arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer. Ten studies showed an association with kidney cancer, although of lower magnitude than that for bladder cancer. The meta-analyses showed the predicted risks for bladder cancer incidence were 2.7 [1.2-4.1]; 4.2 [2.1-6.3] and; 5.8 [2.9-8.7] for drinking water arsenic levels of 10, 50, and 150 μg/L, respectively. Bootstrapped randomizations confirmed this increased risk, but, lowering the effect size to 1.4 [0.35-4.0], 2.3 [0.59-6.4], and 3.1 [0.80-8.9]. The latter suggests that with exposures to 50 μg/L, there was an 83% probability for elevated incidence of bladder cancer; and a 74% probability for elevated mortality. For both bladder and kidney cancers, mortality rates at 150 ug/L were about 30% greater than those at 10 μg/L. Arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased risk of bladder and kidney cancers, although at lower levels (water may double the risk of bladder cancer, or at the very least, increase it by about 40%. With the large number of people exposed to these arsenic concentrations worldwide the public health

  2. Arsenic in drinking water and urinary tract cancers: a systematic review of 30 years of epidemiological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic in drinking water is a public health issue affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This review summarizes 30 years of epidemiological studies on arsenic exposure in drinking water and the risk of bladder or kidney cancer, quantifying these risks using a meta-analytical framework. Methods Forty studies met the selection criteria. Seventeen provided point estimates of arsenic concentrations in drinking water and were used in a meta-analysis of bladder cancer incidence (7 studies) and mortality (10 studies) and kidney cancer mortality (2 studies). Risk estimates for incidence and mortality were analyzed separately using Generalized Linear Models. Predicted risks for bladder cancer incidence were estimated at 10, 50 and 150 μg/L arsenic in drinking water. Bootstrap randomizations were used to assess robustness of effect size. Results Twenty-eight studies observed an association between arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer. Ten studies showed an association with kidney cancer, although of lower magnitude than that for bladder cancer. The meta-analyses showed the predicted risks for bladder cancer incidence were 2.7 [1.2–4.1]; 4.2 [2.1–6.3] and; 5.8 [2.9–8.7] for drinking water arsenic levels of 10, 50, and 150 μg/L, respectively. Bootstrapped randomizations confirmed this increased risk, but, lowering the effect size to 1.4 [0.35–4.0], 2.3 [0.59–6.4], and 3.1 [0.80–8.9]. The latter suggests that with exposures to 50 μg/L, there was an 83% probability for elevated incidence of bladder cancer; and a 74% probability for elevated mortality. For both bladder and kidney cancers, mortality rates at 150 ug/L were about 30% greater than those at 10 μg/L. Conclusion Arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased risk of bladder and kidney cancers, although at lower levels (water may double the risk of bladder cancer, or at the very least, increase it by about 40%. With the large number of people exposed to these

  3. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in People Clinically Diagnosed with Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziukaite, Laura; Slot, Dagmar E; Van der Weijden, Fridus A

    2017-11-10

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis are complex chronic diseases with an established bidirectional relationship. This systematic review evaluated in subjects with professionally diagnosed periodontitis the prevalence and odds of having diabetes. The MEDLINE-PubMed, CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with periodontitis were extracted or if possible calculated. From the 803 titles and abstracts that came out of the search, 29papers met the initial criteria. Prevalence of diabetes was 9.4% among subjects with periodontitis and 12.8%among subjects without periodontitis. Based on sub-analysis, for subjects with periodontitis, the prevalence of diabetes was 6.5%when diabetes was self-reported, compared to 17.3%when diabetes was clinically assessed. The highest prevalence of diabetes among subjects with periodontitis was observed in studies originating from Asian countries(17.2%,n=16647) and the lowest in studies describing populations from Europe(4.3%(n=7858). The overall odds ratio for diabetes patients to be among subjects with periodontitis as compared to those without periodontitis was 2.59(95%CI[2.12;3.15]). A substantial variability in the definitions of periodontitis, combination of self-reported and clinically assessed diabetes, lack of confounding for diabetes control in included studies introduces estimation bias. The overall prevalence and odds of having diabetes is higher within periodontitis populations compared to people without periodontitis. Self-reported diabetes underestimates the prevalence when compared to this condition assessed clinically. Geographical differences were observed: the highest diabetes prevalence among subjects with periodontitis was observed in studies conducted in Asia and the lowest in studies originating from Europe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. The Global Epidemiology of Syphilis in the Past Century - A Systematic Review Based on Antenatal Syphilis Prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How can we explain the uneven decline of syphilis around the world following the introduction of penicillin? In this paper we use antenatal syphilis prevalence (ASP to investigate how syphilis prevalence varied worldwide in the past century, and what risk factors correlate with this variance.1 A systematic review using PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted to identify countries with published data relating to ASP estimates from before 1952 until the present. Eleven countries were identified (Canada, Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, Singapore, South Africa, United States of America (USA, United Kingdom (UK and Zimbabwe. The ASP epidemic curve for each population was depicted graphically. In South Africa and the USA, results are reported separately for the black and white populations. 2 National antenatal syphilis prevalence estimates for 1990 to 1999 and 2008 were taken from an Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation database on the prevalence of syphilis in low risk populations compiled for the Global Burden of Diseases study and from a recent review paper respectively. National ASPs were depicted graphically and regional median ASPs were calculated for both time periods. 3 Linear regression was used to test for an association between ASP in 1990-1999 and 2008 and four risk factors (efficacy of syphilis screening/treatment, health expenditure, GDP per capita and circumcision prevalence. WHO world regions were included as potential explanatory variables.In most populations, ASP dropped to under 1% before 1960. In Zimbabwe and black South Africans, ASP was high in the pre-penicillin period, dropped in the post-penicillin period, but then plateaued at around 6% until the end of the 20th century when ASP dropped to just above 1%. In black Americans, ASP declined in the post penicillin period, but plateaued at 3-5% thereafter. ASP was statistically significantly higher in sub-Saharan Africa in 1990-1999 and 2008 than in the other world

  5. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  6. The Epidemiology and Clinicopathological Features of Basal Cell Carcinoma in Patients 80 Years and Older: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeek, S.F.K.; Vugt, L.J. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The number of very elderly (>/=80 years) is rapidly growing worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common in this age group and treatment is often challenging in this population. Objective: Obtaining an overview of the epidemiology and clinicopathological features of BCC in the very

  7. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  8. Metal Ion Concentrations in Body Fluids after Implantation of Hip Replacements with Metal-on-Metal Bearing – Systematic Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. Objective To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Methods Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Results Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Discussion Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed „time out“ for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip

  9. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sahajal Dhooria; Ritesh Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January...

  10. The Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders in US Veterans: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Fiellin, David A.; Barry, Declan T.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Gordon, Adam J.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Gaither, Julie R.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Marshall, Brandon D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders (SUDs), which encompass alcohol and drug use disorders (AUDs, DUDs), constitute a major public health challenge among US veterans. SUDs are among the most common and costly of all health conditions among veterans. Objectives This study sought to examine the epidemiology of SUDs among US veterans, compare the prevalence of SUDs in studies using diagnostic and administrative criteria assessment methods, and summarize trends in the prevalence of SUDs reported in studies sampling US veterans over time. Methods Comprehensive electronic database searches were conducted. A total of 3,490 studies were identified. We analyzed studies sampling US veterans and reporting prevalence, distribution, and examining AUDs and DUDs. Results Of the studies identified, 72 met inclusion criteria. The studies were published between 1995 and 2013. Studies using diagnostic criteria reported higher prevalence of AUDs (32% vs. 10%) and DUDs (20% vs. 5%) than administrative criteria, respectively. Regardless of assessment method, both the lifetime and past year prevalence of AUDs in studies sampling US veterans has declined gradually over time. Conclusion The prevalence of SUDs reported in studies sampling US veterans are affected by assessment method. Given the significant public health problems of SUDs among US veterans, improved guidelines for clinical screening using validated diagnostic criteria to assess AUDs and DUDs in US veteran populations are needed. Scientific Significance These findings may inform VA and other healthcare systems in prevention, diagnosis, and intervention for SUDs among US veterans. PMID:26693830

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection in meat animals from Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis of sero-epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretas Babatoundé Nounnagnon Tonouhewa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which causes toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. Felids especially cats are definitive hosts and almost all warm-blooded mammals, including livestock and human can serve as intermediate hosts. Food animals can be reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. The objective of this study is to collect serological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody, and risk factors for certain food animals from Africa to provide a quantitative estimate of T. gondii infection among these species from different African countries. Materials and Methods: Four databases were used to search seroepidemiological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody in food animals between 1969 and 2016 from African countries. The search focused on data obtained by serologic test in food animals and meta-analyses were performed per species. Results: A total of 30,742 individual samples from 24 countries, described in 68 articles were studied. The overall estimated prevalence for toxoplasmosis in chicken, camel, cattle, sheep, goat, pig were 37.4% (29.2-46.0%, 36% (18-56%, 12% (8-17%, 26.1% (17.0-37.0%, 22.9% (12.3-36.0%, and 26.0% (20-32.0%, respectively. Moreover, major risk factor of infection was age, farming system, and farm location. Conclusions: A significant variation in the seroepidemiological data was observed within each species and country. The results can aid in an updated epidemiological analysis but also can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models. Further studies are required for a better and continual evaluation of the occurrence of this zoonotic infection.

  12. A contemporary assessment of nocturia: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management--a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Abrams, Paul; Chapple, Christopher R.; Dmochowski, Roger R.; Lemack, Gary E.; Michel, Martin C.; Tubaro, Andrea; Madersbacher, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Nocturia is a common urologic symptom that has been covered in a variety of reported studies in the literature but is not specifically covered in current guidelines. To comprehensively review the literature pertaining to the definition, etiologies, and consequences of nocturia and assess the

  13. Do polychlorinated biphenyls cause cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Claudia; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Covolo, Loredana; Donato, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    In 2015 a IARC Working Group upgraded the classification of PCBs to Group 1 "Carcinogenic to humans", also on the basis of evidence from epidemiological studies showing an excess risk for melanoma. Increased risks for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and breast cancer were also reported though the evidence was limited. However, some recent reviews of studies on PCB exposure and risk of cancer provided discrepant findings. Therefore, we re-evaluated the association between exposure to PCBs and risk of melanoma and NHL by a systematic review and meta-analysis. We retrieved 11 independent cohort studies on occupationally exposed workers. About half of them showed increased standardized mortality or incidence ratios (SMRs or SIRs) for melanoma and none for NHL. The pooled SMRs were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.05-1.64) for melanoma and 0.94 (0.73-1.23) for NHL. Among population-based cohort and case-control studies with individual measures of PCB exposure, one only study was carried out on PCB exposure and melanoma, showing an odds ratio (OR) of 6.0 (2.0-18.2) for the highest compared to lowest quartile of PCB distribution. 13 cohort and case-control studies evaluated the association between NHL and PCB concentration in blood or subcutaneous fat, with summary OR = 1.5 (1.1-1.7) for the highest vs lowest quantile of PCB distribution. However, two cohort studies on people intoxicated by rice oil containing PCBs found no excess of deaths for skin cancer and inconsistent results for NHL. In conclusion, these findings do not provide a strong evidence that PCB exposure can increase the risk of melanoma and NHL in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to air pollution as a potential contributor to cognitive function, cognitive decline, brain imaging, and dementia: a systematic review of epidemiologic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Melinda C.; Adar, Sara D.; Yanosky, Jeff D.; Weuve, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia is a devastating condition typically preceded by a long prodromal phase characterized by accumulation of neuropathology and accelerated cognitive decline. A growing number of epidemiologic studies have explored the relation between air pollution exposure and dementia-related outcomes. Methods We undertook a systematic review, including quality assessment, to interpret the collective findings and describe methodological challenges that may limit study validity. Articles, which were identified according to a registered protocol, had to quantify the association of an air pollution exposure with cognitive function, cognitive decline, a dementia-related neuroimaging feature, or dementia. Results We identified 18 eligible published articles. The quality of most studies was adequate to exemplary. Almost all reported an adverse association between at least one pollutant and one dementia-related outcome. However, relatively few studies considered outcomes that provide the strongest evidence for a causal effect, such as within-person cognitive or pathologic changes. Reassuringly, differential selection would likely bias toward a protective association in most studies, making it unlikely to account for observed adverse associations. Likewise, using a formal sensitivity analysis, we found that unmeasured confounding is also unlikely to explain reported adverse associations. Discussion We also identified several common challenges. First, most studies of incident dementia identified cases from health system records. As dementia in the community is underdiagnosed, this could generate either non-differential or differential misclassification bias. Second, almost all studies used recent air pollution exposures as surrogate measures of long-term exposure. Although this approach may be reasonable if the measured and etiologic exposure windows are separated by a few years, its validity is unknown over longer intervals. Third, comparing the magnitude of associations

  15. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence relating FEV1 decline to lung cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry John S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced FEV1 is known to predict increased lung cancer risk, but previous reviews are limited. To quantify this relationship more precisely, and study heterogeneity, we derived estimates of β for the relationship RR(diff = exp(βdiff, where diff is the reduction in FEV1 expressed as a percentage of predicted (FEV1%P and RR(diff the associated relative risk. We used results reported directly as β, and as grouped levels of RR in terms of FEV1%P and of associated measures (e.g. FEV1/FVC. Methods Papers describing cohort studies involving at least three years follow-up which recorded FEV1 at baseline and presented results relating lung cancer to FEV1 or associated measures were sought from Medline and other sources. Data were recorded on study design and quality and, for each data block identified, on details of the results, including population characteristics, adjustment factors, lung function measure, and analysis type. Regression estimates were converted to β estimates where appropriate. For results reported by grouped levels, we used the NHANES III dataset to estimate mean FEV1%P values for each level, regardless of the measure used, then derived β using regression analysis which accounted for non-independence of the RR estimates. Goodness-of-fit was tested by comparing observed and predicted lung cancer cases for each level. Inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis allowed derivation of overall β estimates and testing for heterogeneity by factors including sex, age, location, timing, duration, study quality, smoking adjustment, measure of FEV1 reported, and inverse-variance weight of β. Results Thirty-three publications satisfying the inclusion/exclusion criteria were identified, seven being rejected as not allowing estimation of β. The remaining 26 described 22 distinct studies, from which 32 independent β estimates were derived. Goodness-of-fit was satisfactory, and exp(β, the RR increase per one unit FEV1%P

  16. Systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, K. D.; Lloyd, C. E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two professi...

  17. Systematic reviews on leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIDUGLI Fabio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To find the existing clinical evidence on interventions for leptospirosis. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any intervention on leptospirosis through systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs. DATA SOURCE: The sources of studies used (where there were no limitations concerning language, date, or other restrictions were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Database, and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Randomized Trials register. SELECTION OF STUDIES: Type of Study: All systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials. Participants: patients with clinical and/or laboratorial diagnosis of leptospirosis, and subjects potencially exposed to leptospirosis as defined by the authors Interventions: any intervention for leptospirosis (as antibiotics or vaccines for prevention or treatment. DATA COLLECTION: The assessment will be independently made by the reviewers and cross-checked. The external validity was assessed by analysis of: studies, interventions, and outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Located 163 studies using the search strategy described above, at the electronic databases above. Only 2 hits were selected, which are protocols of systematic reviews of Cochrane Collaboration, and not full reviews. One of the protocols evaluates antibiotics for treatment, and the other evaluates antibiotics for prevention of leptospirosis. CONCLUSIONS: There were not complete systematic reviews on interventions for leptospirosis. Any interventions for leptospirosis, such as prevention and treatment remains unclear for guidelines and practice.

  18. Clinical significance and epidemiological evolution of epitrochlear lymphadenopathy in pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliappan Muthu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitrochlear lymphadenopathy is believed to be associated with distinct etiologies, however the evidence for the same is lacking. We systematically reviewed the reported causes of an enlarged epitrochlear lymph node and compared them over different time periods. Epitrochlear lymphadenopathy was encountered in a wide range of diseases, and we found no association with any particular disease.

  19. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  20. Swaddling : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  1. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  2. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James C; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-04

    Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/ control. The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7-8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a 'gateway sequence' and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that governmentsponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  3. Physical activity and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Dagfinn; Sen, Abhijit; Henriksen, Tore; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity has been inconsistently associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in epidemiological studies, and questions remain about the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between the two. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and randomized trials on physical activity and gestational diabetes mellitus. PubMed, Embase and Ovid databases were searched for cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials of physical activity and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, up to August 5th 2015. Summary relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a random effects model. Twenty-five studies (26 publications) were included. For total physical activity the summary RR for high versus low activity was 0.62 (95 % CI 0.41-0.94, I 2  = 0 %, n = 4) before pregnancy, and 0.66 (95 % CI 0.36-1.21, I 2  = 0 %, n = 3) during pregnancy. For leisure-time physical activity the respective summary RRs for high versus low activity was 0.78 (95 % CI 0.61-1.00, I 2  = 47 %, n = 8) before pregnancy, and it was 0.80 (95 % CI 0.64-1.00, I 2  = 17 %, n = 17) during pregnancy. The summary RR for pre-pregnancy activity was 0.70 (95 % CI 0.49-1.01, I 2  = 72.6 %, n = 3) per increment of 5 h/week and for activity during pregnancy was 0.98 (95 % CI 0.87-1.09, I 2  = 0 %, n = 3) per 5 h/week. There was evidence of a nonlinear association between physical activity before pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, p nonlinearity  = 0.005, with a slightly steeper association at lower levels of activity although further reductions in risk were observed up to 10 h/week. There was also evidence of nonlinearity for physical activity in early pregnancy, p nonlinearity  = 0.008, with no further reduction in risk above 8 h/week. There was some indication of inverse associations between walking (before and during pregnancy) and vigorous activity (before pregnancy) and the risk of

  4. Systematic reviews on leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Guidugli, Fabio; Castro, Aldemar Araujo [UNIFESP; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib [UNIFESP

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To find the existing clinical evidence on interventions for leptospirosis. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any intervention on leptospirosis through systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DATA SOURCE: The sources of studies used (where there were no limitations concerning language, date, or other restrictions) were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Database, and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Ra...

  5. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella spp.: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrik, Tirza C.; Voor in ‘t holt, Anne F.; Vos, Margreet C.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-related infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. are of major concern. To control transmission, deep understanding of the transmission mechanisms is needed. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors and sources, clonal relatedness using molecular techniques, and the most effective control strategies for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Outbreak Database was performed. We identified 2771 articles from November 25th, 1960 until April 7th, 2014 of which 148 were included in the systematic review and 23 in a random-effects meta-analysis study. The random-effects meta-analyses showed that underlying disease or condition (odds ratio [OR] = 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85 to 13.66) generated the highest pooled estimate. ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. were spread through person-to-person contact and via sources in the environment; we identified both monoclonal and polyclonal presence. Multi-faceted interventions are needed to prevent transmission of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. PMID:26485570

  6. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella spp.: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrik, Tirza C; Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Vos, Margreet C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-related infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. are of major concern. To control transmission, deep understanding of the transmission mechanisms is needed. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors and sources, clonal relatedness using molecular techniques, and the most effective control strategies for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Outbreak Database was performed. We identified 2771 articles from November 25th, 1960 until April 7th, 2014 of which 148 were included in the systematic review and 23 in a random-effects meta-analysis study. The random-effects meta-analyses showed that underlying disease or condition (odds ratio [OR] = 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85 to 13.66) generated the highest pooled estimate. ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. were spread through person-to-person contact and via sources in the environment; we identified both monoclonal and polyclonal presence. Multi-faceted interventions are needed to prevent transmission of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp.

  7. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-01-01

    Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. We included preclinical (n = 17), clinical (n = 19) and epidemiological (n = 13) studies addressing the abuse potential of pregabalin. We also reviewed case reports (n = 9) concerning abuse of pregabalin. The preclinical studies indicated that pregabalin possesses modulatory effects on the GABA and glutamate systems, leaving room for an abuse potential. Further, clinical studies reported euphoria as a frequent side effect in patients treated with pregabalin. The majority of case reports concerning abuse of pregabalin involved patients with a history of substance abuse and, similarly, epidemiological studies found evidence of abuse, especially among opiate abusers. Overall, the available literature suggests an important clinical abuse potential of pregabalin and prescribers should pay attention to signs of abuse, especially in patients with a history of substance abuse.

  8. Causal assessment of dietary acid load and bone disease: a systematic review & meta-analysis applying Hill's epidemiologic criteria for causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon Andrew W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern diets have been suggested to increase systemic acid load and net acid excretion. In response, alkaline diets and products are marketed to avoid or counteract this acid, help the body regulate its pH to prevent and cure disease. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate causal relationships between dietary acid load and osteoporosis using Hill's criteria. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis. We systematically searched published literature for randomized intervention trials, prospective cohort studies, and meta-analyses of the acid-ash or acid-base diet hypothesis with bone-related outcomes, in which the diet acid load was altered, or an alkaline diet or alkaline salts were provided, to healthy human adults. Cellular mechanism studies were also systematically examined. Results Fifty-five of 238 studies met the inclusion criteria: 22 randomized interventions, 2 meta-analyses, and 11 prospective observational studies of bone health outcomes including: urine calcium excretion, calcium balance or retention, changes of bone mineral density, or fractures, among healthy adults in which acid and/or alkaline intakes were manipulated or observed through foods or supplements; and 19 in vitro cell studies which examined the hypothesized mechanism. Urine calcium excretion rates were consistent with osteoporosis development; however calcium balance studies did not demonstrate loss of whole body calcium with higher net acid excretion. Several weaknesses regarding the acid-ash hypothesis were uncovered: No intervention studies provided direct evidence of osteoporosis progression (fragility fractures, or bone strength as measured using biopsy. The supporting prospective cohort studies were not controlled regarding important osteoporosis risk factors including: weight loss during follow-up, family history of osteoporosis, baseline bone mineral density, and estrogen status. No study revealed a biologic mechanism

  9. Epidemiological methods: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiology, the study of disease distributions in populations and the factors which influence these distributions, is an observational science, i.e., its data base consists of measurements made on free living individuals characterized by presence or absence of disease states and putative risk factors. Epidemiological studies are usually classified as descriptive or analytical. Descriptive studies are primarily used for planning and evaluating health programs or to generate etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are primarily used for testing etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are designed either as cohort investigations in which populations with and without a putative risk factor are followed through time to ascertain their differential incidence of disease, or case-control investigations in which the history of exposure to a putative risk factor is compared among persons with a disease and appropriate controls free of disease. Both descriptive and analytical epidemiological studies have been applied to health physics problems. Examples of such problems and the epidemiological methods used to explore them will be presented

  10. Accuracy of Electronic Health Record Data for Identifying Stroke Cases in Large-Scale Epidemiological Studies: A Systematic Review from the UK Biobank Stroke Outcomes Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Rebecca; Grant, Ian; Sudlow, Cathie L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Long-term follow-up of population-based prospective studies is often achieved through linkages to coded regional or national health care data. Our knowledge of the accuracy of such data is incomplete. To inform methods for identifying stroke cases in UK Biobank (a prospective study of 503,000 UK adults recruited in middle-age), we systematically evaluated the accuracy of these data for stroke and its main pathological types (ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage), determining the optimum codes for case identification. Methods We sought studies published from 1990-November 2013, which compared coded data from death certificates, hospital admissions or primary care with a reference standard for stroke or its pathological types. We extracted information on a range of study characteristics and assessed study quality with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Studies tool (QUADAS-2). To assess accuracy, we extracted data on positive predictive values (PPV) and—where available—on sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values (NPV). Results 37 of 39 eligible studies assessed accuracy of International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-coded hospital or death certificate data. They varied widely in their settings, methods, reporting, quality, and in the choice and accuracy of codes. Although PPVs for stroke and its pathological types ranged from 6–97%, appropriately selected, stroke-specific codes (rather than broad cerebrovascular codes) consistently produced PPVs >70%, and in several studies >90%. The few studies with data on sensitivity, specificity and NPV showed higher sensitivity of hospital versus death certificate data for stroke, with specificity and NPV consistently >96%. Few studies assessed either primary care data or combinations of data sources. Conclusions Particular stroke-specific codes can yield high PPVs (>90%) for stroke/stroke types. Inclusion of primary care data and combining data sources should

  11. Accuracy of Electronic Health Record Data for Identifying Stroke Cases in Large-Scale Epidemiological Studies: A Systematic Review from the UK Biobank Stroke Outcomes Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Woodfield

    Full Text Available Long-term follow-up of population-based prospective studies is often achieved through linkages to coded regional or national health care data. Our knowledge of the accuracy of such data is incomplete. To inform methods for identifying stroke cases in UK Biobank (a prospective study of 503,000 UK adults recruited in middle-age, we systematically evaluated the accuracy of these data for stroke and its main pathological types (ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, determining the optimum codes for case identification.We sought studies published from 1990-November 2013, which compared coded data from death certificates, hospital admissions or primary care with a reference standard for stroke or its pathological types. We extracted information on a range of study characteristics and assessed study quality with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Studies tool (QUADAS-2. To assess accuracy, we extracted data on positive predictive values (PPV and-where available-on sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values (NPV.37 of 39 eligible studies assessed accuracy of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-coded hospital or death certificate data. They varied widely in their settings, methods, reporting, quality, and in the choice and accuracy of codes. Although PPVs for stroke and its pathological types ranged from 6-97%, appropriately selected, stroke-specific codes (rather than broad cerebrovascular codes consistently produced PPVs >70%, and in several studies >90%. The few studies with data on sensitivity, specificity and NPV showed higher sensitivity of hospital versus death certificate data for stroke, with specificity and NPV consistently >96%. Few studies assessed either primary care data or combinations of data sources.Particular stroke-specific codes can yield high PPVs (>90% for stroke/stroke types. Inclusion of primary care data and combining data sources should improve accuracy in large

  12. Reading, writing and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-10-01

    This paper offers a discussion of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review. Although increasingly popular, systematic review has engendered a critique of the claims made for it as a more objective method for summing up research findings than other kinds of reviews. An alternative understanding of systematic review is as a highly subjective, albeit disciplined, engagement between resisting readers and resistant texts. Reviewers of research exemplify the resisting reader when they exclude reports on grounds of relevance, quality, or methodological difference. Research reports exemplify resistant texts as they do not simply yield their findings, but rather must be made docile to review. These acts of resistance make systematic review possible, but challenge claims of its greater capacity to control bias. An understanding of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review still holds truth and objectivity as regulative ideals, but is aware of the reading and writing practices that both enable and challenge those ideals.

  13. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for ‘One Health’ in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kathryn J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Halliday, Jo E. B.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Maro, Venance P.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1) the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human leptospirosis in Africa; and (2) the geographic distribution, host range, prevalence and diversity of Leptospira spp. infection in animal hosts in Africa. Methods Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched for studies that described (1) acute human leptospirosis and (2) pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection in animals. We performed a literature search using eight international and regional databases for English and non-English articles published between January 1930 to October 2014 that met out pre-defined inclusion criteria and strict case definitions. Results and Discussion We identified 97 studies that described acute human leptospirosis (n = 46) or animal Leptospira infection (n = 51) in 26 African countries. The prevalence of acute human leptospirosis ranged from 2 3% to 19 8% (n = 11) in hospital patients with febrile illness. Incidence estimates were largely restricted to the Indian Ocean islands (3 to 101 cases per 100,000 per year (n = 6)). Data from Tanzania indicate that human disease incidence is also high in mainland Africa (75 to 102 cases per 100,000 per year). Three major species (Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri) are predominant in reports from Africa and isolates from a diverse range of serogroups have been reported in human and animal infections. Cattle appear to be important hosts of a large number of Leptospira serogroups in Africa, but few data are available to allow comparison of Leptospira infection in linked human and animal populations. We advocate a ‘One Health’ approach to promote multidisciplinary research efforts to improve understanding of the animal to human

  14. Epidemiology of Injuries in Women Playing Competitive Team Bat-or-Stick Sports: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagodage Perera, Nirmala Kanthi; Joseph, Corey; Kemp, Joanne Lyn; Finch, Caroline Frances

    2018-03-01

    Team bat-or-stick sports, including cricket, softball and hockey, are popular among women. However, little is known about the injury profile in this population. The aim was to describe the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries in bat-or-stick sports played by women in a competitive league. This review was prospectively registered (PROSPERO CRD42015026715). CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus were systematically searched from January 2000 to September 2016, inclusive. Peer-reviewed original research articles reporting the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries sustained by women aged 18 + years in competitive bat-or-stick sports were included. Two meta-analyses based on injury incidence proportions (injury IP) and injury rates per 1000 person-days of athletic exposure (AE) were performed. A total of 37 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, and five had low risk of bias. The weighted injury IP was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.45]. The weighted injury rate was 6.12 (95% CI 6.05-6.18) overall, and greater in games [15.79 (95% CI 15.65-15.93)] than in practice [3.07 (95% CI 2.99-3.15)]. The ankle was the most commonly injured anatomical location, followed by the hand (including wrist and fingers), knee and head. Soft tissue and ligament injuries were most common types of injuries. Injury prevention in women's sports is a novel and emerging field of research interest. This review highlights that injury incidence is high among female bat-or-stick players, but little information is known about direct causal mechanisms. This review clearly establishes the need for enhancements to injury data collection. Without this information, it will not be possible to develop evidence-based injury prevention interventions.

  15. Gynecomastia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Anders; Lewin, Richard; Rufolo, Guglielmo; Elander, Anna; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a common medical problem presenting in nearly a third of the male population. Treatment for gynecomastia can be either pharmacological or surgical. Patients with gynecomastia often experience affected quality-of-life. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the quality of evidence of the current literature in relation to different treatment modalities and Quality-of-Life in patients with gynecomastia. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and SveMed+ in accordance with the PRISMA statement. All searches were undertaken between September-November 2014. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to specify inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was graded according to MINORS. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. Data from the included studies were extracted based on study characteristics, participants specifics, type of intervention/treatment, and type of outcome measures into data extraction forms. A total of 134 abstracts were identified in the literature search. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, 14 concerning treatment and three concerning Quality-of-Life. All studies were non-randomised with a high risk of bias and very low quality of evidence according to GRADE. Several different surgical methods have been described with good results, minimal scars, and various levels of complications. Traditional surgical excision of glandular tissue combined with liposuction provides most consistent results and a low rate of complications. Pubertal gynecomastia may safely be managed by pharmacological anti-oestrogen treatment.

  16. Child labour in low- and middle-income countries and its consequences for mental health: a systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Sarah; Hodes, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, large numbers of children are involved in work. Whilst studies have shown that child labour may be harmful to children's physical health, little is known about child labour's effects on mental health. It is important to understand the relationship between work and mental health problems during childhood, and identify possible risk factors for poorer mental health. A systematic literature review was conducted. Published papers in any language that compared the mental health of children (child labour and general psychopathology, internalising and externalising problems were identified. Child labour was found to be strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes in seven studies. More significant associations were found between child labour and internalising problems than externalising problems. The burden of poor mental health as a result of child labour is significant given the numbers of children in work. Risk factors for poorer mental health were involvement in domestic labour, younger age, and greater intensity of work, which could be due to the potential of child labour to cause isolation, low self-esteem, and perception of an external locus of control. The risk factors suggested by this review will have implications for policy makers. Additional research is needed in low-income countries, risk factors and also into the potential psychological benefits of low levels of work.

  17. Systematic review and meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    was to systematically review evidence from epidemiologic studies on adverse health outcomes of the offspring in relation to exposure to maternal fever during pregnancy. METHODS: Systematic searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were performed by using Medical Subject Headings, Boolean operators......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fever during pregnancy has been suspected to harm the developing fetus. However, until now, no systematic analysis of the available evidence has been undertaken to assess the impact of maternal fever on health outcomes in the child. The goal of this study......, and truncation, and references of references were reviewed. Cohort and case-control studies addressing health outcomes of prenatal fever exposure in humans were eligible for inclusion. Studies with no direct reference to fever, studies in selected populations (eg, preterm births), and studies published before...

  18. Suicidal ideation in pregnancy: an epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behaviors are the leading causes of injury and death worldwide, and are leading causes of maternal deaths in some countries. One of the strongest risk factors, suicidal ideation, is considered a harbinger and distal predictor of later suicide attempt and completion, and also presents an opportunity for interventions prior to physical self-harm. The purpose of this systematic epidemiologic review is to synthesize available research on antepartum suicidal ideation. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases using the search terms pregnancy, pregnant women, suicidal ideation, and pregnan* and suicid* as root searches. We also reviewed references of published articles. We identified a total of 2626 articles through the electronic database search. After irrelevant and redundant articles were excluded, 57 articles were selected. The selected articles were original articles that focused on pregnancy and suicidal ideation. Of the 57 included articles, 20 reported prevalence, 26 reported risk factors, 21 reported consequences of antepartum suicidal ideation, and 5 reported on screening measures. Available evidence indicates that pregnant women are more likely than the general population to endorse suicidal ideation. Additionally, a number of risk factors for antepartum suicidal ideation were identified including intimate partner violence, suicidal ideation. The few screening instruments that exist are limited as they were primarily developed to measure antepartum and postpartum depression. Given a substantial proportion of women with suicidal ideation that does not meet clinical thresholds of depression and given the stress-diathesis model that shows susceptibility to suicidal behavior independent of depressive disorders, innovative approaches to improve screening and detection of antepartum suicidal ideation are urgently needed.

  19. Spinal curves and health: a systematic critical review of the epidemiological literature dealing with associations between sagittal spinal curves and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sanne Toftgaard; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) determine whether sagittal spinal curves are associated with health in epidemiological studies, (2) estimate the strength of such associations, and (3) consider whether these relations are likely to be causal....

  20. Definition and usage of the term "overuse injury" in the US high school and collegiate sport epidemiology literature: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Karen G; Marshall, Stephen W

    2014-03-01

    A number of epidemiologic and surveillance-based studies of sports injury provide statistics on, and sometimes discussion of, overuse injuries. However, there is no consensus on the definition of "overuse." Some studies consider "overuse" as a mechanism of injury while others use a diagnosis-based definition. The objective of this study was to describe variation between studies in the definition and use of the term "overuse." PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were searched between May and November 2012 to find articles published or online ahead of printing pertaining to US high school or collegiate athletics, which were epidemiologic in nature. Inclusion criteria required that the article present data collected on athlete exposure and provided statistics pertaining to overuse injuries. PRISMA guidelines were adhered to, to the best ability of the authors. The initial search resulted in 5,182 articles with potential for inclusion. After review of titles or abstracts where appropriate, 232 studies were read in entirety to determine if they were appropriate for inclusion. Of the 35 articles included, 13 used data from the National Collegiate Athletics Association's Injury Surveillance System, 12 used data from the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) injury surveillance system, and one used data from both of these systems. The remaining nine articles used data from distinct surveillance systems or prospectively collected data. All of these articles included data on overuse injuries, although not all provided definitions for overuse. A major finding from the literature is that the term "overuse" has been used both as a mechanism of injury and as an injury diagnosis (or a category of diagnoses). Specifically, of 35 articles, 14 used "overuse" as a mechanism of injury, seven used it as a category of injury diagnoses, eight used it as both a category of injury diagnoses and a mechanism of injury, and it was unclear in one how the term is used. Only one of the 35

  1. Systematic Reviews in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B

    2016-02-01

    The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Sports Health and KSSTA on the PRISMA and AMSTAR. The average PRISMA score by year varied from 85% to 89%, and the average AMSTAR score varied from 70% to 76%. Systematic reviews

  2. Aromatherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, B; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly popular; however there are few clear indications for its use. To systematically review the literature on aromatherapy in order to discover whether any clinical indication may be recommended for its use, computerised literature searches were performed to retrieve all randomised controlled trials of aromatherapy from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CISCOM, and AMED. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad score. All trials were evaluated independently by both authors and data were extracted in a pre-defined, standardised fashion. Twelve trials were located: six of them had no independent replication; six related to the relaxing effects of aromatherapy combined with massage. These studies suggest that aromatherapy massage has a mild, transient anxiolytic effect. Based on a critical assessment of the six studies relating to relaxation, the effects of aromatherapy are probably not strong enough for it to be considered for the treatment of anxiety. The hypothesis that it is effective for any other indication is not supported by the findings of rigorous clinical trials. PMID:10962794

  3. EpideMiology and control measures of outBreaks due to Antibiotic-Resistant orGanisms in EurOpe (EMBARGO): a systematic review protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nithya, B.R.; Gladstone, B.P.; Rodriguez-Bano, J.; Sifakis, F.; Voss, A.; Carmeli, Y.; Burkert, F.R.; Gkolia, P.; Tacconelli, E.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Improving our understanding of outbreaks due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and their control is critical in the current public health scenario. The threat of outbreaks due to ARB requires multifaceted efforts. However, a global overview of epidemiological characteristics of

  4. Systematic reviews informing occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sally; Hoffmann, Tammy; McCluskey, Annie; Coghlan, Nicole; Tooth, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    We sought to identify and describe the number, topics, and publishing trends of systematic reviews relevant to occupational therapy indexed in the OTseeker database. We performed a cross-sectional survey of the systematic reviews contained in OTseeker in December 2011. Of the 1,940 systematic reviews indexed in OTseeker, only 53 (2.7%) were published in occupational therapy journals. The most common diagnostic categories were stroke (n = 195, 10.1%) and affective disorders (n = 204, 10.5%). The most common intervention categories were consumer education (n = 644, 33.2%) and psychosocial techniques (n = 571, 29.4%). Only 390 (20.1%) of the 1,940 systematic reviews specifically involved occupational therapy. Occupational therapists need to search broadly to locate relevant systematic reviews or, alternatively, to use databases such as OTseeker. Clarity about the involvement of occupational therapy in reports of future research will improve the ability to identify occupational therapy research for all stakeholders. Finally, occupational therapy practitioners need to read systematic reviews critically to determine whether review conclusions are justified. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Systematic Review Workshop (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal for this workshop is to receive scientific input regarding approaches for different steps within a systematic review, such as evaluating individual studies, synthesizing evidence within a particular discipline, etc.

  6. Infantile hydrocephalus: a review of epidemiology, classification and causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Dobyns, William B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common but complex condition caused by physical or functional obstruction of CSF flow that leads to progressive ventricular dilatation. Though hydrocephalus was recently estimated to affect 1.1 in 1,000 infants, there have been few systematic assessments of the causes of hydrocephalus in this age group, which makes it a challenging condition to approach as a scientist or as a clinician. Here, we review contemporary literature on the epidemiology, classification and pathogenesis of infantile hydrocephalus. We describe the major environmental and genetic causes of hydrocephalus, with the goal of providing a framework to assess infants with hydrocephalus and guide future research. PMID:24932902

  7. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  8. Review paper: epidemiology, evidence-based medicine, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-Ling; Griffiths, Sian

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews the relation between evidence-based medicine and epidemiology and the recent evolution of the former. The meaning of evidence and the international efforts to collect, summarize, and disseminate findings from scientific research that are relevant for medical decision making are discussed. Evidence, current resources, and people's values, all play a role in making evidence-based medical decisions. This also has important implications for public health practice. However, decision making differs considerably between clinical care of individual patients and public health decision and policies that normally apply to populations. Although more closely related to epidemiology than clinical medicine, public health should also adopt a more systematic approach to evidence-based practice.

  9. Systematic Review of Errors in Inhaler Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Gich, Ignasi; Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    in these outcomes over these 40 years and when partitioned into years 1 to 20 and years 21 to 40. Analyses were conducted in accordance with recommendations from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. Results Data...... A systematic search for articles reporting direct observation of inhaler technique by trained personnel covered the period from 1975 to 2014. Outcomes were the nature and frequencies of the three most common errors; the percentage of patients demonstrating correct, acceptable, or poor technique; and variations...... were extracted from 144 articles reporting on a total number of 54,354 subjects performing 59,584 observed tests of technique. The most frequent MDI errors were in coordination (45%; 95% CI, 41%-49%), speed and/or depth of inspiration (44%; 40%-47%), and no postinhalation breath-hold (46%; 42...

  10. The difficulties of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-10-01

    The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. We drew on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora-including nonrandom selection of review topics, small-world properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning-greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for narrative reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review and highlights 2 useful directions for future research. First, in cases where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods-such as natural language processing or the construction of research thesauri and ontologies-that provide tools for mapping and resolving that complexity. These tools could help individual researchers classify research material in a more robust manner and provide valuable guidance for future researchers on that topic. Second, a linguistic perspective highlights that scientific writing is a rich resource worthy of detailed study, an observation that can sometimes be lost during the search for data during systematic review or meta-analysis. For example, mapping semantic networks can reveal redundancy and complementarity among scientific concepts, leading to new insights and research questions. Consequently

  11. Epidemiology of Uterine Myomas: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Sparic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myomas are the most common benign tumors of the genital organs in women of childbearing age, causing significant morbidity and impairing their quality of life. In our investigation, we have reviewed the epidemiological data related to the development of myomas in order to homogenize the current data. Therefore, a MEDLINE and PubMed search, for the years 1990-2013, was conducted using a combination of keywords, such as "myoma," "leiomyoma," "fibroids," "myomectomy," "lifestyle," "cigarette," "alcohol," "vitamins," "diet," and "hysterectomy". Randomized controlled studies were selected based upon the authors’ estimation. Peer-reviewed articles examining myomas were sorted by their relevance and included in this research. Additional articles were also identified from the references of the retrieved papers and included according to authors’ estimation. Many epidemiologic factors are linked to the development of myomas; however, many are not yet fully understood. These factors include age, race, heritage, reproductive factors, sex hormones, obesity, lifestyle (diet, caffeine and alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and stress, environmental and other influences, such as hypertension and infection. Some of the epidemiological data is conflicting. Thus, more research is needed to understand all the risk factors that contribute to myoma formation and how they exactly influence their onset and growth.

  12. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  13. Psychological Distress in Refugee Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…

  14. Studies in using a universal exchange and inference language for evidence based medicine. Semi-automated learning and reasoning for PICO methodology, systematic review, and environmental epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry

    2016-12-01

    The Q-UEL language of XML-like tags and the associated software applications are providing a valuable toolkit for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). In this paper the already existing applications, data bases, and tags are brought together with new ones. The particular Q-UEL embodiment used here is the BioIngine. The main challenge is one of bringing together the methods of symbolic reasoning and calculative probabilistic inference that underlie EBM and medical decision making. Some space is taken to review this background. The unification is greatly facilitated by Q-UEL's roots in the notation and algebra of Dirac, and by extending Q-UEL into the Wolfram programming environment. Further, the overall problem of integration is also a relatively simple one because of the nature of Q-UEL as a language for interoperability in healthcare and biomedicine, while the notion of workflow is facilitated because of the EBM best practice known as PICO. What remains difficult is achieving a high degree of overall automation because of a well-known difficulty in capturing human expertise in computers: the Feigenbaum bottleneck. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Papillomaviruses: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last decades, a group of viruses has received great attention due to its relationship with cancer development and its wide distribution throughout the vertebrates: the papillomaviruses. In this article, we aim to review some of the most relevant reports concerning the use of bovines as an experimental model for studies related to papillomaviruses. Moreover, the obtained data contributes to the development of strategies against the clinical consequences of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV that have led to drastic hazards to the herds. To overcome the problem, the vaccines that we have been developing involve recombinant DNA technology, aiming at prophylactic and therapeutic procedures. It is important to point out that these strategies can be used as models for innovative procedures against HPV, as this virus is the main causal agent of cervical cancer, the second most fatal cancer in women.

  16. Papillomaviruses: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Assaf, Suely Muro Reis; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco; de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha; de Souza, Jacqueline Mazzuchelli; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; Módolo, Diego Grando; Roperto, Franco Peppino; Stocco, Rita de Cassia; Beçak, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the last decades, a group of viruses has received great attention due to its relationship with cancer development and its wide distribution throughout the vertebrates: the papillomaviruses. In this article, we aim to review some of the most relevant reports concerning the use of bovines as an experimental model for studies related to papillomaviruses. Moreover, the obtained data contributes to the development of strategies against the clinical consequences of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) that have led to drastic hazards to the herds. To overcome the problem, the vaccines that we have been developing involve recombinant DNA technology, aiming at prophylactic and therapeutic procedures. It is important to point out that these strategies can be used as models for innovative procedures against HPV, as this virus is the main causal agent of cervical cancer, the second most fatal cancer in women. PMID:28212457

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients : pooled analysis and systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Wenjie; Chen, Min; Liu, Jia; Hagen, Ferry; Ms, Abdullah; Al-Hatmi, A M S; Zhang, Peilian; Guo, Yun; Boekhout, Teun; Deng, Danqi; Xu, Jianping; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an important fungal infection among systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We conducted a pooled analysis and systematic review to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of cryptococcal meningitis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. From two hospitals in

  18. The effects of psychological treatments for adult depression on physical activity: A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; de Wit, L.M.; Taylor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity and depression have been consistently shown to be inversely associated in epidemiological surveys. It is not clear, however, whether successful treatment of depression results in increases in physical activity. Method Systematic review of randomized trials examining

  19. A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2002-01-01

    Homeopathy remains one of the most controversial subjects in therapeutics. This article is an attempt to clarify its effectiveness based on recent systematic reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews/meta-analysis on the subject. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six of them related to re-analyses of one landmark meta-analysis. Collectively they implied that the overall positive result of this meta-analysis is not supported by a critical analysis of the data. Eleven independent systematic reviews were located. Collectively they failed to provide strong evidence in favour of homeopathy. In particular, there was no condition which responds convincingly better to homeopathic treatment than to placebo or other control interventions. Similarly, there was no homeopathic remedy that was demonstrated to yield clinical effects that are convincingly different from placebo. It is concluded that the best clinical evidence for homeopathy available to date does not warrant positive recommendations for its use in clinical practice. PMID:12492603

  20. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews...... through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality...... assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. RESULTS: We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological...

  2. Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Oriol; Marks, Michael; Konan, Diby J P; Ayelo, Gilbert; Gonzalez-Beiras, Camila; Boua, Bernard; Houinei, Wendy; Kobara, Yiragnima; Tabah, Earnest N; Nsiire, Agana; Obvala, Damas; Taleo, Fasiah; Djupuri, Rita; Zaixing, Zhang; Utzinger, Jürg; Vestergaard, Lase S; Bassat, Quique; Asiedu, Kingsley

    2015-06-01

    To achieve yaws eradication, the use of the new WHO strategy of initial mass treatment with azithromycin and surveillance twice a year needs to be extended everywhere the disease occurs. However, the geographic scope of the disease is unknown. We aimed to synthesise published and unpublished work to update the reported number of people with yaws at national and subnational levels and to estimate at-risk populations. We searched PubMed and WHO databases to identify published data for prevalence of active and latent yaws from Jan 1, 1990, to Dec 31, 2014. We also searched for ongoing or recently completed unpublished studies from the WHO yaws surveillance network. We estimated yaws prevalence (and 95% CIs). We collected yaws incidence data from official national surveillance programmes at the first administrative level from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2013, and we used total population data at the second administrative level to estimate the size of at-risk populations. We identified 103 records, of which 23 published articles describing 27 studies and four unpublished studies met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of active disease ranged from 0·31% to 14·54% in yaws-endemic areas, and prevalence of latent yaws ranged from 2·45% to 31·05%. During 2010-13, 256 343 yaws cases were reported to WHO from 13 endemic countries, all of which are low-income and middle-income countries. 215 308 (84%) of 256 343 cases reported to WHO were from three countries-Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Ghana. We estimated that, in 2012, over 89 million people were living in yaws-endemic districts. Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Ghana should be the focus of initial efforts at implementing the WHO yaws eradication strategy. Community-based mapping and active surveillance must accompany the implementation of yaws eradication activities. None. This is an Open Access article published under the CC BY 3.0 IGO license which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In any use of this article, there should be no suggestion that WHO endorses any specific organisation, products or services. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article's original URL.

  3. Systematic review: epidemiology of Oesophageal Cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods:A pub med literature search was conducted for articles ranging from 1950 to 2009 database involving the following key words: oesophageal carcinoma, incidence, prevalence and sub-Saharan Africa.Results:Conclusion: Oesophageal cancer is on the increase in the Sub-Saharan African Region with uneven ...

  4. Epidemiology and control of trachoma: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Victor H; Harding-Esch, Emma M; Burton, Matthew J; Bailey, Robin L; Kadimpeul, Julbert; Mabey, David C W

    2010-06-01

    Trachoma is the commonest infectious cause of blindness. Recurrent episodes of infection with serovars A-C of Chlamydia trachomatis cause conjunctival inflammation in children who go on to develop scarring and blindness as adults. It was estimated that in 2002 at least 1.3 million people were blind from trachoma, and currently 40 million people are thought to have active disease and 8.2 million to have trichiasis. The disease is largely found in poor, rural communities in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO promotes trachoma control through a multifaceted approach involving surgery, mass antibiotic distribution, encouraging facial cleanliness and environmental improvements. This has been associated with significant reductions in the prevalence of active disease over the past 20 years, but there remain a large number of people with trichiasis who are at risk of blindness.

  5. [Current review of the epidemiology of leptospirosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, Marco; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Arroyave-Sierra, Esteban; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Puerto, Fernando I

    2016-01-01

    Spirochete bacteria Leptospira spp. is the causative agent of leptospirosis, antropozoonotic endemic disease in many parts of the world, mainly in underdeveloped countries with high levels of poverty. Its incidence and prevalence rates are higher and important in human populations living in tropical and subtropical climates. Leptospira spp., is capable of infecting more than 160 species of domestic and wild mammals, including human beings, causing various and nonspecific clinical manifestations that make the diagnosis of the disease rarely accurate. In Mexico, the first reports of leptospirosis dating from 1920 and is now considered a matter of public and animal health, mainly for the economic losses it generates. The aim of this paper is to present a review in Spanish, containing the most important aspects in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, to serve as a starting point for students and researchers who are interested about this endemic disease in Mexico.

  6. Is consuming yoghurt associated with weight management outcomes? Results from a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eales, J.; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; King, S.; Wood, H.; Kok, F.J.; Shamir, R.; Prentice, A.; Edwards, M.; Glanville, J.; Atkinson, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background:Yoghurt is part of the diet of many people worldwide and is commonly recognised as a 'health food'. Epidemiological studies suggest that yoghurt may be useful as part of weight management programs. In the absence of comprehensive systematic reviews, this systematic review investigated

  7. A Systematic Summary of Systematic Reviews on the Topic of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael J.; Browning, William M.; Urband, Christopher E.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Bisson, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been a substantial increase in the amount of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Purpose: To quantify the number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the ACL in the past decade and to provide an overall summary of this literature. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of all ACL-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 2004 and September 2014 was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database. Narrative reviews and non-English articles were excluded. Results: A total of 1031 articles were found, of which 240 met the inclusion criteria. Included articles were summarized and divided into 17 topics: anatomy, epidemiology, prevention, associated injuries, diagnosis, operative versus nonoperative management, graft choice, surgical technique, fixation methods, computer-assisted surgery, platelet-rich plasma, rehabilitation, return to play, outcomes assessment, arthritis, complications, and miscellaneous. Conclusion: A summary of systematic reviews on the ACL can supply the surgeon with a single source for the most up-to-date synthesis of the literature. PMID:27047983

  8. Science of floorball: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tervo T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to field of study. Methods: Full articles containing original data on floorball that had been published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered for inclusion. Results: Of 75 articles screened, 19 were included in this systematic review. One article each was identified in the fields of sports management and sports psychology, and the remaining 17 articles were in the field of sports medicine. Injury epidemiology in floorball players was the most thoroughly examined topic of research. To date, no research has been performed on the incidence of floorball-related injury, or any aspect of the sport, in children and adolescents. Conclusion: Collaborative research among sports science disciplines is needed to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of licensed floorball players. Despite the increasing popularity of floorball in recent years, surprisingly little research has examined this sport. Keywords: floorball, unihockey, review

  9. Postsurgical Hypoparathyroidism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakava, Kassiani; Tournis, Symeon; Papadakis, Georgios; Karelas, Ioannis; Stampouloglou, Pavlos; Kassi, Evanthia; Triantafillopoulos, Ioannis; Villiotou, Vasiliki; Karatzas, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews epidemiology, risk factors and treatment modalities of postsurgical hypoparathyroidism (PHypo). PHypo occurs after total thyroidectomy due to injury of parathyroid glands and/or their blood supply or after parathyroidectomy. PHypo results in hypocalcemia because parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is impaired and cannot mobilize calcium from bone, reabsorb calcium from the distal nephron and stimulate renal 1α-hydroxylase activity. It usually appears in the first days after surgery and it can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Risk factors are low level of intraoperative PTH and presence of parathyroid gland in the pathological specimen. Patients usually present with paresthesia, cramps or tetany, but the disorder may also manifest acutely with seizures, bronchospasm, laryngospasm or cardiac rhythm disturbances. Standard treatment is vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Science of floorball: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, Taru; Nordström, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to field of study. Methods Full articles containing original data on floorball that had been published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered for inclusion. Results Of 75 articles screened, 19 were included in this systematic review. One article each was identified in the fields of sports management and sports psychology, and the remaining 17 articles were in the field of sports medicine. Injury epidemiology in floorball players was the most thoroughly examined topic of research. To date, no research has been performed on the incidence of floorball-related injury, or any aspect of the sport, in children and adolescents. Conclusion Collaborative research among sports science disciplines is needed to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of licensed floorball players. Despite the increasing popularity of floorball in recent years, surprisingly little research has examined this sport. PMID:25349484

  11. Primary neural leprosy: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Garbino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the “Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine”. The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy; serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria.

  12. Evolução da pesquisa epidemiológica em atividade física no Brasil: revisão sistemática Evolution of the epidemiological research on physical activity in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Curi Hallal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução da pesquisa epidemiológica em atividade física no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Ovid, Science Direct, BioMed Central e High Wire, em periódicos nacionais não indexados, por busca específica por autores e contato com pesquisadores. A seleção dos artigos teve como critérios de inclusão: amostra representativa de alguma população definida; tamanho da amostra de pelo menos 500 indivíduos; coleta de dados realizada no Brasil; mensuração de atividade física e relato dos resultados com base nessa variável. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 42 estudos. O primeiro artigo foi publicado em 1990, observando-se tendência de aumento de publicações a partir de 2000. Foi detectada disparidade regional nas publicações, com concentração de estudos nas regiões Sudeste e Sul. A maioria dos estudos (93% utilizou questionários como instrumentos de pesquisa, cujos conteúdos variaram, assim como as definições operacionais de sedentarismo, dificultando a comparação dos resultados. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a literatura em epidemiologia da atividade física venha crescendo quantitativamente no Brasil, limitações metodológicas dificultam a comparação entre os estudos, tornando a padronização de instrumentos e definições essenciais para o avanço científico da área.OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of the epidemiological research on physical activity in Brazil. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out in electronic databases (Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Ovid, Science Direct, BioMed Central and High Wire, non-indexed Brazilian journals, query by specific authors, and contact with other researchers. The inclusion criteria were: the sample should be representative of a defined population; sample size equal to or greater than 500 individuals; data collection in Brazil; measurement of physical activity

  13. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  14. The measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs: critical review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sara; Lund, Crick; Kakuma, Ritsuko

    2012-09-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between poverty and mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have produced somewhat conflicting results. This has partly been attributed to poorly operationalized and oversimplified poverty measures. This paper has two aims: (1) to review how socio-economic outcomes in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs are measured; (2) based on this review, to provide a set of generic recommendations for measuring poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMIC. This is relevant for mental health researchers, and for practitioners and policy makers who use mental health research findings. This review was part of a broader systematic review examining the association between poverty and mental illness. An analytic framework was developed to examine the definition and measurement of poverty in these studies. The majority of studies provided no definition for the concept of poverty being used, and very few measured poverty through standardized or validated methods. Many poverty indicators were broken down into extremely open-ended and vague categories, with no details on how the parameters were defined or derived, and no documentation of the time period and unit of analysis for which the poverty variable was measured. This review revealed that using poverty as an indicator in mental health research in LMIC is still in its infancy, with much room for improvement. The implications of poor measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology are discussed. The recommendations provided will hopefully help researchers in psychiatric epidemiology use the concept of poverty in a much more critical, systematic and appropriate manner.

  15. Improving the uptake of systematic reviews: a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and relevance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, John

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved.

  16. Pathogenicity, Epidemiology and Virulence Factors of Salmonella species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamègnon Victorien DOUGNON

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are major public health problems worldwide. The hereby review aimed to establish an overview on the pathogenicity, epidemiology and virulence factors of Salmonella spp. in the world. A systematic search was conducted online using the keywords ‘Salmonella’, ‘Salmonella spp.’, ‘Salmonella spp. Epidemiology’, ‘virulence factors of Salmonella spp. in the world’, ‘bacteria responsible for the contamination of meat products’, ‘non-typhoid salmonella’. These keywords were entered into databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using mainly French language. The obtained articles were included based on the reliability of their source, the study area (usually Benin and Africa and the subject. The review revealed that Salmonella spp. is motile Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, of the family Enterobacteriaceae, currently counting more than 2,600 serovars. Human contamination occurs through the ingestion of contaminated water and food and can cause gastroenteritis or typhoid fever, which are two serious public health problems. A gene set constituting the pathogenicity islands determines the pathogenesis of Salmonella spp. The diagnosis is based on bacteriological, serological and molecular techniques. Salmonella infections are usually treated using antibiotics; however, emergence of antibiotic resistance in these microorganisms suggests that the anti-salmonella control should explore new sources such as medicinal plants

  17. How to write a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Quatman, Carmen E; Manring, M M; Siston, Robert A; Flanigan, David C

    2014-11-01

    The role of evidence-based medicine in sports medicine and orthopaedic surgery is rapidly growing. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are also proliferating in the medical literature. To provide the outline necessary for a practitioner to properly understand and/or conduct a systematic review for publication in a sports medicine journal. Review. The steps of a successful systematic review include the following: identification of an unanswered answerable question; explicit definitions of the investigation's participant(s), intervention(s), comparison(s), and outcome(s); utilization of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines and PROSPERO registration; thorough systematic data extraction; and appropriate grading of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. An outline to understand and conduct a systematic review is provided, and the difference between meta-analyses and systematic reviews is described. The steps necessary to perform a systematic review are fully explained, including the study purpose, search methodology, data extraction, reporting of results, identification of bias, and reporting of the study's main findings. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses critically appraise and formally synthesize the best existing evidence to provide a statement of conclusion that answers specific clinical questions. Readers and reviewers, however, must recognize that the quality and strength of recommendations in a review are only as strong as the quality of studies that it analyzes. Thus, great care must be used in the interpretation of bias and extrapolation of the review's findings to translation to clinical practice. Without advanced education on the topic, the reader may follow the steps discussed herein to perform a systematic review. © 2013 The Author(s).

  18. Systematic review of catatonia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelzer ACM

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anne CM Pelzer,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,2 Erik den Boer3 1Department of Psychiatry, Reinier van Arkel, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2Department of Psychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, 3Department of Psychiatry, GGzE, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Objective: To investigate the evidence-based treatment of catatonia in adults. The secondary aim is to develop a treatment protocol. Materials and methods: A systematic review of published treatment articles (case series, cohort or randomized controlled studies which examined the effects of particular interventions for catatonia and/or catatonic symptoms in adult populations and used valid outcome measures was performed. The articles for this review were selected by searching the electronic databases of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO. Results: Thirty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT proved to be the most investigated treatment interventions. The response percentages in Western studies varied between 66% and 100% for studies with lorazepam, while in Asian and Indian studies, they were 0% and 100%. For ECT, the response percentages are 59%–100%. There does not seem to be evidence for the use of antipsychotics in catatonic patients without any underlying psychotic disorder. Conclusion: Lorazepam and ECT are effective treatments for which clinical evidence is found in the literature. It is not possible to develop a treatment protocol because the evidence for catatonia management on the basis of the articles reviewed is limited. Stringent treatment studies on catatonia are warranted. Keywords: review, catatonia, therapeutics, electroconvulsive therapy, benzodiazepines, lorazepam, ECT

  19. "Generalized osteoarthritis": a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Amanda E; Smith, Michael W; Golightly, Yvonne M; Jordan, Joanne M

    2014-06-01

    Given the conflicting definitions of "generalized osteoarthritis" (GOA) in the literature, we performed a systematic review of GOA definitions, risk factors, and outcomes. We searched the MEDLINE literature with the terms osteoarthritis, generalized, polyarticular, multiple joint, and multi-joint to obtain articles related to GOA, following evidence-based guidelines. Titles and abstracts of 948 articles were reviewed, with full-text review of 108. Data were extracted based on pre-specified criteria for 74 articles plus 24 identified through bibliographic review (n = 98). Twenty-four large cohorts (n ~ 30,000) were represented along with numerous clinical series (n ~ 9000), across 22 countries and 60 years (1952-2012). No less than 15 definitions of GOA were given in 30 studies with a stated GOA definition; at least 6 groups used a summed score of joints or radiographic grades. Prevalence estimates based on these GOA definitions were 1-80%, although most were 5-25%. Increased risk and progression of GOA was associated with age, female sex, and genetic/familial factors. Associations with increased body mass index or bone mineral density were not consistent. A study estimated the heritability of GOA at 42%. Collagen biomarker levels increased with the number of involved joints. Increased OA burden was associated with increased mortality and disability, poorer health, and function. While there remains no standard definition of GOA, this term is commonly used. The impact on health may be greater when OA is in more than one joint. A descriptive term, such as multi-joint or polyarticular OA, designating OA of multiple joints or joint groups is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  1. Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Childhood Constipation: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tabbers, Merit M.; Boluyt, Nicole; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence and assess the reported quality of studies concerning nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation, including fiber, fluid, physical movement, prebiotics, probiotics, behavioral therapy, multidisciplinary treatment, and forms of alternative medicine. METHODS: We systematically searched 3 major electronic databases and reference lists of existing reviews. We included systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported on nonph...

  2. Healthcare costs of asthma comorbidities: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkh, Karim El; Nwaru, Bright I; Griffiths, Chris; Patel, Anita; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-05-30

    Asthma is associated with many comorbid conditions that have the potential to impact on its management, control and outcomes. These comorbid conditions have the potential to impact on healthcare expenditure. We plan to undertake a systematic review to synthesise the evidence on the healthcare costs associated with asthma comorbidity. We will systematically search the following electronic databases between January 2000 and January 2017: National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database, Google Scholar, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Global Health, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. We will search the references in the identified studies for additional potential papers. Additional literature will be identified by contacting experts in the field and through searching of registers of ongoing studies. The review will include cost-effectiveness and economic modelling/evaluation studies and analytical observational epidemiology studies that have investigated the healthcare costs of asthma comorbidity. Two reviewers will independently screen studies and extract relevant data from included studies. Methodological quality of epidemiological studies will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool, while that of economic evaluation studies will be assessed using the Drummond checklist. This protocol has been published in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (No. CRD42016051005). As there are no primary data collected, formal NHS ethical review is not necessary. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences. CRD42016051005. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  3. A critical appraisal of the systematic review process: systematic reviews of zirconia single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lisa A; Teich, Sorin T

    2014-06-01

    Systematic reviews analyze the data of published research in an effort to assemble the scientific evidence to help clinicians apply evidence-based information in decision making. The quality of systematic reviews varies greatly. The purpose of this study was to critically appraise the current systematic review process by evaluating systematic reviews that pertain to zirconia-based single crowns. The following PICO (patients, intervention, comparison, outcome) question was formulated: "In adults, how does the long-term prognosis of zirconia-based single crowns compare with conventional single crowns on natural teeth?" An electronic search was performed in PubMed and the Cochran Library for articles published in English between 1950 and October 2012. Additional manual searches were completed. To be included in the analysis, the study must have been a systematic review, published in an English-speaking peer-reviewed journal, and evaluated zirconia crowns on teeth. Two examiners qualitatively evaluated the publications with an Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews checklist and the Oxford Systematic Review Appraisal form. Three systematic reviews were identified that met the search criteria. Two studies met 5 of the 11 Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews criteria, whereas the third met only 1 criterion. The same 2 studies met 3 of the 5 Oxford Systematic Review Appraisal criteria and the third met only 2 criteria. Because of the variation in methodologies, systematic reviews should be interpreted cautiously. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews Checklist and the Oxford Systematic Review Appraisal Sheet are practical tools for appraising and determining the quality of systematic reviews. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiological trends of dengue disease in Mexico (2000-2011: a systematic literature search and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez Dantés

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000-2011. The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively. Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10-20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico.

  5. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Mexico (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000–2011). The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively). Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10–20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico. PMID:25375162

  6. Reviewing the Literature for Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease: Introduction to a Series of Seven National Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary Dengue disease is a tropical and subtropical mosquito-borne viral illness, and is a major public health concern in all endemic countries. Our aim was to determine the impact of dengue disease on the Mexican population over time, and to identify future research priorities and challenges of the surveillance system. To do this, we conducted a systematic literature review to describe the knowledge and gaps in the epidemiology of dengue disease. We used well-defined methods to searc...

  7. Dhat syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udina, Marc; Foulon, Hubert; Valdés, Manuel; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Dhat syndrome is a widely recognized clinical condition often seen on the Indian subcontinent that is characterized by a preoccupation with semen loss in urine and other symptoms such as fatigue or depressed mood. Although it has been considered to be a culture-bound syndrome, it may also be regarded as a distinct manifestation of depression or another medical illness. The purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic review on Dhat syndrome. A review of the literature published up until February 2012 was conducted using the key words [Dhat syndrome] or [semen-loss anxiety] or [semen-loss syndrome]. We included only original studies. The majority of studies reported patients from the Indian subcontinent. There was a high degree of heterogeneity among the studies. Dhat was a common condition in young people from certain cultures and origins. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were common, including fatigue, sleepiness, and sexual dysfunction. Good clinical engagement, social support, and sexual education were useful in some cases. Given the high rate of comorbid depressive symptoms, antidepressant has been used. In an increasingly globalized world, clinicians must be able to properly diagnose and treat patients from other cultures, who may report symptoms that are influenced by their beliefs, culture, or place of origin. Dhat may be a common manifestation of a depressive or anxiety disorder in certain cultures. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of this condition, to clarify its nosologic status, and to offer appropriate treatment to affected individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominoscrotal hydrocele: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudt, Alexander D; Kehoe, John E; Ignacio, Romeo C; Christman, Matthew S

    2016-09-01

    Abdominoscrotal hydrocele (ASH) is an uncommon condition characterized by a fluid-filled mass with inguinoscrotal and abdominal components. Controversy exists regarding the best management. We conducted a systematic review of the literature with special interest in presentation, management and outcomes. A search was conducted of the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science and Scopus databases. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in each study. We found 18 case series that met selection criteria, describing 116 patients with 146 hydroceles. Unilateral ASH was found in 59% of cases with almost even distribution between left and right-sided hydroceles. Ipsilateral undescended testicle, testicular dysmorphism, and contralateral pathology (inguinal hernia) often accompanied ASH. Management was always surgical. The most common approaches were inguinal (67.2%), combined laparoscopic + inguinal (11.2%), and scrotal (10.3%). Complications were poorly reported, but were generally minor. There were a decreased number of complications with the scrotal approach because of avoidance of a difficult inguinal dissection. ASH is a rare entity treated most commonly via an inguinal approach. However, consideration should be given to combining with an extraperitoneal or laparoscopic approach given coexisting pathology, or to the scrotal approach for reducing morbidity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. World EpidemiologyReview No. 83

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-09

    UNIDENTIFIED CATTLE DISEASE Rio de Janeiro JORNAL DO BRASIL in Portuguese 14 Apr 77 p 18 [Text] Salvador—Two veterinarians and three technicians of the...88 - b - HUMAN DISEASES ANGOLA CASES OF CHOLERA FOUND Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in Portuguese 26 Apr 77 p 2 [Excerpts] The Epidemiology...the duty of the people to cooperate, pledged to their defense, by eliminating the sources of cholera in this case. Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in

  10. The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and an important cause of functional impairment; they constitute the most frequent menial disorders in the community. Phobias are the most common with the highest rates for simple phobia and agoraphobia. Panic disorder (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are less frequent (2% lifetime prevalence), and there are discordant results for social phobia (SP) (2%-16%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (3%-30%). Th...

  11. Isolated hypoganglionosis: systematic review of a rare intestinal innervation defect.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dingemann, Jens

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Isolated hypoganglionosis (IH) is rare and resembles Hirschsprung\\'s disease. The diagnosis by suction biopsy is difficult. A full-thickness biopsy is essential. Histological features of IH include sparse, small myenteric ganglia, low acetylcholinesterase activity in the lamina propria, and hypertrophy of muscularis mucosae and circular muscle. This review investigates the epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and outcome of patients with IH. METHODS: A systematic review, using the keywords "isolated hypoganglionosis" and "intestinal hypoganglionosis" was performed. Publications were reviewed for epidemiology, histological methods, operative procedures, follow-up, and patient\\'s outcome. RESULTS: Eleven publications from 1978 to 2009 reported 92 patients with IH (69 males and 23 females, age 4.85 years), presenting with constipation or enterocolitis. Diagnosis of IH was made by full-thickness biopsy and AChE staining in 91% of patients with additional staining in 82%; 54 patients had bowel resection and pull-through procedures; 11 patients had ileostomy or colostomy, and 2 had sphincter myectomy. Complications reported were enterocolitis, constipation, and residual disease. Seven patients (8%) died due to enterocolitis or short-bowel complications. CONCLUSION: This review confirms that diagnosis of IH is only possible by histochemical examination of a full-thickness biopsy. Despite advanced age at diagnosis of IH, epidemiological and clinical data are similar to aganglionosis.

  12. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S.D.; Zhang, M.G.; Der, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  13. The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and an important cause of functional impairment; they constitute the most frequent menial disorders in the community. Phobias are the most common with the highest rates for simple phobia and agoraphobia. Panic disorder (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are less frequent (2% lifetime prevalence), and there are discordant results for social phobia (SP) (2%-16%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (3%-30%). These studies underline the importance of an accurate definition of disorders using unambiguous diagnostic and assessment criteria. The boundaries between anxiety disorders are often ill defined and cases may vary widely according to the definition applied. Simple phobia, agoraphobia, and GAD are more common in vmrnen, while there is no gender différence for SP, PD, and OCD, Anxiety disorders are more common in separated, divorced, and widowed subjects; their prevalence is highest in subjects aged 25 to 44 years and lowest in subjects aged >65 years. The age of onset of the different types of anxiety disorders varies widely: phobic disorders begin early in life, whereas PD occurs in young adulthood. Clinical - rather than epidemiological - studies have examined risk factors such as life events, childhood experiences, and familial factors. Anxiety disorders have a chronic and persistent course, and are frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and substance abuse. Anxiety disorders most frequently precede depressive disorders or substance abuse, Comorbid diagnoses may influence risk factors like functional impairment and quality of life. It remains unclear whether certain anxiety disorders (eg, PD) are risk factors for suicide. The comorbidity of anxiety disorders has important implications for assessment and treatment and the risk factors should be explored. The etiology, natural history, and outcome of these disorders need to be further addressed

  14. Software ecosystems – a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    . However, there exists no systematic overview of the research done on software ecosystems from a software engineering perspective. We performed a systematic literature review of software ecosystem research, analyzing 90 papers on the subject taken from a gross collection of 420. Our main conclusions...

  15. Systematic reviews in pain research: methodology refined

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...

  16. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine

    2008-01-01

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies......-operating characteristic or the bivariate model for the data analysis. Challenges that remain are the poor reporting of original diagnostic test accuracy studies and difficulties with the interpretation of the results of diagnostic test accuracy research....

  17. Nonsuicidal Self-injury: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Cipriano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI refers to the intentional self-inflicted destruction of body tissue without suicidal intention and for purposes not socially sanctioned. Our paper presents an up-to-date overview on nonsuicidal, self-injurious behaviors.Method: In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted across two databases, PubMed and PsycARTICLES, regarding the main features of NSSI with a focus on epidemiological and etiologic data, diagnostic criteria, and functions. All English articles, published between 1998 and 2016, were considered, and screened against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. The search terms include: self-harm, self-injury, NSSI, epidemiology, comorbidity, gender, functions and DSM. We also examined the references of the retrieved articles.Results: NSSI is most common among adolescents and young adults, and the age of onset is reported to occur between 12 and 14 years. Comorbidity with borderline personality disorder (BPD and eating disorders is often reported. DSM-5 includes NSSI as a condition requiring further study. This review gives an overview of the prevalence rates (7.5–46.5% adolescents, 38.9% university students, 4–23% adults and main causes that appear to stem from childhood trauma, comorbidity with many other disorders and several functions of NSSI, and the potential independence of a NSSI disorder.Conclusion: Over the years, interest in NSSI grew to such an extent that an ongoing debate was instigated on whether NSSI should be considered as a diagnosis in its own right and given its own category. This paper provides an up-to-date overview on self-injury, what is known about it and what remains to be done. Clearly, our understanding of the main issues of NSSI has increased in last two decades. However, future researches is needed to examine the developmental trajectories, cultural backgrounds and shed light on the risk factors and functions as well as

  18. Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J.; De Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes. PMID:20078374

  19. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; de Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes.

  20. A Systematic Method for Search Term Selection in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…

  1. "Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews in radiation oncology: A systematic review".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Haroon; Muhammed, Taaha; Yu, Jennifer; Taguchi, Kelsi; Samargandi, Osama A; Howard, A Fuchsia; Lo, Andrea C; Olson, Robert; Goddard, Karen

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology. A systematic literature search was conducted for all eligible systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology from 1966 to 2015. Methodological characteristics were abstracted from all works that satisfied the inclusion criteria and quality was assessed using the critical appraisal tool, AMSTAR. Regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with a higher score of quality. Following exclusion based on a priori criteria, 410 studies (157 systematic reviews and 253 meta-analyses) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were found to be of fair to good quality while systematic reviews were found to be of less than fair quality. Factors associated with higher scores of quality in the multivariable analysis were including primary studies consisting of randomized control trials, performing a meta-analysis, and applying a recommended guideline related to establishing a systematic review protocol and/or reporting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may introduce a high risk of bias if applied to inform decision-making based on AMSTAR. We recommend that decision-makers in Radiation Oncology scrutinize the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses prior to assessing their utility to inform evidence-based medicine and researchers adhere to methodological standards outlined in validated guidelines when embarking on a systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knee Injuries in American Football: An Epidemiological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Paul; Grau, Luis; Kaplan, Lee; Baraga, Michael G

    Football has the highest injury rate amongst popular American sports. Of those injuries that end seasons or careers, the knee is the most common culprit. This is of particular concern because knee injuries are most common in football. This article reviews 4 of the most common knee injuries in American football, with emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The injuries reviewed are tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, medial patellofemoral ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament.

  3. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  4. Building Research Capacity for Systematic Reviews | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Systematic reviews are used to appraise relevant research and synthesize existing evidence. The health sciences field uses them widely to inform studies and evaluate research findings' relevance to public health policy. These reviews follow a rigorous methodology, developed by the international research network, the ...

  5. Contribution of systematic reviews to management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley

  6. Review Article The epidemiology of noncommunicable respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for CRD are genetic and environmental; the latter dominated by air pollution exposures including tobacco smoke, household air pollution, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures. Review Article ...... new emerging factors , and asthma and related allergic disorders . A statement of the World Allergy ...

  7. [Risk factors for falls in the elderly: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Zenewton André da Silva; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia

    2008-10-01

    To systematize results of prospective cohort studies on multiple risk factors for falls in the elderly and to assess their methodological quality. Systematic review of epidemiological studies from Medline, SciELO and Lilacs database. We included prospective cohort studies with samples of more than 100 subjects of both sexes, older than 64 years, and living either in the community or a nursing home. Of 726 studied identified, 15 met the inclusion criteria of being published between 1988 and 2005. The methodology of the studies varied. The main factors associated with increased risk of falls include: previous falls, altered gait, functional impairment, cognitive impairment, psychotropic medication use and excessive physical activity. Despite contradictory findings, being a woman at an advanced age may also be a predictor of falls. Methodological limitations were identified in prospective cohort studies on falls. There is a need for further studies on extrinsic determinants, including evaluator blinding and closer monitoring during follow-up with reduced time of recall.

  8. Usefulness of systematic review search strategies in finding child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; Tjosvold, Lisa; Lefebvre, Carol; Klassen, Terry P.; Offringa, Martin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and precision of existing search strategies for retrieving child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE using PubMed. DESIGN: Filter (diagnostic) accuracy study. We identified existing search strategies for systematic reviews, combined them with a filter that

  9. Homelessness among female veterans: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Thomas; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic, critical review of the literature to assess and summarize existing research on homelessness among female veterans. They searched seven electronic databases (ERIC, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, PsycINFO, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, and Sociological Abstracts), websites of several government and research organizations, and reference lists of prior studies. They abstracted data on study design, funding source, and topic from studies meeting inclusion criteria and classified each study into one of the following categories: epidemiology, health and other services utilization, and interventions. The authors included both experimental and observational studies of interventions in the review and performed a narrative synthesis for each of the 26 studies identified. No studies were experimental, 20 were observational, and the remainder were either qualitative or descriptive. Of the 26 identified studies, 14 were epidemiologic, 7 focused on the health and additional service utilization, and 5 were intervention studies. Findings provided important baseline epidemiologic information about homelessness among female veterans and indicated that female veterans were at an increased risk of homelessness relative to their male veteran and female non-veteran counterparts. Additional research is needed to develop and implement effective, evidence-based programs to prevent and end homelessness among women veterans.

  10. A systematic review of peer review for scientific manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bradley P; Chung, Kevin C

    2012-03-01

    The usefulness of peer review has been expressed as a method to improve the quality of published work. However, there has been a lack of systematic reviews to date to highlight the essential themes of the peer-review process. We performed a search of the English language literature published prior to October 2011 using PubMed to identify articles regarding peer review. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data were extracted and then analyzed for the prevalence of peer-review themes contained within the literature. Of the 941 articles found during our original literature search, 37 were selected for review. The majority were commentary/editorial articles. The themes in our search included the structure and process of the peer-review system, the criteria for papers, ethics, and the different forms of the peer-review process. The criteria for submission will vary, but our systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of what reviewers expect from authors. Our systematic review also highlighted ethical considerations for both authors and reviewers during the peer-review process. Although the topic of peer review is expansive and its process may vary from journal to journal, the understanding of the themes outlined in this paper will help authors recognize how to write a more successful paper. Also, more research must be carried out to establish the efficacy of the different styles of peer review, and it would be presumptuous to draw conclusions until further research is established.

  11. The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Ng, Sueko Matsumura; Chuck, Roy S; Li, Tianjing

    2017-09-05

    Systematic reviews should inform American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Pattern® (PPP) guidelines. The quality of systematic reviews related to the forthcoming Preferred Practice Pattern® guideline (PPP) Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery is unknown. We sought to identify reliable systematic reviews to assist the AAO Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery PPP. Systematic reviews were eligible if they evaluated the effectiveness or safety of interventions included in the 2012 PPP Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery. To identify potentially eligible systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision United States Satellite database of systematic reviews. Two authors identified eligible reviews and abstracted information about the characteristics and quality of the reviews independently using the Systematic Review Data Repository. We classified systematic reviews as "reliable" when they (1) defined criteria for the selection of studies, (2) conducted comprehensive literature searches for eligible studies, (3) assessed the methodological quality (risk of bias) of the included studies, (4) used appropriate methods for meta-analyses (which we assessed only when meta-analyses were reported), (5) presented conclusions that were supported by the evidence provided in the review. We identified 124 systematic reviews related to refractive error; 39 met our eligibility criteria, of which we classified 11 to be reliable. Systematic reviews classified as unreliable did not define the criteria for selecting studies (5; 13%), did not assess methodological rigor (10; 26%), did not conduct comprehensive searches (17; 44%), or used inappropriate quantitative methods (3; 8%). The 11 reliable reviews were published between 2002 and 2016. They included 0 to 23 studies (median = 9) and analyzed 0 to 4696 participants (median = 666). Seven reliable reviews (64%) assessed surgical interventions. Most systematic reviews of interventions for

  12. Prevention of pressure ulcers : Systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kavonen, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Treating a pressure ulcer takes lots of nursing personnel's time and is costly both in terms of human suffering and use of resources. The purpose of this study was to collect and assamble research data about the prevention of pressure ulcers. The study was done as a systematic literature review. With the results, the knowledge and know-how of pressure ulcers' prevention can be increased and updated. The results can be utilised by everyone working with pressure ulcers. The systematic ...

  13. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70. Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45 and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25. Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of

  14. A systematic review of the factors predicting the interest in cosmetic plastic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Milothridis, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2016-01-01

    Background: A systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify the psychosocial characteristics of patients who have an interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Methods: Medical literature was reviewed by two independent researchers, and a third reviewer evaluated their results. Results: Twelve studies addressing the predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery were finally identified and analysed. Interest in cosmetic surgery was associated with epidemiological factors, their social n...

  15. Exposure to uranium and cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Baysson, H.; Telle-Lamberton, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: At the end of 2000, certain diseases including leukemia were reported among soldiers who participated in the Balkan and in the Gulf wars. Depleted uranium used during these conflicts was considered as a possible cause. Its radiotoxicity is close to that of natural uranium. This paper reviews the epidemiological knowledge of uranium, the means of exposure and the associated risk of cancer. Methods: The only available epidemiological data concerns nuclear workers exposed to uranium. A review of the international literature is proposed by distinguishing between uranium miners and other workers of the nuclear industry. French studies are described in details. Results: In ionizing radiation epidemiology, contamination by uranium is often cited as a risk factor, but the dose-effect relationship is rarely studied. Retrospective assessment of individual exposure is generally insufficient. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish between uranium radiotoxicity, its chemical toxicity and the radiotoxicity of its progeny. A causal relation between lung cancer and radon exposure, a gas derived from the decay of uranium, has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies of miners. Among other nuclear workers exposed to uranium, there is a mortality deficit from all causes (healthy worker effect). No cancer site appears systematically in excess compared to the national population; very few studies describe a dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Only studies with a precise reconstruction of doses and sufficient numbers of workers will allow a better assessment of risks associated with uranium exposure at levels encountered in industry or during conflicts using depleted uranium weapons. (author)

  16. Is Neonatal Jaundice Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sanjiv B.; Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2011-01-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case-control…

  17. Prevalence and complications of diabetes mellitus in Northern Africa, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Manouk; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is increasingly becoming a major chronic disease burden all over the world. This requires a shift in healthcare priorities and up-to-date data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in all regions of the world to help plan and prioritize health programs. We systematically reviewed the

  18. Rationale for promoting physical activity among cancer survivors: literature review and epidemiologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Lee, Hyo

    2014-03-01

    To review the extant literature on the link between physical activity and health outcomes among cancer survivors; identify evidence-based strategies to promote physical activity among this population; and conduct an epidemiologic study based on gaps from the literature review, examining the association between physical activity and various biologic markers. The authors used PubMed and Google Scholar up to July 2013, as well as data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the empirical study. Studies were examined through a systematic review process. In the epidemiologic study, 227 adult cancer survivors wore an accelerometer for four days or longer, with biologic markers (e.g., cholesterol) assessed from a blood sample. The review study demonstrated that cancer survivors are relatively inactive, but physical activity may help to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and cancer-related mortality, increase cancer treatment rates, reduce pain and other side effects associated with cancer treatment, and improve physical and mental health. The epidemiologic study showed that physical activity was associated with several understudied biomarkers (e.g., neutrophils, white blood cells) that are linked with cancer recurrence, cancer-related mortality, and other chronic diseases. Nurses are encouraged to promote physical activity in cancer survivors.

  19. Roles for librarians in systematic reviews: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Angela J; Eldredge, Jonathan D

    2018-01-01

    What roles do librarians and information professionals play in conducting systematic reviews? Librarians are increasingly called upon to be involved in systematic reviews, but no study has considered all the roles librarians can perform. This inventory of existing and emerging roles aids in defining librarians' systematic reviews services. For this scoping review, the authors conducted controlled vocabulary and text-word searches in the PubMed; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; and CINAHL databases. We separately searched for articles published in the Journal of the European Association for Health Information and Libraries, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, the Journal of the Canadian Heath Libraries Association, and Hypothesis. We also text-word searched Medical Library Association annual meeting poster and paper abstracts. We identified 18 different roles filled by librarians and other information professionals in conducting systematic reviews from 310 different articles, book chapters, and presented papers and posters. Some roles were well known such as searching, source selection, and teaching. Other less documented roles included planning, question formulation, and peer review. We summarize these different roles and provide an accompanying bibliography of references for in-depth descriptions of these roles. Librarians play central roles in systematic review teams, including roles that go beyond searching. This scoping review should encourage librarians who are fulfilling roles that are not captured here to document their roles in journal articles and poster and paper presentations.

  20. Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Valerie

    2011-02-03

    Abstract Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need. Methods The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review\\'s conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions. Results Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research. Conclusion Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making.

  1. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Papalia, R.; Tecame, A.; Torre, G.; Narbona, P.; Maffulli, N.; Denaro, V.

    2014-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and ...

  2. Meningococcal disease, a clinical and epidemiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rodrigo Siqueira; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Dutra Gazineo, Jorge Luiz; Balbino Miguel, Paulo Sérgio; Santana, Luiz Alberto; Oliveira, Lisa; Geller, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    Meningococcal disease is the acute infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which has humans as the only natural host. The disease is widespread around the globe and is known for its epidemical potential and high rates of lethality and morbidity. The highest number of cases of the disease is registered in the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. In Brazil, it is endemic with occasional outbreaks, epidemics and sporadic cases occurring throughout the year, especially in the winter. The major epidemics of the disease occurred in Brazil in the 70's caused by serogroups A and C. Serogroups B, C and Y represent the majority of cases in Europe, the Americas and Australia. However, there has been a growing increase in serogroup W in some areas. The pathogen transmission happens for respiratory route (droplets) and clinically can lead to meningitis and sepsis (meningococcemia). The treatment is made with antimicrobial and supportive care. For successful prevention, we have some measures like vaccination, chemoprophylaxis and droplets' precautions. In this review, we have described and clarify clinical features of the disease caused by N. meningitidis regarding its relevance for healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Defining the Term "Overuse": An Evidence-Based Review of Sport Epidemiology Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Elizabeth R; Winkelmann, Zachary K; Edler, Jessica R

    2018-02-06

    Reference:  Roos KG, Marshall SW. Definition and usage of the term "overuse injury" in the US high school and collegiate sport epidemiology literature: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2014;44(3):405-421.   What is the current context of the term overuse in the epidemiologic sports injury literature?   The authors performed a database search of PubMed and SPORTDiscus. The Boolean phrases athletics AND injury and overuse OR epidemiology were searched.   Studies were included in the review based on the following criteria: (1) epidemiologic in nature, (2) involved US high school or collegiate athletes, and (3) published in English between 1996 and 2012. In addition, a study was classified as epidemiologic in nature if appropriate exposure data were collected in order to calculate injury incidence rates. One reviewer initially read the titles or abstracts of the studies to determine their relevance for the systematic review. Studies were excluded if they (1) were biomechanical or anatomical in nature, (2) were clinical in nature, or (3) assessed the effectiveness of an intervention.   The reviewer extracted statistics and definitions of the word and phrase overuse and no contact. The reviewer adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines as much as possible.   A total of 5182 titles of articles were initially identified in the databases searched. Then 232 studies were read to determine if they included overuse statistics. A total of 35 articles were included in the final review. Two main surveillance programs were used in these studies, with the authors of 12 articles (n = 12/35, 34.3%) using data from the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) and the authors of 13 articles (n = 13/35, 37.1%) using data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (ISS). One group (n = 1/35, 2.9%) used both surveillance systems, whereas 9 groups (n = 9/35, 25.7%) used other

  4. Pressão arterial e discriminação interpessoal: revisão sistemática de estudos epidemiológicos Blood pressure and interpersonal discrimination: systematic review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Francisco Couto

    2012-10-01

    investigated, and there are conflicting debates in literature devoted to the topic. The objective of this study was to update previous literature reviews on discrimination and blood pressure. A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed between January/2000 and December/2010, including epidemiological studies, assessing the relationship between interpersonal discrimination and blood pressure/hypertension. The 22 studies included originated from the United States; 96% of them used the cross-sectional design with convenience sample, comprising, in 59% of the studies, exclusively Black participants. The Everyday Discrimination Scale and the Perceived Racism Scale were the most frequently used instruments, emphasizing lifetime or chronic/everyday racial/ethnic discrimination. In the 22 studies assessed, the association between discrimination and blood pressure/hypertension was assessed 50 times. Twenty results (40% showed no association between them, and only 15 (30% revealed global positive associations, of which 67% were statistically significant. Eight negative associations were also observed, suggesting that higher exposure to discrimination would be associated with lower blood pressure/hypertension. The studies did not consistently support the hypothesis that discrimination is associated with higher blood pressure. These findings can be partially attributed to the limitations of the studies, especially those related to the measurement of discrimination and of factors that might modify its association with outcomes. To establish discrimination as an epidemiological risk factor, more rigorous methodological strategies should be used, and the theoretical frameworks that postulate causal relationships between discrimination and blood pressure should be reviewed.

  5. Systemic mastocytosis - A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.L.; Hasselbalch, H.C.; Kristensen, T.K.

    2012-01-01

    of the cell has been described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice. METHODS: A search was made in PubMed in August 2011 entering the keywords: mastocytosis, (systemic...

  6. Osteopathy for primary headache patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerritelli F

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Cerritelli,1–3 Eleonora Lacorte,4 Nuria Ruffini,1 Nicola Vanacore4 1Clinical-based Human Research Department, Centre for Osteopathic Medicine Collaboration, 2Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, 3ITAB – Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, G. D’Annunzio University of Chieti, Pescara, 4National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Objective: This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT in patients with headache. Background: Migraine is one of the most common and disabling medical conditions. It affects more than 15% of the general population, causing high global socioeconomic costs, and the currently available treatment options are inadequate.Methods: We systematically reviewed all available studies investigating the use of OMT in patients with migraine and other forms of headache.Results: The search of literature produced six studies, five of which were eligible for review. The reviewed papers collectively support the notion that patients with migraine can benefit from OMT. OMT could most likely reduce the number of episodes per month as well as drug use. None of the included studies, however, was classified as low risk of bias according to the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias.Conclusion: The results from this systematic review show a preliminary low level of evidence that OMT is effective in the management of headache. However, studies with more rigorous designs and methodology are needed to strengthen this evidence. Moreover, this review suggests that new manual interventions for the treatment of acute migraine are available and developing. Keywords: osteopathic manipulative treatment, tension type headache, pain, migraine, disability 

  7. Kawasaki disease and immunisation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Linny Kimly; Bonetto, Caterina; Buttery, Jim; Pernus, Yolanda Brauchli; Chandler, Rebecca; Felicetti, Patrizia; Goldenthal, Karen L; Kucuku, Merita; Monaco, Giuseppe; Pahud, Barbara; Shulman, Stanford T; Top, Karina A; Trotta, Francesco; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Varricchio, Frederick; de Ferranti, Sarah; Newburger, Jane W; Dahdah, Nagib; Singh, Surjit; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Burgner, David

    2017-03-27

    Kawasaki disease is a complex and potentially serious condition. It has been observed in temporal relation to immunisation. We conducted a systematic literature review using various reference sources to review the available evidence published in the literature. We identified twenty seven publications reporting a temporal association between immunisation and Kawasaki disease. We present a systematic review of data drawn from randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case series and reports, and reviews. Overall there was a lack of standardised case definitions, making data interpretation and comparability challenging. Although a temporal relationship between immunisation and Kawasaki disease is suggested, evidence for an increased risk or a causal association is lacking. Implementation of a standardised Kawasaki disease case definition would increase confidence in the findings and add value to future studies of pre- or post-licensure vaccine safety studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mònica Bulló; Patricia López-Uriarte; Patricia Casas-Agustench; Nancy Babio; Jordi Salas-Salvadó

    2009-01-01

    Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review In recent years, nuts have received special attention because of their potential role in preventing cardiovascular disease. Because nuts are very rich in total fat that can potentially be oxidized and their skins contain several antioxidants, studies have been conducted to evaluate the potential effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress. This review evaluates the in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in animals or humans to analyze the effect of...

  9. Tranexamic acid in epistaxis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhieh, Y; Fox, H

    2016-12-01

    The role of tranexamic acid in the management of epistaxis remains unclear. There is uncertainty about its safety and about the contraindications for its use. We performed a systematic review of the use of systemic and topical tranexamic acid in epistaxis and a comparative review of its use in other specialties. This review assesses and summarises the existing evidence for the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in the management of epistaxis. Systematic review. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for 'epistaxis' and equivalent MESH terms, combined with the Boolean operator 'OR' and 'tranexamic acid'. The Cochrane library and society guidelines were reviewed for evidence regarding the use of tranexamic acid in other specialties. All five relevant RCTs were included in the review and were evaluated according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. Three RCTS pertained to spontaneous epistaxis; of these, one trial found no benefit of oral tranexamic acid in acute epistaxis, one trial found no significant benefit of topical tranexamic acid, but the largest of the trials showed significant benefit of topical tranexamic acid in acute epistaxis management. Two RCTs examined oral tranexamic acid for prophylaxis of recurrent epistaxes in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia; both showed significant reduction in severity and frequency. Tranexamic acid, as a WHO 'essential medicine', is a powerful, readily available tool, the use of which in epistaxis has been limited by uncertainty over its efficacy and its safety profile. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence and extrapolates from the wealth of data for other specialties to address the clinical question - does TXA have a role in epistaxis management? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Customer Journeys: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Kvale, Knut

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – Customer journeys has become an increasingly important topic in service management and design. The study reviews customer journey terminology and approaches within the research literature prior to 2013, mainly from the fields of design, management, and marketing. Design/methodology/approach - The study was conducted as a systematic literature review. Searches in Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, ACM Digital Library, and ScienceDirect identified 45 papers for analysis. The pa...

  11. Can Communicating Personalised Disease Risk Promote Healthy Behaviour Change? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Cameron, Elaine; Benton, Jack S; Deaton, Christi; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening and treatment methods: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Farbod Ebadifard; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Mazdaki, Alireza; Rezapour, Aziz; Ebrahimi, Parvin; Yousefzadeh, Negar

    2017-06-19

    Due to extensive literature in the field of lung cancer and their heterogeneous results, the aim of this study was to systematically review of systematic reviews studies which reviewed the cost-effectiveness of various lung cancer screening and treatment methods. In this systematic review of systematic reviews study, required data were collected searching the following key words which selected from Mesh: "lung cancer", "lung oncology", "lung Carcinoma", "lung neoplasm", "lung tumors", "cost- effectiveness", "systematic review" and "Meta-analysis". The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Two reviewers (RA and A-AS) evaluated the articles according to the checklist of "assessment of multiple systematic reviews" (AMSTAR) tool. Overall, information of 110 papers was discussed in eight systematic reviews. Authors focused on cost-effectiveness of lung cancer treatments in five systematic reviews. Targeted therapy options (bevacizumab, Erlotinib and Crizotinib) show an acceptable cost-effectiveness. Results of three studies failed to show cost-effectiveness of screening methods. None of the studies had used the meta-analysis method. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) tool and Drummond checklist were mostly used in assessing the quality of articles. Most perspective was related to the Payer (64 times) and the lowest was related to Social (11times). Most cases referred to Incremental analysis (82%) and also the lowest point of referral was related to Discounting (in 49% of the cases). The average quality score of included studies was calculated 9.2% from 11. Targeted therapy can be an option for the treatment of lung cancer. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of computerized tomographic colonography (CTC) in lung cancer screening is recommended. The perspective of the community should be more taken into consideration in studies of cost-effectiveness. Paying more attention to the topic of

  13. Short implants: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, I.; Desai, Shrikar R.; Singh, Rika

    2012-01-01

    Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ≤10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ≤7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ≤7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was conducted to identify studies concerning short dental implants of length ≤7 mm published between 1991 and 2011. The articles included in this study report data on implant length ≤7 mm, such as demographic variables, implant type, location in jaws, observation time, prostheses and complications. Results: The 28 included studies represent one randomized controlled trial, 12 prospective studies and 10 retrospective studies. The survival rate of short implant was found to be increased from 80% to 90% gradually, with recent articles showing 100%. Conclusion: When severe atrophy of jaws was encountered, short and wide implants can be placed successfully. PMID:23162320

  14. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, G; Narula, N; Pinotti, R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease extent in ulcerative colitis is one of the major factors determining prognosis over the long-term. Disease extent is dynamic and a proportion of patients presenting with limited disease progress to more extensive forms of disease over time. AIM: To perform a systematic review ...

  15. Systematic review of torrefied wood economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert I. Radics; Ronalds Gonzalez; Edward M. (Ted) Bilek; Stephen S. Kelley

    2017-01-01

    This literature review aims to provide a systematic analysis of studies on the financial aspects of producing torrefied biomass and torrefied pellets. There are substantial differences in the specific technologies, operating conditions, scale of the demonstration, and properties of biomass feedstock. There is a lack of reports that consider the entire supply chain,...

  16. Surgically facilitated orthodontic treatment : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Eelke J.; Jansma, Johan; Ren, Yijin

    INTRODUCTION: Corticotomy and dental distraction have been proposed as effective and safe methods to shorten orthodontic treatment duration in adolescent and adult patients. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence supporting these claims. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane

  17. Systematic review and a meta-analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We systematically reviewed the available literature and meta-analyzed the data which was specialized in Down syndrome (DS) diagnosis with proteomic techniques. Pubmed, EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect searches for relevant articles published from inception until July 2010 were obtained and ten articles were selected.

  18. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...

  19. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  20. Management of anaphylaxis : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Lack, G.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Santos, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Sheikh, A.

    To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted

  1. A Review of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony I. Cognato

    2011-01-01

    The systematic history of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is reviewed. Morphological, biological, karyological, and molecular data clearly define and diagnose the species limits of D. frontalis. More complete phylogenetic analysis and characterization of population genetic variation will further clarify the evolutionary history of the D....

  2. Conservative treatment of sciatica : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, PCAJ; de Krom, MCTFM; Slofstra, PD; Knottnerus, JA

    2000-01-01

    Most patients with sciatica (often caused by disc herniations) are managed conservatively at first. The natural course seems to be favorable. The additional value of many conservative therapies remains controversial. Because a systematic review of the conservative treatment of sciatica is lacking,

  3. Pancreatectomy for metastatic disease: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adler, H

    2014-04-01

    Tumours rarely metastasise to the pancreas. While surgical resection of such metastases is believed to confer a survival benefit, there is limited data to support such management. We present a systematic review of case series of pancreatic metastasectomy and analysis of survival outcomes.

  4. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review of...

  5. Acupuncture for Low Back Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot; McDonough, Suzanne; Mabire, Leon; Baxter, George David

    2015-01-01

    Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were ge...

  6. Systematic imaging review: Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Katdare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterised by immune-mediated demyelination, and is a leading cause of neurological disability worldwide. It has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations which overlap with other neurological conditions many times. Further, the radiological array of findings in MS can also be confused for multiple other conditions, leading to the need to look for the more typical findings, and interpret these in close conjunction with the clinical picture including temporal evolution. This review aims to revisit the MRI findings in MS, including recent innovations in imaging, and to help distinguish MS from its mimics.

  7. Composite inlays: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, E; Roudsari, R V; Satterthwaite, J D

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the available literature related to composite inlays. Electronic databases published up to November 2013 were searched. Studies that evaluate composite resin inlays for the restoration of posterior teeth were selected. The studies should compare composite inlays against gold inlays, ceramic inlays and direct composite fillings regarding longevity, aesthetic quality and postoperative sensitivity or comparing the clinical effectiveness of them on premolars versus molars or on 1-2 surface preparations versus multi-surface preparations. Despite the heterogeneity of the available clinical trials composite inlays seem to be an effective method for the restoration of posterior teeth.

  8. Abortion Stigma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette

    2016-12-01

    Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma * ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. A systematic review of systematic reviews on interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Margarita; While, Alison; Neenan, Kathleen; Smith, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. Informal caregivers provide millions of care hours each week contributing to significant healthcare savings. Despite much research evaluating a range of interventions for caregivers, their impact remains unclear. A systematic review of systematic reviews of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, PsycINFO, Social Science Index (January 1990-May 2014) and The Cochrane Library (Issue 6, June 2014), were searched using Medical Subject Heading and index term combinations of the keywords caregiver, systematic review, intervention and named chronic conditions. Papers were included if they reported a systematic review of interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions. The methodological quality of the included reviews was independently assessed by two reviewers using R-AMSTAR. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data extraction form. Narrative synthesis of review findings was used to present the results. Eight systematic reviews were included. There was evidence that education and support programme interventions improved caregiver quality of life. Information-giving interventions improved caregiver knowledge for stroke caregivers. Education, support and information-giving interventions warrant further investigation across caregiver groups. A large-scale funded programme for caregiver research is required to ensure that studies are of high quality to inform service development across settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  11. Sigmoid diverticulitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Arden M; Regenbogen, Scott E; Hardiman, Karin M; Hendren, Samantha

    2014-01-15

    Diverticulitis is a common disease. Recent changes in understanding its natural history have substantially modified treatment paradigms. To review the etiology and natural history of diverticulitis and recent changes in treatment guidelines. We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for English-language articles pertaining to diagnosis and management of diverticulitis published between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2013. Search terms applied to 4 thematic topics: pathophysiology, natural history, medical management, and indications for surgery. We excluded small case series and articles based on data accrued prior to 2000. We hand searched the bibliographies of included studies, yielding a total of 186 articles for full review. We graded the level of evidence and classified recommendations by size of treatment effect, according to the guidelines from the American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Eighty articles met criteria for analysis. The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is associated with altered gut motility, increased luminal pressure, and a disordered colonic microenvironment. Several studies examined histologic commonalities with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome but were focused on associative rather than causal pathways. The natural history of uncomplicated diverticulitis is often benign. For example, in a cohort study of 2366 of 3165 patients hospitalized for acute diverticulitis and followed up for 8.9 years, only 13.3% of patients had a recurrence and 3.9%, a second recurrence. In contrast to what was previously thought, the risk of septic peritonitis is reduced and not increased with each recurrence. Patient-reported outcomes studies show 20% to 35% of patients managed nonoperatively progress to chronic abdominal pain compared with 5% to 25% of patients treated operatively. Randomized trials and cohort studies have shown that antibiotics and fiber were not as beneficial as previously thought and that

  12. Reproductive Coercion: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Karen Trister; Anderson, Jocelyn C.

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive coercion is behavior that interferes with the autonomous decision-making of a woman, with regards to reproductive health. It may take the form of birth control sabotage, pregnancy coercion, or controlling the outcome of a pregnancy. The objectives of this article are to address the questions: 1. What is known about reproductive coercion, its prevalence and correlates? 2. What strategies do women use to preserve their reproductive autonomy when experiencing reproductive coercion? 3. What interventions are effective to decrease reproductive coercion? In this review of 27 research studies, 12 contained findings regarding the general phenomenon of reproductive coercion, and 19 contained findings about at least one component of reproductive coercion. Additionally, 11 studies contained findings related to the intersection of IPV and reproductive coercion, 6 presented data on strategies women use to resist reproductive coercion, and 3 included intervention data. Variation in measurement makes synthesis of prevalence and correlate data challenging. The reviewed literature presents reproductive coercion as a phenomenon that disproportionately affects women experiencing concurrent IPV, women of lower socioeconomic status, single women, and African American and multiracial women. Women who experience reproductive coercion were found to present frequently for certain health services. Most data on reproductive coercion are descriptive; there is need for further research to examine the co-occurrence with related phenomena such as IPV and unintended pregnancy. More research is also needed on the strategies women use to resist reproductive coercion as well as interventions aimed at survivors and perpetrators of reproductive coercion and healthcare providers who encounter them. PMID:27535921

  13. Epidemiology of brain tumors in childhood--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Rachel Tobias; Preston-Martin, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death among children and the second most common type of pediatric cancer. Despite several decades of epidemiologic investigation, the etiology of childhood brain tumors (CBT) is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation are established risk factors. Many environmental exposures and infectious agents have been suspected of playing a role in the development of CBT. This review, based on a search of the medical literature through August 2003, summarizes the epidemiologic evidence to date. The types of exposures discussed include ionizing radiation, N-nitroso compounds (NOC), pesticides, tobacco smoke, electromagnetic frequencies (EMF), infectious agents, medications, and parental occupational exposures. We have chosen to focus on perinatal exposures and review some of the recent evidence indicating that such exposures may play a significant role in the causation of CBT. The scientific community is rapidly learning more about the molecular mechanisms by which carcinogenesis occurs and how the brain develops. We believe that advances in genetic and molecular biologic technology, including improved histologic subtyping of tumors, will be of huge importance in the future of epidemiologic research and will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of CBT etiology. We discuss some of the early findings using these technologies

  14. Prevalence of ataxia in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Kristin E; Stoyanov, Cristina T; Marasigan, Rhul; Jenkins, Mary E; Konczak, Jürgen; Morton, Susanne M; Bastian, Amy J

    2014-01-07

    To estimate the prevalence of childhood ataxia resulting from both genetic and acquired causes. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement. Five databases were searched for articles reporting a frequency measure (e.g., prevalence, incidence) of ataxia in children. Included articles were first grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) regions and subsequently classified according to etiology (genetic, acquired, or mixed). Each article was assessed for its risk of bias on the domains of sampling, measurement, and analysis. Incidence values were converted to prevalence estimates whenever possible. European prevalence estimates for different etiologies of ataxia were summed to gauge the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia. One hundred fifteen articles were included in the review. More than 50% of the data originated from the Europe WHO region. Data from this region also showed the least susceptibility to bias. Little data were available for Africa and Southeast Asia. The prevalence of acquired ataxias was found to vary more greatly across regions than the genetic ataxias. Ataxic cerebral palsy was found to be a significant contributor to the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia across WHO regions. The prevalence of childhood ataxias in Europe was estimated to be ∼26/100,000 children and likely reflects a minimum prevalence worldwide. The findings show that ataxia is a common childhood motor disorder with a higher prevalence than previously assumed. More research concerning the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood ataxia is warranted.

  15. Medical attention seeking dance injuries: systematic review of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand Prakash, Akilesh

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of case reports documenting the epidemiology of unique and rare musculoskeletal injuries in dancers. A systematic review was conducted online using PubMed and Google Scholar, as per PRISMA guidelines up to July 30, 2016. Predefined eligibility criteria were applied, and the data thus compiled was analysed. Study quality was assessed based on CARE guidelines. 72 studies reporting 92 dance injuries were included in the review. The average age of dancers was 23 years (SD = 10 years) with majority being females (65%). Chronic injuries were the most common presentation with lower extremity injuries being the commonest. Foot and knee injuries were the top two articulations involved across injuries and groups. Overall bony injuries were most frequently reported, with stress injury being the most common type. Conservative approach was the most commonly reported treatment approach across case reports. The methodological quality of case reports included in the study varied considerably and lacked uniformity. The evidence provided, though not sufficient for any recommendation, it should alert the physicians and those concerned with the primary care of the dancers to be vigilant of the eccentricity and severity of the injuries, their atypical presentation, mode, mechanism and trend, thereby being prepared for the unexpected.

  16. Smokeless Tobacco and Oral Cancer in South Asia: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Zohaib; Tönnies, Justus; Müller, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Smokeless tobacco is considered one of the major risk factors for oral cancer. It is estimated that over 90% of the global smokeless tobacco use burden is in South Asia. This paper aims to systematically review publications reporting epidemiological observational studies published in South Asia from 1984 till 2013. Methods. An electronic search in “Medline” and “ISI Web of Knowledge” yielded 734 publications out of which 21 were included in this review. All publications were ass...

  17. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  18. Cognitive insight: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Late prematurity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Júnior, Luís Carlos; Passini Júnior, Renato; Rodrigues Machado Rosa, Izilda

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation) in its several aspects. the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Public health interventions in midwifery: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice. PMID:23134701

  1. The science of systematic reviewing studies of diagnostic tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, W. P.; Niessen, R. W.; Bossuyt, P. M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews have gradually replaced single studies as the highest level of documented effectiveness of health care interventions. Systematic reviewing is a new scientific method, concerned with the development and application of methods for identifying relevant literature,

  2. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health.

  3. Commentary on "The association between physical activity and renal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis." Behrens G, Leitzmann MF, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany. Br J Cancer 2013; 108(4):798-811. [Epub 2013 Feb 14]. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2013.37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorjian, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity may decrease renal cancer risk by reducing obesity, blood pressure, insulin resistance, and lipid peroxidation. Despite plausible biologic mechanisms linking increased physical activity to decreased risk for renal cancer, few epidemiologic studies have been able to report a clear inverse association between physical activity and renal cancer, and no meta-analysis is available on the topic. We searched the literature using PubMed and Web of Knowledge to identify published non-ecologic epidemiologic studies quantifying the relationship between physical activity and renal cancer risk in individuals without a cancer history. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, including information from 19 studies based on a total of 2,327,322 subjects and 10,756 cases. The methodologic quality of the studies was examined using a comprehensive scoring system. Comparing high vs low levels of physical activity, we observed an inverse association between physical activity and renal cancer risk (summary relative risk (RR) from random-effects meta-analysis=0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.79-0.97). Summarising risk estimates from high-quality studies strengthened the inverse association between physical activity and renal cancer risk (RR=0.78; 95% CI=0.66-0.92). Effect modification by adiposity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, smoking, gender, or geographic region was not observed. Our comprehensive meta-analysis provides strong support for an inverse relation of physical activity to renal cancer risk. Future high-quality studies are required to discern which specific types, intensities, frequencies, and durations of physical activity are needed for renal cancer risk reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of worldwide spinal cord injury: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Kang,1,2,* Han Ding,1,2,* Hengxing Zhou,1,2 Zhijian Wei,1,2 Lu Liu,1,2 Dayu Pan,1,2 Shiqing Feng1,2 1Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 2Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Study design: A literature review of worldwide epidemiology of spinal cord injury (SCI. Objectives: To review the epidemiological indicators of SCI, such as incidence, prevalence, demographic characteristics, etiology, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality. Setting: The Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ­Heping District, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Methods: We searched articles published in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and the Web of ­Science between January 1993 and June 2017 using the key words “spinal cord injury”, “­traumatic spinal cord injury”, “non-traumatic spinal cord injury” and “epidemiology”. The incidence, etiology, prevalence, patient demographics, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality were reviewed from the articles. Results: The epidemiology of SCI has changed. Motor vehicle accidents and falls have become the most common reasons of injury gradually. Incidence of SCI varies by regions or countries, and it has gradually increased with the expansion of human activities. The number of male patients were significantly more than female, the average age of patients with SCI had a tendency to increase gradually. The cervical level of spine was the most common part of injury; there were more number of patients with tetraplegia than patients with paraplegia. Electrolyte disturbances, pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections and bedsores were the four most common complications. Conclusion: We must have a greater

  5. A systematic review of sacroiliac joint interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie-Brown, Ann Marie; Shah, Rinoo V; Sehgal, Nalini; Everett, Clifford R

    2005-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is an accepted source of low back pain with or without associated lower extremity symptoms. The diagnosis and management of sacroiliac joint pain and the role of interventional techniques have been controversial. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of sacroiliac joint interventions in the diagnosis and management of sacroiliac joint pain. A systematic review using the criteria as outlined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Cochrane Review Group Criteria, and QUADAS criteria for diagnostic studies. The databases of EMBASE and MEDLINE (1966 to November 2004), and Cochrane Review were searched. The searches included systematic reviews, narrative reviews, prospective and retrospective studies, and cross-references from articles reviewed. The search strategy included sacroiliac joint pain and dysfunction, sacroiliac joint injections, interventions, and radiofrequency. The results of this systematic evaluation showed that for diagnostic purposes, there is moderate evidence showing the accuracy of comparative, controlled local anesthetic blocks. Prevalence of sacroiliac joint pain was demonstrated to be 10% to 19% by a double block paradigm. The false-positive rate of single, uncontrolled, sacroiliac joint injections was reported as 20%.For therapeutic purposes intraarticular sacroiliac joint injections with steroid and radiofrequency neurotomy were evaluated. Based on this review, there was moderate evidence for short-term and limited evidence for long-term relief with intraarticular sacroiliac joint injections. Evidence for radiofrequency neurotomy in managing sacroiliac joint pain was limited or inconclusive. The evidence for the specificity and validity of diagnostic sacroiliac joint injections was moderate.The evidence for therapeutic intraarticular sacroiliac joint injections was limited to moderate. The evidence for radiofrequency neurotomy in managing chronic sacroiliac joint pain was limited.

  6. What do we know about preventing school violence? A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Soraya; Lawrence, Cayleigh; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-03-01

    Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2015; in English; considered school-based interventions for children and measured violence as an outcome. Many systematic reviews were found, thus we completed a systematic review of systematic reviews. Only systematic reviews on interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) and peer aggression were found. These reviews were generally of moderate quality. Research on both types of violence was largely completed in North America. Only a handful of programmes demonstrate promise in preventing IPV. Cognitive behavioral, social-emotional and peer mentoring/mediation programmes showed promise in reducing the levels of perpetration of peer aggression. Further research needs to determine the long-term effects of interventions, potential moderators and mediators of program effects, program effects across different contexts and key intervention components.

  7. Using multiple types of studies in systematic reviews of health care interventions--a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Peinemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant

  8. Systematic reviews in bioethics: types, challenges, and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2014-02-01

    There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.

  9. Antidepressants and Driving in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Duncan H; Rapoport, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    With an increasing number of older drivers who are prescribed antidepressants, the potential consequences of antidepressant use on driving skills in an aging population are becoming a pressing issue. We conducted a systematic review using MEDLINE, targeting articles specifically pertaining to antidepressants and driving in a population or subgroup of older adults (≥ 55 years of age). The search yielded 267 references, nine of which pertained to the effects of antidepressants on driving in older adults. The single experimental study found imipramine to have detrimental effects on highway driving, whereas nefazodone did not. Seven of eight population-based studies reported a significant increased risk of involvement in a collision associated with antidepressant use. Although the studies indicated a negative effect of antidepressants on driving, the epidemiological designs cannot exclude the possibility that the underlying illness, generally major depression, is the culprit.

  10. [Counseling interventions for smoking cessation: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Castillo, Juan Sebastián

    2013-04-01

    A systematic review on efficacy and safety of smoking cessation counseling was developed. The ADAPTE methodology was used with a search of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane. DELBI was used to select CPG with score over 60 in methodological rigor and applicability to the Colombian health system. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were assessed according to counseling provider, model, and format. In total 5 CPG out of 925 references were selected comprising 44 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Physician brief counseling and trained health professionals' intensive counseling (individual, group, proactive telephone) are effective with abstinence rates between 2.1% and 17.4%. Only practical counseling and motivational interview were found effective intensive interventions. The clinical effect of smoking cessation counseling is low and long term cessation rates uncertain. Cost-effectiveness analyses are recommended for the implementation of counseling in public health programs.

  11. Performing Systematic Literature Reviews with Novices: An Iterative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Mathieu; Robillard, Pierre-N.; Mirsalari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers performing systematic literature reviews require understanding of the review process and of the knowledge domain. This paper presents an iterative approach for conducting systematic literature reviews that addresses the problems faced by reviewers who are novices in one or both levels of understanding. This approach is derived from…

  12. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dugdill, L; Brettle, A; Hulme, C; McCluskey, S; Long, AF

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommen...

  13. Smoking in Video Games: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...

  14. Cloud computing security requirements: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Iankoulova, Iliana; Daneva, Maia; Rolland, C; Castro, J.; Pastor, O

    2012-01-01

    Many publications have dealt with various types of security requirements in cloud computing but not all types have been explored in sufficient depth. It is also hard to understand which types of requirements have been under-researched and which are most investigated. This paper's goal is to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of cloud computing security requirements and solutions. We carried out a systematic review and identified security requirements from previous publications th...

  15. Determinants of patient satisfaction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbaatar, Enkhjargal; Dorjdagva, Javkhlanbayar; Luvsannyam, Ariunbat; Savino, Matteo Mario; Amenta, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    A large number of studies have addressed the detection of patient satisfaction determinants, and the results are still inconclusive. Furthermore, it is known that contradicting evidence exists across patient satisfaction studies. This article is the second part of a two-part series of research with a goal to review a current conceptual framework of patient satisfaction for further operationalisation procedures. The aim of this work was to systematically identify and review evidence regarding determinants of patient satisfaction between 1980 and 2014, and to seek the reasons for contradicting results in relationships between determinants and patient satisfaction in the literature to design a further robust measurement system for patient satisfaction. This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus in October 2014. Studies published in full in peer reviewed journals between January 1980 and August 2014 and in the English language were included. We included 109 articles for the synthesis. We found several number of determinants of patient satisfaction investigated in a wide diversity of studies. However, study results were varied due to no globally accepted formulation of patient satisfaction and measurement system. Health care service quality indicators were the most influential determinants of patient satisfaction across the studies. Among them, health providers' interpersonal care quality was the essential determinant of patient satisfaction. Sociodemographic characteristics were the most varied in the review. The strength and directions of associations with patient satisfaction were found inconsistent. Therefore, person-related characteristics should be considered to be the potential determinants and confounders simultaneously. The selected studies were not able to show all potential characteristics which may have had

  16. A review of epidemiologic studies of childhood leukemia in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This overview of Canadian studies of the epidemiology of childhood leukemia included a historical review of early studies, a summary of recent work done in Ontario, and a description of other Canadian research. The paper is published as an extended summary only. In Ontario, a study was being done to determine whether the occurrence of childhood leukemia was associated with the exposure of fathers to ionizing radiation. A major theme of current Canadian research is the effect of other environmental agents, such as electromagnetic fields

  17. Quality assessment of systematic reviews on periodontal regeneration in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Avila-Ortiz, Gustavo; Johnson, Georgia K; Karimbux, Nadeem; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2013-02-01

    Systematic reviews represent the highest form of evidence in the current hierarchy of evidence-based dentistry. Critical analysis of published systematic reviews may help to analyze their strengths and weaknesses and to identify areas that need future improvement. The aim of this overview is to determine and compare the quality of systematic reviews published in the field of periodontal regeneration using established checklists, such as the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) guidelines. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve reviews on periodontal regeneration in humans. A total of 14 systematic reviews were selected using a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers appraised the quality of the selected reviews using AMSTAR guidelines. Each article was given an AMSTAR total score, based on the number of AMSTAR criteria that were fulfilled. The quality of included reviews was further assessed using a checklist proposed in 2003. Only one of the selected systematic reviews satisfied all the AMSTAR guidelines, whereas two reviews satisfied just two of the 11 items. This study shows that published systematic reviews on periodontal regeneration exhibit significant structural and methodologic variability. Quality assessment using the additional checklist further confirmed the variability in the way systematic reviews were conducted and/or reported. Consideration of guidelines for quality assessment, such as AMSTAR, when designing and conducting systematic reviews may increase the validity and clinical applicability of future reviews.

  18. Lurasidone in the Treatment of Bipolar Depression: Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A burgeoning number of systematic reviews considering lurasidone in the treatment of bipolar depression have occurred since its Food and Drug Administration extended approval in 2013. While a paucity of available quantitative evidence still precludes preliminary meta-analysis on the matter, the present quality assessment of systematic review of systematic reviews, nonetheless, aims at highlighting current essential information on the topic. Methods. Both published and unpublished systematic reviews about lurasidone mono- or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bipolar depression were searched by two independent authors inquiring PubMed/Cochrane/Embase/Scopus from inception until October 2016. Results. Twelve included systematic reviews were of moderate-to-high quality and consistent in covering the handful of RCTs available to date, suggesting the promising efficacy, safety, and tolerability profile of lurasidone. Concordance on the drug profile seems to be corroborated by a steadily increasing number of convergent qualitative reports on the matter. Limitations. Publication, sponsorship, language, citation, and measurement biases. Conclusions. Despite being preliminary in nature, this overview stipulates the effectiveness of lurasidone in the acute treatment of Type I bipolar depression overall. As outlined by most of the reviewed evidence, recommendations for future research should include further controlled trials of extended duration.

  19. Echocardiography in chronic liver disease: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Vitor Gomes; Markman Filho, Brivaldo

    2013-04-01

    Doppler echocardiography (Echo) is a non-invasive method of excellent accuracy to screen portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) and to assess intrapulmonary shunts (IPS) in chronic liver disease (CLD). In the past decade, Echo proved to play a fundamental role in the diagnosis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). To perform a systematic review of relevant articles on the subject 'Echo in CLD'. In November 2011, a systematic review was performed in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases, and the characteristics of the studies selected were reported. The search based on descriptors and free terms obtained 204 articles (179 in Pubmed, 21 in LILACS, and 1 in SciELO). Of those 204 articles, 22 were selected for systematic review. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of the articles. Echo should be part of CLD stratification for screening PPH, IPS and CCM, because, most of the time, such complications are diagnosed only when patients are already waiting for a liver transplant.

  20. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  1. Genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi J Eskola

    Full Text Available Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in humans.A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, The Genetic Association Database and The Human Genome Epidemiology Network for information published between 1990-2011 addressing genes and lumbar disc degeneration. Two investigators independently identified studies to determine inclusion, after which they performed data extraction and analysis. The level of cumulative genetic association evidence was analyzed according to The HuGENet Working Group guidelines.Fifty-two studies were included for review. Forty-eight studies reported at least one positive association between a genetic marker and lumbar disc degeneration. The phenotype definition of lumbar disc degeneration was highly variable between the studies and replications were inconsistent. Most of the associations presented with a weak level of evidence. The level of evidence was moderate for ASPN (D-repeat, COL11A1 (rs1676486, GDF5 (rs143383, SKT (rs16924573, THBS2 (rs9406328 and MMP9 (rs17576.Based on this first extensive systematic review on the topic, the credibility of reported genetic associations is mostly weak. Clear definition of lumbar disc degeneration phenotypes and large population-based cohorts are needed. An international consortium is needed to standardize genetic association studies in relation to disc degeneration.

  2. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  3. Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Valerie

    2011-02-01

    Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need.

  4. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  5. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. © C. Gong et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  6. Epidemiological Review of Injury in Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Goodwin, Brett J; Caine, Caroline G; Bergeron, Glen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an epidemiological review of the literature concerning ballet injuries affecting pre-professional ballet dancers. The literature search was limited to published peer-reviewed reports and involved an extensive examination of Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used in various combinations: ballet, injury, epidemiology, risk factor, pre-professional, and intervention. Additional citations were located using the ancestry approach. Unlike some other athletic activities that have been the focus of recent intervention research, there is a paucity of intervention and translational research in pre-professional ballet, and sample sizes have often been small and have not accounted for the multivariate nature of ballet injury. Exposure-based injury rates in this population appear similar to those reported for professional ballet dancers and female gymnasts. A preponderance of injuries affect the lower extremity of these dancers, with sprains and strains being the most frequent type of injury reported. The majority of injuries appear to be overuse in nature. Injury risk factors have been tested in multiple studies and indicate a variety of potential injury predictors that may provide useful guidance for future research.

  7. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5% was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%, postweaned juveniles (9.0%, and adult cattle (4.94%. The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease.

  8. Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Elina; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2014-05-22

    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, millions of households have been left with debts that they are unable to manage. Indebtedness may impair the wellbeing of those affected by it for years to come. This systematic review focuses on the long-term consequences of indebtedness on health. The method used in the paper is a systematic review. First, bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Second, the references and citations of the included articles were searched for additional articles. The results from our sample of 33 peer-reviewed studies demonstrate serious health effects related to indebtedness. Individuals with unmet loan payments had suicidal ideation and suffered from depression more often than those without such financial problems. Unpaid financial obligations were also related to poorer subjective health and health-related behaviour. Debt counselling and other programmes to mitigate debt-related stress are needed to alleviate the adverse effects of indebtedness on health. The results demonstrate that indebtedness has serious effects on health.

  9. Burnout in journalists: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine B. MacDonald

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to the experience of burnout in journalists of various specialties and mediums. The systematic review method adopted is that prescribed by Fink (2010, which contains three main elements: Sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Results indicate that journalists most at risk of burnout are females who are younger, with fewer years of journalism experience, working in small circulation newspapers. Editors and reporters seem to experience higher levels of burnout than those in other roles, as do journalists in non-management positions. The thorough and structured process adopted in this review provides the ability to assert with some degree of certainty what areas within the burnout and journalism literature require further consideration. This review emphasises and problematises the large focus on male reporters in newspaper settings, settings that are becoming less significant over time. Studies have tended to focus on reporters, without providing a convincing a priori rationale. What is lacking is consideration of other role groups central to broadcast news, such as camera-operators. A range of methodological and theoretical issues and future areas of research are discussed.

  10. Exploring cultural intelligence truths: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: To identify and report on cultural intelligence truths. Research purpose: To explore cultural intelligence truths by means of a systematic review of the cultural intelligence literature. Motivation for the study: Cultural intelligence truths must be systemised if the business and academic communities are to derive optimal value from the diverse knowledge base. Research design, approach and method: The research was qualitative in nature, comprising a systematic literature review. The period covered was from 01 January 2002 to 31 May 2015. The final number of included studies was 76, representing 48 different journals. Cultural intelligence hypotheses were identified and thematically categorised. Validated hypotheses constituted truths (i.e. truth statements. Key findings are both reported and commented on. Main findings: Cultural intelligence hypotheses may be classified into 13 separate themes plus a ‘not categorised’ group. In total, 60% of the hypotheses on cultural intelligence have given rise to truth statements. Accordingly, there remains some divide between theorised cultural intelligence relationships and how these have played out under empirical investigation. Practical managerial/implications: Business professionals will find it easier to consume the cultural intelligence literature, thereby facilitating their understanding of how best to leverage the knowledge in equipping the workforce to function optimally in cross-cultural interfaces. Scholars will be better positioned to tailor the focus and structure of cultural intelligence studies going forward. Contribution: Cultural intelligence truths have been systematically identified, organised and reported on.

  11. Infliximab-Related Infusion Reactions: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Yulia; Kivity, Shmuel; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Israeli, Eran; Fraser, Gerald M.; Dotan, Iris; Chowers, Yehuda; Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Weiss, Batia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Administration of infliximab is associated with a well-recognised risk of infusion reactions. Lack of a mechanism-based rationale for their prevention, and absence of adequate and well-controlled studies, has led to the use of diverse empirical administration protocols. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of the evidence behind the strategies for preventing infusion reactions to infliximab, and for controlling the reactions once they occur. Methods: We conducted extensive search of electronic databases of MEDLINE [PubMed] for reports that communicate various aspects of infusion reactions to infliximab in IBD patients. Results: We examined full texts of 105 potentially eligible articles. No randomised controlled trials that pre-defined infusion reaction as a primary outcome were found. Three RCTs evaluated infusion reactions as a secondary outcome; another four RCTs included infusion reactions in the safety evaluation analysis; and 62 additional studies focused on various aspects of mechanism/s, risk, primary and secondary preventive measures, and management algorithms. Seven studies were added by a manual search of reference lists of the relevant articles. A total of 76 original studies were included in quantitative analysis of the existing strategies. Conclusions: There is still paucity of systematic and controlled data on the risk, prevention, and management of infusion reactions to infliximab. We present working algorithms based on systematic and extensive review of the available data. More randomised controlled trials are needed in order to investigate the efficacy of the proposed preventive and management algorithms. PMID:26092578

  12. Chagas disease transmission by consumption of game meat: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Nielebock, Marco Antonio Prates; Santos, Ceumara da Silva; Silva, Mateus Curty Carriello da; Bento, Glauber Motta Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of game meat consumption in Chagas disease (CD) transmission, the conditions under which it occurs and the frequency of reports in the literature. Through systematic review, databases PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO were consulted, and articles written in Portuguese, English, and Spanish were included, with no limitation over publication date. We used the following descriptors: oral, transmission, meat, wild animals, hunt, carnivory, and Chagas disease. Articles that mentioned consumption of animal meat as a form of human transmission of CD were included. We used epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence criteria to confirm cases. Among the 298 articles identified, only six met the eligibility criteria. Only five episodes of oral transmission through wild animal meat or blood consumption were identified. However, in two of them, the possibility of vectorial transmission could not be ruled out. Most reports met the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence criteria established to support the transmission. Though CD transmission is uncommon, hunting and consumption of wild mammals that serve as Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs should be discouraged in endemic countries in light of the risks inherent to these practices.

  13. Periapical implant lesion: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya-Tárraga, J-A; Cervera-Ballester, J; Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Peñarrocha-Diago, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence for periapical implant lesion, which makes a patient more susceptible to the periapical lesion, frequency, symptoms, signs (including radiological findings) and possible treatment options. A systematic literature review and analysis of publications included in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane; articles published until March 2016; with a populations, exposures and outcomes (PEO) search strategy was performed, focused on the issue: "In patients with periapical lesion to the implant during the osseointegration, what symptoms, signs, and changes in complementary examination manifested, for according to that stage, be intervened with the appropriate approach?". The set criteria for inclusion were peer-reviewed articles. From a total of 212 papers identified, 36 studies were included in this systematic review, with 15461 implants evaluated and 183 periapical implant lesions. Which 8 papers included more than 5 cases and 28 included equal or less than 5 cases. Analysis of the papers revealed that periapical implant lesion is classified according to evolution stages into acute (non-suppurated and suppurated) and subacute (or suppurated-fistulized). In the acute stage and in the subacute if there is no loss of implant stability, the correct treatment approach is implant periapical surgery. In the subacute stage associated with implant mobility the implant must be removed. Evidence on the subject is very limited, there are few studies with small sample, without homogeneity of criteria for diagnosing the disease and without design of scientific evidence. Currently etiology lacks consensus. The early diagnosis of periapical implant periapical lesions during the osseointegration phase and early treatment, will lead to a higher survival rate of implants treated, hence preventing the need for implant extraction.

  14. Beyond muscle destruction: a systematic review of rhabdomyolysis for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Luis O; Leon, Monica; Einav, Sharon; Varon, Joseph

    2016-06-15

    Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome that comprises destruction of skeletal muscle with outflow of intracellular muscle content into the bloodstream. There is a great heterogeneity in the literature regarding definition, epidemiology, and treatment. The aim of this systematic literature review was to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the epidemiologic data, definition, and management of rhabdomyolysis. A systematic search was conducted using the keywords "rhabdomyolysis" and "crush syndrome" covering all articles from January 2006 to December 2015 in three databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and ScienceDirect). The search was divided into two steps: first, all articles that included data regarding definition, pathophysiology, and diagnosis were identified, excluding only case reports; then articles of original research with humans that reported epidemiological data (e.g., risk factors, common etiologies, and mortality) or treatment of rhabdomyolysis were identified. Information was summarized and organized based on these topics. The search generated 5632 articles. After screening titles and abstracts, 164 articles were retrieved and read: 56 articles met the final inclusion criteria; 23 were reviews (narrative or systematic); 16 were original articles containing epidemiological data; and six contained treatment specifications for patients with rhabdomyolysis. Most studies defined rhabdomyolysis based on creatine kinase values five times above the upper limit of normal. Etiologies differ among the adult and pediatric populations and no randomized controlled trials have been done to compare intravenous fluid therapy alone versus intravenous fluid therapy with bicarbonate and/or mannitol.

  15. Systematic review of handoff mnemonics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Leitzsch, Jessica; Little, Brian W

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of published English-language articles on handoffs is conducted (1987 to June 4, 2008). Forty-six articles describing 24 handoff mnemonics are identified by trained reviewers. The majority (82.6%) have been published in the last 3 years (2006-2008), and SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation) is the most frequently cited mnemonic (69.6%). Of 7 handoff research articles, only 4 study mnemonics. All 4 of these studies have relatively small sample sizes (10-100) and lack validated instruments. Only 1 study has obtained IRB approval. Scientifically rigorous research studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of handoff mnemonics. These should be published in the peer-reviewed literature using the Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) guidelines.

  16. Pregnancy outcome and ultraviolet radiation; A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaw, Lauren; Clemens, Tom; Dibben, Chris; Weller, Richard; Stock, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Season and vitamin D are indirect and direct correlates of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are associated with pregnancy outcomes. Further to producing vitamin D, UV has positive effects on cardiovascular and immune health that may support a role for UV directly benefitting pregnancy. Objectives: To investigate the effects of UV exposure on pregnancy; specifically fetal growth, preterm birth and hypertensive complications. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, DoPHER, Global Health, ProQuest Public Health, AustHealth Informit, SCOPUS and Google Scholar to identify 537 citations, 8 of which are included in this review. This review was registered on PROSPERO and a. narrative synthesis is presented following PRISMA guidance. Results: All studies were observational and assessed at high risk of bias. Higher first trimester UV was associated with and improved fetal growth and increased hypertension in pregnancy. Interpretation is limited by study design and quality. Meta-analysis was precluded by the variety of outcomes and methods. Discussion: The low number of studies and risk of bias limit the validity of any conclusions. Environmental health methodological issues are discussed with consideration given to design and analytical improvements to further address this reproductive environmental health question. Conclusions: The evidence for UV having benefits for pregnancy hypertension and fetal growth is limited by the methodological approaches utilized. Future epidemiological efforts should focus on improving the methods of modeling and linking widely available environmental data to reproductive health outcomes. - Highlights: • Biologically plausible pathways support an association between ultraviolet radiation (UV) and pregnancy outcomes. • This study is the first systematic review of prevailing literature on the relationship between UV and singleton pregnancy outcomes. • It focuses on both substantive findings and the

  17. Prevalence and Cause of Self-Medication in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Article

    OpenAIRE

    AZAMI-AGHDASH, Saber; MOHSENI, Mohammad; ETEMADI, Manal; ROYANI, Sanaz; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; NAKHAEE, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays self-medication is one of the most common public health issues in many countries, as well as in Iran. According to need to epidemiological information about self-medication, the aim of this study was to systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and cause of self-medication in community setting of Iran.Methods: Required data were collected searching following key words: medication, self-medication, over-the-counter, non-prescription, prevalence, epidemiology, etiol...

  18. Sequencing of the Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Jacka

    Full Text Available Since the identification of hepatitis C virus (HCV, viral sequencing has been important in understanding HCV classification, epidemiology, evolution, transmission clustering, treatment response and natural history. The length and diversity of the HCV genome has resulted in analysis of certain regions of the virus, however there has been little standardisation of protocols. This systematic review was undertaken to map the location and frequency of sequencing on the HCV genome in peer reviewed publications, with the aim to produce a database of sequencing primers and amplicons to inform future research. Medline and Scopus databases were searched for English language publications based on keyword/MeSH terms related to sequence analysis (9 terms or HCV (3 terms, plus "primer" as a general search term. Exclusion criteria included non-HCV research, review articles, duplicate records, and incomplete description of HCV sequencing methods. The PCR primer locations of accepted publications were noted, and purpose of sequencing was determined. A total of 450 studies were accepted from the 2099 identified, with 629 HCV sequencing amplicons identified and mapped on the HCV genome. The most commonly sequenced region was the HVR-1 region, often utilised for studies of natural history, clustering/transmission, evolution and treatment response. Studies related to genotyping/classification or epidemiology of HCV genotype generally targeted the 5'UTR, Core and NS5B regions, while treatment response/resistance was assessed mainly in the NS3-NS5B region with emphasis on the Interferon sensitivity determining region (ISDR region of NS5A. While the sequencing of HCV is generally constricted to certain regions of the HCV genome there is little consistency in the positioning of sequencing primers, with the exception of a few highly referenced manuscripts. This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of HCV sequencing, providing a comprehensive database of previously

  19. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    structured approach to support EPIs selection is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made in order to identify, classify and systematize the existing EPIs based on the systematic literature review. From the review, 261 EPIs were identified, classified, and then systematized in a digital database...

  20. [Medical indications for acupuncture: Systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Carrion, Carme

    2016-09-16

    Acupuncture is a medical procedure with a very wide range of indications according to the WHO. However the indications require robust scientific evidence to support them. We have conducted a systematic review (2010-2015) in order to define in which pathologies acupuncture can be an effective strategy, STRICTA criteria that aim to set up acupuncture clinical trials standard criteria were defined in 2010. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of good or very good methodological quality according to SIGN criteria were selected. Its main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of any disease. Most of the final 31 selected reviews focus on chronic pain-related diseases, mainly in the disciplines of Neurology, Orthopaedics and Rheumatology. Current evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of headaches, migraines, back pain, cervical pain and osteoarthritis. The remaining pathologies still require further good quality studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasteh Goli N.*BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

  2. Renal cell cancer among African Americans: an epidemiologic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipworth Loren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. This excess dates back to the 1970s, despite less access among blacks to imaging procedures in the past. In contrast, mortality rates for this cancer have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990s, despite the fact that nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, are lower among blacks than among whites. These observations suggest that renal cell cancer may be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. We have reviewed the epidemiology of renal cell cancer, with emphasis on factors which may potentially play a role in the observed differences in incidence and mortality patterns of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites. To date, the factors most consistently, albeit modestly, associated with increased renal cell cancer risk in epidemiologic studies among whites - obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking - likely account for less than half of these cancers, and there is virtually no epidemiologic evidence in the literature pertaining to their association with renal cell cancer among blacks. There is a long overdue need for detailed etiologic cohort and case-control studies of renal cell cancer among blacks, as they now represent the population at highest risk in the United States. In particular, investigation of the influence on renal cell cancer development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, both of which occur substantially more frequently among blacks, is warranted, as well as investigations into the biology and natural history of this cancer among blacks.

  3. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.

  4. [COCHRANE SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS ON PROSTATE CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, D

    2016-12-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor of the elderly, which accounts for a significant proportion of total morbidity but very low of mortality. In Croatia, it is the second most common cancer in men. Currently, there are many doubts concerning screening, early detection and treatment of prostate cancer. Therefore, this article brings results of Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the topic of prostate cancer published in the last eight years. In June 2016, Cochrane database of systematic reviews was searched using the following keywords: Systematic Reviews, and Prostate Cancer (Malignancy, Neoplasm). Inclusion criterion was publication date of the Cochrane SR or its update in the last eight years. The abstracts were initially screened and those that matched the topic were included in further analysis. Then full texts of all SRs involved were obtained. SRs were classified into four topics: prevention, screening, treatment and psychosocial aspects. Our search retrieved a total of 19 Cochrane SRs on the topic of prostate cancer. Excluded were four articles that did not match the specific topic, and the remaining 15 full texts were obtained. One of these was on screening, two on prevention, the majority, i.e. eleven were on treatment, and one on the psychosocial aspects related to prostate cancer. Based on the results of the Cochrane SRs on prostate cancer, instead of mass/population screening, the individualized/opportunistic screening approach should be applied in men aged 55-69, always providing full information to the patient and taking into account the potential benefits and harms of this procedure.

  5. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  6. Transanal total mesorectal excision - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim

    2015-01-01

    of the dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...... patients) were included. Only low-quality evidence is available, and the literature consists of case reports and case series. Studies represent the initial experience of surgeons/centres. No precise indication for TaTME is yet specified other than the presence of mid and low rectal tumours, although...

  7. Post-tonsillectomy dietary advice: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, A J F; Gaunt, A C; Phillips, J S

    2016-10-01

    To determine if there is evidence that post-tonsillectomy dietary advice affects post-operative morbidity. A systematic review was conducted of Embase, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsycInfo, to November 2014. Seventeen articles were included; their heterogeneous nature prevented meta-analysis. Of these, all three small, randomised studies showed no statistical difference in morbidity between restricted and non-restricted diets. Most post-tonsillectomy dietary advice is based on historical anecdotes and not rigorous scientific testing. The existing small-scale, randomised studies show no statistical difference in morbidity between non-restricted and restricted diets.

  8. Psychotherapy for compulsive buying disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Leite, Priscilla; Pereira, Valeska Martinho; Nardi, Antônio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-11-30

    Based on a literature review, the purpose is to identify the main therapeutic approaches for the compulsive buying disorder, a present time disorder characterized by excessive and uncontrollable concerns or behaviors related to buying or expenses, which may lead to adverse consequences. The systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic scientific bases Medline/Pubmed, ISI, PsycInfo. The search was comprised of full-text articles, written in Portuguese and English, with no time limit or restrictions on the type of study and sample. A total of 1659 references were found and, by the end, 23 articles were selected for this review. From the articles found, it was determined that, although there are case studies and clinical trials underlining the effectiveness of the treatment for compulsive buying, only those studies with a focus on the cognitive-behavioral therapy approach make evident the successful response to the treatment. The publication of new studies on the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder is necessary, in order to establish new forms of treatment and to verify the effectiveness and response of the Brazilian population to the existing protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchinat, Sybil; Cebri?n-Cuenca, Ana M; Bricout, H?l?ne; Johnson, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ?50?years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax?) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. Methods The Medline database of the National Library of Medicin...

  10. Teeth loss, teeth brushing and esophageal carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Nie, Shuping; Zhu, Yuhui; Lu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a serious malignancy, and its epidemiologic etiology is not fully explained. We performed this review to investigate the association between teeth loss and teeth brushing and the risk of EC. A systematic search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. The Q test and I 2 statistic were used to examine between-study heterogeneity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered by fixed or random effects models. Furt...

  11. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔT...

  12. Adverse effects of iodine thyroid blocking: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallek, L.; Krille, L.; Reiners, C.; Schneider, R.; Yamashita, S.; Zeeb, H.

    2008-01-01

    131 I, when released in a radiological or nuclear accident as happened recently in Fukushima (Japan)), may cause thyroid cancer as a long-term consequence. Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is known to reduce the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Potential adverse effects of ITB have not been systematically investigated so far. This article summarises the results of a review on adverse effects of ITB based on a systematic literature search in scientific medical databases. A meta-analysis was not performed as identified studies displayed major heterogeneity. The search resulted in 14 articles relevant to the topic, reporting mostly on surveys, ecological and intervention studies. Only one study from Poland focused on effects (both desired and adverse) of an ITB intervention following the Chernobyl accident. All other studies reported on iodine administration in a different context. Overall, the studies did not reveal severe adverse reactions to potassium iodide in the general public. Since ITB is a protective measure only applied in very specific circumstances, scientifically sound studies of adverse effects are scarce and consequently the evidence base is weak. The assessment of adverse effects of ITB relies on indirect evidence from related areas. This study may contribute to ongoing developments in pharmaco-epidemiology aiming to better quantify adverse effects of medications and health care interventions including ITB. All rights reserved. (authors)

  13. Factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E. Lankhorst (Nienke); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractABSTRACT This review systematically summarises factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies including ≥20 patients with PFPS that examined ≥1 possible factor associated with PFPS were included. A

  14. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A; Evangelou, Evangelos; León-Caballero, Jordi; Solmi, Marco; Stubbs, Brendon; Belbasis, Lazaros; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Kessing, Lars V; Berk, Michael; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, André F

    2017-03-01

    The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD. For each meta-analysis, we estimated its summary effect size by means of both random- and fixed-effects models, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), the 95% prediction interval, and heterogeneity. Evidence of small-study effects and excess of significance bias was also assessed. Sixteen publications met the inclusion criteria (seven meta-analyses and nine qualitative systematic reviews). Fifty-one unique environmental risk factors for BD were evaluated. Six meta-analyses investigated associations with a risk factor for BD. Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD supported by convincing evidence (k=6; odds ratio [OR]=2.48; 95% CI=2.35-2.61; P<.001), and childhood adversity was supported by highly suggestive evidence. Asthma and obesity were risk factors for BD supported by suggestive evidence, and seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii and a history of head injury were supported by weak evidence. Notwithstanding that several environmental risk factors for BD were identified, few meta-analyses of observational studies were available. Therefore, further well-designed and adequately powered studies are necessary to map the environmental risk factors for BD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  16. Anticipation in Soccer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Eder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine the current methods employed to assess anticipation in soccer players as well as to elicit the main findings of recent studies. Methods. The study was carried out in systematic review form and its sample comprised nine scientific papers published in academic journals. Only the studies involving soccer players (professionals and amateurs, except goalkeepers were included in this review. Results and conclusions. We observed that most of the studies employed video footage obtained from soccer matches, which are occluded at a given point for study participants to quickly and precisely elicit the positions of opponents, teammates and the ball as well as anticipate actions (dribbling, shooting, passing from surrounding players (teammates and opponents. In addition, the studies compared the performance of players from both high and low competitive levels in anticipation tasks.

  17. NRC systematic evaluation program: seismic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The NRC Systematic Evaluation Program is currently making an assessment of the seismic design safety of 11 older nuclear power plant facilities. The general review philosophy and review criteria relative to seismic input, structural response, and equipment functionability are presented, including the rationale for the development of these guidelines considering the significant evolution of seismic design criteria since these plants were originally licensed. Technical approaches thought more realistic in light of current knowledge are utilized. Initial findings for plants designed to early seismic design procedures suggest that with minor exceptions, these plants possess adequate seismic design margins when evaluated against the intent of current criteria. However, seismic qualification of electrical equipment has been identified as a subject which requires more in-depth evaluation

  18. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Alison M; Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-10-02

    To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. Systematic review. All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, Assia, Caredata, Child Data, CINAHL, ISI Proceedings, Sciences Citation, Social Science Citation Index, SIGLE, Scopus, TRIP, and Social Care Online for original study articles, references, textbooks, and conference abstracts until May 2007. Comparative studies of fracture at different bony sites, sustained in physical abuse and from other causes in children child protection. Each study was critically appraised by using data extraction sheets, critical appraisal forms, and evidence sheets based on NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Meta-analysis was done where possible. A random effects model was fitted to account for the heterogeneity between studies. In total, 32 studies were included. Fractures resulting from abuse were recorded throughout the skeletal system, most commonly in infants (child was an important discriminator. The probability for skull fractures was 0.30 (0.19 to 0.46); the most common fractures in abuse and non-abuse were linear fractures. Insufficient comparative studies were available to allow calculation of a probability of abuse for other fracture types. When infants and toddlers present with a fracture in the absence of a confirmed cause, physical abuse should be considered as a potential cause. No fracture, on its own, can distinguish an abusive from a non-abusive cause. During the assessment of individual fractures, the site, fracture type, and developmental stage of the child can help to determine the likelihood of abuse. The number of high quality comparative research studies in this field is limited, and further prospective epidemiology is indicated.

  19. Automatic evidence retrieval for systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G; Tsafnat, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing's effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing's capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews.

  20. Epidemiological review of laryngeal cancer: An Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramanium, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laryngeal cancer is one of the 10 leading causes of cancer in Indian men. The association of laryngeal cancer and tobacco smoking is well-established, but the peculiarities such as wide variation of disease distribution and survival, role of tobacco chewing, indoor air pollution, and dietary factors in laryngeal cancer causation needs to be understood. In this study, we review the descriptive and observational epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in India. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of science electronic database was searched from January 1995 to December 2013, using the using keywords “laryngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination like OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies published in English and conducted in India. A total of 15 studies were found to be relevant and eligible for this review. Results: In India, laryngeal cancer contributes to approximately 3-6% of all cancers in men. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cancer larynx in males varies widely among registries, highest is 8.18 per 100,000 in Kamprup Urban District and the lowest is 1.26 per 100,000 in Nagaland. The 5-year survival for laryngeal cancer in India is approximately 28%. Indian studies show tobacco, alcohol, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution, spicy food, and nonvegetarian diet as risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Conclusion: There is wide regional variation in the incidence of laryngeal cancer in India. Survival rates of laryngeal carcinoma are much lower as compared to other Asian countries. Studies conducted in India to identify important risk factors of laryngeal cancer are very limited, especially on diet and indoor air pollution. Hence, more research is required for identifying the etiological factors and development of scientifically sound laryngeal cancer prevention programs. PMID:26855523

  1. Chew and Spit (CHSP): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouad, Phillip; Hay, Phillipa; Soh, Nerissa; Touyz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review is an evaluation of the empirical literature relating to the disordered eating behaviour Chew and Spit (CHSP). Current theories postulate that CHSP is a symptom exhibited by individuals with recurrent binge eating and Bulimia Nervosa. The review aimed to identify and critically assess studies that have examined the distribution of CHSP behaviour, its relationship to eating disorders, its physical and psychosocial consequences and treatment. A systematic database search with broad inclusion criteria, dated to January 2016 was conducted. Data were extracted by two authors and papers appraised for quality using a modified Downs and Black Quality Index. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. All were of clinical samples and majority (n = 7) were of low quality. The pathological action of chewing food but not swallowing was reported more often in those with restrictive type eating disorders, such as Anorexia Nervosa, than binge eating type disorders. CHSP also was reported to be an indicator of overall severity of an eating disorder and to appear more often in younger individuals. No studies of treatment were found. Conclusions were limited due to the low quality and small numbers of studies based on clinical samples only. Further research is needed to address gaps in knowledge regarding the physiological, psychological, social, socioeconomic impact and treatment for those engaging in CHSP.

  2. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  3. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  4. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-12-19

    Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.

  5. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G L Lee

    Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  6. Systematic reviews with meta-analysis: Why, when, and how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this

  7. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs; Stokman, Monique; Napeñas, Joel J; Braber, Jacolien Bos-den; Gerber, Erich; Geuke, Margot; Vardas, Emmanouil; Waltimo, Tuomas; Jensen, Siri Beier; Saunders, Deborah P

    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the

  8. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, C.H.L.; Hu, S.; Haverman, T.M.; Stokman, M.; Napeñas, J.J.; Bos-den Braber, J.; Gerber, E.; Geuke, M.; Vardas, E.; Waltimo, T.; Jensen, S.B.; Saunders, D.P.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. Review method: A literature search was conducted in the

  9. Osseoperception in Dental Implants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Brånemark, Per-Ingvar

    2016-04-01

    Replacement of lost teeth has significant functional and psychosocial effects. The capability of osseointegrated dental implants to transmit a certain amount of sensibility is still unclear. The phenomenon of developing a certain amount of tactile sensibility through osseointegrated dental implants is called osseoperception. The aim of this article is to evaluate the available literature to find osseoperception associated with dental implants. To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline and PubMed database. Articles published in English and articles whose abstract is available in English were included. The articles included in the review were based on osseoperception, tactile sensation, and neurophysiological mechanoreceptors in relation to dental implants. Articles on peri-implantitis and infection-related sensitivity were not included. Review articles without the original data were excluded, although references to potentially pertinent articles were noted for further follow-up. The phenomenon of osseoperception remains a matter of debate, so the search strategy mainly focused on articles on osseoperception and tactile sensibility of dental implants. This review presents the histological, neurophysiological, and psychophysical evidence of osseoperception and also the role of mechanoreceptors in osseoperception. The literature on osseoperception in dental implants is very scarce. The initial literature search resulted in 90 articles, of which 81 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. Patients restored with implant-supported prostheses reported improved tactile and motor function when compared with patients wearing complete dentures. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Treatment of Cutaneous Pseudolymphoma: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CPL is a reactive polyclonal T- or B-cell lymphoproliferative process. CPL may appear as localized or disseminated skin lesions. While most cases of CPL are idiopathic, they may also occur as a response to, for example, contact dermatitis, arthropod reactions, and bacterial infections. CPL can be classified based on its clinical features, but all variants have similar histopathological patterns of either predominantly B-cell infiltrates, T-cell infiltrates, or mixed T/B-cell infiltrates. The prognosis of CPL is good, but the underlying disease process should be taken into account. If an antigenic stimulus is identified, it should be removed. In patients with idiopathic CPL, a close follow-up control strategy should be adopted. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize all reported treatments for CPL. The review was based on articles from the PubMed database, using the query “skin pseudolymphoma treatment”, English and German, about “human” subjects, and published between 1990 and 2015 documenting adequate treatment and/or aetiology. Mainly individual case reports and small case series were found. Treatment options include topical and intralesional agents, systemic agents, and physical modalities. The final part of the review proposes a treatment algorithm for CPL according to each aetiology, based on the literature of the last 25 years. Future research should focus on randomized controlled trials and studies on long-term outcomes, which were not identified in the current review.

  11. Match Analysis in Volleyball: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.

  12. Robotic bariatric surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Matthew M; Saber, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a nationwide epidemic, and the only evidence-based, durable treatment of this disease is bariatric surgery. This field has evolved drastically during the past decade. One of the latest advances has been the increased use of robotics within this field. The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the recent data to determine the safety and efficacy of robotic bariatric surgery. The setting was the University Hospitals Case Medical Center (Cleveland, OH). A PubMed search was performed for robotic bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2011. The inclusion criteria were English language, original research, human, and bariatric surgical procedures. Perioperative data were then collected from each study and recorded. A total of 18 studies were included in our review. The results of our systematic review showed that bariatric surgery, when performed with the use of robotics, had similar or lower complication rates compared with traditional laparoscopy. Two studies showed shorter operative times using the robot for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but 4 studies showed longer operative times in the robotic arm. In addition, the learning curve appears to be shorter when robotic gastric bypass is compared with the traditional laparoscopic approach. Most investigators agreed that robotic laparoscopic surgery provides superior imaging and freedom of movement compared with traditional laparoscopy. The application of robotics appears to be a safe option within the realm of bariatric surgery. Prospective randomized trials comparing robotic and laparoscopic outcomes are needed to further define the role of robotics within the field of bariatric surgery. Longer follow-up times would also help elucidate any long-term outcomes differences with the use of robotics versus traditional laparoscopy. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Laryngeal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano, Emily; Chin, Oliver Y; Fang, Christina H; Park, Richard Chan; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant minor salivary gland tumor that represents laryngeal tumors. The submucosal location of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (LACC) results in delayed presentation. Here, we present the first systematic review of reported cases of LACC to determine trends in presentation, diagnostic and treatment modalities, and patient outcome. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. A search of the above databases was done to identify articles reporting cases of LACC. The variables included in the analysis were patient demographics, presenting symptoms, tumor location, imaging, treatment, follow-up time, recurrence, and outcome. A total of 50 articles and 120 cases were included in the review. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (48.8%), followed by hoarseness (43.9%). LACC arose most frequently from the subglottis (56.7%). At presentation, 14.6% (13 of 89) of patients had regional disease. The average follow-up time was 54.0 months. At follow-up, distant metastasis was reported in 30 cases (33.3%). Surgery alone (43.3%) and surgery with radiotherapy (43.3%) were used most frequently and resulted in 57.1% and 55.3% of patients alive with no evidence disease at follow-up, respectively. LACC was most often located in the subglottis. Patients commonly presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. In this systematic review, surgery with radiotherapy and surgery alone were the most commonly employed treatment modalities, and both resulted in slightly more than 50% of patients alive with no evidence of disease at follow-up. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  14. Epidemiologia do beber pesado e beber pesado episódico no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Epidemiology of heavy drinking and heavy episodic drinking in Brazil: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Magalhães Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O beber pesado episódico (BPE tem sido fortemente associado a danos e a uma carga social consideráveis. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo tem como finalidade avaliar o panorama brasileiro a partir de aspectos sociodemográficos, fatores individuais e sociais relacionados ao beber pesado. MÉTODOS: A busca de artigos científicos foi realizada com base em um programa de computador nos principais bancos de dados científicos. RESULTADOS: Os homens beberam pesado mais freqüentemente que as mulheres. O beber pesado episódico foi mais prevalente em adolescentes e adultos jovens, e a prevalência tende a diminuir com o aumento da idade. As condições socioeconômicas parecem ter um efeito sobre o beber pesado. O início precoce do beber pesado esteve associado com história de dependência do álcool na vida adulta. O beber pesado episódico esteve associado ao uso concomitante de outras substâncias psicoativas. Os fatores de risco para BPE incluíram atividades sociais e disponibilidade de dinheiro. A pressão dos pares mostrou influenciar mais do que o suporte parental especialmente no final de adolescência. O BP também variou de acordo com a cultura, com mais episódios de BP no Sul em comparação com o Norte do País. CONCLUSÕES: Uma variedade de aspectos sociodemográficos e individuais associados ao beber pesado foi identificada. Porém, o conhecimento nessa área ainda é muito limitado. Mais pesquisas no Brasil são urgentemente necessárias visto que os resultados provenientes de outras culturas não podem ser generalizados.BACKGROUND: Heavy episodic drinking has been shown to be closely associated with considerable damage to and burden on society. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to give an overview of the Brazilian reality based on socio-demographic aspects, considering individual and social factors related to heavy drinking. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of relevant articles was conducted in the foremost scientific databases

  15. Contribution of Systematic Reviews to Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Contribuciones de las Revisiones Sistemáticas a las

  16. Cadmium Exposure and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Jones, Miranda R; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that cadmium, a toxic metal found in tobacco, air and food, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease. Twelve studies were identified. Overall, the pooled relative risks (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were: 1.36 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.66), 1.30 (95%CI: 1.12, 1.52), 1.18 (95%CI: 0.86, 1.59), and 1.49 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.92), respectively. The pooled relative risks for cardiovascular disease in men, women and never smokers were 1.29 (1.12, 1.48), 1.20 (0.92, 1.56) and 1.27 (0.97, 1.67), respectively. Together with experimental evidence, our review supports the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease, especially for coronary heart disease. The number of studies with stroke, HF and PAD endpoints was small. More studies, especially studies evaluating incident endpoints, are needed. PMID:23955722

  17. Smoking in Video Games: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-06-01

    Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imagery in video games (n = 6), video game playing and smoking behavior (n = 11), video game addiction and tobacco addiction (n = 5) and genre-specific game playing and smoking behavior (n = 3). Tobacco content was present in a subset of video games. The literature is inconclusive as to whether exposure to video games as a single construct is associated with smoking behavior. Four of five studies found an association between video game addiction and smoking. For genre-specific game playing, studies suggest that the type of game played affected association with smoking behavior. Research on how playing video games influences adolescents' perceptions of smoking and smoking behaviors is still in its nascence. Further research is needed to understand how adolescents respond to viewing and manipulating tobacco imagery, and whether engaging in game smoking translates into changes in real-world attitudes or behavior. Smoking imagery in video games may contribute to normalizing adolescent smoking. A large body of research has shown that smoking imagery in a variety of media types contributes to adolescent smoking uptake and the normalization of smoking behavior, and almost 90% of adolescents play video games, yet there has never been a published systematic review of the literature on this important topic. This is the first systematic review to examine the research on tobacco and video games.We found that tobacco imagery is indeed present in video games, the relationship between video game playing and smoking

  18. A review on epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile is an important factor in the development of the gastrointestinal diseases because of irrational antibiotic prescription and antimicrobial resistance. In the past, this bacterium was introduced as an agent of the infection in the hospitals called "hospital acquired Clostridium difficile infection". This infection is a main cause of morbidity and mortality internationally. But changing in the epidemiology of the infection was observed in recent years. People not taking antibiotics as well as any contact with the clinical system were hospitalized due to the infection named "Community-Associated Clostridium difficile infection". Furthermore, the hypervirulent strains of C. difficile were identified outside of the health care facilities in different sources such as environment, animals and food products. Today the role of C. difficile has not been confirmed as a zoonotic agent or foodborne pathogen. Taking into account, it should be taken attention to the sensitive individuals such as pregnant women, elderly and children for the consumption of the contaminated food products with C. difficile spores and probable cause of the infection in these individuals. For this purpose, presentation of the guidelines or the prevention strategies for the transmission of bacteria in the society as well as the healthcare facilities is important. In this review study, the history, the risk factors of disease and the reports of infection in the healthcare facilities and outside of this environment in Iran were discussed. Finally, we supposed that based on the isolation of C. difficile with different genetic profile in Iran in comparison with international ribotypes, the existence of native strains leading to the infection in the community and the healthcare facilities is possible. This hypothesis shows the significance of regional differences in the epidemiology and microbiology of disease. In addition, according to the present

  19. Review article: the epidemiology and prevention of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, K M

    2014-08-01

    Gastric cancer can be divided into cardia and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (NCGA). Non cardia gastric cancer is a disease that has declined in global incidence but has remained as an extremely lethal cancer. To review recent advances in epidemiology and strategies in prevention of non cardia gastric cancer. A rapid literature search strategy was developed for all English language literature published before March 2013. The search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE. The search strategy included the keywords 'stomach neoplasms', 'gastric cancer', 'epidemiology', 'risk factor', 'early detection of cancer', 'mass screening', 'cancer burden', 'prevention' and 'cost-effectiveness'. The search strategy was adjusted according to different requirements for each database. The specific search was also performed in cancer-related websites for country-specific information. The search was limited to past 10 years. Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer but the third leading cause of cancer death. The case fatality rate is 75%. Screening by radiological or endoscopic methods has limited success in prevention of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a carcinogen, accounting for 60-70% of gastric cancer globally and eradication is a potential preventive measure. A meta-analysis in 2009 demonstrated that individuals treated with H. pylori eradication therapy can reduce gastric cancer risk. The extended Shandong Intervention trial that lasted 14.3 years showed that H. pylori eradication therapy significantly reduced gastric cancer incidence by 39%. Consensus groups from Asia, Europe and Japan have recommended H. pylori eradication as primary prevention in high-risk areas. Following eradication therapy, endoscopic surveillance of pre-malignant lesions using enhanced imaging appears to be another promising preventive strategy. Gastric cancer remains a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. There is emerging evidence that

  20. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  1. A systematic review on health resilience to economic crises.

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    Ketevan Glonti

    Full Text Available The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises.We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i exposure to an economic crisis; (ii changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed.From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women's mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men's. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours.Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies which operationalised resilience

  2. A systematic review on health resilience to economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women's mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men's. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies which operationalised resilience factors

  3. A Systematic Review on Health Resilience to Economic Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S.; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. Methods We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. Results From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women’s mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men’s. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Conclusions Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies

  4. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in cervical applications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Roel Frederik Mark Raymond; van Gaalen, Steven M; de Gast, Arthur; Öner, F Cumhur

    2015-06-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used during the past decade in patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Their radiolucency and low elastic modulus make them attractive attributes for spinal fusion compared with titanium and bone graft. Still, limitations are seen such as pseudoarthrosis, subsidence, and migration of the cages. Limited evidence on the clinical outcome of PEEK cages is found in the literature other than noncomparative cohort studies with only a few randomized controlled trials. To assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of PEEK cages in the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and/or spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine. Systematic review of all randomized controlled trials and prospective and retrospective nonrandomized comparative studies with a minimum follow-up of 6 months and all noncomparative cohort studies with a long-term follow-up of more than 5 years. The primary outcome variable was clinical performance. Secondary outcome variables consisted of radiographic scores. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. No conflict of interest reported. No funding received. A total of 223 studies were identified, of which 10 studies were included. These comprised two randomized controlled trials, five prospective comparative trials, and three retrospective comparative trials. Minimal evidence for better clinical and radiographic outcome is found for PEEK cages compared with bone grafts in the cervical spine. No differences were found between PEEK, titanium, and carbon fiber cages. Future studies are needed to improve methodology to minimize bias. Publication of lumbar interbody fusion studies needs to be promoted because differences in clinical and/or radiographic scores are more likely to be demonstrated in this part

  5. Systematic review of kidney transplantation functional predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret Alomar, E; Trilla Herrera, E; Lorente Garcia, D; Regis Placido, L; López Del Campo, R; Cuadras Solé, M; Pont Castellana, T; Moreso Mateos, F; Serón Micas, D; Morote Robles, J

    2017-08-10

    Kidney transplantation from donors with expanded criteria has increased the pool of kidneys at the cost of a higher risk of short and long-term graft dysfunction. The main issue lies in determining which kidneys will offer acceptable function and survival compared with the risk represented by surgery and subsequent immunosuppression. The objective of our article is to review the current evidence on the tools for predicting the functionality of kidney transplantation from cadaveric donors with expanded criteria and determining the validity for their use in standard practice. We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PRISM criteria, through Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and using the keywords (in isolation or in conjunction) "cadaveric renal transplantation; kidney graft function appraisal, graft function predictors". We selected prospective and retrospective series and review articles. A total of 375 articles were analysed, 39 of which were ultimately selected for review. The predictors of functionality include the following: The donor risk indices; the calculation of the renal functional weight or the assessment of the nephronic mass; the measurement of vascular resistances during perfusion in hypothermia; the measurement of the donor's biomarkers in urine and in the perfusion liquid; the measurement of functional and reperfusion parameters in normothermia; and the measurement of morphological parameters (microscopic and macroscopic) of the target organ. In this article, we present an explanatory summary of each of these parameters, as well as their most recent evidence on this issue. None of the reviewed parameters in isolation could reliably predict renal function and graft survival. There is a significant void in terms of the macroscopic assessment of kidney transplantation. We need to continue developing predictors of renal functionality to accurately define the distribution of each currently available donor kidney. Copyright © 2017

  6. Videogames for Emotion Regulation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Daniela; Carissoli, Claudia; Triberti, Stefano; Marchetti, Antonella; Gilli, Gabriella; Riva, Giuseppe

    2018-02-09

    Emotion regulation (ER) supports multiple individual functions and promotes mental health and wellbeing. Among the tools that may be used to help people in managing their affective states, videogames are reaching attention and are showing positive effects. Yet, little is known about their effectiveness. This study aims to assess the amount and quality of studies investigating the effects and modalities of the use of videogames for ER. A systematic literature search according to PRISMA guidelines was performed. Subsequently, according to expert advice other few studies have been added. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review; they can be categorized into three groups, namely (1) cross-sectional and qualitative studies, (2) experimental studies investigating the effects of videogame experience on ER and (3) ER intervention with serious games. Discussion of the reviewed studies highlights that frequent gaming with commercial games offers more opportunities for ER improvement (related to gameplay and enjoyment of fictional properties) than limited-time experiences, such as those supported by bespoke serious games. This research area is still in its infancy and findings need to be interpreted with caution; furthermore, future reviews are encouraged to include clinical populations. Videogames offer several opportunities for ER and a challenge for educational and psychological interventions.

  7. Bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Horng Ruey; Schneider, Antoine; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-07-06

    This study was designed to examine the efficacy and risk of bicarbonate administration in the emergent treatment of severe acidemia in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). PUBMED database was used to identify potentially relevant articles in the pediatric and adult DKA populations. DKA intervention studies on bicarbonate administration versus no bicarbonate in the emergent therapy, acid-base studies, studies on risk association with cerebral edema, and related case reports, were selected for review. Two reviewers independently conducted data extraction and assessed the citation relevance for inclusion. From 508 potentially relevant articles, 44 were included in the systematic review, including three adult randomized controlled trials (RCT) on bicarbonate administration versus no bicarbonate in DKA. We observed a marked heterogeneity in pH threshold, concentration, amount, and timing for bicarbonate administration in various studies. Two RCTs demonstrated transient improvement in metabolic acidosis with bicarbonate treatment within the initial 2 hours. There was no evidence of improved glycemic control or clinical efficacy. There was retrospective evidence of increased risk for cerebral edema and prolonged hospitalization in children who received bicarbonate, and weak evidence of transient paradoxical worsening of ketosis, and increased need for potassium supplementation. No studies involved patients with an initial pH pediatric population, in view of possible clinical harm and lack of sustained benefits.

  8. Bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis - a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to examine the efficacy and risk of bicarbonate administration in the emergent treatment of severe acidemia in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Methods PUBMED database was used to identify potentially relevant articles in the pediatric and adult DKA populations. DKA intervention studies on bicarbonate administration versus no bicarbonate in the emergent therapy, acid-base studies, studies on risk association with cerebral edema, and related case reports, were selected for review. Two reviewers independently conducted data extraction and assessed the citation relevance for inclusion. Results From 508 potentially relevant articles, 44 were included in the systematic review, including three adult randomized controlled trials (RCT) on bicarbonate administration versus no bicarbonate in DKA. We observed a marked heterogeneity in pH threshold, concentration, amount, and timing for bicarbonate administration in various studies. Two RCTs demonstrated transient improvement in metabolic acidosis with bicarbonate treatment within the initial 2 hours. There was no evidence of improved glycemic control or clinical efficacy. There was retrospective evidence of increased risk for cerebral edema and prolonged hospitalization in children who received bicarbonate, and weak evidence of transient paradoxical worsening of ketosis, and increased need for potassium supplementation. No studies involved patients with an initial pH < 6.85. Conclusions The evidence to date does not justify the administration of bicarbonate for the emergent treatment of DKA, especially in the pediatric population, in view of possible clinical harm and lack of sustained benefits. PMID:21906367

  9. Topiramate and the vision: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Mohammad-Ali; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Fazel, Farhad; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Etemadifar, Masoud; Jenab, Keivan; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Topiramate (TPM) is a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide that is used mainly for treating epilepsy and preventing migraine. Within the gamut of side effects attributable to this drug, ophthalmologic manifestations are of crucial importance. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a systematic literature review regarding this issue. Methods For the time period 1996–2011, a PubMed search was made for the studies concerning the adverse/beneficial effects of TPM on vision. Overall, 404 citations out of a total of 2756 TPM-related studies were examined for relevance. Results A total of 74 relevant studies were reviewed, 65 of which comprise small observational studies describing the ophthalmic side effects of TPM in 84 patients. Of these patients, 66 were affected by ciliochoroidal effusion syndrome as the cardinal ocular side effect of TPM (17 cases of myopic shift and 49 cases of angle closure glaucoma). A comprehensive statistical analysis is provided on these 66 subjects. Other rare side effects of TPM on the vision were also reviewed, including massive choroidal effusion, ocular inflammatory reactions, visual field defects, probable effects on retina, cornea, and sclera, and neuroophthalmologic complications. In addition, a framework is provided to classify these results. Discussion Due to the expanding spectrum of indications for the administration of TPM, neurologists and psychiatrists should be aware of its diverse ocular side effects. In conclusion, ocular complications following this drug should be taken seriously and be subjected to ophthalmic counseling. PMID:22275816

  10. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Torres-Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  11. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  13. Is peacekeeping peaceful? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Stein, Murray B; Thoresen, Siri; Belik, Shay-Lee; Zamorski, Mark; Asmundson, Gordon Jg

    2010-07-01

    To systematically review the literature on the association between deployment to a peacekeeping mission and distress, mental disorders, and suicide. Peer-reviewed English publications were found through key word searches in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase, and by contacting authors in the field. Sixty-eight articles were included in this review. Some studies have found higher levels of postdeployment distress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Most studies have not shown an increased risk of suicide in former peacekeepers. Correlates of distress and PTSD symptoms included level of exposure to traumatic events during deployment, number of deployments, predeployment personality traits or disorder, and postdeployment stressors. Perceived meaningfulness of the mission, postdeployment social supports, and positive perception of homecoming were associated with lower likelihood of distress. Most peacekeepers do not develop high levels of distress or symptoms of PTSD. As postdeployment distress is consistently shown to be associated with high levels of exposure to combat during deployment, targeted interventions for peacekeepers who have been exposed to high levels of combat should be considered.

  14. EMDR beyond PTSD: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Treen, Devi; Cedrón, Carlos; Colom, Francesc; Pérez, Víctor; Amann, Benedikt L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic approach that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) through several randomized controlled trials (RCT). Solid evidence shows that traumatic events can contribute to the onset of severe mental disorders and can worsen their prognosis. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the most important findings from RCT conducted in the treatment of comorbid traumatic events in psychosis, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and chronic back pain. Methods: Using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, we conducted a systematic literature search of RCT studies published up to December 2016 that used EMDR therapy in the mentioned psychiatric conditions. Results: RCT are still scarce in these comorbid conditions but the available evidence suggests that EMDR therapy improves trauma-associated symptoms and has a minor effect on the primary disorders by reaching partial symptomatic improvement. Conclusions: EMDR therapy could be a useful psychotherapy to treat trauma-associated symptoms in patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Preliminary evidence also suggests that EMDR therapy might be useful to improve psychotic or affective symptoms and could be an add-on treatment in chronic pain conditions. PMID:29018388

  15. EMDR beyond PTSD: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Alicia Valiente-Gómez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a psychotherapeutic approach that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD through several randomized controlled trials (RCT. Solid evidence shows that traumatic events can contribute to the onset of severe mental disorders and can worsen their prognosis. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the most important findings from RCT conducted in the treatment of comorbid traumatic events in psychosis, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and chronic back pain.Methods: Using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, we conducted a systematic literature search of RCT studies published up to December 2016 that used EMDR therapy in the mentioned psychiatric conditions.Results: RCT are still scarce in these comorbid conditions but the available evidence suggests that EMDR therapy improves trauma-associated symptoms and has a minor effect on the primary disorders by reaching partial symptomatic improvement.Conclusions: EMDR therapy could be a useful psychotherapy to treat trauma-associated symptoms in patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Preliminary evidence also suggests that EMDR therapy might be useful to improve psychotic or affective symptoms and could be an add-on treatment in chronic pain conditions.

  16. Serious Games for Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.

  17. The science of epidemiology and the methods needed for public health assessments: a review of epidemiology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Hebe N; Powles, John W

    2014-02-10

    Epidemiology is often described as 'the science of public health'. Here we aim to assess the extent that epidemiological methods, as covered in contemporary standard textbooks, provide tools that can assess the relative magnitude of public health problems and can be used to help rank and assess public health priorities. Narrative literature review. Thirty textbooks were grouped into three categories; pure, extended or applied epidemiology, were reviewed with attention to the ways the discipline is characterised and the nature of the analytical methods described. Pure texts tend to present a strict hierarchy of methods with those metrics deemed to best serve aetiological inquiry at the top. Extended and applied texts employ broader definitions of epidemiology but in most cases, the metrics described are also those used in aetiological inquiry and may not be optimal for capturing the consequences and social importance of injuries and disease onsets. The primary scientific purpose of epidemiology, even amongst 'applied' textbooks, is aetiological inquiry. Authors do not readily extend to methods suitable for assessing public health problems and priorities.

  18. Equações de predição da aptidão cardiorrespiratória sem testes de exercício e sua aplicabilidade em estudos epidemiológicos: uma revisão sistemática Prediction of aerobic fitness without stress testing and applicability to epidemiological studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Albuquerque Maranhão Neto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma baixa aptidão cardiorrespiratória é considerada fator de risco independente para o óbito por todas as causas, mas principalmente por doença coronariana. Devido a essa importância e à dificuldade de avaliá-la por meio de testes de exercícios, formas alternativas de avaliação foram sugeridas, envolvendo equações de predição sem a necessidade de realização de exercícios. O presente estudo objetivou analisar criticamente esses modelos e, principalmente, sua aplicabilidade em estudos epidemiológicos. Foi realizada uma revisão de artigos publicados entre 1966 e 2002. Os critérios para julgar a qualidade dos estudos foram: (a inclusão de variáveis explicativas com base teórica; (b critérios de validação (padrão-ouro; (c equações apresentadas por completo, incluindo erro padrão da estimativa; (d equações submetidas a processo de validação cruzada. Apenas cinco dos 23 estudos selecionados atenderam a todos os critérios de qualidade. Conclui-se que, em princípio, os modelos sem exercícios podem constituir alternativa viável para avaliação da aptidão cardiorrespiratória em estudos epidemiológicos. No entanto, ainda são poucas as equações disponíveis cuja validação permite grau aceitável de generalização.Cardiorespiratory fitness is used as an independent factor for evaluating risk of all-cause mortality, but mainly from coronary heart disease. Nevertheless, evaluation of fitness based on stress tests poses numerous epidemiological difficulties. Alternative forms of evaluation have therefore been suggested using non-exercise-based regression models. This study aimed to analyze these models and their applicability to epidemiological studies. A systematic review was conducted of articles published from 1966 to 2002. The models were classified according to: (a theoretical justification for the explanatory variables included in the model; (b validation criteria (gold standard; (c regression models fully

  19. Probiotics and athletic performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew W

    2007-07-01

    Probiotic bacteria are defined as live food ingredients that are beneficial to the health of the host. Probiotics occur naturally in fermented food products such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, cabbage kimchee, and soybean-based miso and natto. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to probiotics, including effects on gastrointestinal tract function and diseases, immune function, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and allergic conditions. A systematic review of the medical literature failed to identify any studies that directly investigated the potential ergogenic effects of probiotics on athletic performance. Two published articles suggest that probiotics may enhance the immune responses of fatigued athletes. In summary, although scientific evidence for an ergogenic effect of probiotics is lacking, probiotics may provide athletes with secondary health benefits that could positively affect athletic performance through enhanced recovery from fatigue, improved immune function, and maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal tract function.

  20. Risk perception in gambling: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Perception of the consequences of risk affects motivation and behaviour. In gambling, distorted expectations and preferences towards outcomes are associated with significant social and clinical harms. A systematic review was conducted to examine the relationship between gambling risk perception and behaviour. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. Studies provided evidence that disordered gamblers hold both more optimistic overall perceptions of risk, and a mixture of more positive and more negative specific outcome expectations. Preliminary evidence suggests a range of contextual and individual differences moderate risk perception affecting decision-making. Disordered gamblers appear to sustain motivation to gamble, despite more negative expectations and experiences, via cognitive processes that result in preferential emphasis on positive over negative outcomes. Given potential differences in the perception of risk between various categories of gamblers, clinicians should take into account how gamblers in treatment view gambling as a risky behaviour. Improving the accuracy of such perceptions may reduce the propensity for risk-taking behaviours.

  1. Granuloma Faciale Treatment: A Systematic Review

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    Claudia Lindhaus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale is an uncommon benign chronic dermatosis characterized by reddish-brown to violaceous asymptomatic plaques appearing predominantly on the face. The pathogenesis of granuloma faciale remains unclear, and it is frequently unresponsive to therapy. This systematic review aims to summarize all recent publications on the management of granuloma faciale. The publications are mainly individual case reports, small case series and a few retrospective studies. Treatment options included topical, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, topical and systemic dapsone, systemic hydroxychloroquine, clofazimine, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. More invasive therapies using lasers as well as cryosurgery and surgery were also reported. Topical glucocorticosteroids and tacrolimus remain treatments of first choice, possibly supplemented by topical dapsone.

  2. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.

  3. Resveratrol in lung cancer- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhou, Jihing; Jiang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a phytochemical known for its anti- oxidative properties has been explored worldwide for anticancer potential. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis in order to register the efficacy of resveratrol against lung carcinogenesis. We searched PubMed for preclinical studies reporting efficacy of resveratrol alone or in combination with drugs like curcumin, cisplatin etc. against lung carcinogenesis. The primary outcome of eligible studies included change in overall tumor incidence as well as tumor size. In all of the above studies involving either animal models or in vitro cancer cell experiments a statistically significant reduction in tumor incidence emerged as compared with the control groups, yielding a relative risk reduction of 0.64 (p=0.002). This meta- analysis confirmed the potential of resveratrol against lung carcinogenesis. It can be concluded that resveratrol holds a good potential for future use as a highly efficient therapeutic agent to deal with deadly lung carcinogenesis.

  4. Suicide in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a review of studies on suicide in children aged 14 years and younger. Articles were identified through a systematic search of Scopus, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. Key words were "children, suicide, psychological autopsy, and case-study." Additional articles were identified through manual search of reference lists and discussion with colleagues. Fifteen published articles were identified, 8 psychological autopsy studies (PA), and 7 retrospective case-study series. Suicide incidence and gender asymmetry increases with age. Hanging is the most frequent method. Lower rates of psychopathology are evident among child suicides compared to adolescents. Previous suicide attempts were an important risk factor. Children were less likely to consume alcohol prior to suicide. Parent-child conflicts were the most common precipitant.

  5. Treatment of pulmonary brucellosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solera, Javier; Solís García Del Pozo, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is a rare, focal complication of human brucellosis. The aim of this review is to describe clinical and radiologic features, treatment administered and clinical course of these patients. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic search of scientific reports of brucellosis with pulmonary involvement published from January 1985 to July 2016. Four main patterns of disease were observed: pneumonia, pleural effusion, nodules and interstitial pattern. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms. Brucella spp. culture was obtained from blood (50%) or pleural fluid. Treatment is based on the same antibiotics and combinations of antibiotics as for patients with acute no complicated brucellosis. The most frequent antimicrobial combination was doxycycline and rifampin for six weeks. The clinical course was favorable in most reports, and mortality was remarkably low (Brucellosis from other pulmonary infections, such as tuberculosis, sometimes posed an added diagnostic challenge.

  6. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J Stockman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify priorities for research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In response to the WHO request we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r, type I interferon (IFN, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, and SARS convalescent plasma from both in vitro studies and in SARS patients. We also searched for clinical trial evidence of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sources of data were the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to February 2005. Data from publications were extracted and evidence within studies was classified using predefined criteria. In total, 54 SARS treatment studies, 15 in vitro studies, and three acute respiratory distress syndrome studies met our inclusion criteria. Within in vitro studies, ribavirin, lopinavir, and type I IFN showed inhibition of SARS-CoV in tissue culture. In SARS-infected patient reports on ribavirin, 26 studies were classified as inconclusive, and four showed possible harm. Seven studies of convalescent plasma or IVIG, three of IFN type I, and two of LPV/r were inconclusive. In 29 studies of steroid use, 25 were inconclusive and four were classified as causing possible harm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an extensive literature reporting on SARS treatments, it was not possible to determine whether treatments benefited patients during the SARS outbreak. Some may have been harmful. Clinical trials should be designed to validate a standard protocol for dosage

  7. Ring Avulsion Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Malhotra, Gautam; Bueno, Reuben A; Thayer, Wesley P; Shack, R Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ring avulsion injuries can range from soft tissue injury to complete amputation. Grading systems have been developed to guide treatment, but there is controversy with high-grade injuries. Traditionally, advanced ring injuries have been treated with completion amputation, but there is evidence that severe ring injuries can be salvaged. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool the current published data on ring injuries. A systematic review of the English literature published from 1980 to 2015 in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted to identify patients who underwent treatment for ring avulsion injuries. Twenty studies of ring avulsion injuries met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 572 patients reported with ring avulsion injuries. The Urbaniak class breakdown was class I (54 patients), class II (204 patients), and class III (314 patients). The average total arc of motion (TAM) for patients with a class I injury was 201.25 (n = 40). The average 2-point discrimination was 5.6 (n = 10). The average TAM for patients with a class II injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 187.0 (n = 114), and the average 2-point discrimination was 8.3 (n = 40). The average TAM for patients with a class III injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 168.2 (n = 170), and the average 2-point discrimination was 10.5 (n = 97). Ring avulsion injuries are commonly classified with the Urbaniak class system. Outcomes are superior for class I and II injuries, and there are select class III injuries that can be treated with replantation. Shared decision making with patients is imperative to determine whether replantation is appropriate.

  8. Metals and neurodegenerative diseases. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Mostile, Giovanni; Vasta, Rosario; Rapisarda, Venerando; Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Ferrante, Margherita; Zappia, Mario; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-11-01

    Neurodegenerative processes encompass a large variety of diseases with different pathological patterns and clinical presentation such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer Disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic mutations have a known causative role, but the majority of cases are likely to be probably caused by a complex gene-environment interaction. Exposure to metals has been hypothesized to increase oxidative stress in brain cells leading to cell death and neurodegeneration. Neurotoxicity of metals has been demonstrated by several in vitro and in vivo experimental studies and it is likely that each metal could be toxic through specific pathways. The possible pathogenic role of different metals has been supported by some epidemiological evidences coming from occupational and ecological studies. In order to assess the possible association between metals and neurodegenerative disorders, several case-control studies have also been carried out evaluating the metals concentration in different biological specimens such as blood/serum/plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nail and hair, often reporting conflicting results. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge on the possible association between metals and ALS, AD and PD as main neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, R; Tecame, A; Torre, G; Narbona, P; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2015-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and mechanisms of lesion, risk factors and return to sport were extracted and analyzed. The main reported data were incidence, mechanism of injury and type of lesion. Most of the studies report tackle as the main event responsible for shoulder trauma (between 50% and 85%), while the main lesions reported were Bankart lesions, Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP tears), anterior dislocation and rotator cuff tears. Open or arthroscopic repair improve clinical outcomes. Shoulder lesions are common injuries in rugby players. Surgical treatment seems to be effective in for rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability. More and better designed studies are needed for a higher Level of Evidence analysis of this topic.

  10. Risk Factors of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in China: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Zhao

    Full Text Available Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies.A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist.Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants. While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers.Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio-political interventions

  11. A systematic review of the epidemiology of mansonelliasis | Downes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... infection with any of the three types of Mansonella species that affect humans is often asymptomatic, a large portion of the world's population is at risk of this vectorborne filarial nematode infection. ... The risk of infection increases with age and may be higher in males than females.

  12. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver th...

  13. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-22

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species.

  14. Multiple Sclerosis Relapses: Epidemiology, Outcomes and Management. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalincik, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Relapses (episodic exacerbations of neurological signs or symptoms) are a defining feature of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), the most prevalent MS phenotype. While their diagnostic value relates predominantly to the definition of clinically definite MS, their prognostic value is determined by their relatively high associated risk of incomplete remission resulting in residual disability. The mechanisms governing a relapse incidence are unknown, but numerous modifiers of relapse risk have been described, including demographic and clinical characteristics, many of which represent opportunities for improved disease management. Also relapse phenotypes have been associated with patient and disease characteristics and an individual predisposition to certain phenotypic presentations may imply individual neuroanatomical disease patterns. While immunomodulatory therapies and corticosteroids represent the mainstay of relapse prevention and acute management, respectively, their effect has only been partial and further search for more efficient relapse therapies is warranted. Other areas of research include pathophysiology and determinants of relapse incidence, recurrence and phenotypes, including the characteristics of the relapsing and non-relapsing multiple sclerosis variants and their responsiveness to therapies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. How useful are systematic reviews for informing palliative care practice? Survey of 25 Cochrane systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley Gina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews

  16. “Generalized Osteoarthritis”: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Amanda E.; Smith, Michael W.; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Given the conflicting definitions of “generalized osteoarthritis” (GOA) in the literature, we performed a systematic review of GOA definitions, risk factors, and outcomes. Methods We searched the Medline literature with terms: osteoarthritis, generalized, polyarticular, multiple joint, and multi-joint, to obtain articles related to GOA, following evidence-based guidelines. Titles and abstracts of 948 articles were reviewed, with full text review of 108. Data were extracted based on pre-specified criteria for 74 articles plus 24 identified through bibliographic review (total=98). Results Twenty-four large cohorts (n~30,000) were represented along with numerous clinical series (n~9000), across 22 countries and 60 years (1952–2012). No less than 15 definitions of GOA were given in 30 studies with a stated GOA definition; at least 6 groups used a summed score of joints or radiographic grades. Prevalence estimates based on these GOA definitions were 1–80%, although most were 5–25%. Increased risk and progression of GOA was associated with age, female sex, and genetic/familial factors. Associations with increased body mass index or bone mineral density were not consistent. One study estimated the heritability of GOA at 42%. Collagen biomarker levels increased with number of involved joints. Increased OA burden was associated with increased mortality and disability, poorer health and function. Conclusion While there remains no standard definition of GOA, this term is commonly used. The impact on health may be greater when OA is in more than one joint. A descriptive term, such as multi-joint or polyarticular OA, designating OA of multiple joints or joint groups, is recommended. PMID:24461078

  17. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  18. Rater methodology for stroboscopy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Focht, Kendrea L; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal endoscopy with stroboscopy (LES) remains the clinical gold standard for assessing vocal fold function. LES is used to evaluate the efficacy of voice treatments in research studies and clinical practice. LES as a voice treatment outcome tool is only as good as the clinician interpreting the recordings. Research using LES as a treatment outcome measure should be evaluated based on rater methodology and reliability. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the rater-related methodology from studies that use stroboscopic findings as voice treatment outcome measures. Systematic literature review. Computerized journal databases were searched for relevant articles using terms: stroboscopy and treatment. Eligible articles were categorized and evaluated for the use of rater-related methodology, reporting of number of raters, types of raters, blinding, and rater reliability. Of the 738 articles reviewed, 80 articles met inclusion criteria. More than one-third of the studies included in the review did not report the number of raters who participated in the study. Eleven studies reported results of rater reliability analysis with only two studies reporting good inter- and intrarater reliability. The comparability and use of results from treatment studies that use LES are limited by a lack of rigor in rater methodology and variable, mostly poor, inter- and intrarater reliability. To improve our ability to evaluate and use the findings from voice treatment studies that use LES features as outcome measures, greater consistency of reporting rater methodology characteristics across studies and improved rater reliability is needed. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  20. Systematic reviews of herbal medicines--an annotated bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials on herbal medicines. METHODS: Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of

  1. Suggested Guidelines for Conducting Music Therapy Literature Reviews & an Introduction to Systematic Reviews in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole; Rickson, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic...... reviews conducted in music therapy....

  2. Creativity and psychopathology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Temporomandibular disorder in otolaryngology: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, L; Shaw, C-K L; Oue, S

    2017-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorder poses a diagnostic challenge to otolaryngologists as orofacial pain, headache and otology symptoms are very common in temporomandibular disorder, and mimic a number of otolaryngological conditions. Missed diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder can lead to unnecessary investigation and treatment, resulting in further patient suffering. To review the current literature and propose management pathways for otolaryngologists to correctly differentiate temporomandibular disorder from other otolaryngological conditions, and to initiate effective treatment for temporomandibular disorder in collaboration with other health professionals. A systematic review using PubMed and Medline databases was conducted, and data on temporomandibular disorder in conjunction with otolaryngological symptoms were collected for analysis. Of 4155 potential studies, 33 were retrieved for detailed evaluation and 12 met the study criteria. There are questionnaires, examination techniques and radiological investigations presented in the literature to assist with distinguishing between otolaryngological causes of symptoms and temporomandibular disorder. Simple treatment can be initiated by the otolaryngologist. Initial temporomandibular disorder treatment steps can be undertaken by the otolaryngologist, with consideration of referral to dentists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, or physiotherapists if simple pharmacological treatment or temporomandibular disorder exercise fails.

  4. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  5. Loneliness in psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Michelle H; Gleeson, John F M; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Penn, David L

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the review is to understand the relationships between loneliness and related psychological and social factors in individuals with psychosis. Loneliness is poorly understood in people with psychosis. Given the myriad of social challenges facing individuals with psychosis, these findings can inform psychosocial interventions that specifically target loneliness in this vulnerable group. We adhered to the PRISMA guidelines and systematically reviewed empirical studies that measured loneliness either as a main outcome or as an associated variable in individuals with psychosis. A total of ten studies examining loneliness in people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder were examined. Heterogeneity in the assessment of loneliness was found, and there were contradictory findings on the relationship between loneliness and psychotic symptomatology. In individuals with psychosis, loneliness may be influenced by psychological and social factors such as increased depression, psychosis, and anxiety, poor social support, poor quality of life, more severe internalised stigma and perceived discrimination, and low self-esteem. The relationship between loneliness and psychosis remains poorly understood due to a lack of rigorous studies. Although having strong social relationships is crucial to facilitate recovery from serious mental illness, psychosocial interventions that specifically target loneliness in individuals with psychosis are lacking and sorely needed. Interventions targeting loneliness in those with psychosis will also need to account for additional barriers associated with psychosis (e.g., social skill deficits, impoverished social networks, and negative symptoms).

  6. Medication induced sleepwalking: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallman, Helen M; Kohler, Mark; White, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Medications that trigger sleepwalking may inadvertently put the patient at risk of injury to themselves and/or others, and contribute to poor treatment adherence. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify drugs that may increase the risk of sleepwalking. A search of CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted with the keywords 'sleepwalking' OR 'somnambulism'. Of the original 83 sourced papers, 62 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included for review. Twenty-nine drugs, primarily in four classes-benzodiazepine receptor agonists and other gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulators, antidepressants and other serotonergic agents, antipsychotics, and β-blockers-were identified as possible triggers for sleepwalking. The strongest evidence for medication-induced sleepwalking was for zolpidem and sodium oxybate. All other associations were based on case reports. This research highlights the importance of considering sleepwalking in risk profiles in clinical trials, particularly for drugs that enhance GABA activity at the GABA A receptor, enhance serotonergic activity, or block the activity of noradrenaline at β receptors. The results also have implications for prescribers to consider sleepwalking as a potential adverse effect and ensure that: 1) the patient is educated about a safe sleep environment; 2) they are encouraged to report the onset or exacerbation of sleepwalking, and 3) alternative treatments are considered if sleepwalking occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David

    2010-10-18

    To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled

  8. Systematic review of methods in low-consensus fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaney, Aogán; Tamás, Peter A.; Crane, Todd A.; Chesterman, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using systematic review to synthesize evidence on the social and environmental effects of and adaptations to climate change. Use of systematic review for evidence in this field is complicated by the heterogeneity of methods used and by uneven reporting. In order to

  9. 5 CFR 1312.10 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10 Section 1312.10 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security Officer...

  10. Recording and Accounting for Stakeholders Involvement in Systematic Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saan, M.C.; Boeije, H.R.; Sattoe, J.N.T.; Bal, M.I.; Missler, M.A.; van Wesel, F.

    Objectives The use of stakeholders in systematic reviews is increasingly valued, but their influence on the systematicity of the review is often unclear. The aim of this study was to describe some of the processes of involvement of stakeholders and to demonstrate a Tool for Recording and Accounting

  11. Should we search Chinese biomedical databases when performing systematic reviews?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Jérémie F.; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Wang, Junfeng; Spijker, René; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese biomedical databases contain a large number of publications available to systematic reviewers, but it is unclear whether they are used for synthesizing the available evidence. We report a case of two systematic reviews on the accuracy of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide for diagnosing

  12. Recording and accounting for stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saan, M.C.; Boeije, H.R.; Sattoe, J.N.; Bal, M.I.; Missler, M.; Wesel, F. van

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The use of stakeholders in systematic reviews is increasingly valued, but their influence on the systematicity of the review is often unclear. The aim of this study was to describe some of the processes of involvement of stakeholders and to demonstrate a Tool for Recording and Accounting

  13. Recording and accounting for stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc M.I. Bal; Dr. J.N.T. Sattoe; M.A. Missler; F. van Wesel; H.R. Boeije; M.C. Saan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The use of stakeholders in systematic reviews is increasingly valued, but their influence on the systematicity of the review is often unclear. The aim of this study was to describe some of the processes of involvement of stakeholders and to demonstrate a Tool for Recording and Accounting

  14. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Whitney A; Anderson, Patricia F; Ginier, Emily C; MacEachern, Mark P; Saylor, Kate M; Shipman, Barbara L; Smith, Judith E

    2017-07-01

    The project identified a set of core competencies for librarians who are involved in systematic reviews. A team of seven informationists with broad systematic review experience examined existing systematic review standards, conducted a literature search, and used their own expertise to identify core competencies and skills that are necessary to undertake various roles in systematic review projects. The team identified a total of six competencies for librarian involvement in systematic reviews: "Systematic review foundations," "Process management and communication," "Research methodology," "Comprehensive searching," "Data management," and "Reporting." Within each competency are the associated skills and knowledge pieces (indicators). Competence can be measured using an adaptation of Miller's Pyramid for Clinical Assessment, either through self-assessment or identification of formal assessment instruments. The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.

  15. Complications of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in plantar fasciitis : Systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, R L; Dietvorst, M; van der Zwaard, B; van der Worp, H; Zwerver, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) seems to be an effective treatment for plantar fasciitis (PF) and is assumed to be safe. No systematic reviews have been published that specifically studied the complications and side effects of ESWT in treating PF. Aim of this systematic review is

  16. The Association of Cardiovascular Disorders and Falls : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data

  17. Recording and accounting for stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saan, Marieke; Boeije, H.R.; Sattoe, Jane; Bal, Marjolijn; Missler, M.A.; van Wesel, Floryt

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of stakeholders in systematic reviews is increasingly valued, but their influence on the systematicity of the review is often unclear. The aim of this study was to describe some of the processes of involvement of stakeholders and to demonstrate a Tool for Recording and Accounting

  18. Manual search approaches used by systematic reviewers in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassar, Matt; Atakpo, Paul; Kash, Melissa J

    2016-10-01

    Manual searches are supplemental approaches to database searches to identify additional primary studies for systematic reviews. The authors argue that these manual approaches, in particular hand-searching and perusing reference lists, are often considered the same yet lead to different outcomes. We conducted a PubMed search for systematic reviews in the top 10 dermatology journals (January 2006-January 2016). After screening, the final sample comprised 292 reviews. Statements related to manual searches were extracted from each review and categorized by the primary and secondary authors. Each statement was categorized as either "Search of Reference List," "Hand Search," "Both," or "Unclear." Of the 292 systematic reviews included in our sample, 143 reviews (48.97%) did not report a hand-search or scan of reference lists. One-hundred thirty-six reviews (46.58%) reported searches of reference lists, while 4 reviews (1.37%) reported systematic hand-searches. Three reviews (1.03%) reported use of both hand-searches and scanning reference lists. Six reviews (2.05%) were classified as unclear due to vague wording. Authors of systematic reviews published in dermatology journals in our study sample scanned reference lists more frequently than they conducted hand-searches, possibly contributing to biased search outcomes. We encourage systematic reviewers to routinely practice hand-searching in order to minimize bias.

  19. A bibliometric analysis of systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Silke; Jit, Mark; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Griffiths, Ulla K; Scott, J Anthony G; Burchett, Helen E D

    2018-04-19

    SYSVAC is an online bibliographic database of systematic reviews and systematic review protocols on vaccines and immunisation compiled by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) through their National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) resource centre (www.nitag-resource.org). Here the development of the database and a bibliometric review of its content is presented, describing trends in the publication of policy-relevant systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation from 2008 to 2016. Searches were conducted in seven scientific databases according to a standardized search protocol, initially in 2014 with the most recent update in January 2017. Abstracts and titles were screened according to specific inclusion criteria. All included publications were coded into relevant categories based on a standardized protocol and subsequently analysed to look at trends in time, topic, area of focus, population and geographic location. After screening for inclusion criteria, 1285 systematic reviews were included in the database. While in 2008 there were only 34 systematic reviews on a vaccine-related topic, this increased to 322 in 2016. The most frequent pathogens/diseases studied were influenza, human papillomavirus and pneumococcus. There were several areas of duplication and overlap. As more systematic reviews are published it becomes increasingly time-consuming for decision-makers to identify relevant information among the ever-increasing volume available. The risk of duplication also increases, particularly given the current lack of coordination of systematic reviews on vaccine-related questions, both in terms of their commissioning and their execution. The SYSVAC database offers an accessible catalogue of vaccine-relevant systematic reviews with, where possible access or a link to the full-text. SYSVAC provides a freely searchable platform to identify existing vaccine-policy-relevant systematic

  20. Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rycroft CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine E Rycroft,1 Anne Heyes,1 Lee Lanza,2 Karin Becker31Market Access and Outcomes Strategy, RTI Health Solutions, Manchester, United Kingdom; 2Epidemiology, RTI Health Solutions, Waltham, MA, USA; 3Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ingelheim, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this study is to quantify the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD – incidence, prevalence, and mortality – and identify trends in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. A structured literature search was performed (January 2000 to September 2010 of PubMed and EMBASE, identifying English-language articles reporting COPD prevalence, incidence, or mortality. Of 2838 articles identified, 299 full-text articles were reviewed, and data were extracted from 133 publications. Prevalence data were extracted from 80 articles, incidence data from 15 articles, and mortality data from 58 articles. Prevalence ranged from 0.2%–37%, but varied widely across countries and populations, and by COPD diagnosis and classification methods. Prevalence and incidence were greatest in men and those aged 75 years and older. Mortality ranged from 3–111 deaths per 100,000 population. Mortality increased in the last 30–40 years; more recently, mortality decreased in men in several countries, while increasing or stabilizing in women. Although COPD mortality increased over time, rates declined more recently, likely indicating improvements in COPD management. In many countries, COPD mortality has increased in women but decreased in men. This may be explained by differences in smoking patterns and a greater vulnerability in women to the adverse effects of smoking.Keywords: COPD, incidence, literature review, mortality, prevalence

  1. Classifications for cesarean section: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rising cesarean section (CS rates are a major public health concern and cause worldwide debates. To propose and implement effective measures to reduce or increase CS rates where necessary requires an appropriate classification. Despite several existing CS classifications, there has not yet been a systematic review of these. This study aimed to 1 identify the main CS classifications used worldwide, 2 analyze advantages and deficiencies of each system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three electronic databases were searched for classifications published 1968-2008. Two reviewers independently assessed classifications using a form created based on items rated as important by international experts. Seven domains (ease, clarity, mutually exclusive categories, totally inclusive classification, prospective identification of categories, reproducibility, implementability were assessed and graded. Classifications were tested in 12 hypothetical clinical case-scenarios. From a total of 2948 citations, 60 were selected for full-text evaluation and 27 classifications identified. Indications classifications present important limitations and their overall score ranged from 2-9 (maximum grade =14. Degree of urgency classifications also had several drawbacks (overall scores 6-9. Woman-based classifications performed best (scores 5-14. Other types of classifications require data not routinely collected and may not be relevant in all settings (scores 3-8. CONCLUSIONS: This review and critical appraisal of CS classifications is a methodologically sound contribution to establish the basis for the appropriate monitoring and rational use of CS. Results suggest that women-based classifications in general, and Robson's classification, in particular, would be in the best position to fulfill current international and local needs and that efforts to develop an internationally applicable CS classification would be most appropriately placed in building upon this

  2. Classifications for cesarean section: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torloni, Maria Regina; Betran, Ana Pilar; Souza, Joao Paulo; Widmer, Mariana; Allen, Tomas; Gulmezoglu, Metin; Merialdi, Mario

    2011-01-20

    Rising cesarean section (CS) rates are a major public health concern and cause worldwide debates. To propose and implement effective measures to reduce or increase CS rates where necessary requires an appropriate classification. Despite several existing CS classifications, there has not yet been a systematic review of these. This study aimed to 1) identify the main CS classifications used worldwide, 2) analyze advantages and deficiencies of each system. Three electronic databases were searched for classifications published 1968-2008. Two reviewers independently assessed classifications using a form created based on items rated as important by international experts. Seven domains (ease, clarity, mutually exclusive categories, totally inclusive classification, prospective identification of categories, reproducibility, implementability) were assessed and graded. Classifications were tested in 12 hypothetical clinical case-scenarios. From a total of 2948 citations, 60 were selected for full-text evaluation and 27 classifications identified. Indications classifications present important limitations and their overall score ranged from 2-9 (maximum grade =14). Degree of urgency classifications also had several drawbacks (overall scores 6-9). Woman-based classifications performed best (scores 5-14). Other types of classifications require data not routinely collected and may not be relevant in all settings (scores 3-8). This review and critical appraisal of CS classifi