Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca
Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This
Lardon, A.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.; Le Scanff, C.
the increasing stages of puberty and the subsequent prevalence of back pain? 4) Is there a temporal link between puberty and back pain? DESIGN: A systematic critical literature review. METHODS: Systematic searches were made in March 2014 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO including longitudinal or cross...
Full Text Available The continuously evolving and dynamic social, economic, political environments and public pressures demand governments to deliver effective and efficient public services. In the quest for meeting these demands, governments respond by designing extensive reforms and performance objectives to improve the efficiency and responsiveness of their agencies. Many governments have adopted Business Process Management (BPM as a strategy to achieve these reforms. However, the successful implementation of BPM initiatives has been a challenging task for agencies responsible for these initiatives, with many projects not reaching completion or not achieving the intended outcomes. This paper reports the results of a systematic literature review on critical success factors (CSFs related to BPM projects in the public sector. We analysed 31 papers in this review covering both the developed and developing country contexts, sourced from refereed and peer reviewed journals. A quasi-deductive approach was applied for the qualitative data analysis using NVivo 10 software. This resulted in the synthesis and identification of 14 critical success factors of BPM in the public sector, each defined and described in detail with specific attention to the sub-factors mentioned within the literature. Any differences between developed and developing country contexts were sought for, and the observations critically analysed. We propose a series of research questions, designed to support the progression of BPM in the public sector of developed as well as developing countries.
Pietzsch, Natália; Ribeiro, José Luis Duarte; de Medeiros, Janine Fleith
Considering the growing concern with solid wastes problems and the pressing need for a holistic approach to their management, this study developed a literature review about the subject "Zero Waste". To that end, a systematic literature review was executed, through which 102 published articles were analyzed with the aim to, initially, comprehend the concept of Zero Waste, and, then, map its benefits, challenges, and critical success factors. The results show that scholars have not reached a consensus regarding the concept of ZW. While some studies fully address this philosophy, other studies are based on just one or on some of its topics. The benefits were grouped and organized into four dimensions: benefits to the community, financial-economic benefits, benefits to the environment and benefits to the industry and stakeholders. As to the challenges, barriers were identified both in the macro environment (mainly political and cultural) and in the meso and micro environments (stakeholders, industries, and municipalities). The analysis of the articles enabled listing critical success factors, supported by a set of activities that must be carried out. Regarding future studies, it is worth noting that more empirical studies about ZW implementation are necessary, particularly with regard to educational practices designed to promote changes in user behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tordrup Heeager, Lise; Nielsen, Peter Axel
challenges of agile software development of safety-critical systems. The conceptual model consists of four problematic practice areas and five relationships, which we find to be even more important than the problematic areas. From this review, we suggest that there are important research gaps that need...... processes or agile processes that are purportedly faster and promise to lead to better products. Objective: To identify the issues and disputes in agile development of safety-critical software and the key qualities as found in the extant research literature. Method: We conducted a systematic literature...... review as an interpretive study following a research design to search, assess, extract, group, and understand the results of the found studies. Results: There are key issues and propositions that we elicit from the literature and combine into a conceptual model for understanding the foundational...
Full Text Available LiLi Zhang,1 JiTao Li,2–4 YanJie Zhao,5 Yun’Ai Su,2–4 Tianmei Si2–4 1Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP, which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results: A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53, nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP
Hodge, Chad M; Narus, Scott P
Problem list data is a driving force for many beneficial clinical tools, yet these data remain underutilized. We performed a systematic literature review, pulling insights from previous research, aggregating insights into themes, and distilling themes into actionable advice. We sought to learn what changes we could make to existing applications, to the clinical workflow, and to clinicians' perceptions that would improve problem list utilization and increase the prevalence of problems data in the electronic medical record. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to systematically curate a corpus of pertinent articles. We performed a thematic analysis, looking for interesting excerpts and ideas. By aggregating excerpts from many authors, we gained broader, more inclusive insights into what makes a good problem list and what factors are conducive to its success. Analysis led to a list of 7 benefits of using the problem list, 15 aspects critical to problem list success, and knowledge to help inform policy development, such as consensus on what belongs on the problem list, who should maintain the problem list, and when. A list of suggestions is made on ways in which the problem list can be improved to increase utilization by clinicians. There is also a need for standard measurements of the problem list, so that lists can be measured, compared, and discussed with rigor and a common vocabulary.
Fejer, René; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hartvigsen, Jan
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neck pain (NP) in the world population and to identify areas of methodological variation between studies. A systematic search was conducted in five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OSH-ROM, and PsycINFO), followed by a screening...... prevalence, Scandinavian countries reported more NP than the rest of Europe and Asia. Prevalence estimates were not affected by age, quality score, sample size, response rate, and different anatomical definitions of NP. NP is a common symptom in the population. As expected, the prevalence increases...
Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani
Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384
Castillo, Víctor H; Martínez-García, Ana I; Pulido, J R G
The health care sector is an area of social and economic interest in several countries; therefore, there have been lots of efforts in the use of electronic health records. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting that these systems have not been adopted as it was expected, and although there are some proposals to support their adoption, the proposed support is not by means of information and communication technology which can provide automatic tools of support. The aim of this study is to identify the critical adoption factors for electronic health records by physicians and to use them as a guide to support their adoption process automatically. This paper presents, based on the PRISMA statement, a systematic literature review in electronic databases with adoption studies of electronic health records published in English. Software applications that manage and process the data in the electronic health record have been considered, i.e.: computerized physician prescription, electronic medical records, and electronic capture of clinical data. Our review was conducted with the purpose of obtaining a taxonomy of the physicians main barriers for adopting electronic health records, that can be addressed by means of information and communication technology; in particular with the information technology roles of the knowledge management processes. Which take us to the question that we want to address in this work: "What are the critical adoption factors of electronic health records that can be supported by information and communication technology?". Reports from eight databases covering electronic health records adoption studies in the medical domain, in particular those focused on physicians, were analyzed. The review identifies two main issues: 1) a knowledge-based classification of critical factors for adopting electronic health records by physicians; and 2) the definition of a base for the design of a conceptual framework for supporting the design of knowledge
Martínez-García Ana I
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health care sector is an area of social and economic interest in several countries; therefore, there have been lots of efforts in the use of electronic health records. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting that these systems have not been adopted as it was expected, and although there are some proposals to support their adoption, the proposed support is not by means of information and communication technology which can provide automatic tools of support. The aim of this study is to identify the critical adoption factors for electronic health records by physicians and to use them as a guide to support their adoption process automatically. Methods This paper presents, based on the PRISMA statement, a systematic literature review in electronic databases with adoption studies of electronic health records published in English. Software applications that manage and process the data in the electronic health record have been considered, i.e.: computerized physician prescription, electronic medical records, and electronic capture of clinical data. Our review was conducted with the purpose of obtaining a taxonomy of the physicians main barriers for adopting electronic health records, that can be addressed by means of information and communication technology; in particular with the information technology roles of the knowledge management processes. Which take us to the question that we want to address in this work: "What are the critical adoption factors of electronic health records that can be supported by information and communication technology?". Reports from eight databases covering electronic health records adoption studies in the medical domain, in particular those focused on physicians, were analyzed. Results The review identifies two main issues: 1 a knowledge-based classification of critical factors for adopting electronic health records by physicians; and 2 the definition of a base for the design of a conceptual
Barnard, K. D.; Lloyd, C. E.; Skinner, T. C.
mixed results, with one study reporting quality of life benefits and one reporting no evidence of quality of life benefits. Conclusions: There is conflicting evidence reported in the various studies on the quality of life benefits of CSII in Type 1 diabetes. Existing research is flawed, making......Aim: To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two...
Chan, Raymond Javan, E-mail: email@example.com [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital (Australia); School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Queensland, and Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation, Griffith University (Australia); Larsen, Emily; Chan, Philip [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital (Australia)
Purpose: To provide an overview and a critical appraisal of systematic reviews (SRs) of published interventions for the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis. Methods and Materials: We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We also manually searched through individual reference lists of potentially eligible articles and a number of key journals in the topic area. Two authors screened all potential articles and included eligible SRs. Two authors critically appraised and extracted key findings from the included reviews using AMSTAR (the measurement tool for 'assessment of multiple systematic reviews'). Results: Of 1837 potential titles, 6 SRs were included. A number of interventions have been reported to be potentially beneficial for managing radiation dermatitis. Interventions evaluated in these reviews included skin care advice, steroidal/nonsteroidal topical agents, systemic therapies, modes of radiation delivery, and dressings. However, all the included SRs reported that there is insufficient evidence supporting any single effective intervention. The methodological quality of the included studies varied, and methodological shortfalls in these reviews might create biases to the overall results or recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusions: An up-to-date high-quality SR in the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis is needed to guide practice and direction for future research. We recommend that clinicians or guideline developers critically evaluate the information of SRs in their decision making.
Chan, Raymond Javan; Larsen, Emily; Chan, Philip
Purpose: To provide an overview and a critical appraisal of systematic reviews (SRs) of published interventions for the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis. Methods and Materials: We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We also manually searched through individual reference lists of potentially eligible articles and a number of key journals in the topic area. Two authors screened all potential articles and included eligible SRs. Two authors critically appraised and extracted key findings from the included reviews using AMSTAR (the measurement tool for “assessment of multiple systematic reviews”). Results: Of 1837 potential titles, 6 SRs were included. A number of interventions have been reported to be potentially beneficial for managing radiation dermatitis. Interventions evaluated in these reviews included skin care advice, steroidal/nonsteroidal topical agents, systemic therapies, modes of radiation delivery, and dressings. However, all the included SRs reported that there is insufficient evidence supporting any single effective intervention. The methodological quality of the included studies varied, and methodological shortfalls in these reviews might create biases to the overall results or recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusions: An up-to-date high-quality SR in the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis is needed to guide practice and direction for future research. We recommend that clinicians or guideline developers critically evaluate the information of SRs in their decision making.
Hestbaek, L; Leboeuf-Yde, C
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature about the reliability and validity of chiropractic tests used to determine the need for spinal manipulative therapy of the lumbo-pelvic spine, taking into account the quality of the studies. DATA SOURCES: The CHIROLARS database......-pelvic spine were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Data quality were assessed independently by the two reviewers, with a quality score based on predefined methodologic criteria. Results of the studies were then evaluated in relation to quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: None of the tests studied had been sufficiently...... evaluated in relation to reliability and validity. Only tests for palpation for pain had consistently acceptable results. Motion palpation of the lumbar spine might be valid but showed poor reliability, whereas motion palpation of the sacroiliac joints seemed to be slightly reliable but was not shown...
Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami; Valle, Denis
Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.
A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617
Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul
With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695
Full Text Available With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader′s work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice.
Miller, Adam B.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.
A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we…
Bond, Caroline; Woods, Kevin; Humphrey, Neil; Symes, Wendy; Green, Lorraine
Background and scope: Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a strengths-based therapeutic approach, emphasizing the resources that people possess and how these can be applied to a positive change process. The current study provides a systematic review of the SFBT evidence base and a critical evaluation of the use and application of SFBT in…
Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge,
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.
Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M
Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.
Georgakis, Marios K; Ntinopoulou, Erato; Chatzopoulou, Despoina; Petridou, Eleni Th
Season of birth has been considered a proxy of seasonally varying exposures around perinatal period, potentially implicated in the etiology of several health outcomes, including malignancies. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we have systematically reviewed published literature on the association of birth seasonality with risk of central nervous system tumors in children and adults. Seventeen eligible studies using various methodologies were identified, encompassing 20,523 cases. Eight of 10 studies in children versus four of eight in adults showed some statistically significant associations between birth seasonality and central nervous system tumor or tumor subtype occurrence, pointing to a clustering of births mostly in fall and winter months, albeit no consistent pattern was identified by histologic subtype. A plethora of perinatal factors might underlie or confound the associations, such as variations in birth weight, maternal diet during pregnancy, perinatal vitamin D levels, pesticides, infectious agents, immune system maturity, and epigenetic modifications. Inherent methodological weaknesses of to-date published individual investigations, including mainly underpowered size to explore the hypothesis by histological subtype, call for more elegant concerted actions using primary data of large datasets taking also into account the interplay between the potential underlying etiologic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The critical literature review summarizes and appraises studies that have been pursued by music scholars examining the contributions of music to peacebuilding as well as the role of music in violence. These two bodies of literature are rarely brought into dialogue, but I juxtapose them in order to confront the idea of music's exceptionalism as…
Aagaard, Thomas; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten Bogh
BACKGROUND: When conducting systematic reviews, it is essential to perform a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies relevant to the specific research question. The Cochrane Collaborations Methodological Expectations of Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) guidelines...... of musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Data sources were systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group, including at least five RCTs, reporting a search history, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and adding reference- and hand-searching. Additional databases were deemed eligible...... if they indexed RCTs, were in English and used in more than three of the systematic reviews. Relative recall was calculated as the number of studies identified by the literature search divided by the number of eligible studies i.e. included studies in the individual systematic reviews. Finally, cumulative median...
Følstad, Asbjørn; Kvale, Knut
Purpose – Customer journeys has become an increasingly important topic in service management and design. The study reviews customer journey terminology and approaches within the research literature prior to 2013, mainly from the fields of design, management, and marketing. Design/methodology/approach - The study was conducted as a systematic literature review. Searches in Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, ACM Digital Library, and ScienceDirect identified 45 papers for analysis. The pa...
Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary
The value and importance of incorporating strategies that promote critical thinking in nursing and midwifery undergraduate programmes are well documented. However, relatively little is known about the effectiveness of teaching strategies in promoting CT. Evaluating effectiveness is important to promote 'best practise' in teaching. To evaluate the efficacy of teaching methods used to develop critical thinking skills in nursing and midwifery undergraduate students. The following six databases; CINAHL, Ovid Medline, ERIC, Informit, PsycINFO and Scopus were searched and resulted in the retrieval of 1315 papers. After screening for inclusion, each paper was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and quality appraisal. Twelve different teaching interventions were tested in 8 countries. Results varied, with little consistency across studies using the same type of intervention or outcome tool. Sixteen tools were used to measure the efficacy of teaching in developing critical thinking. Seventeen studies identified a significant increase in critical thinking, while nine studies found no increases, and two found unexplained decreases in CT when using a similar educational intervention. Whilst this review aimed to identify effective teaching strategies that promote and develop critical thinking, flaws in methodology and outcome measures contributed to inconsistent findings. The continued use of generalised CT tools is unlikely to help identify appropriate teaching methods that will improve CT abilities of midwifery and nursing students and prepare them for practise. The review was limited to empirical studies published in English that used measures of critical thinking with midwifery and nursing students. Discipline specific strategies and tools that measure students' abilities to apply CT in practise are needed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dunne, Suzanne S
Considerable emphasis is presently being placed on usage of generic medicines by governments focussed on the potential economic benefits associated with their use. Concurrently, there is increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived doubts regarding the quality and equivalence of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies that focus on physician, pharmacist and patient\\/consumer perspectives of generic medicines.
Denise Catricala Bution; Amanda Muglia Wechsler
Emotional Dependency is a disorder characterized by addictive behaviors in romantic relationships. However, there is still controversy about whether this dependency should be considered pathological, as well as its appropriate denomination and the symptoms that would define it. This paper presents a systematic evaluation of the literature on emotional dependency, reviewing all the indexed articles in Scielo, CAPES, and Scholar Google databases, published between 2000 and 2014. After careful a...
Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius
A software ecosystem is the interaction of a set of actors on top of a common technological platform that results in a number of software solutions or services. Arguably, software ecosystems are gaining importance with the advent of, e.g., the Google Android, Apache, and Salesforce.com ecosystems....... However, there exists no systematic overview of the research done on software ecosystems from a software engineering perspective. We performed a systematic literature review of software ecosystem research, analyzing 90 papers on the subject taken from a gross collection of 420. Our main conclusions...... are that while research on software ecosystems is increasing (a) there is little consensus on what constitutes a software ecosystem, (b) few analytical models of software ecosystems exist, and (c) little research is done in the context of real-world ecosystems. This work provides an overview of the field, while...
A systematic literature review of Burgers' equation with recent advances ... Research Article Volume 90 Issue 6 June 2018 Article ID 69 ... Burgers' equation is well documented in the literature, a detailed literature survey indicates that gaps still ...
Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kerr, Jelani; Brooms, Derrick; Rollins, Aaron
Recently, public health has acknowledged racism as a social determinant of health. Much evidence exists on the impact of individual-level racism and discrimination, with little to no examination of racism from the standpoint of systems and structures. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the extent to which public health currently addresses systemic racism in the published literature. Utilizing the PRISMA guidelines, this review examines three widely used databases to examine published literature covering the topic as well as implications for future research and practice. A total of 85 articles were included in the review analysis after meeting study criteria. Across numerous articles, the terms racism and systemic racism are largely absent. A critical need exists for an examination of the historical impact of systemic racism on the social determinants of health and health of marginalized populations.
Full Text Available Background: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a psychotherapeutic approach that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD through several randomized controlled trials (RCT. Solid evidence shows that traumatic events can contribute to the onset of severe mental disorders and can worsen their prognosis. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the most important findings from RCT conducted in the treatment of comorbid traumatic events in psychosis, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and chronic back pain.Methods: Using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, we conducted a systematic literature search of RCT studies published up to December 2016 that used EMDR therapy in the mentioned psychiatric conditions.Results: RCT are still scarce in these comorbid conditions but the available evidence suggests that EMDR therapy improves trauma-associated symptoms and has a minor effect on the primary disorders by reaching partial symptomatic improvement.Conclusions: EMDR therapy could be a useful psychotherapy to treat trauma-associated symptoms in patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Preliminary evidence also suggests that EMDR therapy might be useful to improve psychotic or affective symptoms and could be an add-on treatment in chronic pain conditions.
The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Printz, Trine; Rosenberg, Tine; Godballe, Christian
literature on test-retest accuracy of the automated voice range profile assessment. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ComDisDome, Embase, and CINAHL (EBSCO). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of six databases from 1983 to 2016. The following...
Lavallée, Mathieu; Robillard, Pierre-N.; Mirsalari, Reza
Reviewers performing systematic literature reviews require understanding of the review process and of the knowledge domain. This paper presents an iterative approach for conducting systematic literature reviews that addresses the problems faced by reviewers who are novices in one or both levels of understanding. This approach is derived from…
Roehrs, Alex; da Costa, Cristiano André; Righi, Rodrigo da Rosa; de Oliveira, Kleinner Silva Farias
Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the health care field worldwide. One of the main drivers of this change is the electronic health record (EHR). However, there are still open issues and challenges because the EHR usually reflects the partial view of a health care provider without the ability for patients to control or interact with their data. Furthermore, with the growth of mobile and ubiquitous computing, the number of records regarding personal health is increasing exponentially. This movement has been characterized as the Internet of Things (IoT), including the widespread development of wearable computing technology and assorted types of health-related sensors. This leads to the need for an integrated method of storing health-related data, defined as the personal health record (PHR), which could be used by health care providers and patients. This approach could combine EHRs with data gathered from sensors or other wearable computing devices. This unified view of patients' health could be shared with providers, who may not only use previous health-related records but also expand them with data resulting from their interactions. Another PHR advantage is that patients can interact with their health data, making decisions that may positively affect their health. This work aimed to explore the recent literature related to PHRs by defining the taxonomy and identifying challenges and open questions. In addition, this study specifically sought to identify data types, standards, profiles, goals, methods, functions, and architecture with regard to PHRs. The method to achieve these objectives consists of using the systematic literature review approach, which is guided by research questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and context (PICOC) criteria. As a result, we reviewed more than 5000 scientific studies published in the last 10 years, selected the most significant approaches, and thoroughly surveyed the health
Systematic reviews aide the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Gray literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Gray literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Gray literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness, and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Gray literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including gray literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out gray literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including gray literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through gray literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within gray literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of gray literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Systematic reviews aid the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Grey literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Grey literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Grey literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Grey literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including grey literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out grey literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including grey literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through grey literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within grey literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of grey literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma
There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…
that the economy typically experiences following extreme events: (i) significant changes in consumption patterns due to lingering public fear and (ii...when making choices related to critical infrastructure and security. • The case studies are drawn from the Victorian Bushfires of 2009. o The first...case study covers the impact of the Victorian bushfires on environmental security, or more specifically, water supply. This case study highlights
A systematic approach has been developed to determine benchmark biases and apply those biases to code results to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24 regarding documenting criticality safety margins. Previously, validation of the code against experimental benchmarks to prove reasonable agreement was sufficient. However, DOE Order 5480.24 requires contractors to adhere to the requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 and establish subcritical margins. A method was developed to incorporate biases and uncertainties from benchmark calculations into a k eff value with quantifiable uncertainty. The method produces a 95% confidence level in both the k eff value of the scenario modeled and the distribution of the k eff S calculated by the Monte Carlo code. Application of the method to a group of benchmarks modeled using the KENO-Va code and the SCALE 27 group cross sections is also presented
McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Garrido, Sandra; Saarikallio, Suvi
There is a diverse literature that explores the relationship between youth, music, and mental health, with few attempts at systematic synthesis. This critical interpretive review included 33 studies published between 2000 and 2012 investigating the relationship between music and the mental health of young people, particularly targeting depression.…
Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Van Es, Corine G.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.
Purpose. To systematically examine the state of research on sexuality and amputees. Methods. A total of five publication databases were searched: Pubmed, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo and Recall. Results. A total of 11 eligible studies was found. The studies were characterised by a diversity of study
Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.
Gould, R.; McFadden, S.L.; Hughes, C.M.
Objectives: It is believed that children are more sensitive to ionising radiation than adults. This work reviewed the reported radiation dose estimates for paediatric cardiac catheterisation. A systematic literature review was performed by searching healthcare databases for studies reporting radiation dose using predetermined key words relating to children having cardiac catheterisation. The quality of publications was assessed using relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme questions and their reported radiation exposures were evaluated. Key findings: It is only in recent years that larger cohort observations have been undertaken. Although radiation dose from paediatric cardiac catheterisation has decreased in recent years, the literature indicated that it remains varied and potentially substantial. Conclusion: Standardisation of weight categories and procedure types such as those recommended by the PiDRL project could help compare current and future radiation dose estimates. - Highlights: • 31 articles reporting radiation dose from paediatric cardiac catheterisation were reviewed. • In recent years, larger cohorts (>1000) have been reported. • Radiation dose to children has been lowered in the last decade but remains varied. • Future dosimetry should be consistent for weight categories and procedure types.
Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan
This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…
In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…
Boeynaems, A.; Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.
Effects of metaphorical framing of political issues on opinion have been studied widely by two approaches: a critical-discourse approach (CDA) and a response-elicitation approach (REA). The current article reports a systematic literature review (N = 109) that examines whether these approaches report
Shurr, Jordan; Hollingshead, Aleksandra
Understanding family challenges and perspectives are critical to effective programming and services for individuals with severe disabilities. Equally central, yet often overlooked, is the relationship between family challenges and diversity. This systematic review examined a set of peer reviewed literature published between 2002-2015 at the…
Solow, Roger Alan
To enhance the reader's critical thinking when reading the dental literature on the relationship of occlusion and myogenous orofacial pain (MOP). Representative journal articles and systematic reviews from the dental literature confirming and denying a relationship of occlusion to MOP were analyzed and reviewed. Studies using computerized occlusal analysis (COA) consistently find a relationship of the occlusion to MOP. Studies that do not confirm this relationship have problems with invalid primary source conclusions, unstated assumptions, bias, and errors in logic that disqualify their conclusion. This review explains four categories of problems with the dental literature that denies occlusion has a relationship with MOP. When the reader understands these examples of flaws in this literature, they can apply this critical thinking to future studies. Correct interpretation of the literature on occlusion and MOP requires a foundation of basic and clinical scientific knowledge as well as an understanding of the details of the primary source articles.
Full Text Available Purpose of Review: Gossypibomas remain a dreaded and unwanted complication of surgical practice. Despite significant interest and numerous guidelines, the number of reported cases remains sparse due to various factors, including potential legal implications. Herein, we review related data from India to ascertain if the problem is better or worse than that reported in world literature. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar, to collect and analyze all case reports and case reviews regarding the condition in India. Results: On analysis of the results, there were 100 publications reporting a total of 126 events. The average patient age was 38.65 years. Average time to discovery was 1225.62 days. Forty-nine percent of reported cases were discovered within the 1 st year. The most common clinical features were pain (73.8%, palpable mass (47.6%, vomiting (35%, abdominal distention (26%, and fever (12.6%. Spontaneous expulsion of the gossypiboma was noted in five cases (3.96%. Transmural migration was seen in 36 cases (28.57%. Conclusions: Despite advancements in surgical approaches and preventive measures, gossypibomas continue to be a cause of significant morbidity. A safe working culture, open communication, teamwork, and an accurate sponge count remain our best defence against this often unpredictable complication of surgery.
Simulation-based learning is an educational intervention which creates an environment that is conducive to experiential learning. Despite the prevalence of research on the influence of simulation on nursing education, there is a dearth of literature on the effectiveness of simulation-based learning. This systematic review examines literature on simulation outcomes in nursing education from the years 2000-2010. The electronic databases reviewed for the systematic review of the literature included: CINAHL Plus, Medline, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Education, Google Scholar, and Digital Dissertations and Theses through ProQuest. The MeSH search terms included "simulation outcomes measurement" and "nursing education". Seventeen studies were included in the review of the literature. The literature was categorized into three themes; internal outcomes, external outcomes, and clinical evaluation. The available literature on simulation and nursing education provides evidence that that simulation is useful in creating a learning environment which contributes to knowledge, skills, safety, and confidence. This systematic review of the literature revealed a gap in the literature pertaining to the transfer of these outcomes to the clinical setting, and lays a foundation for further research on outcomes specific to simulation and nursing education.
Meszaros, Gergely; Horvath, Lili Olga; Balazs, Judit
Background During the last decade there is a growing scientific interest in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of the current paper was to review systematically the literature with a special focus on the associations between self-injurious behaviours and externalizing psychopathology. An additional aim was to review terminology and measurements of self-injurious behaviour and the connection between self-injurious behaviours and suicide in the included publications. Methods A systematic l...
Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa
Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Maria Crema, Chiara Verbano Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy Purpose: The need to respond to accreditation institutes' and patients' requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results: A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion: This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health
Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando
Objective To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words “nutritional risk assessment”, “critically ill” and “cancer”. Results Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values < 87 were significantly associated with mortality. A high Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. Conclusion None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic
This article provides a critical review of existing articles addressing the management of electronic records in the Eastern and Southern African Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ESARBICA) region. The article argues that while the literature in developed countries has come up with practical solutions ...
Vagi, Robert; Pivovarova, Margarita
In this critical review of literature, we summarize the major theoretical frameworks that have been used to study teacher mobility. In total we identified 40 teacher mobility studies that met our inclusion criteria. We conclude that relatively few theoretical frameworks have been used to study teacher mobility and those that have been used are…
Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J.; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.; Weber, M.
The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical
Genet, N.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Bouman, A.; Francke, A.L.; Fagerström, C.; Melchiorre, M.G.; Greco, C.; Devillé, W.
Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in
Genet, N.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Bouman, A.; Francke, A.L.; Fagerstrom, C.; Melchiorre, M.G.; Greco, C.; Devillé, W.
Background: Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe
Genet, Nadine; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; Kringos, Dionne S.; Bouman, Ans; Francke, Anneke L.; Fagerström, Cecilia; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Greco, Cosetta; Devillé, Walter
Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the
Burger, Dominik; Fueglistaller, Urs; Fust, Alexander
Salespersons' empathy has received recognition by scholars and sales representatives. Despite its importance, definitions and conceptualizations of salespersons' empathy are rather heterogeneous. Thus, we used the method of systematic literature review to analyze 42 empirical articles. A research agenda focusing on salespersons' empathy's measurement, antecedents and moderators as well as effects on performance and relationship outcomes is presented to advance the field.
Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Smits, Jacco Gerardus Wilhelmus Leonardus; Penterman, Lisanne; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
Purpose This paper aims to systematically review the literature on roles of physicians in virtual teams (VTs) delivering healthcare for effective “physician e-leadership” (PeL) and implementation of e-health. Design/methodology/approach The analyzed studies were retrieved with explicit keywords and
Carneiro, Francis A.; Tasker, Fiona; Salinas-Quiroz, Fernando; Leal, Isabel; Costa, Pedro A.
The purpose of the present systematic and critical review was to assess the findings and to identify the gaps in the literature concerning gay and bisexual fathers. A comprehensive search of relevant literature using electronic databases and reference lists for articles published until December 2016 was conducted. A total of 63 studies, spanning from 1979 to 2016, were collected. More than half of the studies were published after 2011 and the overwhelming majority were conducted in the United...
Carneiro, Francis A.; Tasker, Fiona; Salinas-Quiroz, Fernando; Leal, Isabel; Costa, Pedro A.
The purpose of the present systematic and critical review was to assess the findings and to identify the gaps in the literature concerning gay and bisexual fathers. A comprehensive\\ud search of relevant literature using electronic databases and reference lists for articles published until December 2016 was conducted. A total of 63 studies, spanning from 1979 to 2016, were collected. More than half of the studies were published after 2011 and the overwhelming majority were conducted in the Uni...
Background Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, “How does burnout affect physician productivity?” Methods A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. Results The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between
Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jacobs, Philip
Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, "How does burnout affect physician productivity?" A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between burnout and productivity. However
Turner, Conor D. A.; Lockey, David J.; Rehn, Marius
Background Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future p...
Printz, Trine; Rosenberg, Tine; Godballe, Christian
literature on test-retest accuracy of the automated voice range profile assessment. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ComDisDome, Embase, and CINAHL (EBSCO). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of six databases from 1983 to 2016. The following......Objective: Reliable voice range profiles are of great importance when measuring effects and side effects from surgery affecting voice capacity. Automated recording systems are increasingly used, but the reproducibility of results is uncertain. Our objective was to identify and review the existing...... keywords were used: phonetogram, voice range profile, and acoustic voice analysis. Inclusion criteria were automated recording procedure, healthy voices, and no intervention between test and retest. Test-retest values concerning fundamental frequency and voice intensity were reviewed. Results: Of 483...
Bányai, F; Griffiths, MD; Király, O; Demetrovics, Z
Recently, the skill involved in playing and mastering video games has led to the professionalization of the activity in the form of 'esports' (electronic sports). The aim of the present paper was to review the main topics of psychological interest about esports and then to examine the similarities of esports to professional and problem gambling. As a result of a systematic literature search, eight studies were identified that had investigated three topics: (i) the process of becoming an espor...
Zhang, Jie; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per
After decades of development, the gap between expectations of Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) and their practical performance remains significant. Research has been done to identify the critical factors for an effective implementation of EIA. However, this research, to a large extent, has not been cumulated and analysed comprehensively according to the stages of the EIA process. This paper contributes to the critical review of the literature on EIA implementation and effectiveness by cumulating mainly empirical findings in an implementation theoretical perspective. It focuses on the links between different critical factors and how they relate to different stages in the EIA and thus influence the decision making process. After reviewing 33 refereed journal articles published between 1999 and 2011, we identified 203 notions of critical factors. Of these, 102 related to different stages defined in our comprehensive EIA implementation model, and 101 were identified as general factors related to the whole EIA system. The number of notions of stage factors and general factors is thus about equal. An overlap between stage factors and general factors was found, which demonstrates that critical factors function differently in different cases. The function of the critical factors is complex and it is difficult to determine contingencies and causations. In the sources we examined, there is evidently an imbalance between in-depth empirical research and general knowledge, and the paper offers some suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andhik Ampuh Yunanto
Game is a software that is popular among children, adolescents, and adults. In addition, there are games that have a specific purpose other than as a medium of entertainment which called Serious Games. The amount of research on serious games can help developers in research, management, and software development in game. So it is necessary to Review the literature about the serious game so that information can be classified and categorized systematically. This study aims to provide an update by the Systematic Literature Review (SLR to the recent studies on the evaluation of serious games from 2015 until October 2016. The proposed SLR method has three stages of Review that is external, internal, and nine quality assessment (QA. The final results obtained in this study indicate there are 34 research on serious games. From the studies that were Reviewed also show that research on the evaluation of serious games have educational applications domain, the type of computer games, methods of evaluation questionnaires, evaluation of the quality of learning outcomes, evaluation procedures are simple, and the number of populations ranging from 1 to 50 people. The results that have been obtained SLR is expected to contribute and important information to the researcher or developer interested in the field of serious games. This research can also improve the quality of the serious game for education and counseling in community. Keywords: Serious game, Evaluation, Systematic Literature Review
Mukherjee, Shilpi; Dhingra, Tarun; Sengupta, Anirban
The Electricity Act 2003 was a landmark Act which promised to remove the maladies which afflict the Indian Power Sector and that too at a time when the sector was ridden with problems. With concepts such as open access, multiple distribution licensees, wheeling of electricity etc, the said Act intended to encourage competition which in turn was meant bring a paradigm shift in the sector. The paper undertakes a systematic literature review to find the status of review of the promising Act. More than a decade has passed since its enactment and amendments are due with the legislative body of India but none of the literature reviewed gives a comprehensive view encompassing all the objectives of the Act. Moreover, these documents study either the probable impact or the impact on a particular segment only. It has important implications for the Power sector which highlights a significant gap in literature and provides a basis on which future research can be built upon. - Highlights: • Electricity Act 2003 is a landmark in Indian power sector reform. • Systematic literature review is done to find the status of review of the Act. • Status of Electricity Act 2003 not comprehensively reviewed. • Status of the act needs to be reviewed comprehensively through actual data.
Blümle, A; Lagrèze, W A; Motschall, E
In order to identify current (and relevant) evidence for a specific clinical question within the unmanageable amount of information available, solid skills in performing a systematic literature search are essential. An efficient approach is to search a biomedical database containing relevant literature citations of study reports. The best known database is MEDLINE, which is searchable for free via the PubMed interface. In this article, we explain step by step how to perform a systematic literature search via PubMed by means of an example research question in the field of ophthalmology. First, we demonstrate how to translate the clinical problem into a well-framed and searchable research question, how to identify relevant search terms and how to conduct a text word search and a search with keywords in medical subject headings (MeSH) terms. We then show how to limit the number of search results if the search yields too many irrelevant hits and how to increase the number in the case of too few citations. Finally, we summarize all essential principles that guide a literature search via PubMed.
Haddaway, N R; Woodcock, P; Macura, B; Collins, A
Review articles can provide valuable summaries of the ever-increasing volume of primary research in conservation biology. Where findings may influence important resource-allocation decisions in policy or practice, there is a need for a high degree of reliability when reviewing evidence. However, traditional literature reviews are susceptible to a number of biases during the identification, selection, and synthesis of included studies (e.g., publication bias, selection bias, and vote counting). Systematic reviews, pioneered in medicine and translated into conservation in 2006, address these issues through a strict methodology that aims to maximize transparency, objectivity, and repeatability. Systematic reviews will always be the gold standard for reliable synthesis of evidence. However, traditional literature reviews remain popular and will continue to be valuable where systematic reviews are not feasible. Where traditional reviews are used, lessons can be taken from systematic reviews and applied to traditional reviews in order to increase their reliability. Certain key aspects of systematic review methods that can be used in a context-specific manner in traditional reviews include focusing on mitigating bias; increasing transparency, consistency, and objectivity, and critically appraising the evidence and avoiding vote counting. In situations where conducting a full systematic review is not feasible, the proposed approach to reviewing evidence in a more systematic way can substantially improve the reliability of review findings, providing a time- and resource-efficient means of maximizing the value of traditional reviews. These methods are aimed particularly at those conducting literature reviews where systematic review is not feasible, for example, for graduate students, single reviewers, or small organizations. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.
Amna A. Ghouse
Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is considered one of the most disabling mental conditions, with high rates of morbidity, disability, and premature death from suicide. Although BD is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder, some attention has recently been drawn to the possibility that BD could be overdiagnosed in some settings. The present paper focuses on a critical analysis of the overdiagnosis issue among bipolar patients. It includes a review of the available literature findings, followed by some recommendations aiming at optimizing the diagnosis of BD and increasing its reliability.
Krakauer Huebner, C.V.; Gattaz, W.F.
A critical review of the literature regarding structural brain abnormalities in Schizophrenia is presented. It is reported that the prevalence and the localization of the abnormalities vary widely among studies. These differences might stem from samples heterogeneity, from the choice of the computer tomographic (CT) parameter to be investigated and from the use of different criteria for defining abnormalities. It seems established that at least one subgroup of Schizophrenia patients shows mild or moderate brain atrophy, in spite of some contradictory findings. (M.A.C.)
Abbe, Adeline; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Falissard, Bruno
The expansion of biomedical literature is creating the need for efficient tools to keep pace with increasing volumes of information. Text mining (TM) approaches are becoming essential to facilitate the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text. We reviewed the applications of TM in psychiatry, and explored its advantages and limitations. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. In this review, 1103 papers were screened, and 38 were included as applications of TM in psychiatric research. Using TM and content analysis, we identified four major areas of application: (1) Psychopathology (i.e. observational studies focusing on mental illnesses) (2) the Patient perspective (i.e. patients' thoughts and opinions), (3) Medical records (i.e. safety issues, quality of care and description of treatments), and (4) Medical literature (i.e. identification of new scientific information in the literature). The information sources were qualitative studies, Internet postings, medical records and biomedical literature. Our work demonstrates that TM can contribute to complex research tasks in psychiatry. We discuss the benefits, limits, and further applications of this tool in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bonetto, Caterina; Trotta, Francesco; Felicetti, Patrizia; Alarcón, Graciela S; Santuccio, Carmela; Bachtiar, Novilia Sjafri; Brauchli Pernus, Yolanda; Chandler, Rebecca; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Hadden, Robert D M; Kucuku, Merita; Ozen, Seza; Pahud, Barbara; Top, Karina; Varricchio, Frederick; Wise, Robert P; Zanoni, Giovanna; Živković, Saša; Bonhoeffer, Jan
Several types of vasculitis have been observed and reported in temporal association with the administration of various vaccines. A systematic review of current evidence is lacking. This systematic literature review aimed to assess available evidence and current reporting practice of vasculitides as adverse events following immunization (AEFI). We reviewed the literature from 1st January 1994 to 30th June 2014. This review comprises randomized controlled trials, observational studies, case series, case reports, reviews and comments regardless of vaccine and target population. The initial search resulted in the identification of 6656 articles. Of these, 157 articles were assessed for eligibility and 75 studies were considered for analysis, including 6 retrospective/observational studies, 2 randomized controlled trials, 7 reviews, 11 case series, 46 case reports and 3 comments. Most of the larger, higher quality studies found no causal association between vaccination and subsequent development of vasculitis, including several studies on Kawasaki disease and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IgA vasculitis). Smaller case series reported a few cases of vasculitis following BCG and vaccines against influenza and hepatitis. Only 24% of the articles reported using a case definition of vasculitis. Existing literature does not allow establishing a causative link between vaccination and vasculitides. Further investigations were strengthened by the use of standardized case definitions and methods for data collection, analysis and presentation to improve data comparability and interpretation of vasculitis cases following immunization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
This review aimed to explore how critical thinking is perceived in previous studies of nursing education, and analyse the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking mentioned in these studies. Systematic review. This review was based on the following five databases: The British Nursing Index, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. After the screening process and evaluation through using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, 17 studies were identified that met the inclusion and quality criteria. The studies were read through several times and analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of three themes were developed. The first theme, components for critical thinkers, suggests the abilities and attitudes that critical thinkers should have. The other two themes, influential factors of critical thinking in nursing education, and strategies to promote critical thinking, describe the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking. The 17 studies illustrated that the definition and concept of critical thinking may change from time to time, and hence there is a need to clarify educators' perspective towards critical thinking. There is also a need to evaluate the efficacy of the new strategies mentioned in several selected studies, such as art-based, questioning, cross-cultural nursing experience, and preceptorship. With a better understanding of critical thinking in nursing education, educators and nursing faculty are able to develop better strategies in enhancing critical thinking development in nursing students, in turn preparing them for future clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Full Text Available Interferons alpha and beta have been used worldwide for a few decades, altering the natural history of several severe diseases including hepatitis C, cancer and immune-mediated conditions such as multiple sclerosis. The adverse events profile of interferons is well established, but only isolated reports of ophthalmological complications of interferon therapy have been published. The objective of this study was to carry out a literature systematic review on the subject, bringing to light the need for careful ophthalmological monitoring of patients undergoing interferon treatment. Nearly 500 cases of ophthalmological complications related to interferon have been reported. The most frequent findings were soft exudates, hemorrhages and retina ischemia.
Meert, Deborah; Torabi, Nazi; Costella, John
Objective A critical element in conducting a systematic review is the identification of studies. To date, very little empirical evidence has been reported on whether the presence of a librarian or information professional can contribute to the quality of the final product. The goal of this study was to compare the reporting rigor of the literature searching component of systematic reviews with and without the help of a librarian. Method Systematic reviews published from 2002 to 2011 in the twenty highest impact factor pediatrics journals were collected from MEDLINE. Corresponding authors were contacted via an email survey to determine if a librarian was involved, the role that the librarian played, and functions that the librarian performed. The reviews were scored independently by two reviewers using a fifteen-item checklist. Results There were 186 reviews that met the inclusion criteria, and 44% of the authors indicated the involvement of a librarian in conducting the systematic review. With the presence of a librarian as coauthor or team member, the mean checklist score was 8.40, compared to 6.61 (plibrarian. Conclusions Findings indicate that having a librarian as a coauthor or team member correlates with a higher score in the literature searching component of systematic reviews. PMID:27822147
Clarice Secches Kogut
Full Text Available The mainstream literature has focused on knowledge transfers from parent companies to subsidiaries, while paying less attention to knowledge created at the subsidiary level. But there is a growing trend to knowledge co-creation, and the responsibility of knowledge creation has shifted from headquarters to the corporation as a whole and its subsidiaries. Using a thorough systematic review over a 15-year period in top tier journals, this thematic analysis finds interesting literature gaps to be filled and proposes a theoretical framework that conceptualizes the reverse knowledge transfer as a complex process; moreover, we offer a detailed view on the phenomenon of reverse knowledge transfer, seeking to contribute to a better understanding of it and providing a basis to assist corporate managers in global strategic planning and knowledge management and scholars in future academic research in the field.
Full Text Available Stefan Walzer,1,2 Daniel Droeschel,1,3 Mark Nuijten,4 Hélène Chevrou-Séverac5 1MArS Market Access and Pricing Strategy GmbH, Weil am Rhein, Germany; 2State University Baden-Wuerttemberg, Loerrach, Germany; 3Riedlingen University, SRH FernHochschule, Riedlingen, Germany; 4Ars Accessus Medica BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 5Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland Background: Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. Methods: A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Results: Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly
Full Text Available Synesthesia refers to additional sensations experienced by some people for specific stimulations, such as the systematic arbitrary association of colors to letters for the most studied type. Here we review all the studies (based mostly on functional and structural MRI that have searched for the neural correlates of this subjective experience, as well as structural differences related to synesthesia. Most differences claimed for synesthetes are unsupported, due mainly to low statistical power, statistical errors and methodological limitations. Our critical review therefore casts some doubts on whether any neural correlate of the synesthetic experience has been established yet. Rather than being a neurological condition (i.e., a structural or functional brain anomaly, synesthesia could be reconsidered as a special kind of childhood memory, whose signature in the brain may be out of reach with present brain imaging techniques.
Lunde, Ingeborg; Myhre Reigstad, Marte; Frisch Moe, Kristin; Grimholt, Tine K.
Background: Exposure to parental suicide attempt is associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes like lower educational performance, drug abuse and delinquent behavior. When a patient is hospitalized after a suicide attempt, this presents a unique opportunity to identify whether the patient has children, and thereby provide adequate follow-up for both the parent/patient and their children. The objective of this paper was to review the existing literature on follow-up measures for children subjected to parental suicide attempt. Methods: In line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, we conducted a systematic literature search. Results: The search resulted in a total of 1275 article titles, of which all abstracts were screened. Out of these, 72 full text papers were read, and a final four articles were included. Three of the included papers described parts of the same study from an emergency department in The Hague, where a protocol was implemented for monitoring and referring children of parents attempting suicide. The fourth article described the association between maternal attempted suicide and risk of abuse or neglect of their children. Conclusions: The lack of research in this particular area is striking. The circumstances surrounding a parent’s suicide attempt call for appropriate familial care. PMID:29738447
Žiaran, Stanislav; Galambošová, Martina; Danišovič, L'uboš
The purpose of this article was to perform a systematic review of the recent literature on urethral tissue engineering. A total of 31 articles describing the use of tissue engineering for urethra reconstruction were included. The obtained results were discussed in three groups: cells, scaffolds, and clinical results of urethral reconstructions using these components. Stem cells of different origin were used in many experimental studies, but only autologous urothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes were applied in clinical trials. Natural and synthetic scaffolds were studied in the context of urethral tissue engineering. The main advantage of synthetic ones is the fact that they can be obtained in unlimited amount and modified by different techniques, but scaffolds of natural origin normally contain chemical groups and bioactive proteins which increase the cell attachment and may promote the cell proliferation and differentiation. The most promising are smart scaffolds delivering different bioactive molecules or those that can be tubularized. In two clinical trials, only onlay-fashioned transplants were used for urethral reconstruction. However, the very promising results were obtained from animal studies where tubularized scaffolds, both non-seeded and cell-seeded, were applied. Impact statement The main goal of this article was to perform a systematic review of the recent literature on urethral tissue engineering. It summarizes the most recent information about cells, seeded or non-seeded scaffolds and clinical application with respect to regeneration of urethra.
Full Text Available Background: Exposure to parental suicide attempt is associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes like lower educational performance, drug abuse and delinquent behavior. When a patient is hospitalized after a suicide attempt, this presents a unique opportunity to identify whether the patient has children, and thereby provide adequate follow-up for both the parent/patient and their children. The objective of this paper was to review the existing literature on follow-up measures for children subjected to parental suicide attempt. Methods: In line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement, we conducted a systematic literature search. Results: The search resulted in a total of 1275 article titles, of which all abstracts were screened. Out of these, 72 full text papers were read, and a final four articles were included. Three of the included papers described parts of the same study from an emergency department in The Hague, where a protocol was implemented for monitoring and referring children of parents attempting suicide. The fourth article described the association between maternal attempted suicide and risk of abuse or neglect of their children. Conclusions: The lack of research in this particular area is striking. The circumstances surrounding a parent’s suicide attempt call for appropriate familial care.
Kohler, Jennefer N; Turbitt, Erin; Biesecker, Barbara B
Researchers and clinicians refer to outcomes of genomic testing that extend beyond clinical utility as 'personal utility'. No systematic delineation of personal utility exists, making it challenging to appreciate its scope. Identifying empirical elements of personal utility reported in the literature offers an inventory that can be subsequently ranked for its relative value by those who have undergone genomic testing. A systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature reporting non-health-related outcomes of genomic testing from 1 January 2003 to 5 August 2016. Inclusion criteria specified English language, date of publication, and presence of empirical evidence. Identified outcomes were iteratively coded into unique domains. The search returned 551 abstracts from which 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. Study populations and type of genomic testing varied. Coding resulted in 15 distinct elements of personal utility, organized into three domains related to personal outcomes: affective, cognitive, and behavioral; and one domain related to social outcomes. The domains of personal utility may inform pre-test counseling by helping patients anticipate potential value of test results beyond clinical utility. Identified elements may also inform investigations into the prevalence and importance of personal utility to future test users.
Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène
Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a "gray literature search" utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%). In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg
Pollock, Remy A; Abji, Fatima; Gladman, Dafna D
Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease of the skin that is sometimes accompanied by an auto-inflammatory arthritis called psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis and PsA are multifactorial diseases that result from complex interactions of environmental and genetic risk factors. Epigenetic marks, which are labile chemical marks with diverse functions, form a layer of biological information that sits at the interface of genetics and the environment. Aberrant epigenetic regulation has been previously implicated in other rheumatological disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize and critically evaluate the nascent literature on epigenetics in psoriasis and PsA. A systematic review yielded 52 primary articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized template and study quality assessed using a methodological quality checklist. Studies reflect a broad range of epigenetic sub-disciplines, the most common being DNA methylation, followed by the parent of origin effect or genomic imprinting, expression or activity of epigenetic modifying enzymes, and histone modifications. Epidemiological studies demonstrating excessive paternal transmission provided the earliest evidence of epigenetic deregulation in psoriatic disease, however few studies have examined its molecular mechanisms. Methylation studies evolved rapidly from low resolution global to targeted analyses of known psoriatic disease susceptibility loci such as HLA-C*0602. The recent explosion of epigenome-wide association studies has provided us with novel insights into psoriasis pathogenesis, and the mechanism of action of UVB, methotrexate, and anti-TNF therapies, as well as molecular signatures of psoriasis that may have clinical relevance. Finally, recent studies of pharmacological inhibitors of epigenetic modifier enzymes demonstrate their potential applicability as novel treatment modalities for psoriasis. Challenges of epigenetics research in psoriasis and Ps
Meszaros, Gergely; Horvath, Lili Olga; Balazs, Judit
During the last decade there is a growing scientific interest in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of the current paper was to review systematically the literature with a special focus on the associations between self-injurious behaviours and externalizing psychopathology. An additional aim was to review terminology and measurements of self-injurious behaviour and the connection between self-injurious behaviours and suicide in the included publications. A systematic literature search was conducted on 31st December 2016 in five databases (PubMed, OVID Medline, OVID PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms (1. nonsuicidal self-injury, non-suicidal self-injury, NSSI, self-injurious behaviour, SIB, deliberate self-harm, DSH, self-injury; 2. externalizing disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder, CD, oppositional defiant disorder, OD, ODD). Finally 35 papers were included. Eleven different terms were found for describing self-injurious behaviours and 20 methods for measuring it. NSSI has the clearest definition. All the examined externalizing psychopathologies had strong associations with self-injurious behaviours according to: higher prevalence rates in externalizing groups than in control groups, higher externalizing scores on the externalizing scales of questionnaires, higher symptom severity in self-injurious groups. Eight studies investigated the relationship between suicide and self-injurious behaviours and found high overlap between the two phenomena and similar risk factors. Based on the current findings the association between externalizing psychopathology and self-injurious behaviours has been proven by the scientific literature. Similarly to other reviews on self-injurious behaviours the confusion in terminology and methodology was noticed. NSSI is suggested for use as a distinct term. Further studies should investigate the role of comorbid conditions in NSSI, especially when internalizing
Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the scientific literature over the past decade. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for papers on home care published in English, using the following data bases: Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Social Care Online. Studies were only included if they complied with the definition of home care, were published between January 1998 and October 2009, and dealt with at least one of the 31 specified countries. Clinical interventions, instrument developments, local projects and reviews were excluded. The data extracted included: the characteristics of the study and aspects of home care 'policy & regulation', 'financing', 'organisation & service delivery', and 'clients & informal carers'. Results Seventy-four out of 5,133 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 18 countries. Many focused on the characteristics of home care recipients and on the organisation of home care. Geographical inequalities, market forces, quality and integration of services were also among the issues frequently discussed. Conclusions Home care systems appeared to differ both between and within countries. The papers included, however, provided only a limited picture of home care. Many studies only focused on one aspect of the home care system and international comparative studies were rare. Furthermore, little information emerged on home care financing and on home care in general in Eastern Europe. This review clearly shows the need for more scientific publications on home care, especially studies comparing countries. A comprehensive and more complete insight into the
Richards, Derek; Viganó, Noemi
This article aimed to critically review the literature on online counseling. Database and hand-searches were made using search terms and eligibility criteria, yielding a total of 123 studies. The review begins with what characterizes online counseling. Outcome and process research in online counseling is reviewed. Features and cyberbehaviors of online counseling such as anonymity and disinhibition, convenience, time-delay, the loss of social signaling, and writing behavior in cyberspace are discussed. Ethical behavior, professional training, client suitability, and clients' and therapists' attitudes and experiences of online counseling are reviewed. A growing body of knowledge to date is positive in showing that online counseling can have a similar impact and is capable of replicating the facilitative conditions as face-to-face encounters. A need remains for stronger empirical evidence to establish efficacy and effectiveness and to understand better the unique mediating and facilitative variables. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jeppesen, Kathrine Håland; Christiansen, Sytter; Frederiksen, Kirsten
Objective The aim of this review was to explore the literature on the connection between teaching strategies and nursing students' learning to clarify which teaching strategies provide optimal learning experiences and outcomes. Data sources Sources dating from January 2000 to November 2016 were....... Conclusion Teaching in skills lab and simulation laboratories provides a positive learning environment and motivates student nurses to learn. It develops critical thinking and the student nurses' ability to take part in what Benner refers to as problem-based nursing. However, there is a need to transform...... teaching strategies so that student nurses do not experience classroom and clinical practice teaching as separate parts during their education....
Delsing, Corine E.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Langendam, Miranda; Timen, Aura; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.
Background Long-term fatigue with detrimental effects on daily functioning often occurs following acute Q-fever. Following the 2007–2010 Q-fever outbreak in the Netherlands with over 4000 notified cases, the emphasis on long-term consequences of Q-fever increased. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of all relevant available literature, and to identify knowledge gaps regarding the definition, diagnosis, background, description, aetiology, prevention, therapy, and prognosis, of fatigue following acute Q-fever. Design A systematic review was conducted through searching Pubmed, Embase, and PsycInfo for relevant literature up to 26th May 2015. References of included articles were hand searched for additional documents, and included articles were quality assessed. Results Fifty-seven articles were included and four documents classified as grey literature. The quality of most studies was low. The studies suggest that although most patients recover from fatigue within 6–12 months after acute Q-fever, approximately 20% remain chronically fatigued. Several names are used indicating fatigue following acute Q-fever, of which Q-fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is most customary. Although QFS is described to occur frequently in many countries, a uniform definition is lacking. The studies report major health and work-related consequences, and is frequently accompanied by nonspecific complaints. There is no consensus with regard to aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis. Conclusions Long-term fatigue following acute Q-fever, generally referred to as QFS, has major health-related consequences. However, information on aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of QFS is underrepresented in the international literature. In order to facilitate comparison of findings, and as platform for future studies, a uniform definition and diagnostic work-up and uniform measurement tools for QFS are proposed. PMID:27223465
Kulczycki, Andrzej; Windle, Sarah
A systematic review of the research literature on honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) indicates a paucity of studies relative to the presumed magnitude of the problem. Forty articles were reviewed and critically appraised, of which only 9 contained primary data and 11 presented original secondary analyses. Despite a recent increase in published studies, persistent methodological limitations restrict the generalizability of findings. Most studies focus on legal aspects, determinants, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators. Victims are mostly young females murdered by their male kin. Unambiguous evidence of a decline in tolerance of honor killings remains elusive.
Silva, Jorge Luiz da; Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Andrade, Luciane Sá de; Bazon, Marina Rezende; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi
This paper presents a systematic literature review addressing rigorously planned and assessed interventions intended to reduce school bullying. The search for papers was performed in four databases (Lilacs, Psycinfo, Scielo and Web of Science) and guided by the question: What are the interventions used to reduce bullying in schools? Only case-control studies specifically focusing on school bullying without a time frame were included. The methodological quality of investigations was assessed using the SIGN checklist. A total of 18 papers composed the corpus of analysis and all were considered to have high methodological quality. The interventions conducted in the revised studies were divided into four categories: multi-component or whole-school, social skills training, curricular, and computerized. The review synthesizes knowledge that can be used to contemplate practices and intervention programs in the education and health fields with a multidisciplinary nature.
Rocha, Elyrose Sousa Brito; Nagliate, Patricia; Furlan, Claudia Elisangela Bis; Rocha, Kerson; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa
Knowledge has been used as a resource for intelligent and effective action planning in organizations. Interest in research on knowledge management processes has intensified in different areas. A systematic literature review was accomplished, based on the question: what are the contributions of Brazilian and international journal publications on knowledge management in health? The sample totaled 32 items that complied with the inclusion criteria. The results showed that 78% of journals that published on the theme are international, 77% of researchers work in higher education and 65% have a Ph.D. The texts gave rise to five thematic categories, mainly: development of knowledge management systems in health (37.5%), discussion of knowledge management application in health (28.1%) and nurses' function in knowledge management (18.7%).
Lívia Juliana Silva Solino
Full Text Available The fast-fashion (FF is considered an approach and phenomenon of global influence that suit the requirements of a constantly changing and demanding market, since it is a business model resulting of a mixture of fast manufacturing, flexibility, low cost and agile retail approaches. Within this context, this research by a systematic literature review seeks to answer how the FF has been addressed in scientific studies published until the year 2013. Through the review, a total of 82 texts was analysed, among them articles, dissertations and theses. The research method employed is characterized as descriptive, regarding the objectives, and as qualitative and quantitative, on the approach. After conducting the classification of the material, it was possible to understand the state-of-the-art, and thus set a holistic concept and the appropriate term for the FF. As well as propose a research agenda with new approaches for future studies within the relevant topic.
O'Haire, Marguerite E; Guérin, Noémie A; Kirkham, Alison C
Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols.
Marguerite Elizabeth O'haire
Full Text Available Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols.
Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio
This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.
Sophie Susannah Hall
Full Text Available Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented.Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b.The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children's reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.
Hall, Sophie Susannah; Gee, Nancy R; Mills, Daniel Simon
Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented. Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b. The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children's reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.
Best, Megan; Aldridge, Lynley; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian; Price, Melanie A; Webster, Fleur
Holistic suffering is a debilitating problem for cancer patients. Although many treatments have been suggested for its alleviation, they have not been compared for effectiveness. This literature review seeks to identify what interventions are effective in treatment of holistic suffering of cancer patients. A systematic review was conducted to identify and evaluate studies of interventions for holistic suffering in adult cancer patients. Search terms were generated iteratively from the literature. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases were searched for the years 1992-2015. Included studies were peer-reviewed, English language reports of either a controlled trial or a randomised controlled trial focusing on therapies aimed at relieving suffering in adult cancer patients. Articles were excluded if focused predominantly on spiritual or existential issues or concerns not leading to suffering. Studies were graded for quality using the QualSyst quantitative checklist. Levels of evidence were ascertained by completing the National Health and Medical Research Council criteria. Results are reported according to AMSTAR guidelines. The studies represented seven intervention types. Meaning-centred, hope-centred and stress-reduction interventions were found to be effective. Results of both psycho-educational and spiritual interventions in improving spiritual well-being were mixed. Supportive-expressive interventions - with the exception of forgiveness therapy - were not efficacious. There was little or no evidence for the efficacy of creative and healing arts and other assessed interventions such as animal therapy and haptotherapy. This systematic review found that spiritual well-being, meaning, hope and benefit finding can be positively impacted by a variety of treatment modalities. © The Author(s) 2015.
Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Thorén, Elisabet Sundewall
This systematic literature review asks the following question: “ What is the readability of Internet information on hearing that people with hearing impairment and their significant others can access in the context of their hearing care?” Searches were completed in three databases: CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus. Seventy-eight records were identified and systematically screened for eligibility: 8 records were included that contained data on the readability of Internet information on hearing that people with hear ing impairment and their significant others can access in the context of their hearing care. Records reported mean readability levels from 9 to over 14. In other words, people with hearing impairment and their significant others need 9 to 14 years of education to read and understand Internet information on hearing that they access in the context of their hearing care. The poor readability of Internet information on hearing has been well documented; it is time to focus on valid and sustainable initiatives that address this problem.
Jabbour, Samer; Kechichian, Elio; Hersant, Barbara; Levan, Philippe; El Hachem, Lena; Noel, Warren; Nasr, Marwan
Currently, there is no standardized approach for labia majora augmentation and controversies still exist regarding this subject. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence in the literature regarding labia majora augmentation. On November 20, 2016, we conducted an online search of published articles in the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. All articles describing labia majora augmentation were included in this review. Nine studies were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. Only 2 studies were prospective trials. The most commonly used technique was fat grafting with a total of 4 articles and 183 patients. The mean total injected fat volume ranged from 18 mL to 120 mL per session. Two articles described hyaluronic acid injection techniques. The total injected volume of hyaluronic acid ranged from 2 to 6 mL per session. Three articles used surgical techniques for labia majora augmentation. All included articles did not report any major or life-threatening complications. All techniques demonstrated high satisfaction rates. Labia majora augmentation appears to be a safe, efficient technique with a high satisfaction rate and no reported major complications. However, further randomized controlled trials are warranted. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com
Vartija, Larisa; Cheung, Kevin; Kaur, Manraj; Coroneos, Christopher James; Thoma, Achilleas
Ulnar hammer syndrome is an uncommon form of arterial insufficiency. Many treatments have been described, and debate continues about the best option. The goal of this systematic review was to determine whether ulnar hammer syndrome has an occupational association, to identify the most reliable diagnostic test, and to determine the best treatment modality. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Data from articles meeting inclusion criteria were collected in duplicate. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies scale. Thirty studies were included in the systematic review. No randomized controlled trials were identified. There is low-quality evidence suggestive of an association between exposure to repetitive hand trauma and vibration and ulnar hammer syndrome. Various diagnostic investigations were used, but few were compared, making it difficult to determine the most reliable diagnostic test. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatments were reported. With nonoperative treatment, 12 percent had complete resolution and 70 percent had partial resolution of their symptoms. Of patients treated operatively, 42.5 percent had complete resolution and 42.5 percent had partial resolution of their symptoms. The heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures limits definitive conclusions about occupational association, best diagnostic test, and treatment for ulnar hammer syndrome. However, there is low-quality evidence that suggests that most patients with ulnar hammer syndrome will have partial relief of symptoms with nonoperative treatment, and operative treatment results in complete or partial resolution of symptoms in the majority of cases. Therapeutic, IV.
Kõlves, Kairi; Barker, Emma; De Leo, Diego
Allergies are among the most common chronic conditions. In addition to physical and social impacts, a number of studies have consistently linked allergies to poor psychological outcomes, including depression and anxiety. The aim of the present systematic literature review was to analyze the existing literature about the relationship between allergies and fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors. Data sources include articles retrieved from Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, and Web of Knowledge. Search terms: "suicid* and (allerg* or hay fever or atop* or eczema or aeroallergen*)" in English-language peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014. Original research articles that provide empiric evidence about the potential link between allergies and suicidal behaviors. The initial search identified a total of 769 articles with 17 original research articles that present empiric evidence. Nine articles analyzed the relationship between allergies and fatal suicidal behavior, and nine analyzed nonfatal suicidal behaviors (one article included both). There currently is little research into the relationship between allergies and suicidal behavior. The review was restricted to English-language articles published within the chosen time period; other limitations included the small number of articles that involve suicide mortality, and the fact that the majority of articles originated from the United States and Scandinavia. Analysis of the results indicates a link between allergies and suicidality, particularly suicide mortality; however, results for nonfatal suicidal behaviors are mixed. It is important that further research by using more rigorous study designs be carried out to lend strength to these findings.
Full Text Available As the world rapidly urbanizes, there is much focus on achieving sustainability outcomes within cities. Accomplishing this goal requires not only envisioning sustainable cities and implementing strategies, but it also demands assessing progress towards sustainable urban development. Despite a growing literature on sustainability assessment, there is room to further understand the application of sustainability assessment in urban contexts. This paper presents a systematic review of urban sustainability assessment literature to (1 identify the most common methods used for urban sustainability assessment, (2 identify the most common framings for urban sustainability assessment, and (3 identify the most common categories for organizing indicators that measure urban sustainability. This research finds that urban sustainability assessment in general lacks a unifying framing and that it could be better aligned with common sustainability principles. The paper provides recommendations for future urban sustainability assessment research, including the employment of mixed-methods research among other strategies. In closing, this research offers a generic framework around which to structure urban sustainability assessment and within which to assign indicators for measuring progress towards sustainable urban development.
Pihlainen, Vuokko; Kivinen, Tuula; Lammintakanen, Johanna
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence of health-care leaders and managers, especially in the hospital environment. Health-care leaders and managers in this study were both nursing and physician managers. Competence was assessed by evaluating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities that enable management and leadership tasks. Design/methodology/approach - A systematic literature review was performed to find articles that identify and describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence. Searches of electronic databases were conducted using set criteria for article selection. Altogether, 13 papers underwent an inductive content analysis. Findings - The characteristics of management and leadership competence were categorized into the following groups: health-care-context-related, operational and general. Research limitations/implications - One limitation of the study is that only 13 articles were found in the literature regarding the characteristics of management and leadership competence. However, the search terms were relevant, and the search process was endorsed by an information specialist. The study findings imply the need to shift away from the individual approach to leadership and management competence. Management and leadership need to be assessed more frequently from a holistic perspective, and not merely on the basis of position in the organizational hierarchy or of profession in health care. Originality/value - The authors' evaluation of the characteristics of management and leadership competence without a concentrated profession-based approach is original.
Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J
Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alleyne, Emma; Parfitt, Charlotte
Adults perpetrate the majority of animal abuse incidents yet clinicians are left with very little evidence base to advance/enhance their practice. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize and evaluate the current literature on adult-perpetrated animal abuse and to identify the etiological factors related to this type of offending. Twenty-three studies met the specific inclusion criteria but most importantly, they examined the characteristics of adult perpetrators of animal abuse. The findings from this review were demarcated by sample type: (1) Participants were the perpetrators of the animal abuse or held offense-supportive attitudes and (2) participants were victims of intimate partner violence reporting incidents of animal abuse perpetrated by their partner. From the perpetrator perspective, there were key developmental (i.e., maladaptive parenting strategies), behavioral (such as varied offending behaviors), and psychological (e.g., callousness, empathy deficits) factors highlighted in the literature. Finally, in the context of intimate partner violence, findings indicated that perpetrators abuse animals to control, coerce, intimidate, and/or manipulate their victims (this effect is moderated by the victims' emotional attachment to their pet). This review inherently underlines treatment targets that could achieve greater clinical gains, but we also conclude that more empirical and theoretical work is needed in order to set an agenda that prioritizes future research and effective practice.
Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios
Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies
O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole; Rickson, Daphne
This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic...
Full Text Available Purpose: We present a systematic review of the literature concerning major aspects of science mapping to serve two primary purposes: First, to demonstrate the use of a science mapping approach to perform the review so that researchers may apply the procedure to the review of a scientific domain of their own interest, and second, to identify major areas of research activities concerning science mapping, intellectual milestones in the development of key specialties, evolutionary stages of major specialties involved, and the dynamics of transitions from one specialty to another. Design/methodology/approach: We first introduce a theoretical framework of the evolution of a scientific specialty. Then we demonstrate a generic search strategy that can be used to construct a representative dataset of bibliographic records of a domain of research. Next, progressively synthesized co-citation networks are constructed and visualized to aid visual analytic studies of the domain’s structural and dynamic patterns and trends. Finally, trajectories of citations made by particular types of authors and articles are presented to illustrate the predictive potential of the analytic approach. Findings: The evolution of the science mapping research involves the development of a number of interrelated specialties. Four major specialties are discussed in detail in terms of four evolutionary stages: conceptualization, tool construction, application, and codification. Underlying connections between major specialties are also explored. The predictive analysis demonstrates citations trajectories of potentially transformative contributions. Research limitations: The systematic review is primarily guided by citation patterns in the dataset retrieved from the literature. The scope of the data is limited by the source of the retrieval, i.e. the Web of Science, and the composite query used. An iterative query refinement is possible if one would like to improve the data quality
Full Text Available A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO and Web of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity models and their validation. The case study is the methodology that is most widely used by researchers to develop and validate maturity models. From the sustainability perspective, the scope of the analysed maturity models is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL and environmental dimension, focusing on a specific process (eco-design and new product development and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models in sustainability. Various aspects associated with the maturity models (i.e., research objectives, research methods, scope and characteristics of the design of models are explored to contribute to the evolution and significance of this multidimensional area.
Ten Berg, Paul W; Drijkoningen, Tessa; Strackee, Simon D; Buijze, Geert A
Background In the lack of consensus, surgeon-based preference determines how acute scaphoid fractures are classified. There is a great variety of classification systems with considerable controversies. Purposes The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the different classification systems, clarifying their subgroups and analyzing their popularity by comparing citation indexes. The intention was to improve data comparison between studies using heterogeneous fracture descriptions. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature based on a search of medical literature from 1950 to 2015, and a manual search using the reference lists in relevant book chapters. Only original descriptions of classifications of acute scaphoid fractures in adults were included. Popularity was based on citation index as reported in the databases of Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar. Articles that were cited <10 times in WoS were excluded. Results Our literature search resulted in 308 potentially eligible descriptive reports of which 12 reports met the inclusion criteria. We distinguished 13 different (sub) classification systems based on (1) fracture location, (2) fracture plane orientation, and (3) fracture stability/displacement. Based on citations numbers, the Herbert classification was most popular, followed by the Russe and Mayo classifications. All classification systems were based on plain radiography. Conclusions Most classification systems were based on fracture location, displacement, or stability. Based on the controversy and limited reliability of current classification systems, suggested research areas for an updated classification include three-dimensional fracture pattern etiology and fracture fragment mobility assessed by dynamic imaging.
Nelson Erika D
Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor
Hardeman, Rachel R; Murphy, Katy A; Karbeah, J'Mag; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes
Although a range of factors shapes health and well-being, institutionalized racism (societal allocation of privilege based on race) plays an important role in generating inequities by race. The goal of this analysis was to review the contemporary peer-reviewed public health literature from 2002-2015 to determine whether the concept of institutionalized racism was named (ie, explicitly mentioned) and whether it was a core concept in the article. We used a systematic literature review methodology to find articles from the top 50 highest-impact journals in each of 6 categories (249 journals in total) that most closely represented the public health field, were published during 2002-2015, were US focused, were indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE and/or Ovid/MEDLINE, and mentioned terms relating to institutionalized racism in their titles or abstracts. We analyzed the content of these articles for the use of related terms and concepts. We found only 25 articles that named institutionalized racism in the title or abstract among all articles published in the public health literature during 2002-2015 in the 50 highest-impact journals and 6 categories representing the public health field in the United States. Institutionalized racism was a core concept in 16 of the 25 articles. Although institutionalized racism is recognized as a fundamental cause of health inequities, it was not often explicitly named in the titles or abstracts of articles published in the public health literature during 2002-2015. Our results highlight the need to explicitly name institutionalized racism in articles in the public health literature and to make it a central concept in inequities research. More public health research on institutionalized racism could help efforts to overcome its substantial, longstanding effects on health and well-being.
Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402
Strong, Victoria J; Grindlay, Douglas; Redrobe, Sharon; Cobb, Malcolm; White, Kate
Wild bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, Pongo abelii) are threatened with extinction. In order to help maintain a self-sustaining zoo population, clinicians require a sound understanding of the diseases with which they might be presented. To provide an up-to-date perspective on great ape morbidity and mortality, a systematic review of the zoological and veterinary literature of great apes from 1990 to 2014 was conducted. This is the first review of the great ape literature published since 1990 and the first-ever systematic literature review of great ape morbidity and mortality. The following databases were searched for relevant articles: CAB Abstracts, Web of Science Core Collection, BIOSIS Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, MEDLINE, SciELO Citation Index, and Zoological Record. A total of 189 articles reporting on the causes of morbidity and mortality among captive great apes were selected and divided into comparative morbidity-mortality studies and case reports-series or single-disease prevalence studies. The content and main findings of the morbidity-mortality studies were reviewed and the main limitations identified. The case reports-case series and single-disease prevalence studies were categorized and coded according to taxa, etiology, and body system. Subsequent analysis allowed the amount of literature coverage afforded to each category to be calculated and the main diseases and disorders reported within the literature to be identified. This review concludes that reports of idiopathic and infectious diseases along with disorders of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal body systems were particularly prominent within the great ape literature during 1990-2014. However, recent and accurate prevalence figures are lacking and there are flaws in those reviews that do exist. There is
Full Text Available Fibrin sealants are widely used in neurosurgery to seal the suture line, provide watertight closure, and prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current efficacy and safety literature of fibrin sealants in dura sealing and the prevention/treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.A comprehensive electronic literature search was run in the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Resister of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE/PubMed, and EMBASE. Titles and abstracts of potential articles of interest were reviewed independently by 3 of the authors.A total of 1006 database records and additional records were identified. After screening for duplicates and relevance, a total of 78 articles were assessed by the investigators for eligibility. Thirty-eight were excluded and the full-text of 40 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven of these included only safety data and were included in the safety assessment. The remaining 33 articles included findings from 32 studies that enrolled a total of 2935 patients who were exposed to fibrin sealant. Among these 33 studies there were only 3 randomized controlled trials, with the remaining being prospective cohort analysis, case controlled studies, prospective or retrospective case series. One randomized controlled trial, with 89 patients exposed to fibrin sealant, found a greater rate of intraoperative watertight dura closure in the fibrin sealant group than the control group (92.1% versus 38.0%, p0.05. Other clinical trials evaluated the effect of fibrin sealant in the postoperative prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. These were generally lower level evidence studies (ie, not prospective, randomized, controlled trials that were not designed or powered to demonstrate a significant advantage to fibrin sealant use. Two small case series studies evaluated the effect of fibrin sealants in
Grutters, Janneke P C; Sculpher, Mark; Briggs, Andrew H; Severens, Johan L; Candel, Math J; Stahl, James E; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Boer, Albert; Ramaekers, Bram L T; Joore, Manuela A
Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic evaluations pay only limited attention to patient heterogeneity. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluation of healthcare programmes. A systematic literature review was performed to identify methodological papers on the topic of patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation. Data were obtained using a keyword search of the PubMed database and manual searches. Handbooks were also included. Relevant data were extracted regarding potential sources of patient heterogeneity, in which of the input parameters of an economic evaluation these occur, methods to acknowledge patient heterogeneity and specific concerns associated with this acknowledgement. A total of 20 articles and five handbooks were included. The relevant sources of patient heterogeneity (demographics, preferences and clinical characteristics) and the input parameters where they occurred (baseline risk, treatment effect, health state utility and resource utilization) were combined in a framework. Methods were derived for the design, analysis and presentation phases of an economic evaluation. Concerns related mainly to the danger of false-positive results and equity issues. By systematically reviewing current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluations of healthcare programmes, we provide guidance for future economic evaluations. Guidance is provided on which sources of patient heterogeneity to consider, how to acknowledge them in economic evaluation and potential concerns. The improved acknowledgement of patient heterogeneity in future economic evaluations may well improve the
Kõlves, Kairi; Kõlves, Keili E; De Leo, Diego
Various consequences including suicidal behaviours can arise in the aftermath of natural disasters. The aim of the present review was to systematically analyse the existing literature on the potential impact of natural disasters on suicidal behaviours. A systematic search of English-language articles indexed in electronic databases was conducted. The current review covers 42 papers containing empirical analyses of the relationship between natural disasters and suicidal behaviours. In total, 19 papers analysed suicide mortality and 23 non-fatal suicidal behaviours. The effects of earthquakes on suicidal behaviours are the most frequently studied among natural disasters (n=20), followed by hurricanes (n=11). Further, there were four papers about tsunamis, three about floods, three about heat waves and drought, and one investigating the effects of multiple natural disasters. The studies show different directions in suicide mortality following natural disasters. Nevertheless, there seems to be a drop in non-fatal suicidal behaviours in the initial post-disaster period, which has been referred to as the 'honeymoon' phase. A delayed increase in suicidal behaviours has been reported in some studies. However, other factors increasing the risk of suicidal behaviours after natural disasters have been reported, such as previous and current mental health problems. Furthermore, contributing factors, such as economic conditions, should also be considered. The exclusion of non-English articles. In light of the various methodological limitations observed, there is a need for further studies using proper designs. Mental health and suicidal behaviours should continue to be monitored for several years after the disaster. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Basu, Subhashis; Qayyum, Hasan; Mason, Suzanne
Occupational stress is a major modern health and safety challenges. While the ED is known to be a high-pressure environment, the specific organisational stressors which affect ED staff have not been established. We conducted a systematic review of literature examining the sources of organisational stress in the ED, their link to adverse health outcomes and interventions designed to address them. A narrative review of contextual factors that may contribute to occupational stress was also performed. All articles written in English, French or Spanish were eligible for conclusion. Study quality was graded using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-five full-text articles were eligible for inclusion in our systematic review. Most were of moderate quality, with two low-quality and two high-quality studies, respectively. While high demand and low job control were commonly featured, other studies demonstrated the role of insufficient support at work, effort-reward imbalance and organisational injustice in the development of adverse health and occupational outcomes. We found only one intervention in a peer-reviewed journal evaluating a stress reduction programme in ED staff. Our review provides a guide to developing interventions that target the origins of stress in the ED. It suggests that those which reduce demand and increase workers' control over their job, improve managerial support, establish better working relationships and make workers' feel more valued for their efforts could be beneficial. We have detailed examples of successful interventions from other fields which may be applicable to this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Flinn, Lucinda; Braham, Louise; das Nair, Roshan
This systematic literature review investigated the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of case formulations. We considered the reliability of case formulations across a range of theoretical modalities and the general quality of the primary research studies. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted in addition to reference list trawling to find studies that assessed the reliability of case formulation. This yielded 18 studies for review. A methodological quality assessment tool was developed to assess the quality of studies, which informed interpretation of the findings. Results indicated inter-rater reliability mainly ranging from slight (.1-.4) to substantial (.81-1.0). Some studies highlighted that training and increased experience led to higher levels of agreement. In general, psychodynamic formulations appeared to generate somewhat increased levels of reliability than cognitive or behavioural formulations; however, these studies also included methods that may have served to inflate reliability, for example, pooling the scores of judges. Only one study investigated the test-retest reliability of case formulations yielding support for the stability of formulations over a 3-month period. Reliability of case formulations is varied across a range of theoretical modalities, but can be improved; however, further research is required to strengthen our conclusions. Clinical implications: The findings from the review evidence some support for case formulation being congruent with the scientist-practitioner approach. The reliability of case formulation is likely to be improved through training and clinical experience. Limitations: The broad inclusion criteria may have introduced heterogeneity into the sample, which may have affected the results. Studies reviewed were limited to peer-reviewed journal articles written in the English language, which may represent a source of publication and selection bias. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Poscia, Andrea; Moscato, Umberto; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Borghini, Alice; Collamati, Agnese; Ricciardi, Walter; Magnavita, Nicola
Aging of the workforce is a growing problem. As workers age, their physical, physiological and psychosocial capabilities change. Keeping older workers healthy and productive is a key goal of European labor policy and health promotion is a key to achieve this result. Previous studies about workplace health promotion (WHP) programs are usually focused on the entire workforce or to a specific topic. Within the framework of the EU-CHAFEA ProHealth65+ project, this paper aims to systematically review the literature on WHP interventions specifically targeted to older workers (OWs). This systematic review was conducted by making a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases. Search terms included ageing (and synonyms), worker (and synonyms), intervention (and synonyms), and health (and synonyms). The search was limited to papers in English or Italian published between January, 1(st) 2000 and May, 31(st) 2015. Relevant references in the selected articles were also analyzed. Of the 299 articles initially identified as relating to the topic, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The type, methods and outcome of interventions in the WHP programs retrieved were heterogenous, as was the definition of the age at which a worker is considered to be 'older'. Most of the available studies had been conducted on small samples for a limited period of time. Our review shows that, although this issue is of great importance, studies addressing WHP actions for OWs are few and generally of poor quality. Current evidence fails to show that WHP programs improve the work ability, productivity or job retention of older workers. In addition, there is limited evidence that WHP programs are effective in improving lifestyles and concur to maintain the health and well-being of older workers. There is a need for future WHP programs to be well-designed so that the effectiveness and cost-benefit of workplace interventions can be
Krähenbühl, Nicola; Weinberg, Maxwell W; Davidson, Nathan P; Mills, Megan K; Hintermann, Beat; Saltzman, Charles L; Barg, Alexej
To give a systematic overview of current diagnostic imaging options for assessment of the distal tibio-fibular syndesmosis. A systematic literature search across the following sources was performed: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and SpringerLink. Forty-two articles were included and subdivided into three groups: group one consists of studies using conventional radiographs (22 articles), group two includes studies using computed tomography (CT) scans (15 articles), and group three comprises studies using magnet resonance imaging (MRI, 9 articles).The following data were extracted: imaging modality, measurement method, number of participants and ankles included, average age of participants, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the measurement technique. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool was used to assess the methodological quality. The three most common techniques used for assessment of the syndesmosis in conventional radiographs are the tibio-fibular clear space (TFCS), the tibio-fibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS). Regarding CT scans, the tibio-fibular width (axial images) was most commonly used. Most of the MRI studies used direct assessment of syndesmotic integrity. Overall, the included studies show low probability of bias and are applicable in daily practice. Conventional radiographs cannot predict syndesmotic injuries reliably. CT scans outperform plain radiographs in detecting syndesmotic mal-reduction. Additionally, the syndesmotic interval can be assessed in greater detail by CT. MRI measurements achieve a sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%; however, correlating MRI findings with patients' complaints is difficult, and utility with subtle syndesmotic instability needs further investigation. Overall, the methodological quality of these studies was satisfactory.
Fishe, Jennifer N; Crowe, Remle P; Cash, Rebecca E; Nudell, Nikiah G; Martin-Gill, Christian; Richards, Christopher T
As prehospital research advances, more evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) are implemented into emergency medical services (EMS) practice. However, incomplete or suboptimal prehospital EBG implementation may hinder improvement in patient outcomes. To inform future efforts, this study's objective was to review existing evidence pertaining to prehospital EBG implementation methods. This study was a systematic literature review and evaluation following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Advanced Search were searched without language or publication date filters for articles addressing prehospital EBG implementation. Conference proceedings, textbooks, and non-English articles were excluded. GRADE was applied to the remaining articles independently by three of five study investigators. Study characteristics and salient findings from the included articles are reported. The systematic literature review identified 1,367 articles, with 41 meeting inclusion criteria. Most articles described prehospital EBG implementation (n = 24, 59%), or implementation barriers (n = 13, 32%). Common study designs were statement documents (n = 12, 29%), retrospective cohort studies (n = 12, 29%), and cross-sectional studies (n = 9, 22%). Using GRADE, evidence quality was rated low (n = 18, 44%), or very low (n = 23, 56%). Salient findings from the articles included: (i) EBG adherence and patient outcomes depend upon successful implementation, (ii) published studies generally lack detailed implementation methods, (iii) EBG implementation takes longer than planned (mostly for EMS education), (iv) EMS systems' heterogeneity affects EBG implementation, and (v) multiple barriers limit successful implementation (e.g., financial constraints, equipment purchasing, coordination with hospitals, and regulatory agencies). This review found no direct evidence for best prehospital EBG implementation practices. There
Keijser, Wouter; Smits, Jacco; Penterman, Lisanne; Wilderom, Celeste
Purpose This paper aims to systematically review the literature on roles of physicians in virtual teams (VTs) delivering healthcare for effective "physician e-leadership" (PeL) and implementation of e-health. Design/methodology/approach The analyzed studies were retrieved with explicit keywords and criteria, including snowball sampling. They were synthesized with existing theoretical models on VT research, healthcare team competencies and medical leadership. Findings Six domains for further PeL inquiry are delineated: resources, task processes, socio-emotional processes, leadership in VTs, virtual physician-patient relationship and change management. We show that, to date, PeL studies on socio-technical dynamics and their consequences on e-health are found underrepresented in the health literature; i.e. no single empirical, theoretic or conceptual study with a focus on PeL in virtual healthcare work was identified. Research limitations/implications E-health practices could benefit from organization-behavioral type of research for discerning effective physicians' roles and inter-professional relations and their (so far) seemingly modest but potent impact on e-health developments. Practical implications Although best practices in e-health care have already been identified, this paper shows that physicians' roles in e-health initiatives have not yet received any in-depth study. This raises questions such as are physicians not yet sufficiently involved in e-health? If so, what (dis)advantages may this have for current e-health investments and how can they best become involved in (leading) e-health applications' design and implementation in the field? Originality/value If effective medical leadership is being deployed, e-health effectiveness may be enhanced; this new proposition needs urgent empirical scrutiny.
Gharaveis, Arsalan; Hamilton, D Kirk; Pati, Debajyoti
The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the current knowledge about the impact of healthcare facility design on teamwork and communication by exploring the relevant literature. Teamwork and communication are behavioral factors that are impacted by physical design. However, the effects of environmental factors on teamwork and communication have not been investigated extensively in healthcare design literature. There are no published systematic reviews on the current topic. Searches were conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar databases in addition to targeted design journals including Health Environmental Research & Design, Environment and Behavior, Environmental Psychology, and Applied Ergonomics. Inclusion criteria were (a) full-text English language articles related to teamwork and communication and (b) involving any healthcare built environment and space design published in peer-reviewed journals between 1984 and 2017. Studies were extracted using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the first phase, 26 of the 195 articles most relevant to teamwork and 19 studies of the 147 were identified and reviewed to understand the impact of communication in healthcare facilities. The literature regarding the impact of built environment on teamwork and communication were reviewed and explored in detail. Eighteen studies were selected and succinctly summarized as the final product of this review. Environmental design, which involves nurses, support staff, and physicians, is one of the critical factors that promotes the efficiency of teamwork and collaborative communication. Layout design, visibility, and accessibility levels are the most cited aspects of design which can affect the level of communication and teamwork in healthcare facilities.
Delalibera, Mayra; Presa, Joana; Coelho, Alexandra; Barbosa, António; Franco, Maria Helena Pereira
The loss of a loved one can affect family dynamics by changing the family system and creating the need for family members to reorganize. Good family functioning, which is characterized by open communication, expression of feelings and thoughts and cohesion among family members, facilitates adaptive adjustment to the loss. This study conducted a systematic review of the literature on family dynamics during the grieving process. A search was conducted in the EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Bireme databases for scientific articles published from January 1980 to June 2013. Of the 389 articles found, only 15 met all the inclusion criteria. The selected studies provided evidence that dysfunctional families exhibit more psychopathological symptoms, more psychosocial morbidity, poorer social functioning, greater difficulty accessing community resources, lower functional capacity at work, and a more complicated grieving process. Family conflicts were also emphasized as contributing to the development of a complicated grieving process, while cohesion, expression of affection and good communication in families are believed to mitigate grief symptoms.
Gilmartin, Heather; Goyal, Anupama; Hamati, Mary C; Mann, Jason; Saint, Sanjay; Chopra, Vineet
Mindfulness practice, where an individual maintains openness, patience, and acceptance while focusing attention on a situation in a nonjudgmental way, can improve symptoms of anxiety, burnout, and depression. The practice is relevant for health care providers; however, the time commitment is a barrier to practice. For this reason, brief mindfulness interventions (eg, ≤ 4 hours) are being introduced. We systematically reviewed the literature from inception to January 2017 about the effects of brief mindfulness interventions on provider well-being and behavior. Studies that tested a brief mindfulness intervention with hospital providers and measured change in well-being (eg, stress) or behavior (eg, tasks of attention or reduction of clinical or diagnostic errors) were selected for narrative synthesis. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria; 7 were randomized controlled trials. Nine of 14 studies reported positive changes in levels of stress, anxiety, mindfulness, resiliency, and burnout symptoms. No studies found an effect on provider behavior. Brief mindfulness interventions may be effective in improving provider well-being; however, larger studies are needed to assess an impact on clinical care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kadi, I; Idri, A; Fernandez-Aleman, J L
Data mining (DM) provides the methodology and technology needed to transform huge amounts of data into useful information for decision making. It is a powerful process employed to extract knowledge and discover new patterns embedded in large data sets. Data mining has been increasingly used in medicine, particularly in cardiology. In fact, DM applications can greatly benefit all those involved in cardiology, such as patients, cardiologists and nurses. The purpose of this paper is to review papers concerning the application of DM techniques in cardiology so as to summarize and analyze evidence regarding: (1) the DM techniques most frequently used in cardiology; (2) the performance of DM models in cardiology; (3) comparisons of the performance of different DM models in cardiology. We performed a systematic literature review of empirical studies on the application of DM techniques in cardiology published in the period between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2015. A total of 149 articles published between 2000 and 2015 were selected, studied and analyzed according to the following criteria: DM techniques and performance of the approaches developed. The results obtained showed that a significant number of the studies selected used classification and prediction techniques when developing DM models. Neural networks, decision trees and support vector machines were identified as being the techniques most frequently employed when developing DM models in cardiology. Moreover, neural networks and support vector machines achieved the highest accuracy rates and were proved to be more efficient than other techniques. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ilka Nicéia D’Aquino Oliveira Teixeira
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most prevalent nursing ethical issues published in scientific Brazilian journals. Methods: A systematic literature review with the following inclusion criteria: (1 articles on Nursing Ethics written in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish; (2 published in Brazilian journals; (3 in the period from January 1997 to February 2009. The search was carried out in four databases BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO. The key-words were ethics AND nursing. The selected studies were classified into categories. The content of the articles were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse. The categories generated discourses by organizing the main excerpts from the abstracts of the selected studies, which are the “key expressions”. Results: A hundred and thirty three articles that met the inclusion criteria were classified into eight categories: 1. Nursing Care; 2. Dilemmas and Controversies; 3. Education; 4. Legal Aspects; 5. Research; 6. Management; 7. Values and Beliefs; 8. Perspectives and Health Policies. The category “Nursing Care” prevailed in 36% of the selected articles, and it was classified into six subcategories. “Dilemmas and Controversies” was the second most prevalent category (15%. Conclusion: The number of theoretical papers on ethical issues is high, but there is little research on the ethical experiences in nursing practice.
Full Text Available Urinothorax, the presence of urine in the pleural space, is a rare cause of pleural effusion, usually associated with obstructive uropathy, or urinary trauma. We present the case of a 3 year-old boy and a systematic review of the literature of the 44 cases encountered. After resection of a Wilm's tumour in the right kidney our patient presented acute respiratory distress associated with radiographically confirmed pleural effusion. With the initial diagnosis of pneumonia or malignant pleural effusion, a closed thoracotomy was performed. The liquid obtained suggested urine, which was confirmed by the laboratory. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography detected a fistula on the posterior wall of the right kidney. The report of cases worldwide is low, probably due to its low incidence but also to underdiagnosis. Respiratory symptoms are not always present and urological symptoms usually predominate. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and is confirmed by the main biochemical marker: The ratio >1 .0 pleural fluid creatinine and creatinine serum.
Aij, Kjeld Harald; Teunissen, Maurits
Purpose Emphasis on quality and reducing costs has led many health-care organizations to reconfigure their management, process, and quality control infrastructures. Many are lean, a management philosophy with roots in manufacturing industries that emphasizes elimination of waste. Successful lean implementation requires systemic change and strong leadership. Despite the importance of leadership to successful lean implementation, few researchers have probed the question of ideal leadership attributes to achieve lean thinking in health care. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into applicable attributes for lean leaders in health care. Design/methodology/approach The authors systematically reviewed the literature on principles of leadership and, using Dombrowski and Mielke's (2013) conceptual model of lean leadership, developed a parallel theoretical model for lean leadership in health care. Findings This work contributes to the development of a new framework for describing leadership attributes within lean management of health care. Originality/value The summary of attributes can provide a model for health-care leaders to apply lean in their organizations.
Batbaatar, Enkhjargal; Dorjdagva, Javkhlanbayar; Luvsannyam, Ariunbat; Amenta, Pietro
Patient satisfaction concept is widely measured due to its appropriateness to health service; however, evidence suggests that it is a poorly developed concept. This article is a first part of a two-part series of research with a goal to review a current conceptual framework of patient satisfaction and to bring the concept for further operationalisation procedures. The current article aimed to review a theoretical framework that helps the next article to review determinants of patient satisfaction for designing a measurement system. The study used a systematic review method, meta-narrative review, based on the RAMESES guideline with the phases of screening evidence, appraisal evidence, data extraction and synthesis. Patient satisfaction theoretical articles were searched on the two databases MEDLINE and CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1980 and 2014, and English language papers only. There were 36 articles selected for the synthesis. Results showed that most of the patient satisfaction theories and formulations are based on marketing theories and defined as how well health service fulfils patient expectations. However, review demonstrated that a relationship between expectation and satisfaction is unclear and the concept expectation itself is not distinctly theorised as well. Researchers brought satisfaction theories from other fields to the current healthcare literature without much adaptation. Thus, there is a need to attempt to define the patient satisfaction concept from other perspectives or to learn how patients evaluate the care rather than struggling to describe it by consumerist theories. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.
Ada Salvetti Cavalcanti Caldas
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objetive: to identify, in the literature, studies that address the use of motor imagery of swallowing. Methods: a systematic review in SCOPUS databases, Science Direct and Medline, with descriptors and free terms "Motor Imagery"; "Swallow"; "Feeding"; "Stomatognathic System"; "mastication ", "Chew "; "Deglutition "; "Deglutition Disorders "; and "Mental Practice". Original articles using the motor imagery of swallowing were included, while reviews were excluded. For data analysis, at the first and second steps, the reading of titles and abstracts of the studies was carried out. In the third step, all studies that were not excluded were read in full. Results: four manuscripts were selected. The use of motor imagery in the rehabilitation of swallowing shows to be a recent proposal (2014-2015. The sample was reduced and comprised mainly healthy individuals. The EMG of the supra-hyoid muscles was used in two manuscripts. The most used neuroimaging technique was the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, demonstrating the occurrence of hemodynamic changes during motor imagery and motor execution of swallowing. Conclusion: the motor imagery produces brain response in the motor area of the brain, suggesting that mentalization of actions related to swallowing is effective. However, further studies are needed for the application of this approach in the swallowing rehabilitation.
Bányai, Fanni; Griffiths, Mark D; Király, Orsolya; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Recently, the skill involved in playing and mastering video games has led to the professionalization of the activity in the form of 'esports' (electronic sports). The aim of the present paper was to review the main topics of psychological interest about esports and then to examine the similarities of esports to professional and problem gambling. As a result of a systematic literature search, eight studies were identified that had investigated three topics: (1) the process of becoming an esport player, (2) the characteristics of esport players such as mental skills and motivations, and (3) the motivations of esport spectators. These findings draw attention to the new research field of professional video game playing and provides some preliminary insight into the psychology of esports players. The paper also examines the similarities between esport players and professional gamblers (and more specifically poker players). It is suggested that future research should focus on esport players' psychological vulnerability because some studies have begun to investigate the difference between problematic and professional gambling and this might provide insights into whether the playing of esports could also be potentially problematic for some players.
Röhr, Susanne; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Annette
This review is to provide a first overview about prevalences and associations of forms of child maltreatment in binge eating disorder (BED). Systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Science in December 2013. Terms considered were "binge eating disorder" AND "child* maltreatment", "child* abuse", "child* sexual abuse", "child* emotional abuse", "child* physical abuse", "child* emotional neglect" as well as "child* physical neglect". Inclusion criteria were studies published between 1990 and 2013, publications in English or German, adult patients, studies that considered patients with full DSM criteria for BED, and studies that reported prevalences of forms of child maltreatment. Eight studies out of 366 met criteria. Child maltreatment rates in BED were more than two times higher than in representative samples, but they were similar to psychiatric comparisons. Up to 83 % of patients with BED reported at least one form of child maltreatment. There were associations to psychiatric comorbidity, but not to gender, obesity and specific features of the eating behaviour. Child maltreatment is very prevalent among BED. Its contribution to the development and the maintenance of BED is not understood yet. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Danielle Faust Cruz
Full Text Available It is growing the importance of services sector in the global economy. Facing a global and dynamic market, characterized by fierce competition, Competitive Intelligence - CI can help services organizations in decision making process and in the conception of competitive advantages against competitors. This paper aims to outline the state of art concerning the use of competitive intelligence in the services sector organizations, through research and analysis of articles found in major databases. This is a theoretical study consisting of a systematic literature review including bibliometric and content analysis. Relevant publications were retrieved in the following data bases related to the subject: Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Ebsco, ScienceDirect, and Engineering Village. The results allow considering the importance of competitive intelligence for survival and competitiveness of services organizations. Finally, it was verified the existence of a gap related to prescriptive studies, focusing on investigations about the subject, being this type of study relevant to the area to reach maturity
Full Text Available The loss of a loved one can affect family dynamics by changing the family system and creating the need for family members to reorganize. Good family functioning, which is characterized by open communication, expression of feelings and thoughts and cohesion among family members, facilitates adaptive adjustment to the loss. This study conducted a systematic review of the literature on family dynamics during the grieving process. A search was conducted in the EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Bireme databases for scientific articles published from January 1980 to June 2013. Of the 389 articles found, only 15 met all the inclusion criteria. The selected studies provided evidence that dysfunctional families exhibit more psychopathological symptoms, more psychosocial morbidity, poorer social functioning, greater difficulty accessing community resources, lower functional capacity at work, and a more complicated grieving process. Family conflicts were also emphasized as contributing to the development of a complicated grieving process, while cohesion, expression of affection and good communication in families are believed to mitigate grief symptoms.
De Cesaro, Bruna Campos; Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Nunes, Gabriela Pisoni Canedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi
Systematically review the literature on interventions in children's language in primary health care. One searched the electronic databases (January 1980 to March 2013) MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed), Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo. The search terms used were "child language", "primary health care", "randomized controlled trial" and "intervention studies" (in English, Portuguese and Spanish). There were included any randomized controlled trials that addressed the issues child language and primary health care. The analysis was based on the type of language intervention conducted in primary health care. Seven studies were included and used intervention strategies such as interactive video, guidance for parents and group therapy. Individuals of both genders were included in the seven studies. The age of the children participant in the samples of the articles included in this review ranged from zero to 11 years. These seven studies used approaches that included only parents, parents and children or just children. The mainly intervention in language on primary health care, used in randomized controlled trials, involved the use of interactional video. Several professionals, beyond speech and language therapist, been inserted in the language interventions on primary health care, demonstrating the importance of interdisciplinary work. None of the articles mentioned aspects related to hearing. There was scarcity of randomized controlled trials that address on language and public health, either in Brazil or internationally.
Jesús M. T. Portocarrero
Full Text Available Autonomic computing (AC is a promising approach to meet basic requirements in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, and its principles can be applied to efficiently manage nodes operation and optimize network resources. Middleware for WSNs supports the implementation and basic operation of such networks. In this systematic literature review (SLR we aim to provide an overview of existing WSN middleware systems that address autonomic properties. The main goal is to identify which development approaches of AC are used for designing WSN middleware system, which allow the self-management of WSN. Another goal is finding out which interactions and behavior can be automated in WSN components. We drew the following main conclusions from the SLR results: (i the selected studies address WSN concerns according to the self-* properties of AC, namely, self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimization, and self-protection; (ii the selected studies use different approaches for managing the dynamic behavior of middleware systems for WSN, such as policy-based reasoning, context-based reasoning, feedback control loops, mobile agents, model transformations, and code generation. Finally, we identified a lack of comprehensive system architecture designs that support the autonomy of sensor networking.
Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G
Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Kornaropoulos, Michail; Moris, Demetrios; Beal, Eliza W; Makris, Marinos C; Mitrousias, Apostolos; Petrou, Athanasios; Felekouras, Evangelos; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vailas, Michail; Schizas, Dimitrios; Papalampros, Alexandros
Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is a complex operation with high perioperative morbidity and mortality, even in the highest volume centers. Since the development of the robotic platform, the number of reports on robotic-assisted pancreatic surgery has been on the rise. This article reviews the current state of completely robotic PD. A systematic literature search was performed including studies published between January 2000 and July 2016 reporting PDs in which all procedural steps (dissection, resection and reconstruction) were performed robotically. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 738 patients. Data regarding perioperative outcomes such as operative time, blood loss, mortality, morbidity, conversion and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. No major differences were observed in mortality, morbidity and oncologic parameters, between robotic and non-robotic approaches. However, operative time was longer in robotic PD, whereas the estimated blood loss was lower. The conversion rate to laparotomy was 6.5-7.8%. Robotic PD is feasible and safe in high-volume institutions, where surgeons are experienced and medical staff are appropriately trained. Randomized controlled trials are required to further investigate outcomes of robotic PD. Additionally, cost analysis and data on long-term oncologic outcomes are needed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of the robotic approach in comparison with the open technique.
Srinivasan, M.; SubbaRao, K.; Garg, S.B.; Acharya, G.V.
The authors describe a number of interesting systematics and correlations deduced by analyzing the criticality data of special actinide nuclides using concepts embodied in the Trombay critically formula (TCF). The κ ∞ of fast metal actinide nuclides gives a remarkable linear correlation with the fissility parameter Z 2 /A. The neutron leakage probability of all fast metal cores characterized using a constant parameter σ std enables computation of the critical mass value of any unknown fissile nuclide knowing only its Z 2 /A value. Since the neutron leakage probability from dilute fissile solutions is primarily governed by the scattering/slowing down properties of the hydrogen present in water, critical masses and subcritical limits can be predicted for any water-reflected system at any specified hydrogen-to-actinide atomic ratio knowing only the κ ∞ value of the given fissile solution
Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa
The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results.
Joseph, Walter J; Sinno, Sammy; Brownstone, Nicholas D; Mirrer, Joshua; Thanik, Vishal D
The aim of this study was to perform an updated systematic review of the literature over the last 10 years, analyzing and comparing the many published techniques with the hope of providing plastic surgeons with a new standard in creating the perfect umbilicus in the setting of both abdominoplasty and abdominally based free-flap breast reconstruction. An initial search using the PubMed online database with the keyword "umbilicoplasty" was performed. These results were filtered to only include articles published within the last 10 years. The remaining articles were thoroughly reviewed by the authors and only those pertaining to techniques for umbilicoplasty in the setting of abdominoplasty and abdominally based free flap were included. Of the 10 unique techniques yielded by our search, 9/10 (90 %) initially incised the native umbilicus with a round, oval, or vertical ellipse pattern. Of the 9 techniques that initially perform a round incision, 4 of them (44.4 %) later modify the round umbilicus with either an inferior or superior excision to create either a "U"- or "inverted U"-shaped umbilicus. In terms of the shape of the incision made in the abdominal flap for umbilical reinsertion, the most common were either a round incision or an inverted "V" or "U," both of which accounted for 4/10 (40 %) and 3/10 (30 %), respectively. Almost all of the studies (8/10; 80 %) describe "defatting" or trimming of the subcutaneous adipose tissue around the incision to create a periumbilical concavity following inset of the umbilicus. 4/10 (40 %) of the techniques describe suturing the dermis of the umbilical skin to rectus fascia. Furthermore, 3/10 (30 %) advise that stalk plication is a necessary step to their technique. 7/9 techniques (77.8 %) preferred nondissolvable sutures for skin closure, with nylon being the most common suture material used. Only 2/9 (22.2 %) used dissolvable sutures. Although future studies are necessary, it is our hope that this systematic
Chan, Zenobia C Y
Critical thinking is the ability to raise discriminating questions in an attempt to search for better ideas, a deeper understanding and better solutions relating to a given issue. This systematic review provides a summary of efforts that have been made to enhance and assess critical thinking in medical education. Nine databases [Ovid MEDLINE(R), AMED, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science, JSTOR, SCOPUS and PsycINFO] were searched to identify journal articles published from the start of each database to October 2012. A total of 41 articles published from 1981 to 2012 were categorised into two main themes: (i) evaluation of current education on critical thinking and (ii) development of new strategies about critical thinking. Under each theme, the teaching strategies, assessment tools, uses of multimedia and stakeholders were analysed. While a majority of studies developed teaching strategies and multimedia tools, a further examination of their quality and variety could yield some insights. The articles on assessment placed a greater focus on learning outcomes than on learning processes. It is expected that more research will be conducted on teacher development and students' voices.
Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel
The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…
van der Schoor, Tineke; Scholtens, Bert
We analyze the literature regarding community energy. We investigate the appearance of studies in the literature and the geographical orientation of the case studies, as well as the actual journals where the articles are published. We relate the articles to the theoretical approaches that are being
de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.; Thyssen, G.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
This paper reviews the growing literature on early school leaving. We clarify what is at stake with early school leaving, and touch upon underlying problems and methodological issues raised in the literature. The paper investigates the levels, the methods and models with which the topic has been
Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Paesani, D.; Lobbezoo, F.
AIMS: To perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the prevalence of bruxism in adult populations. METHODS: A systematic search of the medical literature was performed to identify all peer-reviewed English-language papers dealing with the prevalence assessment of either awake or
Rodríguez, Iyubanit; Herskovic, Valeria; Gerea, Carmen; Fuentes, Carolina; Rossel, Pedro O; Marques, Maíra; Campos, Mauricio
Monitoring of patients may decrease treatment costs and improve quality of care. Pain is the most common health problem that people seek help for in hospitals. Therefore, monitoring patients with pain may have significant impact in improving treatment. Several studies have studied factors affecting pain; however, no previous study has reviewed the contextual information that a monitoring system may capture to characterize a patient's situation. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine what types of technologies have been used to monitor adults with pain, and (2) construct a model of the context information that may be used to implement apps and devices aimed at monitoring adults with pain. A literature search (2005-2015) was conducted in electronic databases pertaining to medical and computer science literature (PubMed, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) using a defined search string. Article selection was done through a process of removing duplicates, analyzing title and abstract, and then reviewing the full text of the article. In the final analysis, 87 articles were included and 53 of them (61%) used technologies to collect contextual information. A total of 49 types of context information were found and a five-dimension (activity, identity, wellness, environment, physiological) model of context information to monitor adults with pain was proposed, expanding on a previous model. Most technological interfaces for pain monitoring were wearable, possibly because they can be used in more realistic contexts. Few studies focused on older adults, creating a relevant avenue of research on how to create devices for users that may have impaired cognitive skills or low digital literacy. The design of monitoring devices and interfaces for adults with pain must deal with the challenge of selecting relevant contextual information to understand the user's situation, and not overburdening or inconveniencing users with
Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Kembro, Joakim
methodological developments in the application systematic literature reviews in supply chain management. It analyzes what approaches researchers in supply chain management have taken to follow the requirements of a systematic review, identifies issues in the approaches and provides authors, reviewers and editors...... with suggestions to better craft, disseminate, evaluate and select systematic literature reviews in supply chain management. This paper applies a systematic literature review approach to identify and analyze 31 articles published in core supply chain journals. It is the first research to map these developments......, since three seminal methodology papers on systematic reviews in management research have been published between 2003-2009. This research shows that there is still a need for more transparency in the approaches taken. Systematic literature reviews have a high potential to advance the field...
Almuzaini, Tariq; Choonara, Imti; Sammons, Helen
Objective To explore the evidence available of poor-quality (counterfeit and substandard) medicines in the literature. Design Systematic review. Data sources Databases used were EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, including articles published till January 2013. Eligibility criteria Prevalence studies containing original data. WHO definitions (1992) used for counterfeit and substandard medicines. Study appraisal and synthesis Two reviewers independently scored study methodology against recommendations from the MEDQUARG Checklist. Studies were classified according to the World Bank classification of countries by income. Data extraction Data extracted: place of study; type of drugs sampled; sample size; percentage of substandard/counterfeit medicines; formulations included; origin of the drugs; chemical analysis and stated issues of counterfeit/substandard medicines. Results 44 prevalence studies were identified, 15 had good methodological quality. They were conducted in 25 different countries; the majority were in low-income countries (11) and/or lower middle-income countries (10). The median prevalence of substandard/counterfeit medicines was 28.5% (range 11–48%). Only two studies differentiated between substandard and counterfeit medicines. Prevalence data were limited to antimicrobial drugs (all 15 studies). 13 studies involved antimalarials, 6 antibiotics and 2 other medications. The majority of studies (93%) contained samples with inadequate amounts of active ingredients. The prevalence of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials was significantly higher when purchased from unlicensed outlets (pcounterfeit medicines. Most studies assessed only a single therapeutic class of antimicrobials. Conclusions The prevalence of poor-quality antimicrobial medicines is widespread throughout Africa and Asia in lower income countries and lower middle-income countries . The main problem identified was inadequate amounts of the active
Full Text Available Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI. Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adopts a systematic approach to agile maturity model research, using Google Scholar, Science Direct, and IEEE Xplore as sources. In total 531 articles were initially found matching the search criteria, which was filtered to 39 articles by applying specific exclusion criteria. Contribution:: The article highlights the trends in agile maturity model research, specifically bringing to light the lack of research providing validation of such models. Findings: Two major themes emerge, being the coexistence of agile and CMMI and the development of agile principle based maturity models. The research trend indicates an increase in agile maturity model articles, particularly in the latter half of the last decade, with concentrations of research coinciding with version updates of CMMI. While there is general consensus around higher CMMI maturity levels being incompatible with true agility, there is evidence of the two coexisting when agile is introduced into already highly matured environments. Future Research:\tFuture research direction for this topic should include how to attain higher levels of CMMI maturity using only agile methods, how governance is addressed in agile environments, and whether existing agile maturity models relate to improved project success.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional systematic review techniques have limitations when the aim of a review is to construct a critical analysis of a complex body of literature. This article offers a reflexive account of an attempt to conduct an interpretive review of the literature on access to healthcare by vulnerable groups in the UK Methods This project involved the development and use of the method of Critical Interpretive Synthesis (CIS. This approach is sensitised to the processes of conventional systematic review methodology and draws on recent advances in methods for interpretive synthesis. Results Many analyses of equity of access have rested on measures of utilisation of health services, but these are problematic both methodologically and conceptually. A more useful means of understanding access is offered by the synthetic construct of candidacy. Candidacy describes how people's eligibility for healthcare is determined between themselves and health services. It is a continually negotiated property of individuals, subject to multiple influences arising both from people and their social contexts and from macro-level influences on allocation of resources and configuration of services. Health services are continually constituting and seeking to define the appropriate objects of medical attention and intervention, while at the same time people are engaged in constituting and defining what they understand to be the appropriate objects of medical attention and intervention. Access represents a dynamic interplay between these simultaneous, iterative and mutually reinforcing processes. By attending to how vulnerabilities arise in relation to candidacy, the phenomenon of access can be better understood, and more appropriate recommendations made for policy, practice and future research. Discussion By innovating with existing methods for interpretive synthesis, it was possible to produce not only new methods for conducting what we have termed critical
Schram, Andrew W; Hougham, Gavin W; Meltzer, David O; Ruhnke, Gregory W
There is an emerging literature on the physician competencies most meaningful to patients and their families. However, there has been no systematic review on physician competency domains outside direct clinical care most important for patient- and family-centered outcomes in critical care settings at the end of life (EOL). Physician competencies are an essential component of palliative care (PC) provided at the EOL, but the literature on those competencies relevant for patient and family satisfaction is limited. A systematic review of this important topic can inform future research and assist in curricular development. Review of qualitative and quantitative empirical studies of the impact of physician competencies on patient- and family-reported outcomes conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. The data sources used were PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Fifteen studies (5 qualitative and 10 quantitative) meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. The competencies identified as critical for the delivery of high-quality PC in critical care settings are prognostication, conflict mediation, empathic communication, and family-centered aspects of care, the latter being the competency most frequently acknowledged in the literature identified. Prognostication, conflict mediation, empathic communication, and family-centered aspects of care are the most important identified competencies for patient- and family-centered PC in critical care settings. Incorporation of education on these competencies is likely to improve patient and family satisfaction with EOL care.
Adams, Jean; Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Moore, Helen J; Lake, Amelia A; Araujo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn
Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowledge and evidence in public health, and other fields, accumulates from innovation in practice. This knowledge may not even be of sufficient formality to meet the definition of grey literature. We term this knowledge 'grey information'. Grey information may be even harder to search for and retrieve than grey literature. On three previous occasions, we have attempted to systematically search for and synthesise public health grey literature and information-both to summarise the extent and nature of particular classes of interventions and to synthesise results of evaluations. Here, we briefly describe these three 'case studies' but focus on our post hoc critical reflections on searching for and synthesising grey literature and information garnered from our experiences of these case studies. We believe these reflections will be useful to future researchers working in this area. Issues discussed include search methods, searching efficiency, replicability of searches, data management, data extraction, assessing study 'quality', data synthesis, time and resources, and differentiating evidence synthesis from primary research. Information on applied public health research questions relating to the nature and range of public health interventions, as well as many evaluations of these interventions, may be predominantly, or only, held in grey literature and grey information. Evidence syntheses on these topics need, therefore, to embrace grey literature and information. Many typical systematic review methods for searching, appraising, managing, and synthesising the evidence base can be adapted for use with grey literature and information. Evidence synthesisers should carefully consider the opportunities and problems offered by including grey literature and information
Holguín Lew, Jorge Carlos; Caamaño Jaraba, Jessica; Gómez Alzate, Alejandra; Hidalgo López, Catalina; Marino Mondragón, Daniel Felipe; Restrepo Moreno, Sebastián; Rico Abella, Liz Evelin
Apathy, defined as a deficit for initiating and maintaining action, is a symptom affecting patients with diverse psychiatric and neuropsychiatric diseases, including dementia, sequelae of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, depression, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apathy negatively affects function and quality of life of PD patients, and it is an important cause of caregiver's distress. The pharmacological treatment of apathy in PD is the focus of this systematic review. A comprehensive search and systematic selection was performed in different databases of original research papers on the treatment of apathy in PD. The results were then consolidated, and a critical analysis was made of the research papers. The results are then discussed according to the methodological standards for systematic reviews of the literature. A total of 11 studies were included. Although some studies showed efficacy, all of them had important methodological limitations that hampered the interpretation of results. The results of the examined studies cannot be considered as evidence for guiding clinical decisions. So far, no evidence-based recommendations can be offered for the treatment of apathy in PD. More studies with better methodological quality are needed. It is a potentially fruitful area for research and one badly needed by both PD patients and their caregivers. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Carvalho, Diana P S R P; Azevedo, Isabelle C; Cruz, Giovanna K P; Mafra, Gabriela A C; Rego, Anna L C; Vitor, Allyne F; Santos, Viviane E P; Cogo, Ana L P; Ferreira Júnior, Marcos A
Identifying the strategies used to promote critical thinking (CT) during undergraduate education in nursing courses. Systematic review. Five electronic databases were searched without language, publication time or geographic filters. A systematic review of the literature. Including experimental studies that considered at least one teaching strategy to promote critical thinking of undergraduate students in Nursing courses. The search for studies occurred in three phases: title and summary review, complete text and implementation of a clinical form of selection according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were assessed for quality through a classification tool for experimental studies. Six studies were selected. The results were grouped into three key themes: an evaluation of the quality of the selected studies, characterization of the studies and the strategies used to promote critical thinking. All selected studies were in English, with significant conceptual similarity of Critical Thinking and dominance in choosing the approached theme during strategies in clinical nursing education with an emphasis on the nursing process. The most widely used teaching intervention was Problem-Based Learning. Nursing education mediated by strategies that stimulate CT is considered a positive difference in undergraduate curriculums. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Naylor, Nichola R; Atun, Rifat; Zhu, Nina; Kulasabanathan, Kavian; Silva, Sachin; Chatterjee, Anuja; Knight, Gwenan M; Robotham, Julie V
Accurate estimates of the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are needed to establish the magnitude of this global threat in terms of both health and cost, and to paramaterise cost-effectiveness evaluations of interventions aiming to tackle the problem. This review aimed to establish the alternative methodologies used in estimating AMR burden in order to appraise the current evidence base. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, EconLit, PubMed and grey literature were searched. English language studies evaluating the impact of AMR (from any microbe) on patient, payer/provider and economic burden published between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Independent screening of title/abstracts followed by full texts was performed using pre-specified criteria. A study quality score (from zero to one) was derived using Newcastle-Ottawa and Philips checklists. Extracted study data were used to compare study method and resulting burden estimate, according to perspective. Monetary costs were converted into 2013 USD. Out of 5187 unique retrievals, 214 studies were included. One hundred eighty-seven studies estimated patient health, 75 studies estimated payer/provider and 11 studies estimated economic burden. 64% of included studies were single centre. The majority of studies estimating patient or provider/payer burden used regression techniques. 48% of studies estimating mortality burden found a significant impact from resistance, excess healthcare system costs ranged from non-significance to $1 billion per year, whilst economic burden ranged from $21,832 per case to over $3 trillion in GDP loss. Median quality scores (interquartile range) for patient, payer/provider and economic burden studies were 0.67 (0.56-0.67), 0.56 (0.46-0.67) and 0.53 (0.44-0.60) respectively. This study highlights what methodological assumptions and biases can occur dependent on chosen outcome and perspective. Currently, there is considerable variability in burden estimates, which can lead in
Exercise as a therapeutic tool used in End-stage renal disease patients (ESRD) in hemodialysis (HD) is not routinately applied, as it occurs with cardiac or respiratory patients. Lack of awareness of research in this field may contribute to the current situation. Thus, the aims of this review are: 1) to systematically review the literature of exercise training on adult HD patients or patients at a pre-HD stage; 2) to show the evidence on the benefits of exercise for counteracting physiological, functional and psychological impairments found even in older ESRD patients; 3) to recommend requirements of future research in order to include exercise prescription in the HD patients treatment. The Data bases reviewed from 2005 to 2009 were: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOHost), SportDicus (EBSCOHost), Academic Search Complete (EBSCOHost), Fuente Académica (EBSCOHost), MedicLatina (EBSCOHost), PEDro y PubMed. Additionally, references from identified articles, several reviews on ESRD and abstracts to Nephrology Congresses were also reviewed. Randomized Controlled Trials on aerobic, strength and combined programs for HD patients were selected. Data from the studies was compiled and Van Tulder criteria were used for methodological quality assessment. Metanalysis included 6 studies on aerobic exercise, 2 on strength exercise and 5 on combined exercise programs. 640 patients were included in 16 included studies. Effects on physical function, health related quality of life and other secondary measurements were summarized by the Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) Moderate evidence exists on positive effects of aerobic training on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 6.55; CI 95%: 4.31-8.78). There is high evidence on positive effects of strength training on health related quality of life (SMD 11.03; CI 95%: 5.63-16.43). Finally, moderate evidence exists on positive effects of combined exercise on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 5.57; CI
Full Text Available Abstract The importance of health workforce provision has gained significance and is now considered one of the most pressing issues worldwide, across all health professions. Against this background, the objectives of the work presented here were to systematically explore and identify contemporary issues surrounding expansion of the global pharmacy workforce in order to assist the International Pharmaceutical Federation working group on the workforce. International peer and non-peer-reviewed literature published between January 1998 and February 2008 was analysed. Articles were collated by performing searches of appropriate databases and reference lists of relevant articles; in addition, key informants were contacted. Information that met specific quality standards and pertained to the pharmacy workforce was extracted to matrices and assigned an evidence grade. Sixty-nine papers were identified for inclusion (48 peer reviewed and 21 non-peer-reviewed. Evaluation of evidence revealed the global pharmacy workforce to be composed of increasing numbers of females who were working fewer hours; this decreased their overall full-time equivalent contribution to the workforce, compared to male pharmacists. Distribution of pharmacists was uneven with respect to location (urban/rural, less-developed/more-developed countries and work sector (private/public. Graduates showed a preference for completing pre-registration training near where they studied as an undergraduate; this was of considerable importance to rural areas. Increases in the number of pharmacy student enrolments and pharmacy schools occurred alongside an expansion in the number and roles of pharmacy technicians. Increased international awareness and support existed for the certification, registration and regulation of pharmacy technicians and accreditation of training courses. The most common factors adding to the demand for pharmacists were increased feminization, clinical governance measures
Zuriguel Pérez, Esperanza; Lluch Canut, Maria Teresa; Falcó Pegueroles, Anna; Puig Llobet, Montserrat; Moreno Arroyo, Carmen; Roldán Merino, Juan
This article seeks to analyse the current state of scientific knowledge concerning critical thinking in nursing. The methodology used consisted of a scoping review of the main scientific databases using an applied search strategy. A total of 1518 studies published from January 1999 to June 2013 were identified, of which 90 met the inclusion criteria. The main conclusion drawn is that critical thinking in nursing is experiencing a growing interest in the study of both its concepts and its dimensions, as well as in the development of training strategies to further its development among both students and professionals. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that critical thinking has been investigated principally in the university setting, independent of conceptual models, with a variety of instruments used for its measurement. We recommend (i) the investigation of critical thinking among working professionals, (ii) the designing of evaluative instruments linked to conceptual models and (iii) the identification of strategies to promote critical thinking in the context of providing nursing care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Health websites are important sources of information for consumers. In choosing websites, trust in websites largely determines which website to access and how to best utilize the information. Thus, it is critical to understand why consumers trust certain websites and distrust others. A systematic literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying the antecedents of trust in health information websites. After four rounds of screening process, 20 articles between 2000 and 2013 were harvested. Factors that determine trust are classified into individual difference antecedents, website-related antecedents, and consumer-to-website interaction-related antecedents. The most frequently studied antecedents were socio-demographics, information quality, appearance, and perceived reputation of the website. Each antecedent of trust are discussed in detail and future research directions are proposed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available (Background The adoption of Agile Software Development (ASD, in particular Scrum, has grown significantly since its introduction in 2001. However, in Lima, many ASDs implementations have been not suitable (uncompleted or inconsistent, thus losing benefits obtainable by this approach and the critical success factors in this context are unknown. (Objective To analyze factors models used in the evaluation of the adoption of ASDs, as these factors models can contribute to explaining the success or failure of these adoptions. (Method In this study we used a systematic literature review. (Result Ten models have been identified; their similarities and differences are presented. (Conclusion Each model identified consider different factors, however some of them are shared by five of these models, such as team member attributes, engaging customer, customer collaboration, experience and work environment.
Strategy A literature search was conducted in the Scopus , IE Compendex, Inspec and National Technical Information Service (NTIS) databases. The basic...scores should also be accompanied by a review of actual values over time wherever possible. 7.4 Sources Consulted Licensed databases: Scopus EI
Since literature is a creative work that mirrors society, Alachi in The Dilemma of Oko, observes aspects of the social, political, cultural and moral degeneration of contemporary society. He presents them in this play with thorough detachment and clinical dispassion. The play presents the image of a society, whose moral order ...
The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research.
Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Thompson, Amy; DeNardo, Faith; Diehr, Aaron J.
Background: Marijuana represents the most widely used illicit drug on college campuses. Repeated use can impair students' academic, emotional, and physical success and can lead to chronic diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate existing literature on the associated effects of marijuana use on U.S. college students' academic…
Wells, Rita L.
In the literature on marketing in adult education there is much debate on the ethics of marketing educational programs; although many individuals have written about the potential negative impacts of big business and high-pressure advertising in education, others have viewed marketing as an acceptable process that attempts to establish mutually…
Turner, Conor D A; Lockey, David J; Rehn, Marius
Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus were conducted in conjunction with simple searches of non-indexed databases; Web of Science, OpenDOAR and Evidence Search. The searches were last carried out on 20 April 2016 and only identified those papers published after the 1 January 1980. Included documents had to contain descriptions, discussions or experiences of the pre-hospital management of civilian mass shootings. From the 494 identified manuscripts, 73 were selected on abstract and title and after full text reading 47 were selected for inclusion in analysis. The search yielded reports of 17 mass shooting events, the majority from the USA with additions from France, Norway, the UK and Kenya. Between 1994 and 2015 the shooting of 1649 people with 578 deaths at 17 separate events are described. Quality appraisal demonstrated considerable heterogeneity in reporting and revealed limited data on mass shootings globally. Key themes were identified to improve future practice: tactical emergency medical support may harmonise inner cordon interventions, a need for inter-service education on effective haemorrhage control, the value of senior triage operators and the need for regular mass casualty incident simulation.
Lipman, Timothy O
The volume of medical literature grows exponentially. Yet we are faced with the necessity to make clinical decisions based on the availability and quality of scientific information. The general strength (reliability, robustness) of any interpretation that guides us in clinical decision making is dependent on how information was obtained. All information and medical studies and, consequently, all conclusions are not created equal. It is incumbent upon us to be able to assess the quality of the information that guides us in the care of our patients. Being able to assess medical literature critically requires use of critical reading and critical thinking skills. To achieve these skills, to be able to analyze medical literature critically, takes a combination of education and practice, practice, and more practice.
Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.
This issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" is devoted to developing critical awareness, through poetry, values, the elements of fiction, and literary study. The first section considers approaching narrative through the use of popular materials and includes two essays: "Grim Tales in the English Classroom" by Larry Danielson and "From the Comics…
Oakley, K; O'Brien, D
Inequality has become essential to understanding contemporary British society and is at the forefront of media, political and practice discussions of the future of the arts in the UK. Whilst there is a wealth of work on traditional areas of inequality, such as those associated with income or gender, the relationship between culture, specifically cultural value, and inequality is comparatively under-researched. The literature review considers inequality and cultural value from two points of vi...
Shridharani, Sachin M; Berli, Jens; Manson, Paul N; Tufaro, Anthony P; Rodriguez, Eduardo D
Little debate exists regarding the use of preoperative and perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in the setting of mandibular fracture management; however, employing postoperative prophylactic antibiotics remains an inexact science based on experience rather than evidence. In this systematic review, the authors evaluate scientific literature and report results of an international survey that provide information regarding current practices of the plastic surgery community. Systematic literature review was performed using Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases to identify studies evaluating use of antibiotics in patients suffering from mandible fractures. Level 1, 2, and large retrospective studies were included. Case reports were excluded. Additionally, an E-survey was distributed to all ASPS members and data were collected over a 5-month period through SurveyMonkey. Four hundred twenty-seven articles published before December 2012 were identified. Seventy-one articles met inclusion criteria. Five articles remained when exclusion criteria were applied.ASPS member survey demonstrated 13% response rate (687 responses/5299 questionnaires). Of respondents, 75% placed patients (ORIF group) with open mandible fractures on prophylactic antibiotics for up to 3 days (44.1%), 1 week (54.8%), and more than 1 week (1.1%). Of respondents, 51% placed patients (ORIF group) with closed mandible fracture on prophylactic antibiotics for up to 3 days (50.5%), 1 week (48.6%), and more than 1 week (1%). Critical literature review demonstrates a trend towards no postoperative antibiotic coverage (>24 hours) in patients undergoing mandibular ORIF. There is further need for prospective, randomized control trials with a standardized regimen. Our survey elucidates the variability of plastic surgeons' clinical practices.
Phuong, Tam T.; Cole, S. Catherine; Zarestky, Jill
Although ample literature exists regarding the effectiveness of faculty development (FD) activities, there is a gap in the literature synthesizing its outcomes. This review, using a predetermined review protocol, analyzed 22 publications on FD for teacher educators using Kirkpatrick's training evaluation taxonomy. We found that North American…
Boonstra, A.; Versluis, Arie; Vos, J.F.J.
Background: The literature on implementing Electronic Health Records (EHR) in hospitals is very diverse. The objective of this study is to create an overview of the existing literature on EHR implementation in hospitals and to identify generally applicable findings and lessons for implementers.
Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their le...
Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda
This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…
Ivanov, Stanislav; Zhechev, Vladimir
The paper presents a literature review of the main concepts of hotel revenue management (RM) and current state-of-the-art of its theoretical research. The article emphasises on the different directions of hotel RM research and is structured around the elements of the hotel RM system and the stages of RM process. The elements of the hotel RM system discussed in the paper include hotel RM centres (room division, F&B, function rooms, spa & fitness facilities, golf courses, casino and gambling fa...
Swaan, Corien; van den Broek, Anouk; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Richardus, Jan Hendrik
Timely notification of infectious diseases is crucial for prompt response by public health services. Adequate notification systems facilitate timely notification. A systematic literature review was performed to assess outcomes of studies on notification timeliness and to determine which aspects of
Dorp, W. F. van; Hagen, C. W.
An extensive review is given of the results from literature on electron beam induced deposition. Electron beam induced deposition is a complex process, where many and often mutually dependent factors are involved. The process has been studied by many over many years in many different experimental setups, so it is not surprising that there is a great variety of experimental results. To come to a better understanding of the process, it is important to see to which extent the experimental results are consistent with each other and with the existing model. All results from literature were categorized by sorting the data according to the specific parameter that was varied (current density, acceleration voltage, scan patterns, etc.). Each of these parameters can have an effect on the final deposit properties, such as the physical dimensions, the composition, the morphology, or the conductivity. For each parameter-property combination, the available data are discussed and (as far as possible) interpreted. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid, two different growth regimes, and electron beam induced heating, the majority of the experimental results were explained qualitatively. This indicates that the physical processes are well understood, although quantitatively speaking the models can still be improved. The review makes clear that several major issues remain. One issue encountered when interpreting results from literature is the lack of data. Often, important parameters (such as the local precursor pressure) are not reported, which can complicate interpretation of the results. Another issue is the fact that the cross section for electron induced dissociation is unknown. In a number of cases, a correlation between the vertical growth rate and the secondary electron yield was found, which suggests that the secondary electrons dominate the dissociation rather than the primary electrons. Conclusive evidence for this hypothesis has not been found. Finally
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce how to analyse the qualitative data from the Critical Decision Method. At first, characterizing the method provides the meaningful introduction into the issue. This method used in naturalistic decision making research is one of the cognitive task analysis methods, it is based on the retrospective semistructured interview about critical incident from the work and it may be applied in various domains such as emergency services, military, transport, sport or industry. Researchers can make two types of methodological adaptation. Within-method adaptations modify the way of conducting the interviews and cross-method adaptations combine this method with other related methods. There are many decsriptions of conducting the interview, but the descriptions how the data should be analysed are rare. Some researchers use conventional approaches like content analysis, grounded theory or individual procedures with reference to the objectives of research project. Wong (2004 describes two approaches to data analysis proposed for this method of data collection, which are described and reviewed in the details. They enable systematic work with a large amount of data. The structured approach organizes the data according to an a priori analysis framework and it is suitable for clearly defined object of research. Each incident is studied separately. At first, the decision chart showing the main decision points and then the incident summary are made. These decision points are used to identify the relevant statements from the transcript, which are analysed in terms of the Recognition-Primed Decision Model. Finally, the results from all the analysed incidents are integrated. The limitation of the structured approach is it may not reveal some interesting concepts. The emergent themes approach helps to identify these concepts while maintaining a systematic framework for analysis and it is used for exploratory research design. It
Nuttall, Frank Q; Warrier, Rohit S; Gannon, Mary C
A large number of medications have been implicated in the genesis of gynecomastia. However, gynecomastia is common in men, asymptomatic, increases with age, and is considered to be due to an increased estradiol/testosterone ratio. This complicates the interpretation of medication-related gynecomastia. Therefore, we have reviewed the literature in order to assess the data relating gynecomastia onset with utilization of specific medications. The literature was searched in PubMed and the Ovid/Medline databases from the 1946 to January 2015 with the search terminology of "gynecomastia, drugs/medications." A few other articles were found and included. One hundred ten publications were reviewed. Sixty-three were single case reports. There were 24 population-based studies of which 8 were HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral agents. Among the case reports, 49 were for individual medications, and 2 were reports of antineoplastic or antiretroviral drug regimens. In the great majority, mastodynia with or without breast enlargement was present and referred to as gynecomastia. Generally, hormonal profiles could not explain the breast enlargement. The pain/tenderness and breast enlargement resolved spontaneously over time. Many different medications have been associated with the presence of "gynecomastia." Generally, it presents as a syndrome characterized by a single painful/tender breast (mastodynia) associated with breast enlargement and is transient. We suggest that these cases be referred to as an acute gynecomastia syndrome. This syndrome also occurs independent of medication use. Thus, in an individual patient, whether it is medication induced often remains uncertain. The pathogenesis remains unknown.
Caputo, Andrea; Pellegrini, Massimiliano M.; Dabic, Marina; Dana, Leo-Paul
Purpose\\ud The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature addressing internationalisation of firms from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud This paper presents an inter-disciplinary systematic review of literature about the internationalisation of firms from CEE.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud Three different clusters of research were identified. In the “Internationalisation Processes” cluster, containing many comparative studies, the foc...
Thibault, Robert T; MacPherson, Amanda; Lifshitz, Michael; Roth, Raquel R; Raz, Amir
Neurofeedback relying on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-nf) heralds new prospects for self-regulating brain and behavior. Here we provide the first comprehensive review of the fMRI-nf literature and the first systematic database of fMRI-nf findings. We synthesize information from 99 fMRI-nf experiments-the bulk of currently available data. The vast majority of fMRI-nf findings suggest that self-regulation of specific brain signatures seems viable; however, replication of concomitant behavioral outcomes remains sparse. To disentangle placebo influences and establish the specific effects of neurofeedback, we highlight the need for double-blind placebo-controlled studies alongside rigorous and standardized statistical analyses. Before fMRI-nf can join the clinical armamentarium, research must first confirm the sustainability, transferability, and feasibility of fMRI-nf in patients as well as in healthy individuals. Whereas modulating specific brain activity promises to mold cognition, emotion, thought, and action, reducing complex mental health issues to circumscribed brain regions may represent a tenuous goal. We can certainly change brain activity with fMRI-nf. However, it remains unclear whether such changes translate into meaningful behavioral improvements in the clinical domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This is a review article of the following five recent studies on populism: 1 Ruth Wodak’s The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean (Sage, 2015; 2 Benjamin Moffitt’s The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style and Representation (Stanford University Press, 2016; 3 Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser’s Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2017; 4 Jan-Werner Müller’s What is Populism? (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016; and 5 John B. Judis’ The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics (Columbia Global Reports, 2016. The review argues for a return to early Frankfurt School Critical Theory to address some of the shortcomings of these studies.
Constenla, Dagna; Garcia, Cristina; Lefcourt, Noah
The economics of dengue is complex and multifaceted. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide a critical overview of the issues related to dengue economics research and to form a background with which to address the question of cost. Three literature databases were searched [PubMed, Embase and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS)], covering a period from 1980 to 2013, to identify papers meeting preset inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality on the basis of a quality checklist developed for this purpose. An expert survey was designed to identify priority areas in dengue economics research and to identify gaps between the methodology and actual practice. Survey responses were combined with the literature review findings to determine stakeholder priorities in dengue economics research. The review identified over 700 papers. Forty-two of these papers met the selection criteria. The studies that were reviewed presented results from 32 dengue-endemic countries, underscoring the importance of dengue as a global public health problem. Cost analyses were the most common, with 21 papers, followed by nine cost-effectiveness analyses and seven cost-of-illness studies, indicating a relatively strong mix of methodologies. Dengue annual overall costs (in 2010 values) ranged from US$13.5 million (in Nicaragua) to $56 million (in Malaysia), showing cost variations across countries. Little consistency exists in the way costs were estimated and dengue interventions evaluated, making generalizations around costs difficult. The current evidence suggests that dengue costs are substantial because of the cost of hospital care and lost earnings. Further research in this area will broaden our understanding of the true economic impact of dengue.
Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature on school leadership and management in South Africa, linked to the 20th anniversary of democratic government and integrated education. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors conducted a systematic review of all published work since 2007 with a more selective…
Manfredini, D.; Lobbezoo, F.
Objectives: The present paper aims to systematically review the literature on the temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-bruxism relationship published from 1998 to 2008. Study design: A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was performed to identify all studies on
Manfredini, D.; Poggio, C.E.; Lobbezoo, F.
Purpose To systematically review the literature on the role of bruxism as a risk factor for the different complications on dental implant-supported rehabilitations. Material and Methods A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's Medline Database was performed to identify all
Daams, Freek; Wu, Zhouqiao; Lahaye, Max Jef; Jeekel, Johannus; Lange, Johan Frederik
Although many studies have focused on the preoperative risk factors of anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery (CAL), postoperative delay in diagnosis is common and harmful. This review provides a systematic overview of all available literature on diagnostic tools used for CAL. A systematic
Horsting, Marlene Wb B; Franken, Mira D; Meulenbelt, Jan; van Klei, Wilton A; de Lange, Dylan W
Non-traumatic coma (NTC) is a serious condition requiring swift medical or surgical decision making upon arrival at the emergency department. Knowledge of the most frequent etiologies of NTC and associated mortality might improve the management of these patients. Here, we present the results of a systematic literature search on the etiologies and prognosis of NTC. Two reviewers independently performed a systematic literature search in the Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases with subsequent reference and citation checking. Inclusion criteria were retrospective or prospective observational studies on NTC, which reported on etiologies and prognostic information of patients admitted to the emergency department or intensive care unit. Eventually, 14 studies with enough data on NTC, were selected for this systematic literature review. The most common causes of NTC were stroke (6-54%), post-anoxic coma (3-42%), poisoning (coma (54-89%) and lowest for poisoning (0-39%) and epilepsy (0-10%). NTC represents a challenge to the emergency and the critical care physicians with an important mortality and moderate-severe disability rate. Even though, included studies were very heterogeneous, the most common causes of NTC are stroke, post anoxic, poisoning and various metabolic etiologies. The best outcome is achieved for patients with poisoning and epilepsy, while the worst outcome was seen in patients with stroke and post-anoxic coma. Adequate knowledge of the most common causes of NTC and prioritizing the causes by mortality ensures a swift and adequate work-up in diagnosis of NTC and may improve outcome.
Chen, Junyu; Wan, Jia; You, Lun
Various types of orthodontic appliances can lead to speech difficulties. However, speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances have not been sufficiently investigated by an evidence-based method. The aim of this study is to outline the scientific evidence and mechanism of the speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances. Randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies focusing on the effect of orthodontic appliances on speech were included. A systematic search was conducted by an electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases, complemented by a manual search. The types of orthodontic appliances, the affected sounds, and duration period of the speech disturbances were extracted. The ROBINS-I tool was applied to evaluate the quality of non-randomized studies, and the bias of RCT was assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. No meta-analyses could be performed due to the heterogeneity in the study designs and treatment modalities. Among 448 screened articles, 13 studies were included (n = 297 patients). Different types of orthodontic appliances such as fixed appliances, orthodontic retainers and palatal expanders could influence the clarity of speech. The /i/, /a/, and /e/ vowels as well as /s/, /z/, /l/, /t/, /d/, /r/, and /ʃ/ consonants could be distorted by appliances. Although most speech impairments could return to normal within weeks, speech distortion of the /s/ sound might last for more than 3 months. The low evidence level grading and heterogeneity were the two main limitations in this systematic review. Lingual fixed appliances, palatal expanders, and Hawley retainers have an evident influence on speech production. The /i/, /s/, /t/, and /d/ sounds are the primarily affected ones. The results of this systematic review should be interpreted with caution and more high-quality RCTs with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are
Eulálio, José Marcus Raso; Bon-Habib, Assad Charbel Chequer; Soares, Daiane de Oliveira; Corrêa, Paulo Guilherme Antunes; Pineschi, Giovana Penna Firme; Diniz, Victor Senna; Manso, José Eduardo Ferreira; Schanaider, Alberto
To critically analyze and standardize the rat pancreatectomy nomenclature variants. It was performed a review of indexed manuscripts in PUBMED from 01/01/1945 to 31/12/2015 with the combined keywords "rat pancreatectomy" and "rat pancreas resection". The following parameters was considered: A. Frequency of publications; B. Purpose of the pancreatectomy in each article; C. Bibliographic references; D. Nomenclature of techniques according to the pancreatic parenchyma resection percentage. Among the 468, the main objectives were to surgically induce diabetes and to study the genes regulations and expressions. Five rat pancreatectomy technique references received 15 or more citations. Twenty different terminologies were identified for the pancreas resection: according to the resected parenchyma percentage (30 to 95%); to the procedure type (total, subtotal and partial); or based on the selected anatomical region (distal, longitudinal and segmental). A nomenclature systematization was gathered by cross-checking information between the main surgical techniques, the anatomic parameters descriptions and the resected parenchyma percentages. The subtotal pancreatectomy nomenclature for parenchymal resection between 80 and 95% establishes a surgical parameter that also defines the total and partial pancreatectomy limits and standardizes these surgical procedures in rats.
Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E Diane
To report literature search strategies for the purpose of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Qualitative systematic reviews lie on a continuum from knowledge-building and theory-generating to aggregating and summarizing. Different types of literature searches are needed to optimally support these dissimilar reviews. Articles published between 1989-Autumn 2011. These documents were identified using a hermeneutic approach and multiple literature search strategies. Redundancy is not the sole measure of validity when conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews. When conducting these types of reviews, literature searches should be consistent with the goal of fully explicating concepts and the interrelationships among them. To accomplish this objective, a 'berry picking' approach is recommended along with strategies for overcoming barriers to finding qualitative research reports. To enhance integrity of knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews, reviewers are urged to make literature search processes as transparent as possible, despite their complexity. This includes fully explaining and rationalizing what databases were used and how they were searched. It also means describing how literature tracking was conducted and grey literature was searched. In the end, the decision to cease searching also needs to be fully explained and rationalized. Predetermined linear search strategies are unlikely to generate search results that are adequate for purposes of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Instead, it is recommended that iterative search strategies take shape as reviews evolve. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The Oklo natural fossil fission reactors in Gabon, Equatorial Africa, have been studied as a natural analogue for spent nuclear fuel in a geological environment. For these studies, it is important to know what has happened to these reactors since they formed. This review is focussed on existing geological and geochronological information concerning the Oklo reactors and the surrounding ore. A sequence of geological and geochemical events in the Oklo area, as described in the literature, is given. The data and the studies behind this established geochronology are discussed and evaluated. Of the regional geology, special attention is given to the dating of the Francevillian sediments, and the intrusion of a dolerite dyke swarm. The processes that led to the mineralisation at Oklo, the subsequent formation of the nuclear reactors and later migration of fission products are described. Further discussion concerns the studies of the dolerite dyke swarm, since this appears to be one of the most important events related to fission product migration. A close look at the data related to this event shows that further study of the age of the dolerite dykes, and their effect on the uraninite in the Oklo reactors, is needed
Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela; Andreasson, Kate; Fulcheri, Mario; Bech, Per
Background Mental pain, defined as a subjective experience characterized by perception of strong negative feelings and changes in the self and its function, is no less real than other types of grief. Mental pain has been considered to be a distinct entity from depression. We have performed a systematic review analyzing the relationship between mental pain and suicide by providing a qualitative data synthesis of the studies. Methods We have conducted, in accordance with PRISMA guide...
Ma, Jing; Hipel, Keith W
Currently, municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a massive increase in both the amount and composition throughout the world. Effective and efficient MSW management has been widely accepted as an emergent factor for future social development, which requires not only technical innovation, but also the involvement of all stakeholders as well as social, economic, and psychological components. On account of this reality, there is an urgent need for research related to the social dimensions of MSW management. In this paper, a systematic literature review was carried out to characterize and critically evaluate the published literature on the social dimensions of MSW management from 1980 to 2014 in terms of vulnerability, public participation, public attitude and behavior, and policy. A keyword search was first performed by using the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, which retrieves 1843 documents. After removing the papers that were not closely related to the topic, 200 articles were retained for an in-depth review. In each category, major research issues and observations were summarized, and important insights were obtained. Besides compiling a related list of key references, the analysis results indicate that the global distribution of social dimensions reports on MSW management is inequitable and the research on the social dimensions of MSW management is insufficient, which may attract increased research interest and attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Mura, Rossano; Lobbezoo, Frank
This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions (i.e., decreased attachment level, bone loss, tooth mobility/migration, altered periodontal perception) were eligible. Methodologic shortcomings were identified by the adoption of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program quality assessment, mainly concerning the internal validity of findings according to an unspecific bruxism diagnosis. The six included articles covered a high variability of topics, without multiple papers on the same argument. Findings showed that the only effect of bruxism on periodontal structures was an increase in periodontal sensation, whereas a relationship with periodontal lesions was absent. Based on the analysis of Hill criteria, the validity of causation conclusions was limited, mainly owing to the absence of a longitudinal evaluation of the temporal relationship and dose-response effects between bruxism and periodontal lesions. Despite the scarce quantity and quality of the literature that prevents sound conclusions on the causal link between bruxism and the periodontal problems assessed in this review, it seems reasonable to suggest that bruxism cannot cause periodontal damage per se. It is also important to emphasize, however, that because of methodologic problems, particularly regarding sleep bruxism assessment, more high-quality studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials) are needed to further clarify this issue.
Rafie, Nahid; Golpour Hamedani, Sahar; Ghiasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam
Some studies have suggested chemopreventive effects of kefir, a fermented milk product, on carcinogenesis. The aim of this review study was to evaluate the scientific evidence for effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. We systematically searched for all relevant studies published before June 2015, using PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Science Direct, SID, MedLib and Srlst databases. Relevant studies were reviewed based on systematic review (PRISMA) guidelines. From a total of 2208 papers obtained at the initial database search, 11 publications including 7 in vitro and 4 experimental studies were eligible. In vitro studies on breast, colon, skin and gastric cancers and leukemia cell lines and experimental studies on different sarcomas consistently showed beneficial effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. The results of this systematic review suggest that kefir may be associated with cancer prevention and it also has beneficial effects in cancer treatment. This protection may be associated with kefir bioactive components including peptides, polysaccharides and sphingolipids.
Ward, Tara; Samuel, Moody; Maoz, Dorit; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Boyce, Ross; Toledo, Joao; Velayudhan, Raman; Horstick, Olaf
Although there is evidence that dengue virus is circulating in Tanzania, the country lacks a dengue surveillance system. Consequently, the true estimate of dengue seroprevalence, as well as the incidence in the population, the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks is unknown. This study therefore sought to systematically review available dengue data from Tanzania. The systematic review was conducted and reported using the PRISMA tool. Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, WHOLIS and Google Scholar) were searched for articles using various keywords on the illness, data and geographical location. Identified articles were assessed for inclusion based on predefined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted from included articles, analysed and reported. Based on the 10 seroprevalence studies in defined populations with estimates of acute confirmed infections that were included in the review, the estimated seroprevalence of past dengue infection in Tanzania ranged from 50.6% in a health facility-based study to 11% in a population-based study. Acute confirmed infections of dengue were estimated to be as high as 38.2% of suspected cases. Only one study reported on an outbreak. It is evident that dengue needs to become part of regular disease surveillance in Tanzania. Control measures need to be instituted with a focus on building human resource capacity and integrating dengue control measures in ongoing health programmes, for both preventive and curative interventions. Systematic reviews are valuable in assessing health issues when surveillance data are not available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moraros, John; Lemstra, Mark; Nwankwo, Chijioke
Lean is a widely used quality improvement methodology initially developed and used in the automotive and manufacturing industries but recently expanded to the healthcare sector. This systematic literature review seeks to independently assess the effect of Lean or Lean interventions on worker and patient satisfaction, health and process outcomes, and financial costs. We conducted a systematic literature review of Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, ABI/Inform, ERIC, EMBASE and SCOPUS. Peer reviewed articles were included if they examined a Lean intervention and included quantitative data. Methodological quality was assessed using validated critical appraisal checklists. Publically available data collected by the Saskatchewan Health Quality Council and the Saskatchewan Union of Nurses were also analysed and reported separately. Data on design, methods, interventions and key outcomes were extracted and collated. Our electronic search identified 22 articles that passed methodological quality review. Among the accepted studies, 4 were exclusively concerned with health outcomes, 3 included both health and process outcomes and 15 included process outcomes. Our study found that Lean interventions have: (i) no statistically significant association with patient satisfaction and health outcomes; (ii) a negative association with financial costs and worker satisfaction and (iii) potential, yet inconsistent, benefits on process outcomes like patient flow and safety. While some may strongly believe that Lean interventions lead to quality improvements in healthcare, the evidence to date simply does not support this claim. More rigorous, higher quality and better conducted scientific research is required to definitively ascertain the impact and effectiveness of Lean in healthcare settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.
Abidi, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Klumpp, M.
Design/methodology/approach - A literature review has been conducted using a structured method based on Denyer and Tranfield (2009) and Rousseau et al. (2008). The state of the art on humanitarian supply chain performance management with a focus on measurement frameworks and indicators and their
van Ham, I.; Verhoeven, A.A.; Groenier, K.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; de Haan, J.
Objective: In recent years, the incidence of being overworked and burnt out has increased among general practitioners (GPs). One of the factors that influences the development of burnout is the job satisfaction that physicians experience. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to answer the
Hodge, David R.
Perhaps surprisingly, many social workers appear to use intercessory prayer in direct practice settings. To help inform practitioners' use of this intervention, this article evaluates the empirical literature on the topic using the following three methods: (a) an individual assessment of each study, (b) an evaluation of intercessory prayer as an…
van Ham, I.; Verhoeven, A.A.; Groenier, K.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; de Haan, J.
Objective: In recent years, the incidence of being overworked and burnt out has increased among general practitioners (GPs). One of the factors that influences the development of burnout is the job satisfaction that physicians experience. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to answer the
Full Text Available Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies
Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas
Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of
Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa
This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…
van Schoor, N.M.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.
Hip fractures may be prevented by the use of external hip protectors, but compliance is often poor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the determinants of compliance with hip protectors by systematically reviewing the literature. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase
Schoor, N.M. van; Devillé, W.L.; Bouter, L.M.; Lips, P.
Hip fractures may be prevented by the use of external hip protectors, but compliance is often poor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the determinants of compliance with hip protectors by systematically reviewing the literature. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase
Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.
Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885
Full Text Available This paper reviews, some of the research work done in the evolution of PHP applications that have been around and are vastly used. PHP is currently one of the most popular programming languages, widely used in both the open source community and in industry to build large web-focused applications and application frameworks. This review looks at how PHP applications have evolved in terms of the use of libraries, the software maturity, adoption of object-orientation paradigm, the evolution of complexity and security. The results suggest that these systems undergo systematic maintenance and evolution is helping the underlying programming language to grow.
Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Morgan, Glenn
, international business (IB) studies do not tend to borrow much from this sub-field. This paper reviews BST literature from 1992 to 2015 and seeks to identify its contributions and gaps, in ways that can be helpful for future research in IB. Trend analysis of BST literature and mapping this sub-field suggests......Business system theory (BST) lies at the intersection of organization theory, political economy and sociology. It is gaining incremental attention in the field of management, particularly in cross-border and comparative studies of the structure, strategy and management of multinationals. Yet...... that the BST research stream can be identified in relation to four ‘broad themes’ which we describe as junctures- i.e. comparative business systems, internationalisation and MNC management, organizational capability and innovation, and transnational communities. Mapping and pattern recognition of the ‘themes...
Gambla, William C; Fernandez, Alyssa M; Gassman, Natalie R; Tan, Marcus C B; Daniel, Casey L
Despite well-established links between exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and skin cancer, UVR-based tanning behaviors persist among college students. Understanding tanning motivations, perceptions, barriers, and demographic characteristics of this population is critical to modifying these behaviors, but is limited by variability in study design, sample size, and outcomes measured in the current literature. To help clarify the tanning behaviors of this population and provide a concise reference for future studies, this review examines existing reports to determine the comparability of tanning behaviors across multiple U.S. college populations. A systematic review of the literature was performed in July 2016 to identify studies investigating tanning behaviors among U.S. college students. Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. High rates of indoor tanning (IT) and outdoor tanning (OT) were found among college students. Key motivators included appearance, emotion, health perceptions, and the influence of parents, peers, and the media. Misconceptions regarding skin protection, low rates of sun protective behaviors, and tanning dependence were barriers against safe UVR exposure. Understudied demographic factors may account for variance in observed tanning behaviors, emphasizing the need for standardization efforts to consistently identify trends associated with geographical region, age, year in college, and sex. The findings presented in this review reaffirm that college students are at high risk for tanning-associated skin cancer, emphasizing the critical need for effective, targeted interventions. Improved interventions will reduce the burden of skin cancer within this group, ultimately contributing to longer, healthier lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scrum is an agile method for software engineering, used by companies to develop products faster and more efficiently. Because the customer is more engaged in the process and the development is incremental and iterative projects progress better, it is also easier to implement any changes in functionality the customer might want. In this thesis a review of existing scientific literature regarding the method Scrum in software engineering has been made. The review brought forth answers to three p...
Brunsma, David L.
The debate surrounding the effectiveness of school-uniform policies, as well as discussions concerning when and how to implement them, is rooted in anecdote. This review summarizes anecdotal literature on which the current debate is based and critically reviews the empirical literature, including theoretical underpinnings, findings, and…
Zheng, Yaguang; Klem, Mary Lou; Sereika, Susan M; Danford, Cynthia A; Ewing, Linda J; Burke, Lora E
Regular self-weighing, which in this article is defined as weighing oneself regularly over a period of time (e.g., daily, weekly), is recommended as a weight loss strategy. However, the published literature lacks a review of the recent evidence provided by prospective, longitudinal studies. Moreover, no paper has reviewed the psychological effects of self-weighing. Therefore, the objective is to review the literature related to longitudinal associations between self-weighing and weight change as well as the psychological outcomes. Electronic literature searches in PubMed, Ovid PsycINFO, and Ebscohost CINAHL were conducted. Keywords included overweight, obesity, self-weighing, etc. Inclusion criteria included trials that were published in the past 25 years in English; participants were adults seeking weight loss treatment; results were based on longitudinal data. The results (N=17 studies) revealed that regular self-weighing was associated with more weight loss and not with adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety). Findings demonstrated that the effect sizes of association between self-weighing and weight change varied across studies and also that the reported frequency of self-weighing varied across studies. The findings from prospective, longitudinal studies provide evidence that regular self-weighing has been associated with weight loss and not with negative psychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Ruminates on and analyzes the author's experiences in teaching the first course in women's literature and feminist criticism at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Asserts that the course brought to consciousness the author's femininity, feminism, and a new understanding of feminist criticism. (MM)
Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jacobs, Philip
Background Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding it...
Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U
A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...
Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; McDowell, Kathryn; Blackwood, Bronagh
Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with critical illness often experience significant physical impairments, which typically persist for many years following resolution of the original illness. Physical rehabilitation interventions that enhance restoration of physical function have been evaluated across the continuum of recovery following critical illness including within the intensive care unit, following discharge to the ward and beyond hospital discharge. Multiple systematic reviews have been published appraising the expanding evidence investigating these physical rehabilitation interventions, although there appears to be variability in review methodology and quality. We aim to conduct an overview of existing systematic reviews of physical rehabilitation interventions for adult intensive care patients across the continuum of recovery. This protocol has been developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) guidelines. We will search the Cochrane Systematic Review Database, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. We will include systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of adult patients, admitted to the intensive care unit and who have received physical rehabilitation interventions at any time point during their recovery. Data extraction will include systematic review aims and rationale, study types, populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes and quality appraisal method. Primary outcomes of interest will focus on findings reflecting recovery of physical function. Quality of reporting and methodological quality will be appraised using the PRISMA checklist and the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool. We anticipate the findings from this novel overview of systematic reviews will contribute to the
Bearman, Margaret; Palermo, Claire; Allen, Louise M; Williams, Brett
Simulation is increasingly used as an educational methodology for teaching empathy to preservice health professional students. This systematic review aimed to determine if and how simulation, including games, simulated patients, and role-play, might develop empathy and empathetic behaviors in learners. Eleven databases or clearing houses including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and ERIC were searched for all articles published from any date until May 2014, using terms relating to (i) preservice health professional students, (ii) simulation, and (iii) empathy. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 9 randomized controlled trials. A narrative synthesis suggests that simulation may be an appropriate method to teach empathy to preservice health professional students and identifies the value of the learner taking the role of the patient.
Souman, Jan L; Tinga, Angelica M; Te Pas, Susan F; van Ee, Raymond; Vlaskamp, Björn N S
Periodic, well timed exposure to light is important for our health and wellbeing. Light, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum, is thought to affect alertness both indirectly, by modifying circadian rhythms, and directly, giving rise to acute effects. We performed a systematic review of empirical studies on direct, acute effects of light on alertness to evaluate the reliability of these effects. In total, we identified 68 studies in which either light intensity, spectral distribution, or both were manipulated, and evaluated the effects on behavioral measures of alertness, either subjectively or measured in reaction time performance tasks. The results show that increasing the intensity of polychromatic white light has been found to increase subjective ratings of alertness in a majority of studies, though a substantial proportion of studies failed to find significant effects, possibly due to small sample sizes or high baseline light intensities. The effect of the color temperature of white light on subjective alertness is less clear. Some studies found increased alertness with higher color temperatures, but other studies reported no detrimental effects of filtering out the short wavelengths from the spectrum. Similarly, studies that used monochromatic light exposure showed no systematic pattern for the effects of blue light compared to longer wavelengths. Far fewer studies investigated the effects of light intensity or spectrum on alertness as measured with reaction time tasks and of those, very few reported significant effects. In general, the small sample sizes used in studies on acute alerting effects of light make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions and better powered studies are needed, especially studies that allow for the construction of dose-response curves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bonkile, Mayur P.; Awasthi, Ashish; Lakshmi, C.; Mukundan, Vijitha; Aswin, V. S.
Even if numerical simulation of the Burgers' equation is well documented in the literature, a detailed literature survey indicates that gaps still exist for comparative discussion regarding the physical and mathematical significance of the Burgers' equation. Recently, an increasing interest has been developed within the scientific community, for studying non-linear convective-diffusive partial differential equations partly due to the tremendous improvement in computational capacity. Burgers' equation whose exact solution is well known, is one of the famous non-linear partial differential equations which is suitable for the analysis of various important areas. A brief historical review of not only the mathematical, but also the physical significance of the solution of Burgers' equation is presented, emphasising current research strategies, and the challenges that remain regarding the accuracy, stability and convergence of various schemes are discussed. One of the objectives of this paper is to discuss the recent developments in mathematical modelling of Burgers' equation and thus open doors for improvement. No claim is made that the content of the paper is new. However, it is a sincere effort to outline the physical and mathematical importance of Burgers' equation in the most simplified ways. We throw some light on the plethora of challenges which need to be overcome in the research areas and give motivation for the next breakthrough to take place in a numerical simulation of ordinary / partial differential equations.
Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica
Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.
LENIS R. WONG
Full Text Available Requirements Elicitation is recognized as one of the most important activity in software development process as it has direct impact on its success. Although there are many proposals for improving this task, still there are issues which have to be solved. This paper aims to identify the current status of the latest researches related to software requirements elicitation through general framework for literature review, in order to answer the following research questions: Q1 What aspects have been covered by different proposal of requirements elicitation? Q2 What activities of the requirements elicitation process have been covered? And Q3 What factors influence on requirements elicitation and how? A cross-analysis of the outcome was performed. One of the results showed that requirements elicitation process needs improvements.
Spallek, Jacob; Reeske, Anna; Nørredam, Marie Louise
BACKGROUND: Concerns about increased suicide risk among immigrants to European countries have been raised. We review the scientific literature on differences in suicide among immigrants compared with the majority populations in Europe's major immigration countries. METHODS: We searched...... the databases PubMed and PsycINFO for peer-reviewed epidemiological studies published in 1990-2011, which compared suicide risks of adult immigrant groups with the risks of the majority population in European countries. Hits were screened by two researchers. RESULTS:: We included 24 studies in the review....... No generalizable pattern of suicide among immigrants was found. Immigrants from countries in which suicide risks are particularly high, i.e. countries in Northern and Eastern Europe, experienced higher suicide rates relative to groups without migration background. Gender and age differences were observed. Young...
Full Text Available This paper aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive background for understanding current knowledge on Academic Advising Systems (AAS and its impact on learning. It constitutes an overview of empirical evidence behind key objectives of the potential adoption of AAS in generic educational strategic planning. The researchers examined the literature on experimental case studies conducted in the domain during the past ten years (2008–2017. Search terms identified 98 mature pieces of research work, but inclusion criteria limited the key studies to 43. The authors analyzed the research questions, methodology, and findings of these published papers and categorized them accordingly. The results have highlighted three distinct major directions of the AAS empirical research. This paper discusses the emerged added value of AAS research and highlights the significance of further implications. Finally, the authors set their thoughts on possible uncharted key questions to investigate both from pedagogical and technical considerations.
Full Text Available The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion. No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account.
Reijers, Wessel; Wright, David; Brey, Philip; Weber, Karsten; Rodrigues, Rowena; O’Sullivan, Declan; Gordijn, Bert
This paper provides a systematic literature review, analysis and discussion of methods that are proposed to practise ethics in research and innovation (R&I). Ethical considerations concerning the impacts of R&I are increasingly important, due to the quickening pace of technological innovation and
Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe
Diet plays an important role in modulating the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. Several lines of evidence attest that consumption of fish and its compounds, especially omega-3 fatty acids, may be effective to decrease the cardiovascular risk. Since the pathogenesis of arterial and venous thrombosis share some common aspects, we performed a systematic review of published clinical studies that investigated the association between fish intake and venous thrombosis. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science using the key words "fish" OR "seafood" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism", with no language or date restriction. Overall, 6 studies (5 prospective and 1 case-control) were finally identified. In only 1 small case-control study, a larger intake of total fish was found to be negatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism. No association was found in 4 large prospective studies, whereas a positive association was observed in the remaining. No substantial difference was also noticed between intake of fatty or lean fish. Taken together, the current epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of a significant effect of total fish consumption on the risk of venous thromboembolism. © The Author(s) 2015.
Azevedo, Walter Fernandes de; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Fonseca, Eduardo Sérgio Valério Borges; Azevedo, Lícia Maria Ricarte de; Evangelista, Carla Braz
Sexual activity during adolescence can lead to unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can result in serious maternal and fetal complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the complications related to adolescent pregnancy, through a systematic review using the Medical Subject Headings: "pregnancy complication" AND "adolescent" OR "pregnancy in adolescence". Only full original articles in English or Portuguese with a clearly described methodology, were included. No qualitative studies, reviews or meta-analyses, editorials, case series, or case reports were included. The sample consisted of 15 articles; in that 10 were cross-sectional and 5 were cohort studies. The overall prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was 10%, and among the Brazilian studies, the adolescent pregnancy rate was 26%. The cesarean delivery rate was lower than that reported in the general population. The main maternal and neonatal complications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, prematurity and low birth weight, respectively. Adolescent pregnancy is related to increased frequency of neonatal and maternal complications and lower prevalence of cesarean delivery.
Full Text Available Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecologic diseases in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The women affected suffer from pelvic pain and infertility. The complex etiology is still unclear and it is based on three main theories: retrograde menstruation, coelomic metaplasia, and induction theory. Genetics and epigenetics also play a role in the development of endometriosis. Recent studies have put the attention on the role of oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidants, which may be implicated in the pathophysiology of endometriosis causing a general inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity. Reactive oxygen species are intermediaries produced by normal oxygen metabolism and are inflammatory mediators known to modulate cell proliferation and to have deleterious effects. A systematic review was performed in order to clarify the different roles of oxidative stress and its role in the development of endometriosis. Several issues have been investigated: iron metabolism, oxidative stress markers (in the serum, peritoneal fluid, follicular fluid, peritoneal environment, ovarian cortex, and eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue, genes involved in oxidative stress, endometriosis-associated infertility, and cancer development.
de Azevedo, Walter Fernandes; Diniz, Michele Baffi; da Fonseca, Eduardo Sérgio Valério Borges; de Azevedo, Lícia Maria Ricarte; Evangelista, Carla Braz
Sexual activity during adolescence can lead to unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can result in serious maternal and fetal complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the complications related to adolescent pregnancy, through a systematic review using the Medical Subject Headings: “pregnancy complication” AND “adolescent” OR “pregnancy in adolescence”. Only full original articles in English or Portuguese with a clearly described methodology, were included. No qualitative studies, reviews or meta-analyses, editorials, case series, or case reports were included. The sample consisted of 15 articles; in that 10 were cross-sectional and 5 were cohort studies. The overall prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was 10%, and among the Brazilian studies, the adolescent pregnancy rate was 26%. The cesarean delivery rate was lower than that reported in the general population. The main maternal and neonatal complications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, prematurity and low birth weight, respectively. Adolescent pregnancy is related to increased frequency of neonatal and maternal complications and lower prevalence of cesarean delivery. PMID:26061075
Cicolini, Giancarlo; Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina
This systematic review aimed to synthesize and analyse the studies that examined the relationship between nurse empowerment and job satisfaction in the nursing work environment. Job dissatisfaction in the nursing work environment is the primary cause of nursing turnover. Job satisfaction has been linked to a high level of empowerment in nurses. We reviewed 596 articles, written in English, that examined the relationship between structural empowerment, psychological empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction. Twelve articles were included in the final analysis. A significant positive relation was found between empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction. Structural empowerment and psychological empowerment affect job satisfaction differently. A satisfying work environment for nurses is related to structural and psychological empowerment in the workplace. Structural empowerment is an antecedent of psychological empowerment and this relationship culminates in positive retention outcomes such as job satisfaction. This review could be useful for guiding leaders' strategies to develop and maintain an empowering work environment that enhances job satisfaction. This could lead to nurse retention and positive organisational and patient outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sinuff, Tasnim; Muscedere, John; Adhikari, Neill K J; Stelfox, Henry T; Dodek, Peter; Heyland, Daren K; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Cook, Deborah J; Pinto, Ruxandra; Manoharan, Venika; Currie, Jan; Cahill, Naomi; Friedrich, Jan O; Amaral, Andre; Piquette, Dominique; Scales, Damon C; Dhanani, Sonny; Garland, Allan
We systematically reviewed ICU-based knowledge translation studies to assess the impact of knowledge translation interventions on processes and outcomes of care. We searched electronic databases (to July, 2010) without language restrictions and hand-searched reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing any ICU-based knowledge translation intervention (e.g., protocols, guidelines, and audit and feedback) to management without a knowledge translation intervention. We focused on clinical topics that were addressed in greater than or equal to five studies. Pairs of reviewers abstracted data on the clinical topic, knowledge translation intervention(s), process of care measures, and patient outcomes. For each individual or combination of knowledge translation intervention(s) addressed in greater than or equal to three studies, we summarized each study using median risk ratio for dichotomous and standardized mean difference for continuous process measures. We used random-effects models. Anticipating a small number of randomized controlled trials, our primary meta-analyses included randomized controlled trials and observational studies. In separate sensitivity analyses, we excluded randomized controlled trials and collapsed protocols, guidelines, and bundles into one category of intervention. We conducted meta-analyses for clinical outcomes (ICU and hospital mortality, ventilator-associated pneumonia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay) related to interventions that were associated with improvements in processes of care. From 11,742 publications, we included 119 investigations (seven randomized controlled trials, 112 observational studies) on nine clinical topics. Interventions that included protocols with or without education improved continuous process measures (seven observational studies and one randomized controlled trial; standardized
Best, Megan; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian
Discussion of religion and/or spirituality in the medical consultation is desired by patients and known to be beneficial. However, it is infrequent. We aimed to identify why this is so. We set out to answer the following research questions: Do doctors report that they ask their patients about religion and/or spirituality and how do they do it? According to doctors, how often do patients raise the issue of religion and/or spirituality in consultation and how do doctors respond when they do? What are the known facilitators and barriers to doctors asking their patients about religion and/or spirituality? A mixed qualitative/quantitative review was conducted to identify studies exploring the physician's perspective on discussion of religion and/or spirituality in the medical consultation. We searched nine databases from inception to January 2015 for original research papers reporting doctors' views on discussion of religion and/or spirituality in medical consultations. Papers were assessed for quality using QualSyst and results were reported using a measurement tool to assess systematic review guidelines. Overall, 61 eligible papers were identified, comprising over 20,044 physician reports. Religion and spirituality are discussed infrequently by physicians although frequency increases with terminal illness. Many physicians prefer chaplain referral to discussing religion and/or spirituality with patients themselves. Such discussions are facilitated by prior training and increased physician religiosity and spirituality. Insufficient time and training were the most frequently reported barriers. This review found that physician enquiry into the religion and/or spirituality of patients is inconsistent in frequency and nature and that in order to meet patient needs, barriers to discussion need to be overcome. © The Author(s) 2015.
Forber-Pratt, Anjali J; Lyew, Dominique A; Mueller, Carlyn; Samples, Leah B
The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize existing empirical research on disability identity development. This review is organized to present the demographics of participants and types of disabilities represented in the existing data, measures of disability identity development and theoretical models of disability identity development. Electronic databases (EBSCO, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts) were searched for all peer reviewed empirical studies published between 1980 and 2017. Articles were excluded if they were theoretical and/or did not include participants with disabilities, or focused on a disability-specific community identity rather than general disability identity. Empirical articles (N = 41) were included in the final review. An overwhelming majority (75.6%) were qualitative in nature, with only 22% of the articles reviewed being quantitative and only 1 that utilized a mixed methods design. The results suggest that disability identity can be considered a unique phenomenon that shapes persons' ways of seeing themselves, their bodies, and their way of interacting with the world. Disability identity development has the potential to become an important factor in developing effective interventions and/or therapies. Identity development is a fundamentally social process, and identities are formed through mirroring, modeling, and recognition through available identity resources, and so it is imperative that able-bodied professionals (i.e., rehabilitation professionals, therapists, teachers and caregivers) working with individuals with disabilities become aware of this developmental process to be able to better support individuals along this journey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Saconato, Humberto; Prado, Gilmar Fernandes do; Puga, Maria Eduarda dos Santos; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib
It has been estimated that 50 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy and around 30% will not achieve adequate control over the disease. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of oxcarbazepine for refractory partial or generalized epilepsy. Systematic review. A search was conducted in the PubMed, Lilacs, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases. Studies were analyzed using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Four randomized clinical trials of medium to poor methodological quality were included. Among the adult patients, the chances that they would obtain a 50% reduction in seizure frequency were greater after using oxcarbazepine at doses of 600 mg (relative risk, RR 2.11; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.32 to 3.35), 1,200 mg (RR 3.24; 95% CI 2.11 to 4.98) and 2,400 mg (RR 3.83; 95% CI 2.59 to 5.97). Among the children, the response in the group using oxcarbazepine was also greater (RR 2.11; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.35). The oxcarbazepine doses of 1,200 mg (RR 17.59; 95% CI 2.37 to 130.35) and 2,400 mg (RR 25.41; 95% CI 6.26 to 103.10) were effective for keeping patients probably free from seizures, but the dose of 600 mg was not. There was no significant difference between oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine for controlling the crises. There is moderate evidence indicating that oxcarbazepine is effective as an alternative treatment for partial or generalized epilepsy in children and adults who were refractory to previous treatment.
Hess, Justin L; Fore, Grant
Promoting the ethical formation of engineering students through the cultivation of their discipline-specific knowledge, sensitivity, imagination, and reasoning skills has become a goal for many engineering education programs throughout the United States. However, there is neither a consensus throughout the engineering education community regarding which strategies are most effective towards which ends, nor which ends are most important. This study provides an overview of engineering ethics interventions within the U.S. through the systematic analysis of articles that featured ethical interventions in engineering, published in select peer-reviewed journals, and published between 2000 and 2015. As a core criterion, each journal article reviewed must have provided an overview of the course as well as how the authors evaluated course-learning goals. In sum, 26 articles were analyzed with a coding scheme that included 56 binary items. The results indicate that the most common methods for integrating ethics into engineering involved exposing students to codes/standards, utilizing case studies, and discussion activities. Nearly half of the articles had students engage with ethical heuristics or philosophical ethics. Following the presentation of the results, this study describes in detail four articles to highlight less common but intriguing pedagogical methods and evaluation techniques. The findings indicate that there is limited empirical work on ethics education within engineering across the United States. Furthermore, due to the large variation in goals, approaches, and evaluation methods described across interventions, this study does not detail "best" practices for integrating ethics into engineering. The science and engineering education community should continue exploring the relative merits of different approaches to ethics education in engineering.
Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Erbis, Serkan; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Kamarthi, Sagar
Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map.
Full Text Available Ahmed Ameer,1 Soraya Dhillon,1 Mark J Peters,2 Maisoon Ghaleb11Department of Pharmacy, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK; 2Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK Objective: Medication administration is the last step in the medication process. It can act as a safety net to prevent unintended harm to patients if detected. However, medication administration errors (MAEs during this process have been documented and thought to be preventable. In pediatric medicine, doses are usually administered based on the child's weight or body surface area. This in turn increases the risk of drug miscalculations and therefore MAEs. The aim of this review is to report MAEs occurring in pediatric inpatients. Methods: Twelve bibliographic databases were searched for studies published between January 2000 and February 2015 using “medication administration errors”, “hospital”, and “children” related terminologies. Handsearching of relevant publications was also carried out. A second reviewer screened articles for eligibility and quality in accordance with the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Key findings: A total of 44 studies were systematically reviewed. MAEs were generally defined as a deviation of dose given from that prescribed; this included omitted doses and administration at the wrong time. Hospital MAEs in children accounted for a mean of 50% of all reported medication error reports (n=12,588. It was also identified in a mean of 29% of doses observed (n=8,894. The most prevalent type of MAEs related to preparation, infusion rate, dose, and time. This review has identified five types of interventions to reduce hospital MAEs in children: barcode medicine administration, electronic prescribing, education, use of smart pumps, and standard concentration. Conclusion: This review has identified a wide variation in the prevalence of hospital MAEs in children. This is attributed to
Hanchanale, Sarika; Adkinson, Lucy; Daniel, Sunitha; Fleming, Michelle; Oxberry, Stephen G
Dry mouth (xerostomia) is one of the commonest symptoms in cancer patients and can adversely affect quality of life. The aim of this review was to determine the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in treating xerostomia in adult advanced cancer patients. The literature search was performed in February 2014 using databases including EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, BNI and Cochrane library. The search was carried out using standard MeSH terms and was limited to adult population and English language. Studies investigating xerostomia secondary to head and neck cancer treatment and autoimmune disease were excluded. Titles and abstracts were screened and reviewed for eligibility. Only studies involving primary research were included in the analysis. Six studies met the eligibility criteria for review: three randomized controlled trials and three prospective studies. The quality assessment and reporting was performed using PRISMA, Jadad and STROBE. These studies compared acupuncture, pilocarpine, Saliva Orthana and chewing gum with each other or with placebo. All interventions were considered effective in treating xerostomia. However, effectiveness versus placebo could not be demonstrated for Saliva Orthana. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the study type and intervention. Limited published data exists reporting the effectiveness of measures in the treatment of xerostomia in cancer patients. Based on primary research of low quality, firm conclusions cannot be drawn. However, pilocarpine, artificial saliva, chewing gum and acupuncture can be tried based on the available data. This highlights the explicit need to improve our evidence base. Properly constructed randomized controlled trials demonstrating effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for dry mouth are required.
Krause, Janne; Subklew-Sehume, Friederike; Kenyon, Chris; Colebunders, Robert
The uptake of HIV testing and counselling services remains low in risk groups around the world. Fear of stigmatisation, discrimination and breach of confidentiality results in low service usage among risk groups. HIV self-testing (HST) is a confidential HIV testing option that enables people to find out their status in the privacy of their homes. We evaluated the acceptability of HST and the benefits and challenges linked to the introduction of HST. A literature review was conducted on the acceptability of HST in projects in which HST was offered to study participants. Besides acceptability rates of HST, accuracy rates of self-testing, referral rates of HIV-positive individuals into medical care, disclosure rates and rates of first-time testers were assessed. In addition, the utilisation rate of a telephone hotline for counselling issues and clients` attitudes towards HST were extracted. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria (HST had been offered effectively to study participants and had been administered by participants themselves) and demonstrated universally high acceptability of HST among study populations. Studies included populations from resource poor settings (Kenya and Malawi) and from high-income countries (USA, Spain and Singapore). The majority of study participants were able to perform HST accurately with no or little support from trained staff. Participants appreciated the confidentiality and privacy but felt that the provision of adequate counselling services was inadequate. The review demonstrates that HST is an acceptable testing alternative for risk groups and can be performed accurately by the majority of self-testers. Clients especially value the privacy and confidentiality of HST. Linkage to counselling as well as to treatment and care services remain major challenges.
Full Text Available Objective: Predicting who responds to placebo treatment – and under which circumstances – has been a question of interest and investigation for generations. However, the literature is disparate and inconclusive. This review aims to identify publications that provide high quality data on the topic of placebo response (PR prediction. Methods: To identify studies concerned with PR prediction, independent searches were performed in an expert database (for all symptom modalities and in PubMed (for pain only. Articles were selected when a they assessed putative predictors prior to placebo treatment and b an adequate control group was included when the association of predictors and PRs were analyzed. Results: Twenty-one studies were identified, most with pain as dependent variable. Most predictors of PRs were psychological constructs related to actions, expected outcomes and the emotional valence attached to these events (goal-seeking, self-efficacy/-esteem, locus of control, optimism. Other predictors involved behavioural control (desire for control, eating restraint, personality variables (fun seeking, sensation seeking, neuroticism, biological markers (sex, a single nucleotide polymorphism related to dopamine metabolism. Finally, suggestibility and beliefs in expectation biases, body consciousness and baseline symptom severity were found to be predictive. Conclusions: While results are heterogeneous, some congruence of predictors can be identified. PRs mainly appear to be moderated by expectations of how the symptom might change after treatment, or the expectation of how symptom repetition can be coped with. It is suggested to include the listed constructs in future research. Furthermore, a closer look at variables moderating symptom change in control groups seems warranted.
Full Text Available The range of osteoporosis treatments is increasingly large and, like any disease, the pharmacological management of patients should involve a risk/benefit evaluation to attain the greatest reduction in risk of fracture with the lowest incidence of adverse events. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the literature about the safety issues of the main pharmacological treatments of osteoporosis. This document is the result of a consensus of experts based on a systematic review of regulatory documents, randomized controlled trials, metaanalyses, pharmacovigilance surveys and case series related to possible adverse drug reactions to osteoporosis treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplements, bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, selective estrogen receptor modulators, denosumab, and teriparatide. As expected, randomized controlled trials showed only the most common adverse events due to the samples size and the short observation time. Case series and observational studies are able to provide data about uncommon side effects, but in some cases a sure cause-effect relationship needs still to be confirmed. Consistently with methodological limitations, the newer drugs have a tolerance profile that has not been fully explored yet. Osteoporosis treatments showed an overall good tolerance profile with rare serious adverse events that, however, must be well known by the clinician who prescribes these drugs. The concern about possible adverse events should be weighed against the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with a significant fracture risk reduction.
Jenna N Winer
Full Text Available Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS is a disease characterized by protracted and potentially debilitating oral inflammation in cats, the etiology of which is currently unknown. The purpose of this review is to apply an evidence-based medicine approach to systematically review and critically evaluate the scientific literature reporting the outcome of medical and surgical management of FCGS. Those articles meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed and assigned an Experimental Design Grade (EDG and an Evidence Grade (EG in order to score relative strength of study design and produced data. Studies were evaluated and compared, especially highlighting the treatments, the outcomes, and the therapeutic success rates. This review found a lack of consistency between articles’ data, rendering direct comparison of results unreliable. The field of FCGS research, and ultimately patient care, would benefit from standardizing studies by adopting use of a consistent semi-quantitative scoring system and extending follow-up duration. Future researcher should commit to large prospective studies that compare existing treatments and demonstrate the promise of new treatments.
Full Text Available Sustainability management in global fashion operations is an area of growing concern. This can be seen by the number of research articles and industrial reports published. To establish a further debate, this study pursues two objectives. Firstly, it provides a systematic literature review pertaining to environmental and social sustainability management in fashion operations by encompassing 38 research articles indexed in Scopus from 2006 to 2016. Secondly, it presents a classification framework in which sustainability practices are categorized according to a three-dimensional concurrent engineering framework by focusing on product, process and supply chain levels. Results address that the breakdown of environmental and social sustainability practices identified in earlier research is not homogenous. For instance, some critical social aspects such as human rights are not widely covered in production processes. Similarly, serious environmental aspects such as biodiversity are not entirely focused on at the chain level. Last, this study concludes with a framework illustrating strategic priorities to be taken to advance sustainability in fashion operations.
Samari, Goleen; Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Zulfacar
In 2017, a "Muslim ban" on immigrants to the United States was coupled with a continued rise in Islamophobia and hate crimes toward Muslims. Islamophobia undermines health equity, yet delineating the effects of Islamophobia globally is challenging as it affects a myriad of groups (geographically, racially, and socially). Additionally, stereotypes equate all Muslims with populations from the Middle East and South Asia. To date, health research pays insufficient attention to Islamophobia, Muslims, and those racialized to be Muslim. This literature review advances our understanding of racism and health by examining the racialization of religion, by specifically examining Islamophobia as a form of discrimination. Per PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a search in October 2017 using PubMed-MEDLINE and a combination of terms. We identified additional articles using other search engines. For inclusion, articles needed to include a descriptor of discrimination, contain an identifier of Muslim or Muslim-like identity (i.e., groups commonly perceived as Muslim, including Arabs, Middle Easterners, North Africans, and South Asians), include a health outcome, be in English, and be published between 1990 and 2017. We identified 111 unique peer-reviewed articles. We excluded articles that did not meet the following criteria: (1) examined Islamophobia, discrimination, or racism among a Muslim or Muslim-like population; (2) included a health outcome or discussion of health disparities; and (3) was conducted in North America, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand. This yielded 53 articles. The majority of studies (n = 34; 64%) were quantitative. The remaining studies were qualitative (n = 7; 13%), mixed methods (n = 2; 4%), or reviews (n = 10; 19%). Most studies were based in the United States (n = 31; 58%). Nearly half of the reviewed studies examined mental health (n = 24; 45%), and one fourth examined physical health or health behaviors (n = 13; 25%). Others
Daria J. Kuss
Full Text Available Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD is a potential mental disorder currently included in the third section of the latest (fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a condition that requires additional research to be included in the main manual. Although research efforts in the area have increased, there is a continuing debate about the respective criteria to use as well as the status of the condition as mental health concern. Rather than using diagnostic criteria which are based on subjective symptom experience, the National Institute of Mental Health advocates the use of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC which may support classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures because mental disorders are viewed as biological disorders that involve brain circuits that implicate specific domains of cognition, emotion, and behavior. Consequently, IGD should be classified on its underlying neurobiology, as well as its subjective symptom experience. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the neurobiological correlates involved in IGD based on the current literature base. Altogether, 853 studies on the neurobiological correlates were identified on ProQuest (in the following scholarly databases: ProQuest Psychology Journals, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, and ERIC and on MEDLINE, with the application of the exclusion criteria resulting in reviewing a total of 27 studies, using fMRI, rsfMRI, VBM, PET, and EEG methods. The results indicate there are significant neurobiological differences between healthy controls and individuals with IGD. The included studies suggest that compared to healthy controls, gaming addicts have poorer response-inhibition and emotion regulation, impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC functioning and cognitive control, poorer working memory and decision-making capabilities, decreased visual and auditory
Kuss, Daria J.; Pontes, Halley M.; Griffiths, Mark D.
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is a potential mental disorder currently included in the third section of the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a condition that requires additional research to be included in the main manual. Although research efforts in the area have increased, there is a continuing debate about the respective criteria to use as well as the status of the condition as mental health concern. Rather than using diagnostic criteria which are based on subjective symptom experience, the National Institute of Mental Health advocates the use of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) which may support classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures because mental disorders are viewed as biological disorders that involve brain circuits that implicate specific domains of cognition, emotion, and behavior. Consequently, IGD should be classified on its underlying neurobiology, as well as its subjective symptom experience. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the neurobiological correlates involved in IGD based on the current literature base. Altogether, 853 studies on the neurobiological correlates were identified on ProQuest (in the following scholarly databases: ProQuest Psychology Journals, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, and ERIC) and on MEDLINE, with the application of the exclusion criteria resulting in reviewing a total of 27 studies, using fMRI, rsfMRI, VBM, PET, and EEG methods. The results indicate there are significant neurobiological differences between healthy controls and individuals with IGD. The included studies suggest that compared to healthy controls, gaming addicts have poorer response-inhibition and emotion regulation, impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning and cognitive control, poorer working memory and decision-making capabilities, decreased visual and auditory functioning, and a
Sarka, Peter Bo; Heisig, Peter
An effective knowledge exchange among software developers is crucial for the competitive performance of their organisations. Today, the constant pressure on business to continually innovate and the increasing capability of information technologies to facilitate broader and more distributed....... Although several studies of the relationship is available, today there exists no comprehensive overview of what has been investigated. Using a systematic literature review approach, this study aims to map the current state of literature on knowledge sharing through social media applicable to software...
Piera Centobelli; Roberto Cerchione; Emilio Esposito
This paper conducts a systematic literature review on knowledge management (KM) in the context of startups in order to analyze the state of the art, identify research gaps and define a future research agenda. The main findings highlight that, even though there is an increasing number of papers on the topic of KM in startups, several issues are still neglected. Specifically, the paper identifies four main gaps in the body of literature. The first gap deals with the environmental and socio-poli...
Full Text Available Drawing on the numerous benefits of integrating literature in the EFL classroom, the present paper argues that the analysis of a fictional work in the process of foreign language acquisition offers a unique opportunity for students to explore, interpret, and understand the world around them. The paper presents strong evidence in favour of reader-centered critical reading as a means of encouraging observation and active evaluation not only of linguistic items, but also of a variety of meanings and viewpoints. The authors propose a model of teaching critical thinking skills focused on the reader’s response to a literary work. The practical application of the method, which adopts the critical literacy approach as a tool, is illustrated through a series of activities based on the poem “If” by Rudyard Kipling.
Beside radiochemical analysis of irradiated fuel and critical experiments, which has become a well-established basis for the validation of depletion code and criticality codes respectively, also results of oscillation experiments or the operating conditions of power reactor and research reactors can provide useful information for the validation of the above mentioned codes. Based on a literature review the potential of the utilization of oscillation experiment measurements for the validation of criticality codes is estimated. It is found that the reactivity measurements for actinides and fission products within the CERES program on the reactors DIMPLE (Winfrith, UK) and MINERVE (Cadarache, France) can give a valuable addition to the commonly used critical experiments for criticality code validation. However, there are approaches but yet no generally satisfactory solution for integrating the reactivity measurements in a quantitative bias determination for the neutron multiplication factor of typical application cases including irradiated spent fuel outside reactor cores, calculated using common criticality codes.
Meregaglia, Michela; Cairns, John
Health state utility values (HSUVs) are essential parameters in model-based economic evaluations. This study systematically identifies HSUVs in head and neck cancer and provides guidance for selecting them from a growing body of health-related quality of life studies. We systematically reviewed the published literature by searching PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library using a pre-defined combination of keywords. The Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and the School of Health and Related Research Health Utilities Database (ScHARRHUD) specifically containing health utilities were also queried, in addition to the Health Economics Research Centre database of mapping studies. Studies were considered for inclusion if reporting original HSUVs assessed using established techniques. The characteristics of each study including country, design, sample size, cancer subsite addressed and demographics of responders were summarized narratively using a data extraction form. Quality scoring and critical appraisal of the included studies were performed based on published recommendations. Of a total 1048 records identified by the search, 28 studies qualified for data extraction and 346 unique HSUVs were retrieved from them. HSUVs were estimated using direct methods (e.g. standard gamble; n = 10 studies), multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUIs; n = 13) and mapping techniques (n = 3); two studies adopted both direct and indirect approaches. Within the MAUIs, the EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) was the most frequently used (n = 11), followed by the Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI3; n = 2), the 15D (n = 2) and the Short Form-Six Dimension (SF-6D; n = 1). Different methods and types of responders (i.e. patients, healthy subjects, clinical experts) influenced the magnitude of HSUVs for comparable health states. Only one mapping study developed an original algorithm using head and neck cancer data. The identified studies were considered
Divano, Stefano; Cavagnaro, Luca; Zanirato, Andrea; Basso, Marco; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Matteo
Revision knee arthroplasty is increasing, and in that case, bone loss management is still a challenging problem. In the last years, the body of literature and interest surrounding porous metal cones has grown, but few systematic evaluations of the existing evidence have been performed. The aim of our systematic review is to collect and critically analyze the available evidence about metal cones in revision knee arthroplasty especially focusing our attention on indications, results, complications, and infection rate of these promising orthopaedic devices. We performed a systematic review of the available English literature, considering the outcomes and the complications of tantalum cones. The combinations of keyword were "porous metal cones", "knee revision", "bone loss", "knee arthroplasty", "periprosthetic joint infection", and "outcome". From the starting 312 papers available, 20 manuscripts were finally included. Only one included study has a control group. The main indication for metal cones is type IIb and III defects according AORI classification. Most of the papers show good clinical and radiological outcomes with low rate of complications. The examined studies provide encouraging clinical and radiological short-to-mid-term outcomes. Clinical studies have shown a low rate of aseptic loosening, intraoperative fractures, infection rate and a lower failure rate than the previous treatment methods. Higher quality papers are needed to draw definitive conclusions about porous metal cones.
Francis A. Carneiro
Full Text Available The purpose of the present systematic and critical review was to assess the findings and to identify the gaps in the literature concerning gay and bisexual fathers. A comprehensive search of relevant literature using electronic databases and reference lists for articles published until December 2016 was conducted. A total of 63 studies, spanning from 1979 to 2016, were collected. More than half of the studies were published after 2011 and the overwhelming majority were conducted in the United States. Nine themes were identified in the studies reviewed: (1 Pathways to fatherhood; (2 Motivations for fatherhood; (3 Parenting experiences and childrearing; (4 Family life and relationship quality; (5 Gender and father identities and gender-role orientation; (6 Disclosure of sexual identity; (7 Social climate; (8 Father's psychosocial adjustment; and (9 Children's psychosocial adjustment. It was found that research on gay fatherhood appears to be more heterogeneous than on lesbian motherhood, perhaps because of the variety of pathways to parenthood (via co-parenting, adoption, fostering, or surrogacy. Two-father families are becoming more visible in research on sexual minority parenting and gradually transforming the conceptualization of parenting in family research.
Carneiro, Francis A; Tasker, Fiona; Salinas-Quiroz, Fernando; Leal, Isabel; Costa, Pedro A
The purpose of the present systematic and critical review was to assess the findings and to identify the gaps in the literature concerning gay and bisexual fathers. A comprehensive search of relevant literature using electronic databases and reference lists for articles published until December 2016 was conducted. A total of 63 studies, spanning from 1979 to 2016, were collected. More than half of the studies were published after 2011 and the overwhelming majority were conducted in the United States. Nine themes were identified in the studies reviewed: (1) Pathways to fatherhood; (2) Motivations for fatherhood; (3) Parenting experiences and childrearing; (4) Family life and relationship quality; (5) Gender and father identities and gender-role orientation; (6) Disclosure of sexual identity; (7) Social climate; (8) Father's psychosocial adjustment; and (9) Children's psychosocial adjustment. It was found that research on gay fatherhood appears to be more heterogeneous than on lesbian motherhood, perhaps because of the variety of pathways to parenthood (via co-parenting, adoption, fostering, or surrogacy). Two-father families are becoming more visible in research on sexual minority parenting and gradually transforming the conceptualization of parenting in family research.
Carneiro, Francis A.; Tasker, Fiona; Salinas-Quiroz, Fernando; Leal, Isabel; Costa, Pedro A.
The purpose of the present systematic and critical review was to assess the findings and to identify the gaps in the literature concerning gay and bisexual fathers. A comprehensive search of relevant literature using electronic databases and reference lists for articles published until December 2016 was conducted. A total of 63 studies, spanning from 1979 to 2016, were collected. More than half of the studies were published after 2011 and the overwhelming majority were conducted in the United States. Nine themes were identified in the studies reviewed: (1) Pathways to fatherhood; (2) Motivations for fatherhood; (3) Parenting experiences and childrearing; (4) Family life and relationship quality; (5) Gender and father identities and gender-role orientation; (6) Disclosure of sexual identity; (7) Social climate; (8) Father's psychosocial adjustment; and (9) Children's psychosocial adjustment. It was found that research on gay fatherhood appears to be more heterogeneous than on lesbian motherhood, perhaps because of the variety of pathways to parenthood (via co-parenting, adoption, fostering, or surrogacy). Two-father families are becoming more visible in research on sexual minority parenting and gradually transforming the conceptualization of parenting in family research. PMID:28983272
Putten, G.J. van der; Vanobbergen, J.N.; Visschere, L. De; Schols, J.G.J.H.; Baat, C. de
OBJECTIVE: Deficiency of vitamin B complex, vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium has been associated with periodontal disease. This article systematically reviews the currently available literature on the feasible association of vitamin B complex, vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium
Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak; Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Erfani, Seyedezahra
This study investigates how an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software package SAP was integrated into the curriculum of an accounting information systems (AIS) course in an Australian university. Furthermore, the paper provides a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2013 to understand how ERP systems were…
A systematic review of the literature focused on empirical work on deafness and HIV/AIDS published during the past decade. The review reveals that deaf people are vulnerable to contracting HIV and might lack access to HIV/AIDS information, testing and treatment. Three studies that were located through this review ...
Hem, M.H.; Pedersen, R.; Norvoll, R.; Molewijk, A.C.
A systematic literature review on evaluation of clinical ethics support services in mental healthcare is presented and discussed. The focus was on (a) forms of clinical ethics support services, (b) evaluation of clinical ethics support services, (c) contexts and participants and (d) results. Five
van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Germans, Menno R.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Troost, Dirk; Vandertop, W. Peter
To report the clinical presentation and management of an intracranial frontoparietal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and its recurrence in a 6-year-old girl, along with a systematic review of the literature. A previously healthy 6-year-old girl presented with severe signs of
Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Mura, R.; Lobbezoo, F.
Background: This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Methods: Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions
Rothgangel, Andreas Stefan; Braun, Susy M.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Seitz, Rudiger J.; Wade, Derick T.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of mirror therapy (MT) interventions after stroke, phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Database of controlled trials, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PEDro, RehabTrials and Rehadat, was made by two…
Bond, Caroline; Symes, Wendy; Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil; Morewood, Gareth; Woods, Kevin
Systematic literature reviews can play a key role in underpinning evidence-based practice. To date, large-scale reviews of interventions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have focused primarily on research quality. To assist practitioners, the current review adopted a broader framework which allowed for greater consideration of…
Gvozdenović, E.; Koevoets, R.; Langenhoff, J.; Allaart, C. F.; Landewé, R. B. M.
To evaluate current (inter)national registers and observational cohorts in Europe, and to compare inclusion criteria, aims, collected data, and participation in the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) repository. We performed a systematic search strategy in six literature databases for
Singh, A.S.; Mulder, C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.
Overweight and obesity in youth are important public health concerns and are of particular interest because of possible long-term associations with adult weight status and morbidity. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature and update evidence concerning persistence of
Bagherniya, Mohammad; Taghipour, Ali; Sharma, Manoj; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Contento, Isobel R.; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Mostafavi Darani, Firoozeh; Safarian, Mohammad
Social cognitive theory (SCT) is a well-known theory for designing nutrition education and physical activity programs for adolescents. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intervention studies based on SCT in reducing or preventing overweight and obesity in adolescents. An electronic literature search in PubMed-Medline, Web of…
Reynders, Reint; Ronchi, Laura; Bipat, Shandra
Introduction: In this article, we systematically reviewed the literature to quantify success and complications encountered with the use of mini-implants for orthodontic anchorage, and to analyze factors associated with success or failure. Methods: Computerized and manual searches were conducted up
Verhoeven, F.; Dijkstra, K.; Nijland, N.; Eysenbach, Gunther; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.
Aim: A systematic literature review, covering publications from 1994 to 2009, was carried out to determine the effects of teleconsultation regarding clinical, behavioral, and care coordination outcomes of diabetes care compared to usual care. Two types of teleconsultation were distinguished: (1)
Verhoeven, Fenne; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Nijland, Nicol; Eysenbach, Gunther; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette
Aim: A systematic literature review, covering publications from 1994 to 2009, was carried out to determine the effects of teleconsultation regarding clinical, behavioral, and care coordination outcomes of diabetes care compared to usual care. Two types of teleconsultation were distinguished: (1)
Buis, D. R.; van Ouwerkerk, W. J. R.; Takahata, H.; Vandertop, W. P.
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysms are very rare in early childhood. Because the location, morphology as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of these aneurysms seem to be different from those in adults, we performed a systematic review of the literature to discuss the clinical,
Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy
The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000-...
J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); L. Tariq (Luqman); D. Heederik (Dick); A.H. Havelaar (Arie)
textabstractEmployees in different types of work may be intentionally or accidentally exposed to biological agents. Improved risk assessment is needed to identify opportunities to prevent work-related infectious disease. The objective of the current study was to perform a systematic literature
Manfredini, D.; Restrepo, C.; Diaz-Serrano, K.; Winocur, E.; Lobbezoo, F.
The aim of the present investigation was to perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the issue of sleep bruxism prevalence in children at the general population level. Quality assessment of the reviewed papers was performed to identify flaws in the external and internal validity.
Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael
Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…
Lange, Sandra; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo
As public procurement research is fragmented in many sub-topics, a clear synthesis is lacking, which in turn inhibits the establishment of a clear body of knowledge. To start filling this gap, this systematic review provides an overview of the most influential literature in the field of public
Averett, Paige; Hegde, Archana; Smith, Justin
This article presents the first systematic review of all the existing peer-reviewed literature (n = 20) on gay and lesbian parents and their children in early childhood education settings. The review includes articles that were empirical or pedagogical practice oriented, focused exclusively on early childhood education (Birth to 5 years), and…
Schepman, S.; Hansen, J.; Putter, I.D. de; Batenburg, R.S.; Bakker, D.H. de
Introduction: Research on collaboration in primary care focuses on specific diseases or types of collaboration. We investigate the effects of such collaboration by bringing together the results of scientific studies. Theory and methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PubMed, CINAHL,
Full Text Available innovation ecosystem as part of a larger study. A systematic literature review was conducted on four academic databases: ACM, ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and SpringerLink. Due to the dearth in initial search results, the search was broadened to include non...
Meulen, N. van der; Jansen, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.; Weert, J. van
This systematic review investigates which interventions are effective to improve recall of medical information in cancer patients. A literature research was done in PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, following the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. The methodological quality of
Janssen, N.G.; Weijs, W.L.J.; Koole, R.A.; Rosenberg, A.J.; Meijer, G.J.
OBJECTIVES: To date, a great number of tissue engineering strategies have been suggested for alveolar cleft reconstruction; however, autologous bone grafting seems to remain the golden standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in order to evaluate the
Brown, Philip R.; McCord, Rachel E.; Matusovich, Holly M.; Kajfez, Rachel L.
Motivation is frequently studied in the context of engineering education. However, the use of the term motivation can be inconsistent, both in how clearly it is defined and in how it is implemented in research designs and practice. This systematic literature review investigates the use of motivation across recent engineering education…
Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans
Family foster care deeply influences the needs of children and how these are satisfied. To increase our knowledge of foster children’s needs and how these are conceptualized, this paper presents a systematic literature review. Sixty- four empirical articles from six databases were reviewed and
Bartzela, T.N.; Turp, J.C.; Motschall, E.; Maltha, J.C.
INTRODUCTION: Recently, several reviews have been published on the effects of medications on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in orthodontics. However, the effects of medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been evaluated. METHODS: A systematic literature review
Trattner, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee
Manufacturing in the twenty-first century has been wrought with the struggle to satisfy the rising demand for greater product variety and more complex products while still maintaining efficient manufacturing operations. However, the literature lacks an overview of which operational performance...... measures are most affected by increased variety and complexity. This study presents a systematic literature review of the recent scholarly literature on variety, complexity and manufacturing operational performance (MOP). Results show that product variety has a consistently negative relationship with MOP...... across different time, cost, quality and flexibility measures while product complexity lacks evidence of strong relationships with MOP measures....
Full Text Available As information literacy continues in its centrality to many academic libraries’ missions, a line of inquiry has developed in response to ACRL’s charge to develop information literate citizens. The literature of critical information literacy questions widely held assumptions about information literacy and considers in what ways librarians may encourage students to engage with and act upon information’s complex and inherently political nature. This review explores the research into critical information literacy, including critical pedagogy and critiques of information literacy, in order to provide an entry point for this emerging and challenging approach to information literacy.
Ferlie, Ewan; Crilly, Tessa; Jashapara, Ashok; Peckham, Anna
The health policy domain has displayed increasing interest in questions of knowledge management and knowledge mobilisation within healthcare organisations. We analyse here the findings of a critical review of generic management and health-related literatures, covering the period 2000-2008. Using 29 pre-selected journals, supplemented by a search of selected electronic databases, we map twelve substantive domains classified into four broad groups: taxonomic and philosophical (e.g. different types of knowledge); theoretical discourse (e.g. critical organisational studies); disciplinary fields (e.g. organisational learning and Information Systems/Information Technology); and organisational processes and structures (e.g. organisational form). We explore cross-overs and gaps between these traditionally separate literature streams. We found that health sector literature has absorbed some generic concepts, notably Communities of Practice, but has not yet deployed the performance-oriented perspective of the Resource Based View (RBV) of the Firm. The generic literature uses healthcare sites to develop critical analyses of power and control in knowledge management, rooted in neo-Marxist/labour process and Foucauldian approaches. The review generates three theoretically grounded statements to inform future enquiry, by: (a) importing the RBV stream; (b) developing the critical organisational studies perspective further; and (c) exploring the theoretical argument that networks and other alternative organisational forms facilitate knowledge sharing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
George E. Myers
A critical literature review has been carried out on the influence of ventilation rate (N, hr.-1) and board loading (L, m2/m3) on steady state formaldehyde concentrations (Cs, ppm) resulting from particleboard and plywood emissions. Large differences exist among boards in the extent to which their formaldehyde concentrations change with N or L in laboratory chambers....
Faced with the criticism that myth and epic poetry have no place in contemporary South African literature departments, there is no point in defending the material on the grounds of intrinsic worth. No text can claim this privilege. Instead, students and lecturers alike may find value and relevance for these works if they explore ...
As information literacy continues in its centrality to many academic libraries' missions, a line of inquiry has developed in response to ACRL's charge to develop information literate citizens. The literature of critical information literacy questions widely held assumptions about information literacy and considers in what ways librarians may…
The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America…
Wolfgram, Susan M.
What are the factors that keep adoptive parents and birth parents connected and sustain their kinship relationships over time? This is the central research question critically reviewed across studies dating from 1987 to 2000. A preliminary review of the literature revealed 15 to 20 studies within this 13-year scope limited to the perspective of…
Full Text Available Research on disengagement from violent extremism is an emerging field of inquiry. As compared to the related field of radicalization, there have been fewer studies of disengagement. Further, little effort has been made to conduct a large scale, systematic review of what is currently known about disengagement from violent extremism. This type of meta-literature assessment can play an important role in terms of informing strategies and programs designed to facilitate exit. To help fill this gap, our project systematically examines the disengagement literature to determine the range and frequency of various exit factors identified in previous studies. We also rely on parallel literatures such as exit from street gangs, mainstream religious groups, cults, and nonviolent social movements to build a robust sample of studies that assess the extent to which group exit factors may generalize across different populations.
Full Text Available Eco-criticism, a branch of modern literary criticism, nowadays everywhere in the world, from West to East, and in the form of a cultural and moral flow, through literature announces its message as an alarm, a concern for the environment. Among the writers of contemporary Italian Literature, Italo Calvino is the first ecologic story-teller, who beyond his short stories reveals the emergency situation of urban ecosystem. The first character of his stories, condemned to live in industrial cities, is looking at nature disappearing in his smoky hands. The present article, through the content analysis of some of these works, points out to the important role of Literature which serves in the cultivation for preserving the environment and awakening the minds of humen against a serious danger that threatens their lives.
Rodrigues, Sergio Assis; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pereira; Arnaud, Lucas; de Souza, Jano Moreira
The advance of mobile industry and research has expanded e-learning in order to support an efficient and effective educational process. However, the promised benefits are as much attractive as the existing difficulties and barriers. In this paper, we intend to identify and summarize the critical factors in mobile learning through a…
Cardoza, Vicky J; Documét, Patricia I; Fryer, Craig S; Gold, Melanie A; Butler, James
To identify sexual health behavior interventions targeting U.S. Latino adolescents. A systematic literature review. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2011, conducted in any type of setting. Male and female Latino adolescents ages 11-21 years. Interventions promoting sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and/or HIV/AIDS prevention. Changes in knowledge, attitudes, engagement in risky sexual behaviors, rates of STIs, and/or pregnancy. Sixty-eight articles were identified. Fifteen were included in this review that specifically addressed Latino adolescent sexual health behavior. Among the reviewed interventions, most aimed to prevent or reduce STI and HIV/AIDS incidence by focusing on behavior change at two levels of the social ecological model: individual and interpersonal. Major strengths of the articles included addressing the most critical issues of sexual health; using social ecological approaches; employing different strategies to deliver sexual health messages; and employing different intervention designs in diverse geographical locations with the largest population of Latino communities. Most of the interventions targeted female adolescents, stressing the need for additional interventions that target Latino adolescent males. Latino adolescent sexual health is a new research field with gaps that need to be addressed in reducing negative sexual health outcomes among this population. More research is needed to produce new or validate existing, age-specific, and culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions for Latino male and female adolescents. Further, this research should also be conducted in areas of the U.S. with the newest Latino migration (e.g., North Carolina). Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David
There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross-sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary-based measurements. Network co-citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO). © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO).
Kapsetaki, Marianna E; Easmon, Charlie
Previous literature on dancers and athletes has shown a large impact of eating disorders (EDs) on these individuals, but there is limited research on EDs affecting non-dance performing artists (i.e., musicians, actors, etc.). This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate the literature on EDs in non-dance performing artists. A systematic review of the literature was performed on 24 databases, using search terms related to EDs and non-dance performing artists. All results from the databases were systematically screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. The initial search returned 86,383 total articles, which after screening and removal of duplicates and irrelevant papers yielded 129 results. After screening the 129 full-text results for eligibility, 10 studies met criteria for inclusion: 6 papers addressed EDs in musicians, and 4 papers addressed EDs in theatre performers. Most studies used questionnaires and body mass index (BMI) as diagnostic tools for EDs. Most were small-scale studies and participants were mostly students. Because of the studies' heterogeneity and varying quality, the results obtained were often contradictory and questionable. Although there has been a lot of literature in dancers, we found relatively few studies associating EDs with other performing artists, and most were inconsistent in their information.
Joeris, Alexander; Goldhahn, Sabine; Rometsch, Elke; Höntzsch, Dankward
The selection of the appropriate implant material, stainless steel or titanium, is still the decision of the surgeon and/or the affiliated institution. Additionally, remarkable international differences can be found between the different markets, which cannot really be explained. A systematic literature search was performed to verify whether there is clinical evidence for the preference of one material over the other. The systematic literature search was performed utilizing the internet databases PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science. Comparative studies were included that reported on adult patients with osteosynthesis of extremities after trauma using either stainless steel or titanium implants. Information was extracted about infection rates, incidence of clinically relevant allergies, problems with implant removal and other complications. A total of 18 publications were identified to be eligible and 2 referenced articles were added. In summary, there is insufficient clinical evidence that the use of titanium or steel implants has a positive or negative effect on fracture healing, shows different rates of allergies, different rates of infections or mechanical failure. No supporting evidence could be identified for the difficulties with removal of titanium implants reported by surgeons. This systematic literature search did not provide any clinical evidence for material-related differences between titanium or stainless steel implants for fracture fixation. Based on the current clinical evidence both titanium and steel implants can be considered to be of equal value. The reported difficulties with implant removal are not reflected in the published literature.
Janssen, Wouter; Johansen, Monika Alise
disruption (n=6), alignment with clinical processes (n=2), and staff turnover (n=1). Conclusions The reviewed literature suggested that, to increase the likelihood of success of eHealth interventions, future research must ensure a positive impact in the quality of care, with particular attention given to improved diagnosis, clinical management, and patient-centered care. There is a critical need to perform in-depth studies of the workflow(s) that the intervention will support and to perceive the clinical processes involved. PMID:29716883
Harrison, Mark; Rigby, Dan; Vass, Caroline; Flynn, Terry; Louviere, Jordan; Payne, Katherine
Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are used to elicit preferences of current and future patients and healthcare professionals about how they value different aspects of healthcare. Risk is an integral part of most healthcare decisions. Despite the use of risk attributes in DCEs consistently being highlighted as an area for further research, current methods of incorporating risk attributes in DCEs have not been reviewed explicitly. This study aimed to systematically identify published healthcare DCEs that incorporated a risk attribute, summarise and appraise methods used to present and analyse risk attributes, and recommend best practice regarding including, analysing and transparently reporting the methodology supporting risk attributes in future DCEs. The Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Econlit databases were searched on 18 April 2013 for DCEs that included a risk attribute published since 1995, and on 23 April 2013 to identify studies assessing risk communication in the general (non-DCE) health literature. Healthcare-related DCEs with a risk attribute mentioned or suggested in the title/abstract were obtained and retained in the final review if a risk attribute meeting our definition was included. Extracted data were tabulated and critically appraised to summarise the quality of reporting, and the format, presentation and interpretation of the risk attribute were summarised. This review identified 117 healthcare DCEs that incorporated at least one risk attribute. Whilst there was some evidence of good practice incorporated into the presentation of risk attributes, little evidence was found that developing methods and recommendations from other disciplines about effective methods and validation of risk communication were systematically applied to DCEs. In general, the reviewed DCE studies did not thoroughly report the methodology supporting the explanation of risk in training materials, the impact of framing risk, or exploring the validity of risk
Granja, Conceição; Janssen, Wouter; Johansen, Monika Alise
processes (n=2), and staff turnover (n=1). The reviewed literature suggested that, to increase the likelihood of success of eHealth interventions, future research must ensure a positive impact in the quality of care, with particular attention given to improved diagnosis, clinical management, and patient-centered care. There is a critical need to perform in-depth studies of the workflow(s) that the intervention will support and to perceive the clinical processes involved. ©Conceição Granja, Wouter Janssen, Monika Alise Johansen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 01.05.2018.
Barbateskovic, M; Kraus, S R; Collet, M O
, relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials...... decision makers on the use of or future trials with haloperidol for the management of delirium in critically ill patients....
Pope, Megan A; Malla, Ashok K; Iyer, Srividya N
Individuals with mental health problems have many support needs that are often inadequately met; however, perceptions of who should be responsible for meeting these needs have been largely unexplored. Varying perceptions may influence whether, how, and to what extent relevant stakeholders support individuals with mental health problems. To critically evaluate the literature to determine who different stakeholders believe should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems, what factors shape these perceptions, and how they relate to one another. A critical literature review was undertaken. Following an extensive literature search, the conceptual contributions of relevant works were critically evaluated. A concept map was created to build a conceptual framework of the topic. Views of individual versus societal responsibility for need provision and health; the morality of caring; and attributions of responsibility for mental illness offered valuable understandings of the review questions. Creating a concept map revealed that various interrelated factors may influence perceptions of responsibility. Varying perceptions of who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems may contribute to unmet support needs among this group. Our critical review helps build a much-needed conceptual framework of factors influencing perceptions of responsibility. Such a framework is essential as these views iteratively shape and reflect the complex divisions of mental healthcare roles and responsibilities. Understanding these perceptions can help define relevant stakeholders' roles more clearly, which can improve mental health services and strengthen stakeholder accountability.
Hayes, J A; Black, N A; Jenkinson, C; Young, J D; Rowan, K M; Daly, K; Ridley, S
1. To identify generic and disease specific measures of impairment, functional status and health-related quality of life that have been used in adult critical care (intensive and high-dependency care) survivors. 2. To review the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the measures in adult critical care survivors. 3. To consider the implications for future policy and to make recommendations for further methodological research. 4. To review what is currently known of the outcome of adult critical care. Searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, The Cochrane Library and SIGLE) from 1970 to August 1998. Manual searches of five journals (1985-98) not indexed in electronic databases and relevant conference proceedings (1993-98). Reference lists of six existing reviews, plus snowballing from reference lists of all relevant articles identified. Randomised trials, non-randomised trials (cohort studies) and case series that included data on outcomes after discharge from adult (16 years and over) critical care. If reported, the following data were extracted from each paper: patient characteristics (age, gender, severity of illness, diagnostic category) number of patients eligible for study, follow-up period, number of deaths before follow-up, number and proportion of survivors included in follow-up method of presentation of outcome data - proportion normal as defined by reference values, or aggregate value (e.g. mean or median), or aggregate values plus an indication of variance (e.g. standard deviation or inter-quartile range). Evidence for three measurement properties was sought for each outcome measure that had been used in at least two studies - their validity, reliability and responsiveness in adult critical care. If the authors did not report these aspects explicitly, an attempt was made to use the data provided to provide these measurement properties. For measures that were used in at least ten studies, information on actual reported
Vandall-Walker, Virginia; Mason-Lai, Ping
Background Current research suggests that while patients are becoming more engaged across the health delivery spectrum, this involvement occurs most often at the pre-preparation stage to identify ‘high-level’ priorities in health ecosystem priority setting, and at the preparation phase for health research. Objective The purpose of this systematic rapid review of the literature is to describe the evidence that does exist in relation to patient and public engagement priority setting in both health ecosystem and health research. Data sources HealthStar (via OVID); CINAHL; Proquest Databases; and Scholar’s Portal. Study eligibility criteria i) published in English; ii) published within the timeframe of 2007—Current (10 years) unless the report/article was formative in synthesizing key considerations of patient engagement in health ecosystem and health research priority setting; iii) conducted in Canada, the US, Europe, UK, Australia/New Zealand, or Scandinavian countries. Study appraisal and synthesis i) Is the research valid, sound, and applicable?; ii) what outcomes can we potentially expect if we implement the findings from this research?; iii) will the target population (i.e., health researchers and practitioners) be able to use this research?. A summary of findings from each of the respective processes was synthesized to highlight key information that would support decision-making for researchers when determining the best priority setting process to apply for their specific patient-oriented research. Results Seventy articles from the UK, US, Canada, Netherlands and Australia were selected for review. Results were organized into two tiers of public and patient engagement in prioritization: Tier 1—Deliberative and Tier 2—Consultative. Highly structured patient and public engagement planning activities include the James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnerships (UK), Dialogue Method (Netherlands), Global Evidence Mapping (Australia), and the Deep
Full Text Available Current research suggests that while patients are becoming more engaged across the health delivery spectrum, this involvement occurs most often at the pre-preparation stage to identify 'high-level' priorities in health ecosystem priority setting, and at the preparation phase for health research.The purpose of this systematic rapid review of the literature is to describe the evidence that does exist in relation to patient and public engagement priority setting in both health ecosystem and health research.HealthStar (via OVID; CINAHL; Proquest Databases; and Scholar's Portal.i published in English; ii published within the timeframe of 2007-Current (10 years unless the report/article was formative in synthesizing key considerations of patient engagement in health ecosystem and health research priority setting; iii conducted in Canada, the US, Europe, UK, Australia/New Zealand, or Scandinavian countries.i Is the research valid, sound, and applicable?; ii what outcomes can we potentially expect if we implement the findings from this research?; iii will the target population (i.e., health researchers and practitioners be able to use this research?. A summary of findings from each of the respective processes was synthesized to highlight key information that would support decision-making for researchers when determining the best priority setting process to apply for their specific patient-oriented research.Seventy articles from the UK, US, Canada, Netherlands and Australia were selected for review. Results were organized into two tiers of public and patient engagement in prioritization: Tier 1-Deliberative and Tier 2-Consultative. Highly structured patient and public engagement planning activities include the James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnerships (UK, Dialogue Method (Netherlands, Global Evidence Mapping (Australia, and the Deep Inclusion Method/CHoosing All Together (US.The critical study limitations include challenges in comprehensively
Tiihonen, Marianne; Brattico, Elvira; Maksimainen, Johanna; Wikgren, Jan; Saarikallio, Suvi
The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic), twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1) What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2) Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver's internal or external attributes? (3) What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music research pleasure
Full Text Available The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic, twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1 What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2 Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver’s internal or external attributes? (3 What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music
Tiihonen, Marianne; Brattico, Elvira; Maksimainen, Johanna; Wikgren, Jan; Saarikallio, Suvi
The present literature review investigated how pleasure induced by music and visual-art has been conceptually understood in empirical research over the past 20 years. After an initial selection of abstracts from seven databases (keywords: pleasure, reward, enjoyment, and hedonic), twenty music and eleven visual-art papers were systematically compared. The following questions were addressed: (1) What is the role of the keyword in the research question? (2) Is pleasure considered a result of variation in the perceiver’s internal or external attributes? (3) What are the most commonly employed methods and main variables in empirical settings? Based on these questions, our critical integrative analysis aimed to identify which themes and processes emerged as key features for conceptualizing art-induced pleasure. The results demonstrated great variance in how pleasure has been approached: In the music studies pleasure was often a clear object of investigation, whereas in the visual-art studies the term was often embedded into the context of an aesthetic experience, or used otherwise in a descriptive, indirect sense. Music studies often targeted different emotions, their intensity or anhedonia. Biographical and background variables and personality traits of the perceiver were often measured. Next to behavioral methods, a common method was brain imaging which often targeted the reward circuitry of the brain in response to music. Visual-art pleasure was also frequently addressed using brain imaging methods, but the research focused on sensory cortices rather than the reward circuit alone. Compared with music research, visual-art research investigated more frequently pleasure in relation to conscious, cognitive processing, where the variations of stimulus features and the changing of viewing modes were regarded as explanatory factors of the derived experience. Despite valence being frequently applied in both domains, we conclude, that in empirical music research pleasure
Svejvig, Per; Andersen, Peter
This paper presents the results of a structured review of the rethinking project management (RPM) literature based on the classification and analysis of 74 contributions and in addition takes a critical look at this brave new world. Through the analysis, a total of 6 overarching categories emerged......: contextualization, social and political aspects, rethinking practice, complexity and uncertainty, actuality of projects and broader conceptualization. These categories cover a broad range of different contributions with diverse and alternative perspectives on project management. The early RPM literature dates back...
Day, Sarah A; Cucci, Michaelia; Droege, Molly E; Holzhausen, Jenna M; Kram, Bridgette; Kram, Shawn; Pajoumand, Mehrnaz; Parker, Christine R; Patel, Mona K; Peitz, Gregory J; Poore, Alia; Turck, Charles J; Van Berkel, Megan A; Wong, Adrian; Zomp, Amanda; Rech, Megan A
Nine recently published articles and one guideline with important implications for critical care pharmacy practice are summarized. The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) group includes more than 40 experienced critical care pharmacists across the United States. Group members monitor 29 peer-reviewed journals on an ongoing basis to identify literature relevant to pharmacy practice in the critical care setting. After evaluation by CCPLU group members, selected articles are chosen for summarization and distribution to group members nationwide based on applicability to practice, relevance, and study design and strength. Hundreds of relevant articles were evaluated by the group in 2014, of which 114 were summarized and disseminated to CCPLU group members. From among those 114 publications, 10 deemed to be of particularly high utility to the critical care practitioner were selected for inclusion in this review for their potential to change practice or reinforce current evidence-based practice. One of the selected articles presents updated recommendations on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF); the other 9 address topics such as albumin replacement in patients with severe sepsis, use of enteral statins for acute respiratory distress syndrome, fibrinolysis for patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism, the use of unfractionated heparin versus bivalirudin for primary percutaneous coronary intervention, and early protocol-based care for septic shock. There were many important additions to the critical care pharmacotherapy literature in 2014, including a joint guideline for the management of AF and reports of clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rech, Megan A; Day, Sarah A; Kast, Jenna M; Donahey, Elisabeth E; Pajoumand, Mehrnaz; Kram, Shawn J; Erdman, Michael J; Peitz, Gregory J; Allen, John M; Palmer, Allison; Kram, Bridgette; Harris, Serena A; Turck, Charles J
Ten recently published articles with important implications for critical care pharmacotherapy are summarized. The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) group is a national assembly of experienced intensive care unit (ICU) pharmacists across the United States. Group members monitor 25 peer-reviewed journals on an ongoing basis to identify literature relevant to pharmacy practice in the critical care setting. After evaluation by CCPLU group members, selected articles are chosen for summarization and distribution to group members nationwide based on (1) applicability to critical care practice, (2) relevance to pharmacy practitioners, and (3) quality of evidence or research methodology. Hundreds of relevant articles were evaluated by the group during the period January-December 2013, of which 98 were summarized and disseminated nationally to CCPLU group members. Among those 98 publications, 10 deemed to be of particularly high utility to critical care practitioners were included in this review. The 10 articles address topics such as rapid lowering of blood pressure in patients with intracranial hemorrhage, adjunctive therapy to prevent renal injury due to acute heart failure, triple-drug therapy to improve neurologic outcomes after cardiac arrest, and continuous versus intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics in severe sepsis. There were many important additions to the critical care pharmacotherapy literature in 2013, including an updated guideline on the management of myocardial infarction and reports on advances in research focused on improving outcomes in patients with stroke or cardiac arrest and preventing the spread of drug-resistant pathogens in the ICU. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sponge City research has been attracting extensive attention both in practical and theoretical research field, as the increased threat of flood risk and environmental safety due to urbanization. Varies names of Sponge City prevalent in different countries, which leads to disconnection of literature in the same field of Sponge City. In this paper, a systematic literature mining of Sponge City is presented. A literature analysis system is created, which includes literature export from Web of Sciences and systematic analysis via NoteExpress and CiteSpace. Based on the final document storage which contains 962 articles, general trends are identified. Literature is classified into 9 theme types. Research foci of Sponge City are detected by citation and keywords burst detection. Further, some future research directions of Sponge City are anticipated, including trans-disciplinary approaches, a comprehensive design framework, application of information technology, and case studies of Sponge City in more parts of the world. The significance of this paper lies in summarizing past research, identifying research types, foci and anticipating some future research directions.
Luong, Casey T; Rew, Lynn; Banner, Matthew
This systematic literature review addresses risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempts in young men who have sex with men (YMSM). The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsychArticles, and PsychInfo yielded 14 articles. Risk factors included (1) not being enrolled in school, (2) earlier sexual debut, (3) substance use/abuse, (4) homelessness, (5) bullying and victimization, (6) fear of community violence, (7) and parental abuse. Protective factors included (1) positive sexual minority LGBT stereotypes, (2) family acceptance, (3) school and peer support, (4) high self-esteem, and (5) adaptive coping mechanisms.
Mooney, Roisin; Trivedi, Daksha; Sharma, Shivani
Individuals from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are less likely to receive a diagnosis and to engage with treatment for depression. This review aims to draw on international literature to summarise what is known about how people specifically of South Asian origin, migrants and non-migrants, understand and experience depressive symptoms. The resulting evidence base will further inform practices aimed at encouraging help-seeking behaviour and treatment uptake. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic searches will be conducted across 16 databases. Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data will be extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Ethical approval is not required. A comprehensive evidence base of how people from South Asian backgrounds conceptualise and experience depression will better inform the design and delivery of mental health initiatives and advance directions for future research. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and disseminated through existing networks for professionals, researchers, patients and the public. CRD42015026120. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Systematic literature reviews (SLR have reached a considerable level of adoption in Software Engineering (SE, how-ever protocol adaptations for its implementation remain tangentially addressed. This work provides a chronological framework for the use and adaptation of the SLR protocol, including its current status. A systematic literature search was performed, reviewing a set of twelve articles being selected in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria between 2004 and 2013, using digital data sources recognized by the SE community. A chronological framework is provided that includes the current state of the protocol adaptations to conduct SLR in SE. The results indicate areas where the quantity and quality of investigations needs to be increased and the identi- fication of the main proposals providing adaptations for the protocol conducting SLR in SE.
Gentles, Stephen J; Charles, Cathy; Nicholas, David B; Ploeg, Jenny; McKibbon, K Ann
. We believe that the principles and strategies provided here will be useful to anyone choosing to undertake a systematic methods overview. This paper represents an initial effort to promote high quality critical evaluations of the literature regarding problematic methods topics, which have the potential to promote clearer, shared understandings, and accelerate advances in research methods. Further work is warranted to develop more definitive guidance.
Parcesepe, Angela M.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...
Omer A Raheem
Full Text Available Historically, idiopathic varicocele is the most commonly diagnosed pre-pubertal andrological condition. The clinical presentation of varicocele may vary from dull and dragging unilateral or bilateral testicular pain to visible varicose veins lying over the hemiscrotum. Over the last decade, significant strides were made in managing symptomatic varicoceles, particularly minimal invasive procedures and surgeries. We sought to review the published literature in a systematic manner to gain an overview and streamline the presentations and main treatment modalities.
FERREIRA, ELİZABETH REAL DE OLIVEIRA – PEDRO; SAUR, IRİNA; AMARAL,
We perform a systematic literature review on academic papers in Human Resources Management and Corporate Social Responsibility in ISI Current Contents. Based on 117 academic papers from 2001 to date, we perform content analysis in a grounded-theory methodological approach and map the field of Human Resources Management and Corporate Social Responsibility, identifying main schools of thought (invisible colleges) and main players. We see a tendency to increase publications from 2008 onwards. We...
Objective: The paper is aimed at structuring entrepreneur-related constructs and building a conceptual framework that can serve as a foundation for future international entrepreneurship research and theory building. Research Design & Methods: The author conducted the systematic literature review of 94 empirical studies and conceptual papers on the entrepreneur-related determinants of early internationalization in the international management journals in the years 1966 – 2015. Findings...
Durach, Christian F.; Kembro, Joakim; Wieland, Andreas
While systematic literature reviews (SLRs) have contributed substantially to developing knowledge in fields such as medicine, they have made limited contributions to developing knowledge in the supply chain management domain. This is due to the ontological and epistemological idiosyncrasies...... paradigm will push supply chain management research to the frontier of current methodological standards and build a foundation for improving the contribution of future SLRs in the supply chain and adjacent management disciplines....
Mairas Abd Rahman
Full Text Available Teaching can be challenging task especially when the students are categorized as reluctant readers, low self-motivated and lack of critical thinking skills. Therefore, this study focuses on a successful problem-based learning approach on university course called ‘Literature for Language Purposes' taken by Bachelor of English with Communication students at a local Malaysian university. The aim of this study is to investigate the impacts of carrying out problem-based learning in teaching literature. The project involved 55 undergraduates and part of their major course assignments was to organize and participate in an annual English language drama competition. The data was collected through students’ reflective journals, researchers’ reflective journals, response from end of semester questionnaire given and, lecturers’ evaluation on FILA tables. The findings show that problem-based learning is suitable and beneficial in teaching and enhancing critical thinking skills.
Salmasian, Hojjat; Tran, Tran H; Chase, Herbert S; Friedman, Carol
Medication-indication information is a key part of the information needed for providing decision support for and promoting appropriate use of medications. However, this information is not readily available to end users, and a lot of the resources only contain this information in unstructured form (free text). A number of public knowledge bases (KBs) containing structured medication-indication information have been developed over the years, but a direct comparison of these resources has not yet been conducted. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify all medication-indication KBs and critically appraised these resources in terms of their scope as well as their support for complex indication information. We identified 7 KBs containing medication-indication data. They notably differed from each other in terms of their scope, coverage for on- or off-label indications, source of information, and choice of terminologies for representing the knowledge. The majority of KBs had issues with granularity of the indications as well as with representing duration of therapy, primary choice of treatment, and comedications or comorbidities. This is the first study directly comparing public KBs of medication indications. We identified several gaps in the existing resources, which can motivate future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Grossnickle, Emily M.
Relational reasoning, the ability to discern meaningful patterns within otherwise unconnected information, is regarded as central to human learning and cognition and as particularly critical for those functioning in today's information age. However, the literature on this foundational ability is currently housed within a range of domains of…
Sosa, Erica T.
Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…
Dieltjens, Tessa; Moonens, Inge; Van Praet, Koen; De Buck, Emmy; Vandekerckhove, Philippe
Providing psychological first aid (PFA) is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible. To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies. Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N) were conducted from inception to July 2013. Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20-53%) and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims.
Full Text Available Providing psychological first aid (PFA is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible.To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies.Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N were conducted from inception to July 2013.Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20-53% and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices.The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims.
This critical literature review begins by giving a short introduction to the microfinance industry. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) are explained and an account is given of their dual performance goals of financial performance (‘financial sustainability’) and social performance (‘outreach’). While MFIs’ social performance is directly aimed at poverty reduction, it is noteworthy that often they fail to address poverty (i.e., they fail to deliver outreach). The aim of the paper is to answer th...
This article is considered to be a landmark in both academic and business area, regarding the Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Based on previous research found in the literature, the paper aims to clarify the concept of CRM. Critical research results are reflected in the formulated responses on the following aspects of CRM: CRM context, CRM definition, CRM importance and objectives, CRM failure and CRM research. Finally, the article presents the main findings and some conclusions relat...
Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J
Empirical ethics research is increasingly valued in bioethics and healthcare more generally, but there remain as yet under-researched areas such as pharmacy, despite the increasingly visible attempts by the profession to embrace additional roles beyond the supply of medicines. A descriptive and critical review of the extant empirical pharmacy ethics literature is provided here. A chronological change from quantitative to qualitative approaches is highlighted in this review, as well as differi...
Sznitman, Sharon R; Taubman, Danielle S
Drug use normalization, which is a process whereby drug use becomes less stigmatized and more accepted as normative behavior, provides a conceptual framework for understanding contemporary drug issues and changes in drug use trends. Through a mixed-methods systematic review of the normalization literature, this article seeks to (a) critically examine how the normalization framework has been applied in empirical research and (b) make recommendations for future research in this area. Twenty quantitative, 26 qualitative, and 4 mixed-methods studies were identified through five electronic databases and reference lists of published studies. Studies were assessed for relevance, study characteristics, quality, and aspects of normalization examined. None of the studies applied the most rigorous research design (experiments) or examined all of the originally proposed normalization dimensions. The most commonly assessed dimension of drug use normalization was "experimentation." In addition to the original dimensions, the review identified the following new normalization dimensions in the literature: (a) breakdown of demographic boundaries and other risk factors in relation to drug use; (b) de-normalization; (c) drug use as a means to achieve normal goals; and (d) two broad forms of micro-politics associated with managing the stigma of illicit drug use: assimilative and transformational normalization. Further development in normalization theory and methodology promises to provide researchers with a novel framework for improving our understanding of drug use in contemporary society. Specifically, quasi-experimental designs that are currently being made feasible by swift changes in cannabis policy provide researchers with new and improved opportunities to examine normalization processes.
Sznitman, Sharon R; Zolotov, Yuval
The use of Cannabis for Therapeutic Purposes (CTP) has recently become legal in many places. These policy and legal modifications may be related to changes in cannabis perceptions, availability and use and in the way cannabis is grown and sold. This may in turn have effects on public health and safety. To better understand the potential effects of CTP legalization on public health and safety, the current paper synthesizes and critically discusses the relevant literature. Twenty-eight studies were identified by a comprehensive search strategy, and their characteristics and main findings were systematically reviewed according to the following content themes: CTP and illegal cannabis use; CTP and other public health issues; CTP, crime and neighbourhood disadvantage. The research field is currently limited by a lack of theoretical and methodological rigorous studies. The review shows that the most prevalent theme of investigation so far has been the relation between CTP and illegal cannabis use. In addition, the literature review shows that there is an absence of evidence to support many common concerns related to detrimental public health and safety effects of CTP legalization. Although lack of evidence provides some reassurance that CTP legalization may not have posed a substantial threat to public health and safety, this conclusion needs to be examined in light of the limitations of studies conducted so far. Furthermore, as CTP policy continues to evolve, including incorporation of greater commercialization, it is possible that the full effects of CTP legalization have yet to take place. Ensuring study quality will allow future research to better investigate the complex role that CTP plays in relation to society at large, and public health and safety in particular. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wright, Stella; McSherry, Wilfred
This systematic review provides an overview of the literature published on Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward between 2005 and June 2011. Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward programme was developed by the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement and launched in England in 2007. The programme comprises thirteen modules that aim to increase time for direct patient care, improve the patient and staff experience and make changes to the ward environment to improve efficiency. A systematic literature review. The terms 'Releasing Time to Care' and 'Productive Ward' were applied to key healthcare databases; CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct, ProQuest, Health Business Elite, British Nursing Index, Embase, Health Management Information Consortium and PsychInfo. All papers were read and subject to a quality assessment. The literature search identified 95 unique sources. A lack of research on The Productive Ward programme meant it was necessary to include non-empirical literature. In total, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven key themes were identified: the patient and staff experience, direct care time, patient safety, financial impact, embedding and sustainability, executive support and leadership, and common barriers and determinants of success. It also highlighted areas that require further exploration such as long-term sustainability of the programme and consistent data measurement between organisations. The review tentatively reports how The Productive Ward programme has been used to transform nursing practice for the benefit of patients and frontline staff, and how it resulted in cost savings. The literature review identified a potential positive results bias in the current literature whereby favourable outcomes were reported. This paper summarises the types of evidence and current literature on The Productive Ward providing a reference for frontline staff implementing the programme. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Etchell, Andrew C; Civier, Oren; Ballard, Kirrie J; Sowman, Paul F
Stuttering is a disorder that affects millions of people all over the world. Over the past two decades, there has been a great deal of interest in investigating the neural basis of the disorder. This systematic literature review is intended to provide a comprehensive summary of the neuroimaging literature on developmental stuttering. It is a resource for researchers to quickly and easily identify relevant studies for their areas of interest and enable them to determine the most appropriate methodology to utilize in their work. The review also highlights gaps in the literature in terms of methodology and areas of research. We conducted a systematic literature review on neuroimaging studies on developmental stuttering according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched for articles in the pubmed database containing "stuttering" OR "stammering" AND either "MRI", "PET", "EEG", "MEG", "TMS"or "brain" that were published between 1995/01/01 and 2016/01/01. The search returned a total of 359 items with an additional 26 identified from a manual search. Of these, there were a total of 111 full text articles that met criteria for inclusion in the systematic literature review. We also discuss neuroimaging studies on developmental stuttering published throughout 2016. The discussion of the results is organized first by methodology and second by population (i.e., adults or children) and includes tables that contain all items returned by the search. There are widespread abnormalities in the structural architecture and functional organization of the brains of adults and children who stutter. These are evident not only in speech tasks, but also non-speech tasks. Future research should make greater use of functional neuroimaging and noninvasive brain stimulation, and employ structural methodologies that have greater sensitivity. Newly planned studies should also investigate sex differences, focus on augmenting treatment, examine moments of dysfluency and longitudinally or
This critical analysis of the literature examines the factors and theoretical perspectives contributing to the theory-practice gap for newly qualified nurses within the United Kingdom. This article aspires to inform, guide and promote effective nursing education both academically and practically. A systematic search strategy was conducted to identify relevant literature covering the period of 2000-2014, to include only contemporary theoretical perspectives coinciding with the dearth of contemporary literature post Project 2000. The literature was systematically investigated utilising nursing research databases, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine, the U.S. National Library of Medicine and Internurse. To satisfy the search criteria only articles conducted within the United Kingdom and written in the English language were included. Only literature including nurses and newly qualified nurses were included. To identify relevant literature a series of key words were utilised. Systematic review of the literature revealed that newly qualified nurses feel unprepared for practice, lacking confidence in their own abilities. It was also felt by newly qualified nurses that not enough time was dedicated to the production of clinical skills during their training. The use of preceptorship programmes was found to reduce the transitional stress associated with becoming a qualified nursing practitioner. Despite the increasing research being undertaken in the area of theory-practice gap there is still a need for nursing educators, practice areas and regulatory bodies to invest further in research. The effects of preceptorship and simulation exercises in particular require more research to provide regulatory bodies with enough evidence to make an informed decision as to whether their use should be mandatory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mathes, Tim; Walgenbach, Maren; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Pieper, Dawid; Eikermann, Michaela
The quality of systematic reviews of health economic evaluations (SR-HE) is often limited because of methodological shortcomings. One reason for this poor quality is that there are no established standards for the preparation of SR-HE. The objective of this study is to compare existing methods and suggest best practices for the preparation of SR-HE. To identify the relevant methodological literature on SR-HE, a systematic literature search was performed in Embase, Medline, the National Health System Economic Evaluation Database, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the Cochrane methodology register, and webpages of international health technology assessment agencies were searched. The study selection was performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. On the basis of the overlaps in the recommendations for the methods of SR-HE in the included papers, suggestions for best practices for the preparation of SR-HE were developed. Nineteen relevant publications were identified. The recommendations within them often differed. However, for most process steps there was some overlap between recommendations for the methods of preparation. The overlaps were taken as basis on which to develop suggestions for the following process steps of preparation: defining the research question, developing eligibility criteria, conducting a literature search, selecting studies, assessing the methodological study quality, assessing transferability, and synthesizing data. The differences in the proposed recommendations are not always explainable by the focus on certain evaluation types, target audiences, or integration in the decision process. Currently, there seem to be no standard methods for the preparation of SR-HE. The suggestions presented here can contribute to the harmonization of methods for the preparation of SR-HE. © The Author(s) 2014.
Meregaglia, Michela; Cairns, John
The aim of this study was to review and critically assess the health economics literature on post-treatment follow-up for adult cancer survivors. A systematic search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was adopted to assess the quality of the included studies. Thirty-nine articles met the eligibility criteria. Around two thirds of the studies addressed the most common cancers (i.e., breast, colorectal, cervical and lung); 21 were based on a single clinical study, while the rest were modeling papers. All types of economic evaluations were represented other than cost-benefit analysis. The overall quality was generally high with an average proportion of 74% of checklist criteria fulfilled. The cost-effectiveness results supported the current trend towards less intensive, primary care-based and risk-adapted follow-up schemes.
Gaudry, Stéphane; Messika, Jonathan; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Guillo, Sylvie; Pasquet, Blandine; Dubief, Emeline; Boukertouta, Tanissia; Dreyfuss, Didier; Tubach, Florence
Intensivists' clinical decision making pursues two main goals for patients: to decrease mortality and to improve quality of life and functional status in survivors. Patient-important outcomes are gaining wide acceptance in most fields of clinical research. We sought to systematically review how well patient-important outcomes are reported in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in critically ill patients. Literature search was conducted to identify eligible trials indexed from January to December 2013. Articles were eligible if they reported an RCT involving critically ill adult patients. We excluded phase II, pilot and physiological crossover studies. We assessed study characteristics. All primary and secondary outcomes were collected, described and classified using six categories of outcomes including patient-important outcomes (involving mortality at any time on the one hand and quality of life, functional/cognitive/neurological outcomes assessed after ICU discharge on the other). Of the 716 articles retrieved in 2013, 112 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most common topics were mechanical ventilation (27%), sepsis (19%) and nutrition (17%). Among the 112 primary outcomes, 27 (24%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 21/27) but only six (5%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (functional disability = 4; quality of life = 2). Among the 598 secondary outcomes, 133 (22%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 92/133) but only 41 (7%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (quality of life = 20, functional disability = 14; neurological/cognitive performance = 5; handicap = 1; post-traumatic stress = 1). Seventy-three RCTs (65%) reported at least one patient-important outcome but only 11 (10%) reported at least one patient-important outcome besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge. Patient-important outcomes are rarely primary
Paul, Fiona; Rattray, Janice
This paper is a report of a literature review undertaken to identify the short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives. Patients in intensive care can experience physical and psychological consequences, and their relatives may also experience such effects. Although it is recognized that relatives have specific needs, it is not clear whether these needs are always met and whether further support is required, particularly after intensive care. The following databases were searched for the period 1950-2007: Medline, British Nursing Index and Archive, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMB Reviews--Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials. Search terms focused on adult relatives of critically ill adult patients during and after intensive care. Recurrent topics were categorized to structure the review, i.e. 'relatives needs', 'meeting relatives' needs', 'interventions', 'satisfaction', 'psychological outcomes' and 'coping'. Studies have mainly identified relatives' immediate needs using the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. There are few studies of interventions to meet relatives' needs and the short- and long-term effects of critical illness on relatives. Despite widespread use of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory, factors such as local or cultural differences may influence relatives' needs. Relatives may also have unidentified needs, and these needs should be explored. Limited research has been carried out into interventions to meet relatives' needs and the effects of critical illness on their well-being, yet some relatives may experience negative psychological consequences far beyond the acute phase of the illness.
Tharindu Rekha Liyanagunawardena
Full Text Available Massive open online courses (MOOCs are a recent addition to the range of online learning options. Since 2008, MOOCs have been run by a variety of public and elite universities, especially in North America. Many academics have taken interest in MOOCs recognising the potential to deliver education around the globe on an unprecedented scale; some of these academics are taking a research-oriented perspective and academic papers describing their research are starting to appear in the traditional media of peer reviewed publications. This paper presents a systematic review of the published MOOC literature (2008-2012: Forty-five peer reviewed papers are identified through journals, database searches, searching the Web, and chaining from known sources to form the base for this review. We believe this is the first effort to systematically review literature relating to MOOCs, a fairly recent but massively popular phenomenon with a global reach. The review categorises the literature into eight different areas of interest, introductory, concept, case studies, educational theory, technology, participant focussed, provider focussed, and other, while also providing quantitative analysis of publications according to publication type, year of publication, and contributors. Future research directions guided by gaps in the literature are explored.
Murphy, Melissa A. I.; McFerran, Katrina
Background: This article explores the literature on social connectedness and music for young people with disability. It then critically examines the level of congruence between the reported literature to date and current rights-based disability studies discourse. Method: A critical interpretive synthesis was used to examine 27 articles referencing…
Hammond, Drayton A; Baumgartner, Laura; Cooper, Craig; Donahey, Elisabeth; Harris, Serena A; Mercer, Jessica M; Morris, Mandy; Patel, Mona K; Plewa-Rusiecki, Angela M; Poore, Alia A; Szaniawski, Ryan; Horner, Deanna
To summarize selected meta-analyses and trials related to critical care pharmacotherapy published in 2017. The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) Group screened 32 journals monthly for impactful articles and reviewed 115 during 2017. Two meta-analyses and eight original research trials were reviewed here from those included in the monthly CCPLU. Meta-analyses on early, goal-directed therapy for septic shock and statin therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome were summarized. Original research trials that were included evaluate thrombolytic therapy in severe stroke, hyperoxia and hypertonic saline in septic shock, intraoperative ketamine for prevention of post-operative delirium, intravenous ketorolac dosing regimens for acute pain, angiotensin II for vasodilatory shock, dabigatran reversal with idarucizumab, bivalirudin versus heparin monotherapy for myocardial infarction, and balanced crystalloids versus saline fluid resuscitation. This clinical review provides perspectives on impactful critical care pharmacotherapy publications in 2017. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoffmann, Kathryn; Wagner, Gernot; Apfalter, Petra; Maier, Manfred
Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are published in peer-reviewed journals. The grey
Setia, Maninder Singh; Brassard, Paul; Jerajani, Hemangi R; Bharat, Shalini; Gogate, Alka; Kumta, Sameer; Row-Kavi, Ashok; Anand, Vivek; Boivin, Jean-François
This study systematically reviews the existing literature on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. After a comprehensive literature search of Medline (1950-June 2008), Embase (1980-June 2008), and the Cochrane Library (1950-June 2008), 12 published studies met the inclusion criteria. The link between sexual identity and sexual behavior is a complex phenomenon strongly embedded in a very specific context in India. MSM in India are an important risk group for acquiring STIs/HIV and effective culturally sensitive prevention programs should be designed for them. The combined estimate of HIV prevalence in the MSM population in India calculated from 5 included studies was 16.5% (95% confidence intervals: 11% to 22%). The review also identifies the lacunae in existing literature and provides future directions for research in the MSM community in India.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. Findings A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing 313 primary studies were included. Four strategy types are identified: audit and feedback; computerised decision support; opinion leaders; and multifaceted interventions. Nine of the reviews reported on multifaceted interventions. This review highlights the small effects of single interventions such as audit and feedback, computerised decision support and opinion leaders. Systematic reviews of multifaceted interventions claim an improvement in effectiveness over single interventions, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. This review found that a number of published systematic reviews fail to state whether the recommended practice change is based on the best available research evidence. Conclusions This overview of systematic reviews updates the body of knowledge relating to the effectiveness of key mechanisms for improving clinical practice and service development. Multifaceted interventions are more likely to improve practice than single interventions such as audit and feedback. This review identified a small literature focusing explicitly on getting research evidence into clinical practice. It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that primary studies and systematic reviews are precise about the extent to which the reported interventions focus on changing practice based on research evidence (as opposed to other information codified in guidelines and education materials.
Boaz, Annette; Baeza, Juan; Fraser, Alec
The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing 313 primary studies were included. Four strategy types are identified: audit and feedback; computerised decision support; opinion leaders; and multifaceted interventions. Nine of the reviews reported on multifaceted interventions. This review highlights the small effects of single interventions such as audit and feedback, computerised decision support and opinion leaders. Systematic reviews of multifaceted interventions claim an improvement in effectiveness over single interventions, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. This review found that a number of published systematic reviews fail to state whether the recommended practice change is based on the best available research evidence. This overview of systematic reviews updates the body of knowledge relating to the effectiveness of key mechanisms for improving clinical practice and service development. Multifaceted interventions are more likely to improve practice than single interventions such as audit and feedback. This review identified a small literature focusing explicitly on getting research evidence into clinical practice. It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that primary studies and systematic reviews are precise about the extent to which the reported interventions focus on changing practice based on research evidence (as opposed to other information codified in guidelines and education materials).
Corbyons, Katherine; Han, Julia; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp
Systematic reviews synthesize the current best evidence to address a clinical question. Given the growing emphasis on evidence-based clinical practice, systematic reviews are being increasingly sought after and published. We previously reported limitations in the methodological quality of 57 individual systematic reviews published from 1998 to 2008. We provide an update to our previous study, adding systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012. We systematically searched PubMed® and hand searched the table of contents of 4 major urological journals to identify systematic reviews related to questions of prevention and therapy. Two independent reviewers with prior formal evidence-based medicine training assessed the methodological quality using the validated 11-point AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) instrument. We performed predefined statistical hypothesis testing for differences by publication period (1998 to 2008 vs 2009 to 2012) and journal of publication. We performed statistical testing using SPSS®, version 23.0 with a 2-sided α of 0.05 using the Student t-test, ANOVA and the chi-square test. A total of 113 systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012 met study inclusion criteria. The most common topics were oncology (44 reviews or 38.9%), voiding dysfunction (26 or 23.0%) and stones/endourology (13 or 11.5%). The largest contributor was European Urology (46 reviews or 40.7%), followed by BJU International (31 or 27.4%) and The Journal of Urology® (22 or 19.5%). The mean ± SD AMSTAR score for the 2009 to 2012 period was 5.3 ± 2.3 compared to 4.8 ± 2.0 for 1998 to 2008 with a mean difference of 0.5 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.2, p = 0.133). While the number of systematic reviews published in the urological literature has increased substantially, the methodological quality of these studies remains suboptimal. Systematic review authors and editors should make every effort to adhere to well established methodological standards to enhance
Muzyk, Andrew J; Peedin, Emily; Lipetzky, Juliana; Parker, Haley; McEachern, Mark P; Thomas, Kelan
The authors sought to systematically review the quantity and quality of literature describing substance use disorders (SUDs) education in US schools of pharmacy and determine the effectiveness of the educational interventions employed. The authors conducted a systematic review of SUDs education studies in US pharmacy schools. All literature database searches were performed on April 30, 2016, in 5 databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase.com, ERIC via FirstSearch, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost. The study authors conducted this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines and registered it with PROSPERO, which is an international prospective register of systematic reviews. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42016037443. The study authors created a modified data extraction sheet based on the Best Evidence in Medical Education coding sheet. A Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) score was calculated for included articles. Results: From the 1626 retrieved records, 7 were included in the present review. The studies assessed students' impressions and abilities regarding SUDs pre- and post-intervention. The mean ± SD MERSQI score of the 7 studies was 9.86 ± 1.21 (range: 8-11.5). The included articles assessed pharmacy students at various academic years, with the majority students in either their first or second year of pharmacy school, and described both required and elective courses. The educational interventions varied in design and outcomes measured. Education included nicotine, alcoholism, and SUDs in general. None of the included articles reported on education regarding opioid use disorders. Conclusions: The studies included in this systematic review demonstrate that teaching pharmacy students about SUDs produces a positive impact in their attitudes and knowledge on this subject.
Mathie, Robert T; Hacke, Daniela; Clausen, Jürgen
Systematic review of the research evidence in veterinary homeopathy has never previously been carried out. This paper presents the search methods, together with categorised lists of retrieved records, that enable us to identify the literature that is acceptable for future systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in veterinary homeopathy. All randomised and controlled trials of homeopathic intervention (prophylaxis and/or treatment of disease, in any species except man) were appraised according to pre-specified criteria. The following databases were systematically searched from their inception up to and including March 2011: AMED; Carstens-Stiftung Homeopathic Veterinary Clinical Research (HomVetCR) database; CINAHL; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Embase; Hom-Inform; LILACS; PubMed; Science Citation Index; Scopus. One hundred and fifty records were retrieved; 38 satisfied the acceptance criteria (substantive report of a clinical treatment or prophylaxis trial in veterinary homeopathic medicine randomised and controlled and published in a peer-reviewed journal), and were thus eligible for future planned systematic review. Approximately half of the rejected records were theses. Seven species and 27 different species-specific medical conditions were represented in the 38 papers. Similar numbers of papers reported trials of treatment and prophylaxis (n=21 and n=17 respectively) and were controlled against placebo or other than placebo (n=18, n=20 respectively). Most research focused on non-individualised homeopathy (n=35 papers) compared with individualised homeopathy (n=3). The results provide a complete and clarified view of the RCT literature in veterinary homeopathy. We will systematically review the 38 substantive peer-reviewed journal articles under the main headings: treatment trials; prophylaxis trials. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mathie, Robert T; Hacke, Daniela; Clausen, Jürgen; Nicolai, Ton; Riley, David S; Fisher, Peter
A new programme of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in homeopathy will distinguish important attributes of RCT records, including: placebo controlled versus other-than-placebo (OTP) controlled; individualised versus non-individualised homeopathy; peer-reviewed (PR) versus non peer-reviewed (NPR) sources. (a) To outline the methods used to search and categorise the RCT literature; (b) to report details of the records retrieved; (c) to compare our retrieved records with those reported in two previous systematic reviews (Linde et al., 1997; Shang et al., 2005). Ten major electronic databases were searched for records published up to the end of 2011. A record was accepted for subsequent systematic review if it was a substantive report of a clinical trial of homeopathic treatment or prophylaxis in humans, randomised and controlled, and published in a PR or NPR journal. 489 records were potentially eligible: 226 were rejected as non-journal, minor or repeat publications, or lacking randomisation and/or controls and/or a 'homeopathic' intervention; 263 (164 PR, 99 NPR) were acceptable for systematic review. The 263 accepted records comprised 217 (137 PR, 80 NPR) placebo-controlled RCTs, of which 121 were included by, 66 were published after, and 30 were potentially eligible for, but not listed by, Linde or Shang. The 137 PR records of placebo-controlled RCTs comprise 41 on individualised homeopathy and 96 on non-individualised homeopathy. Our findings clarify the RCT literature in homeopathy. The 263 accepted journal papers will be the basis for our forthcoming programme of systematic reviews. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mam-Lam-Fook, C; Danset-Alexandre, C; Pedron, L; Amado, I; Gaillard, R; Krebs, M-O
Cognitive disorders are currently considered as central components of disorders found in schizophrenia and are a major handicap for patients day to day. These disorders appear before the first psychotic episode, in the prodromal phase, during which time the symptoms are below the threshold for psychosis. People with these symptoms are considered as presenting an at-risk mental state (or at ultra-high risk, UHR of psychosis) and their risk for psychotic transition is between 20% and 40% within one year. Despite a number of studies, the chronology in which cognitive disorders appear in relation to the psychotic symptoms has not clearly been established and the study of the links between cognition and symptoms could improve our understanding of psychotic disorders. The detection of certain cognitive disorders before the onset of psychotic disorders could help improve early detection. We carried out a systematic analysis of the literature exploring cognitive disorders found in subjects with UHR for psychosis. The objective of most studies was to establish the predictive value for psychotic transition. Nevertheless study results have shown little consensus. Faced with this heterogeneity of results from past studies, we carried out a critical analysis of the literature and suggest areas of reflection for future research. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri
Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016
Boeker, Martin; Vach, Werner; Motschall, Edith
Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools.The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality indicator of Google Scholar confined to
Pashazadeh, Asma; Jafari Navimipour, Nima
Healthcare provides many services such as diagnosing, treatment, prevention of diseases, illnesses, injuries, and other physical and mental disorders. Large-scale distributed data processing applications in healthcare as a basic concept operates on large amounts of data. Therefore, big data application functions are the main part of healthcare operations, but there was not any comprehensive and systematic survey about studying and evaluating the important techniques in this field. Therefore, this paper aims at providing the comprehensive, detailed, and systematic study of the state-of-the-art mechanisms in the big data related to healthcare applications in five categories, including machine learning, cloud-based, heuristic-based, agent-based, and hybrid mechanisms. Also, this paper displayed a systematic literature review (SLR) of the big data applications in the healthcare literature up to the end of 2016. Initially, 205 papers were identified, but a paper selection process reduced the number of papers to 29 important studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bosch-Alcaraz, Alejandro; Falcó-Pegueroles, Anna; Jordan, Iolanda
To investigate the meaning of comfort and to contextualise it within the framework of paediatric critical care. The concept of comfort is closely linked to care in all health contexts. However, in specific settings such as the paediatric critical care unit, it takes on particular importance. A literature review was conducted. A literature search was performed of articles in English and Spanish in international health science databases, from 1992-March 2017, applying the quality standards established by the PRISMA methodology and the Joanna Briggs Institute. A total of 1,203 publications were identified in the databases. Finally, 59 articles which met the inclusion criteria were entered in this literature review. Almost all were descriptive studies written in English and published in Europe. The concept of comfort was defined as the immediate condition of being strengthened through having the three types of needs (relief, ease and transcendence) addressed in the four contexts of experience (physical, psychospiritual, social and environmental). Only two valid and reliable tools for assessing comfort were found: the Comfort Scale and the Comfort Behavior Scale. Comfort is subjective and difficult to assess. It has four facets: physical, emotional, social and environmental. High levels of noise and light are the inputs that cause the most discomfort. Comfort is a holistic, universal concept and an important component of quality nursing care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Horner, Deanna; Altshuler, Diana; Droege, Chris; Feih, Joel; Ferguson, Kevin; Fiorenza, Mallory; Greathouse, Kasey; Hamilton, Leslie; Pfaff, Caitlin; Roller, Lauren; Stollings, Joanna; Wong, Adrian
To summarize select critical care pharmacotherapy guidelines and studies published in 2016. The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) Group screened 31 journals monthly for relevant pharmacotherapy articles and selected 107 articles for review over the course of 2016. Of those included in the monthly CCPLU, three guidelines and seven primary literature studies are reviewed here. The guideline updates included are as follows: hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia management, sustained neuromuscular blocking agent use, and reversal of antithrombotics in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The primary literature summaries evaluate the following: dexmedetomidine for delirium prevention in post-cardiac surgery, dexmedetomidine for delirium management in mechanically ventilated patients, high-dose epoetin alfa after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, ideal blood pressure targets in ICH, hydrocortisone in severe sepsis, procalcitonin-guided antibiotic de-escalation, and empiric micafungin therapy. The review provides a synopsis of select pharmacotherapy publications in 2016 applicable to clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi
To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Systematic literature review. 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Chapman, Andrea L; Morgan, Laura C; Gartlehner, Gerald
To minimise retrieval bias, manual literature searches are a key part of the search process of any systematic review. Considering the need to have accurate information, valid results of the manual literature search are essential to ensure scientific standards; likewise efficient approaches that minimise the amount of personnel time required to conduct a manual literature search are of great interest. The objective of this project was to determine the validity and efficiency of a new manual search method that utilises the scopus database. We used the traditional manual search approach as the gold standard to determine the validity and efficiency of the proposed scopus method. Outcome measures included completeness of article detection and personnel time involved. Using both methods independently, we compared the results based on accuracy of the results, validity and time spent conducting the search, efficiency. Regarding accuracy, the scopus method identified the same studies as the traditional approach indicating its validity. In terms of efficiency, using scopus led to a time saving of 62.5% compared with the traditional approach (3 h versus 8 h). The scopus method can significantly improve the efficiency of manual searches and thus of systematic reviews.
Evans, Jenna M; Brown, Adalsteinn; Baker, G Ross
Variations in the performance of healthcare organizations may be partly explained by differing "stocks" of intellectual capital (IC), and differing approaches and capacities for leveraging IC. This study synthesizes what is currently known about the conceptualization, management and measurement of IC in healthcare through a review of the literature. Peer-reviewed papers on IC in healthcare published between 1990 and 2014 were identified through searches of five databases using the following key terms: intellectual capital/assets, knowledge capital/assets/resources, and intangible assets/resources. Articles deemed relevant for inclusion underwent systematic data extraction to identify overarching themes and were assessed for their methodological quality. Thirty-seven papers were included in the review. The primary research method used was cross-sectional questionnaires focused on hospital managers' perceptions of IC, followed by semi-structured interviews and analysis of administrative data. Empirical studies suggest that IC is linked to subjective process and performance indicators in healthcare organizations. Although the literature on IC in healthcare is growing, it is not advanced. In this paper, we identify and examine the conceptual, theoretical and methodological limitations of the literature. The concept and framework of IC offer a means to study the value of intangible resources in healthcare organizations, how to manage systematically these resources together, and their mutually enhancing interactions on performance. We offer several recommendations for future research.
Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V
Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.
Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To conduct a systematized review of the literature about the main local hemostatic measures to control postoperative bleeding in anticoagulated patients. METHODS: A systematized review of literature was performed in the electronic database Medline (PubMed without restriction of the publication date. The eligibility criteria were studies involving maintenance of the anticoagulant therapy, prospective studies, retrospective studies, randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical studies, comparative studies, multicentric studies or case-control studies. Studies discontinuing anticoagulant therapy, case reports, literature reviews, in vitro studies, animal experiments and articles written in language not compatible with the search strategy adopted in this work were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four articles that met the adopted eligibility criteria were selected, enrolling 3891 subjects under anticoagulant therapy. A total of 171 cases of hemorrhage was observed. Tranexamic acid was the main local hemostatic measure used to controlling of postoperative bleeding. CONCLUSION: The local hemostatic measures proved to be effective according to previously published studies. Nevertheless, further clinical studies should be conducted to confirm this effectiveness.
Glidden, Derek; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Jones, Bethany A; Arcelus, Jon
There is a growing clinical recognition that a significant proportion of patients with gender dysphoria have concurrent autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this review is to systematically appraise the current literature regarding the co-occurrence of gender dysphoria and ASD. A systematic literature search using Medline and PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted from 1966 to July 2015. Fifty-eight articles were generated from the search. Nineteen of these publications met the inclusion criteria. The literature investigating ASD in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria showed a higher prevalence rate of ASD compared with the general population. There is a limited amount of research in adults. Only one study showed that adults attending services for gender dysphoria had increased ASD scores. Another study showed a larger proportion of adults with atypical gender identity and ASD. Although the research is limited, especially for adults, there is an increasing amount of evidence that suggests a co-occurrence between gender dysphoria and ASD. Further research is vital for educational and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Annaim, Ali; Lassiter, Mia; Viera, Anthony J; Ferris, Maria
Although some research has examined the use of games for the education of pediatric patients, the use of technology for parental education seems like an appropriate application as it has been a part of the popular culture for at least 30 years. The main objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature for research evaluating the use of interactive media in the education of parents of children with chronic conditions. We searched the MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane database of systematic reviews and EMBASE databases from 1986 to 2014 seeking original investigations on the use of interactive media and video games to educate parents of children with chronic conditions. Cohort studies, randomized control trials, and observational studies were included in our search of the literature. Two investigators reviewed abstracts and full texts as necessary. The quality of the studies was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Overall trend in the results and the degree of certainty in the results were considered when assessing the body of literature pertaining to our focused questions. Our initial search identified 4367 papers, but only 12 fulfilled the criterion established for final analysis, with the majority of the studies having flaws that reduced their quality. These papers reported mostly positive results supporting the idea that parent education is possible through interactive media. We found limited evidence of the effectiveness of using serious games and or interactive media to educate parents of children with chronic conditions.
Perrott, Jerrold L; Co, Michelle T; Reynolds, Steven C; Gunning, Derek J R
Purpose. To describe the successful use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative for a percutaneous tracheotomy procedure and to systematically present the supporting literature. Materials and Methods. A Case report of our experience and systematic literature search. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched without restriction using the key words dexmedetomidine, percutaneous tracheotomy, and tracheotomy procedure. All relevant published references were retrieved irrespective of their methodological quality. Results. In total, only 3 relevant references were found. These include one small placebo controlled randomized trial and 2 case reports. The randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled patients already sedated on midazolam and included 64 total patients. The 2 other case reports both described the use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative. All of the cases reported the successful completion of the percutaneous tracheotomy without any major complication, but none reported the subjective patient experience. Conclusion. Based on the available published literature and our experience, we suggest that dexmedetomidine be considered for use as the primary procedural sedative for percutaneous tracheotomy procedure. Dexmedetomidine's ability to provide adequate sedation and amnesia, without blunting the respiratory drive and protective reflexes of the patient, may make it an optimal agent in specific cases.
Jerrold L. Perrott
Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the successful use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative for a percutaneous tracheotomy procedure and to systematically present the supporting literature. Materials and Methods. A Case report of our experience and systematic literature search. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched without restriction using the key words dexmedetomidine, percutaneous tracheotomy, and tracheotomy procedure. All relevant published references were retrieved irrespective of their methodological quality. Results. In total, only 3 relevant references were found. These include one small placebo controlled randomized trial and 2 case reports. The randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled patients already sedated on midazolam and included 64 total patients. The 2 other case reports both described the use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative. All of the cases reported the successful completion of the percutaneous tracheotomy without any major complication, but none reported the subjective patient experience. Conclusion. Based on the available published literature and our experience, we suggest that dexmedetomidine be considered for use as the primary procedural sedative for percutaneous tracheotomy procedure. Dexmedetomidine’s ability to provide adequate sedation and amnesia, without blunting the respiratory drive and protective reflexes of the patient, may make it an optimal agent in specific cases.
Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Elshafay, Abdelrahman; Kansakar, Aswin Ratna; Mehyar, Ghaleb Muhammad; Dang, Nguyen Phan Hoang; Mattar, Omar Mohamed; Iqtadar, Somia; Mostafa, Mostafa Reda; Hai, Vu Ngoc; Vu, Tran Le-Huy; Ghazy, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb; Kaboub, Fatima; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji
Persistent vomiting is mentioned as a symptom of a large variety of systemic disorders. It is commonly used interchangeably with chronic, recurrent, or intractable vomiting and widely used as a warning sign of severe illness in dengue infection. However, it has been poorly defined in the medical literature. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review a definition of persistent vomiting in the medical literature. A systematic search was done through; PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, VHL, WHO-GHL, Grey Literature Report, POPLINE, and SIGLE for the last 10 years. Consensus on the definition was considered to be reached if at least 50% of studies described the same definition using the Delphi consensus technique. Of 2362 abstracts reviewed, 15 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Three studies used the same definition. Another 2 studies defined it as vomiting of all foods and fluid in 24 hours. Three studies defined persistent vomiting in the units of days or weeks. Four studies used the number of episodes: ≥2 episodes 15 minutes apart, >3 episodes in 12 hours, and >3 episodes within 24 hours. No consensus for the definition was found among authors. This is a point of concern that needs to be addressed by further studies.
Patel, Sonny S; Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James
Government, industry and charitable organisations have an increasing focus on programs intended to support community resilience to disasters. But has consensus been reached as to what defines 'community resilience' and what its core characteristics are? We undertook a systematic literature review of definitions of community resilience related to disasters. We conducted an inductive thematic analysis of the definitions and descriptions that we identified, in order to determine the proposed characteristics of community resilience prior to, during and after a disaster. We identified 80 relevant papers. There was no evidence of a common, agreed definition of community resilience. In spite of this, evidence was found of nine core elements of community resilience that were common among the definitions. The core elements were: local knowledge, community networks and relationships, communication, health, governance and leadership, resources, economic investment, preparedness, and mental outlook. Within these core elements, we identified 19 sub-elements linked to community resilience. Our findings show that community resilience remains an amorphous concept that is understood and applied differently by different research groups. Yet in spite of the differences in conception and application, there are well-understood elements that are widely proposed as important for a resilient community. A focus on these individual elements may be more productive than attempting to define and study community resilience as a distinct concept.
Ball, Elaine C
The paper examines hand-written annotation, its many features, difficulties and strengths as a feedback tool. It extends and clarifies what modest evidence is in the public domain and offers an evaluation of how to use annotation effectively in the support of student feedback [Marshall, C.M., 1998a. The Future of Annotation in a Digital (paper) World. Presented at the 35th Annual GLSLIS Clinic: Successes and Failures of Digital Libraries, June 20-24, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, March 24, pp. 1-20; Marshall, C.M., 1998b. Toward an ecology of hypertext annotation. Hypertext. In: Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia, June 20-24, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, US, pp. 40-49; Wolfe, J.L., Nuewirth, C.M., 2001. From the margins to the centre: the future of annotation. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 15(3), 333-371; Diyanni, R., 2002. One Hundred Great Essays. Addison-Wesley, New York; Wolfe, J.L., 2002. Marginal pedagogy: how annotated texts affect writing-from-source texts. Written Communication, 19(2), 297-333; Liu, K., 2006. Annotation as an index to critical writing. Urban Education, 41, 192-207; Feito, A., Donahue, P., 2008. Minding the gap annotation as preparation for discussion. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 7(3), 295-307; Ball, E., 2009. A participatory action research study on handwritten annotation feedback and its impact on staff and students. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 22(2), 111-124; Ball, E., Franks, H., McGrath, M., Leigh, J., 2009. Annotation is a valuable tool to enhance learning and assessment in student essays. Nurse Education Today, 29(3), 284-291]. Although a significant number of studies examine annotation, this is largely related to on-line tools and computer mediated communication and not hand-written annotation as comment, phrase or sign written on the student essay to provide critique. Little systematic research has been conducted to consider how this latter form
Carlton, Simon D; Orr, Robin M
Military personnel and firefighters are required to carry occupational loads and complete tasks in hostile and unpredictable environments where a lack of mobility may risk lives. This review critically examines the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on the mobility of these specialist personnel. Several literature databases, reference lists, and subject matter experts were employed to identify relevant studies. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were critiqued using the Downs and Black protocol. Inter-rater agreement was determined by Cohen's κ. Twelve original research studies, which included male and female participants from military and firefighting occupations, were critiqued (κ = .81). A review of these papers found that as the carried load weight increased, carrier mobility during aerobic tasks (like road marching) and anaerobic tasks (like obstacle course negotiation) decreased. As such, it can be concluded that the load carried by some specialist personnel may increase their occupational risk by reducing their mobility.
Doolittle, B R; Justice, A C; Fiellin, D A
This systematic review evaluates the association between religion, spirituality and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. A systematic literature review was conducted for all English language articles published between 1980 and 2016 in relevant databases. Six hundred fourteen studies were evaluated. 15 met inclusion criteria. Ten (67%) studies reported a positive association between religion or spirituality and a clinical HIV outcome. Two (13%) studies failed to detect such an association; and two (13%) demonstrated a negative association. One study (7%) identified features of religiosity and spirituality that had both negative and positive associations with HIV clinical outcomes. Recognizing the religious or spiritual commitments of patients may serve as an important component of patient care. Further longitudinal studies and interventions might be required to further clarify the potential impact of religion and spirituality on HIV clinical outcomes.
Full Text Available Accreditation is usually a voluntary program, in which authorized external peer reviewers evaluate the compliance of a health care organization with pre-established performance standards. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature of the attitude of health care professionals towards professional accreditation. A systematic search of four databases including Medline, Embase, Healthstar, and Cinhal presented seventeen studies that had evaluated the attitudes of health care professionals towards accreditation. Health care professionals had a skeptical attitude towards accreditation. Owners of hospitals indicated that accreditation had the potential of being used as a marketing tool. Health care professionals viewed accreditation programs as bureaucratic and demanding. There was consistent concern, especially in developing countries, about the cost of accreditation programs and their impact on the quality of health care services.
Balla, Andrea; D Subiela, José; Bollo, Jesús; Martínez, Carmen; Rodriguez Luppi, Carlos; Hernández, Pilar; Pascual-González, Yuliana; Quaresima, Silvia; M Targarona, Eduard
Aim of the present study is to report clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients treated in authors' hospital for GI metastasis from primary lung cancer, and to report and analyse the same data concerning patients retrieved from a systematic literature review. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, and a systematic review using the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Ninety-one patients were included, 5 patients from the authors' hospital and 86 through PubMed database using the keywords "intestinal metastasis" AND "lung cancer". The median time between primary lung cancer diagnosis and GI metastasis diagnosis was 2 months and the median overall survival was 4 months. This group of patients present a poor prognosis and the gold standard treatment is not defined. None of the reported treatments had a significant impact on survival. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Coleman, S J; Stevelink, S A M; Hatch, S L; Denny, J A; Greenberg, N
A recent quantitative review in the area of stigma and help seeking in the armed forces has questioned the association between these factors (Sharp et al. 2015). To date, the contribution of qualitative literature in this area has largely been ignored, despite the value this research brings to the understanding of complex social constructs such as stigma. The aim of the current systematic review of qualitative studies was to identify appropriate literature, assess the quality and synthesize findings across studies regarding evidence of stigma-related barriers and facilitators to help seeking for mental health issues within the armed forces. A multi-database text word search incorporating searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Social Policy and Practice, Social Work Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC and EBM Review databases between 1980 and April 2015 was conducted. Literature was quality assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Thematic synthesis was conducted across the literature. The review identified eight studies with 1012 participants meeting the inclusion criteria. Five overarching themes were identified across the literature: (1) non-disclosure; (2) individual beliefs about mental health; (3) anticipated and personal experience of stigma; (4) career concerns; and (5) factors influencing stigma. The findings from the current systematic review found that unlike inconsistent findings in the quantitative literature, there was substantial evidence of a negative relationship between stigma and help seeking for mental health difficulties within the armed forces. The study advocates for refinement of measures to accurately capture the complexity of stigma and help seeking in future quantitative studies.
Marshall, Dominic C; Salciccioli, Justin D; Walton, Sarah-Jane; Pitkin, Joan; Shalhoub, Joseph; Malietzis, George
Student experiences during surgical rotations may dictate interest in future surgical careers. The objective of this study was to systematically examine the effect of surgical experience (SE) on student attitudes toward surgical careers and also to identify variables influencing the educational value of SE. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted by 2 independent researchers searching Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Studies assessing SE during the students' surgical rotations were identified. The quality of the included studies was assessed using a validated quality index. Factors affecting student surgical rotation experience and perceptions of surgical careers were recorded. Overall, 204 studies were identified; 20 unique studies met the inclusion criteria with a median cohort size of 169 (interquartile range: 107-262) respondents. Most were cross-sectional surveys (n = 16/20) and administered to clinical students (n = 16/20). All studies investigating the effect of SE on career choices (n = 8) found that positive experiences during the surgical placement were associated with an increased interest in surgical careers. The operating theater experience was identified as a defining feature of overall SE. Involvement in operative procedures, a welcoming environment, and avoidance of syncopal events positively influenced the SE, particularly in those who actively sought educational opportunities. Study limitations included single-center and single-year cohort designs (70%) with the use of nonvalidated research tools (95%). A systematic review of the literature highlights a number of factors associated with a positive surgical rotation, which may lead to more students deciding to pursue a career in surgery. Understanding the factors that contribute to these decisions through multicenter studies using validated research
This compilation - the first of its kind - fills a real gap in the field of electrolyte data. Virtually all self-diffusion data in electrolyte solutions as reported in the literature have been examined and the book contains over 400 tables covering diffusion in binary and ternary aqueous solutions, in mixed solvents, and of non-electrolytes in various solvents.An important feature of the compilation is that all data have been critically examined and their accuracy assessed. Other features are an introductory chapter in which the methods of measurement are reviewed; appendices containing tables
Querol del Amo, Marc
This thesis presents the results of a survey of Open Source Licensing literature. It aims to assist the reader in choosing the best license for his/her business. For this reason, the content of this thesis can be divided into: (i) an open source licensing overview, (ii) the explication of the main features of the most popular open source licenses, (iii) the consequences of using one or another and (iv) the critical or controversial issues related to Open Source Licensing. Furthermore, at the ...
Seals, Kevin F., E-mail: KSeals@mednet.ucla.edu; Lee, Edward W., E-mail: EdwardLee@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center (United States); Cagnon, Christopher H., E-mail: CCagnon@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Radiology (United States); Al-Hakim, Ramsey A., E-mail: RAlhakim@mednet.ucla.edu; Kee, Stephen T., E-mail: SKee@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center (United States)
Extensive research supports an association between radiation exposure and cataractogenesis. New data suggests that radiation-induced cataracts may form stochastically, without a threshold and at low radiation doses. We first review data linking cataractogenesis with interventional work. We then analyze the lens dose typical of various procedures, factors modulating dose, and predicted annual dosages. We conclude by critically evaluating the literature describing techniques for lens protection, finding that leaded eyeglasses may offer inadequate protection and exploring the available data on alternative strategies for cataract prevention.
Olson, Mary Angela
Many English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students struggle in nursing school for a multitude of reasons. The purpose of this critical review of the literature is to identify barriers and discover bridges to ESL nursing student success. Twenty-five articles were identified for the review. Language barriers were identified as the single most significant obstacle facing the ESL nursing student. Bridges to ESL nursing student success include enhancing language development and acculturation into the American mainstream culture. A broad range of strategies to promote student success are outlined and the role of the nurse educator in ESL nursing student success is also addressed.
Wylie, C E; Newton, J R
Racing performance is often used as a measurable outcome variable in research studies investigating clinical diagnoses or interventions. However, the use of many different performance measures largely precludes conduct of meaningful comparative studies and, to date, those being used have not been collated. To systematically review the veterinary scientific literature for the use of racing performance as a measurable outcome variable in clinical studies of racehorses, collate and identify those most popular, and identify their advantages and disadvantages. Systematic literature search. The search criteria "((racing AND performance) AND (horses OR equidae))" were adapted for both MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts databases. Data were collected in standardised recording forms for binary, categorical and quantitative measures, and the use of performance indices. In total, 217 studies that described racing performance were identified, contributing 117 different performance measures. No one performance measure was used in all studies, despite 90.3% using more than one variable. Data regarding race starts and earnings were used most commonly, with 88.0% and 54.4% of studies including at least one measure of starts and earnings, respectively. Seventeen variables were used 10 times or more, with the top five comprising: 'return to racing', 'number of starts', 'days to first start', 'earnings per period of time' and 'earnings per start'. The search strategies may not have identified all relevant papers, introducing bias to the review. Performance indices have been developed to improve assessment of interventions; however, they are not widely adopted in the scientific literature. Use of the two most commonly identified measures, whether the horse returned to racing and number of starts over a defined period of time, would best facilitate future systematic reviews and meta-analyses in advance of the development of a gold-standard measure of race performance outcome. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.
Salleh, Syed; Thokala, Praveen; Brennan, Alan; Hughes, Ruby; Booth, Andrew
Numerous studies examine simulation modelling in healthcare. These studies present a bewildering array of simulation techniques and applications, making it challenging to characterise the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the level of activity of simulation modelling in healthcare and the key themes. We performed an umbrella review of systematic literature reviews of simulation modelling in healthcare. Searches were conducted of academic databases (JSTOR, Scopus, PubMed, IEEE, SAGE, ACM, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect) and grey literature sources, enhanced by citation searches. The articles were included if they performed a systematic review of simulation modelling techniques in healthcare. After quality assessment of all included articles, data were extracted on numbers of studies included in each review, types of applications, techniques used for simulation modelling, data sources and simulation software. The search strategy yielded a total of 117 potential articles. Following sifting, 37 heterogeneous reviews were included. Most reviews achieved moderate quality rating on a modified AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool used to Assess systematic Reviews) checklist. All the review articles described the types of applications used for simulation modelling; 15 reviews described techniques used for simulation modelling; three reviews described data sources used for simulation modelling; and six reviews described software used for simulation modelling. The remaining reviews either did not report or did not provide enough detail for the data to be extracted. Simulation modelling techniques have been used for a wide range of applications in healthcare, with a variety of software tools and data sources. The number of reviews published in recent years suggest an increased interest in simulation modelling in healthcare.
Beagan, Brenda L
The 2007 position statement on diversity for the Canadian occupational therapy profession argued discussion was needed to determine the implications of approaches to working with cultural differences and other forms of diversity. In 2014, a new position statement on diversity was published, emphasizing the importance of social power relations and power relations between client and therapist, and supporting two particular approaches: cultural safety and cultural humility with critical reflexivity This paper reviews and critically synthesizes the literature concerning culture and diversity published in occupational therapy between 2007 and 2014, tracing the major discourses and mapping the implications of four differing approaches: cultural competence, cultural relevance, cultural safety, and cultural humility. Approaches differ in where they situate the "problem," how they envision change, the end goal, and the application to a range of types of diversity. The latter two are preferred approaches for their attention to power relations and potential to encompass a range of types of social and cultural diversity. © CAOT 2015.
Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J
Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.
Rustler, Vanessa; Hagerty, Meaghan; Daeggelmann, Julia; Marjerrison, Stacey; Bloch, Wilhelm; Baumann, Freerk T
Physical inactivity has been shown to exacerbate negative side effects experienced by pediatric patients undergoing cancer therapy. Exercise interventions are being created in response. This review summarizes current exercise intervention data in the inpatient pediatric oncology setting. Two independent reviewers collected literature from three databases, and analyzed data following the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Ten studies were included, representing 204 patients. Good adherence, positive trends in health status, and no adverse events were noted. Common strategies included individual, supervised, combination training with adaptability to meet fluctuating patient abilities. We recommend that general physical activity programming be offered to pediatric oncology inpatients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Quelly, Susan B; Norris, Anne E; DiPietro, Jessica L
This review examines the impact of mobile app technology on obesity-related anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes in children and adolescents. Nine research articles retrieved from a systematic review of the literature met criteria. Evidence is limited and mixed, but argues for an impact of mobile app use on motivation and goal-setting behavior, and supports further study of the impact on childhood obesity-related outcomes such as attitudes, perceptions, physical activity, and dietary habits. Nurses can use this evidence to discuss potential benefits of health promotion mobile apps with parents, children, and adolescents to combat childhood obesity. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Morrissey, Matthew; Collier, Elizabeth
To determine which factors relate to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, in adult patients who are admitted to critical care units. Patient survival rates from critical care areas are improving each year and this has led to interest in the long-term outcomes for patients who have been discharged from such environments. Patients typically require invasive and extensive treatment, which places a stress on physical and mental health. Prevalence estimates of post-traumatic stress disorder in the critical care discharge population vary from 5-63%, yet it remains unclear what the predisposing factors are. A systematised review. Subject heading and keyword searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect, with 23 articles identified that examined the relationship between critical care and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Three main themes were identified; Critical Care Factors, Patient Factors and Experience Factors. Eight key and three potential causative factors were found: younger age, female, previous psychiatric history, length of ICU stay, benzodiazepine sedation, use of stress hormones, delusional memory and traumatic memory, delirium, GCS score of ≤9 on admission & use of mechanical restraint. Post-traumatic stress reactions can be strongly related to the development and presence of traumatic and delusional memories. Younger patients may exclude themselves from research to avoid their traumatic thoughts. The role of prior psychiatric illness is unknown. Distinction between 'factual' and 'false' or delusional memory as occurs in the literature maybe unhelpful in understanding trauma reactions. There are around 38,000 occupied critical care beds each year in England. The scale of the issue is therefore substantial. Risk factors can be isolated from available evidence and provide a rudimentary risk assessment tool to inform practice development in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL is considered as an effective method for the identification of cause-effect chain components of a complex system. It deals with evaluating interdependent relationships among factors and finding the critical ones through a visual structural model. Over the recent decade, a large number of studies have been done on the application of DEMATEL and many different variants have been put forward in the literature. The objective of this study is to review systematically the methodologies and applications of the DEMATEL technique. We reviewed a total of 346 papers published from 2006 to 2016 in the international journals. According to the approaches used, these publications are grouped into five categories: classical DEMATEL, fuzzy DEMATEL, grey DEMATEL, analytical network process- (ANP- DEMATEL, and other DEMATEL. All papers with respect to each category are summarized and analyzed, pointing out their implementing procedures, real applications, and crucial findings. This systematic and comprehensive review holds valuable insights for researchers and practitioners into using the DEMATEL in terms of indicating current research trends and potential directions for further research.
Gay, C; Chabaud, A; Guilley, E; Coudeyre, E
Highlight the role of patient education about physical activity and exercise in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Systematic literature review from the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Wiley Online Library databases. A total of 125 items were identified, including 11 recommendations from learned societies interested in OA and 45 randomized controlled trials addressing treatment education and activity/exercise for the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis. In the end, 13 randomized controlled trials and 8 recommendations were reviewed (1b level of evidence). Based on the analysis, it was clear that education, exercise and weight loss are the pillars of non-pharmacological treatments. These treatments have proven to be effective but require changes in patient behaviour that are difficult to obtain. Exercise and weight loss improve function and reduce pain. Education potentiates compliance to exercise and weight loss programs, thereby improving their long-term benefits. Cost efficiency studies have found a reduction in medical visits and healthcare costs after 12 months because of self-management programs. Among non-surgical treatment options for hip and knee osteoarthritis, the most recent guidelines focus on non-pharmacological treatment. Self-management for general physical activity and exercise has a critical role. Programs must be personalized and adjusted to the patient's phenotype. This development should help every healthcare professional adapt the care they propose to each patient. Registration number for the systematic review: CRD42015032346. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Krüsemann, Erna Johanna Zegerina; Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees; Talhout, Reinskje
E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors
Jellema, Hinke Marijke; Braaksma-Besselink, Yvette; Limpens, Jacqueline; von Arx, Georg; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Mourits, Maarten P.
Proposal of success criteria for strabismus surgery for patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO) based on a systematic review of the literature. We performed a systematic search of OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the publisher subset of
Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon
Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…
Smith, Sarah A
Recent evidence of negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes for Micronesian migrants warrants a review of what is currently known about Micronesian SRH beliefs, customs, behaviors, outcomes, and access to SRH services. A systematic literature review employing the matrix method was conducted using the same key terms for 8 databases. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were abstracted for several key components, including topics, methodology, and other important elements necessary to assess major findings, strengths, and weaknesses. Thirty-two articles matched the inclusion criteria for review. Of these articles, the major research of interest was behavior relating to sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, health care seeking, and HIV/AIDS for various populations throughout Micronesia. Study populations ranged from pregnant women seeking prenatal care to students in high school. No cohesive body of SRH literature exists for one topic or one community within Micronesia to date.
Hearld, Larry R; Bleser, William K; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wolf, Laura J
Recent interest in community health collaboratives has been driven by the potential of these types of organizations to solve complex health problems at the local level by bringing together stakeholders that have traditionally operated independently, and often at cross-purposes. Much of the work that is central to the mission of collaboratives can take years to reach fruition, however, and there are a number of challenges to sustaining their activities. In this article, we systematically reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on health care collaborative sustainability, focusing on definitions and antecedents of sustainability. Given the diversity and fragmentation of this literature, we used this review as a foundation to develop a synthesized definition, conceptual groups of antecedents, and potential research propositions to help guide future research, planning, and practice of sustainable community health collaboratives. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Along with the growth of social media, a variety of potential threats to users is also increasing. These kinds of threats often occur because the users accidentally or unknowingly disclose their information or identity on social media. Threats resulted from the disclosure of information are needed to be known so that the users can understand the risks that arise and take precautions. This research was aimed to summarize the potential threats arising from the information disclosure in social media. The research method used was a systematic literature review to explore and summarize the literatures that discuss the specific topic. The research results show that the potential threats are mostly social threats and identity theft.
Wilson, Donna M; Nam, Mavis A; Murphy, Jill; Victorino, João P; Gondim, Ellen C; Low, Gail
To establish how common and impactful nursing and healthcare ageism is and whether proven interventions or prevention methods exist. Ageism has been a concern since 1969 when it was first introduced as a concept for social reform. As ageism has been linked to lower quality health services and reduced health care access, it is imperative that healthcare and nursing ageism is prevented or identified and reduced or eliminated. A qualitative narrative review of published research literature reviews using a scoping design to map all published reviews was undertaken. The EBSCO Discovery Service (providing access to articles in 271 databases, including MEDLINE and CINAHL) and Directory of Open Access Journals (providing access to over 9,000 open access journals) were used to find review articles. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and limited by English language and peer-review publications, 12 eligible reviews were identified and information from them was systematically identified, assessed and synthesised. The 12 reviews did not provide clear and convincing information to determine how common and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, nor what can best be done to prevent or address it. Although each review had value since research literature was collected and discussed on nursing or healthcare ageism, the array of literature search and analysis methods, and diversity in conclusions reached about the evidence is highly problematic. Research literature reviews offering a more balanced perspective and demonstrating greater care in finding and using quality evidence are needed. At this point in time, there is no clear understanding of how widespread and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, and what can best be done to prevent or address it. Nurses need to be aware that ageism may be common and impactful, and guard against it. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fredman, Rafi; Tenenhaus, Mayer
Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) is a well-established treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars. The present text provides a systematic review of all previously reported cases of Cushing's syndrome resulting from intralesional TAC in an effort to discover whether an association exists between dosage or frequency of injection and the subsequent development of Cushing's syndrome. Data collected from a multinational survey of plastic surgeons is presented and discussed to understand current trends in the use of TAC. Recommendations for early recognition of Cushing's syndrome, TAC dosages in children, and follow up guidelines are presented. A systematic review of the literature from 1950 to 2012 was performed to evaluate outcomes following intralesional TAC used for the treatment of scars. A confidential survey was sent to 4125 plastic surgeons, 102 responses from 9 countries were received. A total of 18 cases of Cushing's syndrome after intralesional TAC have been reported in the English world literature. Survey data reveals that at least 30% (25/84) of plastic surgeons exceed the recommended dosage of TAC and 47% (46/97) are not aware of Cushing's syndrome as a possible complication of intralesional TAC. Cushing's syndrome resulting from intralesional TAC has been reported multiple times in the literature. Published literature suggests that TAC administered within the most recent recommendations does not appear to place adult patients at increased risk for developing Cushing's syndrome. Children appear to be most at risk for developing Cushing's syndrome and yet insufficient recommendations currently exist with regard to their safe dosage. Intralesional dosage should not exceed 30 mg per month in children while noting that at least one reported case of Cushing's syndrome resulted from a smaller dose. Diligent follow up and patient education is advised for any patient treated with TAC so that complications can be recognized and addressed promptly
Ydemann, Mogens; Eddelien, Heidi Shil; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg
The objective was to search the literature with a view to providing a general description of critical illness myopathy/polyneuropathy (CIM/CIP), including its genesis and prevention. Furthermore, it was our aim to determine whether new treatments have occurred in the past five years.......The objective was to search the literature with a view to providing a general description of critical illness myopathy/polyneuropathy (CIM/CIP), including its genesis and prevention. Furthermore, it was our aim to determine whether new treatments have occurred in the past five years....
Shafiei, Nader; Ford, James L; Morecroft, Charles W; Lisboa, Paulo J; Taylor, Mark J; Mouzughi, Yusra
The evolutionary development of pharmaceutical transformation was studied through systematic review of the literature. Fourteen triggers were identified that will affect the pharmaceutical business, regulatory science, and enabling technologies in future years. The relative importance ranking of the transformation triggers was computed based on their prevalence within the articles studied. The four main triggers with the strongest literature evidence were Fully Integrated Pharma Network, Personalized Medicine, Translational Research, and Pervasive Computing. The theoretical quality risks for each of the four main transformation triggers are examined, and the remaining ten triggers are described. The pharmaceutical industry is currently going through changes that affect the way it performs its research, manufacturing, and regulatory activities (this is termed pharmaceutical transformation). The impact of these changes on the approaches to quality risk management requires more understanding. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the academic, regulatory, and industry literature were used to identify 14 triggers that influence pharmaceutical transformation. The four main triggers, namely Fully Integrated Pharma Network, Personalized Medicine, Translational Research, and Pervasive Computing, were selected as the most important based on the strength of the evidence found during the literature review activity described in this paper. Theoretical quality risks for each of the four main transformation triggers are examined, and the remaining ten triggers are described.
Mahieu, Lieslot; Gastmans, Chris
Admission to a nursing home might challenge the way in which individuals experience their own sexuality, but it does not automatically diminish their need and desire for sexual fulfillment. Despite the fact that sexuality proves to be an intrinsic part of human existence, the sexual expression of geriatric residents remains a sensitive subject for many caregivers and family members. It evokes a variety of ethical issues and concerns, especially when dementia patients are involved. The overall objective of this review was to examine the ethical arguments and concepts about the debate on sexuality within a nursing home environment. We conducted a systematic search for argument-based ethics literature focusing on sexuality in institutionalized elderly people. Twenty-five appropriate studies were identified. A thematic analysis of the included literature led us to distinguish two major groups of ethical arguments: (i) principles and (ii) care. Ethics arguments on sexuality in institutionalized elderly are particularly guided by the principle of respect for autonomy and the concomitant notion of informed consent. Arguments related to care were also apparent within the research literature although they received considerably less attention than the arguments related to the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. The lack of clarity in the conceptualization of the arguments referred to in the research literature indicates that there is a pressing need for a better defined, more fundamental philosophical-ethical analysis of the values at stake.
Pereira de Paiva, M H; Pinheiro Lages, L; Cavalcanti de Medeiros, Z
To identify and synthesize the national and international literature on forensic nursing in Brazil. Forensic nursing is a new specialty to the nursing practice in Brazil, being recognized by the Federal Nursing Council of Brazil in 2011. In 2016, the first forensic nursing specialization programme was authorized in the country. The implementation of forensic nursing specialty in Brazil marks new possibilities for the nursing practice, making it possible for nurses to develop additional skills to intervene in various situations under the Brazilian Unified Healthcare System. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the keyword 'Forensic nursing' in combination with 'Brazil'. LILACS, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies were also retrieved from the grey literature. Once literature had been identified, a thematic analysis was undertaken in order to extract themes, which were: establishment of the forensic nursing specialty and its contributions to Brazil and its practical implications. Eight manuscripts and 20 studies from the grey literature were included in the final review. Most studies (54%) were literature reviews that indicated forensic nursing as an emerging specialty in Brazil, addressing educational, instructional, communicative or contextual aspects of the specialty in the country. In the nursing profession in Brazil, few studies exist on forensic nursing and those are limited to short communications. Although most studies address the definition of forensic nursing, others present its implications in various situations such as intimate partner violence, domestic violence, sexual abuse and elder mistreatment. Despite the study limitations, it provides evidence that forensic nursing has been silently implemented in the country with the need for more evidence-based studies to support its constitution as a specialty in Brazil. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Saleh, Ahlam A; Ratajeski, Melissa A; Bertolet, Marnie
To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged.
Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are
Hoerbst, A; Schweitzer, M
Clinical Information Systems (CIS) have ever since the introduction of information technology in healthcare played an important role to support healthcare professionals and the process of treatment. With the rise of the concept of integrated care organizational borders, the sole focus on data aggregation or healthcare professionals as users disappear more and more. The manuscript discusses the concept of CISs and investigates critical success factors for CISs in the context of integrated care and in the course of time. In order to identify critical success factors and barriers for CISs a systematic literature review was conducted based on the results from PubMed and Cochrane, using MaxQDA. Search results were thereby limited to reviews or meta-analysis. We have found 1919 references of which 40 met the inclusion criteria. The analysis of the manuscripts resulted in a comprehensive list of success factors and barriers related to CISs in integrated care settings. Most barriers were user-related whereas for the success factors an even distribution of organizational, technical and user-related factors was observed. The vast majority of publications was focused on healthcare professionals. It is important to incorporate experiences made/ collected over time, as the problems encountered seem to remain almost unvaried. In order to support further systematic investigations on the topic it is necessary to rethink existing concepts and definitions to realign them with the ideas of integrated care.
Vereecken, Carine; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Bekkering, Geertruida Elsiena
The present systematic review critically examines the available scientific literature on risk factors for malnutrition in the older population (aged ≥65 y). A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, reviewing reference lists from 2000 until March 2015. The 2499 papers identified were subjected to inclusion criteria that evaluated the study quality according to items from validated guidelines. Only papers that provided information on a variable’s effect on the development of malnutrition, which requires longitudinal data, were included. A total of 6 longitudinal studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. These studies reported the following significant risk factors for malnutrition: age (OR: 1.038; P = 0.045), frailty in institutionalized persons (β: 0.22; P = 0.036), excessive polypharmacy (β: −0.62; P = 0.001), general health decline including physical function (OR: 1.793; P = 0.008), Parkinson disease (OR: 2.450; P = 0.047), constipation (OR: 2.490; P = 0.015), poor (OR: 3.30; P value not given) or moderate (β: −0.27; P = 0.016) self-reported health status, cognitive decline (OR: 1.844; P = 0.001), dementia (OR: 2.139; P = 0.001), eating dependencies (OR: 2.257; P = 0.001), loss of interest in life (β: −0.58; P = 0.017), poor appetite (β: −1.52; P = 0.000), basal oral dysphagia (OR: 2.72; P = 0.010), signs of impaired efficacy of swallowing (OR: 2.73; P = 0.015), and institutionalization (β: −1.89; P malnutrition in older adults may be considered by health care professionals when developing new integrated assessment instruments to identify older adults’ risk of malnutrition and to support the development of preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:27184278
Bjørnseth, Ingunn; Szabo, Attila
Sexual violence against children in sports receives little research attention. The aim of this Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-based systematic literature review was to synthesize the up-to-date knowledge and identify the already known and the still unknown information in this area. The literature search yielded seven eligible studies for inclusion. Their key outcomes suggest that sexual violence against children in sports is prevalent. Girls are more often the victims than boys, but gender appears to mediate the disclosure. Minority groups are at higher risk for sexual violence, and athletes at higher levels of competition seem to be more vulnerable for grooming. While the coach is often seen as the perpetrator, new research suggests that peer-athletes may precede the coach. Disclosure is a problem, due to personal and interpersonal concerns, which deters scholastic research in this area. In the final section of the review, a "what we know" and "what we need to know" list of highlights is offered as the concluding summary of the review. These factual points could raise the awareness of parents and/or guardians about the vulnerability of their children to sexual abuse if they are involved in sports. They could also attract the attention of the policy makers to the urgent need of developing and implementing preventive measures to make sports and exercise environments pleasurable and safe for children.
Derrick, Chase D; Shridharani, Sachin M; Broyles, Justin M
In the past decade, the practice of body contouring using cryolipolysis has increased tremendously. While numerous anecdotal reports extol the efficacy of this product, the majority of these studies are small, retrospective case-series that lack control groups. The authors aim to systematically review available literature to better illustrate the efficacy and safety of this new procedure. A systematic literature review performed using MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases identified all published studies evaluating cryolipolysis for body contouring. A total of 34 articles up to February 2015 were identified. Nineteen articles matched the selection criteria and were included in the analysis. Sixteen were evaluated in the final analysis. A total of 1445 patients had reportable data for analysis of the safety profile. Twelve patients (0.82%) reported complications with the most common being diminished sensation lasting greater than 4 weeks. An aggregate total of 295 patients had objective data for evaluation of tissue reduction. The mean time from procedure to objective outcome evaluation was 3.83 months. The mean reduction of subcutaneous tissue was 19.55% with respect to a designated control site. Selective cryolipolysis appears, at short-term follow-up, to reliably decrease subcutaneous tissue deposits. Reported complications are uncommon and appear to resolve without intervention. Future studies should aim to optimize patient selection and treatment characteristics while obtaining long-term follow-up data. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J
Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095
Background Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. Methods This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. Results The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Conclusions Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers’ and policymakers’ scientific literacy needs to be enhanced. PMID:23137416
Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M
Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices.
Levine, Ellen G.; Pasick, Rena
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer for women regardless of race/ethnicity. Women of color are diagnosed at later stages and experience greater mortality than their White counterparts. However, there has been comparatively little research on coping with breast among racial/ethnic minorities at time of diagnosis, during treatment, or in the course of survivorship. This is despite the fact that research has repeatedly shown that distress can impact disease progression and survival. The questions asked of this systematic literature review include: (1) What is known about coping with breast cancer among major racial/ethnic groups? (2) What are the strengths and gaps in research to date? Over 120 peer-reviewed published studies (1980–2012) were reviewed. A total of 33 met criteria for inclusion including 15 quantitative, 17 qualitative, and 1 mixed methods study. The majority of studies were small sample cross-sectional studies. Only five studies were longitudinal, and two randomized-controlled intervention trials sought to improve coping among survivors. The most common topic in both quantitative and qualitative studies was spirituality and coping among African American breast cancer patients. Thirteen studies included Latinas only or in combination with other groups. Only one quantitative and one qualitative study solely addressed the Asian American population exploring coping and adjustment. In the course of this systematic literature review, we elucidate what is known about coping with breast cancer among racial/ethnic minority women and identify priorities for future research. PMID:24389825
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. Methods This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. Results The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Conclusions Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers’ and policymakers’ scientific literacy needs to be enhanced.
Hooman Mosannen Mozaffari
Full Text Available Introduction: It is long known that vitamin D deficiency was common in patients with liver disease, but little is known on the therapeutic effects of vitamin D, especially in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literatures and study the evidences in which the effects of vitamin D supplementation had been investigated on the severity of chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed by using the following key terms “vitamin D supplementation” and “chronic liver disease” in the PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar to find relevant articles. After collecting the eligible documents, data were extracted and described based on the purpose of this review.Result: Of total 196 articles found, only 7 relevant documents with 518 studied patients were included. The results of this study showed that the levels of 25(OH D were considerably lower in patients with chronic liver disease. Findings showed that vitamin D supplementation can rise up the mean serum level of 25(OH D in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency, especially patients with liver cirrhosis.Conclusion:The results of this review showed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of liver disease and may have prognostic value in the assessment of liver disease. Also, it was shown that vitamin D supplementation may be helpful for the treatment of liver disease at least in certain groups of patients.
Kokkonen, Kaija; Rissanen, Sari; Hujala, Anneli
Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers' and policymakers' scientific literacy needs to be enhanced.
Green, Christopher S; Bulger, Eileen M; Kwan, Sharon W
The liver is one of the most frequently injured abdominal organs. Hepatic hemorrhage is a complex and challenging complication following hepatic trauma. Significant shifts in the treatment of hepatic hemorrhage, including the increasing use of angioembolization, are believed to have improved patient outcomes. We aimed to describe the efficacy of angioembolization in the setting of acute hepatic arterial hemorrhage as well as the complications associated with this treatment modality. A systematic review of published literature (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library) describing hepatic angioembolization in the setting of trauma was performed. Articles that fulfilled the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. We analyzed the efficacy rate of angioembolization in the setting of traumatic hepatic hemorrhage as well as the complications associated with hepatic angioembolization. Four hundred fifty-nine articles were identified in the literature search. Of these, 10 retrospective studies and 1 prospective study met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Efficacy rate of angioembolization was 93%. The most frequently reported complications following hepatic angioembolization included hepatic necrosis (15%), abscess formation (7.5%), and bile leaks. Although the outcomes of hepatic angioembolization were generally favorable with a high success rate, the treatment modality is not without associated morbidity. The most frequently associated major complication was hepatic necrosis. Rates of complications were affected by study heterogeneity and should be better defined in future studies. Systematic review, level III.
Full Text Available Following the theoretical proposal of Amartya Sen to consider human rights as demands of an ethical nature, capable of articulating a particular type of moral reciprocity, the article proposes to deepen the idea of human rights as cultural artifacts inseparable from the public sphere and from their logic of creation and legitimization of political and social identities. To do this, the paper adopts the advances of a recent field of research exploring the relation between literature and human rights, and discusses their possibilities for the case of Latin American literature. Through the analysis of four novels, belonging to the social criticism narrative in the middle of the twentieth century, the article shows the way in which the literary discourse has been involved in the promotion and expansion of human rights, and in the defense of new subjects of rights. When studying the way in which these fictions build arguments in favor of the expansion of the political space and of a more equitable reorganization of the national community, the article dares to contribute to a better understanding of both the way in which human rights are integrated and consolidated in other discourses, and the key role that literature claimed to have in the construction of a democratic ethics in the Latin American national states.
Wijma, Barbro; Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas
In this article we present a behavioral model for the critical review of the literature within a certain research field, using vaginismus as an example. We searched the literature for the title word "vaginismus" and analyzed to what extent the articles dealt with the following seven categories: prevention, etiology, maintaining factors, consequences, object of intervention, method of intervention, and method of evaluation. In each category we scrutinized the content of the articles for biological, psychological, social, relational, and gender aspects. Quality requirements of etiological and treatment studies were then added and the results presented in a "quality-adjusted" model. There were 102 articles during 1985-2001, of which 22 were included in the review. Most of the articles deal with supposed predisposing factors of etiology and different aspects of intervention. Only a few articles discuss precipitating factors, maintaining factors, or consequences of the problem. No article had a gender analysis. Only 11 of the articles fulfilled some of the proposed quality criteria. We found the behavioral model with quality requirements useful for classifying and evaluating the literature of vaginismus. The model may also be used as a guide to design methodologically good studies.
Buis, Dennis R.; van den Berg, René; Lycklama, Geert; van der Worp, H. Bart; Dirven, Clemens M. F.; Vandertop, W. Peter
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Complete spontaneous obliteration of a brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare event, with 67 angiographically proven cases in the world literature. We present a new case and a systematic literature review to determine possible mechanisms underlying this unusual
Sluiter, J.K; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Meijman, T.F.; van der Beek, A.J.
Objectives-To review occupational health, laboratory, and sports Literature on neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. Methods-A systematic literature search was performed in eight databases. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as
Giacumo, Lisa A.; Breman, Jeroen
This article provides a systematic literature review about nonprofit and for-profit organizations using "big data" to inform performance improvement initiatives. The review of literature resulted in 4 peer-reviewed articles and an additional 33 studies covering the topic for these contexts. The review found that big data and analytics…
Rewa, Oleksa G; Villeneuve, Pierre-Marc; Lachance, Philippe; Eurich, Dean T; Stelfox, Henry T; Gibney, R T Noel; Hartling, Lisa; Featherstone, Robin; Bagshaw, Sean M
Renal replacement therapy is increasingly utilized in the intensive care unit (ICU), of which continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is most common. Despite CRRT being a relatively invasive and resource intensive technology, there remains wide practice variation in its application. This systematic review appraised the evidence for quality indicators (QIs) of CRRT care in critically ill patients. A comprehensive search strategy was developed and performed in five citation databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PubMed) and select grey literature sources. Two reviewers independently screened, selected, and extracted data using standardized forms. Each retrieved citation was appraised for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were summarized narratively. Our search yielded 8374 citations, of which 133 fulfilled eligibility. This included 97 cohort studies, 24 randomized controlled trials, 10 case-control studies, and 2 retrospective medical audits. The quality of retrieved studies was generally good. In total, 18 QIs were identified that were mentioned in 238 instances. Identified QIs were classified as related to structure (n = 4, 22.2 %), care processes (n = 9, 50.0 %), and outcomes (n = 5, 27.8 %). The most commonly mentioned QIs focused on filter lifespan (n = 98), small solute clearance (n = 46), bleeding (n = 30), delivered dose (n = 19), and treatment interruption (n = 5). Across studies, the definitions used for QIs evaluating similar constructs varied considerably. When identified, QIs were most commonly described as important (n = 144, 48.3 %), scientifically acceptable (n = 32, 10.7 %), and useable and/or feasible (n = 17, 5.7 %) by their primary study authors. We identified numerous potential QIs of CRRT care, characterized by heterogeneous definitions, varying quality of derivation, and limited evaluation. Further study is needed to prioritize a concise
Hollywell, Claire; Walker, Jan
This critical review seeks to identify if there is evidence that private (personal) prayer is capable of improving wellbeing for adult patients in hospital. The review was conducted in the belief that the spiritual needs of hospitalised patients may be enhanced by encouragement and support to engage in prayer. Systematic review. A systematic approach was used to gather evidence from published studies. In the absence of experimental research involving this type of population, evidence from qualitative and correlational studies was critically reviewed. Results. The findings indicate that private prayer, when measured by frequency, is usually associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety. Most of the studies that show positive associations between prayer and wellbeing were located in areas that have strong Christian traditions and samples reported a relatively high level of religiosity, church attendance and use of prayer. Church attenders, older people, women, those who are poor, less well educated and have chronic health problems appear to make more frequent use of prayer. Prayer appears to be a coping action that mediates between religious faith and wellbeing and can take different forms. Devotional prayers involving an intimate dialogue with a supportive God appear to be associated with improved optimism, wellbeing and function. In contrast, prayers that involve pleas for help may, in the absence of a pre-existing faith, be associated with increased distress and possibly poorer function. Future research needs to differentiate the effects of different types of prayer. Encouragement to engage in prayer should be offered only following assessment of the patient's faith and likely content and form of prayer to be used. Hospitalised patients who lack faith and whose prayers involve desperate pleas for help are likely to need additional support from competent nursing and chaplaincy staff.
Asim M. Makhdom
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature with regards to surgical treatment of patients with hip joint osteochondromas, and to report our surgical management of three paediatric patients who had femoral neck or acetabular osteochondromas in association with acetabular dysplasia. We performed a systematic review using PubMed and Embase databases for all studies that reported surgical treatments for patients with peritrochanteric or acetabular osteochondroma with or without acetabular dysplasia. We also retrospectively reviewed three patients who were diagnosed with a hip osteochondroma in association with actetabular dysplasia. These patients were known to have hereditary multiple exostoses (HME. The systematic review revealed 21 studies that met our inclusion criteria. All studies were case reports and retrospective in nature and failed to conclude a uniform treatment plan. The three reported cases illustrate successful excision of hip osteochondromas and treatment of acetabular dysplasia. Early excision of hip osteochondromas might prevent acetabular dysplasia in HME patients. Routine radiographic pelvic survey at the time of diagnosis of HME is recommended for early detection of hip osteochondromas and acetabular dysplasia in these children.
Full Text Available Rough set theory has been used extensively in fields of complexity, cognitive sciences, and artificial intelligence, especially in numerous fields such as expert systems, knowledge discovery, information system, inductive reasoning, intelligent systems, data mining, pattern recognition, decision-making, and machine learning. Rough sets models, which have been recently proposed, are developed applying the different fuzzy generalisations. Currently, there is not a systematic literature review and classification of these new generalisations about rough set models. Therefore, in this review study, the attempt is made to provide a comprehensive systematic review of methodologies and applications of recent generalisations discussed in the area of fuzzy-rough set theory. On this subject, the Web of Science database has been chosen to select the relevant papers. Accordingly, the systematic and meta-analysis approach, which is called “PRISMA,” has been proposed and the selected articles were classified based on the author and year of publication, author nationalities, application field, type of study, study category, study contribution, and journal in which the articles have appeared. Based on the results of this review, we found that there are many challenging issues related to the different application area of fuzzy-rough set theory which can motivate future research studies.
Calderón Espinosa, Emmanuel; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline; García Bello, Luis
The search for efficient answers to strengthen maternal health care has included various sources of evidence for decision making. In this article, we present a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on the use of tacit knowledge in relation to maternal healthcare. A systematic mapping was conducted of scientific articles published in Spanish and English between 1971 and 2014 following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Of 793 articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria; 60% were from high-income countries and 66.7% were focused on health professionals. We identified a predominance of qualitative methodologies (62%). Four categories regarding the use of tacit knowledge were generated: proposals to improve the organization of the maternal care system (30%) and to improve the care provided to women during the continuum of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (26.7%), determination of health workers' perception and skill levels (26.7%) and the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge in clinical decision making (16.7%). This mapping shows that tacit knowledge is an emerging, innovative and versatile research approach used primarily in high-income countries and that includes interesting possibilities for its use as evidence to improve maternal healthcare, particularly in middle- and low-income countries, where it needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Sherr, Lorraine
The number of children losing one or both parents to HIV/AIDS has continued to rise in the past decade, with most of them being school-aged children. This study reviews global literature on the effects of HIV/AIDS (e.g., parental HIV-related illness or death) on children's schooling. Systematic review procedures generated 23 studies for examination. Existing studies show educational disadvantages among children affected by AIDS in various educational outcomes, including school enrollment and attendance, school behavior and performance, school completion, and educational attainment. A number of individual and contextual factors potentially moderate or mediate the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's education. These factors include gender of child, pattern of parental loss (maternal vs. paternal vs. dual), living arrangement (relationship with caregivers, gender of the household head), and household poverty. Current literature indicates limitations in number and scope of existing studies and in educational outcome measurements. There is a lack of studies with longitudinal design and data collection from multiple sources (e.g., students, teachers, caregivers), and a lack of studies on the relationship between psychosocial well-being of children affected by AIDS and their educational outcomes. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate both individual and contextual factors for children affected by AIDS in various regions. More efforts are needed to design and implement culturally appropriate and context-specific approaches to improve the educational outcomes of children affected by AIDS.
Smalheiser, Neil R; Lin, Can; Jia, Lifeng; Jiang, Yu; Cohen, Aaron M; Yu, Clement; Davis, John M; Adams, Clive E; McDonagh, Marian S; Meng, Weiyi
Individuals and groups who write systematic reviews and meta-analyses in evidence-based medicine regularly carry out literature searches across multiple search engines linked to different bibliographic databases, and thus have an urgent need for a suitable metasearch engine to save time spent on repeated searches and to remove duplicate publications from initial consideration. Unlike general users who generally carry out searches to find a few highly relevant (or highly recent) articles, systematic reviewers seek to obtain a comprehensive set of articles on a given topic, satisfying specific criteria. This creates special requirements and challenges for metasearch engine design and implementation. We created a federated search tool that is connected to five databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Retrieved bibliographic records were shown online; optionally, results could be de-duplicated and exported in both BibTex and XML format. The query interface was extensively modified in response to feedback from users within our team. Besides a general search track and one focused on human-related articles, we also added search tracks optimized to identify case reports and systematic reviews. Although users could modify preset search options, they were rarely if ever altered in practice. Up to several thousand retrieved records could be exported within a few minutes. De-duplication of records returned from multiple databases was carried out in a prioritized fashion that favored retaining citations returned from PubMed. Systematic reviewers are used to formulating complex queries using strategies and search tags that are specific for individual databases. Metta offers a different approach that may save substantial time but which requires modification of current search strategies and better indexing of randomized controlled trial articles. We envision Metta as one piece of a multi-tool pipeline that will assist
Rodrigues, Paulo; Crokaert, Jasper; Gastmans, Chris
Although unanimity exists on using palliative sedation (PS) for controlling refractory physical suffering in end-of-life situations, using it for controlling refractory existential suffering (PS-ES) is controversial. Complicating the debate is that definitions and terminology for existential suffering are unclear, ambiguous, and imprecise, leading to a lack of consensus for clinical practice. To systematically identify, describe, analyze, and discuss ethical arguments and concepts underpinning the argument-based bioethics literature on PS-ES. We conducted a systematic search of the argument-based bioethics literature in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase ® , The Philosopher's Index, PsycINFO ® , PsycARTICLES ® , Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Pascal-Francis, and Cairn. We included articles published in peer-reviewed journals till December 31, 2016, written in English or French, which focused on ethical arguments related to PS-ES. We used Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies protocol, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, and The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven for data extraction and synthesis of themes. We identified 18 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis revealed mind-body dualism, existential suffering, refractoriness, terminal condition, and imminent death as relevant concepts in the ethical debate on PS-ES. The ethical principles of double effect, proportionality, and the four principles of biomedical ethics were used in argumentations in the PS-ES debate. There is a clear need to better define the terminology used in discussions of PS-ES and to ground ethical arguments in a more effective way. Anthropological presuppositions such as mind-body dualism underpin the debate and need to be more clearly elucidated using an interdisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holm, Jesper Grønlund; Agner, Tove; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis
Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE, registered for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria and severe allergic asthma. We present a case series of nine patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated off-label with omalizumab and a systematic review of the existing literature. Patients were selected consecutively from a tertiary dermatological referral center during a 5-year period. All patients were treated with omalizumab at a starting dose of 300 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks. Systematic literature searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify any study (case reports, case series, and controlled trials) evaluating the effect of treatment with omalizumab in AD. Based on physicians' assessment, 50% of our patients had a good or excellent response to treatment with omalizumab; a further 12.5% had a moderate response, while 37.5% experienced no response or deterioration of symptoms during treatment. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Twenty-six studies with a median of four patients each (range 1-21), comprising 174 patients, were included in the systematic review. Summed over all studies, a total of 129 patients (74.1%) experienced a beneficial effect of treatment ranging from little to complete response. Omalizumab appears to be a safe and well tolerated, however expensive, treatment with some clinical benefit in patients with severe recalcitrant AD. Recommendation for use in clinical practice awaits evidence from larger randomized controlled trials. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.
Barker, Caroline; King, Nigel; Snowden, Michael; Ousey, Karen
Pre-registration nursing students throughout the United Kingdom (UK) are required to complete a minimum number of theory hours within the course. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students are required to attend campus for approximately fifty percent of the theory hours. The remaining theory hours are often labelled as 'study time' in which students are not required to attend campus. There is a general assumption amongst many academics that all students are prepared and motivated to direct their learning and therefore use this time to study. However some students chose to work during this time and many have dependents. Considering the increasing cost of nurse education combined with the government cuts to student bursaries in England it is timely to review the literature to determine how study time is used within pre-registration nurse education. To present a critical review of the literature pertaining to study time in pre-registration nurse education. An integrative review of the literature. A search of electronic databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL); Cochrane; Medline; Science Direct; Blackwell Synergy; Electronic Journals Service (EJS); Scopus; Taylor & Francis, Eric and Routledge Wiley was undertaken. The inclusion criteria consisted of peer reviewed primary research, discussion papers, unpublished doctoral theses' and editorial papers directly related to the key words and nurse education published in English. Twelve papers were included in the review. Analysis of the papers led to the development of two themes: orientation to self-directed learning (SDL) and preparation for SDL. The literature demonstrates that pre-registration nursing students lack the necessary skills for SDL. There is a lack of research on how study time is used within pre-registration nurse education. This calls for empirical research to fully explore how nursing students and lecturers perceive study time within pre-registration nursing curricula. Crown
Catalani, Caricia; Philbrick, William; Fraser, Hamish; Mechael, , Patricia; Israelski, Dennis M.
This systematic review assesses the published literature to describe the landscape of mobile health technology (mHealth) for HIV/AIDS and the evidence supporting the use of these tools to address the HIV prevention, care, and treatment cascade. The speed of innovation, broad range of initiatives and tools, and heterogeneity in reporting have made it difficult to uncover and synthesize knowledge on how mHealth tools might be effective in addressing the HIV pandemic. To do address this gap, a team of reviewers collected literature on the use of mobile technology for HIV/AIDS among health, engineering, and social science literature databases and analyzed a final set of 62 articles. Articles were systematically coded, assessed for scientific rigor, and sorted for HIV programmatic relevance. The review revealed evidence that mHealth tools support HIV programmatic priorities, including: linkage to care, retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment. In terms of technical features, mHealth tools facilitate alerts and reminders, data collection, direct voice communication, educational messaging, information on demand, and more. Studies were mostly descriptive with a growing number of quasi-experimental and experimental designs. There was a lack of evidence around the use of mHealth tools to address the needs of key populations, including pregnant mothers, sex workers, users of injection drugs, and men who have sex with men. The science and practice of mHealth for HIV are evolving rapidly, but still in their early stages. Small-scale efforts, pilot projects, and preliminary descriptive studies are advancing and there is a promising trend toward implementing mHealth innovation that is feasible and acceptable within low-resource settings, positive program outcomes, operational improvements, and rigorous study design PMID:24133558
Cuman, Giulia; Gastmans, Chris
Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors. The search process followed PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen publications were included. The four-principle approach of medical ethics was used to organise the ethical arguments underlying this debate. The justification for allowing euthanasia in minors is buttressed mostly by the principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy. Somewhat paradoxically, both principles are also used in the literature to argue against the extension of legislation to minors. Opponents of euthanasia generally rely on the principle of non-maleficence. The present analysis reveals that the debate surrounding euthanasia in minors is at an early stage. In order to allow a more in-depth ethical discussion, we suggest enriching the four-principle approach by including a care-ethics approach. What is Known: • The Netherlands and Belgium are the only two countries in the world with euthanasia legislation making it possible for minors to receive euthanasia. • This legislation provoked great debate globally, with ethical arguments for and against this legislation. What is New: • A systematic description of the ethical concepts and arguments grounding the debate on euthanasia in minors, as reported in the argument-based ethics literature. • A need has been identified to enrich the debate with a care-ethics approach to avoid oversimplifying the ethical decision-making process.
Manfredini, Daniele; Poggio, Carlo E; Lobbezoo, Frank
To systematically review the literature on the role of bruxism as a risk factor for the different complications on dental implant-supported rehabilitations. A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's Medline Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed papers in the English literature assessing the role of bruxism, as diagnosed with any other diagnostic approach (i.e., clinical assessment, questionnaires, interviews, polysomnography, and electromyography), as a risk factor for biological (i.e., implant failure, implant mobility, and marginal bone loss) or mechanical (i.e., complications or failures of either prefabricated components or laboratory-fabricated suprastructures) complications on dental implant-supported rehabilitations. The selected articles were reviewed according to a structured summary of the articles in relation to four main issues, viz., "P" - patients/problem/population, "I" - intervention, "C" - comparison, and "O" - outcome. A total of 21 papers were included in the review and split into those assessing biological complications (n = 14) and those reporting mechanical complications (n = 7). In general, the specificity of the literature for bruxism diagnosis and for the study of the bruxism's effects on dental implants was low. From a biological viewpoint, bruxism was not related with implant failures in six papers, while results from the remaining eight studies did not allow drawing conclusions. As for mechanical complications, four of the seven studies yielded a positive relationship with bruxism. Bruxism is unlikely to be a risk factor for biological complications around dental implants, while there are some suggestions that it may be a risk factor for mechanical complications. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The application of the organophosphate larvicide temephos to water storage containers is one of the most commonly employed dengue vector control methods. This systematic literature review is to the knowledge of the authors the first that aims to assess the community-effectiveness of temephos in controlling both vectors and dengue transmission when delivered either as a single intervention or in combination with other interventions. A comprehensive literature search of 6 databases was performed (PubMed, WHOLIS, GIFT, CDSR, EMBASE, Wiley, grey literature and cross references were also screened for relevant studies. Data were extracted and methodological quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. 27 studies were included in this systematic review (11 single intervention studies and 16 combined intervention studies. All 11 single intervention studies showed consistently that using temephos led to a reduction in entomological indices. Although 11 of the 16 combined intervention studies showed that temephos application together with other chemical vector control methods also reduced entomological indices, this was either not sustained over time or-as in the five remaining studies--failed to reduce the immature stages. The community-effectiveness of temephos was found to be dependent on factors such as quality of delivery, water turnover rate, type of water, and environmental factors such as organic debris, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Timing of temephos deployment and its need for reapplication, along with behavioural factors such as the reluctance of its application to drinking water, and operational aspects such as cost, supplies, time and labour were further limitations identified in this review. In conclusion, when applied as a single intervention, temephos was found to be effective at suppressing entomological indices, however, the same effect has not been observed when temephos was applied in combination with
Hall, Amanda K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Maneeratana, Vasana; Chaney, Beth H; Bernhardt, Jay M
This article is a systematic review conducted of the research literature on digital videogames played by older adults and health outcomes associated with game play. Findings from each study meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed and summarized into emergent themes to determine the impact of digital games in promoting healthy behaviors among older adults. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted through multiple academic databases for works, published between the years 2000 and 2011, looking at digital videogame interventions with adults 65 years of age and older. Multiple combinations of search terms and Boolean operators relevant to digital videogames and older adults were queried. A criteria matrix was created to code and evaluate studies. Thirteen studies met specific criteria for inclusion and were analyzed in the final review. Significant mental, physical, and social health factors, type of digital game platform, study design, and measurements are among emergent themes summarized from the reviewed research literature. Significant mental health outcomes of digital game interventions were found in the majority of the reviewed studies, followed by physical and lastly social health outcomes in older adults. A majority of the studies revealed significant positive effects on health outcomes associated with digital videogame play among older adults. With current advancements in technology, including advanced motion sensing, digital game platforms have significant potential for positive health impact among older populations. More robust and rigorous research designs are needed to increase validity and reliability of results and establish stronger causal relationships on the health benefits of digital videogame play for older adults.
Nichola R. Naylor
Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR are needed to ascertain AMR impact, to evaluate interventions, and to allocate resources efficiently. Recent studies have estimated health, cost, and economic burden relating to AMR, with outcomes of interest ranging from drug-bug resistance impact on mortality in a hospital setting to total economic impact of AMR on the global economy. However, recent collation of this information has been largely informal, with no formal quality assessment of the current evidence base (e.g. with predefined checklists. This review therefore aims to establish what perspectives and resulting methodologies have been used in establishing the burden of AMR, whilst also ascertaining the quality of these studies. Methods The literature review will identify relevant literature using a systematic review methodology. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and EconLit will be searched utilising a predefined search string. Grey literature will be identified by searching within a predefined list of organisational websites. Independent screening of retrievals will be performed in a two-stage process (abstracts and full texts, utilising a pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted into a data extraction table and descriptive examination will be performed. Study quality will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scales and the Philips checklists where appropriate. A narrative synthesis of the results will be presented. Discussion This review will provide an overview of previous health, cost and economic definitions of burden and the resultant impact of these different definitions on the burden of AMR estimated. The review will also explore the methods that have been used to calculate this burden and discuss resulting study quality. This review can therefore act as a guide to methods for future research in this area. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016037510
Gardener, A Carole; Ewing, Gail; Kuhn, Isla; Farquhar, Morag
Understanding the breadth of patients' support needs is important for the delivery of person-centered care, particularly in progressive long-term conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing reviews identify important aspects of managing life with COPD with which patients may need support (support needs); however, none of these comprehensively outlines the full range of support needs that patients can experience. We therefore sought to systematically determine the full range of support needs for patients with COPD to inform development of an evidence-based tool to enable person-centered care. We conducted a systematic search and narrative review of the literature. Medline (Ovid), EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were systematically searched for papers which included data addressing key aspects of support need, as identified by patients with COPD. Relevant data were extracted, and a narrative analysis was conducted. Thirty-one papers were included in the review, and the following 13 domains (broad areas) of support need were identified: 1) understanding COPD, 2) managing symptoms and medication, 3) healthy lifestyle, 4) managing feelings and worries, 5) living positively with COPD, 6) thinking about the future, 7) anxiety and depression, 8) practical support, 9) finance work and housing, 10) families and close relationships, 11) social and recreational life, 12) independence, and 13) navigating services. These 13 domains of support need were mapped to three of the four overarching categories of need commonly used in relevant national strategy documents (ie, physical, psychological, and social); however, support needs related to the fourth category (spiritual) were notably absent. This review systematically identifies the comprehensive set of domains of support need for patients with COPD. The findings provide the evidence base for a tool to help patients identify and express their support needs, which underpins a proposed
Full Text Available Objectives. Existing findings on cancer patients' use of information sources were synthesized to 1 rank the most and least used information sources and the most helpful information sources and to 2 find the impact of patient demographics and situations on use of information sources. Method. . To synthesize results found across studies, a systematic review was conducted. Medline and CINAHL were searched to retrieve literature on cancer patients' information source use. The retrieved articles were carefully selected according to predetermined criteria, and several articles were eliminated in a systematic approach. Analysis. The twelve articles that met the criteria were systematically analysed by extracting data from articles and summarizing data for the purpose of synthesis to determine the meaning of findings on most used information sources, least used information sources, most helpful information sources, effect of patient characteristics on preference for an information source, and effect of patient situations on preference for an information source. Results. In descending order of use, health care professionals, medical pamphlets, and family and friends were most used information sources. Internet and support groups were least used. In descending order of helpfulness, books, health care professionals and medical pamphlets were found to be most helpful information sources. Younger patients used health care professionals and certain forms of written information sources more than older patients. Conclusion. . The systematic review shows that many areas of cancer patients' information source use have been either neglected or barely analysed. An in-depth understanding of cancer patients' use of information sources and the characteristics in information sources they consider to be helpful is important for developing successful interventions to better inform patients.
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Rainoldi, Alberto; Deregibus, Andrea
The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to identify papers dealing with risk factors associated with sleep bruxism (SB) in children. A systematic search was carried out based on the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs, SciELO. Studies investigating risk factors related to SB after multiple regression analysis and bruxism symptoms assessed with clinical diagnosis or specific questionnaires were searched. Six out of the 4546 initially identified studies were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Among the six analyzed articles, one randomized clinical trial (RCT) suggested the increase of SB in heavily exposed patients to second hand smoke (SHS) (OR=4.5, CI=2.2-9.4), two cross-sectional studies suggested neuroticism as determinant factor for the development of sleep bruxism (OR=1.9, CI=1.3-2.6), among children and three case-control studies suggested that children with sleep disturbances were more likely to have SB (OR=3.3, CI=1.6-6.6). Parafunctional behaviours (OR=2.3, CI=1.2-4.3) had a moderate association. SHS and sleep disturbances presented the strongest association with SB. The most recurrent source of bias was the lack of blinding procedures. Furthermore, the use of reliable SB diagnostic procedures should be recommended to increase the quality of future studies. The evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Deregibus, Andrea
The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to assess the relationship between risk factors and sleep bruxism (SB) in adults (age ≥18 years). A systematic search of the following databases was carried out: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs and SciELO. Nine out of the 4583 initially identified articles were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Among the nine analyzed articles, associations between SB and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR=6.6, CI=1.4-30.9) was found in one randomized clinical trial (RCT). Four cross-sectional studies suggested history of SB during childhood (OR=8.1 CI=5.4-12-2), age (OR=3.1, CI=2.3-4.1) and chronic migraine (OR=3.8, C.I=1.8-7.8) as determinant factors for the development of SB. In one case-control study, patients with genetic polymorphisms were more likely to present SB (OR=4.3, CI=1.6-11.3). Smoking (OR=2.8, CI=2.2-3.5) and alcohol intake (OR=1.9, CI=1.2-2.8) showed moderate association in two case-control studies. History of SB during childhood, gastro-esophageal reflux disease and genetic polymorphisms seem to be important risk factors associated to SB in adults. Dry mouth on awakening seems to be a protective factor. Association does not infer with causality. Even if the evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant, further studies are requested to better understand the biological mechanisms behind the described associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asl, Aminabadi Naser; Shokravi, Marzieh; Jamali, Zahra; Shirazi, Sajjad
Dental anxiety, fear and phobia have different etiology, response patterns, time courses, and intensities that justify a clear distinction between these constructs. Differentiation of dental anxiety, fear or phobia in practice is a critical prerequisite for developing and implementing effective treatment for children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether current researches in the pediatric dentistry appropriately discriminate the central construct of dental anxiety, fear and phobia. We also highlighted the specific methodological issues in the assessment of these issues in pediatric dentistry. A systematic search was conducted in Pubmed/medline and Scopus for articles which assessed dental anxiety, fear or phobia in children. 104 research papers were included in the review that had made a distinction between dental anxiety, fear and phobia and had not used them interchangeably. Only five studies used different clinical measures or cut-offs to discriminate between dental anxiety, fear and phobia. The dental literature appears unable to capture and also measure the multi-sided construct of dental anxiety, fear and phobia and, therefore, there was a tendency to use them interchangeably.
Mathis, Janelle B.
International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…
Bennett, Hunter; Davison, Kade; Arnold, John; Slattery, Flynn; Martin, Max; Norton, Kevin
Multicomponent movement assessment tools have become commonplace to measure movement quality, proposing to indicate injury risk and performance capabilities. Despite popular use, there has been no attempt to compare the components of each tool reported in the literature, the processes in which they were developed, or the underpinning rationale for their included content. As such, the objective of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive summary of current movement assessment tools and appraise the evidence supporting their development. A systematic literature search was performed using PRISMA guidelines to identify multicomponent movement assessment tools. Commonalities between tools and the evidence provided to support the content of each tool was identified. Each tool underwent critical appraisal to identify the rigor in which it was developed, and its applicability to professional practice. Eleven tools were identified, of which 5 provided evidence to support their content as assessments of movement quality. One assessment tool (Soccer Injury Movement Screen [SIMS]) received an overall score of above 65% on critical appraisal, with a further 2 tools (Movement Competency Screen [MCS] and modified 4 movement screen [M4-MS]) scoring above 60%. Only the MCS provided clear justification for its developmental process. The remaining 8 tools scored between 40 and 60%. On appraisal, the MCS, M4-MS, and SIMS seem to provide the most practical value for assessing movement quality as they provide the strongest reports of developmental rigor and an identifiable evidence base. In addition, considering the evidence provided, these tools may have the strongest potential for identifying performance capabilities and guiding exercise prescription in athletic and sport-specific populations.
Le Floch, B; Bastiaens, H; Le Reste, J Y; Lingner, H; Hoffman, R D; Czachowski, S; Assenova, R; Koskela, T H; Klemenc-Ketis, Z; Nabbe, P; Sowinska, A; Montier, T; Peremans, L
Looking at what makes General Practitioners (GPs) happy in their profession, may be important in increasing the GP workforce in the future. The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) created a research team (eight national groups) in order to clarify the factors involved in GP job satisfaction throughout Europe. The first step of this study was a literature review to explore how the satisfaction of GPs had been studied before. The research question was "Which factors are related to GP satisfaction in Clinical Practice?" Systematic literature review according to the PRISMA statement. The databases searched were Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane. All articles were identified, screened and included by two separate research teams, according to inclusion or exclusion criteria. Then, a qualitative appraisal was undertaken. Next, a thematic analysis process was undertaken to capture any issue relevant to the research question. The number of records screened was 458. One hundred four were eligible. Finally, 17 articles were included. The data revealed 13 subthemes, which were grouped into three major themes for GP satisfaction. First there were general profession-related themes, applicable to many professions. A second group of issues related specifically to a GP setting. Finally, a third group was related to professional life and personal issues. A number of factors leading to GP job satisfaction, exist in literature They should be used by policy makers within Europe to increase the GP workforce. The research team needs to undertake qualitative studies to confirm or enhance those results.
Simiola, Vanessa; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Thompson, Richard; Cook, Joan M
The prevalence of trauma histories and related psychological problems is high in general clinical settings, but little is known about trauma patient preferences for mental health treatment. The purpose of this article is to systematically review and synthesize the literature on treatment preferences in survivors of traumatic events. Studies were identified using comprehensive searches of PsycINFO, Medline, PubMed, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. Included in the review were articles published between January 1980 and September 2014, in English that reported patient preference of treatment for trauma related disorders in either clinical or nonclinical (e.g., analog) samples. The total number of individual participants was 6,091. Of the identified studies, 35 were quantitative and 6 were qualitative. Methodological concerns included the use of analog samples, small sample sizes, and the assessment of a limited number of treatment options (e.g., asking about only 1 type of psychotherapy or medication). Overall, participants expressed a preference for psychotherapy over medication and for talking about their trauma. Understanding and addressing trauma patient preferences may assist in improving treatment initiation as well as facilitate engagement, retention and outcome. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana
The most recent scientific literature indicates that alcohol advertising influences behavior, particularly early and higher alcohol consumption by children and adolescents. From a public health perspective, alcohol advertising should be restricted. In many countries, as well as in Brazil, limits to alcohol advertising are established by industry self-regulation (e.g. controlled by the advertising community itself). We examined in this review all articles on the subject of industry self-regulation of alcohol advertising published in the international literature. A systematic literature review was conducted on articles investigating the effectiveness of self-regulation of alcohol advertisings. The search was conducted in Medline, SciELO, Camy and Google Scholar, between the years of 1991 and 2010. In addition, the "snowball" technique for the indication of the main authors on the subject was employed. From the articles found, 11 focused on the subject discussed here. The set of articles obtained indicates that industry self-regulation of alcohol advertising does not show evidence of efficacy. In other words, such a regulation does not prevent, for instance, alcohol advertising directed at children and adolescents. Further measures should be considered for the control and the broadcast of alcohol advertising, such as independent monitoring, legal control.
Humphries, Aimee; Stone, Peter; Mirjalili, S Ali
Recent literature has reported an association between maternal supine sleep position and stillbirth during late pregnancy. In this position the gravid uterus almost completely obstructs the inferior vena cava. A small number of women experience supine hypotension, thought to be due in part to inadequate collateral venous circulation. The aim of this paper is to review the literature describing the anatomy of the collateral venous system and in particular the azygos system, the abdominal portion of which has not been well studied. A systematic review was conducted using the electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Relevant anatomical and radiological literature concerning the azygos system in particular was reviewed. The search was limited to adult human studies only. The collateral venous system can be divided into superficial, intermediate and deep systems. The azygos system in particular provides immediate collateral venous circulation in the event of acute inferior vena caval obstruction. The abdominal portion of this pathway, including the ascending lumbar vein, has not been well studied and there are certain variations that can render it ineffective. In conclusion, the collateral venous system provides an alternative route for blood to flow back to the systemic circulation when acute occlusion of the inferior vena cava occurs in the supine position during late pregnancy. However, certain anatomical variations can render this pathway ineffective, and this could have implications for the development of supine hypotension and stillbirth in late pregnancy. Clin. Anat. 30:1087-1095, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials.
Curry, Leslie; Taylor, Lauren; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Cherlin, Emily; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations.
Huang, Gregory S; Dunham, C Michael
The value of prehospital red blood cell (RBC) transfusion for trauma patients is controversial. The purposes of this literature review were to determine the mortality rate of trauma patients with hemodynamic instability and the benefit of prehospital RBC transfusion. A 30-year systematic literature review was performed in 2016. Eligible studies were combined for meta-analysis when tests for heterogeneity were insignificant. The synthesized mortality was 35.6% for systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg; 51.1% for ≤ 80 mmHg; and 63.9% for ≤ 70 mmHg. For patients with either hypotension or emergency trauma center transfused RBCs, the synthesized Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 27.0 and mortality was 36.2%; the ISS and mortality correlation was r = 0.766 ( P = 0.0096). For civilian patients receiving prehospital RBC transfusions, the synthesized ISS was 27.5 and mortality was 39.5%. One civilian study suggested a decrement in mortality with prehospital RBC transfusion; however, patient recruitment was only one per center per year and mortality was 16 showed similar mortality with and without prehospital RBC availability (27.6% versus 32.0%; P = 0.343). Trauma patient mortality increases with the magnitude of hemodynamic instability and anatomic injury. Some literature evidence indicates no survival advantage with prehospital RBC availability. However, other data suggesting a potential benefit is confounded or likely to be biased.
Cachat, Francois; Combescure, Christophe; Cauderay, Michel; Girardin, Eric; Chehade, Hassib
Evaluation of glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) is difficult; the variable reported definitions impede comparisons between studies. A clear and universal definition of GH would help in comparing results of trials aimed at reducing GH. This study assessed how GH is measured and defined in the literature. Three databases (Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL) were systematically searched using the terms "hyperfiltration" or "glomerular hyperfiltration". All studies reporting a GH threshold or studying the effect of a high GFR in a continuous manner against another outcome of interest were included. The literature search was performed from November 2012 to February 2013 and updated in August 2014. From 2013 retrieved studies, 405 studies were included. Threshold use to define GH was reported in 55.6% of studies. Of these, 88.4% used a single threshold and 11.6% used numerous thresholds adapted to participant sex or age. In 29.8% of the studies, the choice of a GH threshold was not based on a control group or literature references. After 2004, the use of GH threshold use increased (Psex-matched control group should be used to define a GH threshold. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the range of research paradigms employed in a smaller subset of Information Systems (IS literature, namely Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems. A systematic literature review based on papers that mentioned ERPs was drawn from eight of the most highly ranked journals according to their h-index. The findings indicate that the majority (96.6% of the ERP research papers were conducted within a positivist research paradigm, which is a far higher proportion than is suggested by other research in the general IS literature (approximately 81%. This paper suggests that there is a strong case for ERP researchers to look at existing paradigm selection and how effectively their research relates to the ERP body of knowledge, especially in respect to the issues of importance to managers within organizations (notably social and change management issues. This research also identified areas where existing paradigm evaluation methods could be enhanced and refined in respect to non-positivist classifications.
Kawashima, N.; Katori, M.; Tsallis, C.; Suzuki, M.
A general procedure to study critical phenomena of magnetic systems is discussed. It consists of systematic series of Landau-like approximations (Extended Variational Method) and the coherent-anomaly method (CAM). As for susceptibility, the present method is equivalent to the power-series CAM theory. On the other hand, the EVM gives a set of new approximants for other physical quantities. Applications to d-dimensional Ising ferromagnets are also described. The critical points and exponents are estimated with high accuracy. (author) [pt
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving a...
Manfredini, Daniele; Winocur, Ephraim; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Paesani, Daniel; Lobbezoo, Frank
To perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the prevalence of bruxism in adult populations. A systematic search of the medical literature was performed to identify all peer-reviewed English-language papers dealing with the prevalence assessment of either awake or sleep bruxism at the general population level by the adoption of questionnaires, clinical assessments, and polysomnographic (PSG) or electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Quality assessment of the reviewed papers was performed according to the Methodological evaluation of Observational REsearch (MORE) checklist, which enables the identification of flaws in the external and internal validity. Cut-off criteria for an acceptable external validity were established to select studies for the discussion of prevalence data. For each included study, the sample features, diagnostic strategy, and prevalence of bruxism in relation to age, sex, and circadian rhythm, if available, were recorded. Thirty-five publications were included in the review. Several methodological problems limited the external validity of findings in most studies, and prevalence data extraction was performed only on seven papers. Of those, only one paper had a flaw less external validity, whilst internal validity was low in all the selected papers due to their self-reported bruxism diagnosis alone, mainly based on only one or two questionnaire items. No epidemiologic data were available from studies adopting other diagnostic strategies (eg, PSG, EMG). Generically identified "bruxism" was assessed in two studies reporting an 8% to 31.4% prevalence, awake bruxism was investigated in two studies describing a 22.1% to 31% prevalence, and prevalence of sleep bruxism was found to be more consistent across the three studies investigating the report of "frequent" bruxism (12.8% ± 3.1%). Bruxism activities were found to be unrelated to sex, and a decrease with age was described in elderly people. The present systematic review described
Full Text Available Research on China’s role in the globalization of economic activity focuses mainly on its involvement in trade and on its competitiveness as a manufacturing location for foreign investors. However, since the mid-1990s China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI has become an important part of its integration into the global economy. This dimension is poorly understood, and few empirical studies about the drivers behind Chinese OFDI have been published thus far. After reviewing critically the empirical literature, which provides ambiguous results about the explanatory power of some of the large list of determinants put forward, we aim to provide a more accurate description of the motives behind Chinese OFDI. Using a panel data approach for the period 1995 to 2009 and for a large host country sample, we identify some key drivers. We find that host market size, natural resources and FDI openness are of paramount relevance. However, the asset seeking hypothesis is not confirmed.
Morrow, Kelly J
The Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report advises nursing education programs to integrate and embed leadership content within all areas of prelicensure nursing curriculum. This critical literature review synthesizes the state of the science of leadership curricula in prelicensure baccalaureate nursing education programs from 2008 to 2013. Gaps are identified and discussed. The Academic Search Premier and Health Source databases were searched, using the keywords baccalaureate nursing education and leadership. The CINAHL database was searched, using the keywords leadership, education, nursing, and baccalaureate. The 13 peer-reviewed articles identified for inclusion comprised descriptive articles (n = 8), mixed-methods studies (n = 2), quantitative studies (n = 2), and a qualitative study (n = 1). The underlying theme identified is the study and use of active learning strategies. Subthemes within this context were the use of reflection, peer learning, interdisciplinary teams, organizational partnerships, and curricular reform. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
This article presents a modular activity on the neurobiology of sign language that engages undergraduate students in reading and analyzing the primary functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature. Drawing on a seed empirical article and subsequently published critique and rebuttal, students are introduced to a scientific debate concerning the functional significance of right-hemisphere recruitment observed in some fMRI studies of sign language processing. The activity requires minimal background knowledge and is not designed to provide students with a specific conclusion regarding the debate. Instead, the activity and set of articles allow students to consider key issues in experimental design and analysis of the primary literature, including critical thinking regarding the cognitive subtractions used in blocked-design fMRI studies, as well as possible confounds in comparing results across different experimental tasks. By presenting articles representing different perspectives, each cogently argued by leading scientists, the readings and activity also model the type of debate and dialogue critical to science, but often invisible to undergraduate science students. Student self-report data indicate that undergraduates find the readings interesting and that the activity enhances their ability to read and interpret primary fMRI articles, including evaluating research design and considering alternate explanations of study results. As a stand-alone activity completed primarily in one 60-minute class block, the activity can be easily incorporated into existing courses, providing students with an introduction both to the analysis of empirical fMRI articles and to the role of debate and critique in the field of neuroscience.
Monte, Andrew A; Chuang, Ryan; Bodmer, Michael
The aim of this review was to describe a patient with serotonin toxicity after an overdose of dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine and to perform a systematic literature review exploring whether dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine may be equally contributory in the development of serotonin toxicity in overdose. A Medline literature review was undertaken to identify cases of serotonin toxicity due to dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine. Case reports were included if they included information on the ingested dose or plasma concentrations of dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine, information about co-ingestions and detailed clinical information to evaluate for serotonin toxicity. Cases were reviewed by two toxicologists and serotonin toxicity, defined by the Hunter criteria, was diagnosed when appropriate. The literature was then reviewed to evaluate whether chlorphenamine may be a serotonergic agent. One hundred and fifty-five articles of dextromethorphan or chlorphenamine poisoning were identified. There were 23 case reports of dextromethorphan, of which 18 were excluded for lack of serotonin toxicity. No cases were identified in which serotonin toxicity could be solely attributed to chlorphenamine. This left six cases of dextrometorphane and/or chlorphenamine overdose, including our own, in which serotonin toxicity could be diagnosed based on the presented clinical information. In three of the six eligible cases dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine were the only overdosed drugs. There is substantial evidence from the literature that chlorphenamine is a similarly potent serotonin re-uptake inhibitor when compared with dextrometorphan. Chlorphenamine is a serotonergic medication and combinations of chlorphenamine and dextromethorphan may be dangerous in overdose due to an increased risk of serotonin toxicity. PMID:21175434
Garralda, Eduardo; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Carrasco, José Miguel; Van Beek, Karen; Siouta, Naouma; Csikos, Agnes; Menten, Johan; Centeno, Carlos
Integrated palliative care (IPC) involves bringing together administrative, organisational, clinical and service aspects in order to achieve continuity of care between all actors involved in the care network of patients receiving palliative care (PC) services. The purpose of this study is to identify literature on IPC in the Spanish context, either in cancer or other advanced chronic diseases. Systematic review of the literature about IPC published in Spain between 1995 and 2013. Sources searched included PubMed, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, the national palliative care Journal (Medicina Paliativa), and Google. Evidence on IPC in care models, pathways, guidelines and other relevant documents were searched. Additionally, data were included from expert sources. Elements of IPC were considered based on the definition of IPC and the Emmanuel´s IPC tool. The main inclusion criterion was a comprehensive description of PC integration. Out of a total of 2,416 titles screened, 49 were included. We found two models describing IPC interventions achieving continuity and appropriateness of care as a result, 12 guidelines or pathways (most of them with a general approach including cancer and non-cancer and showing a theoretical IPC inclusion as measured by Emmanuel's tool) and 35 other significant documents as for their context relevance (17 health strategy documents, 14 analytical studies and 4 descriptive documents). These last documents comprised respectively: regional and national plans with an IPC inclusion evidence, studies focused on IPC into primary care and resource utilisation; and descriptions of fruitful collaboration programmes between PC teams and oncology departments. The results show that explications of IPC in the Spanish literature exist, but that there is insufficient evidence of its impact in clinical practice. This review may be of interest for Spanish-speaking countries and for others seeking to know the status of IPC in the literature in their home nations.
O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M
This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad
This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.
Fithriyah Inda Nur Abida
Full Text Available Teaching a language has become a challenging task for the teachers to train and to teach language for their students. In present time, the ability to master a language is vital for a language is a powerful means of communicating. Most of us will not focus on the language present in the literature part because our mind sets only towards the grammar. This has made both the teacher and students to ignore the literature part and made them to focus only on grammatical part to learn language. The urge behind using literary works in the teaching a language is to argue that the current attempts to implant literary works to the teaching of a language definitely develop students’ critical thinking in such a way that help them to easily master a particular language. Learning literary works in a classroom not only make the students learn about a story but also study how the language are structured and how its structured bring a great difference in meaning. Through a literary works student sees the language of real-life contexts. They learn the feelings, ideas, and experiences of linguistics components that give a realistic touch and help them to learn a language in a comprehensive way. It is also found that using literary works in the teaching learning process can improve student’s ability both in micro-linguistics and macro-linguistics.
Harrand, Jenny; Bannigan, Katrina
A wheelchair can enhance the quality of life of an individual with limited mobility, poor trunk control and stability, by enabling activity and participation and so occupational engagement. High specification wheelchairs which can tilt-in-space enable the position of users to be altered to suit activity and context. Despite tilt-in-space wheelchairs being expensive little is known about their therapeutic value. A critical literature review of the evidence was undertaken to evaluate whether the use of tilt-in-space increases occupational engagement. A wide ranging search strategy identified 170 articles which were screened using inclusion criteria. The eligible literature (n = 6) was analysed thematically using open coding. The majority of the participants used tilt-in-space but the data was too heterogeneous to combine. Measures of occupational engagement were not used so the therapeutic value could not be assessed. There is a lack of high quality evidence about the therapeutic benefits of tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Given the expense associated with providing these wheelchairs, and the increase in their provision, research is needed to justify provision of high specification wheelchairs to meet the occupational needs of users within the limited resources of health and social care. Implications for Rehabilitation Tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Wheelchairs are an important and essential assistive device for promoting independence and function. Suggests there are benefits for tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Identifies the need for additional large scale research.
Mundt, Kenneth A; Birk, Thomas; Burch, Margaret T
Of an estimated 500,000 workers in the USA potentially exposed to perchloroethylene (PCE), the largest share is employed in the dry-cleaning industry. PCE, a non-flammable solvent, has commercial applications as a chemical intermediate, metal degreaser and, since the 1950s, primary solvent in the dry-cleaning industry. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) currently finds sufficient evidence to designate PCE as carcinogenic in animals, with limited evidence in humans. With regard to occupational exposure through dry-cleaning, PCE is considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. This review was conducted to assess the current epidemiological literature on PCE and specific cancers. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all available epidemiological literature pertaining to the carcinogenic effects of PCE. Forty-four papers that provided reasonable data on up to 17 cancer sites were critically reviewed in the context of the available background literature for each cancer site and were assessed on the basis of specified methodological and scientific quality criteria. While all the epidemiological studies selected for review investigated similar exposure-health outcome relationships, there was a broad diversity of proxy measurements of exposure to PCE, as well as numerous specific cancer outcomes of interest. The widespread lack of valid exposure measurements or other adequate indicators of potential for exposure were consistent limitations. We found no evidence of an association between breast, prostate, skin or brain cancer and exposure to PCE. A relationship between PCE and cancer of the following sites was considered unlikely: oral cavity, liver, pancreas, cervix lung. Scientific evidence was inadequate for laryngeal, kidney, esophageal and bladder cancers. The current epidemiological evidence does not support a conclusion that occupational exposure to PCE is a risk factor for cancer of any specific site. Priority areas in which
Full Text Available Abstract Background An ageing population is seen as a threat to the quality of life and health in rural communities, and it is often assumed that e-Health services can address this issue. As successful e-Health implementation in organizations has proven difficult, this systematic literature review considers whether this is so for rural communities. This review identifies the critical implementation factors and, following the change model of Pettigrew and Whipp, classifies them in terms of “context”, “process”, and “content”. Through this lens, we analyze the empirical findings found in the literature to address the question: How do context, process, and content factors of e-Health implementation influence its adoption in rural communities? Methods We conducted a systematic literature review. This review included papers that met six inclusion and exclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological quality. Findings were categorized in a classification matrix to identify promoting and restraining implementation factors and to explore whether any interactions between context, process, and content affect adoption. Results Of the 5,896 abstracts initially identified, only 51 papers met all our criteria and were included in the review. We distinguished five different perspectives on rural e-Health implementation in these papers. Further, we list the context, process, and content implementation factors found to either promote or restrain rural e-Health adoption. Many implementation factors appear repeatedly, but there are also some contradictory results. Based on a further analysis of the papers’ findings, we argue that interaction effects between context, process, and content elements of change may explain these contradictory results. More specifically, three themes that appear crucial in e-Health implementation in rural communities surfaced: the dual effects of geographical isolation, the targeting of underprivileged groups, and the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Athletes competing in sports that require running, changes in direction, repetitive kicking and physical contact are at a relatively higher risk of experiencing episodes of athletic groin pain. To date, there has been no systematic review that aims to inform clinicians about the best available evidence on features of exercise interventions for groin pain in athletes. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence on the effectiveness of exercise therapy for groin pain in athletes. The secondary aim of this review was to identify the key features of exercise interventions used in the management of groin pain in an athletic population. Methods MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, SPORTSDiscus, Embase, AMED, Ovid, PEDro, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and Google Scholar databases were electronically searched. Data relating to research design, sample population, type of sport and exercise intervention was extracted. The methodological evaluation of included studies was conducted by using a modified quantitative critical appraisal tool. Results The search strategy identified 468 studies, 12 of which were potentially relevant. Ultimately five studies were included in this review. Overall the quality of primary research literature was moderate, with only one randomised controlled trial identified. All included studies provided evidence that an exercise intervention may lead to favourable outcomes in terms of return to sport. Four of the five studies reviewed included a strengthening component and most utilised functional, standing positions similar to those required by their sport. No study appropriately reported the intensity of their exercise interventions. Duration of intervention ranged from 3.8 weeks to 16 weeks. All five studies reported the use of one or more co-intervention. Conclusion Best available evidence to date, with its limitations, continues to support common clinical practice of exercise
Ambe, Peter C; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Papadakis, Marios; Weber, Sebastian A; Zirngibl, Hubert
Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have been managed via percutaneous cholecystostomy. However, the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of such patients has not been clearly established. This systematic review will compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy. Systematic searches will be conducted across relevant health databases including the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus using the following keywords: (acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis) AND (cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy) AND (Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube). The reference lists of eligible articles will be hand searched. Articles from 2000-2014 will be identified using the key terms "acute cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy". Studies including both interventions will be included. Relevant data will be extracted from eligible studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale will be used to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Central tendencies will be reported in terms of means and standard deviations where necessary, and risk ratios will be calculated where possible. All calculations will be performed with a 95 % confidence interval. Furthermore, the Fisher's exact test will be used for the calculation of significance, which will be set at p < 0.05. Pooled estimates will be presented after consideration of both clinical and
The conventional belief that copper is thermodynamically stable in oxygen-free water has been questioned by a research group from the Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm lead by Dr. Gunnar Hultquist. A critical review of the literature both in support of the proposed mechanism and that which argues against it has been conducted. The critical review has been supported by supplementary analyses, with particular focus on the scientific validity of the reported observations and their significance for the corrosion of a copper canister. It is found that: - the scientific evidence in support of the suggestion that water oxidises copper is not conclusive and there are many aspects which are unclear and contradictory, - despite a number of attempts, no other researchers have been able to reproduce the observations of Hultquist and co-workers, - even if correct, the mechanism is not important for copper canisters in a repository, both because of differences in the environmental conditions and because, even if corrosion did occur by this mechanism, it would quickly stop, and - there is no adverse impact on the lifetime of copper canisters due to this proposed, but unproven, mechanism
Nadia Dedy, Aimie; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Chin, Thoo Ai; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad
TQM is a management philosophy embracing all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer and the community and the goals of the companies are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by maximizing the potential of all workers in a continuing drive for total quality improvement. TQM is very important to the company especially in automotive industry in order for them to survive in the competitive global market. The main objective of this study is to review a relationship between TQM and employee performance. Authors review updated literature on TQM study with two main targets: (a) evolution of TQM considering as a set of practice, (b) and its impacts to employee performance. Therefore, two research questions are proposed in order to review TQM constructs and employee performance measure: (a) Is the set of critical success factors associated with TQM valid as a whole? (b) What is the critical success factors should be considered to measure employee performance in automotive industry?
King, Fraser (Integrity Corrosion Consulting Limited (Canada))
The conventional belief that copper is thermodynamically stable in oxygen-free water has been questioned by a research group from the Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm lead by Dr. Gunnar Hultquist. A critical review of the literature both in support of the proposed mechanism and that which argues against it has been conducted. The critical review has been supported by supplementary analyses, with particular focus on the scientific validity of the reported observations and their significance for the corrosion of a copper canister. It is found that: - the scientific evidence in support of the suggestion that water oxidises copper is not conclusive and there are many aspects which are unclear and contradictory, - despite a number of attempts, no other researchers have been able to reproduce the observations of Hultquist and co-workers, - even if correct, the mechanism is not important for copper canisters in a repository, both because of differences in the environmental conditions and because, even if corrosion did occur by this mechanism, it would quickly stop, and - there is no adverse impact on the lifetime of copper canisters due to this proposed, but unproven, mechanism
Powell, J A; Lowe, P; Griffiths, F E; Thorogood, M
A critical review of the published literature investigating the Internet and consumer health information was undertaken in order to inform further research and policy. A qualitative, narrative method was used, consisting of a three-stage process of identification and collation, thematic coding, and critical analysis. This analysis identified five main themes in the research in this area: (1) the quality of online health information for consumers; (2) consumer use of the Internet for health information; (3) the effect of e-health on the practitioner-patient relationship; (4) virtual communities and online social support and (5) the electronic delivery of information-based interventions. Analysis of these themes revealed more about the concerns of health professionals than about the effect of the Internet on users. Much of the existing work has concentrated on quantifying characteristics of the Internet: for example, measuring the quality of online information, or describing the numbers of users in different health-care settings. There is a lack of qualitative research that explores how citizens are actually using the Internet for health care.
Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT is a rare tumour affecting the tracheo-bronchial tree in the adult population. The clinical presentation of this tumour is diverse and diagnosis can be definitively clinched by histopathological examination. Treatment of this tumour usually requires surgical resection with bronchoscopic resection being described in few cases. We describe a 32 year old male presenting with hemoptysis who was diagnosed to have IMT. Resection of the tumour was done with the help of rigid bronchoscopy. Post-resection, hemoptysis stopped and no recurrence of tumour was noted on subsequent follow-up. We also present a systematic review of literature of all the cases of tracheo-bronchial IMT treated with bronchoscopic resection and conclude it to be a useful alternative to surgery in such cases.
Leonardo dos Santos Lourenço Bastos
Full Text Available Abstract Among all existing inventory replenishment models, this research was dedicated to the Joint Replenishment Problem (JRP, which consists in the replenishment of multiple items simultaneously, aiming total cost reduction. Literature has presented several optimal and approximated solutions to this problem, with different applications and techniques, which results in a large quantity of solution proposals. Therefore, this research aimed to map existing solutions to the problem in 2006-2015 in order to provide a guide for interested parts in JRP and to update previous reviews. Hence, systematic review was used to assess papers from that period interval. From a total of 128 papers, a general trend for seeking JRP extensions and practical applications was verified. Furthermore, the heuristic and metaheuristic methods were the most used and considered the most suitable due to their simplicity in understanding and application.
Sepúlveda Estay, Daniel Alberto; Khan, Omera
The increased dependence of supply chains on information technology has exacerbated the impact of cyber risks (Dedrick et al., 2008), ranging from the breach of data confidentiality, to the destruction of data and the disruption of supply operations. There is a robust body of knowledge, which has...... a systematic review of the literature (Tranfield et al., 2003). Specifically the focus is on 1) developing a definition for cyber resilience in the supply chain, and 2) suggesting a research agenda for this area....... allowed the development of models, frameworks, tools and techniques to understand and manage supply chain risk (Khan et al., 2007). However, the evaluation of cyber risks and resilience in the supply chain has been less explored. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the gap in theory through...
Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte
Background: Young patients with Functional Somatic Symptoms (FSS) are common and may present in all clinical settings. Clinical presentation varies from self–limiting to severe and disabling symptoms with impairment in several domains of daily life. In daily clinical practice there is no consensus...... on which treatment to offer children and adolescents with FSS. Research in adults shows that different FSS respond to the same kind of treatment, with the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy being well established. In the understanding of mental health issues in children, it is well established...... is broadly defined and encompasses a wide range of interventions. Aims: As part of a PhD study on family based treatment for children with FSS a