WorldWideScience

Sample records for system west siberian

  1. Thermal Properties of West Siberian Sediments in Application to Basin and Petroleum Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romushkevich, Raisa; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Myasnikov, Artem; Kazak, Andrey; Belenkaya, Irina; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya

    2016-04-01

    Quality of heat flow and rock thermal property data is the crucial question in basin and petroleum system modeling. A number of significant deviations in thermal conductivity values were observed during our integral geothermal study of West Siberian platform reporting that the corrections should be carried out in basin models. The experimental data including thermal anisotropy and heterogeneity measurements were obtained along of more than 15 000 core samples and about 4 500 core plugs. The measurements were performed in 1993-2015 with the optical scanning technique within the Continental Super-Deep Drilling Program (Russia) for scientific super-deep well Tyumenskaya SG-6, parametric super-deep well Yen-Yakhinskaya, and deep well Yarudeyskaya-38 as well as for 13 oil and gas fields in the West Siberia. Variations of the thermal conductivity tensor components in parallel and perpendicular direction to the layer stratification (assessed for 2D anisotropy model of the rock studied), volumetric heat capacity and thermal anisotropy coefficient values and average values of the thermal properties were the subject of statistical analysis for the uppermost deposits aged by: T3-J2 (200-165 Ma); J2-J3 (165-150 Ma); J3 (150-145 Ma); K1 (145-136 Ma); K1 (136-125 Ma); K1-K2 (125-94 Ma); K2-Pg+Ng+Q (94-0 Ma). Uncertainties caused by deviations of thermal conductivity data from its average values were found to be as high as 45 % leading to unexpected errors in the basin heat flow determinations. Also, the essential spatial-temporal variations in the thermal rock properties in the study area is proposed to be taken into account in thermo-hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon recovery with thermal methods. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  2. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  3. Carboxylic acids from West Siberian crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhil' tsov, N.I.; Ershov, V.A.; Zakharova, T.F.

    1982-09-01

    The concentrates of acidic compounds were recovered from the raw crudes by extraction with a 2% solution of potassium hydroxide in 50% ethanol; the concentrates were then treated to remove neutral substances present as impurities and were separated into phenols and carboxylic acids by means of silica gel modified with caustic. The methyl and trimethylsilyl (TMS) esters of the carboxylic acids were analyzed by chromatography/mass spectrometry. It is assumed that in the West Siberian fields, along with catagenic processes, microbiological degradation processes are taking place. After a sample of Fedorovsk crude had been exposed to the bacterial action (60 days at 32/sup 0/C) of an accumulated culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria, followed by dehydration of the sample, the relative content of straight-chain fatty acids with an even number of carbon atoms had increased. There was a sharp increase in the contents of palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids, which are characteristic products of the metabolism of microorganisms.

  4. Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2003-01-01

    The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms

  5. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  6. Crustal structure of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian basin: An appraisal of existing seismic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina M.; Thybo, Hans

    2013-01-01

    We present a digital model SibCrust of the crustal structure of the Siberian craton (SC) and the West Siberian basin (WSB), based on all seismic profiles published since 1960 and sampled with a nominal interval of 50 km. Data quality is assessed and quantitatively assigned to each profile based...... on acquisition and interpretation method and completeness of crustal model. The database represents major improvement in coverage and resolution and includes depth to Moho, thickness and average P-wave velocity of five crustal layers (sediments, and upper, middle, lower, and lowermost crust) and Pn velocity...

  7. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  8. Spatial Distribution And Synoptic Conditions Of Snow Accumulation And Snow Ablation In The West Siberian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednorz Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mean duration of snow coverage in the West Siberian Plain is approximately eight months in the north to about five months in the south. While the period of intense snow melting is short (one or two months between March and May, snow accumulation persists for most of the cold season. Snow accumulation is associated with negative anomalies of sea level pressure, which means increased cyclonal activity and weaker than normal Siberian High. Much lower anomalies of sea level pressure occur during snow ablation. This suggests smaller influence of air circulation on snow cover reduction in spring.

  9. Geological Structure of the Basement of Western and Eastern Parts of the West-Siberian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kirill S.; Erokhin, Yuriy V.; Ponomarev, Vladimir S.; Pogromskaya, Olga E.; Berzin, Stepan V.

    2016-01-01

    The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP-II on zircon) was obtained for the first time from the basement of the West Siberian Plain in the Western half of the region. It is established that a large part of the protolith of the metamorphic depth in the Shaim-Kuznetsov meganticlinorium contained sedimentary late- and middle-Devonian rocks (395-358 million years).…

  10. Controls on evapotranspiration in a west Siberian bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, K.; Hiyama, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Inoue, G.

    2004-04-01

    This study analyzed controls on evapotranspiration (E) from a western Siberian bog, from a perspective that surface constraints limit the E available for atmospheric evapotranspiration demands. Ratios of E to potential evapotranspiration (EP) ranged from 0.2 to 0.9, and were clearly related to changes in surface constraints represented by the bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat CE (= βCH where β is the surface moisture availability and CH is the bulk transfer coefficient for sensible heat). Both EP and equilibrium evaporation (EEQ) showed similar seasonal trends, suggesting the importance of radiation to the seasonal variation of EP. The atmospheric drying power (Ea) was a minor factor in EP and showed less seasonal change during most of the growing season. However, the presence of a dry air mass caused by synoptic scale advection (most frequently observed in May 1999) significantly enhanced Ea; consequently, the seasonal maximum of EP occurred earlier than the seasonal maximum of EEQ. Values for CH (0.004-0.011) increased with leaf area index except Sphagnum moss (LAIg), indicating that vegetation growth contributes to changes in bog roughness through canopy height changes. The β value gradually decreased with decreases in the water table position (zwt); the open water surface area and water content of Sphagnum moss depended on zwt. Furthermore, the absence of a significant relationship between β and phenology implies that changes in evaporation contribute to variations in E more than changes in transpiration. Hence roughness change created by vegetation growth and surface wetness limit evapotranspiration to less than the potential evapotranspiration.

  11. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters.

  12. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters

  13. Composition of asphaltenes and resins of west Siberian petroleums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, I.V.; Babicheva, T.A.; Bodak, A.N.; Nemirovskaya, G.B.; Mashigorov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    ESR and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine asphaltene and resin samples of West Siberia. Experiments were carried out to simulate the effect of catagenesis on resin and asphaltene composition. Processes of thermocatalytic transformations of crude oil in the deposit were found to have no marked effect on asphaltene and resin composition. Transformation of the organic input at sedimentation was assumed to be the main factor determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of crude oil resins and asphaltenes of West Siberia. Petroleums formed from organic matter, accumulating under reducing conditions, contain more asphaltenes and resins, they include much tetravalent vanadium and the asphaltenes have abundant paramagnetic centres. Petroleums formed from oxidized organic matter contain very little asphaltene low concentrations of paramagnetic centers, and little tetravalent vanadium. Resins of these petroleums are rich in oxygen. High levels of asphalt-resin matter in petroleums is related to the presence in the initial organic progenitors of polyunsaturated fatty acids and various nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds.

  14. A high-resolution GIS-based inventory of the west Siberian peat carbon pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yongwei; Smith, Laurence C.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Kremenetski, Konstantine V.; Frey, Karen E.; Velichko, Andrei A.; Lee, Mary; Beilman, David W.; Dubinin, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The West Siberian Lowland (WSL) contains the world's most extensive peatlands and a substantial fraction of the global terrestrial carbon pool. Despite its recognition as a carbon reservoir of great significance, the extent, thickness, and carbon content of WSL peatlands have not been analyzed in detail. This paper compiles a wide array of data into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a high-resolution, spatially explicit digital inventory of all WSL peatlands and their associated physical properties. Detailed measurements for nearly 10,000 individual peatlands (patches) are based on compilation of previously unpublished Russian field and ancillary map data, satellite imagery, previously published depth measurements, and our own field depth and core measurements taken throughout the region during field campaigns in 1999, 2000, and 2001. At the patch level, carbon storage is estimated as the product of peatland area, depth, and carbon content. Estimates of peatland area are validated from RESURS-01 satellite images, and the quality of the Russian peatland depth and carbon content data is independently confirmed by laboratory analysis of core samples. Through GIS-based spatial analysis of the peat areal extent, depth, and carbon content data, we conservatively estimate the total area of WSL peatlands at 592,440 km2, the total peat mass at 147.82 Pg, and the total carbon pool at 70.21 Pg C. Our analysis concludes that WSL peatlands are more extensive and represent a substantially larger carbon pool than previously thought: Previous studies report 9,440-273,440 km2 less peatland area and 15.11-30.19 Pg less carbon than found in this analysis. The complete digital database is freely available for scientific use at http://arcss.colorado.edu/data/arcss131.html.

  15. Soils in seasonally flooded forests as methane sources: A case study of West Siberian South taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochenov, S. Yu; Churkina, A. I.; Sabrekov, S. F.; Glagolev, M. V.; Il’yasov, D. V.; Terentieva, I. E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we measured the methane and carbon dioxide fluxes by static chamber method from the soil of periodically flooded forests under different water table levels (WTL) in West Siberian south taiga (Tomsk oblast, Russia) in summer seasons of 2016 and 2017 years. The study shows that seasonally flooded forests may become a methane source when the WTL increases up to 15-45 cm below the surface. The fluxes of methane from soil were from -0.08±0.07 to 9.3±0.8 mg·m-2·h-1, from 0.05±0. 04 to 0.14±0.13 mg·m-2·h-1, from - 0.03±0.02 to 5.4±0.2 mg·m-2·h-1 depending on variou s WTL in different seasonally flooded forests in 2017.

  16. Variety, State and Origin of Drained Thaw Lake Basins in West-Siberian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpotin, S.; Polishchuk, Y.; Bryksina, N.; Sugaipova, A.; Pokrovsky, O.; Shirokova, L.; Kouraev, A.; Zakharova, E.; Kolmakova, M.; Dupre, B.

    2009-04-01

    Drained thaw lake basins in Western Siberia have a local name "khasyreis" [1]. Khasyreis as well as lakes, ponds and frozen mounds are invariable element of sub-arctic frozen peat bogs - palsas and tundra landscapes. In some areas of West-Siberian sub-arctic khasyreis occupy up to 40-50% of total lake area. Sometimes their concentration is so high that we call such places ‘khasyrei's fields". Khasyreis are part of the natural cycle of palsa complex development [1], but their origin is not continuous and uniform in time and, according to our opinion, there were periods of more intensive lake drainage and khasyrei development accordingly. These times were corresponding with epochs of climatic warming and today we have faced with one of them. So, last years this process was sufficiently activated in the south part of West-Siberian sub-arctic [2]. It was discovered that in the zone of continuous permafrost thermokarst lakes have expanded their areas by about 10-12%, but in the zone of discontinuous permafrost the process of their drainage prevails. These features are connected with the thickness of peat layers which gradually decreases to the North, and thus have reduced the opportunity for lake drainage in northern areas. The most typical way of khasyrei origin is their drainage to the bigger lakes which are always situated on the lower levels and works as a collecting funnels providing drainage of smaller lakes. The lower level of the big lake appeared when the lake takes a critical mass of water enough for subsidence of the lake bottom due to the melting of underlaying rocks [2]. Another one way of lake drainage is the lake intercept by any river. Lake drainage to the subsurface (underlaying rocks) as some authors think [3, 4] is not possible in Western Siberia, because the thickness of permafrost is at list 500 m here being safe confining bed. We mark out few stages of khasyrei development: freshly drained, young, mature and old. This row reflects stages of

  17. West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, K.A.; Foley, M.G.; Allen, E.A.; Alexander, L.J.; McKinley, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

  18. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and shale-gas resources in the Bazhenov Formation of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-10

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 12 billion barrels of oil and 75 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bazhenov Formation of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia.

  19. Free Electron Laser For The Siberian Centre For Photochemical Research The Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Avlasov, Y K; Miginskaya, E G; Oreshkov, A D; Ovchar, A V; Salikova, T V; Selivanov, P A; Serednyakov, S I; Tararyshkin, S V; Tribendis, A G; Vinokurov, N A

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the software for the control system of the Free Electron Laser for the Siberian Center for photochemical research. The main components of subsystems composing the control system as well as their hardware and software components are considered. Also main features of each of the subsystems and of the whole control system are mentioned. The prospects of control system development to meet the future requirements are discussed.

  20. Modeling the large-scale effects of surface moisture heterogeneity on wetland carbon fluxes in the West Siberian Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Bohn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We used a process-based model to examine the role of spatial heterogeneity of surface and sub-surface water on the carbon budget of the wetlands of the West Siberian Lowland over the period 1948–2010. We found that, while surface heterogeneity (fractional saturated area had little overall effect on estimates of the region's carbon fluxes, sub-surface heterogeneity (spatial variations in water table depth played an important role in both the overall magnitude and spatial distribution of estimates of the region's carbon fluxes. In particular, to reproduce the spatial pattern of CH4 emissions recorded by intensive in situ observations across the domain, in which very little CH4 is emitted north of 60° N, it was necessary to (a account for CH4 emissions from unsaturated wetlands and (b use spatially varying methane model parameters that reduced estimated CH4 emissions in the northern (permafrost half of the domain (and/or account for lower CH4 emissions under inundated conditions. Our results suggest that previous estimates of the response of these wetlands to thawing permafrost may have overestimated future increases in methane emissions in the permafrost zone.

  1. Tectonics of East Siberian Sea Basin and its influence on petroleum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Antonina, Stoupakova; Anna, Suslova; Mariia, Agasheva

    2016-04-01

    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) is the largest part of the Siberian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. Nowadays East Siberian Sea margin is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. This part of Russian Arctic shelf is the least studied. The major problems in geological investigation of East Siberian Sea shelf are absence of deep wells in area and low seismic exploration maturity. Only general conclusions on its geology and hydrocarbon systems can be drawn based on limited seismic, gravity and magnetic data, supported by projection of onshore geological data to offshore. So, that's why now only complex geological and seismic stratigraphy interpretations are provided. Today we have several concepts and can summarize the tectonic history of the basin. The basin is filled with siliclastic sediments. In the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceed 8 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Stratigraphic interpretation was possible to achieve because seismic reflections follow chronostratigraphic correlations. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated. Each indicated horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformity. In case of absence of deep wells in ESSB, we can only prove possible source rocks by projection of data about New Siberian Islands archipelago source rocks on offshore. The petroleum potential of these rocks was investigated by several authors [1, 2, 3]. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other Russian and foreign onshore and offshore basins. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. New data on possible petroleum plays was analyzed, large massif of data on geology and tectonic history of the region was collected, so now we can use method of basin modelling to evaluate hydrocarbon

  2. Seasonal and Spatial Characteristics of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs in Northern West Siberian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Miles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic heat and modified landscapes raise air and surface temperatures in urbanized areas around the globe. This phenomenon is widely known as an urban heat island (UHI. Previous UHI studies, and specifically those based on remote sensing data, have not included cities north of 60°N. A few in situ studies have indicated that even relatively small cities in high latitudes may exhibit significantly amplified UHIs. The UHI characteristics and factors controlling its intensity in high latitudes remain largely unknown. This study attempts to close this knowledge gap for 28 cities in northern West Siberia (NWS. NWS cities are convenient for urban intercomparison studies as they have relatively similar cold continental climates, and flat, rather homogeneous landscapes. We investigated the UHI in NWS cities using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS MOD 11A2 land surface temperature (LST product in 8-day composites. The analysis reveals that all 28 NWS cities exhibit a persistent UHI in summer and winter. The LST analysis found differences in summer and winter regarding the UHI effect, and supports the hypothesis of seasonal differences in the causes of UHI formation. Correlation analysis found the strongest relationships between the UHI and population (log P. Regression models using log P alone could explain 65–67% of the variability of UHIs in the region. Additional explanatory power—at least in summer—is provided by the surrounding background temperatures, which themselves are strongly correlated with latitude. The performed regression analysis thus confirms the important role of the surrounding temperature in explaining spatial–temporal variation of UHI intensity. These findings suggest a climatological basis for these phenomena and, given the importance of climatic warming, an aspect that deserves future study.

  3. Systemic swings in end-Permian environments from Siberian Traps carbon and sulfur outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Neely, R.; Lamarque, J. F.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Kiehl, J. T.; Shields, C. A.; Mills, M. J.; Bardeen, C.

    2017-12-01

    U-Pb geochronology has revealed that Siberian Traps flood basalt magmatism coincided with the 252 Ma end-Permian mass extinction. Most environmental consequences of magmatism follow directly or indirectly from the release of sulfur and some combination of magmatic and metamorphic carbon to the atmosphere (exceptions include ozone depletion from halogen emissions, release of toxic metals, and enhanced weathering of fresh volcanic rocks). However, the critical combinations of forcing and stress that trigger global mass extinction remain unknown. In particular, the combined and competing effects of sulfur and carbon outgassing on Earth systems remain to be quantified. Here we present results from global climate model simulations of flood basalt outgassing that account for sulfur chemistry and aerosol microphysics. We consider the effects of sulfur and carbon in isolation and in tandem, and find that carbon and sulfur emissions combine to generate swings in climate, ocean circulation, and hydrology. Our simulations provide a self-consistent framework to quantitatively explain observed features of the end-Permian including surface warming, fluctuating ocean oxygenation, intense weathering, and carbon cycle perturbation, unifying observed changes in climate and geochemical cycles with feedbacks initiated by Siberian Traps magmatism.

  4. Respiratory Pathways Reconstructed by Multi-Omics Analysis in Melioribacter roseus, Residing in a Deep Thermal Aquifer of the West-Siberian Megabasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Sergey; Podosokorskaya, Olga; Alexeev, Dmitry; Merkel, Alexander; Khomyakova, Maria; Muntyan, Maria; Altukhov, Ilya; Butenko, Ivan; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta; Govorun, Vadim; Kublanov, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Melioribacter roseus, a representative of recently proposed Ignavibacteriae phylum, is a metabolically versatile thermophilic bacterium, inhabiting subsurface biosphere of the West-Siberian megabasin and capable of growing on various substrates and electron acceptors. Genomic analysis followed by inhibitor studies and membrane potential measurements of aerobically grown M. roseus cells revealed the activity of aerobic respiratory electron transfer chain comprised of respiratory complexes I and IV, and an alternative complex III. Phylogeny reconstruction revealed that oxygen reductases belonged to atypical cc(o/b)o3-type and canonical cbb3–type cytochrome oxidases. Also, two molybdoenzymes of M. roseus were affiliated either with Ttr or Psr/Phs clades, but not with typical respiratory arsenate reductases of the Arr clade. Expression profiling, both at transcripts and protein level, allowed us to assign the role of the terminal respiratory oxidase under atmospheric oxygen concentration for the cc(o/b)o3 cytochrome oxidase, previously proposed to serve for oxygen detoxification only. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the involvement of both molybdoenzymes of M. roseus in As(V) respiration, yet differences in the genomic context of their gene clusters allow to hypothesize about their distinct roles in arsenate metabolism with the ‘Psr/Phs’-type molybdoenzyme being the most probable candidate respiratory arsenate reductase. Basing on multi-omics data, the pathways for aerobic and arsenate respiration were proposed. Our results start to bridge the vigorously increasing gap between homology-based predictions and experimentally verified metabolic processes, what is especially important for understudied microorganisms of novel lineages from deep subsurface environments of Eurasia, which remained separated from the rest of the biosphere for several geological periods. PMID:28713355

  5. Respiratory Pathways Reconstructed by Multi-Omics Analysis in Melioribacter roseus, Residing in a Deep Thermal Aquifer of the West-Siberian Megabasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gavrilov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Melioribacter roseus, a representative of recently proposed Ignavibacteriae phylum, is a metabolically versatile thermophilic bacterium, inhabiting subsurface biosphere of the West-Siberian megabasin and capable of growing on various substrates and electron acceptors. Genomic analysis followed by inhibitor studies and membrane potential measurements of aerobically grown M. roseus cells revealed the activity of aerobic respiratory electron transfer chain comprised of respiratory complexes I and IV, and an alternative complex III. Phylogeny reconstruction revealed that oxygen reductases belonged to atypical cc(o/bo3-type and canonical cbb3–type cytochrome oxidases. Also, two molybdoenzymes of M. roseus were affiliated either with Ttr or Psr/Phs clades, but not with typical respiratory arsenate reductases of the Arr clade. Expression profiling, both at transcripts and protein level, allowed us to assign the role of the terminal respiratory oxidase under atmospheric oxygen concentration for the cc(o/bo3 cytochrome oxidase, previously proposed to serve for oxygen detoxification only. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the involvement of both molybdoenzymes of M. roseus in As(V respiration, yet differences in the genomic context of their gene clusters allow to hypothesize about their distinct roles in arsenate metabolism with the ‘Psr/Phs’-type molybdoenzyme being the most probable candidate respiratory arsenate reductase. Basing on multi-omics data, the pathways for aerobic and arsenate respiration were proposed. Our results start to bridge the vigorously increasing gap between homology-based predictions and experimentally verified metabolic processes, what is especially important for understudied microorganisms of novel lineages from deep subsurface environments of Eurasia, which remained separated from the rest of the biosphere for several geological periods.

  6. Methane in the Northern West Siberian Basin. Generation, dynamics of the reservoirs and exchange with the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, B.

    1997-07-01

    Based on compositional data and isotope geochemistry natural gas in northern West Siberia can be divided into three groups. These are: natural gas in Jurassic rocks, natural gas in Neocomian rocks and natural gas from the Aptian to Cenomanian Pokur Formation. Natural gas in Jurassic rocks was generated thermogenically from rocks of the Jurassic Tyumen Formation. Natural gas in Neocomian rocks is also of thermogenic origin, possibly being generated from the organic matter of Lower Cretaceous sediments. The largest accumulation of natural gas occurs in sandstone reservoirs in the Pokur Formation. This gas can be described as a mixture between thermogenic gas from deeper strata and isotopically light almost pure methane. 98.6% of this gas consists of methane with an unusual isotope signature of -51.2 permille. It is not possible to explain the existence of this methane with established concepts of gas generation. A new model was developed to examine the possibility of a thermogenic origin of the isotopically light methane in early mature rocks of the Pokur Formation. Based on pyrolysis experiments and reaction kinetic calculations the model enables the simulation of stable carbon isotope ratios of hydrocarbon components in natural gas. The temperature dependent kinetic isotope fractionation is defined by a difference in the activation energies of 12 C-and 13 C-methane generation. The application of the new method to two coaly sandstones of the Pokur Formation results in a good correspondence between modelled carbon isotope ratios of δ 13 C values of methane in the reservoirs. The mass of methane thermogenically generated within the Pokur Formation under the gas field structures, however, is not sufficient to explain the mass of accumulated methane. (orig./SR) [de

  7. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  8. Adakite-gabbro-anorthosite magmatism at the final (576-546 Ma) development stage of the Neoproterozoic active margin in the south-west of the Siberian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikovskaya, A. E.; Vernikovsky, V. A.; Matushkin, N. Yu.; Kadilnikov, P. I.; Romanova, I. V.; Larionov, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    In the late Neoproterozoic a prolonged active continental margin mode dominated the southwestern margin of the Siberian craton. Based on results of geological, petrological-geochemical, U-Th-Pb and Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr isotope investigations, for the first time we established that on the final evolution stage of this margin 576-546 Ma, intrusions of adakites and gabbro-anorthosites of the Zimoveyniy massif were emplaced in the South Yenisei Ridge. These new data indicate genetic relationships of the studied adakites and host NEB-metabasites. The formation of adakites could have been due to a crustal or a mantle-crustal source in a setting of transform sliding of lithospheric plates after the subduction stopped.

  9. Photoperiod and acute energy deficits interact on components of the thyroid hormone system in hypothalamic tanycytes of the Siberian hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herwig, Annika; Wilson, Dana; Logie, Tracy J.; Boelen, Anita; Morgan, Peter J.; Mercer, Julian G.; Barrett, Perry

    2009-01-01

    In the Siberian hamster, seasonal weight loss occurs gradually over many weeks during autumn and winter. This is driven by a regulatory mechanism that is able to integrate duration of exposure to short days (SDs) with the size of body energy reserves. After food restriction in SDs, followed by ad

  10. Variability and ecology of Siberian larch species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaimov, A.P.; Milyutin, L.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Sukachev Inst. of Forest, Siberian Branch; Lesinski, J.A.; Martinsson, Owe [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    1998-12-31

    There are at least four larch taxons distinguished in Siberia that occupy almost 37 percent of the the Russian forests. The natural distribution of the taxons is clinal from the west to the east with L. sibirica Ledeb. in the west followed by L. x czekanowskii Szafer, L. gmelinii Rupr. and L. cajanderi Mayr. L. sibirica and L. x czekanowskii are phytocenosis builders only at the northern timberline and in the South-Siberian mountains whereas L. gmelinii and L. cajanderi are the main species over the vast territory within and beyond the permafrost zone of East Siberia. Due to large variety of growing conditions, the main features of the larch forests in terms of age structure and growth rates are also enormously variable. Thanks to specific life strategies with respect to seed dispersion patterns and very high adaptability to fires that often affect Siberian forests, these larch species regenerate very well being only seldom temporary replaced by Betula sp. forming secondary forest associations. Larch forests of different categories (protective and commercial) are exploited and regenerated in the same way as it is applied for Scots pine in Siberia. There is a growing interest in Siberian larch species among researchers and practitioners from abroad, mainly due to their fast growth and excellent wood properties. Some attempts of introducing Siberian larch species as commercial plantations have already been initiated in western countries. However, the knowledge of botanical, ecological and silvicultural features of Siberian larch species is rather poor outside of Russia. Because of its economic importance for Russian forestry the Siberian larch species have been comprehensively studied for many years and many papers as well as a number of monographs have been published, most of them in Russian. The large Russian expertise concerning regionalisation of seed sources, seed crop and quality, seed orchards, seedling production in nurseries and silvicultural practices in

  11. Gathering Edible as a Survival Strategy and Life Support System of the Siberian Rearward Village in Wartime Daily Living 1941–1945 on the Oral Historical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana K. Shcheglova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the life support system of disabled population of Siberian rearward village in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 by means (techniques and sources of oral history and Russian [version of] ethnology. The analysis of field data 1990–2014 demonstrates, that there was older generation being once de-peasantified in 1920s-30s, which developed in rural areas a set of behavioral actions and occupations, contributory to survival strategies of peasant family, based on resources of feeding environment and traditional culture of life support. Gathering of edible became one of the main means of child survival – this paper discusses its variations and patterns, as well edible plants, berries and mushrooms. According to research done, gathering edible was group-organized under supervision and with participation of grannies or individual expenditure - a kind of subsistence food that lies under the feet. An effort is taken to identify patterns and variations of gathering edible. It’s proven that together with direct eating plants, family economy included preservation of natural edible in store for a long Siberian winter. The paper covers blank grass as impurities in the flour to bake bread, as well а base for porridge, features restrictions and punishments not only for gathering crumbled wheat spikelets on collective farm fields, but also suppression cases in the vicinity of the villages.

  12. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  13. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  14. The tectonic evolution of the New Siberian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepjohn, K.; Brandes, C.; Gaedicke, C.; Franke, D.; Mrugalla, S.; Sobolev, N.; Tolmacheva, T.

    2012-04-01

    The New Siberian Islands are located on the wide arctic shelf between the Laptev Sea in the west and the East-Siberian Sea in the east and represent the westernmost part of the Chuchotka-Alaska Terrane. Geologically, they are bounded by the Laptev Sea Rift in the west, the passive continental margin towards the Arctic Ocean in the north and the South Anyui Suture Zone in the south. Two scenarios are discussed: (1) the New Siberian Islands were situated at the North American margin before the start of the break-up of Laurasia in Jurassic times, and (2) the New Siberian Islands are part of the Siberian platform since at least Palaeozoic times. Compared with the structural evolution of Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard, the sedimentary succession of the New Siberian Islands is only very little affected by tectonicdeformation. There is no evidence for the Caledonian and Ellesmerian orogeny on the New Siberian Islands. Although there are some Late Ordovician volcanics exposed on the DeLong Islands, the stratigraphic succession continues without important breaks from Cambrian to Middle Carboniferous, a time span which includes both orogenies. Furthermore, the Paleozoic evolution of the sedimentary basin on the New Siberian Islands has more affinities to the Siberian platform than to Severnaya Semlya, Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard. The only observed deformation on the New Siberian Islands is related to the plate tectonic re-organisation of the recent Arctic during the break-up of the Arctic Ocean in probably Early Tertiary times. The deformation on the Anyui Islands is characterized by mostly gentle, open synclines and anticlines with NW-SE trending axis. The deformation increases westwards towards the Laptev Sea, and is dominated by tight folding, thrusting and partly cleavage-development at the west coast of Koteĺny Island and on Beĺkovski Island. The fold-vergencies and the cross-cutting relationships of bedding and cleavage indicate NE

  15. Siberian Radioheliograph: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesovoi S.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Regular observations of active processes in the solar atmosphere have been started using the first stage of the multiwave Siberian Radioheliograph (SRH, a T-shaped 48-antenna array with a 4–8 GHz operating frequency range and a 10 MHz instantaneous receiving band. Antennas are mounted on the central antenna posts of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope. The maximum baseline is 107.4 m, and the angular resolution is up to 70. We present examples of observations of the solar disk at different frequencies, “negative” bursts, and solar flares. The sensitivity to compact sources reaches 0.01 solar flux units (≈10−4 of the total solar flux with an accumulation time of about 0.3 s. The high sensitivity of SRH enables monitoring of solar activity and allows studying active processes from characteristics of their microwave emission, including faint events, which could not be detected previously.

  16. Architecture of WEST plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenel, N.; Nouailletas, R.; Barana, O.; Brémond, S.; Moreau, P.; Guillerminet, B.; Balme, S.; Allegretti, L.; Mannori, S.

    2014-01-01

    To operate advanced plasma scenario (long pulse with high stored energy) in present and future tokamak devices under safe operation conditions, the control requirements of the plasma control system (PCS) leads to the development of advanced feedback control and real time handling exceptions. To develop these controllers and these exceptions handling strategies, a project aiming at setting up a flight simulator has started at CEA in 2009. Now, the new WEST (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project deals with modifying Tore Supra into an ITER-like divertor tokamak. This upgrade impacts a lot of systems including Tore Supra PCS and is the opportunity to improve the current PCS architecture to implement the previous works and to fulfill the needs of modern tokamak operation. This paper is dealing with the description of the architecture of WEST PCS. Firstly, the requirements will be presented including the needs of new concepts (segments configuration, alternative (or backup) scenario, …). Then, the conceptual design of the PCS will be described including the main components and their functions. The third part will be dedicated to the proposal RT framework and to the technologies that we have to implement to reach the requirements

  17. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  18. The crust and mantle beneath the Siberian provinces: a preliminary model based on new receiver function analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The new receiver function (RF) study complements the existing seismic data on the crustal and upper mantle structure at the margins of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin. So far, RF studies of Siberia have been largely restricted to the Baikal rift zone (Gao et al., 2004; Liu and Gao...

  19. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System | Adesola | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file ...

  20. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  1. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  2. Insertion of helical Siberian snakes in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.; Pilat, F.

    1995-01-01

    Spin rotators and Siberian snakes for RHIC can be built using 4 helical magnets obtained, by twisting, from the cosine dipoles. The authors found that the fringe fields are important. In the calculations they have used a plausible model for the fringe. However, only magnetic measurements on the prototypes presently being built will allow a final optimization. The linear coupling at injection, ΔQ min -2 , is well within the range of the RHIC decoupling system. At storage, the coupling introduced by the devices (ΔQ min -4 ) is negligible

  3. The Benguela upwelling system lying off southern Africa's west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The Benguela upwelling system lying off southern. Africa's west coast is one of the world's four main upwelling systems (Parrish et al. 1983). Its physical characteristics have been summarized by Nelson and. Hutchings (1983), Shannon (1985) and Shannon and. Nelson (1996). It encompasses the entire region that.

  4. Atypical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus in a west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, autoimmune multi-system disorder. About seventy to ninety percent of all cases of SLE occur in women. Although the disease is common in black young women residing in Europe and North America, it is reputed to be a very rare diagnosis in West Africa. A case of atypical ...

  5. Free Electron Laser For Siberian Centre For Photochemical Research The Control System For The Magnet Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Velikanov, Yu M; Evtushenko, Yu A; Kayran, D A; Kozak, V R; Kuper, E A; Medvedev, L E; Medvedko, A S; Oreshkov, A D; Petrov, S P; Serednyakov, S I; Tararyshkin, S V; Veremeenko, V F; Vinokurov, N A; Zagorodnikov, E I

    2004-01-01

    A control system for the magnetic system of the free electron laser (FEL) is described. The characteristics and structure of the power supply system are presented. The control system is based on embedded intelligent controllers with the CAN-BUS interfaced. The control software structure and capabilities are described. A possibility of connection of the control software to the integrated control system using the Epics Channel Access protocol is also discussed.

  6. Siberian Earth System Science Cluster - A web-based Geoportal to provide user-friendly Earth Observation Products for supporting NEESPI scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J.; Gerlach, R.; Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-04-01

    To provide earth observation products in the area of Siberia, the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) was established as a spatial data infrastructure at the University of Jena (Germany), Department for Earth Observation. This spatial data infrastructure implements standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organizsation for Standardization (ISO) for data discovery, data access, data processing and data analysis. The objective of SIB-ESS-C is to faciliate environmental research and Earth system science in Siberia. The region for this project covers the entire Asian part of the Russian Federation approximately between 58°E - 170°W and 48°N - 80°N. To provide discovery, access and analysis services a webportal was published for searching and visualisation of available data. This webportal is based on current web technologies like AJAX, Drupal Content Management System as backend software and a user-friendly surface with Drag-n-Drop and further mouse events. To have a wide range of regular updated earth observation products, some products from sensor MODIS at the satellites Aqua and Terra were processed. A direct connection to NASA archive servers makes it possible to download MODIS Level 3 and 4 products and integrate it in the SIB-ESS-C infrastructure. These data can be downloaded in a file format called Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). For visualisation and further analysis, this data is reprojected, converted to GeoTIFF and global products clipped to the project area. All these steps are implemented as an automatic process chain. If new MODIS data is available within the infrastructure this process chain is executed. With the link to a MODIS catalogue system, the system gets new data daily. With the implemented analysis processes, timeseries data can be analysed, for example to plot a trend or different time series against one another. Scientists working in this area and working with MODIS data can make use

  7. Why do few Afro-Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus now visit Britain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyd, H; Piersma, T

    The nominate (Afro-Siberian) subspecies of the Knot Calidris canutus canutus breeds on the Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia and occurs commonly in the westernmost Wadden Sea during migration to West and South Africa. The recoveries and controls of 2045 Knots ringed in Britain and Ireland provide no

  8. Evaluation efficiency young specialist program example CJSC "Siberian service company"

    OpenAIRE

    Горбачева, О. А.; Пожарницкая, Ольга Вячеславовна

    2016-01-01

    There is a tendency to increased competition among service companies in the oil and gas industry. Personnel policies should provide training of qualified personnel, as well as to exclude staff turnover. The article analyzes the young specialist program in CJSC "Siberian Service Company". Proposed improvement this program by introducing a points system to encourage successful professionals.

  9. Free Electron Laser For The Siberian Centre For Photochemical Reseach Software And Capabilities Of Beam Position Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Dementyev, E N; Medvedko, A S; Oreshkov, A D; Serednyakov, S I; Shubin, E N; Vinokurov, N A

    2004-01-01

    The system for electron beam position measurement in microtron-recuperator, using the electrostatic pick-up electrodes is described. Option of simultaneous detection of accelerated and decelerated electron beams is considered. The software and its capability of integration to the Epics control system using Epics Channel Access protocol are discussed.

  10. Deglacial History and Paleoceanography of the Umanak System, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John

    2012-01-01

    is to document the timing and rate of ice retreat and the role of the West Greenland Current (WGC) in initiating or sustaining ice retreat. During cruise JR175 of the UK ship RRS James Clark Ross in 2009, sediment cores and geophysical data were collected from the Umanak System to document the glacial history...

  11. The material control and accounting system model development in the Radiochemical plant of Siberian Chemical Combine (SChC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A.S.; Purygin, V.Ya.; Skuratov, V.A.; Lapotkov, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear material (NM) control and accounting computerized system is designed to automatically account NM reception, movement and storage at the Radiochemical Plant. The objective of this system development is to provide a constant surveillance over the process material movement, to improve their accountability and administrative work, to upgrade the plant protection against possible NM thefts, stealing and diversion, to rule out any casual errors of operators, to improve the timeliness and significance (reliability) of information about nuclear materials. The NM control and accounting system at the Radiochemical Plant should be based on the computerized network. It must keep track of all the material movements in each Material Balance Areas: material receipt from other plant; material local movement within the plant; material shipment to other plants; generation of required documents about NM movements and its accounting [ru

  12. Partner Vetting System - Gaza & West Bank

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The PVS WB system supports the vetting of NGOs, their employees, and individuals who apply for USAID contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or other funding...

  13. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System | Adesola | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper model an expert system called LAPTEX for troubleshooting LaserJet printers' faults. Today, with the innumerable advances in information technologies, computerizing printer's fault troubleshooting and identifying faults is far becoming so vital. Also, printers' fault detection is a complicated process that requires a ...

  14. The West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification system operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    A full-sized, integrated vitrification system is being tested at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to establish its operational characteristics that will allow a quality, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass product to be consistently produced. Recently, this nonradioactive verification testing has emphasized (a) ensuring flow sheet and feed makeup chemistry that enables well-balanced melter performance, (b) achieving design basis melter throughput rates at steady-state operating conditions, and (c) demonstrating that the release limit of NO x is met by the vitrification off-gas system. The West Valley vitrification process testing is rapidly converging to demonstrate that the acceptance specification in the glass product and the environmental requirements on the off-gas will indeed be met, thereby providing the basis for approval to begin radioactive operations in 1992

  15. Status of the new WEST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravene, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.ravenel@gmail.com [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Nouailletas, Rémy; Signoret, Jacqueline; Guillerminet, Bernard [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Treutterrer, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Spring, Anett [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Masand, Harish; Dhongde, Jasraj; Bhandarkar, Manisha [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 Gujarat (India); Rapson, Chris [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laqua, Heike; Lewerentz, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Moreau, Philippe; Brémond, Sylvain; Allegretti, Ludovic [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Raupp, Gerhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Laurent, François Saint; Nardon, Eric [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    The WEST (W – for Tungsten – Environment in Steady state Tokamak) project is aiming at minimizing technology and operational risks of a full tungsten actively cooled divertor on ITER. It was started in 2013 and consists in transforming the Tore Supra tokamak into an X point divertor device, while taking advantage of its long discharge capability. To operate the next coming operations of WEST, new controllers are required. These developments are an opportunity to develop a new Plasma Control System (PCS) architecture featuring build-in real time handling of both plasma and plants events, thus addressing key ITER needs. The Tore Supra PCS will be refurbished including a new Pulse Schedule Editor (PSE). The main idea is to use a time segmented approach to describe the pulse schedule with a full integration of event handling both on PCS and PSE. Further to detailed requirement specifications and architecture design, two software tools were selected to define and execute a whole plasma discharge defined as a set of time segments. The PCS real-time framework (RTF) is based on an upgraded version of the AUG framework, called DCS (Discharge Control System). The PSE is the Xedit application used on WEGA and under further development for W7-X facility. This paper reports on the status of the new WEST PCS developments. The on-going developments to adapt DCS to the Tore Supra Control infrastructure networks (new real-time network, chronology system and pulse supervision) will be reported. The required preparations for the use of Xedit will be presented, mainly the appropriate formal description of the WEST control system and the implementation of the mapping between the Xedit experiment configuration and DCS configuration files.

  16. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system

  17. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  18. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) populations from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Markov, Nickolay; Voloshina, Inna; Argunov, Alexander; Bayarlkhagva, Damdingiin; Oh, Jang Geun; Park, Yong-Su; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2015-08-18

    The roe deer, Capreolus sp., is one of the most widespread meso-mammals of Palearctic distribution, and includes two species, the European roe deer, C. capreolus inhabiting mainly Europe, and the Siberian roe deer, C. pygargus, distributed throughout continental Asia. Although there are a number of genetic studies concerning European roe deer, the Siberian roe deer has been studied less, and none of these studies use microsatellite markers. Natural processes have led to genetic structuring in wild populations. To understand how these factors have affected genetic structure and connectivity of Siberian roe deer, we investigated variability at 12 microsatellite loci for Siberian roe deer from ten localities in Asia. Moderate levels of genetic diversity (H(E) = 0.522 to 0.628) were found in all populations except in Jeju Island, South Korea, where the diversity was lowest (H(E) = 0.386). Western populations showed relatively low genetic diversity and higher degrees of genetic differentiation compared with eastern populations (mean Ar = 3.54 (east), 2.81 (west), mean F(ST) = 0.122). Bayesian-based clustering analysis revealed the existence of three genetically distinct groups (clusters) for Siberian roe deer, which comprise of the Southeastern group (Mainland Korea, Russian Far East, Trans-Baikal region and Northern part of Mongolia), Northwestern group (Western Siberia and Ural in Russia) and Jeju Island population. Genetic analyses including AMOVA (F(RT) = 0.200), Barrier and PCA also supported genetic differentiation among regions separated primarily by major mountain ridges, suggesting that mountains played a role in the genetic differentiation of Siberian roe deer. On the other hand, genetic evidence also suggests an ongoing migration that may facilitate genetic admixture at the border areas between two groups. Our results reveal an apparent pattern of genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Asia, showing moderate levels of genetic diversity with an

  19. First partial Siberian snake test during acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varzar, S.M.; Alexeeva, L.V.; Blinov, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors studied the acceleration of a spin-polarized beam through a depolarizing resonance using a partial Siberian snake. They accelerated polarized protons from 95 to 140 MeV while ramping a 10% partial Siberian snake along with the acceleration cycle. The 10% partial snake suppressed all observable depolarization during acceleration due to the Gγ=2 imperfection depolarizing resonance which occurred near 108 MeV. However, 20% and 30% partial Siberian snakes apparently moved an intrinsic depolarization resonance, normally near 177 MeV, into this energy range; this caused some interesting but not-yet-fully understood depolarization

  20. First test of the Siberian Snake concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Test results of the Siberian Snake concept at the Indiana University Cooler Ring are presented. The Siberian Snake is a clever and interesting concept for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. Thus it would be especially useful at TeV energies where there are thousands of depolarizing resonances. The Snake is the device which job is to rotate the proton's spin by 180 deg. every time the proton goes around the ring. The Snake's main element is the superconducting solenoid magnet. Examples of the Siberian Snake overcoming depolarizing resonances are presented. 6 refs.; 24 figs

  1. WARMER URBAN CLIMATES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN SPACES IN NORTHERN SIBERIAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Esau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern human societies have accumulated considerable power to modify their environment and the earth’s system climate as the whole. The most significant environmental changes are found in the urbanized areas. This study considers coherent changes in vegetation productivity and land surface temperature (LST around four northern West Siberian cities, namely, Tazovsky, Nadym, Noyabrsk and Megion. These cities are located in tundra, forest-tundra, northern taiga and middle taiga bioclimatic zones correspondingly. Our analysis of 15 years (2000–2014 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data revealed significantly (1.3 °C to 5.2 °C warmer seasonally averaged LST within the urbanized territories than those of the surrounding landscapes. The magnitude of the urban LST anomaly corresponds to climates found 300–600 km to the South. In the climate change perspective, this magnitude corresponds to the expected regional warming by the middle or the end of the 21st century. Warmer urban climates, and specifically warmer upper soil layers, can support re-vegetation of the disturbed urban landscapes with more productive trees and tall shrubs. This afforestation is welcome by the migrant city population as it is more consistent with their traditional ecological knowledge. Survival of atypical, southern plant species encourages a number of initiatives and investment to introduce even broader spectrum of temperate blossoming trees and shrubs in urban landscapes. The unintended changes of the urban micro-climates in combination with knowledgeable urban planning could transform the Siberian pioneer settlements into places of belonging.

  2. Spring migration of the Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus : results of a co-operative Wader Study Group project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dick, William J.A.; Piersma, Theunis; Prokosch, Peter

    1987-01-01

    In spring 1979 the Wader Study Group organised a co-operative project to study the spring migration of Siberian Knots Calidris c. canutus from their west and south African wintering grounds to the breeding grounds in central Siberia. S. African wintering birds migrate via the western seaboards of

  3. The crust and mantle beneath the Siberian provinces: a preliminary model based on new receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssof, M.; Artemieva, I.; Thybo, H.; Frassetto, A.

    2012-04-01

    The new receiver function (RF) study complements the existing seismic data on the crustal and upper mantle structure at the margins of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin. So far, RF studies of Siberia have been largely restricted to the Baikal rift zone (Gao et al., 2004; Liu and Gao, 2006; Anan'in et al., 2009). However, available seismic data allow to apply the RF approach to other tectonic structures of the region. We calculate the RF using the LQT method (Vinnik, 1977; Kind et al. 1995) in the version by Yuan et al. (1997). This method involves rotating the earth-oriented seismograms into ray coordinates. This decomposes the wavefield into P-SV-SH components. Converted phases are isolated by iterative, time-domain spiking deconvolution (Gurrola et al., 1995; Liggoría and Ammon, 1999) with prewhitening to stabilize the filtering. Ps phases were enhanced by stacking the deconvolved signals using the appropriate moveout corrections which account for the dependence of Ps arrivals on P wave slowness. The results of RF analysis of the crustal and mantle structure are interpreted in terms of tectonic and geodynamic evolution of different provinces of Siberia that range from the Cenozoic Baikal rift, to the Paleozoic orogenic belts of the Altaides and Uralides, the Paleozoic West Siberian basin and the Siberian trap basalt province, and the Precambrian Siberian craton. We further compare our results with seismic models for similar geodynamic settings worldwide.

  4. Why do few Afro-Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus now visit Britain?

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, H; Piersma, T

    2001-01-01

    The nominate (Afro-Siberian) subspecies of the Knot Calidris canutus canutus breeds on the Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia and occurs commonly in the westernmost Wadden Sea during migration to West and South Africa. The recoveries and controls of 2045 Knots ringed in Britain and Ireland provide no evidence for canutus wintering there nor for their regular passage during autumn and spring migration. Five juveniles ringed in the first week of September 1963 were recovered in Africa between eight an...

  5. Regional analysis of convective systems during the West African monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Bradley Nicholas

    The West African monsoon (WAM) occurs during the boreal summer and is responsible for a majority of precipitation in the northern portion of West Africa. A distinct shift of precipitation, often driven by large propagating mesoscale convective systems, is indicated from satellite observations. Excepting the coarser satellite observations, sparse data across the continent has prevented understanding of mesoscale variability of these important systems. The interaction between synoptic and mesoscale features appears to be an important part of the WAM system. Without an understanding of the mesoscale properties of precipitating systems, improved understanding of the feedback mechanism between spatial scales cannot be attained. Convective and microphysical characteristics of West African convective systems are explored using various observational data sets. Focus is directed toward meso -alpha and -beta scale convective systems to improve our understanding of characteristics at this spatial scale and contextualize their interaction with the larger-scale. Ground-based radar observations at three distinct geographical locations in West Africa along a common latitudinal band (Niamey, Niger [continental], Kawsara, Senegal [coastal], and Praia, Republic of Cape Verde [maritime]) are analyzed to determine convective system characteristics in each domain during a 29 day period in 2006. Ancillary datasets provided by the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) and NASA-AMMA (NAMMA) field campaigns are also used to place the radar observations in context. Results show that the total precipitation is dominated by propagating mesoscale convective systems. Convective characteristics vary according to environmental properties, such as vertical shear, CAPE, and the degree of synoptic forcing. Data are bifurcated based on the presence or absence of African easterly waves. In general, African easterly waves appear to enhance mesoscale convective system strength

  6. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... The West African Health Organization (WAHO) held a three-day regional consultation with more than 50 stakeholders from 20 institutions. The goal was to inform their next five-year strategic plan to strengthen health research across the Economic Community of West African States. IDRC funded the ...

  7. Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    As a consequence of its capability to retrieve cloud-top elevations, stereoscopic observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) can discriminate clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya Sibir, are portrayed in these views from data acquired on May 28, 2002.The left-hand image is a natural color view from MISR's nadir camera. On the right is a height field retrieved using automated computer processing of data from multiple MISR cameras. Although both clouds and ice appear white in the natural color view, the stereoscopic retrievals are able to identify elevated clouds based on the geometric parallax which results when they are observed from different angles. Owing to their elevation above sea level, clouds are mapped as green and yellow areas, whereas land, sea ice, and very low clouds appear blue and purple. Purple, in particular, denotes elevations very close to sea level. The island of Novaya Sibir is located in the lower left of the images. It can be identified in the natural color view as the dark area surrounded by an expanse of fast ice. In the stereo map the island appears as a blue region indicating its elevation of less than 100 meters above sea level. Areas where the automated stereo processing failed due to lack of sufficient spatial contrast are shown in dark gray. The northern edge of the Siberian mainland can be found at the very bottom of the panels, and is located a little over 250 kilometers south of Novaya Sibir. Pack ice containing numerous fragmented ice floes surrounds the fast ice, and narrow areas of open ocean are visible.The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are almost always covered by snow and ice, and tundra vegetation is very scant. Despite continuous sunlight from the end of April until the middle of August, the ice between the island and the mainland

  8. Renin angiotensinogen system gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension among people of West African descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, L M; Christensen, D L; Gjesing, A P

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review investigates the high level of hypertension found among urban dwellers in West Africa and in the West African Diaspora in the Americas in relation to variants within the genes encoding the renin angiotensinogen system. For comparison, the results from the Caucasian populati......This systematic review investigates the high level of hypertension found among urban dwellers in West Africa and in the West African Diaspora in the Americas in relation to variants within the genes encoding the renin angiotensinogen system. For comparison, the results from the Caucasian...

  9. Research on Impact Mechanism and Power System of Urbanization in West China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Pei

    2011-01-01

    Based on the current situation of urbanization development in West China, this paper analyses main factors responsible for sluggish urbanization in West China as follows: impact of environment factor, impact of population quality and quantity, lagging of public product service, stagnancy of technological development, backwardness of slow growth, and rigidity of system building. And then this paper analyses the restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China: at the superficial level, the ...

  10. Distinguishing between old and modern permafrost sources in the northeast Siberian land-shelf system with compound-specific δ2H analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jorien E.; Tesi, Tommaso; Bröder, Lisa; Holmstrand, Henry; Hugelius, Gustaf; Andersson, August; Dudarev, Oleg; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-08-01

    Pleistocene ice complex permafrost deposits contain roughly a quarter of the organic carbon (OC) stored in permafrost (PF) terrain. When permafrost thaws, its OC is remobilized into the (aquatic) environment where it is available for degradation, transport or burial. Aquatic or coastal environments contain sedimentary reservoirs that can serve as archives of past climatic change. As permafrost thaw is increasing throughout the Arctic, these reservoirs are important locations to assess the fate of remobilized permafrost OC.We here present compound-specific deuterium (δ2H) analysis on leaf waxes as a tool to distinguish between OC released from thawing Pleistocene permafrost (ice complex deposits; ICD) and from thawing Holocene permafrost (from near-surface soils). Bulk geochemistry (%OC; δ13C; %total nitrogen, TN) was analyzed as well as the concentrations and δ2H signatures of long-chain n-alkanes (C21 to C33) and mid- to long-chain n-alkanoic acids (C16 to C30) extracted from both ICD-PF samples (n = 9) and modern vegetation and O-horizon (topsoil-PF) samples (n = 9) from across the northeast Siberian Arctic. Results show that these topsoil-PF samples have higher %OC, higher OC / TN values and more depleted δ13C-OC values than ICD-PF samples, suggesting that these former samples trace a fresher soil and/or vegetation source. Whereas the two investigated sources differ on the bulk geochemical level, they are, however, virtually indistinguishable when using leaf wax concentrations and ratios. However, on the molecular isotope level, leaf wax biomarker δ2H values are statistically different between topsoil PF and ICD PF. For example, the mean δ2H value of C29 n-alkane was -246 ± 13 ‰ (mean ± SD) for topsoil PF and -280 ± 12 ‰ for ICD PF. With a dynamic isotopic range (difference between two sources) of 34 to 50 ‰; the isotopic fingerprints of individual, abundant, biomarker molecules from leaf waxes can thus serve as endmembers to distinguish between

  11. Wildfires in Siberian Mountain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Antamoshkina, O.

    2017-12-01

    The annual burned area in Russia was estimated as 0.55 to 20 Mha with >70% occurred in Siberia. We analyzed Siberian wildfires distribution with respect to elevation, slope steepness and exposure. In addition, wildfires temporal dynamic and latitudinal range were analyzed. We used daily thermal anomalies derived from NOAA/AVHRR and Terra/MODIS satellites (1990-2016). Fire return intervals were (FRI) calculated based on the dendrochronology analysis of samples taken from trees with burn marks. Spatial distribution of wildfires dependent on topo features: relative burned area increase with elevation increase (ca. 1100 m), switching to following decrease. The wildfires frequency exponentially decreased within lowlands - highlands transition. Burned area is increasing with slope steepness increase (up to 5-10°). Fire return intervals (FRI) on the southfacing slopes are about 30% longer than on the north facing. Wildfire re-occurrence is decreasing exponentially: 90% of burns were caused by single fires, 8.5% by double fires, 1% burned three times, and on about 0.05% territory wildfires occurred four times (observed period: 75 yr.). Wildfires area and number, as well as FRI, also dependent on latitude: relative burned area increasing exponentially in norward direction, whereas relative fire number is exponentially decreasing. FRI increases in the northward direction: from 80 years at 62°N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle, and to 300 years at the northern limit of closed forests ( 71+°N). Fire frequency, fire danger period and FRI are strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.81 - 0.95). In 21-s century, a positive trend of wildfires number and area observed in mountain areas in all Siberia. Thus, burned area and number of fires in Siberia are significantly increased since 1990th (R2 =0.47, R2 =0.69, respectively), and that increase correlated with air temperatures and climate aridity increases. However, wildfires are essential for supporting fire

  12. Methane from the East Siberian Arctic shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko...[], Vasilii V.; Etheridge, David M.

    2010-01-01

    In their Report “Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf” (5 March, p. 1246), N. Shakhova et al. write that methane (CH4) release resulting from thawing Arctic permafrost “is a likely positive feedback to climate warming.” They add...

  13. Distinguishing between old and modern permafrost sources in the northeast Siberian land–shelf system with compound-specific δ2H analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Vonk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene ice complex permafrost deposits contain roughly a quarter of the organic carbon (OC stored in permafrost (PF terrain. When permafrost thaws, its OC is remobilized into the (aquatic environment where it is available for degradation, transport or burial. Aquatic or coastal environments contain sedimentary reservoirs that can serve as archives of past climatic change. As permafrost thaw is increasing throughout the Arctic, these reservoirs are important locations to assess the fate of remobilized permafrost OC.We here present compound-specific deuterium (δ2H analysis on leaf waxes as a tool to distinguish between OC released from thawing Pleistocene permafrost (ice complex deposits; ICD and from thawing Holocene permafrost (from near-surface soils. Bulk geochemistry (%OC; δ13C; %total nitrogen, TN was analyzed as well as the concentrations and δ2H signatures of long-chain n-alkanes (C21 to C33 and mid- to long-chain n-alkanoic acids (C16 to C30 extracted from both ICD-PF samples (n =  9 and modern vegetation and O-horizon (topsoil-PF samples (n =  9 from across the northeast Siberian Arctic. Results show that these topsoil-PF samples have higher %OC, higher OC ∕ TN values and more depleted δ13C-OC values than ICD-PF samples, suggesting that these former samples trace a fresher soil and/or vegetation source. Whereas the two investigated sources differ on the bulk geochemical level, they are, however, virtually indistinguishable when using leaf wax concentrations and ratios. However, on the molecular isotope level, leaf wax biomarker δ2H values are statistically different between topsoil PF and ICD PF. For example, the mean δ2H value of C29 n-alkane was −246 ± 13 ‰ (mean ± SD for topsoil PF and −280 ± 12 ‰ for ICD PF. With a dynamic isotopic range (difference between two sources of 34 to 50 ‰; the isotopic fingerprints of individual, abundant, biomarker molecules from leaf waxes can

  14. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2010-01-01

    divergence events, which most probably occurred in the period of 1000–850 mln years in the east, and in the interval of 780–730 mln years in the west of the territory. The latest period is logically aligned with disintegration of Rodini, the super-continent. The period of 780–680 mln years in the eastern part of the region can defined by the beginning of convergency processes, formation and evolution of the island arc and the back-arc basin. It is supposed that basal layers of the Baikalskaya and Oselokskaya suites and their analogues occurred 730 mln years ago, and evidences of glacial processes in these series correlate with the global Sturtian glaciations. The period of 680–630 mln years was characterized by formation of the foreland-type peripheral basin which was then replaced by a system of orogen-type submontain troughs in the Early Vendian (from 630 mln years, see Fig. 3Г. The second half of the Vendian in various zones of SSC was distinguished by shallow-water carbonate-terrigenous sediments of a similar type. Compensatory sedimentation occurred in residual valleys of the basin. Fast infill of the basin and leveling of the relief resulted in the stationary regime of the relatively shallow, yet vast basin. In the Early Cambrian, carbonate sedimentation occurred throughout the Siberian Platform and in the area adjacent to the SSC (see Fig. 3Д.The Paleozoic sediments preserved mainly in the central and northern regions of the Siberian Platform reflect a complex evolution of internal and epicontinental seas and shallower basins of the Siberian continent named Angarida. In the Ordovician, predominating were carbonate rocks with marine fauna. In the Silurian was characterized by a variety of sediments formed in different marine environments, ranging from distal shelf to shallow water and salted gulfs. In the Late Silurian and the Early Devonian, the territory of Angarida was land. Local volcanism with mafic lava eruptions through fractures took place at the

  15. Developing Integrated Care Teams Across the North West London System

    OpenAIRE

    O'Halloran, Katherine Anne

    2016-01-01

    The health needs of the North West London population are changing. People are generally living longer and as a result a growing number are suffering from complex, long-term health conditions. This inevitably creates pressure on available services, to the point where there is a need to look at how these can be better provided. In North West London, the way hospitals and community health services are provided is being transformed to deliver a more co-ordinated and person centred service, achiev...

  16. Expert System for Diagnosis of Hepatitis B | Mailafiya | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF ...

  17. Strengthening Research for Health System Development in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), Health Research Unit, has been mandated by its member states to address this issue. ... In each member country, researchers will map existing research for health capacity/needs, formulate a plan of action, design a training curriculum for a course on research for health, and ...

  18. Witchcraft in West African belief system – medical and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally believed in West Africa that apart from the outward material appearance, there is the experience of an immaterial invisible reality. Witchcraft is part of such reality. However, there are still a lot of controversies about the nature of witchcraft. Some people even doubt its reality. There are various speculations here ...

  19. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data, 2004-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  20. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data, 2004-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  1. Enterprise Systems and Technology, Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Enterprise Systems and Technology - I-WEST 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordeiro, J.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Shishkov, Boris

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Enterprise Systems and Technology (I-WEST 2008), held on May 23 in Enschede, The Netherlands. The I-WEST workshop is a scientific event of IICREST, the Interdisciplinary Institute for Collaboration and Research on

  2. Why Afro-Siberian Red Knots Calidris canutus canutus have stopped staging in the western Dutch Wadden Sea during southward migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Casper; van Gils, Jan A.; Spaans, Bernard; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Afro-Siberian Red Knots Calidris canutus canutus use the western Dutch Wadden Sea as a refuelling area during southward migration from Taimyr to West Africa. Here we document the decline of their food stocks in this area, based on a yearly large-scale benthic mapping effort, from 1996 to 2005. For

  3. Low-Ti melts from the southeastern Siberian Traps Large Igneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 1. Low-Ti melts from the southeastern Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province: Evidence for a water-rich mantle source? Alexei V Ivanov Elena I Demonterova Sergei V Rasskazov Tatyana A Yasnygina. Volume 117 Issue 1 February 2008 pp 1-21 ...

  4. Climate constraints for siberian moth distribution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Nadezda Tschebakova; Elena Parfenova; Natalia. Kirichenko

    2010-01-01

    A simplistic bioclimatic model of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtvrk. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is based on the moth's basic biological requirements, expressed through summer thermal conditions...

  5. Prevalence, determinants and systems-thinking approaches to optimal hypertension control in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Cooper, Richard; Tayo, Bamidele; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Adanu, Richard; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    Background In West Africa, hypertension, once rare, has now emerged as a critical health concern and the trajectory is upward and factors are complex. The true magnitude of hypertension in some West African countries, including in-depth knowledge of underlying risk factors is not completely understood. There is also a paucity of research on adequate systems-level approaches designed to mitigate the growing burden of hypertension in the region. Aims In this review, we thematically synthesize a...

  6. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  7. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  8. Prevalence, determinants and systems-thinking approaches to optimal hypertension control in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Cooper, Richard; Tayo, Bamidele; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Adanu, Richard; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2014-05-21

    In West Africa, hypertension, once rare, has now emerged as a critical health concern and the trajectory is upward and factors are complex. The true magnitude of hypertension in some West African countries, including in-depth knowledge of underlying risk factors is not completely understood. There is also a paucity of research on adequate systems-level approaches designed to mitigate the growing burden of hypertension in the region. In this review, we thematically synthesize available literature pertaining to the prevalence of hypertension in West Africa and discuss factors that influence its diagnosis, treatment and control. We aimed to address the social and structural determinants influencing hypertension in the sub-region including the effects of urbanization, health infrastructure and healthcare workforce. The prevalence of hypertension in West Africa has increased over the past decade and is rising rapidly with an urban-rural gradient that places higher hypertension prevalence on urban settings compared to rural settings. Overall levels of awareness of one's hypertension status remain consistently low in West African. Structural and economic determinants related to conditions of poverty such as insufficient finances have a direct impact on adherence to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Urbanization contributes to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the sub-region and available evidence indicates that inadequate health infrastructure may act as a barrier to optimal hypertension control in West Africa. Given that optimal hypertension control in West Africa depends on multiple factors that go beyond simply modifying the behaviors of the individuals alone, we conclude by discussing the potential role systems-thinking approaches can play to achieve optimal control in the sub-region. In the context of recent advances in hypertension management including new therapeutic options and innovative solutions to expand health workforce so as to meet the high

  9. Adoptability of sustainable intensification technologies in dryland smallholder farming systems of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, L.S.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of CGIAR Research Program (CRP) 1.1: Dryland Systems, the compilation of a review of options, constraints and potential for agricultural intensification at a number of specific sites in West African dryland areas has been requested, using an integrated systems approach. CRP 1.1

  10. Widespread release of old carbon across the Siberian Arctic echoed by its large rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Gustafsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Over decadal-centennial timescales, only a few mechanisms in the carbon-climate system could cause a massive net redistribution of carbon from land and ocean systems to the atmosphere in response to climate warming. The largest such climate-vulnerable carbon pool is the old organic carbon (OC stored in Arctic permafrost (perennially frozen soils. Climate warming, both predicted and now observed to be the strongest globally in the Eurasian Arctic and Alaska, causes thaw-release of old permafrost carbon from local tundra sites. However, a central challenge for the assessment of the general vulnerability of this old OC pool is to deduce any signal integrating its release over larger scales. Here we examine radiocarbon measurements of molecular soil markers exported by the five Great Russian-Arctic Rivers (Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka and Kolyma, employed as natural integrators of carbon release processes in their watersheds. The signals held in estuarine surface sediments revealed that average radiocarbon ages of n-alkanes increased east-to-west from 6400 yr BP in Kolyma to 11 400 yr BP in Ob. This is consistent with westwards trends of both warmer climate and more degraded organic matter as indicated by the ratio of high molecular weight (HMW n-alkanoic acids to HMW n-alkanes. The dynamics of Siberian permafrost can thus be probed via the molecular-radiocarbon signal as carried by Arctic rivers. Old permafrost carbon is at present vulnerable to mobilization over continental scales. Climate-induced changes in the radiocarbon fingerprint of released permafrost carbon will likely depend on changes in both permafrost coverage and Arctic soil hydraulics.

  11. Crustal and lithospheric structure of the west Antarctic Rift System from geophysical investigations: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.

    1999-01-01

    The active West Antarctic Rift System, which extends from the continental shelf of the Ross Sea, beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is comparable in size to the Basin and Range in North America, or the East African rift systems. Geophysical surveys (primarily marine seismic and aeromagnetic combined with radar ice sounding) have extended the information provided by sparse geologic exposures and a few drill holes over the ice and sea covered area. Rift basins developed in the early Cretaceous accompanied by the major extension of the region. Tectonic activity has continued episodically in the Cenozoic to the present, including major uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains. The West Antarctic ice sheet, and the late Cenozoic volcanic activity in the West Antarctic Rift System, through which it flows, have been coeval since at least Miocene time. The rift is characterized by sparse exposures of late Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks extending from northern Victoria Land throughout Marie Byrd Land. The aeromagnetic interpretations indicate the presence of > 5 x 105 km2 (> 106 km3) of probable late Cenozoic volcanic rocks (and associated subvolcanic intrusions) in the West Antarctic rift. This great volume with such limited exposures is explained by glacial removal of the associated late Cenozoic volcanic edifices (probably hyaloclastite debris) concomitantly with their subglacial eruption. Large offset seismic investigations in the Ross Sea and on the Ross Ice Shelf indicate a ~ 17-24-km-thick, extended continental crust. Gravity data suggest that this extended crust of similar thickness probably underlies the Ross Ice Shelf and Byrd Subglacial Basin. Various authors have estimated maximum late Cretaceous-present crustal extension in the West Antarctic rift area from 255-350 km based on balancing crustal thickness. Plate reconstruction allowed < 50 km of Tertiary extension. However, paleomagnetic measurements suggested about 1000 km of post

  12. Helical Siberian snakes using dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.

    1990-09-01

    A family of multi-twist transverse-field spin rotators using discrete bending magnets is described that can be used as Siberian snakes. By varying the number of twists, snakes with quite small excursions can be constructed at only a small penalty in the overall field integral. Examples for a 1/4-twist snake and a 3-twist snake are presented, the first suitable for a very high energy machine and the second for use in the proposed TRIUMF Kaon Factory. (Author) (3 refs.)

  13. Siberian Snakes in high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S R; Shatunov, Yu M; Yokoya, K

    2005-01-01

    We review modern techniques to accelerate spin-polarized beams to high energy and to preserve their polarization in storage rings. Crucial to the success of such work is the use of so-called Siberian Snakes. We explain these devices and the reason for their necessity. Closely related to Snakes is the concept of 'spin rotators'. The designs and merits of several types of Snakes and spin rotators are examined. Theoretical work with Snakes and spin rotators, and experimental results from several storage rings, are reviewed, including the so-called Snake resonances. (topical review)

  14. Siberian Snake solenoid for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) have demonstrated that ''Siberian Snakes'' can be used to preserve the polarization of an accelerated polarized beam in a circular accelerator. Retrofitting full snakes into accelerators such as the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven is almost impossible due to space limitations, but a partial snake that can correct depolarization due to imperfection resonances with 1/20 to 1/30 of a full strength snake seems to present a viable option. We describe such a device for the AGS and give the design criteria in terms of simplicity of accelerator operation and level of achievable polarization. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. West African governance of marketplaces - a contemporary heritage of the "Dual-sex Political System"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    This paper discusses women’s governance of urban marketplaces in the southern West Africa. I investigate changes of women’s citizenship in public marketplaces and female leaders’ authority and influence on the governance of these political spaces focussing on the leader’ ability to produce...... and governance of public marketplaces in West Africa (Okonjo’s “Dual-sex political system) and finally discuss the case of the Dantokpa market using own fieldwork data from 2006-2008. I argue that structural changes in the colonial and the post-colonial period in some ways have curtailed women as authorities...

  16. Maturity analysis of the innovation system in the livestock industries of West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresti, A.; Dinata, U. G. S.; Wati, R.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the ANIS of Livestock industry in West Sumatera according to its main determinants. This research aims to know and understand the maturity level of the regional innovationsystem of West Sumatra livestock industries, including recommendation for improvements. The maturity level of the regional innovation system was analyzed with the ANIS method by using an opinion survey to some experts from businessmen, government and universities. This expert opinion survey was conducted to measure expert perceptions on the implementations of determinants of west Sumatera regional innovations systems on livestock industries on macro level (innovations policy), mezzo level (innovation institutions and programs) and micro level (innovation capacity). By using Likert method, the result showed maturity level for the West Sumatra livestock industries innovation system was still develop. This is caused by low maturity in the macro and meso determinants which are at the central and regional government side. This research result may be useful as recommendations for the government for improving the maturity level and may be a basic for incoming researches to identify regional innovation system determinants with low maturity to improve.

  17. Feedbacks of lithosphere dynamics and environmental change of the Cenozoic West Antarctic Rift System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wateren, F.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of Global and Planetary Change contains 11 contributions dealing with various aspects of the Cenozoic West Antarctic Rift System. During the last two decades, investigations of the interplay of tectonics and climate greatly improved understanding of Cenozoic global change. Major

  18. ATM Technology and Banking System in West African Sub-Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated Teller Machine (ATM) technology has had its significant impact in banking system in Nigeria and some other West African Countries. The most significant impact of ATM technology is the customer's ability to withdraw money outside banking hours. But this feat achieved by ATM technology is not without ...

  19. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Noli

    Full Text Available VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  20. Preliminary analysis of West Valley Waste Removal System equipment development and mock demonstration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    This report defines seven areas requiring further investigation to develop and demonstrate a safe and viable West Valley Waste Removal System. These areas of endeavor are discussed in terms of their minimum facility requirements. It is concluded that utilizing separated specific facilities at different points in time is of a greater advantage than an exact duplication of the West Valley tanks. Savannah River Plant's full-scale, full-circle and half-circle tanks, and their twelfth scale model tank would all be useful to varying degrees but would require modifications. Hanford's proposed full-size mock tank would be useful, but is not seriously considered because its construction may not coincide with West Valley needs. Costs of modifying existing facilities and/or constructing new facilities are assessed in terms of their benefit to the equipment development and mock demonstration. Six facilities were identified for further analysis which would benefit development of waste removal equipment

  1. Budgeting Systems in Universities in South-West Nigeria | Alabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings were that the mostly adopted budgeting system by the sampled universities was incremental type with 46.7%, in comparison with line-item, planning programming and zero-based budgeting systems with 33.33%, 16.67 % and 8.33%, respectively. Also, out of the total sum of N80,115,006,285 as expenditure on ...

  2. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  3. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSER, T.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction

  4. Beam polarization during a Siberian snake turn-on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    Installing Siberian snakes in a circular proton accelerator allows one to overcome all spin depolarizing resonances even at very high energies. However, Siberian snake application at low energies is technically rather difficult. Turning snake on at some energy during acceleration would allow using Siberian snakes even in rings with low injection energies. It is shown that the beam polarization would be preserved during the snake ramp, provided that the snake is turned on in more than ten turns, and the energy is set near a half-integer Gγ

  5. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor's facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility

  6. Renewable Energy and Hydrogen System Concepts for Remote Communities in the West Nordic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein; Moerkved, Andreas

    2008-02-25

    In 2003 the Nordic Council of Ministers granted the funding for the first of several studies on renewable energy and hydrogen (RE/H2) energy systems for remote communities in the West Nordic region. The objective with this report is to summarize the main findings from Phase II and III of the West Nordic project. The island Nolsoy, Faroe Islands, was selected as a case study. The main conclusion is that it makes sense to design a wind/diesel-system with thermal storage, both from a techno-economical and environmental point of view. Such systems can have close to 100% local utilization of the wind energy, and can cover up to 75% of the total annual electricity demand and 35% of the annual heat demand at a cost of energy around 0.07 - 0.09 euro/kWh. The introduction of a hydrogen system is technically feasible, but doubles the overall investment costs

  7. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  8. Evolution of the Tore Supra Lower Hybrid Current Drive System for WEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpech, Léna, E-mail: lena.delpech@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Achard, Joelle; Armitano, Arthur; Berger-By, Gilles; Ekedahl, Annika; Gargiulo, Laurent; Goniche, Marc; Guilhem, Dominique; Hertout, Patrick; Hillairet, Julien; Magne, Roland; Mollard, Patrick [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Piluso, P. [CNIM Industrial Systems, 83507 La Seyne-sur-Mer (France); Poli, Serge; Prou, Marc; Saille, Alain; Samaille, Franck [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Describe the state of the Lower Hybrid heating system for the WEST project. • Detailed the experiments to assess the coupling in WEST configuration. • Give the modifications required on the launchers to be adapted to WEST configuration. • Detailed the technical modifications with the CNIM company on the launchers. - Abstract: The WEST-project (W-tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) involves equipping Tore Supra with a full tungsten divertor, capable of withstanding heat load of 10 MW/m{sup 2} in steady-state conditions, in discharges sustained by Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The LHCD generator, recently upgraded to deliver 9.2 MW/1000 s, is equipped with sixteen TH2103C klystrons powering two launchers. The WEST transformation involves reducing the plasma volume, thus moving the launchers ∼10 cm closer to the tokamak centre. The toroidal curvature of the launchers no longer fits the plasma curvature due to the strong magnetic field ripple effect, leading to a degradation of the LH wave coupling, especially with the Full Active Multijunction Launcher (FAM). The toroidal curvature radius of the FAM launcher mouth will therefore be reshaped from 1700 mm to 2300 mm. The machining process is described in this article. In order to improve the coupling of the LH wave, the local gas injection has been modified to help to meet the requirement of 7 MW/1000 s of LH power coupled to the plasma in the WEST scenarios. Finally, the curvature radius of the waveguide septa are rounded to minimize the excitation of suprathermal electrons near the plasma edge, which can induce high power loads on the plasma facing components.

  9. Agricultural Extension Systems in West Africa: Adoptable Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National agricultural extension and advisory systems have undergone major changes during the past two decades. These changes have been attributed to the success of the. Green Revolution, commercialisation of agriculture and trade liberalization. In addition, transnational corporations develop a wide range of new ...

  10. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas

  11. The study of forest dynamics in the pergumid climate of Western Sayan mountains (Ermakovsky research station of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Nazimova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ermakovsky territory research station (53°17´–52°28´ N, 92°49´–93°20´ E has served as a long-term site for studies of mountain forest ecosystem structure and its dynamics during the last 50 years. The most interesting results of study in 2000–2014 are presented in the paper concerning biodiversity and forest succession in primary and secondary forest types forming the chern forest formation with Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica L.. The data of remote sensing confirm differentiation of landscapes into altitudinal belt complexes (ABC that are characteristic for windward macroslopes of the West and East Sayans: Scotch pine-Birch-Aspen subtaiga (Pinus sylvestris L., Betula pendula Roth., Populus tremula L., chern forest with (Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica, mountain Siberian fir (Abies sibirica taiga within perhumid climate, subalpine open woodlands with (Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica. They were singled out earlier with traditional methods. Position of the mountain polygon-transect (study area in the system of natural zonation of Altai-Sayan ecoregion and its belonging to barrier-rain mountain landscapes of South Siberia are defined more exactly with help of forest inventory and remote sensing data. Initial phases of forest successions by the above mentioned four ABCs are considered with special attention to regeneration of Pinus sibirica. In contrast to Abies sibirica it remains weak or absent for more than 50 years. It shows unstable positions of Siberian pine in all ABCs due to high general humidity and well developed herb layers. For chern ABC, the dynamics of primary and secondary stands structure are researched on a number of representative plots with the use of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer 1:100 mapping three times in a 45 year period. It is shown that species number and composition remain stable on permanent plots whereas synuzial diversity and the share of their

  12. ShakeAlert—An earthquake early warning system for the United States west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-08-29

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with several partners, has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  13. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near ±45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

  14. State Institutes of the Siberian Khanate and their Reflection in Archaeological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Tataurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the state institutes of the Siberian khanate and their reflection in the archaeological materials received during archaeological studying of sites of this period. There are considered processes of a class formation and formation of the stratified society. It is based on the criteria expressed in the works by known Siberian archaeologist N.P. Matveeva. In article the assessment is given to a level of development of productive forces of the population of the state, it is pointed out value of resettlement processes and development of trade relations both in the khanate, and with the adjacent states. The special attention is paid to emergence of the cities of the khanate, their role in centralization of the power, in development of interstate and interstate means of communication, trade. There is given appreciation of fortification systems of the cities and boundary towns of the khanate and is drawn the conclusion about participation in construction of the experts invited from Central Asia. There are analyzes questions of property and social stratification and reflection of this process in a funeral ceremony. The assumption become that as additional criteria of level of statehood of the Siberian khanate can act personal markers of the power – the press, headdresses, the weapon, etc. Criterion of level of centralization of the power for the Siberian khanate is the professional army which consisted from the tatars, hired groups and a militia. Fortification systems of protection of borders of the khanate in the south of Baraby and in Tarsky Priirtyshje also point to the high level of the khan’s power. In the conclusion it is said that archaeological materials fill missing information of written sources and their attraction in historical reconstruction of the tyurko-tatar statehood is one of indispensable conditions of similar researches.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of a wild Siberian tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Zhaohui; Guan, Weijun; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. The genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other Siberian tigers and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  16. Wildfires Dynamics in Mid-Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Ranson. K. J.; Dvinskaya, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    The longterm wildfire dynamics, including fire return interval (FRI), in Siberian larch communities were examined. A wildfire chronology encompassing the 15th through the 20th centuries was developed from analyzing tree stem fire scars. Two methods were used to calculate the time interval between fires: 1) direct counting of annual tree growth rings between stem fire scars and 2) the next earlier fire date was estimated from growth ring analysis and added to the first estimate. Average FRI determined from stem fire scar dating was 82 plus or minus 7 using Method I or 95 plus or minus 7 when age of the next earlier fire was inferred from observed larch regeneration structure (Method II). FRI was also found to be dependent on site topography. FRI on north-east facing slopes was 86 plus or minus 11 years (105 plus or minus 12). FRI on south-west facing slopes was significantly less at 61 plus or minus 8 (73 plus ot minus 8) years. Flat terrain showed little difference between methods 68 plus or minus 14 (70 plus or minus 13). This was also the case for bogs, but FRI was much longer; 139 plus or minus 17 (138 plus ot minus 18). The maximum number of annual fires occurred with periods of 36 and 82 years on average. The temporal trend in the FRI decreased from 101 years in the 19 th century to 65 years in the 20th century. The effect of post-fire forest recovery on depth to permafrost was also estimated. After initial melting from increased local temperatures permafrost depth decreased at a rate of 0.3 cm/yr on average as forest canopies developed.

  17. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established by Public Law 96-368, the {open_quotes}West Valley Demonstration Project Act, {close_quotes} on October 1, l980. Under this act, Congress directed the Department of Energy to carry out a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. In addition to developing this technology, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act directs the Department of Energy to: (1) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the high level waste; (2) transport the solidified high level waste to a Federal repository; (3) dispose of low level and transuranic waste produced under the project; and (4) decontaminate and decommission the facilities and materials associated with project activities and the storage tanks originally used to store the liquid high level radioactive waste. The process of vitrification will be used to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems which are used in the vitrification process.

  18. Tropical Atlantic Hurricanes, Easterly Waves, and West African Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves K. Kouadio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between tropical Atlantic hurricanes (Hs, atmospheric easterly waves (AEWs, and West African mesoscale convective systems (MCSs is investigated. It points out atmospheric conditions over West Africa before hurricane formation. The analysis was performed for two periods, June–November in 2004 and 2005, during which 12 hurricanes (seven in 2004, five in 2005 were selected. Using the AEW signature in the 700 hPa vorticity, a backward trajectory was performed to the African coast, starting from the date and position of each hurricane, when and where it was catalogued as a tropical depression. At this step, using the Meteosat-7 satellite dataset, we selected all the MCSs around this time and region, and tracked them from their initiation until their dissipation. This procedure allowed us to relate each of the selected Hs with AEWs and a succession of MCSs that occurred a few times over West Africa before initiation of the hurricane. Finally, a dipole in sea surface temperature (SST was observed with a positive SST anomaly within the region of H generation and a negative SST anomaly within the Gulf of Guinea. This SST anomaly dipole could contribute to enhance the continental convergence associated with the monsoon that impacts on the West African MCSs formation.

  19. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  20. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  1. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  2. Production Systems and Potential Development of Corn in West Pasaman Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulmar Jastra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second national food crop after rice and its role is increasing in line increase of population, livestock operations, and development of raw material corn processing industry. This research is a descriptive qualitative and quantitative as well as done in stages, namely: pre -study in order neighbor information gathering and general condition of farmers in the districts of West Pasaman, intensive desk study on the extent of data and the development of hybrid corn and all information obtained from pre -study activities; observation, field survey. This study aims to: identify systems of maize production in West Pasaman, identify potential areas of development and analysis of maize farming, Prepare Corn Development Action Programme in West Pasaman. Age maize farmers in West Pasaman between 40-60 years old, with old school for 9 years and the number of family members of farmers 5. The highest maize production in West Pasaman district occurred in 2009 amounted to 364 287 tonnes with 44 793 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.99 tonnes/ha, in 2010, a decline in production to 220 761 tonnes with a productivity of 6.3 tons /ha due to a decline in harvested area into 33 757 ha. And in 2011 the production of corn production back to normal by 286 078 tons / year with 44 360 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.50 tonnes/ha. Potential land that can be used to achieve the 142 850 ha of maize farming dominated peat and mineral soil of each area of 7,550 ha and 16,550 ha. Of corn farming can provide a gain of Rp 8,860,000,-/ha . When the period of 4 months of the corn crop corn farmer income per month is Rp 2.215.000,-

  3. Improving regional health care in West Africa using current space systems and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemison, Mae C.; Thomas, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved with establishing an integrated satellite health network in West Africa based on currently available technology. The system proposed makes use of a central national facility capable of transmitting and receiving voice/data and video signals from the entire country. Regional, field and local facilities provides timely epidemiologic information, sharing of medical expertise through telemedical consultations, enhances optimized resource distribution and builds a framework for telecommunications for the entire country.

  4. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems

  5. AMMA's contribution to the evolution of prediction and decision-making systems for West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcher, Jan; Parker, Doug; Gaye, Amadou

    2010-05-01

    The AMMA project (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) has now been running for 5 years. The project set out to better understand the geophysical processes in the atmosphere, in the oceans and on land surfaces which govern the evolution of the monsoon. At the same time we studied the control exerted by weather and climate on agronomic production, water resources and public health and the potential for populations to adapt. The objective is to provide the underpinning science needed to improve prediction and decision-support systems in West Africa. AMMA has been a joint effort of the West African and international research communities. This presentation will provide an overview of the achievements of the project over the last 5 years. The observation strategy will be presented and in particular the effort undertaken by AMMA to demonstrate the value of improved observing networks. The new and unique data sets collected have allowed us to gain new knowledge in areas as diverse as the atmospheric processes governing the evolution of the monsoon, the contrasting behaviors of catchments in the Guinean and Sahelian zones and the perception farmers have of the constraint climate imposes on their livelihood. The talk will show how this new knowledge has allowed the project to demonstrate the progress which can be made in prediction and decision-making system. The presentation will conclude with an analysis of the difficulties which need to be overcome in order to implement operationally enhanced observing networks and forecasting systems for the benefit of West African societies.

  6. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    1999-06-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the

  7. Mathematical model validation of a thermal architecture system connecting east/west radiators by flight data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Alejandro; Mishkinis, Donatas; Kaya, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    A novel satellite thermal architecture connecting the east and west radiators of a geostationary telecommunication satellite via loop heat pipes (LHPs) is flight tested on board the satellite Hispasat 1E. The LHP operating temperature is regulated by using pressure regulating valves (PRVs). The flight data demonstrated the successful operation of the proposed concept. A transient numerical model specifically developed for the design of this system satisfactorily simulated the flight data. The validated mathematical model can be used to design and analyze the thermal behavior of more complex architectures. - Highlights: •A novel spacecraft thermal control architecture is presented. •The east–west radiators of a GEO communications satellite are connected using LHPs. •A transient mathematical model is validated with flight data. •The space flight data proved successful in-orbit operation of the novel architecture. •The model can be used to design/analyze LHP based complex thermal architectures

  8. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Cuprak

    2011-08-31

    West Chester University is launching a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution is in the process of designing and implementing this project to build well fields, a pumping station and install connecting piping to provide the geothermal heat/cooling source for campus buildings. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply. For this grant, WCU will extend piping for its geo-exchange system. The work involves excavation of a trench approximately 8 feet wide and 10-12 feet deep located about 30 feet north of the curb along the north side of West Rosedale for a distance of approximately 1,300 feet. The trench will then turn north for the remaining distance (60 feet) to connect into the mechanical room in the basement of the Francis Harvey Green Library. This project will include crossing South Church Street near its intersection with West Rosedale, which will involve coordination with the Borough of West Chester. After installation of the piping, the trench will be backfilled and the surface restored to grass as it is now. Because the trench will run along a heavily-used portion of the campus, it will be accomplished in sections to minimize disruption to the campus as much as possible.

  9. Storage and turnover of organic matter fractions along a Siberian Arctic soil transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Recent observation and climate models demonstrate that arctic ecosystems are already affected by climate warming, as revealed by continuous permafrost degradation and increase of active layer depths. Variations of organic matter (OM) storage in different soil horizons and the OM quality are likely the major drivers of trace gas emissions to the atmosphere. A better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of OM in permafrost environments is the key to predict future climate changes and the role of terrestrial arctic regions. This study investigates the storage and turnover patterns of OM in functionally different pools, i.e., in particulate plant debris, extractable-water-soluble OM, and mineral-associated OM in permafrost soils along a West-East Siberian transect in the Russian Arctic. We quantified the stocks of total soil organic C (OC) and the respective OM fractions for the first soil meter. Furthermore, we estimated their apparent 14C ages by accelerator mass spectrometry, and determined the mineralization rates and bioavailability of particulate, mineral-bound, and bulk OM in a 90-day incubation experiment. Particulate OM was separated from the mineral-associated OM fraction by density fractionation with sodium polytungstate (density cut-off 1.6 g cm-3) and the OM liberated by this treatment was quantified. Considerable differences in OM storage existed from the West- to the East Siberian Arctic. Cryosols of the Central- and East Siberian sampling sites stored on average 56% more OC than those in West Siberia (25 ± 7 kg m-2versus 11 ± 4 kg m-2 to 1 m soil depth). However, the proportion of the three OM fractions to total OM was similar among the sites. In mineral soil horizons, on average, 17 ± 5% of the total OM was particulate OM, 61 ± 10% was associated with minerals, and 21 ± 3% could be mobilized in dissolved forms during density fractionation. Except for West Siberian soils, ~30% of the OM of the first soil meter was stored in permafrost while

  10. EARLY STAGE OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN OROGENIC BELT BUILDING: EVIDENCES FROM THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Gladkochub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO. Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan area to south-east (Baikal area and further to north-east (Patom area. Here we present the synthesis of all available and reliable LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronological studies of detrital zircons from these sedimentary successions.

  11. Wildfires Dynamics in Siberian Larch Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Evgenii I.; Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45deg-73degN) were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data and field measurements for the period 1996-2015. In addition, fire return interval (FRI) along the south-north transect was analyzed. Both the number of forest fires and the size of the burned area increased during recent decades (p forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5) and drought index (The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) (r = 0.43). Within larch stands along the transect, wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91). Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect. Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62 N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (6633' N), and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands (about 71+ N). That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.95). Keywords: wildfires; drought index; larch stands; fire return interval; fire frequency; burned area; climate-induced trends in Siberian wildfires

  12. Wildfires Dynamics in Siberian Larch Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Evgenii I.; Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45deg-73degN) were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data and field measurements for the period 1996-2015. In addition, fire return interval (FRI) along the south-north transect was analyzed. Both the number of forest fires and the size of the burned area increased during recent decades (p wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91). Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect. Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62 N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (6633' N), and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands (about 71+ N). That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.95). Keywords: wildfires; drought index; larch stands; fire return interval; fire frequency; burned area; climate-induced trends in Siberian wildfires

  13. Pyometra in a Siberian Polecat (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.D.; Biggins, D.E.; Wrigley, R.H.; Mangone, B.A.; Wimsatt, J.

    1999-01-01

    A 2-year-old Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni) from a breeding colony presented for ultrasound evaluation for pregnancy. It was paired with a male for 2.75 months and had remained absent of pregnancy signs when it was anesthetized and clinically evaluated. Until this time, the animal had eaten well and shown no outward signs of debility. On palpation, the animal had a fluid-filled tubular structure in the caudal abdomen, consistent in location and size with the uterus. No sign of vaginal discharge was present. Ultrasonography revealed 10 fluid-filled evaginations (approximately 12 mm in diameter) of the uterine horns. A presumptive diagnosis of a fluid-filled reproductive tract and likely reproductive failure was made in light of the animal's history, its clinical signs, and the ultrasound findings. Euthanasia was performed because the animal was nonreproductive and might yield information relevant to the breeding colony as a whole. Necropsy of the polecat revealed a distended fluctuant uterus containing mildly odiferous, thick, yellow-green, purulent material. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of pyometra. A pure and heavy growth of Enterococcus fecalis was cultured from the uterine contents. In light of results from routine minimal inhibitory concentration antibiotic sensitivity screening, this isolate was resistant to all antibiotics tested in the standard teaching hospital screen.

  14. Magmatism evolution in the Nori'lsk region (Siberian trap province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda

    2010-05-01

    The NW Siberian trap province is very important for our understanding of evolution of huge magmatic system (T1) and origin unique Pt-Cu-Ni deposits. To solve these genetic problems (including correlation between effusive and intrusive rocks) it is necessary to get accurate information about magmatism migration in space and in time inside different tectonic structures in the Noril'sk region. Thed latter takes outstanding place on the Siberian platform due to its geological features. It consists of two main areas covered by volcanic rocks: I. Kharaelakhsky trough (on West) and II. plateau Putorana (on East) are subdivided by carbonate-terrigenouse rocks (C-P2) of Khantaisko-Rybninsky swell . These two zones differ one from another by thickness of basalts and their composition.The fist zone extents along the Khatanga fault and contains all suits, including three lowest ones - ivakinsky (Iv), syverminsky (Sv), gudchikhinsky (Gd). II zone essentially consists of the middle and upper suits - hakanchansky (Hk), tuklonsky (Tk), nadezhdinsky (Nd), morongovsky (Mr), mokulaevsky (Mk), kharaekakhsky (Kh), kumginsky (Km) and samoedsky (Sm). Usually it is constructed the complete section of the Noril'sk volcanites from rocks of two zones. But every suit has its own areal extent., which to contour it not so easy because volcanic rocks represent very similar tholeiitic basalts ( in term of texture and petrochemistry). Their differentiation is just possible using rare elements and isotopes contents in the rocks [1]. We have studied a lot of basalt sections based on their outcrops and cores of drill holes (4 570 m) and intrusive bodies graduated in mineralization (internal structure, geochemistry, mineralogy, isotopes composition). According new data areoles of the lowers and the upper suits separate in space. The thicknesses Iv and Sv suits (TiO2=2-4 mas. %; Gg/Yb = 2.2.) decreases synchronously from NW Kharaelakh and the towards Putorana at 30%. Gd suit (TiO2=1-2 mas.% and Gd

  15. Assessing climate adaptation options and uncertainties for cereal systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, K.; Sultan, B.; Biasutti, M.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The already fragile agriculture production system in West Africa faces further challenges in meeting food security in the coming decades, primarily due to a fast increasing population and risks of climate change. Successful adaptation of agriculture should not only benefit in the current climate but should also reduce negative (or enhance positive) impacts for climate change. Assessment of various possible adaptation options and their uncertainties provides key information for prioritizing adaptation investments. Here, based on the several robust aspects of climate projections in this region (i.e. temperature increases and rainfall pattern shifts), we use two well-validated crop models (i.e. APSIM and SARRA-H) and an ensemble of downscaled climate forcing to assess five possible and realistic adaptation options (late sowing, intensification, thermal time increase, water harvesting and increased resilience to heat stress) in West Africa for the staple crop production of sorghum. We adopt a new assessment framework to account for both the impacts of adaptation options in current climate and their ability to reduce impacts of future climate change, and also consider changes in both mean yield and its variability. Our results reveal that most proposed "adaptation options" are not more beneficial in the future than in the current climate, i.e. not really reduce the climate change impacts. Increased temperature resilience during grain number formation period is the main adaptation that emerges. We also find that changing from the traditional to modern cultivar, and later sowing in West Sahel appear to be robust adaptations.

  16. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Ptigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Earthquake early Warning ShakeAlert system: West coast wide production prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Given, Douglas; Guiwits, Stephen; Neuhauser, Doug; Hensen, Ivan; Hartog, Renate; Bodin, Paul; Kress, Victor; Thompson, Stephen; Felizardo, Claude; Brody, Jeff; Bhadha, Rayo; Schwarz, Stan

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is an application of seismological science that can give people, as well as mechanical and electrical systems, up to tens of seconds to take protective actions before peak earthquake shaking arrives at a location. Since 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in collaboration with several partners to develop EEW for the United States. The goal is to create and operate an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the highest risk areas of the United States, starting with the West Coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington. In early 2016, the Production Prototype v.1.0 was established for California; then, in early 2017, v.1.2 was established for the West Coast, with earthquake notifications being distributed to a group of beta users in California, Oregon, and Washington. The new ShakeAlert Production Prototype was an outgrowth from an earlier demonstration EEW system that began sending test notifications to selected users in California in January 2012. ShakeAlert leverages the considerable physical, technical, and organizational earthquake monitoring infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System, a nationwide federation of cooperating seismic networks. When fully implemented, the ShakeAlert system may reduce damage and injury caused by large earthquakes, improve the nation’s resilience, and speed recovery.

  18. Palynology of selected coal beds in the proposed Pennsylvanian System stratotype in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanke, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of Pennsylvanian palynomorphs, spores, and pollen grains, as an aid in coal-correlation investigations in the Appalachians, has been known for many years. However, much of this and subsequent information was scattered in the literature or was not from the proposed stratotype area of West Virginia. Investigation of coals from sections of the proposed Pennsylvanian System stratotype provided the opportunity to examine changes in palynomorph content through a number of coals from the New River Formation to the basal part of the Monongahela Formation. The rank of most coals of the Pocahontas and New River Formations of West Virginia does not permit extraction of palynomorphs with current laboratory maceration techniques. Because of this, the data of some possibly equivalent lower rank Pennsylvanian coals from adjacent parts of southern Ohio and eastern Kentucky have been included. The coals examined from the Kanawha Formation, Charleston Sandstone, and Monongahela Formations of West Virginia have yielded abundant and well-preserved palynomorphs. Attention has been focused on the Charleston Sandstone, which is a massive, complex unit lacking marine fossils and composed primarily of sandstone. The coal is a significant resource in Pennsylvanian rocks, and the correlation of coals is an important consideration in the area of the stratotype in West Virginia and in adjacent States. As a result of this preliminary examination, the approximate range zones of some important taxa have been established. These range zones together with abundance data are used to correlate the coals. The range zones of some important taxa from Lower to Upper Pennsylvanian coals are: Densosporites irregularis Hacquebard and Barss, Stenozonotriletes lycosporoides (Butterworth and Williams) Smith and Butterworth, Schulzospora rara Kosanke, Laevigatosporites spp., Radiizonates spp., Torispora securis Balme, Zosterosporites triangularis Kosanke, Thymospora pseudothiessenii (Kosanke

  19. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  20. Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Bauer, B.P.

    1989-04-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. RICE MARKETING SYSTEM A SOLUTION FOR INCREASING REVENUE FARMERS IN WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C.Kilmanun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of expectation want to be reached by development West Kalimantan is making regency Kubu Raya as " buffer Stock" rice for West Kalimantan. Problems is hitherto the solution rice marketing by society of Sui Itik. The price sell still be very low and have an effect to peasant earnings for this article aim to system of paddy marketing specially rice of Sui Itik village and is the solution which must be taken in rice marketing in Sui Itik. Collected by data is primary data representing result interview with method approach of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA and gathering data by method of Stratifide Random Sampling. Collected data later;then be analysed in diskriptif. The study aims to: 1. to increase knowledge about marketing management hence need conducted by training about marketing management to peasant of Sui Itik village. 2 system and Good market information very have an effect on reality to fluency of rice marketing of Sui Itik village. 3 system of Rice marketing in Multi Level Marketing (MLM expected to expand since this system of fluenting rice marketing. 4. Governmental policy about stability of price shell of rice affected farmers.

  2. West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro R. Winkelmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV, a neurotropic single-stranded flavivirus has been the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis worldwide.  Up to 50% of WNV convalescent patients in the United States were reported to have long-term neurological sequelae.  Neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available for humans.  Animal models have been used to investigate WNV pathogenesis and host immune response in humans.  In this review, we will discuss recent findings from studies in animal models of WNV infection, and provide new insights on WNV pathogenesis and WNV-induced host immunity in the central nervous system.

  3. Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyelim Cho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur in the central nervous system (CNS, the outcome of which can be protection, viral pathogenesis, or immunopathogenesis. We will focus on defining the current state of knowledge of WNV entry, tropism, and host immune response in the CNS, all of which affect the balance between injury and successful clearance.

  4. Summertime Climatology of Mesoscale Convective Systems over West Africa from 24-years of METEOSAT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolleau, T.; Tomasini, M.; Roca, R.; Lafore, J. P.; Laurent, H.; Lebel, T.; Ramage, K.

    2009-04-01

    The West African monsoon hydrological cycle and heat budget strongly depends on the Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS). The analysis of the morphology of these tropical convective systems has received much attention in the past decades mainly thanks to the advent of geostationary infrared data. A number of definitions have been proposed yielding to a complex corpus of knowledge. In this context, a unique climatology of Mesoscale Convective Systems has been computed from the Meteosat IR observations, over tropical Africa, during the summer monsoon from 1983 to 2006 based on a simple definition of the MCS. Using a brightness temperature threshold at 233°K, cold cloud clusters are detected every 30 minutes. Then, an overlap technique is used on these segmented images to determine the life cycles of all the clusters. This tracking algorithm computes morphological parameters of the cloud clusters like duration, velocity, size of the cold cloud shield, local time of genesis, distribution of brightness temperature, cumulated area … A simple classification of the clusters is then developed based on the duration of the systems and their propagation speed. Four classes of Convective Systems are formed using threshold selected on a physical basis of 9 hour and 10 m/s. The climatological features of these 4 classes of systems are shown. In order to investigate the relationship between the convective systems variability and the seasonal rainfall, MCS distributions are then related to the rainfall thanks to the use of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project estimates. The analysis reveals that a linear combination of the occurrence of each class of systems can explain a significant part of the rainfall interannual variability over most of West Africa.

  5. The Challenge of Improving Soil Fertility in Yam Cropping Systems of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Emmanuel; Aighewi, Beatrice A; Aké, Sévérin; Barjolle, Dominique; Baumann, Philipp; Bernet, Thomas; Dao, Daouda; Diby, Lucien N; Floquet, Anne; Hgaza, Valérie K; Ilboudo, Léa J; Kiba, Delwende I; Mongbo, Roch L; Nacro, Hassan B; Nicolay, Gian L; Oka, Esther; Ouattara, Yabile F; Pouya, Nestor; Senanayake, Ravinda L; Six, Johan; Traoré, Orokya I

    2017-01-01

    Yam ( Dioscorea spp.) is a tuber crop grown for food security, income generation, and traditional medicine. This crop has a high cultural value for some of the groups growing it. Most of the production comes from West Africa where the increased demand has been covered by enlarging cultivated surfaces while the mean yield remained around 10 t tuber ha -1 . In West Africa, yam is traditionally cultivated without input as the first crop after a long-term fallow as it is considered to require a high soil fertility. African soils, however, are being more and more degraded. The aims of this review were to show the importance of soil fertility for yam, discuss barriers that might limit the adoption of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) in yam-based systems in West Africa, present the concept of innovation platforms (IPs) as a tool to foster collaboration between actors for designing innovations in yam-based systems and provide recommendations for future research. This review shows that the development of sustainable, feasible, and acceptable soil management innovations for yam requires research to be conducted in interdisciplinary teams including natural and social sciences and in a transdisciplinary manner involving relevant actors from the problem definition, to the co-design of soil management innovations, the evaluation of research results, their communication and their implementation. Finally, this research should be conducted in diverse biophysical and socio-economic settings to develop generic rules on soil/plant relationships in yam as affected by soil management and on how to adjust the innovation supply to specific contexts.

  6. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuprak, Greg [West Chester Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2016-11-02

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution’s carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems is changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE’s efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  7. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, James [West Chester Univ., West Chester (PA)

    2016-08-05

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems are changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  8. The problem of radiative depolarization in the 'Siberian Snake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.

    1979-01-01

    As pointed out by Derbenev and Kondratenko and by the LEP Study Group, a 'Siberian Snake' may be a convenient method for providing longitudinally polarized beams at LEP. The author shows that at the highest LEP energies (approximately>60 GeV) synchrotron radiation with spin-flip may depolarize the beams. (Auth.)

  9. The Connection between the Thought of Progress and Philosophical Thinking in the West Case Study: Descartes’ Thought System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mustafa Shahraeeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thought of progress has been considered as one of the presuppositions of the West modernity. Having accepted this idea, we should regard it as one of the bases and foundations of early modern philosophy, and consider Descartes, known as the father of modern philosophy, as having a major role in its formation. There is a strong relationship between the West philosophical thought and the change of the idea of progress to one of the undisputed facts of the west civilization, and this issue can be seen clearly in Descartes thought system better than anywhere else. The present paper intends to show the leading position of Descartes’ thought system in the institutionalization of the concept of progress in the West philosophical system in three main parts: 1. Authority fighting and its relation with Cartesian’s Doubt, 2. The genuineness of the worldly life in Descartes’ thought system, and 3. Establishing the foundation of modern science. This article is based on the modern forerunners’ change of opinion about the philosophy mission in the world. It  makes attempt to demonstrate in order to achieve the thought of progress, some prerequisites are necessary; and these prerequisite, though not exclusively, in their best and most complete form are generally achieved in the West philosophical thought and are particularly accomplished in Descartes’ philosophy.

  10. Petroleum system analysis of the Hunton Group in West Edmond field, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Higley, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    West Edmond field, located in central Oklahoma, is one of the largest oil accumulations in the Silurian–Devonian Hunton Group in this part of the Anadarko Basin. Production from all stratigraphic units in the field exceeds 170 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 400 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), of which approximately 60 MMBO and 100 BCFG have been produced from the Hunton Group. Oil and gas are stratigraphically trapped to the east against the Nemaha uplift, to the north by a regional wedge-out of Hunton strata, and by intraformational diagenetic traps. Hunton Group reservoirs are the Bois d'Arc and Frisco Limestones, with lesser production from the Chimneyhill subgroup, Haragan Shale, and Henryhouse Formation. Hunton Group cores from three wells that were examined petrographically indicate that complex diagenetic relations influence permeability and reservoir quality. Greatest porosity and permeability are associated with secondary dissolution in packstones and grainstones, forming hydrocarbon reservoirs. The overlying Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale is the major petroleum source rock for the Hunton Group in the field, based on one-dimensional and four-dimensional petroleum system models that were calibrated to well temperature and Woodford Shale vitrinite reflectance data. The source rock is marginally mature to mature for oil generation in the area of the West Edmond field, and migration of Woodford oil and gas from deeper parts of the basin also contributed to hydrocarbon accumulation.

  11. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  12. Feedbacks between tall shrubland development and active layer temperatures in northwest Siberian arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, H. E.; Frost, G. V.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost soils are a globally significant carbon store, but changes in permafrost thermal regime observed in recent decades across much of the Arctic suggest that permafrost carbon balance is likely to change with continued climate warming. Critical to changes in permafrost carbon balance in a warmer world, however, are feedbacks between changes in the composition and density of surface vegetation, and the thermal state of permafrost. Shrub expansion has been widely observed in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, but the magnitude and direction of shrub-induced impacts to permafrost temperature and stability remain poorly understood. Here we evaluate changes to active layer properties and thermal regime that occur during tall shrubland development (shrubs > 1.5 m height) within a northwest Siberian landscape dominated by well-developed, small-scale patterned ground features (e.g., non-sorted circles). We measured the annual time-series of soil temperature at 5 cm and 20 cm depth, and the structural attributes of vegetation at patterned-ground microsites across four stages of tall shrubland development: low-growing tundra lacking erect shrubs, newly-developed shrublands, mature shrublands, and paludified shrublands. Mean summer soil temperatures declined with increasing shrub cover and moss thickness, but winter soil temperatures increased with shrub development. Shrubland development strongly attenuated cryoturbation, promoting the establishment of complete vegetation cover and the development of a continuous organic mat. Increased vegetation cover, in turn, led to further reduced cryoturbation and an aggrading permafrost table. These observations indicate that tall shrub expansion that is now occurring in patterned-ground landscapes of the northwest Siberian Arctic may buffer permafrost from atmospheric warming, and increase carbon storage in these systems at least in the short term.

  13. Long-term spatio-temporal changes in a West African bushmeat trade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J; Kusimi, J M; Rowcliffe, J M; Cowlishaw, G; Brenyah, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-10-01

    Landscapes in many developing countries consist of a heterogeneous matrix of mixed agriculture and forest. Many of the generalist species in this matrix are increasingly traded in the bushmeat markets of West and Central Africa. However, to date there has been little quantification of how the spatial configuration of the landscape influences the urban bushmeat trade over time. As anthropogenic landscapes become the face of rural West Africa, understanding the dynamics of these systems has important implications for conservation and landscape management. The bushmeat production of an area is likely to be defined by landscape characteristics such as habitat disturbance, hunting pressure, level of protection, and distance to market. We explored (SSG, tense) the role of these four characteristics in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the commercial bushmeat trade around the city of Kumasi, Ghana, over 27 years (1978 to 2004). We used geographic information system methods to generate maps delineating the spatial characteristics of the landscapes. These data were combined with spatially explicit market data collected in the main fresh bushmeat market in Kumasi to explore the relationship between trade volume (measured in terms of number of carcasses) and landscape characteristics. Over time, rodents, specifically cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), became more abundant in the trade relative to ungulates and the catchment area of the bushmeat market expanded. Areas of intermediate disturbance supplied more bushmeat, but protected areas had no effect. Heavily hunted areas showed significant declines in bushmeat supply over time. Our results highlight the role that low intensity, heterogeneous agricultural landscapes can play in providing ecosystem services, such as bushmeat, and therefore the importance of incorporating bushmeat into ecosystem service mapping exercises. Our results also indicate that even where high bushmeat production is possible, current harvest levels may

  14. TARZAN: A REMOTE TOOL DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM FOR THE WEST VALLEY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce R. Thompson; James Veri

    1999-09-30

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. undertook a development project to build Tarzan, a Remote Tool Delivery system to work inside nuclear waste storage tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The removal of waste deposits from large storage tanks poses significant challenges during tank operations and closure. Limited access, the presence of chemical, radiological, and /or explosive hazards, and the need to deliver retrieval equipment to all regions of the tank exceed the capabilities of most conventional methods and equipment. Remotely operated devices for mobilizing and retrieving waste materials are needed. Some recent developments have been made in this area. However, none of these developments completely and cost-effectively address tanks that are congested with internal structures (e.g., support columns, cooling coils, fixed piping, etc.). The Tarzan system consists of the following parts: Locomotor which is deployed in the tank for inspection and cleanup; Hydraulic power unit providing system power for the locomotor and deployment unit; and Control system providing the man machine interface to control, coordinate and monitor the system. This document presents the final report on the Tarzan project.

  15. TARZAN: A REMOTE TOOL DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM FOR THE WEST VALLEY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Bruce R.; Veri, James

    1999-01-01

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. undertook a development project to build Tarzan, a Remote Tool Delivery system to work inside nuclear waste storage tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The removal of waste deposits from large storage tanks poses significant challenges during tank operations and closure. Limited access, the presence of chemical, radiological, and /or explosive hazards, and the need to deliver retrieval equipment to all regions of the tank exceed the capabilities of most conventional methods and equipment. Remotely operated devices for mobilizing and retrieving waste materials are needed. Some recent developments have been made in this area. However, none of these developments completely and cost-effectively address tanks that are congested with internal structures (e.g., support columns, cooling coils, fixed piping, etc.). The Tarzan system consists of the following parts: Locomotor which is deployed in the tank for inspection and cleanup; Hydraulic power unit providing system power for the locomotor and deployment unit; and Control system providing the man machine interface to control, coordinate and monitor the system. This document presents the final report on the Tarzan project

  16. System Properties Determine Food Security and Biodiversity Outcomes at Landscape Scale: A Case Study from West Flores, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Neil French Collier; Jeffrey Sayer; Agni Klintuni Boedhihartono; Jan Hanspach; Dave Abson; Joern Fischer

    2018-01-01

    The food-biodiversity nexus is a concept that defines and characterizes the complex interactions between agricultural systems and biodiversity conservation. Here we use a social-ecological systems approach that combines fuzzy cognitive mapping and graph theoretic analyses to uncover system properties that determine food security and biodiversity outcomes at a landscape scale. We studied a rice-based agricultural landscape system situated in Mbeliling district of West Flores, Indonesia. A grap...

  17. RAMI approach as guidance for optimizing the design of the WEST machine protection system using IR thermography measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchambre, E.; Houtte, D. van; Courtois, X.; Aumeunier, M.H.; Bucalossi, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In the framework of the WEST project, a RAMI analysis has been performed to evaluate the availability of the IR thermography diagnostic and to compare it with the objective. • Due to a too low availability value, especially for the machine protection function, a major modification of the initial design of the IR thermography diagnostic was required to meet WEST expectations. • Thanks to the design change and some other recommendations in terms of spares on-site and maintenance, the expected availability of the machine protection function has been improved from ∼43% to 91% and therefore contribute in the mitigation of technical/operational risks during the WEST operation phase. - Abstract: The WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady State Tokamak) is targeted at minimizing risks in support of the ITER divertor strategy. Part of the machine protection system will be based on Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) thermography diagnostic which consists in monitoring and controlling in real time the power load on the plasma facing components through the surface temperature measurements. The inherent availability objective of such a machine protection diagnostic is essential for WEST operation. A functional analysis of the IR system from highest level main functions down to basic operational functions has been developed. The availability of the initial design has been assessed by making a RAMI (Reliability, Availability Maintainability and Inspectability) analysis. Despite mitigation actions to reduce the frequency of potential failures and their time to repair, the availability required by the project could not be reached. With the aim of achieving the availability target, a recommendation was made to consider an alternative design. This paper presents a RAMI analysis of the IR thermography diagnostic whose results have led to modifying the design of antennas protection system to a more available system as required by the WEST project.

  18. RAMI approach as guidance for optimizing the design of the WEST machine protection system using IR thermography measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchambre, E., E-mail: elise.delchambre@cea.fr; Houtte, D. van; Courtois, X.; Aumeunier, M.H.; Bucalossi, J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In the framework of the WEST project, a RAMI analysis has been performed to evaluate the availability of the IR thermography diagnostic and to compare it with the objective. • Due to a too low availability value, especially for the machine protection function, a major modification of the initial design of the IR thermography diagnostic was required to meet WEST expectations. • Thanks to the design change and some other recommendations in terms of spares on-site and maintenance, the expected availability of the machine protection function has been improved from ∼43% to 91% and therefore contribute in the mitigation of technical/operational risks during the WEST operation phase. - Abstract: The WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady State Tokamak) is targeted at minimizing risks in support of the ITER divertor strategy. Part of the machine protection system will be based on Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) thermography diagnostic which consists in monitoring and controlling in real time the power load on the plasma facing components through the surface temperature measurements. The inherent availability objective of such a machine protection diagnostic is essential for WEST operation. A functional analysis of the IR system from highest level main functions down to basic operational functions has been developed. The availability of the initial design has been assessed by making a RAMI (Reliability, Availability Maintainability and Inspectability) analysis. Despite mitigation actions to reduce the frequency of potential failures and their time to repair, the availability required by the project could not be reached. With the aim of achieving the availability target, a recommendation was made to consider an alternative design. This paper presents a RAMI analysis of the IR thermography diagnostic whose results have led to modifying the design of antennas protection system to a more available system as required by the WEST project.

  19. Coupling of Wave and Circulation Models in the Atlantic European North-West Shelf Predicting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Krüger, Oliver; Behrens, Arno; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan M.

    2017-04-01

    This study addresses the coupling between wind wave and circulation models on the example of the Atlantic - European North-West Shelf (NWS). This topic reflects the increased interest in operational oceanography to reduce prediction errors of state estimates at coastal scales. The uncertainties in most of the presently used models result from the nonlinear feedback between strong tidal currents and wind-waves, which can no longer be ignored, in particular in the coastal zone where its role seems to be dominant. Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on thermohaline distribution and ocean circulation at the NWS. Four scenarios - including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination of the three wave-induced forcing were performed to study the role of the wave-induced processes on model simulations. The individual and collective role of those processes is quantified and the results are compared with the NWS circulation model results without wave effects as well as against various in-situ measurements. The performance of the forecasting system is illustrated for the cases of several extreme events. The improved skills resulting from the new developments in the forecasting system, in particular during extreme events, justify further enhancements of the coastal operational systems. The study is performed in the frame of the COPERNICUS CMEMS Service Evolution Projects Wave2NEMO and OWAIRS.

  20. Retention of fish larvae in a fjord system - a seasonal study of the larval life in a West Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    The Godthåbsfjord is the largest fjord system on the West Greenlandic coast and an important spawning site for several fish species. It houses the largest inshore stock of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on the west coast but also key species like Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and American plaice...... (Hippoglossoides platessoides) are abundant. The innermost part of the fjord branch Kapisigdlit is the principal spawning site for the fjord population of Atlantic cod, and in 2010 a seasonal study was carried out on the early life of this population. Abundance and distribution of this and other occurring fish...

  1. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  2. Use of composts to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Zombré, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and

  3. Sediment Oxygen Demand in Cochin backwaters, a tropical estuarine system in the south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abhilash, K.R.; Raveendran, T.V.; LimnaMol, V.P.; Deepak, M.P.

    to evaluate the SOD of the Cochin Backwater System (CBS), a tropical eutrophic estuary in the south-west coast of India. The CBS exhibited significant spatio-temporal variations in SOD. The mean net SOD during the dry season (2569.73 mu mol O sub(2) m sup(−2...

  4. Analysis and Diagnosis of the Agrarian System in the Niayes Region, Northwest Senegal (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Fare

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian system Analysis and Diagnosis is used for this study, the goal of which was to provide a corpus of basic knowledge and elements of reflection necessary for the understanding the Niayes farming systems dynamics in Senegal, West Africa. Such holistic work has never been done before for this small region that provides the majority of vegetables in the area, thanks to its microclimate and access to fresh water in an arid country. Reading of the landscape and historical interviews coupled with fine-tuned household surveys were used to build a typology of agricultural production units (each type being represented by a production system. The main phases within the region’s history were distinguished. Before colonization, agriculture was based on gathering and shifting agriculture (millet and peanut in the southern region and transhumant stockbreeding in the North. During colonization, market gardening became a source of income as a response to cities’ increasing demand. Two major droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s have accelerated this movement. Extension of market gardening areas and intensification of activities were made possible by Sahelian migrants’ influx and the creation of mbeye seddo, a contract that allows for sharing added value between the employer and seasonal workers, named sourghas. Over the past 20 years, the “race for motorization” has created important social gaps (added value sharing deserves review and a risk of overexploitation of groundwater.

  5. Transition towards Renewable Energy Production? Potential in Smallholder Agricultural Systems in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Winkler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy (RE production promotes the efficient and sustainable utilization of natural resources at the local level. This study assessed smallholder farmers’ perceptions of RE production in two villages in West Bengal, India. The availability and potential of renewable resources and livelihood characteristics of smallholders were explored. Relevant factors for the selection of appropriate RE technologies were identified, based on the participatory, bottom-up Integrated Renewable Energy Potential Assessment. The research area has abundant solar resources and substantial amounts of organic residues and waste suitable for biodigestion. Important factors for RE technology selection, as stated by farmers, are: ease of daily activities, government support, and limited land requirements. Solar-photovoltaic (PV systems providing sufficient electricity for household use and irrigation are considered the most appropriate. Key informants focus on initial investment costs, government support, and reduced energy expenditure. They favor solar-PV systems for household electrification. Second choice was an integrated food and energy system that combines solar-PV for irrigation and vermicomposting of organic residues/wastes for fertilizer production. Smallholder famers’ motivation to produce and use RE is high. Their perspective should be integrated in the design of RE-supporting policies and related programs to utilize local natural resources effectively and promote the transition towards renewable energy.

  6. A Comparison of the Two-Party and Multi-Party Political Systems: A Case Study Using the United States and West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, James

    The political system of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) is explained and comparisons are made with the U.S. system. Descriptions are given of the West German political parties and the process and importance of forming coalitions is explained. A lesson plan is presented that utilizes the case study and includes a simulation exercise…

  7. Systematic Technologies That Enhance At-Risk Students Progression in Developmental Coursework in the West Virginia Community and Technical College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurora, Shana

    2013-01-01

    The Community College Completion Agenda is the West Virginia Community and Technical College System's (WVCTCS) commitment to awarding 16,000 new degrees by 2015. With this new completion agenda the West Virginia Community and Technical College System has realigned its master plan, Meeting the Challenge 2010-2015. Its focus from primarily…

  8. Dyke belt in North Western margin of Siberian platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor

    2015-04-01

    The Early Triassic dyke swarm belt is strengthening at about 500 km (50-60 km width) along the northern margin of Siberian platform. Its locations is limited from the north by rift structure of the Yenisei-Khatanga trough, and from the south by Kystyktah-Ayan-Ambardah uprise. From west to east dyke belt is crossing Norilsk, Kamensky and Maimecha-Kotuiskaya province. In this direction the composition of dykes changing from basic rthrough alkali-basic to alkali-ultramafic varieties. The sickness of dykes varies from 0,5-10m up to 90 m and length - from 5-15 m to 140 km. The orientation of the bulk of dykes coincides with the direction of the major structural and tectonic lineaments of the region. Dykes are often refer to the fault planes. The composition of dykes may vary along the stretches. The density of hundreds of basaltic dykes and small intrusions in the dyke swarms is not permanent and sometimes essentially uneven. They form a compact dyke swarms of dykes, stocks and sub layering bodies veins. In dyke package on Huor-Uyallah river here are 20 subparallel dykes of different chemical composition at a distance of 2 km Lack of the evidence of the dykes crossing allows to assume their formation during the same magmatic cycle. Dykes cross cut through the entire incision of basaltic plateau. They did not created the flow effusions and refer to the final stage trap magmatism. Ar/Ar age of the youngest dykes in the province Kamenska 238-247 Ma. the age of lamproite dyke in Norilsk province is 235 Ma. Dykes are represented by dolerites trachydolerites, syenites, minettes, lamprophyres (camptonite, spessartite, vosgesite), avgitites, melanephelinite, alnoites, limburgites alkaline picrites, meimechites. Their content vary widely: SiO2 - 35,7-62,6; TiO2- 0,4-7,5; Al2O3- 4,4-17,5; Fe2O3- 4,6-20,6; MnO- 0,08-0,44; MgO- 0,8-31,5; CaO- 0,7-15,4; Na2O- 0,01-6,5; K2O 0,8-5,3 wt.%; P2O5 0,1-1,2 wt.%. The h Bolsheavamskaya volcanic basin in Kamensky province is most abundant in

  9. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Debkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of new Siberian stone pine forests near settlements is proposed.

  10. Why Afro-Siberian Red Knots Calidris canutus canutus have stopped staging in the western Dutch Wadden Sea during southward migration

    OpenAIRE

    Kraan, Casper; van Gils, Jan A.; Spaans, Bernard; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Afro-Siberian Red Knots Calidris canutus canutus use the western Dutch Wadden Sea as a refuelling area during southward migration from Taimyr to West Africa. Here we document the decline of their food stocks in this area, based on a yearly large-scale benthic mapping effort, from 1996 to 2005. For each benthic sampling position, intake rate (mg/s, ash-free dry mass) was predicted by an optimal diet model based on digestive rate maximization. Over the ten years, when accounting for a threshold...

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Diagnosis of vegetation recovery within herbaceous sub-systems in the West African Sahel Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, J.; Hanan, N. P.; Prihodko, L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Ji, W.; Ross, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The West African Sahel (WAS) region is an extensive water limited environment that features a delicate balance of herbaceous and woody vegetation sub systems. These play an important role in the cycling of carbon while also supporting the dominant agro-pastoral human activities in the region. Quantifying the temporal trends in vegetation with regard to these two systems is therefore very important in assessing resource sustainability and food security. In water limited areas, rainfall is a primary driver of vegetation productivity and past watershed scale studies in the WAS region have shown that increase in the slope of the productivity-to-rainfall relationship is indicative of increasing cover and density of herbaceous plants. Given the importance of grazing resources to the region, we perform a wall-to-wall pixel based analysis of changing short-term vegetation sensitivity to changing annual rainfall (hereafter referred to as dS) to examine temporal trends in herbaceous vegetation health. Results indicate that 43% of the Sahelian region has experienced changes (P well distributed across the region, but with major concentrations in North-Central Senegal, South Western and Central Mali and South Western Niger. Positive dS is indicative of herbaceous vegetation recovery, in response to changing management and rainfall conditions that promote long-term herbaceous community recovery following degradation during the 1970-1980s droughts.

  13. Observations of Coastally Transitioning West African Mesoscale Convective Systems during NAMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley W. Klotz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations from the NASA 10 cm polarimetric Doppler weather radar (NPOL were used to examine structure, development, and oceanic transition of West African Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA to determine possible indicators leading to downstream tropical cyclogenesis. Characteristics examined from the NPOL data include echo-top heights, maximum radar reflectivity, height of maximum radar reflectivity, and convective and stratiform coverage areas. Atmospheric radiosondes launched during NAMMA were used to investigate environmental stability characteristics that the MCSs encountered while over land and ocean, respectively. Strengths of African Easterly Waves (AEWs were examined along with the MCSs in order to improve the analysis of MCS characteristics. Mean structural and environmental characteristics were calculated for systems that produced TCs and for those that did not in order to determine differences between the two types. Echo-top heights were similar between the two types, but maximum reflectivity and height and coverage of intense convection (>50 dBZ are all larger than for the TC producing cases. Striking differences in environmental conditions related to future TC formation include stronger African Easterly Jet, increased moisture especially at middle and upper levels, and increased stability as the MCSs coastally transition.

  14. Large-scale recumbent isoclinal folds in the footwall of the West Cycladic Detachment System (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The Pindos Zone in the Cyclades underwent Eocene high-pressure metamorphism and syn-orogenic exhumation, overprinted by Miocene low-angled extension. Although this represents a combination of likely high-strain-events, structural evidence of large-scale folding is rare. Here potential examples of such folding on Kea and Kythnos, in the Western Cyclades, are evaluated. These islands lie within the Cycladic Blueschist Nappe (lower nappe) of the Pindos Zone and in the footwall of the top-to-SSW West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). On Kea, no lithostratigraphy can be established in the 450 m thick greenschist facies mixed sedimentary-volcanoclastic-marble mylonite/phyllonite succession. On the east side of the island, lensoid marble layers frequently bifurcate, which might be reflecting early, sheared-out isoclinal folding, although no evidence of folded compositional layering has been found in potential fold-hinge zones and the bifurcation points are not arranged in a way suggestive of a fold axes parallel to the NNE-SSW oriented stretching lineation. However, at two localities, medium-scale recumbent isoclinal folding has been mapped, with NNE-SSW fold-axes exposed for up to 250 m and amplitudes of up to 170 m. On Kythnos, stretching lineations in greenschist facies rocks show a rotation from ENE-WSW in the north to NNE-SSW in the south, taken to represent a reorientation of the Eocene exhumation strain during block rotation coincident with top-to-SSW movement of the WCDS. The distribution of the three marble units that crop out in central/southern Kythnos suggest large-scale, likely isoclinal folding occurred. (1) Petroussa Lithodeme - a blue-grey calcite (BGC) marble with quartz-calcite-white-mica (QCWM) schists, forming a continuous outcrop around the island, thinning from >16m in the SE to <8m thick mylonites in the SW, overlain by grey sericite-albite-graphite-schists (Flabouria Lithodeme); (2) Rizou Lithodeme - massive grey to BGC marble, with abundant

  15. 90–100% renewable electricity for the South West Interconnected System of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bin; Blakers, Andrew; Stocks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly increasing penetration of renewables, primarily wind and photovoltaics (PV), is causing a move away from fossil fuel in the Australian electric power industry. This study focuses on the South West Interconnected System in Western Australia. Several high (90% and 100%) renewables penetration scenarios have been modelled, comprising wind and PV supplemented with a small amount of biogas, and compared with a “like-for-like” fossil-fuel replacement scenario. Short-term off-river (closed cycle) pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is utilised in some simulations as a large-scale conventional storage technology. The scenarios are examined by using a chronological dispatch model. An important feature of the modelling is that only technologies that have been already deployed on a large scale (>150 gigawatts) are utilised. This includes wind, PV and PHES. The modelling results demonstrate that 90–100% penetration by wind and PV electricity is compatible with a balanced grid. With the integration of off-river PHES, 90% renewables penetration is able to provide low-carbon electricity at competitive prices. Pumped hydro also facilitates a 100% renewables scenario which produces zero greenhouse gas emissions with attractive electricity prices. A sensitivity analysis shows the most important factors in the system cost are discount rate and wind turbine cost. - Highlights: • Short-term off-river pumped hydro energy storage (STORES). • 90–100% renewables for a large-scale self-contained power system. • PV and wind serves 80–90% of the total energy. • 90% renewables system costs $116 ($103)/MWh using 2016 (2030) prices.

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Florida, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0006249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of West Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  18. Maintenance and preparation of the 3.7 GHz LHCD system for WEST operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Léna; Achard, Joelle; Armitano, Arthur; Bienvenu, Paul; Prou, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The generator for the 3.7 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system on Tore Supra consists of 16 klystrons capable of delivering 600kW/1000s each on plasma. Such a powerful installation needs to be operated on a regular basis in order to preserve the specifications of the klystrons in terms of output power and pulse duration. This has been of particular importance during the long shutdown between the last Tore Supra campaign in 2011 [1] and the start of LHCD experiments on WEST in 2017. The TH2103C klystrons have been operated on matched load once a year during the shutdown. A reduction of 14% of the available RF power for the experimental program is found, which is partly due to the loss of one klystron. Another important aspect of the maintenance procedure is to maintain the knowledge of the operating team at a good level. This paper describes the procedure and tests performed during six years of shut-down. It also summarizes the technical problems encountered and the consequences on the test schedule, and highlights the importance of maintaining such large plants in operating condition during shutdowns.

  19. Geophysical observations at natural and exploited hydrothermal systems in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Sule, Rachmat; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Gassner, Alexandra; Guichard, Sebastien; Kamil Syahbana, Devy; Abkar, Fanani; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Hendryana, Andri; Kusnadi, Yosep; Nugraha, Andri; Umar, Muksin; Jaya, Makky; Erbas, Kemal

    2014-05-01

    We assess geothermal resources from our understanding of the structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs and hydrothermal systems in the south of Bandung. The co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. We deployed a multidisciplinary geophysical network around geothermal areas in the south of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. We deployed a network of 30 broadband and 4 short-period (1 Hz) seismic stations with Güralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz) from October 2012 until December 2013. We extended the network in June 2013 with 16 short-period seismometers. Finally, we deployed a geodetic network including a continuously recording gravity meter, a GPS station, clinometers. We describe the set-up of the seismic and geodetic networks and we discuss first observations and results. As a first estimation of this excellent data set, we performed preliminary location of earthquakes using a non-linear algorithm, which allows us to define at least 3 seismic clusters. We use this first estimate to perform joint inversion tomography of hypocenters and velocity model. We discuss the found seismic pattern within the area.

  20. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  1. Village-based indigenous chicken production system in north-west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima, H; Neser, F W C; Van Marle-Koster, E; De Kock, A

    2007-04-01

    Surveys using both purposive and random sampling methods was carried out in four zones of north-west Ethiopia to describe the village-based poultry production systems and constraints in order to design future improvement and conservation strategies. The majority of the respondents were female (74.16%). This indicated that most of the time the women, whether in male-headed or female-headed households, are responsible for chicken rearing while the men are responsible for crop cultivation and other off-farm activities. About 99% of the respondents gave supplementary feeds to their chickens. Almost all farmers provided night shelter for their chickens, in part of the kitchen (1.36%), in the main house (39.07%), in hand-woven baskets (7.29%), in bamboo cages (1.51%) or in a separate shed purpose-made for chickens (50.77%). The major causes of death of chickens during the study were seasonal outbreaks of Newcastle disease (locally known as fengele) and predation. It is important to collect and conserve local poultry breeds before they are fully replaced by the so-called improved breeds. As most of the poultry production is managed by women, focusing on training and education of women will enable not only the improvement of poultry production but also family planning and the overall living standards of the family and the community.

  2. Numerical study of tracers transport by a mesoscale convective system over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Barthe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the vertical transport from the lower to the upper troposphere in a mesoscale convective system (MCS that occurred over Niger on 15 August 2004. The redistribution of five passive tracers initially confined in horizontally homogeneous layers is analyzed. The monsoon layer tracer (0–1.5 km is the most efficiently transported in the upper troposphere with concentrations 3 to 4 times higher than the other tracers in the anvil. On the contrary the African Easterly Jet tracer (~3 km has the lowest contribution above 5 km. The vertical profiles of the mid-troposphere tracers (4.5–10 km in the MCS exhibit two peaks: one in their initial layers, and the second one at 13–14 km altitude, underlying the importance of mid-tropospheric air in feeding the upper troposphere. Mid-tropospheric tracers also experience efficient transport by convective downdrafts with a consequent increase of their concentrations at the surface. The concentration of the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere tracer exhibits strong gradients at the edge of the cloud, meaning almost no entrainment of this tracer into the cloud. No downward transport from the upper troposphere is simulated below 5 km. A proxy for lightning produced NOx is transported preferentially in the forward anvil in the upper troposphere. Additionally, lateral inflows significantly contribute to the updraft and downdraft airflows emphasizing the three-dimensional structure of the West African MCSs.

  3. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  4. Seafloor expression and shallow structure of a fold-and-thrust system, Isfjorden, west Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blinova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed map of the structure of the west Spitsbergen fold-and-thrust belt in the Isfjorden area, Spitsbergen, is presented. The map was constructed from a dense grid of two-dimensional multichannel reflection seismic and bathymetric data. Joint interpretation of two data sets allowed a comparison of tectonic structures detected along the uppermost parts of the seismic sections and those reflected in the morphology of the seafloor. Three major, predominantly north-west–south-east striking faults were identified. The westernmost fault (T1 is a hinterland-directed (most likely out of sequence thrust, while the central and easternmost faults (T2 and T3 are foreland-directed (in-sequence thrusts. The thrusts divide Isfjorden into three subareas. Subarea 1 is bounded by thrust faults T1 and T2 and comprises Tertiary rocks surrounded by Jurassic–Cretaceous strata. The structural signature of Subarea 1 is that of a system of hinterland- and foreland-directed thrust faults, resulting in a seafloor relief characterized by parallel ridges and troughs. Subarea 2 is limited by thrust faults T2 and T3 and shows Jurassic–Cretaceous outcrops on the seafloor. Subarea 3 is situated east of the main thrust fault T3 and mainly involves outcrops of Triassic–Jurassic rocks. Together, Subareas 2 and 3 are dominated by foreland-directed, north-west–south-east and NNW–SSE-striking thrusts that are hardly detectable in bathymetric data.

  5. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF AGROPASTORALISTS IN THE DERIVED SAVANNA OF SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi Ayobami Olafadehan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted by the administration of structured questionnaires to agropastoralists in fifty settlements in the derived savannah of South-west Nigeria in other to highlight the management practices and some of the factors influencing production in the area. The production system is traditional with animals being maintained on free range grazing, browsing and offer of crop-residues. Rangelands were, however, the major source of feed for the cattle. Farmers rarely supplemented their stock with concentrate diet while the most commonly purchased feed supplement was salt. Cattle constituted the major ruminant in the stock (65% while sheep and goats accounted for 23% and 11%, respectively. The most favoured and dominant breed of cattle in the agropastoral herd is the Bunaji (White Fulani (72.10% followed by N’Dama (18.20% and Keteku (9.30%. Female cattle were more in the herd than the male for all the breeds. Labour allocation among the agropastoralists is based on sex with more male tasks than female. All the agropastoralists (100% inherited there stock while few (24% engaged in care-taking of animals for others. Low milk production, soil-eating and diarrhoea were the prevalent diseases among the animals. Majority (84% of the agropastoralists depended on the use of local herbs and self medication for treating their animals as against a few (6% engaging the services of the veterinarian. The system under study vividly typifies a traditional smallholder dairy production system characterized by little or not input. Improved feeding, housing and health management will enhance the productivity of the animals.

  6. An Operational System for Surveillance and Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Davis, J. K.; Vincent, G.; Hess, A.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Mosquito-borne disease surveillance has traditionally focused on tracking human cases along with the abundance and infection status of mosquito vectors. For many of these diseases, vector and host population dynamics are also sensitive to climatic factors, including temperature fluctuations and the availability of surface water for mosquito breeding. Thus, there is a potential to strengthen surveillance and predict future outbreaks by monitoring environmental risk factors using broad-scale sensor networks that include earth-observing satellites. The South Dakota Mosquito Information System (SDMIS) project combines entomological surveillance with gridded meteorological data from NASA's North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) to generate weekly risk maps for West Nile virus (WNV) in the north-central United States. Critical components include a mosquito infection model that smooths the noisy infection rate and compensates for unbalanced sampling, and a human infection model that combines the entomological risk estimates with lagged effects of meteorological variables from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Two types of forecasts are generated: long-term forecasts of statewide risk extending through the entire WNV season, and short-term forecasts of the geographic pattern of WNV risk in the upcoming week. Model forecasts are connected to public health actions through decision support matrices that link predicted risk levels to a set of phased responses. In 2016, the SDMIS successfully forecast an early start to the WNV season and a large outbreak of WNV cases following several years of low transmission. An evaluation of the 2017 forecasts will also be presented. Our experiences with the SDMIS highlight several important lessons that can inform future efforts at disease early warning. These include the value of integrating climatic models with recent observations of infection, the critical role of automated workflows to facilitate

  7. Overview of main challenges for Early Warning Systems for Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesio, Lorenzo; Bacci, Maurizio; Baron, Christian; Diarra, Birama; di Vecchia, Andrea; Traoré, Seydou; Hassane, Idrissa; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Philippon, Nathalie; Tarchiani, Vieri

    2010-05-01

    In West Africa Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for food security have been widely recognized to have contributed in the last twenty years to better face famine emergencies. The improved understanding of the environmental and socio-economic dynamics of the region, a change in the causes for food insecurity and the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have favored the introduction of new approaches and the involvement of a network of stakeholders. In recent years the improvement of EWS has been concentrated in the adaptation and the transfer of existing tools rather than the development of the overall design of EWS in function of users needs, at the same time key scientific areas to be improved to provide major operational advancements needs to be better identified. This partially due to a difficulty of the research community to be in direct connection with operational processes and on the other side by an evident limit in following a demand driven approach due to the difficulties in modelling bio and social phenomena in a unique environment. In this context AMMA project had the ambitious objective of bridging the gap between state of the art research in the domains of geo-science and human related disciplines, and the operational EWS. The work carried out in AMMA, while improving the understanding of monsoon system, allowed to better orient research challenges in order to provide EWS with improved products effectively meeting the needs of end-users at different levels. In this work, advancements in providing appropriate information for the identification of agricultural risk zones by using short to long time forecasts are illustrated highlighting critical aspects still demanding scientific improvements.

  8. Factors Influencing Formation of the Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Northern Taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Sedykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of seed productive Siberian stone pine stands near settlements, due to the total destruction of the living ground cover and forest litter, providing heat influx in the root-inhabited zone of the Siberian stone pine trees is discussed in the paper.

  9. Nonconservative behavior of dissolved organic carbon across the Laptev and East Siberian seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alling, Vanja; Sanchez-Garcia, Laura; Porcelli, Don; Pugach, Sveta; Vonk, Jorien E.; Van Dongen, Bart; Mörth, Carl Magnus; Anderson, Leif G.; Sokolov, Alexander; Andersson, Per; Humborg, Christoph; Semiletov, Igor P.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a strong effect on the Eastern Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) region, which includes 40% of the Arctic shelves and comprises the Laptev and East Siberian seas. The largest organic carbon pool, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), may change significantly due to

  10. Supertoxic Flood Basalts: The CAMP - Siberian Trap Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    Several diverse magma types are represented throughout the CAMP and Siberian Trap LIPs, however, the main extrusive phase of each province is highly unusual among continental flood basalts. The most widespread extrusions were intermediate titanium (ITi-type) CAMP basalt and the lower portion of the Upper Sequence of Siberian Trap. New and recently published data indicate that the geochemistry and petrology of these basalt suites closely resemble each other and infer similar origins. The basalts are characterized by strong negative Nb- Ta anomalies and unusual island arc-like depletion in high field strength elements, particularly Ti, plotted on spider diagrams. The geochemical data is consistent with significant contributions from subducted slabs into the magma source regions. If contaminated, volatile enriched mantle wedges were trapped beneath thick continental plates during the assembly of Pangea, fertile magma sources would have remained dormant until decompression melting was triggered during failed rift, then early rift stages of continental plate disassembly. The combination of volatile enriched sources and highly extensional tectonism would create rare perfect storms of toxicity. Calculated low viscosities assuming negligible carbon dioxide are consistent with rapid crustal penetration. Resulting aphyric melts extruded at enormous effusive rates as thick sub-parallel flows across wide subareal terrains through fissures extending several hundred km in length. High fountain heights would afford ample opportunity for efficient degassing, perhaps into the stratosphere. When the supply of volatile flux was exhausted magmatism ceased. The mass extinctions that coincide with CAMP and Siberian volcanism contrast with some large plume and superplume events that correlate with expansions of biodiversity. This may be due in part to contrasting magma access to sources of toxic volatiles, particularly sulfur concentrations in anoxic subducted sediments.

  11. Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata))were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (1825),convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width(TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies)have a high impact on current TRW (r 0.600.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest steppe)and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.

  12. Carbonate system parameters of an algal-dominated reef along west Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Gallagher, Christopher; Cheriton, Olivia; Storlazzi, Curt

    2018-01-01

    Constraining coral reef metabolism and carbon chemistry dynamics are fundamental for understanding and predicting reef vulnerability to rising coastal CO2 concentrations and decreasing seawater pH. However, few studies exist along reefs occupying densely inhabited shorelines with known input from land-based sources of pollution. The shallow coral reefs off Kahekili, West Maui, are exposed to nutrient-enriched, low-pH submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and are particularly vulnerable to the compounding stressors from land-based sources of pollution and lower seawater pH. To constrain the carbonate chemistry system, nutrients and carbonate chemistry were measured along the Kahekili reef flat every 4 h over a 6-d sampling period in March 2016. Abiotic process – primarily SGD fluxes – controlled the carbonate chemistry adjacent to the primary SGD vent site, with nutrient-laden freshwater decreasing pH levels and favoring undersaturated aragonite saturation (Ωarag) conditions. In contrast, diurnal variability in the carbonate chemistry at other sites along the reef flat was driven by reef community metabolism. Superimposed on the diurnal signal was a transition during the second sampling period to a surplus of total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) compared to ocean end-member TA and DIC measurements. A shift from net community production and calcification to net respiration and carbonate dissolution was identified. This transition occurred during a period of increased SGD-driven nutrient loading, lower wave height, and reduced current speeds. This detailed study of carbon chemistry dynamics highlights the need to incorporate local effects of nearshore oceanographic processes into predictions of coral reef vulnerability and resilience.

  13. Integrated Human Surveillance Systems of West Nile Virus Infections in Italy: The 2012 Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June–30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008–2011, with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a “one health” perspective.

  14. Zoogeography of intertidal communities in the West Indian Ocean as determined by ocean circulation systems: patterns from the Tetraclita barnacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region.

  15. Ecology of antibiotic resistant vibrios in traditional shrimp farming system (bhery of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leesa Priyadarsani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the ecology of antibiotic resistant bacteria with emphasis on sucrose negative vibrios in water and sediments samples of traditional shrimp farming system (bhery in West Bengal, India. Methods: The vibrios were isolated from traditional shrimp farm samples on thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar and sucrose negative bacterial strains were used as biomarkers to assess the frequency of antibiotic resistance. Results: The incoming water brought presumptive vibrios ranging from 5.50000×10 1 to 1.00×10 3 mL in to the bhery, and there appeared to build up vibrios in the culture system with days of culture, as there was about 9 fold increase in vibrios. The levels of vibrios were observed to be moderately higher in outlet water and ranged between 4.15×10 2 and 4.15×10 3 mL. The counts of vibrios in pond sediment was found to be 1.00×10 2 –4.90×10 3 g; while in inlet (2.00×10 2 –4.20×10 4 g and outlet (3.00×10 2 –6.85×10 3 g their levels were observed to be higher than the pond sediment. Thirteen different Vibrio species were encountered in traditional shrimp culture system and all vibrios were sensitive to chloramphenicol, followed by ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin (98.24%, gentamicin (95.61% and other antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR, i.e., resistance to at least two antibiotics, was noticed among 43.85% of the sucrose negative vibrios and 41.86% of the sucrose negative non-vibrios. All vibrios harveyi strains exhibited MAR. Although no antibiotic was used in the bhery, the prevalence of MAR in 44% of the sucrose negative vibrios and nonvibrios is a cause of concern. The MAR index was higher in inlet water and sediment samples. The MAR observed in biomarker strains of pond water and sediment (40% was comparable to those of inlet samples, thus confirming the fact that incoming water was the major source of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Conclusions: It seems that the shrimp culture in bhery

  16. Nutrient cycling and ecosystem metabolism in boreal streams of the Central Siberian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, L.; McDowell, W. H.; Prokushkin, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic boreal streams are undergoing considerable change in carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry due to degrading permafrost and increasing fire activity. Recent studies show that fire increases transport of inorganic solutes from the boreal landscape to arctic streams in some regions; couple this with expected greater labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from deepening active layers, enhanced biomass production, and increased annual precipitation and boreal streams may experience greater in-stream primary production and respiration in the coming century. Little is known about the spatial and temporal dynamics of inorganic nutrients in relation to C availability in headwater streams of a major Arctic region, the Central Siberian Plateau. Our preliminary data of Central Siberian headwater streams show NO3 and PO4 concentrations near or below detection limits (e.g. nine samples taken in spring from a small stream near the Russian settlement of Tura averaged 10 μg/L NO3-N and 9.7 μg/L PO4-P), and recent studies in Central Siberia suggest that bioavailable organic matter and inorganic nutrients such as NO3 will likely increase with climate warming. We examined the fate of nutrients in Central Siberian streams using Tracer for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) additions of NO3, NH4, and PO4 along with conservative tracer, NaCl, in spring at high and low discharges in streams underlain by continuous permafrost in Central Siberia. We also sampled two sites in spring every 2 hours overnight for 24 hours to document any diel patterns in DOC and inorganic nutrients. Our results thus far show that NO3 uptake length may be strongly correlated with DOC concentration (a function of fire activity). Preliminary results also show that despite high discharge and cold temperatures (4-8°C) in mid to late spring, there appears to be biological activity stimulating a diel signal for NO3 with maximum concentration corresponding to low light (11 PM). Investigating the primary

  17. Specific features of sedimentology in the outer part of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, O.; Gustafsson, O.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.; Shakhova, N. E.; Tesi, T.; Ruban, A.; Charkin, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Lithological investigations performed in the outer part of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) revealed specific features in the structure and distribution of bottom sediments in the studied area. Predominant type of sediments found in the uppermost layers of sediments was mud (that is silt and clay) with particle size 1 mm (coarse sand). Some authors described existence of such areas in the outer part of the Laptev Sea shelf earlier without attributing such variability in sediment grain size to any processes. We hypothesize three possible mechanisms to explain intrusion of high energy processes into the low energy environment: 1) effect of geo-fluid and/or gas (methane) escape through open/deep taliks forming within subsea permafrost due to long-lasting warming by seawater and underlying fault zones (southern end of the Gakkel Ridge); 2) release of underground water through intra-permafrost hydraulic system; and 3) bottom erosion caused by ice-scouring.

  18. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  19. Mitochondrial genome diversity in the Tubalar, Even, and Ulchi: contribution to prehistory of native Siberians and their affinities to Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukernik, Rem I; Volodko, Natalia V; Mazunin, Ilya O; Eltsov, Nikolai P; Dryomov, Stanislav V; Starikovskaya, Elena B

    2012-05-01

    To fill remaining gaps in mitochondrial DNA diversity in the least surveyed eastern and western flanks of Siberia, 391 mtDNA samples (144 Tubalar from Altai, 87 Even from northeastern Siberia, and 160 Ulchi from the Russian Far East) were characterized via high-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism/single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis. The subhaplogroup structure was extended through complete sequencing of 67 mtDNA samples selected from these and other related native Siberians. Specifically, we have focused on the evolutionary histories of the derivatives of M and N haplogroups, putatively reflecting different phases of settling Siberia by early modern humans. Population history and phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes, combined with those from previously published data sets, revealed a wide range of tribal- and region-specific mtDNA haplotypes that emerged or diversified in Siberia before or after the last glacial maximum, ∼18 kya. Spatial distribution and ages of the "east" and "west" Eurasian mtDNA haploclusters suggest that anatomically modern humans that originally colonized Altai derived from macrohaplogroup N and came from Southwest Asia around 38,000 years ago. The derivatives of macrohaplogroup M, which largely emerged or diversified within the Russian Far East, came along with subsequent migrations to West Siberia millennia later. The last glacial maximum played a critical role in the timing and character of the settlement of the Siberian subcontinent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. ATM Technology and Banking System in West African Sub-Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... explores the prospects and challenges of ATM application in banking in West. African sub region and how the ... National resources, such as gold, diamond, oil etc, are no longer the primary determinant ... of people now shun the use of ATM and other cyber applications and concluded that cyber threat is an.

  1. Sorghum agronomy in West Kenya : investigations from a farming systems perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    An adaptive sorghum research and extension programme (1979-82) in West Kenya is reviewed. The focus is on factors operating at farm level. Research results are based on 70 on-farm trials and on some long-term experiments on NPK fertilizer and pest incidence. Extension results are based on

  2. The Financing and Future of the Educational System of West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Recum, Hasso

    1986-01-01

    Noting that mass education is a product of the affluent society, this article details efforts in West Germany to maintain quality education in times of shrinking economic growth, decreasing entry-level enrollments, level-funding, and decreasing political priority. Provides facts and figures on population trends, educational funding, demographic…

  3. The Dutch and the Portuguese in West Africa : empire building and Atlantic system (1580-1674)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Filipa Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines in comparative perspective the Dutch and the Portuguese Atlantic empires in the 17th century, using West Africa as a case study. The book is divided into two parts. In Part I, we study how the conditions in the home countries influenced the building of the empires. Here we

  4. The Benguela upwelling system off the west coast of southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    (Schumann and Brink 1990), was obtained from measurements taken at Saldanha Bay, a coastal site adjacent to a major upwelling centre on the west coast of South Africa (Nelson and Hutchings 1983). Sea level fluctuations in such a dataset could then be attributed to wind-driven processes. Wind dataset. Wind data were ...

  5. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  6. Chemical analysis of bioactive substances in seven siberian Saussurea species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, Elena; Reshetov, Yaroslav; Shurupova, Margarita; Zibareva, Larisa; Borisova, Evgeniia; Belousov, Mikhail

    2017-11-01

    Main groups of biologically active substances of seven siberian Saussurea species (S. controversa DC., S. latifolia Ledeb., S. parviflora (Poir.) DC., S. frolowii Ledeb, S. amara (L.) DC., S. salicifolia (L.) DC. and S. daurica Adams) have been studied using paper, thin-layer, performance liquid chromatography, IR spectroscopy, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Siberian Saussurea species have a rich elemental composition and contain a variety of phenolic compounds, amino acids, polysaccharides. The majority of polysaccharides are accumulated by S. controversa, S. salicifolia and S. frolowii. These plants contain a significant amount of calcium that may be a species characteristic. All plants contain quercetin and its glycosides, in some species luteolin, kaempferol, glycosides of apigenin and myricetin were revealed. Phenolic acids with predominant content of caffeic, chlorogenic and cinnamic acids were found in all the species. The maximum amount of phenolic acids and flavonoids was determined in the grass of S. latifolia, S. controversa and S. daurica. Characteristic absorption bands of lactone carbonyl of sesquiterpenoids in IR spectrum found in S. latifolia, S. controversa, S. daurica, S. amara and S. salicifolia. HPLC / UV analysis showed that peaks with absorption maxima of 242-246 nm due to the presence of α,β-unsaturated ketone group in the structure of ecdysteroids were found in S. salicifolia, S. controversa, S. daurica and S. latifolia.

  7. Siberian Chemical Combine laboratory project work plan, fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, R.E.; Acobyan, R.; Shropsire, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK), Laboratory Project Work Plan (Plan) is intended to assist the US Laboratory Project Team, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff with the management of the FY99 joint material protection control and accounting program (MPC and A) for enhancing nuclear material safeguards within the Siberian Chemical Combine. The DOE/Russian/Newly Independent States, Nuclear Material Task Force, uses a project work plan document for higher-level program management. The SKhK Plan is a component of the Russian Defense related Sites' input to that document. In addition, it contains task descriptions and a Gantt Chart covering the FY99 time-period. This FY99 window is part of a comprehensive, Project Status Gantt Chart for tasking and goal setting that extends to the year 2003. Secondary and tertiary levels of detail are incorporated therein and are for the use of laboratory project management. The SKhK Plan is a working document, and additions and modifications will be incorporated as the MPC and A project for SKhK evolves

  8. Siberian Chemical Combine laboratory project work plan, fiscal year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Acobyan, R.; Shropsire, R.

    1998-12-31

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK), Laboratory Project Work Plan (Plan) is intended to assist the US Laboratory Project Team, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff with the management of the FY99 joint material protection control and accounting program (MPC and A) for enhancing nuclear material safeguards within the Siberian Chemical Combine. The DOE/Russian/Newly Independent States, Nuclear Material Task Force, uses a project work plan document for higher-level program management. The SKhK Plan is a component of the Russian Defense related Sites` input to that document. In addition, it contains task descriptions and a Gantt Chart covering the FY99 time-period. This FY99 window is part of a comprehensive, Project Status Gantt Chart for tasking and goal setting that extends to the year 2003. Secondary and tertiary levels of detail are incorporated therein and are for the use of laboratory project management. The SKhK Plan is a working document, and additions and modifications will be incorporated as the MPC and A project for SKhK evolves.

  9. Comparison of the Farming System and Carbon Sequestration between Conventional and Organic Rice Production in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faiz Syuaib

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming provides many benefits in Indonesia: it can improve soil quality, food quality and soil carbon sequestration. This study was designed to compare soil carbon sequestration levels between conventional and organic rice farming fields in west Java, Indonesia. The results from soil analysis indicate that organic farming leads to soil with significantly higher soil carbon storage capacity than conventional farming. Organic farming can also cut some farming costs, but it requires about twice as much labor. The sharecropping system of rice farming in Indonesia is highly exploitative of workers; therefore, research should be conducted to develop a fairer organic farming system that can enhance both local and global sustainability.

  10. Influence of Siberian High on temperature variability over northern areas of South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Syed Muhammad Fahad; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed; Baig, Mirza Jawwad

    2017-05-01

    Siberian High pressure plays a significant role in wintertime climate variability over South Asia. It brings coldest air masses in the region. The available literature has linked Siberian High with climate of East Asia, central Asia, and Eurasia. This paper examines the linkage between Siberian High pressure and inter-annual variations in temperature over the region of South Asia during winters. The methods employed in this study are that of centers of action approach, maximum covariance, and canonical correlation analyses. The wintertime temperature is not only significantly influenced by the intensity of Siberian High pressure, but it is also significantly correlated with zonal movement of Indian Ocean High. The intensity of Siberian High pressure explains more variance of the temperature during winters over the South Asian region than that of large-scale circulation phenomena, namely, Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and El-Nino-Southern Oscillation. A linear model of wintertime temperature has also been constructed using the Siberian High pressure index and the Indian Ocean High longitudinal index, which explains 28% variability of wintertime temperature for the Northern part of South Asia. We have also presented the justification that this statistical evidence is supported by the circulations and changes in the atmosphere. The modes having maximum possible covariance between the regional wintertime temperature and sea-level pressure of Siberian High have been isolated using the method of maximum covariance analysis and the modes having maximum possible correlations between the two fields have been isolated using canonical correlation analysis.

  11. CCR5 limits cortical viral loads during West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Douglas M; Daniels, Brian P; Pasieka, TracyJo; Dorsey, Denise; Klein, Robyn S

    2015-12-15

    Cell-mediated immunity is critical for clearance of central nervous system (CNS) infection with the encephalitic flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV). Prior studies from our laboratory have shown that WNV-infected neurons express chemoattractants that mediate recruitment of antiviral leukocytes into the CNS. Although the chemokine receptor, CCR5, has been shown to play an important role in CNS host defense during WNV infection, regional effects of its activity within the infected brain have not been defined. We used CCR5-deficient mice and an established murine model of WNV encephalitis to determine whether CCR5 activity impacts on WNV levels within the CNS in a region-specific fashion. Statistical comparisons between groups were made with one- or two-way analysis of variance; Bonferroni's post hoc test was subsequently used to compare individual means. Survival was analyzed by the log-rank test. Analyses were conducted using Prism software (GraphPad Prism). All data were expressed as means ± SEM. Differences were considered significant if P ≤ 0.05. As previously shown, lack of CCR5 activity led to increased symptomatic disease and mortality in mice after subcutaneous infection with WNV. Evaluation of viral burden in the footpad, draining lymph nodes, spleen, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum derived from WNV-infected wild-type, and CCR5(-/-) mice showed no differences between the genotypes. In contrast, WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased viral burden in cortical tissues, including the hippocampus, at day 8 post-infection. CNS regional studies of chemokine expression via luminex analysis revealed significantly increased expression of CCR5 ligands, CCL4 and CCL5, within the cortices of WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice compared with those of similarly infected WT animals. Cortical elevations in viral loads and CCR5 ligands in WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice, however, were associated with decreased numbers of infiltrating mononuclear cells

  12. Land use planning of paddy field using geographic information system and land evaluation in West Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka .

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning analysis to increase rice production either through intensiḀcation of existing paddy Ḁeld area or ex-tensiḀcation in potential land area was conducted in West Lombok Regency, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Existing paddy Ḁeld was delineated using high-resolution data from IKONOS imagery of 2012. Land use and land cover outside existing paddy Ḁeld were interpreted using SPOT-5 imagery of 2012. ἀe Automated Land Evaluation System (ALES was used for land suitability analysis for paddy. ἀe results are interpreted in terms of the potential of paddy Ḁeld intensiḀcation in existing paddy Ḁeld area and the potential of extensiḀcation in land potentially used for paddy Ḁeld. ἀe result of analysis showed that in West Lombok Regency, there are still possible to do intensiḀcation and extensiḀca-tion of paddy Ḁeld to increase rice production in order to improve regional food security.

  13. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  14. Design of soft-X-ray tomographic system in WEST using GEM detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazon, D.; Chernyshova, M.; Jiolat, G.; Czarski, T.; Malard, P.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Jablonski, S.; Figacz, W.; Zagorski, R.; Kubkowska, M.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Zabolotny, W.; Larroque, S.; Verger, J.-M.; O’Mullane, M.; Mlynář, Jan; Byszuk, A.; Wojenski, A.

    96-97, October (2015), s. 856-860 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology 2014(SOFT-28)/28./. San Sebastián, 29.09.2014-03.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Soft-X-ray * Gas detector * Tomography * WEST * Tokamak Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.301, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379615002215

  15. Two possibilities for New Siberian Islands terrane tectonic history during the Early Paleozoic based on paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Chernova, Anna I.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The New Siberian Islands (NSI), located in the East Siberian Sea in the junction region of various structural elements, are a key target for deciphering the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Arctic. In recent years, we went on several expeditions and gathered an extensive geological material for this territory. Among other things, we could prove that the basement of the De Long and Anjou archipelagos structures is Precambrian and the overlying Paleozoic sections formed within the same terrane. The form of the boundaries of the NSI terrane are actively debated and are probably continued from the Lyakhovsky islands in the south-west to the southern parts of the submerged Mendeleev Ridge, for which there is increasing evidence of continental crust. Today there are several models that interpret the Paleozoic-Mesozoic tectonic history and structural affiliation of the NSI terrane. Some propose that the Paleozoic sedimentary section formed in a passive margin setting of the Siberian paleocontinent. Others compare its history with marginal basins of the Baltica and Laurentia continents or consider the NSI terrane as an element of the Chukotka-Alaska microplate. These models are mainly based on results of paleobiogeographical and lithological-facies analyses, including explanations of probable sources for detrital zircons. Our paleomagnetic research on sedimentary, volcanogenic-sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Anjou (Kotelny and Bel'kovsky islands) and De Long (Bennett, Jeannette and Henrietta islands) archipelagos let us calculate an apparent polar wander path for the early Paleozoic interval of geological history, which allows us to conclude that the NSI terrane could not have been a part of the continental plates listed above, but rather had active tectonic boundaries with them. Our paleomagnetic data indicate that the NSI terrane drifted slowly and steadily in the tropical and subtropical regions no higher than 40 degrees. However, the main uncertainty for the

  16. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  17. A modeling system for predicting the impact of severe storms on the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P. L.; Ormondt, M. V.; O'Reilly, B.; Hoover, D.; Hapke, C. J.; Eshleman, J.; Ruggiero, P.; Elias, E.; Erikson, L. H.; Collins, B. D.; Guza, R. T.; Adams, P. N.; Thomas, J.

    2009-12-01

    Storm hazards on the U.S. West Coast are generally thought of as being less severe than the more dramatic hurricane impacts that affect the Gulf of Mexico and East Coasts. However, the magnitude, duration and economic and societal impacts of West Coast storms can still be substantial. Storms during the 1982-83 El Niño winter resulted in 36 casualties and over $1.2 billion in damage to the State of California, and current research suggests that increasing storm intensity, frequency, and wave heights will increase coastal-hazards risks on the West Coast for the foreseeable future. To begin to address the increased risk, the U.S. Geological Survey is leading the development of a modeling system for forecasting the impact of winter storms along the U.S. West Coast. A prototype has been developed for Southern California and is being tested with a hypothetical extreme winter storm scenario designed by atmospheric scientists. The modeling system has been designed to be run operationally or with prescribed scenarios, and utilizes atmospheric forcing information with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models to provide detailed prediction of ocean currents, deep-water and near-shore wave heights, coastal wave runup, and the resulting total water levels on beaches and cliffed coastlines. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also provided. The modeling system utilizes an integrated, nested structure whereby regional wave and water level models are driven by boundary conditions derived from a global wave model, regional seas and swell data from an extensive wave buoy network, a global tide model from satellite altimetry, and atmospheric pressure and wind forecasts. Wave parameters and water levels from the regional models drive local, high resolution cross-shore profile models and 2D-morphological models. Data from these models, in turn, provide boundary conditions for a Bayesian cliff failure model. This paper

  18. Trees as methane sources: A case study of West Siberian South taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, A. I.; Mochenov, S. Yu; Sabrekov, S. F.; Glagolev, M. V.; Il’yasov, D. V.; Terentieva, I. E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    Within this study, we were measuring methane emission from the tree trunks, leaves and branches in the seasonally flooded forest and in the forested bogs (pine-shrub-sphagnum ecosystems or “ryams”) in south taiga zone of Western Siberia. Our results suggest that the tree trunks may act as a methane conductor from the soil to the atmosphere bypassing the methanotrophically active zones of soil. The tree methane flux depends on a trunk diameter and an ecosystem type. The average methane emission from tree trunks was 0.0061±0.0003 mg CH4·m-2·h-1 per unit of ground area. The methane emission from branches and leaves was zero.

  19. Lithological and Mineralogical Characteristics and Forming Conditions of the Jurassic Sediments on the West Siberian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Khaziev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, lithological and mineralogical features, granulometric composition, as well as reservoir properties of the formation YuV1-1 of the Ety-Purovsky oil field are considered. It is established that the main rock-forming minerals of the reservoir – quartz, potassium feldspar and mica, also fragments of rocks, including carbonate rocks, are also found. Sandstone is diagnosed as carbonate greywack by the examined thin sections. According to the granulometry data, the formation is characterized as fine-grained sandstone with a dominant fraction of grains of 0.1-0.25 mm (47% of the total mass. According to the petrogenetic Passega diagram it was established that the formation was formed under the conditions of the gradation suspension generated in the lower parts of the fast river streams, directly at the bottom, which agrees with the literature data. Moreover, according to design factors (So, Q3, Q1, it is established that the formation is characterized by a poor degree of sorting of the sand material, as well as low roundness of grains and deteriorated reservoir properties, measured in laboratory conditions. It follows from the analysis that the reservoir is characterized by low productivity, and its development requires the use of hydraulic fracturing at an early stage of development.

  20. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schreiber

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO2, Helium, Radon and H2S reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H2S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel.

  1. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  2. Differentiation of Siberian Miners’ Salaries in Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work considers seasonal variations and differentiation of Siberian miners’ salaries in late XIX – early XX centuries, proves that seasonal variations of salaries depended on the excess demand on labor in summer and the contraction of demand in winter, detects that salary differentiated, depending on workers’ qualification, sex, age, nationality, industry, location of an enterprise. Such differences in Siberian miners’ salaries were typical for early industrial period of the development of the society.

  3. The Chemistry of Cold: Mechanisms of Torpor Regulation in the Siberian Hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, Ceyda; Bank, Jonathan H H; Herwig, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Siberian hamsters use spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia, to save energy during winter. Multiple neuroendocrine signals set the scene for spontaneous torpor to occur, and several brain areas have been identified as potential sites for torpor regulation. Here, we summarize the known mechanisms of a fascinating physiological state in the Siberian hamster. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  4. Agro-Forestry system in West Africa: integrating a green solution to cope with soil depletion towards agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patricia; Romeiras, Maria Manuel; Ribeiro, Ana; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Catarino, Luís

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, agriculture in West Africa has been marked by dramatic shifts with the coverage of single crops, increasing pressure over the available arable land. Yet, West African countries are still striving to achieve sustainable production at an increased scale for global market needs. Market-driven rapid intensification is often a major cause for cropland area expansion at the expense of deforestation and soil degradation, especially to export commodities in times of high prices. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is nowadays an important export-oriented crop, being produced under intensive cultivation regimes in several tropical regions. Particularly, among the main cashew production areas, West Africa is the most recent and dynamic in the world, accounting for 45% of the world cashew nuts production in 2015. Considering its global market values, several developing countries rely on cashew nuts as national economy revenues, namely in Guinea-Bissau. Considering the intensive regime of cashew production in Guinea-Bissau, and as widely recognized, intensive agriculture linked with extensification can negatively impact ecosystems, affecting natural resources availability, soil erosion and arability compromised by excessive salinity. Ultimately this will result in the disruption of carbon - nitrogen cycle, important to the agricultural ecosystem sustainability. As such, tree intercropped with legumes as cover crops, offers a sustainable management of the land area, thus creating substantial benefits both economically and environmentally, as it enhances diversification of products outputs and proving to be more sustainable than forestry and/or agricultural monocultures. Soil fertility improvement is a key entry point for achieving food security, and also increment agriculture commodities of the agro-system. Without using inorganic fertilizers, the green solution for improving soil management is to incorporate adapted multi-purpose legumes as cover crops

  5. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  6. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Di Sabatino, Daria; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response. PMID:25874224

  7. Noble-metal testing results for the West Valley vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowan, B.W.; Jain, V.

    1989-01-01

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the slurry-fed ceramic melter (SFCM) has been in test operation since December 1984 to vitrify simulated waste slurries. Over 4 yr, a moderate range of glass formulations, some containing RuO 2 , have been processed. Since these noble-metal oxides not only have a limited solubility in the melt, and are also electrically conductive, their accumulation in large amounts on the floor of the SFCM poses a potential electrical hazard to the joule-heated SFCM. The design of the WVDP melter cavity and electrode configuration is specifically intended to allow modest noble-metal accumulation without compromise to melter life or performance. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the amount of RuO 2 that has accumulated on the floor of the SFCM since initiation of the WVDP vitrification test program. The total amount of RuO 2 that has been processed in the SFCM to date is shown. This preliminary study indicates that the West Valley SFCM displays a good capability for sweeping insoluble noble metals through and for tolerating the remaining fraction on the floor without compromising melter life or performance over the course of the WVDP radioactive vitrification campaign

  8. Application of a cave inventory system to stimulate development of management strategies: the case of west-central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Grant L; Polk, Jason S; North, Leslie A; Reeder, Philip P

    2011-10-01

    The active management of air-filled cave systems is virtually non-existent within the karst landscape of west-central Florida. As in every karst landscape, caves are important because they contain a wide variety of resources (e.g., biota, speleothems) and can act as direct connections between surface and subsurface hydrological processes, potentially exacerbating the pollution of groundwater. Before sound management policies can be drafted, implemented, and enforced, stakeholders must first have knowledge of the management requirements of each cave. However, there is an informational disconnect between researchers, stakeholders, and the recreational caving community. Here, we present a cave inventory system that simplifies the dissemination of resource knowledge to stakeholders so that cave management and protection policies can be drafted and implemented at the state and local level. We inventoried 36 caves in west-central Florida, located on both public and private land, and analyzed cave resource data to provide insights on cave sensitivity and disturbance using two standardized indices. The data revealed that both public and private caves exhibit a wide range of sensitivity and disturbance, and before management strategies can be drafted, the ownership of each cave must be considered. Our inventory geodatabase serves as a link between researchers, landowners, and the public. To ensure the conservation and protection of caves, support from county or state government, combined with cave inventory data, is crucial in developing sound management policy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of regional project to strengthen national health research systems in four countries in West Africa: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issiaka; Aidam, Jude; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2017-07-12

    Since the Commission on Health Research for Development (COHRED) published its flagship report, more attention has been focused on strengthening national health research systems (NHRS). This paper evaluates the contribution of a regional project that used a participatory approach to strengthen NHRS in four post-conflict West African countries - Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. The data from the situation analysis conducted at the start of the project was compared to data from the project's final evaluation, using a hybrid conceptual framework built around four key areas identified through the analysis of existing frameworks. The four areas are governance and management, capacities, funding, and dissemination/use of research findings. The project helped improve the countries' governance and management mechanisms without strengthening the entire NHRS. In the four countries, at least one policy, plan or research agenda was developed. One country put in place a national health research ethics committee, while all four countries could adopt a research information management system. The participatory approach and support from the West African Health Organisation and COHRED were all determining factors. The lessons learned from this project show that the fragile context of these countries requires long-term engagement and that support from a regional institution is needed to address existing challenges and successfully strengthen the entire NHRS.

  10. Polymorphism Analysis of Ch1 and Ch2 Genes in the Siberian Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sartore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cats are usually spreaders of allergens that are critical for sensitive people; the Siberian cat is a breed supposed to be low level allergenic, according to some breeders’ statements. The sequence of the two genes, namely Ch1 and Ch2, that code for the allergen Fel d 1, the major allergen responsible for outbreaks of allergy symptoms, is not yet known in the Siberian cat, and finding this was the aim of our investigation. Notably, our work is the first survey of the genetic structure of these genes in Siberian cats. The comparison of the sequences of Siberian cats, non-Siberian cats, and sequences present in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database revealed a considerable number of mutations; some of those detected in the Siberian cat, due to their position in exon regions, could affect the Fel d 1 allergenic properties. Therefore, further investigations are recommended to assess if the identified mutations can be responsible for a reduced-allergen synthesis and can be used as markers for selection of low level allergenic cats.

  11. Polymorphism Analysis of Ch1 and Ch2 Genes in the Siberian Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Stefano; Landoni, Eleonora; Maione, Sandra; Tarducci, Alberto; Borrelli, Antonio; Soglia, Dominga; Rasero, Roberto; Sacchi, Paola

    2017-12-01

    Cats are usually spreaders of allergens that are critical for sensitive people; the Siberian cat is a breed supposed to be low level allergenic, according to some breeders' statements. The sequence of the two genes, namely Ch1 and Ch2 , that code for the allergen Fel d 1, the major allergen responsible for outbreaks of allergy symptoms, is not yet known in the Siberian cat, and finding this was the aim of our investigation. Notably, our work is the first survey of the genetic structure of these genes in Siberian cats. The comparison of the sequences of Siberian cats, non-Siberian cats, and sequences present in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database revealed a considerable number of mutations; some of those detected in the Siberian cat, due to their position in exon regions, could affect the Fel d 1 allergenic properties. Therefore, further investigations are recommended to assess if the identified mutations can be responsible for a reduced-allergen synthesis and can be used as markers for selection of low level allergenic cats.

  12. The West African monsoon: Contribution of the AMMA multidisciplinary programme to the study of a regional climate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, T.; Janicot, S.; Redelsperger, J. L.; Parker, D. J.; Thorncroft, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The AMMA international project aims at improving our knowledge and understanding of the West African monsoon and its variability with an emphasis on daily-to-interannual timescales. AMMA is motivated by an interest in fundamental scientific issues and by the societal need for improved prediction of the WAM and its impacts on water resources, health and food security for West African nations. The West African monsoon (WAM) has a distinctive annual cycle in rainfall that remains a challenge to understand and predict. The location of peak rainfall, which resides in the Northern Hemisphere throughout the year, moves from the ocean to the land in boreal spring. Around the end of June there is a rapid shift in the location of peak rainfall between the coast and around 10°N where it remains until about the end of August. In September the peak rainfall returns equatorward at a relatively steady pace and is located over the ocean again by November. The fact that the peak rainfall migrates irregularly compared to the peak solar heating is due to the interactions that occur between the land, the atmosphere and the ocean. To gain a better understanding of this complex climate system, a large international research programme was launched in 2002, the biggest of its kind into environment and climate ever attempted in Africa. AMMA has involved a comprehensive field experiment bringing together ocean, land and atmospheric measurements, on timescales ranging from hourly and daily variability up to the changes in seasonal activity over a number of years. This presentation will focus on the description of the field programme and its accomplishments, and address some key questions that have been recently identified to form the core of AMMA-Phase 2.

  13. West African monsoon 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cornforth, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Living up to its reputation as a highly variable climate system, the West African Monsoon (WAM) 2012 contrasted strikingly with the previous year. In 2011, the West African rainy season was delayed, patchy, and irregular. In 2012, whilst it was anomalously wet in many area, the Guinea coastal countries and some crucial agricultural regions remained very dry, persisting from the previous year. As a result, 2012 generated the third big food crisis to hit the region in the last seven years. The ...

  14. Blueschist facies fault tectonites from the western margin of the Siberian Craton: Implications for subduction and exhumation associated with early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, Igor I.; Régnier, Jean-Luc; Santosh, M.

    2018-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Siberian Cratonic margins offers important clues for global paleogeographic reconstructions, particularly with regard to the complex geological history of Central Asia. The Yenisey Ridge fold-and-thrust belt at the western margin of the Siberian Craton forms part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and is a key to understand the Precambrian tectonic evolution of the Siberian Craton and crustal growth in the CAOB, the world's largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic belt. Here we report for the first time, the occurrence of glaucophane schist relics in tectonites within the Yenisey shear zone which provides insights on Chilean-type convergent boundary. We present results from isotope geochronology (SHRIMP zircon analysis and mica 40Ar/39Ar dating), coupled with P-T calculations derived from conventional geothermobarometry and pseudosections in the system NCKFMASH that suggest two superimposed metamorphic events. During the first stage, glaucophane schists formed at around 640-620 Ma at P-T conditions of 8-10 kbar and 400-450 °C. In the second stage, the rocks experienced dynamic metamorphism (c. 600 Ma) at 11-15 kbar/550-640 °C. The differences in P-T parameters between weakly deformed rocks and intensely deformed tectonites and P-T paths suggest distinct tectonic processes. Geochemical features of the mafic tectonites suggest N-MORB and E-MORB affinity, and the zircon U-Pb ages suggest formation of the protoliths at 701.6 ± 8.4. The sequence of spreading, subduction and shear deformation identified in our study correlate with the early stages of development of the Paleo-Asian Ocean at the western margin of the Siberian Craton and supports the spatial proximity of Siberia and Laurentia at 700-600 Ma, as proposed for the Late Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstructions and as robustly constrained from large igneous province (LIP) record.

  15. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine.

  16. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  17. Energy Use: Electricity System in West Africa and Climate Change Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Suleiman Momodu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a low carbon pathway, the theoretical frame for understanding the trade-offs between economic development and climate change. An already developed model - Electricity Planning-Low Carbon Development (EP-LCD - was adapted and modified to examine the nonlinear relationship between generation adequacy and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction for better targeted strategic regional intervention on climate change. Two broad scenarios - Base and LCD Option - were tested for the West African Power Pool (WAPP. The cost impact of increasing generation capacity in the LCD Option was estimated at US$1.54 trillion over a 50 year period. Achieving the goal of low carbon pathway would be largely influenced by government decision. Four strategies, in line with the Nationally Determined Contribution in Paris Agreement, were recommended. These are: a enforced improved efficient electricity generation through increased energy efficiency that should result in increased capacity factor; b decreased energy intensity of economic activities to result in reduced emission factor in existing plants; c attract new investment through low tax or tax exemption to reduce cost of constructing power plants for the benefit of base-load plants; and d subsidized cost of low-carbon fuels in the short run to benefit intermediate load plants and allow for the ramping up of low-/no-carbon fuel generation capacity. These are recommended considering the region’s specific economical and political conditions where funds are tremendously difficult to raise. Implementing these recommendations will allow the electric power industry in West Africa to contribute to achieving sustainable development path.

  18. EVOLUTION OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF SIZE OF ENTERPRISES IN WEST POMERANIAN PROVINCE – SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In transitions countries firms’ size and equity property flown on economy processes, including innovation activity in industry. Driven researches show that the key to accelerate economy development is a technology transfer from foreign countries. Implementing of new solutions depends on medium and large organizations, rather than micro and small. Traditional micro and small regional enterprises feature a low level of taking up risks capability. An innovation activity in industry systems grows up during a time flow, but only in a small domestic enterprises, and it’s similar to their foreign and larger competitors. This paper discusses the problems of size and equity own of enterprises for innovation activity in regional industry systems in West Pomeranian province in the period 2004-2006 and 2009-2011.

  19. The structures of the west coastal snowfall of the Korean peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S. M.; Chang, E. C.

    2016-12-01

    There is a typical snowfall phenomenon over the west coastal region of the Korean peninsula. The snowfall is formed when dry and cold air mass from the Siberian continent advects over the Yellow sea that surface is much warmer and humid than the atmosphere. The air-sea temperature difference makes thermal instability which generates roll clouds or cloud streets. In this study, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Final reanalysis (FNL) and the Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) are analyzed from November 2015 to February 2016 for synoptic-scale and meso-scale features, respectively. Key parameters that represent synoptic patterns related to favorable conditions for the snowfall are 1) southward expansion of the Siberian high, 2) deepened low pressure system over the sea of Okhotsk, 3) wind speed over the Yellow sea, and 4) geopotential height trough or positive vorticity advection at 500 hPa level. Those pressure patterns produce northwesterly wind that provides enough path to generate roll clouds over the Yellow sea. Strong horizontal wind speed can be transferred to vertical velocity which forms snowfall. The downstream of the trough at mid-tropopause can provides upward motions from surface to mid-level. One unique characteristic of this snowfall is that the usual precipitation region is limited to the coastal area. Meso-scale analyses from this study show that the horizontal temperature contrast at the border between the land and ocean is the key factor decides strong upward motion at the coastal region. The air temperature near surface is much colder than over the ocean which means higher density over the land. When strong northwesterly meet this density interface, winds are lifted at the density wall. The snowfall at west coastal snowfall of the Korean peninsula is formed through the synoptic-to meso-scale structures. Aforementioned key parameters can be utilized to

  20. A study on acceptability of Indian system of medicine and homeopathy in India: results from the State of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R J; Pandey, A; Singh, P

    2007-01-01

    Institute for Research in Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, Delhi undertook a study to obtain all India estimate of utilization of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy (ISM&H). The study covered 35 districts spreading over 19 States of India. In this article, results for the State of West Bengal are being presented. Selected districts in West Bengal were Midnapore and Darjeeling where about 2400 sick persons from 2000 households were studied. About 20% sick persons actually availed ISM&H treatment in the State. Majority availed Homeopathy followed by Ayurvedic medicines. Use of Unani and Siddha is negligible in this State. In case of minor ailments, ISM&H was preferred by about 15% in Darjeeling district and 42% in Midnapore district. In case of serious illnesses, about 12% in Darjeeling district preferred ISM&H, but very few (about 5%) preferred this in Midnapore. 39.4% and 20.8% of sick persons sought treatment from traditional healers in Midnapore and Darjeeling district respectively. Jaundice, snakebite, dog bite and 'bone setting' were some of the conditions for which traditional healers were mostly visited. Sizable proportion (30%-89%) of sick persons used various 'kitchen remedies' for conditions like indigestion, loose motion, constipation, fever, body ache, sprain and cough & cold.

  1. Measurements of trace gas species and aerosols at three Siberian stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Ivlev, Georgii A.; Pestunov, Dmitrii A.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.; Fofonov, Alexander V.

    2014-05-01

    Siberia is of great importance to understand the climate change due to it covers about 10% of Earth's land surface and it has the largest area to be studied under the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX). In the overview done by Kulmala et al. (2011) authors arrived at a conclusion that continuous and comprehensive measurements of GHGs and aerosols over Siberia are still lacking. Understanding the importance of this problem, in recent years the Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS established several monitoring stations for continuous measurements of aerosol and trace gas species to fill up this gap. In this paper we present some results of continuous measurements of trace gas species and aerosols carried out at three stations located in West Siberia. The first one is a so-called TOR-station located in the scientific campus of Tomsk (56° 28'41"N, 85° 03'15"E), the second one is the Base Experimental Complex (BEC, 56° 28'49"N, 85° 06'08"E) - in the eastern suburbs of Tomsk, and the third one is Fonovaya Observatory (56° 25'07"N, 84° 04'27"E) - in a rural area 60 km west of Tomsk. All equipment of the stations is fully automated and can be monitored via Internet. Gas analyzers are hourly calibrated against standard gas mixtures, micro-flux gas sources, or gas generators, depending on the instrument type and the gas to be detected. Aerosol measurements carried out continuously from March 2010 enabled a frequency and seasonal dependency of the new particle formation (NPF) events to be revealed. NPF events in Siberia are more often observed during spring (from March to May) and early autumn (secondary frequency peak in September). On average, NPF evens took place on 23-28 % of all days. This work was funded by Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14

  2. DNA-Bank of the Siberian Group Chemical Enterprises workers and Seversk city residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidin, M. B.; Goncharova, I. A.; Karpov, A. B.; Takhauov, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    According to the mostr common definition a DNA-bank is a system of a genetic material storage. Applying to nuclear-chemical plant workers, DNA-bank creation is determined by the necessity to preserve a hereditary material of these people and their descendants for the further evaluation of consequences fo technogenic factors action on human genome using a contemporary conceptual and applied advances of genetics. In the frameworks of the study of technogenic factors indluence on human genome and genetic-caused disorders development the Seversk Biophysical Research Center is being created DNA-bank of Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises workers exposed to radiation, their descendants, and ZATO Seversk and Tomsk city inhabitants. The DNA-bank will be a basis for all major research laboratory projects: analysis of molecular basis of individual radiosensitivity; analysis of technogenic factors role in congenital malformations and hereditary diseases development in nuclear-chemical plant workers offspring; elaboration of genotype-specific tes-systems of cancer prognosis and development of cardiovascular and other common disorders connected with the effect of technogenic factors. The DNA-bank creation is a technological issue aggravated by ethical problems. Whereas the DNA isolation is not a problem today, ethical complication id debated widely in the world. These questions strongly arise in a view of advances of Human Genome Project. Information consent on DNA usage is imperative today. Also questions on DNA property (who is its owner a doner or a banker) and of a confidentiality, which maintenance is a doubtable question in a case of multiple genetic testing, are not solved today. At present, the Genomic Medicine Laboratory disposes the DNA samples of more than 400 Sevesk and Tomsk inhabitants affected with breast and lung cancer. More than 800 blood samples of main manufacture of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises workers are collected. About 1500 DNA samples

  3. Mesozoic lacustrine system in the Parnaíba Basin, northeastern Brazil: Paleogeographic implications for west Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Alexandre Ribeiro; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Abrantes, Francisco Romério; Rabelo, Cleber Eduardo Neri

    2017-03-01

    The fragmentation of the West Gondwana during Early Triassic to Cretaceous was marked by intense climatic changes, concomitant with the establishment of extensive desertic/lacustrine systems. These deposits succeeded the emplacement and extrusion of lava flows, related to the pre-rift phase and initial opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The thermal phase is recorded in the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Pastos Bons Formation, exposed mainly in southeast parts of the Parnaíba Basin, Northeastern Brazil. The sedimentary facies of this unit were grouped in two facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system, influenced by episodic hyperpycnal and oscillatory flows. Central lake facies association (FA1) is composed by laminated mudstone (Ml), sandstone/mudstone rhythmite (S/Mr) and sandstone with even-parallel lamination (Sel). Flysch-like delta front (FA2) consists in sandstones with wave structures (Sw), sandstones with even-parallel stratification (Ses), massive sandstones (Sm), sandstones with soft-sediment deformation structures (Sd) and laminated mudstones (Ml). FA1 was deposited in the deepest portions of the lake, characterized by low energy, episodically disturbed by siliciclastic influx. FA2 presents sandy deposits generated by unconfined flow, probably fed by ephemeral stream flows that generated thickening upward of tabular sandstone beds. The progressive filling of the lake resulted in recurrent shoaling up of the water level and reworking by wave action. The installation of Pastos Bons lakes was controlled by thermal subsidence, mainly in restricted depocenters. The siliciclastic fluvial inflow can be related to the adjacent humid desertic facies, formed under climatic attenuation, typical of post-Triassic period, with reduced biological activity. Smectite and abundant feldspars, in lacustrine facies, corroborate an arid climate, with incipient chemical weathering. The new facies and stratigraphic data present in this

  4. Stress hormones predict a host superspreader phenotype in the West Nile virus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Stephanie; Burgan, Sarah; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Martin, Lynn B.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of host mortality during infection. We experimentally manipulated songbird CORT, asking how CORT affected behavioural and physiological responses to a standardized West Nile virus (WNV) challenge. Although all birds became infected after exposure to the virus, only birds with elevated CORT had viral loads at or above the infectious threshold. Moreover, though the rate of mortality was faster in birds with elevated CORT compared with controls, most hosts with elevated CORT survived past the day of peak infectiousness. CORT concentrations just prior to inoculation with WNV and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations following viral exposure were predictive of individual duration of infectiousness and the ability to maintain physical performance during infection (i.e. tolerance), revealing putative biomarkers of competence. Collectively, our results suggest that glucocorticoid stress hormones could directly and indirectly mediate the spread of pathogens.

  5. Using geographical information systems to analyse accessibility to health services in the West Bank, occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, L; Mårtensson, U

    2012-08-01

    Accessibility to adequate health services is a basic human right. Israeli road blocks and checkpoints inhibit access to health care for the Palestinian population. While other studies have dealt with the impact of the barriers, few are based on actual measurements of transport times between locations. Geographical information systems (GIS) and network analysis were used to generate different estimations of accessibility based on the existing road network and transport barriers. The population negatively affected were mainly people living outside urban centres and in governorates with no general hospital. Quantitative measurements using GIS can be used to confirm qualitative studies based on interviews and questionnaires and improve the understanding of the results. Working with a spatial analysis tool also helps to pinpoint weaknesses in the current infrastructure, thus improving the efficiency of future investments to improve health care in the West Bank.

  6. Analysis of surveillance systems in place in European Mediterranean countries for West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever (RVF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cito, F; Narcisi, V; Danzetta, M L; Iannetti, S; Sabatino, D D; Bruno, R; Carvelli, A; Atzeni, M; Sauro, F; Calistri, P

    2013-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) represent an important group of viral agents responsible for vector-borne zoonotic diseases constituting an emerging sanitary threat for the Mediterranean Basin and the neighbouring countries. WNV infection is present in several Mediterranean countries, whereas RVF has never been introduced into Europe, but it is considered a major threat for North African countries. Being vector-borne diseases, they cannot be prevented only through an animal trade control policy. Several approaches are used for the surveillance of WNV and RVFV. With the aim of assessing the surveillance systems in place in Mediterranean countries, two disease-specific questionnaires (WNV, RVFV) have been prepared and submitted to Public Health and Veterinary Authorities of six EU countries. This study presents the information gathered through the questionnaires and describes some critical points in the prevention and surveillance of these diseases as emerged by the answers received. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. THE SYSTEMIC CRISIS OF THE CIVILIZATION OF THE WEST IN UNDERSTANDING OF MODERN RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN SCIENTISTS – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Leonidovich Morozov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the most characteristic of the concept of foreign (by J. Jacobs, C. Huntington, P. Buchanan, T. Sarrazin and Russian (by A.I. Utkin, A.S. Panarin, I.N. Panarin of political scientists, devoted to the identification and analysis of systemic problems of the West, leading its further development in the civilizational impasse and find ways of gathering the negative trend of further developments. Purpose: to reveal General and specific features in Russian and foreign political and futurological concepts, dedicated to understanding the crisis of modern Western civilization. Research methodology: when working with the texts analyzed was used the comparative method, system method. The results of the study: the similarity of understanding of both foreign and Russian scientists causality of the observed crisis of modern Western civilization, identified the key factors of the crisis: the rejection of the strategy of industrial production on its own territory, the loss of “national will” and the transition to a mass political psychological model of tolerance, understood as tolerance and compliance requirements by migrating to the West of the peoples, the mass psychology of consumerism, constant military operations in the Western countries in different regions of the world, the erroneous policy of confrontation with Russia. The negative trend of politicization and simplification in the study of the topic by Russian analysts, caused by market conditions of the moment. The scope of the results: the activity of institutions of the Russian state authorities responsible for the adoption and implementation of foreign policy decisions; the academic development of new concepts in the theory of politics and international relations.

  8. Design of Control and Monitoring System to Avoid Inter-Ship Collisions in West Shipping Lane Tanjung Perak Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina P. Sari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of several ship accidents in narrow waters of Madura strait which is the west shipping lane of Tanjung Perak Surabaya has inspired the research on the design of a control system on the ship to avoid any collision between ships. The existence of automatic control with the autopilot is required to minimize the occurrence of collisions between ships In this final study investigated the application of fuzzy logic to control the yaw angle on the vessel MV Karana Sembilan. Fuzzy logic used is Sugeno Takagi type with the input of the error yaw, yaw rate and distance of the ship with a disturbance. Tests conducted with a control system without disturbance, with disturbance, and the presence of obstacles in front of the ship. Performance of control system is obtained by using the disturbance, the fuzzy appearance is 2:41 hm distance position, the speed of 7.5 knots and 0.5 error, then the resulting yaw angle is 6580. Results control with fuzzy syncronized with monitoring at M&C system in visual basic. The view of the monitoring, 3 types of scenarios obtained. For the first scenario, which is created with the control on it, produces the best results of the avoidance, if compared to the second scenario, with trajectory and control anti-collision cross, and if compared with the third scenario that has no built control system with decision-making on it.

  9. North Atlantic Origin of Interdecadal variability of Siberian High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hwa; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Baek-Min

    2017-04-01

    We suggest that the changes in the mean atmospheric circulation structure in the North Atlantic Ocean upstream region of Eurasian continent play an important role in the interdecadal variability of Siberian High (SH) through the modulation of Ural blocking frequency. Previous studies suggested that the interdecadal variability of SH is partly explained by the Arctic Oscillation. However, in this study, we emphasize the role of 'Warm Arctic and Cold Eurasia (WACE)', which is the second mode of winter surface air temperature variability over Eurasia. We show that the correlation between SH and WACE is high in general compared to that between SH and AO. However, the correlation between SH and WACE does not always exhibit high constant value. It shows a distinctive interdecadal fluctuation in the correlation. We found that this fluctuation in the correlation is due to the interdecadal fluctuation of the continental trough over the North Atlantic and the resultant strengthening of in-situ atmospheric baroclinicity. This accompanies changes in the transient vorticity flux divergence which leads to the downstream wave development and anomalous anticyclonic flow near Ural region. Obviously, the existence of anticyclonic flow over Ural region helps more frequent occurrence of Ural blocking and it is shown that this condition favors positive WACE event, which links to an intensified SH.

  10. Phytophagous insects in a siberian stone pine clone archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Krivets

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried on in a Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour clone archive located in the south of the Tomsk Region. Fourteen species of phytophagous insect pests were found in this clonal archive.Pineus cembrae is the most frequent insect in the clone archive colonizing the buds, needles and the bark of the young shoots. Of allpolyphagues insects, the scarab beetle Melolontha hippocastani Fab. and summer chafer Rhizotrogus solstitialis L. have the most destructive effect in the clone archive. Their larvae eat the roots of young plants. The larvae of elaters Agrypnus murinus L. and Selatosomus aeneus L. and weevil Otiorhynchus ovatus L. are potentially dangerousfor the plant host roots. All found insect species in the clone archive are also widely spread in natural and man-made coniferous forests from the Tomsk Region. Their destructive activity in the clone archive may result in serious consequences. They should be controlled by means of pathological methods.

  11. Amino acid production exceeds plant nitrogen demand in Siberian tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Bárta, Jiři; Čapek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Guggenberger, Georg; Hugelius, Gustaf; Knoltsch, Anna; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Prommer, Judith; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Richter, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Arctic plant productivity is often limited by low soil N availability. This has been attributed to slow breakdown of N-containing polymers in litter and soil organic matter (SOM) into smaller, available units, and to shallow plant rooting constrained by permafrost and high soil moisture. Using 15N pool dilution assays, we here quantified gross amino acid and ammonium production rates in 97 active layer samples from four sites across the Siberian Arctic. We found that amino acid production in organic layers alone exceeded literature-based estimates of maximum plant N uptake 17-fold and therefore reject the hypothesis that arctic plant N limitation results from slow SOM breakdown. High microbial N use efficiency in organic layers rather suggests strong competition of microorganisms and plants in the dominant rooting zone. Deeper horizons showed lower amino acid production rates per volume, but also lower microbial N use efficiency. Permafrost thaw together with soil drainage might facilitate deeper plant rooting and uptake of previously inaccessible subsoil N, and thereby promote plant productivity in arctic ecosystems. We conclude that changes in microbial decomposer activity, microbial N utilization and plant root density with soil depth interactively control N availability for plants in the Arctic.

  12. Dictating participation? Rethinking the adaptive co-management of socio-ecological systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Vilaly, Audra; Abd salam El Vilaly, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    In the face of environmental change, enhancing adaptive capacity relies on stakeholder engagement. But the participatory process, while critical to the translation, transfer, and application of scientific knowledge to society, is not without its own contradictions. These include the asymmetrical relations of power that prevail between environmental scientists, managers, and local users; discrepant understandings of knowledge and its appropriate uses; and conflicting social, economic, and ecological values, to name only a few. Our research examines five major transboundary river basin organizations in West Africa and their efforts to improve adaptive basin management via stakeholder collaboration. In particular, we evaluate the participatory strategies of these organizations to measure non-linear, multi-directional feedbacks between the social and biophysical factors of land use/land cover change, as well as the impacts of this change on basins and their dependent populations. Our research suggests that oftentimes, these methods paradoxically produce a hierarchical and marginalizing effect on local stakeholders in relation to the scientists that study them. In seeking to address these limitations, we assess the potential costs and benefits of integrating select components of a Participatory Action Research (PAR) framework (see, for example, Reason & Bradbury-Huang, 2007) into studies of complex socio-ecological problems. This approach, used widely in the social sciences, promotes critical reflection on and minimization of the power inequities inherent in science-society collaborations. It instead favors more horizontal forms of knowledge co-production that support and foster the expansion of local, existing movements for social and environmental justice. A PAR framework may therefore improve the efficiency, sustainability, and equitability of land-based adaptation to environmental change; further research is thus recommended to test this hypothesis. References

  13. Winter cloudiness variability over Northern Eurasia related to the Siberian High during 1966–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernokulsky, Alexander; Mokhov, Igor I; Nikitina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This letter presents an assessment of winter cloudiness variability over Northern Eurasia regions related to the Siberian High intensity (SHI) variations during 1966–2010. An analysis of cloud fraction and the occurrence of different cloud types was carried out based on visual observations from almost 500 Russian meteorological stations. The moonlight criterion was implemented to reduce the uncertainty of night observations. The SHI was defined based on sea-level pressure fields from different reanalyses. We found a statistically significant negative correlation of cloud cover with the SHI over central and southern Siberia and the southern Urals with regression coefficients around 3% hPa −1 for total cloud fraction (TCF) for particular stations near the Siberian High center. Cross-wavelet analysis of TCF and SHI revealed a long-term relationship between cloudiness and the Siberian High. Generally, the Siberian High intensification by 1 hPa leads to a replacement of one overcast day with one day without clouds, which is associated mainly with a decrease in precipitating and stratiform clouds. These changes point to a positive feedback between cloudiness and the Siberian High. (letter)

  14. Human-rights consequences of the proposed trans-Siberian natural gas pipeline. Hearing before the Subcommittee on International Finance and Monetary Policy of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States, Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, June 18, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A Russian human-rights activist and several Vietnamese participated in a hearing panel exploring reports of Soviet plans to use imported Vietnamese labor form reeducation camps to build the trans-Siberian pipeline in exchange for Soviet assistance to the Communist government of Vietnam. The panel investigated moral as well as economic and strategic consequences to detente and East-West trade relationships. At issue was US political and economic support of a regime drawing on labor from concentration camps. The panel reviewed the record of conscripted labor, the death rate of prisoners, and the experience of Vietnamese workers in France in the context of East-West trade. (DCK)

  15. Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS III) Process Development and Laboratory Tests at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Barnes, S.M.; Bindi, B.G.; Palmer, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP),the Vitrification Facility (VF)is designed to convert the high-level radioactive waste (HLW)stored on the site to a stable glass for disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE)-specified federal repository. The Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS-III)verification tests were conducted between February 1995 and August 1995 as a supplemental means to support the vitrification process flowsheet, but at only one seventh the scale.During these tests,the process flowsheet was refined and optimized. The SVS-III test series was conducted with a focus on confirming the applicability of the Redox Forecasting Model, which was based on the Index of Feed Oxidation (IFO)developed during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)and SVS-I tests. Additional goals were to investigate the prototypical feed preparation cycle and test the new target glass composition. Included in this report are the basis and current designs of the major components of the Scale Vitrification System and the results of the SVS-III tests.The major subsystems described are the feed preparation and delivery, melter, and off-gas treatment systems. In addition,the correlation between the melter's operation and its various parameters;which included feed rate,cold cap coverage,oxygen reduction (redox)state of the glass,melter power,plenum temperature,and airlift analysis;were developed

  16. The aeromagnetic method as a tool to identify Cenozoic magmatism in the West Antarctic Rift System beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: a review; Thiel subglacial volcano as possible source of the ash layer in the WAISCOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) flows through the volcanically active West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). The aeromagnetic method has been the most useful geophysical tool for identification of subglacial volcanic rocks, since 1959–64 surveys, particularly combined with 1978 radar ice-sounding. The unique 1991–97 Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey covering 354,000 km2 over the WAIS, (5-km line-spaced, orthogonal lines of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, and aerogravity measurements), still provides invaluable information on subglacial volcanic rocks, particularly combined with the older aeromagnetic profiles. These data indicate numerous 100–>1000 nT, 5–50-km width, shallow-source, magnetic anomalies over an area greater than 1.2 × 106 km2, mostly from subglacial volcanic sources. I interpreted the CWA anomalies as defining about 1000 “volcanic centers” requiring high remanent normal magnetizations in the present field direction. About 400 anomaly sources correlate with bed topography. At least 80% of these sources have less than 200 m relief at the WAIS bed. They appear modified by moving ice, requiring a younger age than the WAIS (about 25 Ma). Exposed volcanoes in the WARS are The present rapid changes resulting from global warming, could be accelerated by subglacial volcanism.

  17. Design and Implementation of an E-Office System | Akinnubi | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve the intended results and goals, a web-based system and design that embedded the Block diagram, Dataflow and Top-down strategy and methodology of system design was used. With all of these in mind, the research aimed at lending a support to the activities of organisations by designing a system that makes ...

  18. Design review report for the Hanford K East and K West Basins MCO loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This design report presents the final design of the MCO Loading System. The report includes final design drawings, a system description, failure modes and recovery plans, a system operational description, and stress analysis. Design comments from the final design review have been incorporated

  19. Mesoscale convective systems and nocturnal rainfall over the West African Sahel: role of the Inter-tropical front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2018-01-01

    A convection-permitting regional model simulation for August 2006 and observations are evaluated to better understand the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Sahel. In particular, reasons for a nocturnal rainfall maximum over parts of the Sahel during the height of the West African monsoon are investigated. A relationship between mesoscale convective system (MCS) activity and inter-tropical front (ITF)/dryline dynamics is revealed. Over 90% of the Sahel nocturnal rainfall derives from propagating MCSs that have been associated with topography in earlier studies. In contrast, in this case study, 70-90% of the nocturnal rainfall over the southern Sahel (11°N-14°N) west of 15°E is associated with MCSs that originate less than 1000 km upstream (to the north and east) in the afternoon, in a region largely devoid of significant orography. This MCS development occurs in association with the Sahel ITF, combined with atmospheric pre-conditioning. Daytime surface heating generates turbulent mixing that promotes planetary boundary layer (PBL) growth accompanied by a low-level reversal in the meridional flow. This enhances wind convergence in the low-level moist layer within 2°-3° of latitude of the equatorward side of the ITF. MCSs tend to form when this vertical mixing extends to the level of free convection and is accompanied by a mid-tropospheric African easterly wave disturbance to the east. This synoptic disturbance enhances the vertical wind shear and atmospheric instability over the genesis location. These results are found to be robust across the region.

  20. Material handling systems for the fluidized-bed combustion boiler at Rivesville, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branam, J. G.; Rosborough, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The 300,000 lbs/hr steam capacity multicell fluidized-bed boiler (MFB) utilizes complex material handling systems. The material handling systems can be divided into the following areas: (1) coal preparation; transfer and delivery, (2) limestone handling system, (3) fly-ash removal and (4) bed material handling system. Each of the above systems are described in detail and some of the potential problem areas are discussed. A major potential problem that exists is the coal drying system. The coal dryer is designed to use 600 F preheated combustion air as drying medium and the dryer effluent is designed to enter a hot electrostatic precipitator (730 F) after passage through a cyclone. Other problem areas to be discussed include the steam generator coal and limestone feed system which may have operating difficulties with wet coal and/or coal fines.

  1. Poleward upgliding Siberian atmospheric rivers over sea ice heat up Arctic upper air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kensuke K; Alexeev, Vladimir A; Repina, Irina A; Tachibana, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-13

    We carried out upper air measurements with radiosondes during the summer over the Arctic Ocean from an icebreaker moving poleward from an ice-free region, through the ice edge, and into a region of thick ice. Rapid warming of the Arctic is a significant environmental issue that occurs not only at the surface but also throughout the troposphere. In addition to the widely accepted mechanisms responsible for the increase of tropospheric warming during the summer over the Arctic, we showed a new potential contributing process to the increase, based on our direct observations and supporting numerical simulations and statistical analyses using a long-term reanalysis dataset. We refer to this new process as "Siberian Atmospheric Rivers (SARs)". Poleward upglides of SARs over cold air domes overlying sea ice provide the upper atmosphere with extra heat via condensation of water vapour. This heating drives increased buoyancy and further strengthens the ascent and heating of the mid-troposphere. This process requires the combination of SARs and sea ice as a land-ocean-atmosphere system, the implication being that large-scale heat and moisture transport from the lower latitudes can remotely amplify the warming of the Arctic troposphere in the summer.

  2. Monitoring of Siberian biomass burning smoke from AHI on board geostationary satellite Himawari-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Yoshida, A.; Nakata, M.; Minoura, H.; Holben, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    High frequency aerosol measurements are demanded for evaluation of the model simulations, monitoring the atmospheric qualities such as Particulate Matter (PM2.5), and so on. Geostationary satellite provides us with the high frequency information of the atmosphere. Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) launched the Himawari-8 geostationary satellite in 2014 and has prepared Himawari-9 for launching in 2016. Both satellites carry new generation imagers named Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). They have 16 multi-channels from short visible to thermal infrared wavelengths with 1 km IFOV for visible and 2 km for infrared. Each observation is done within 10 minutes for the Earth full disk. Then high frequency Earth observations are realized. AHI has frequently observed biomass burning plume around East Siberia and its transportation according to weather system. This work retrieves aerosol properties due to the Siberian smoke plume and its movements based on the measurements with AHI. The results are compared with ground based measurements which have newly deployed at an AERONET/Niigata site in Japan. It is shown here that continuous measurements of aerosols from geostationary satellite combination with the polar orbiting satellite provide us with much detail information of aerosol.

  3. Monitoring of atmospheric ozone profile over Siberian Region using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutin, Anatoly A.; Nikulin, Yury A.; Zuev, Vladimir V.; Dolgii, Sergey I.; Borisov, Yury A.; Gumley, Liam E.

    2006-02-01

    First results of operational retrieval of atmospheric ozone profile from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared radiances over Siberian Region are presented. Nearly identical copies of MODIS are operating onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Tena and Aqua satellites. MODIS images have been collected using EOScan receiving station located in Barnaul. The modified Product Generation Executable (PGE) 03 code, including synthetic regression retrieval algorithm, PGE 02 and the International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) have been used to retrieve the vertical ozone distributions under clear-sky conditions. Evaluation of retrieved ozone profiles is performed by a comparison with retrievals from lidar observations, the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE 111)/Meteor-3M and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Aqua sensors. We demonstrate, that the MODIS mixing ozone ratio (in ppmv) and additionally measured temperature information will be useful tools in regional stratospheric ozone studies. The main role of MODIS will be the monitoring of the ozone trends in the stratosphere at the scale with 5 km x 5 km resolutions.

  4. Testicular development in Siberian hamsters depends on frequency and pattern of melatonin signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, A K; Freeman, D A; Zucker, I; Prendergast, B J

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the impact of frequency and pattern of melatonin signals on reproductive development in Siberian hamsters. Juvenile males gestated in short day lengths and housed in constant illumination to suppress melatonin secretion were infused with melatonin for 5 h either once or twice per day for 20 days. Melatonin infusions at either frequency produced equivalent increases in testes and body weights that exceeded those of animals infused with saline but were indistinguishable from those of hamsters transferred to long day lengths. The reproductive system appears to be maximally stimulated by a single short melatonin signal each day. Other animals kept from birth in a short photoperiod were treated 6 h after onset of darkness with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist DL-propranolol to shorten melatonin secretion on the night of injection but not on subsequent nights. This permitted interpolation of short nightly melatonin signals of 4-5 h duration against a background of long melatonin signals of 10-12 h duration on other nights. Treatment regimes that maintained a 1:1 ratio of short to long melatonin signals for 8 wk stimulated reproductive development; a 1:2 signal ratio, in each of three different patterns, was uniformly ineffective. The number of successive short melatonin signals had little influence on the interval across which successive melatonin signals were summated to influence photoperiodic traits. The neuroendocrine axis appears more responsive to short melatonin signal frequency than pattern for development of the summer phenotype.

  5. Exploring the diversity of urban and peri-urban agricultural systems in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa: An attempt towards a regional typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, L.C.; Abdulkadir, A.; Amadou, H.; Sangare, S.; Schlecht, E.

    2011-01-01

    Developing appropriate and innovative technologies and policies to respond to the challenges that urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) faces in West Africa requires a better understanding of the existing production systems. Although there is an increasing recognition of the importance of UPA in

  6. Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, using PRMS and MODFLOW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allander, Kip K.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Jeton, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Walker Lake is a terminal lake in west-central Nevada with almost all outflow occurring through evaporation. Diversions from Walker River since the early 1900s have contributed to a substantial reduction in flow entering Walker Lake. As a result, the lake is receding, and salt concentrations have increased to a level in which Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan Cutthroat trout) are no longer present, and the lake ecosystem is threatened. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to restore the Walker Lake ecosystem and fishery to a level that is more sustainable. However, Walker Lake is interlinked with the lower Walker River and adjacent groundwater system which makes it difficult to understand the full effect of upstream water-management actions on the overall hydrologic system including the lake level, volume, and dissolved-solids concentrations of Walker Lake. To understand the effects of water-management actions on the lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, a watershed model and groundwater flow model have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  7. Analysis And Design Of A Water Purification System For The West African Area Of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Usability is the ease of use of the system to achieve quantified objectives and satisfaction of the customer in a quantified context. Safety is the...Osmosis System (MROS) met all operational requirements. A prototype model of the selected system was tested and evaluated to determine feasibility of the...operational requirements. The water-purification system’s reliability was modeled and estimated to show overall reliability of 0.9064. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  8. The future of transit in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Future of Transit in West Virginia is a study of the current system of public transportation in West Virginia and : an examination of issues, priorities and projections of the public transportation network in the coming years. The : purpose...

  9. A model of authoring system for e-learning courses | Ugah | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Authoring system is a software with pre-programmed elements which allows both programmers and non-programmers to easily create interactive multimedia software courses. An author simply makes use of the templates of an authoring system by following online instructions to create and structure his subject matter to ...

  10. System Properties Determine Food Security and Biodiversity Outcomes at Landscape Scale: A Case Study from West Flores, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil French Collier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The food-biodiversity nexus is a concept that defines and characterizes the complex interactions between agricultural systems and biodiversity conservation. Here we use a social-ecological systems approach that combines fuzzy cognitive mapping and graph theoretic analyses to uncover system properties that determine food security and biodiversity outcomes at a landscape scale. We studied a rice-based agricultural landscape system situated in Mbeliling district of West Flores, Indonesia. A graphical representation of the Mbeliling district food-biodiversity nexus was created by local experts. The representation revealed system properties that help reconcile the trade-offs between food security and biodiversity conservation. The graph represented a diverse set of food security and biodiversity nodes, and showed that there is not a simple dichotomy between ‘production and protection’. The analysis captured greater complexity than popular academic concepts such as land sparing–land sharing or sustainable intensification. Three major themes emerged from the graph. We found distinct clusters of factors influencing biodiversity and food security. We named these sources of influence (1 Modernisation and sustainable farming; (2 Knowledge and management; and (3 Governance and processes. Component 2 was the most representative of emergent system properties that contribute positively to managing a sustainable food-biodiversity nexus in the Mbeliling landscape. The key determinants of outcomes were: improving agronomic practices, diversifying production, maintaining forest cover and connectivity, and using knowledge and natural resource management processes to mitigate the main drivers of change. Our approach highlights the complexities in the food-biodiversity nexus, and could have wide application in other locations.

  11. Culture, characteristics and chromosome complement of Siberian tiger fibroblasts for nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jimei; Hua, Song; Song, Kai; Zhang, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) is a characteristic species of Asia, which is in severe danger. Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest one of the five existent tiger subspecies. It is extremely endangered. One new way for tiger protection and rescue is to study interspecies cloning. But there is few research data about Siberian tiger. In this study, we cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro, analyzed their biological characteristics, chromosomes, and cell cycles, to provide not only nuclear donors with good morphology, normal biological characteristics, and chromosome quantity for tiger interspecies cloning, but also reliable data for further studying Siberian tiger. The results indicated that Siberian tiger ear fibroblasts can be successfully obtained by tissue culture either with or without overnight cold digestion, the cultured cells were typical fibroblasts with normal morphology, growth curve, and chromosome quantity; G0/G1 percentage increased and S percentage decreased with the confluence of cells. G0/G1 and S stage rate was significantly different between 40-50% and 80-90%, 95-100% confluence; there is no distinct difference between 80-90% and 95-100% confluence. The cells at the same density (80-90% confluence) were treated with or without 0.5% serum starving, GO/G1 rate of the former was higher than the latter, but the difference was not significant. GO/G1 proportion of 95-100% confluence was slightly higher than serum starving (80-90% confluence), but no significant difference. Therefore, the Siberian tiger fibroblasts we cultured in vitro can be used as donor cells, and the donor cells do not need to be treated with normal serum starvation during nuclear transfer; if we will just consider the rate of the G0/G1 stage cells, serum starvation can be replaced by confluence inhibition when cultured cells were more than 80-90% confluence.

  12. West Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing to the timing of a future adoption of a single currency by the West African states. In doing so, ... tures and almost all these countries depend on donor funds to finance their budgets, the risk that ... national currencies co-exist with a common currency, and a full monetary union where a common central bank exists to for-.

  13. Numerical studies of Siberian snakes and spin rotators for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the program of polarized protons in RHIC, two Siberian snakes and four spin rotators per ring will be used. The Snakes will produce a complete spin flip. Spin Rotators, in pairs, will rotate the spin from the vertical direction to the horizontal plane at a given insertion, and back to the vertical after the insertion. Snakes, 180 degrees apart and with their axis of spin precession at 90 degrees to each other, are an effective means to avoid depolarization of the proton beam in traversing resonances. Classical snakes and rotators are made with magnetic solenoids or with a sequence of magnetic dipoles with fields alternately directed in the radial and vertical direction. Another possibility is to use helical magnets, essentially twisted dipoles, in which the field, transverse the axis of the magnet, continuously rotates as the particles proceed along it. After some comparative studies, the authors decided to adopt for RHIC an elegant solution with four helical magnets both for the snakes and the rotators proposed by Shatunov and Ptitsin. In order to simplify the construction of the magnets and to minimize cost, four identical super conducting helical modules will be used for each device. Snakes will be built with four right-handed helices. Spin rotators with two right-handed and two left-handed helices. The maximum field will be limited to 4 Tesla. While small bore helical undulators have been built for free electron lasers, large super conducting helical magnets have not been built yet. In spite of this difficulty, this choice is dictated by some distinctive advantages of helical over more conventional transverse snakes/rotators: (i) the devices are modular, they can be built with arrangements of identical modules, (ii) the maximum orbit excursion in the magnet is smaller, (iii) orbit excursion is independent from the separation between adjacent magnets, (iv) they allow an easier control of the spin rotation and the orientation of the spin precession axis

  14. Histaminergic regulation of seasonal metabolic rhythms in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I'anson, Helen; Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Ebling, Francis J P

    2011-06-01

    We investigated whether histaminergic tone contributes to the seasonal catabolic state in Siberian hamsters by determining the effect of ablation of histaminergic neurons on food intake, metabolic rate and body weight. A ribosomal toxin (saporin) conjugated to orexin-B was infused into the ventral tuberomammillary region of the hypothalamus, since most histaminergic neurons express orexin receptors. This caused not only 75-80% loss of histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus, but also some loss of other orexin-receptor expressing cells e.g. MCH neurons. In the long-day anabolic state, lesions produced a transient post-surgical decrease in body weight, but the hamsters recovered and maintained constant body weight, whereas weight gradually increased in sham-lesioned hamsters. VO(2) in the dark phase was significantly higher in the lesioned hamsters compared to shams, and locomotor activity also tended to be higher. In a second study in short days, sham-treated hamsters showed the expected seasonal decrease in body weight, but weight remained constant in the lesioned hamsters, as in the long-day study. Lesioned hamsters consumed more during the early dark phase and less during the light phase due to an increase in the frequency of meals during the dark and decreased meal size during the light, and their cumulative food intake in their home cages was greater than in the control hamsters. In summary, ablation of orexin-responsive cells in the posterior hypothalamus blocks the short-day induced decline in body weight by preventing seasonal hypophagia, evidence consistent with the hypothesis that central histaminergic mechanisms contribute to long-term regulation of body weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. East to west – The optimal tilt angle and orientation of photovoltaic panels from an electricity system perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartner, Michael; Ortner, André; Hiesl, Albert; Haas, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjustments of PV installation angles can reduce total electricity generation costs. • However total benefits are small (<1% of total costs) even for high PV shares. • In Austria and Germany adjustments toward east and steeper tilt can be beneficial. • PV market values drop significantly with high PV shares also for adjusted angles. • Also CO 2 reductions decrease but are still high even for a doubling of PV capacity. - Abstract: The integration of photovoltaic as a fluctuating renewable energy source has raised concerns about additional costs for the electricity system due to the variable nature of power output leading to more frequent and steeper ramping of conventional power plants and the need for backup capacity. One way to reduce those costs can be the variation of installation angles of PV panels at different locations to smoothen out the total production from PV in the whole system. To a certain extent steeper tilt angles can shift the production from summer months to winter months and the variation of the azimuth from east to west can partly shift production during the day increasing the production in morning or afternoon hours. However, for fixed mounted PV panels, there is one angle combination that maximizes the total output of the PV panel throughout the year and each deviation from this angle combination results in losses of total output. This paper evaluates the trade-off between annual energy losses and possible electricity generation cost reductions through adapting PV installation angles for the current electricity system and for potentially higher PV penetration levels in the future. A theoretical explanation why the annual maximum output of a PV system is not always the optimal solution from a system perspective is presented. To assess the effects of deviations from output maximizing angles at present, the wholesale market value of PV for various tilt angles and orientations in 23 regions of Austria and Germany using

  16. POLARIZED BEAMS: 2 - Partial Siberian Snake rescues polarized protons at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haixin

    1994-01-01

    To boost the level of beam polarization (spin orientation), a partial 'Siberian Snake' was recently used to overcome imperfection depolarizing resonances in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). This 9-degree spin rotator recently permitted acceleration with no noticeable polarization loss. The intrinsic AGS depolarizing resonances (which degrade the polarization content) had been eliminated by betatron tune jumps, but the imperfection resonances were compensated by means of harmonic orbit corrections. However, at high energies these orbit corrections are difficult and tedious and a Siberian Snake became an attractive alternative

  17. Problems of History of the Siberian Church in N. N. Ogloblin's Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaeva Irina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plural document files of Siberia from Siberian order`s archival fund were researched by N. N. Ogloblin and left him as scientific heritage, gave an extensive idea of many parties from history of the Tobolsk archdiocese and the Siberian churches 17th — the first years of the 18th centuries. The main activity of the Siberian archbishops were Distribution of Christianity and divine service literature. The new founded cities and jails need the divine service literature, and the priests invited to Siberia brought with themselves books necessary for service. In the 17th century the Christian outlook dominated, than and the researcher explains abundance of theological literature. The need for receipt of printing books was understood by the population of the first Siberian cities and jails. In the 17th century in Siberia books extended among local population as in printing, and in the hand-written as N. N. Ogloblin shows. Among adherents of old believe literature there were many peasants getting and copying forbidden books. In the period of board of the Siberian archbishops in the 17th century their activity was always accompanied false reports, which negatively affected for relationship between Moscow government and bishops. The changed attitude of the Moscow government towards bishops after false reports promoted intervention of the secular authorities in spiritual affairs for the purpose as priests`s submission. The documents considered by N. N. Ogloblin, thus, reflect not only diff erent aspects of activity of the first Siberian bishops, but testify to the various parties of early history of the Tobolsk arkhiyepiskopiya, and also a number of the Siberian churches 17th — the first years of the 18th centuries. N. N. Ogloblin carefully considered diplomas, formal replies, petitions, memories and other forms of office-work of the Tobolsk hierarchal house and the Moscow orders, reflecting history of the Siberian episcopal chair of the

  18. Farmers’ perceptions towards agroforestry systems in Babanosa Area, West Kordofan State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Eltemada, Boli and Umghoghai villages at Babanosa area in El-salam locality, South Kordofan State during 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to (1 identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, (2 to investigate the main factors that affecting the sustainability of the systems, (3 to determine the important field crops that cultivated with trees and (4 to evaluate the effect of the agroforestry systems on the yield of the traditional field crops. For accomplishment of these study 80 questioners was designed and distributed in the selected villages. After the data collection data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic. The results showed that the most important agroforestry systems in the study area are parkland cropping system (58%, boundary planting (26%, wind-breaks (13% and alley cropping (3%.The most important forest trees in the study area are Acacia senegal (32%, Ziziphus spina- christia (28%, Balanites aegeyptiaca (26%, Sclerocary birrea and Guera senegalensis (3%. The main field crops in the study area are groundnut (44%, sorghum (35% and roselle (21%. The results showed that yield of groundnut and sorghum is higher under agroforestry systems compared with the mono-cropping system. The results showed that the majority of respondents (70% prefer to cultivate field crops in agroforestry system, while (30% prefer to cultivate the field crops in a mono-cropping system. The cultivation methods used in the study area include shifting cultivation (52%, mono-cropping (36% and intercropping (12%.The majority of respondents (94% showed that trees improve soil fertility in their farm land. The benefits from trees in farm land include improvement of soil properties (36%, protecting the farm land from wind erosion (28%, improvement of micro-climate (24% and source of income which was indicated by (12% of the respondents. The study recommended that modern agroforestry system such as improved fallow system

  19. An Automated Analyzer System to Strengthen Teaching and Research Infrastructure at West Virginia State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Mar-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: An Automated Analyzer System to Strengthen Teaching and Research...journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: An Automated Analyzer System to Strengthen Teaching and Research...students are using the equipment for the directed student research to fulfill their requirements for honors program in the Department of Biology

  20. Regionally heterogeneous paleoenvironmental responses in the West African and South American monsoon systems on glacial to millennial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, T. M.; Hughen, K. A.; van Mooy, B.; Overpeck, J. T.; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S.; Peck, J. A.; Scholz, C. A.; King, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Although millennial-scale paleoenvironmental changes have been well characterized for high latitude sites, short-term climate variability in the tropics is less well understood. While the Intertropical Convergence Zone may act as an integrator of tropical climate changes, regional factors also play an important role in controlling the tropical response to climate forcing. Understanding these influences, and how they modulate the response to global climate forcing under different mean climate states is thus important for assessing how the tropics may respond to future climate change. Here, we examine new centennial-resolution records of paleoenvironmental change from isotopic and relative abundance data from molecular biomarkers in sediment cores from Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Titicaca. We assess the relative response of the West African and South American monsoon systems to millennial and suborbital-scale climate variability over the last ca. 30,000 years. While there is evidence for synchronous climate variability in the two systems, the dominant paleoenvironmental changes appear largely decoupled, highlighting the importance of regional climatology in controlling the response to climate forcing in tropical regions.

  1. Brucellosis in West and Central Africa: A review of the current situation in a changing landscape of dairy cattle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, L; Meyer, A; Chengat, B; Musallam, I; Akakpo, J; Kone, P; Guitian, J; Häsler, B

    2018-03-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected endemic zoonosis in West and Central Africa. In this narrative review, evidence of livestock and human infection is presented along with details of past and current control strategies in 14 selected countries. Data from available literature is combined with expert opinion elicited during a regional workshop on brucellosis diagnostics. Demographic changes that affect both the epidemiology of brucellosis and the success of control or surveillance are also considered. The evidence suggests that brucellosis prevalence in emerging peri-urban dairy cattle systems may be higher than that found in traditional transhumant extensive systems. Accurate microbiological and epidemiological evidence across the region is lacking but it appears there is inherent interest in controlling the disease. There are many data gaps which require collaborative future research to evaluate fully the social and economic impact of the disease in an evolving livestock sector heavily influenced by high rates of urbanisation and regional population growth. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sources and the flux pattern of dissolved carbon in rivers of the Yenisey basin draining the Central Siberian Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokushkin, A S; Korets, M A; Prokushkin, S G; Pokrovsky, O S; Shirokova, L S; Viers, J; Amon, R M W; Guggenberger, G; McDowell, W H

    2011-01-01

    Frequent measurements of dissolved organic (DOC) and inorganic (DIC) carbon concentrations in rivers during snowmelt, the entire ice-free season, and winter were made in five large watersheds (15 000–174 000 km 2 ) of the Central Siberian Plateau (Yenisey River basin). These differ in the degree of continuous permafrost coverage, mean annual air temperature, and the proportion of tundra and forest vegetation. With an annual DOC export from the catchment areas of 2.8–4.7 gC m −2 as compared to an annual DIC export of 1.0–2.8 gC m −2 , DOC was the dominant component of terrigenous C released to rivers. There was strong temporal variation in the discharge of DOC and DIC. Like for other rivers of the pan-arctic and boreal zones, snowmelt dominated annual fluxes, being 55–71% for water runoff, 64–82% for DOC and 37–41% for DIC. Likewise, DOC and DIC exhibited also a strong spatial variation in C fluxes, with both dissolved C species decreasing from south to north. The rivers of the southern part of the plateau had the largest flow-weighted DOC concentrations among those previously reported for Siberian rivers, but the smallest flow-weighted DIC concentrations. In the study area, DOC and DIC fluxes were negatively correlated with the distribution of continuous permafrost and positively correlated with mean annual air temperature. A synthesis of literature data shows similar trends from west to east, with an eastward decrease of dissolved C concentrations and an increased proportion of DOC in the total dissolved C flux. It appears that there are two contemporary limitations for river export of terrigenous C across Siberia: (1) low productivity of ecosystems with respect to potentially mobilizable organic C, slow weathering rates with concomitant small formation of bicarbonate, and/or wildfire disturbance limit the pools of organic and inorganic C that can be mobilized for transport in rivers (source-limited), and (2) mobilization of available pools of C is

  3. Understanding the state of health policy and systems research in West Africa and capacity strengthening needs: scoping of peer-reviewed publications trends and patterns 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defor, Selina; Kwamie, Aku; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2017-07-12

    The need for locally-driven, locally-generated evidence to guide health policy and systems decision-making and implementation in West Africa remains urgent. Thus, health policy and systems research (HPSR) is a field with great potential for addressing many of the sub-region's intransigent health challenges. This paper presents an analysis of trends and patterns of peer-reviewed HPSR publications across the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), to help understand trends and patterns of HPSR publication and the degree of involvement of West African researchers in HPSR evidence generation in the sub-region. Our goal was to use the findings to inform the development of a sub-regional strategy to strengthen HPSR and its use to inform development and improvement of health outcomes. A scoping review was conducted over a 25-year period from January 1990 to September 2015. Literature searches were conducted in English and French using Google Scholar, PubMed Central and Cairn.info. A total of 258 articles were retrieved. Of these, 246 were statistically analysed, with 54% having West African lead authors. Two thirds of the papers originated from three out of the 15 countries of the ECOWAS, specifically Nigeria (28.86%), Burkina Faso (21.54%) and Ghana (17.07%). Most authors were based in academic institutions and participation of authors from ministries of health, hospitals and non-governmental organisations was limited. English was the predominant language for publication even for papers originating from Francophone West African countries. There has been a progressive increase in publications over the studied period. Despite progressive improvements over time, West Africa remains a weak sub-region in terms of peer-reviewed HPSR publications. Within the overall weakness, there is country-to-country variation. The fact that only a handful of countries accounted for nearly 70% of the total volume of publications in West Africa attests to the great disparities in

  4. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy glovebox assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ''cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and

  5. Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

    1999-12-17

    The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ``cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation

  6. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems - Regional Studies. West Texas and Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases - not generic examples - based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  7. Tax-benefit system and European households with children: East meeting West?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitchell, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2011), s. 7-20 ISSN 1583-0608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB700280901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : family * social policy * tax-benefit system Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  8. Seed systems for African food security: linking molecular genetic analysis and cultivator knowledge in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.; Bruin-Hoekzema, de M.; Hughes, S.G.; Kudadjie, C.Y.; Offei, S.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    A challenge for African countries is how to integrate new sources of knowledge on plant genetics with knowledge from farmer practice to help improve food security. This paper considers the knowledge content of farmer seed systems in the light of a distinction drawn in artificial intelligence

  9. Salinity response to seasonal runoff in a complex estuarine system (Cochin estuary, west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinita, J.; Shivaprasad, A.; Revichandran, C.; Manoj, N.T.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Jacob B

    discharges, the flushing time of this system needs to be well understood. It is often used to determine how much of a potentially harmful substance an estuary can tolerate before its ecosystem is adversely affected to a significant degree. Previously... presented here is the subset of data obtained from a one-year field campaign during June 2008 to May 2009. Annual variation in salinity was monitored by routine hydrographic surveys during the spring phase of each month. Along-channel transects were...

  10. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dickson, John O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-12

    A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

  11. Reconstruction of Pleistocene Paleo-Hydrology and Climate Variations in Western Asia as Recorded in Speleothems from West-Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehterian, S.; Pourmand, A.; Sharifi, A.; Lahijani, H. A. K.; Naderi, M.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Extending from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the northwest Indian Ocean and modern Iran, West Asia represents one of the most climatically dynamic regions in the northern hemisphere. The regional climate of West Asia is governed by interactions between the mid-latitude Westerlies, the Siberian Anticyclone and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon. In recent years, sparse records of Pleistocene climate variability have emerged from cave deposits (speleothems) in East Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Mediterranean. However, there remains a large gap in our understanding of abrupt and long-term climate variability in this region. We present for the first time δ18O data from speleothem and water samples that were collected from two cave systems in west-central Iran at similar latitudes, 60km apart: Qaleh Kord Cave (QKC, 35°47'50"N, 48°51'25"E) and Kataleh Khor Cave (KKC, 35°50'09"N, 48°09'41"E). U-Th geochronometry in two stalagmites from QKC yielded ages that range from 73,000 to 118,000 years B.P. Likewise, two stalagmites dated from KKC yielded ages 214,000-260,000 years B.P. and 300,000-500,000 years B.P. The analysis of additional speleothems from these caves should help to establish a continuous half million year multi-proxy record of δ18O variations, trace metal composition (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca), and radiogenic Sr isotopes in these cave systems. High-resolution δ18O analyses of QKC stalagmites show patterns of variation that can be attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and 5b. Since both these caves sit at relatively high elevations (QKC: 2,160 masl, KKC: 1,695 masl) far from major seas (1,100km from Mediterranean Sea, 1,500km from North Indian Ocean), this record potentially reflects the synoptic interactions between the Westerlies and the Siberian Anticyclone during this time interval, as opposed to direct variations caused by sea level fluctuations. Measurements of drip water composition and modern environmental parameters (temperature, relative

  12. Seafloor monitoring west of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea) using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Fiorentino, Dario; Papenmeier, Svenja; Holler, Peter; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Marine habitats of shelf seas are in constant dynamic change and therefore need regular assessment particularly in areas of special interest. In this study, the single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn served to assess seafloor hardness and roughness, and combine these parameters into one variable expressed as RGB (red green blue) color code followed by k-means fuzzy cluster analysis (FCA). The data were collected at a monitoring site west of the island of Helgoland (German Bight, SE North Sea) in the course of four surveys between September 2011 and November 2014. The study area has complex characteristics varying from outcropping bedrock to sandy and muddy sectors with mostly gradual transitions. RoxAnn data enabled to discriminate all seafloor types that were suggested by ground-truth information (seafloor samples, video). The area appears to be quite stable overall; sediment import (including fluid mud) was detected only from the NW. Although hard substrates (boulders, bedrock) are clearly identified, the signal can be modified by inclination and biocover. Manually, six RoxAnn zones were identified; for the FCA, only three classes are suggested. The latter classification based on `hard' boundaries would suffice for stakeholder issues, but the former classification based on `soft' boundaries is preferred to meet state-of-the-art scientific objectives.

  13. LAND SUITABILITY AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING TO DEFINE PRIORITY AREAS OF SOYBEAN PLANTATION IN PADDY FIELDS IN KARAWANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the agricultural public commodities in Indonesia which still cannot fulfill its domestic consumption needs is soybean. The objectives of the research, which was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, were to: (i identify the suitable area for soybean plantations in paddy fields, (ii assess the development of soybeans in land use and socio-economic context, and (iii plan the spatially soybean plantation. A soil survey and land evaluation for soybean was completed. IKONOS imagery was applied to delineate paddy fields while a dynamic system modelling was developed using Powersim 8.0 software. The results of the research showed that the suitability class for soybean plantation in the paddy fields of Karawang Regency ranges from unsuitable (N to suitable (S2, with limiting factors being temperature, fertility, nutrients retention, slope, erosion, rooting media and toxicity. Very limited arable land has been used so far for soybeans plantations due to low economic returns. The model predicts that, should the development of soybean continues in its business as usual path, a deficit of soybean will occur in 2030. The model provides alternative scenarios to reduce the deficit. Prioritization was done spatially using the suitable land gradually, corresponding to the government budget availability.

  14. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  15. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najihah, R; Effendi, D M; Hairunnisa, M A; Masiri, K

    2014-01-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters

  16. Foodsheds and City Region Food Systems in Two West African Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In response to changing urban food systems, short supply chains have been advocated to meet urban food needs while building more sustainable urban food systems. Despite an increasing interest in urban food supply and the flows of food from production to consumption, there is a lack of empirical studies and methodologies which systematically analyse the actual proportion and nutritional significance of local and regional food supplied to urban markets. The aim of this empirical study therefore was to compare the geographical sources supplying food to the urban population (“foodsheds” in Tamale, Ghana and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, to record the supplied quantities and to assess the level of interaction between the sources and the respective city. The study was conducted over two years, covering the seasons of abundant and short supply, via traffic surveys on the access roads to the two cities, and in the Tamale markets, resulting altogether in more than 40,000 records of food flow. Results indicated that food sources were highly crop- and season-specific, ranging from one-dimensional to multi-dimensional foodsheds with diverse sources across seasons. Across the commodity-specific foodsheds, city region boundaries were established. Within the proposed city region a relatively large proportion of smallholders contributed to urban food supply, taking advantage of the proximity to urban markets. While food provided from within the city region offers certain place-based benefits, like the provision of fresh perishable crops, a larger geographical diversity of foodsheds appeared to enhance the resilience of urban food systems, such as against climate related production failures.

  17. Reconstruction of the putative cervidae ancestral karyotype by chromosome painting of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) with dromedary probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyeva, P V; Trifonov, V A; Kulemzina, A I; Graphodatsky, A S

    2010-06-01

    The Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is one of a few deer species presumably preserving the ancestral cervid karyotype. The comparative genomic data of the Siberian roe deer are critical for our understanding of the karyotypic relationships within artiodactyls. We have established chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) by cross-species chromosome painting with dromedary chromosome-specific painting probes. Dromedary chromosome paints detected 53 autosomal homologies in the genome of the Siberian roe deer. The identification of chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and cattle resulted from previously detected cattle-dromedary homologies. We have found 8 chromosomal rearrangements (6 fissions in the Siberian roe deer, 1 fission in the cattle and 1 inversion on the CPY11) that have separated the karyotypes of the cattle and the Siberian roe deer. The inversion on CPY11 might be an apomorphic trait of cervids, since we detected its presence in the gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Thus our data further prove the scenario of chromosomal rearrangements that was previously proposed and add some new data. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Carbon geochemistry of plankton-dominated samples in the Laptev and East Siberian shelves: contrasts in suspended particle composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Geibel, Marc C.; Pearce, Christof; Panova, Elena; Vonk, Jorien E.; Karlsson, Emma; Salvado, Joan A.; Kruså, Martin; Bröder, Lisa; Humborg, Christoph; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-09-01

    Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect phytoplankton dynamics and stimulate heterotrophic communities. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we investigate the chemical signature of the plankton-dominated fraction of particulate organic matter (POM) collected along the Siberian Shelf. POM (> 10 µm) samples were analysed using molecular biomarkers (CuO oxidation and IP25) and dual-carbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C). In addition, surface water chemical properties were integrated with the POM (> 10 µm) dataset to understand the link between plankton composition and environmental conditions. δ13C and Δ14C exhibited a large variability in the POM (> 10 µm) distribution while the content of terrestrial biomarkers in the POM was negligible. In the Laptev Sea (LS), δ13C and Δ14C of POM (> 10 µm) suggested a heterotrophic environment in which dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Lena River was the primary source of metabolisable carbon. Within the Lena plume, terrestrial DOC probably became part of the food web via bacteria uptake and subsequently transferred to relatively other heterotrophic communities (e.g. dinoflagellates). Moving eastwards toward the sea-ice-dominated East Siberian Sea (ESS), the system became progressively more autotrophic. Comparison between δ13C of POM (> 10 µm) samples and CO2aq concentrations revealed that the carbon isotope fractionation increased moving towards the easternmost and most productive stations. In a warming scenario characterised by enhanced terrestrial DOC release (thawing permafrost) and progressive sea ice decline, heterotrophic conditions might persist in the LS while the nutrient-rich Pacific inflow will likely stimulate greater primary productivity in the ESS. The contrasting trophic conditions will result in a sharp gradient in δ13C between the LS and ESS, similar to what is documented in our semi

  19. Hydrological and ecological indicators of natural regimes of the North-Western Siberian Wetlands (Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakova, M. V.; Kouraev, A. V.; Zakharova, E. A.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Zemtsov, V. A.; Mognard, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Siberian Plain is the most bogged region of the world - in some parts up to 70-80% of its territory is covered by bogs. For the last 10 thousand years wetland areas of Western Siberia have been extending their territories, acting as a terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon on our planet. Two contrasting processes are actually occurring in the Southern and Northern parts of the region. In the south, there is a progressive swamping which leads to forest death. In the north, there is a thermokarst activity or thawing permafrost in palsas of sub-arctic zone of Western Siberia. In this work we analyse the hydrological and ecological indicators which characterize natural conditions of the North-Western Siberian Wetlands (watershed of Pur, Taz and Nadym rivers). These three rivers have total watershed of 243 000 km2 and discharge of 76 km3/year. They originate on the northern slopes of Sibirskiye uvaly ridge and flow to the Ob' bay and then to the Kara sea in the Arctic. Flat relief and the presence of permafrost lead to development of various forms of water objects and wetlands, such as river systems, flooded zones, lakes and bogs. We present the results of systematization and classification of landscape patterns, as well as study of variability of hydrological processes in the study region at different temporal (from multi-year to seasonal) and spatial (from local to regional) scales through a multidisciplinary approach based on in situ and remote sensing data. Various sources of satellite Earth observations, such as radar altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, ENVISAT), radiometry (SMMR, SSM/I), optical data (Landsat) and space gravimetry data (GRACE) are used in combination with the in situ observations and the recent field studies done in the August 2008. This research has been done in the framework of the Russian-French cooperation GDRI "CAR-WET-SIB" and French ANR "IMPACT-Boreal" project.

  20. Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogutcheva, N.K. [Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics & Mineral Resource, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

  1. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajos, M. K.; Hakola, H.; Holst, T.; Nieminen, T.; Tarvainen, V.; Maximov, T.; Petäjä, T.; Arneth, A.; Rinne, J.

    2013-07-01

    While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E) located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3-24 June, 8-26 July, and 14-30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw-1 h-1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3-37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C-1 for monoterpenes and 0.143 °C-1 for

  2. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Kajos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3–24 June, 8–26 July, and 14–30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw−1 h−1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3–37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C−1 for monoterpenes

  3. ‘Bacillus massiliglaciei’, a new bacterial species isolated from Siberian permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Afouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the main characteristics of a new species isolated from Siberian permafrost dated around 10 million years. This species was named ‘Bacillus massiliglaciei’ strain Marseille-P2600T (= CSUR P2600=DSM 102861.

  4. Differential antioxidant and quinone reductase inducing activity of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antioxidant and quinone reductase (QR) inducing activities of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng have been reported using various plant materials, solvents, and assays. To directly establish their comparative bioactivity, the effects of extracts obtained from acidified methanol (MeOH), a gas...

  5. Cadmium-induced apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblasts via disrupted intracellular homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heavy metals can cause great harm to Siberian tigers in the natural environment. Cadmium (Cd2+ is an environmental contaminant that affects multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. RESULTS: We investigated the apoptotic effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. Our research revealed the typical signs of apoptosis after Cd²+ exposure. Apoptosis was dose- (0-4.8 μΜ and duration-dependent (12-48 h, and proliferation was strongly inhibited. Cd²+ increased the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and disrupted calcium homeostasis by causing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. It also increased K+ efflux and altered the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, Fas, and p53. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Cd2+ triggers the apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblasts by disturbing intracellular homeostasis. These results will aid in our understanding of the effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tigers and in developing interventions to treat and prevent cadmium poisoning.

  6. A comparative study on biological aspect of sperm in sterlet and Siberian sturgeon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenička, M.; Hadi Alavi, S.M.; Rodina, M.; Cosson, J.; Nebesářová, Jana; Gela, D.; Linhart, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2008), 179-180 ISSN 0399-0974 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0817 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Sperm * Morphology * Physiology * Sterlet * Siberian sturgeon Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2008

  7. Morphology and ultrastructure of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) spermatozoa using scanning and transmission electron microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenička, M.; Hadi Alavi, S.M.; Rodina, M.; Gela, D.; Nebesářová, Jana; Linhart, O.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2007), s. 103-115 ISSN 0248-4900 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0817 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : acrosome * flagellum * scanning electron microscopy * Siberian sturgeon * Acipenser baerii * spermatozoon , * transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2007

  8. High fidelity--no evidence for extra-pair paternity in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available Extra-pair paternity (EPP in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n=1029 offspring covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity.

  9. Evapotranspiration from understory vegetation in an eastern Siberian boreal larch forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, S.; Ohta, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakai, T.; Kuwada, T.; Konovov, A.V.; Maximov, T.C.; van der Molen, M.K.; Dolman, A.J.; Tanaka, H.; Yabuki, H.

    2009-01-01

    We measured evapotranspiration in an eastern Siberian boreal forest, in which the understory was cowberry and the overstory was larch, during the entire growing seasons of 2005 and 2006. We compared evapotranspiration from the understory vegetation above the forest floor E

  10. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Regan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  11. Estrogen accelerates gonadal recrudescence in photo-regressed male siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Toni R; Lynch, G Robert; Tsai, Pei-San

    2002-10-01

    Seasonal gonadal recrudescence in the male Siberian hamster is accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis, weight gain, and darkening of coat color. The downstream endocrine regulators responsible for these changes have been definitively identified. We have previously shown that the administration of exogenous 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to adult male Siberian hamsters kept under long-day photoperiod increased testicular mass without altering spermatogenesis. In this study, we examine if E(2) can initiate testicular growth in photo-regressed adult Siberian hamsters and if this testicular growth is accompanied by weight gain and pelage color change. Photo-regressed adult male Siberian hamsters were subcutaneously implanted with a 1 mm silastic capsule containing E(2) or cholesterol control. After 15 days, robust initiation of spermatogenesis was observed in E(2)-implanted animals in the absence of body weight and pelage color change. While circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) remained undetected in both control and E(2)-treated animals, E(2) significantly reduced pituitary gonadotropin stores. Overall, we showed E(2) stimulated gonadal recrudescence via a pathway that has diverged from body weight and pelage color change. Further, we demonstrated a novel role of E(2) in the initiation of spermatogenesis, possibly via a mechanism independent of FSH.

  12. Estimation and extrapolation of soil properties in the Siberian tundra, using field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomeus, H.; Schaepman-Strub, G.; Blok, D.; Udaltsov, S.; Sofronov, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Siberian tundra is a complex and sensitive ecosystem. Predicted global warming will be highest in the Arctic and will severely affect permafrost environments. Due to its large spatial extent and large stocks of soil organic carbon, changes to the carbon fluxes in the Arctic will have significant

  13. Plant metabolites of the Siberian flora. Chemical transformations and the scope of practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, Elvira E; Raldugin, Victor A; Volcho, Konstantin P; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F; Tolstikov, Genrikh A [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    The results of studies of some terpenoids, alkaloids and phenolic derivatives isolated from Siberian plants are summarised. The structures of the compounds studied are presented and the chemical transformations of the available terpenoids and alkaloids are considered. Examples of practical application of natural compounds and their derivatives are given.

  14. Water and energy exchange in East Siberian forest: A synthesis, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maximov, T.; Ohta, T.; Dolman, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes and synthesises the results obtained in several recent studies on water and energy exchange of East Siberian forests located on permafrost. It is found that annual evaporation of these forests shows relatively small inter-annual variation (147-196 mm). The availability of

  15. [Efficiency of Siberian pine oil in complex treating of people ill with benign hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Iu V; Budaeva, V V; Vereshchagin, A L; Egorova, E Iu; Zhukova, E Iu; Saratikov, A S

    2006-01-01

    For people ill with benign hypertension and going through basis hypotensive therapy, taking in Siberian pine nut oil as much as 17,5 g per day, is accompanied by cholesterol-lessening effect, normalization of lipid spectrum of blood, systolic (maximum) benign pressure and lessening of surplus body mass.

  16. Evaluation of the mixing system for the West Valley melter feed hold tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes are currently stored in underground tanks at several Department of Energy facilities. The current plan for management of these wastes is to convert them to a durable borosilicate glass, then isolate the glass in a deep geologic repository. The process for converting the wastes to glass involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals, then transforming the resulting slurry into glass using a high-temperature furnace known as a slurry-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the waste slurry preparation and feed systems to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. This document reviews current technology. 11 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Independence of circadian entrainment state and responses to melatonin in male Siberian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorman Michael R

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal fluctuations in physiology and behavior depend on the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion programmed by the circadian system. A melatonin signal of a given duration, however, can elicit different responses depending on whether an animal was previously exposed to longer or shorter photoperiod signals (i.e., its photoperiodic history. This report examined in male Siberian hamsters which of two aspects of photoperiod history – prior melatonin exposure or entrainment state of the circadian system – is critical for generating contingent responses to a common photoperiodic signal. Results In Experiment #1, daily melatonin infusions of 5 or 10 h duration stimulated or inhibited gonadal growth, respectively, but had no effect on entrainment of the locomotor activity rhythm to long or short daylengths, thereby demonstrating that melatonin history and entrainment status could be experimentally dissociated. These manipulations were repeated in Experiment #2, and animals were subsequently exposed to a 12 week regimen of naturalistic melatonin signals shown in previous experiments to reveal photoperiodic history effects. Gonadal responses differed as a function of prior melatonin exposure but were unaffected by the circadian entrainment state. Experiment #3 demonstrated that a new photoperiodic history could be imparted during four weeks of exposure to long photoperiods. This effect, moreover, was blocked in animals treated concurrently with constant release melatonin capsules that obscured the endogenous melatonin signal: Following removal of the implants, the gonadal response depended not on the immediately antecedent circadian entrainment state, but on the more remote photoperiodic conditions prior to the melatonin implant. Conclusions The interpretation of photoperiodic signals as a function of prior conditions depends specifically on the history of melatonin exposure. The photoperiodic regulation of circadian

  18. LAND USE PLANNING FOR BEEKEEPING USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN SUKABUMI REGENCY, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varian Triantomo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping is one of the alternative businesses that can be developed without converting the existing land use. Deveoping the business of beekeeping should consider the biophysically suitable area for bees themselves and also for the bee forage availability. The objective of this study was to provide the direction of development area for beekeeping. The methods used consist ofa combination of remote sensing, geographic information system, and analytical hierarchy process. The recommended area for beekeeping in Sukabumi regency consists of two areas: forest and dry land agriculture area. The protected area has two priorities: The first priority area for beekeeping is 3,335.52 ha (6.4%, while second priority is 48,415.22 ha (93.6% that covered 14 sub-districts. The cultivation area has three priorities: First priority area is 1,163.92 ha, second priorityarea is 6,044.98 ha, and third priority area is 2,651.21 ha that covered 9 sub-districts. Based on result of analysis with the existing beekeeping in Sukabumi regency, local government of Sukabumi regency or local farmer could develop program for beekeeping in such as sub district: Cibadak, Cicurug, Cidahu, Ciemas, Cikidang, Ciracap, Cisolok, Kabandungan, Kadudampit, Kalapanunggal, Nagrak, Pelabuhan Ratu, Sukabumi, Sukaraja, Jampang Kulon, Pabuaran, Sagaranten, Surade, and Tegalbuleud.

  19. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes Polymorphisms and Essential Hypertension in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daméhan Tchelougou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between three polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system and the essential hypertension in the population of Burkina Faso. Methodology. This was a case-control study including 202 cases and 204 matched controls subjects. The polymorphisms were identified by a classical and a real-time PCR. Results. The AGT 235M/T and AT1R 1166A/C polymorphisms were not associated with the hypertension while the genotype frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between patients and controls (DD: 66.83% and 35.78%, ID: 28.22% and 50.98%, II: 4.95% and 13.24%, resp. were significantly different (p < 10−4. The genotype DD of ACE gene (OR = 3.40, p < 0.0001, the increasing age (OR = 3.83, p < 0.0001, obesity (OR = 4.84, p < 0.0001, dyslipidemia (OR = 3.43, p = 0.021, and alcohol intake (OR = 2.76, p < 0.0001 were identified as the independent risk factors for hypertension by multinomial logistic regression. Conclusion. The DD genotype of the ACE gene is involved in susceptibility to hypertension. Further investigations are needed to better monitor and provide individualized care for hypertensive patients.

  20. Monitoring the International Monetary System: Its Development in the West, and Future in the East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Barry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The “gold standard” is frequently mentioned in text books, but few without an economics background can fully understand it. This paper thus begins in 1896, when U.S. Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan declared, “You shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold.” Since going back to the middle ages, the world has had numerous monetary systems, which are here explained in comprehensible terms. A modern reoccurring idea is to return to some form of the gold standard, while some argue for switching to the Chinese yuan or another international reserve currency, which the International Monetary Fund (IMF will adopt in their Special Drawing Rights starting in October, 2016. This paper is normative in that it comments on the current international structure, but uses economic principles to support its argument in favor of an internationally strong dollar. It thus traces the history of a topically contentious subject, with a basic regression indicating important predictive factors for the future. It offers that a new gold standard would not be in the world’s interest, interfering with monetary policy, while emerging market countries would be best to import more and financially deepen, which the regression shows was why the Chinese yuan was adopted by the IMF, then looking ahead to other parts of Asia and towards bitcoins.

  1. Effect of a partial Siberian snake on an open-quotes Rf-inducedclose quotes depolarizing resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.M.; Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of an rf solenoid magnet and a partial Siberian snake on a stored 120 MeV vertically polarized proton beam. The open-quotes rf-inducedclose quotes depolarizing resonance frequencies were measured for several partial Siberian snakes. The snake's longitudinal field tilts the stable spin direction from the vertical and shifts the depolarizing resonances toward higher frequencies. A 4% snake shifts the resonance frequency by 11 kHz which corresponds to a spin tune shift of 0.00688. A partial Siberian snake should be able to overcome the relatively weak imperfection depolarizing resonances in proton accelerators up to about 10 GeV

  2. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  3. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  4. Unexpected population genetic structure of European roe deer in Poland: an invasion of the mtDNA genome from Siberian roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosiuk, Maciej; Borkowska, Anetta; Świsłocka, Magdalena; Mirski, Paweł; Borowski, Zbigniew; Krysiuk, Kamil; Danilkin, Aleksey A; Zvychaynaya, Elena Y; Saveljev, Alexander P; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    Introgressive hybridization is a widespread evolutionary phenomenon which may lead to increased allelic variation at selective neutral loci and to transfer of fitness-related traits to introgressed lineages. We inferred the population genetic structure of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Poland from mitochondrial (CR and cyt b) and sex-linked markers (ZFX, SRY, DBY4 and DBY8). Analyses of CR mtDNA sequences from 452 individuals indicated widespread introgression of Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) mtDNA in the European roe deer genome, 2000 km from the current distribution range of C. pygargus. Introgressed individuals constituted 16.6% of the deer studied. Nearly 75% of them possessed haplotypes belonging to the group which arose 23 kyr ago and have not been detected within the natural range of Siberian roe deer, indicating that majority of present introgression has ancient origin. Unlike the mtDNA results, sex-specific markers did not show signs of introgression. Species distribution modelling analyses suggested that C. pygargus could have extended its range as far west as Central Europe after last glacial maximum. The main hybridization event was probably associated with range expansion of the most abundant European roe deer lineage from western refugia and took place in Central Europe after the Younger Dryas (10.8-10.0 ka BP). Initially, introgressed mtDNA variants could have spread out on the wave of expansion through the mechanism of gene surfing, reaching high frequencies in European roe deer populations and leading to observed asymmetrical gene flow. Human-mediated introductions of C. pygargus had minimal effect on the extent of mtDNA introgression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. State of stress and crustal fluid migration related to west-dipping structures in the slab-forearc system in the northern Chilean subduction zone

    OpenAIRE

    P. Salazar; Juliane Kummerow; P. Wigger; S. Shapiro; Günter Asch

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies in the forearc of the northern Chilean subduction zone have identified important tectonic features in the upper crust. As a result of these works, the West Fissure Fault System (WFFS) has recently been imaged using microseismic events. The WFFS is the westward-dipping, sharp lower boundary of the northern Chilean forearc and is geometrically opposed to subduction of the Nazca plate. The present article builds on this previous work and is novel in that it characterizes this st...

  6. Investigating carbon dynamics in Siberian peat bogs using molecular-level analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Total hydrolysable carbohydrates, and lignin and cutin acid compounds were analyzed in peat cores collected 56.8 N (SIB04), 58.4 N (SIB06), 63.8 N (G137) and 66.5 N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland to investigate vegetation, chemical compositions and the stage of decomposition. Sphagnum mosses dominated peatland vegetation in all four cores. High-resolution molecular analyses revealed rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years in the southern cores Sib4 and Sib6. Syringyl and vanillyl (S/V) ratios and cutin acids indicated these vegetation changes were due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm and root material. In the G137 and E113 cores lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants. Molecular decomposition indicators used in this study tracked the decomposition of different organic constituents of peat organic matter. The carbohydrate decomposition index was sensitive to the polysaccharide component of all peat-forming plants, whereas acid/aldehyde ratios of S and V phenols (Ac/AlS,V) followed the lignin component of vascular plants. Low carbohydrate decomposition indices in peat layers corresponded well with elevated (Ad/Al)S,V ratios. This suggested both classes of biochemicals were simultaneously decomposed, and decomposition processes were associated with extensive total mass loss in these ombrotrophic systems. Selective decomposition or transformation of lignin was observed in the permafrost-influenced northern cores G137 and E113. Both cores exhibited the highest (Ad/Al)S,V ratios, almost four-fold higher than measured in peat-forming plants. The extent of decomposition in the four peat cores did not uniformly increase with age, but showed episodic extensive decomposition events. Variable decomposition events independent of climatic conditions and vegetation shifts highlight the complexity of peatland dynamics.

  7. The Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV: a real-time GIS for surveillance and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebel Germain

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After its first detection in North America in New York in 1999, West Nile virus was detected for the first time in 2002 in the province of Quebec, Canada. This situation forced the Government of Quebec to adopt a public health protection plan against the virus. The plan comprises several fields of intervention including the monitoring of human cases, Corvidae and mosquitoes in order to ensure the early detection of the presence of the virus in a particular area. To help support the monitoring activities, the Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV has been developed. Results The ISPHM-WNV is a real-time geographic information system for public health surveillance of West Nile virus and includes information on Corvidae, mosquitoes, humans, horses, climate, and preventive larvicide interventions. It has been in operation in the province of Quebec, Canada, since May 2003. The ISPHM-WNV facilitates the collection, localization, management and analysis of monitoring data; it also allows for the display of the results of analyses on maps, tables and statistical diagrams. Conclusion The system is very helpful for field workers in all regions of the province, as well as for central authorities. It represents the common authoritative source of data for analysis, exchange and decision-making.

  8. Sedimentary organic matter sources, benthic consumption and burial in west Spitsbergen fjords - Signs of maturing of Arctic fjordic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Legeżyńska, Joanna; Jankowska, Emilia; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Deja, Kajetan

    2018-04-01

    Mature ecosystems sequester little organic carbon (Corg) in sediments, as the complex and effective food webs consume most available organic matter within the water column and sediment, in contrast to young systems, where a large proportion of Corg is buried in deeper sediment layers. In this paper we hypothesize that "warmer" Atlantic water influenced fjord exhibits the 'mature' system features as compared to "cooler" Arctic water influenced fjord. Corg concentrations, sources and burial rates, as well as macrobenthic community standing stocks, taxonomic and functional composition and carbon demand, were compared in two west Spitsbergen fjords that are to different extents influenced by Atlantic water and can be treated as representing a cold one (Hornsund) and a warm one (Kongsfjorden). Water, sediments and macrofauna were collected at three stations in the central basin of each fjord. Corg, Ntot, δ13Corg and δ15N were measured in suspended matter, sediment cores and possible organic matter sources. The composition of sources of sedimentary organic matter was modeled by Mix-SIAR Bayesian stable isotope mixing models. The 210Pb method was used to calculate sediment accumulation rates, Corg accumulation and burial rates. The sedimentary Corg concentration and accumulation rate were larger in Hornsund than in Kongsfjorden. The contributions of pelagic sources to the Corg in sediments were similar in both fjords, macroalgal detritus had a higher importance in Kongsfjorden, while terrestrial sources were more important in Hornsund. Similar density and species richness were noted in both fjords, but higher biomass, individual biomass, production and carbon demand of benthic communities were noted in Kongsfjorden despite the lower amounts of Corg in sediments, indicating that macrobenthos responds to quality rather than quantity of available food. Subsurface tube-building conveyer belt detritus feeders (maldanids and oweniids) were responsible for higher standing

  9. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcus C. GEMENET

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available West Africa (WA is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, unaffordable to resource-poor farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1 The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2 Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3 Plant responses to P deficiency; (4 Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5 Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6 Systems approaches to addressing soil P-deficiency in WA.Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not however be a sustainable solution in

  10. Technology Development And Deployment Of Systems For The Retrieval And Processing Of Remote-Handled Sludge From Hanford K-West Fuel Storage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 μm to 6350 μm mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is scheduled

  11. Climate change, climate variability and adaptation options in smallholder cropping systems of the Sudano - Sahel region in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traore, B.

    2014-01-01

    In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa (SSWA) agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing to about 30% of gross domestic product. Smallholder agricultural production is

  12. Climate change, climate variability and adaptation options in smallholder cropping systems of the Sudano - Sahel region in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traore, B.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: crop production, maize, millet, sorghum, cotton, fertilizer, rainfall, temperature, APSIM, Mali,

    In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa (SSWA) agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities, providing employment to more than 60

  13. Systems development in agricultural mechanization with special reference to soil tillage and weed control : a case study for West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curfs, H.P.F.

    1976-01-01

    Introduction

    Mechanization in West Africa has been of limited importance and influence for farming and manual labour is the dominant power input. At present only about 0.07 kW per ha is applied, while at least about 0.37 kW is desirable to obtain high yield

  14. Carbon mineralization in Laptev and East Siberian sea shelf and slope sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brüchert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian Arctic Sea shelf and slope is a key region for the degradation of terrestrial organic material transported from the organic-carbon-rich permafrost regions of Siberia. We report on sediment carbon mineralization rates based on O2 microelectrode profiling; intact sediment core incubations; 35S-sulfate tracer experiments; pore-water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; δ13CDIC; and iron, manganese, and ammonium concentrations from 20 shelf and slope stations. This data set provides a spatial overview of sediment carbon mineralization rates and pathways over large parts of the outer Laptev and East Siberian Arctic shelf and slope and allows us to assess degradation rates and efficiency of carbon burial in these sediments. Rates of oxygen uptake and iron and manganese reduction were comparable to temperate shelf and slope environments, but bacterial sulfate reduction rates were comparatively low. In the topmost 50 cm of sediment, aerobic carbon mineralization dominated degradation and comprised on average 84 % of the depth-integrated carbon mineralization. Oxygen uptake rates and anaerobic carbon mineralization rates were higher in the eastern East Siberian Sea shelf compared to the Laptev Sea shelf. DIC ∕ NH4+ ratios in pore waters and the stable carbon isotope composition of remineralized DIC indicated that the degraded organic matter on the Siberian shelf and slope was a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter. Based on dual end-member calculations, the terrestrial organic carbon contribution varied between 32 and 36 %, with a higher contribution in the Laptev Sea than in the East Siberian Sea. Extrapolation of the measured degradation rates using isotope end-member apportionment over the outer shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian seas suggests that about 16 Tg C yr−1 is respired in the outer shelf seafloor sediment. Of the organic matter buried below the oxygen penetration depth, between 0.6 and 1.3

  15. Carbon mineralization in Laptev and East Siberian sea shelf and slope sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüchert, Volker; Bröder, Lisa; Sawicka, Joanna E.; Tesi, Tommaso; Joye, Samantha P.; Sun, Xiaole; Semiletov, Igor P.; Samarkin, Vladimir A.

    2018-01-01

    The Siberian Arctic Sea shelf and slope is a key region for the degradation of terrestrial organic material transported from the organic-carbon-rich permafrost regions of Siberia. We report on sediment carbon mineralization rates based on O2 microelectrode profiling; intact sediment core incubations; 35S-sulfate tracer experiments; pore-water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); δ13CDIC; and iron, manganese, and ammonium concentrations from 20 shelf and slope stations. This data set provides a spatial overview of sediment carbon mineralization rates and pathways over large parts of the outer Laptev and East Siberian Arctic shelf and slope and allows us to assess degradation rates and efficiency of carbon burial in these sediments. Rates of oxygen uptake and iron and manganese reduction were comparable to temperate shelf and slope environments, but bacterial sulfate reduction rates were comparatively low. In the topmost 50 cm of sediment, aerobic carbon mineralization dominated degradation and comprised on average 84 % of the depth-integrated carbon mineralization. Oxygen uptake rates and anaerobic carbon mineralization rates were higher in the eastern East Siberian Sea shelf compared to the Laptev Sea shelf. DIC / NH4+ ratios in pore waters and the stable carbon isotope composition of remineralized DIC indicated that the degraded organic matter on the Siberian shelf and slope was a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter. Based on dual end-member calculations, the terrestrial organic carbon contribution varied between 32 and 36 %, with a higher contribution in the Laptev Sea than in the East Siberian Sea. Extrapolation of the measured degradation rates using isotope end-member apportionment over the outer shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian seas suggests that about 16 Tg C yr-1 is respired in the outer shelf seafloor sediment. Of the organic matter buried below the oxygen penetration depth, between 0.6 and 1.3 Tg C yr-1 is degraded by anaerobic processes

  16. The evidence of apelin has the bidirectional effects on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jin; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Yuanbing; Zhu, Jieyao; Qi, Jinwen; Tang, Ni; Wang, Shuyao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2017-08-01

    Apelin is a peptide, mainly produced in the brain, which participates in several physiologic effects. However, knowledge about the mechanism of appetite regulation in teleosts, including the role of apelin is not well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of feeding status on the expression of apelin mRNA in the whole brain and the effects of injection of apelin on food intake in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). In this study, we first cloned the apelin cDNA sequence of the Siberian sturgeon. We obtained a 1046-bp cDNA fragment, including a 237-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded 78 amino acids. Apelin was widely distributed in 11 tissues related to feeding regulation, with the highest expression in thewhole brain, followed by the spleen and trunk kidney. In addition, we measured the effects of periprandial (preprandial and postprandial) change, fasting and re-feeding on apelin mRNA expression in whole brain. The level of apelin mRNA was significantly decreased 1h after feeding. The results of the fasting experiment showed that the expression of apelin mRNA in the brain was significantly reduced after 1day of fasting but consistently increased throughout the 15-day food deprivation period. When the 15-day fasted fish were re-fed, apelin mRNA expression in the brain was significantly increased as compared to that of the control. These results suggest that apelin may play a bidirectional role in the regulation of food intake in the Siberian sturgeon. In order to further examine the effect of apelin on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeons, acute and chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection experiments were performed and food intakes were recorded. Results showed that acute i.p. injection of apelin-13 reduced food intake, however, chronic i.p. injection apelin-13 increased the food intake for 7days in Siberian sturgeons. In conclusion, our results show that apelin has a bidirectional effect on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeons

  17. West Eurasian mtDNA lineages in India: an insight into the spread of the Dravidian language and the origins of the caste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Zhang, Cai-Ling; Debnath, Monojit; Li, Gui-Mei; Wang, Hua-Wei; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-06-01

    There is no indication from the previous mtDNA studies that west Eurasian-specific subclades have evolved within India and played a role in the spread of languages and the origins of the caste system. To address these issues, we have screened 14,198 individuals (4208 from this study) and analyzed 112 mitogenomes (41 new sequences) to trace west Eurasian maternal ancestry. This has led to the identification of two autochthonous subhaplogroups--HV14a1 and U1a1a4, which are likely to have originated in the Dravidian-speaking populations approximately 10.5-17.9 thousand years ago (kya). The carriers of these maternal lineages might have settled in South India during the time of the spread of the Dravidian language. In addition to this, we have identified several subsets of autochthonous U7 lineages, including U7a1, U7a2b, U7a3, U7a6, U7a7, and U7c, which seem to have originated particularly in the higher-ranked caste populations in relatively recent times (2.6-8.0 kya with an average of 5.7 kya). These lineages have provided crucial clues to the differentiation of the caste system that has occurred during the recent past and possibly, this might have been influenced by the Indo-Aryan migration. The remaining west Eurasian lineages observed in the higher-ranked caste groups, like the Brahmins, were found to cluster with populations who possibly arrived from west Asia during more recent times.

  18. Groundwater levels, geochemistry, and water budget of the Tsala Apopka Lake system, west-central Florida, 2004–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Metz, Patricia A.; Ryan, Patrick J.; Fulkerson, Mark; Downing, Harry C.

    2017-12-18

    Tsala Apopka Lake is a complex system of lakes and wetlands, with intervening uplands, located in Citrus County in west-central Florida. It is located within the 2,100 square mile watershed of the Withlacoochee River, which drains north and northwest towards the Gulf of Mexico. The lake system is managed by the Southwest Florida Water Management District as three distinct “pools,” which from upstream to downstream are referred to as the Floral City Pool, Inverness Pool, and Hernando Pool. Each pool contains a mixture of deep-water lakes that remain wet year round, ephemeral (seasonal) ponds and wetlands, and dry uplands. Many of the major deep-water lakes are interconnected by canals. Flow from the Withlacoochee River, when conditions allow, can be diverted into the lake system. Flow thorough the canals can be used to control the distribution of water between the three pools. Flow in the canals is controlled using structures, such as gates and weirs.Hydrogeologic units in the study area include a surficial aquifer consisting of Quaternary-age sediments, a discontinuous intermediate confining unit consisting of Miocene- and Pliocene-age sediments, and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer, which consists of Eocene- and Oligocene-age carbonates. The fine-grained quartz sands that constitute the surficial aquifer are generally thin, typically less than 25 feet thick, within the vicinity of Tsala Apopka Lake. A thin, discontinuous, sandy clay layer forms the intermediate confining unit. The Upper Floridan aquifer is generally unconfined in the vicinity of Tsala Apopka Lake because the intermediate confining unit is discontinuous and breached by numerous karst features. In the study area, the Upper Floridan aquifer includes the upper Avon Park Formation and Ocala Limestone. The Ocala Limestone is the primary source of drinking water and spring flow in the area.The objectives of this study are to document the interaction of Tsala Apopka Lake, the surficial aquifer

  19. Results of Paleomagnetic Investigation of Angara - Taseeva Depression and Central Part of Tunguska Syncline (Siberian Trap Province, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Pavlov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Results of paleomagnetic investigation of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and central part of Tunguska syncline) are performed here. Our work was dedicated to the estimation of dynamics and duration of magmatic activity during Siberian Traps emplacement. The conclusions are based on paleomagnetic study of large dolerite sills in the periphery of Siberian Trap province, tuffaceous deposits, small intrusions and lava flows of Tunguska syncline, and on geochronological data (Ivanov et al., 2013; Reichow et al., 2009). The presented data show that formation of Siberian Traps in these regions took place as several short bursts of magmatic activity led to large sill intrusions and eruptions of tuffs. This data are in agreement with the pulsating character of magmatic activity in the Northern part of Siberian platform (Pavlov et al., 2014). The most powerful burst of magmatic activity in Angara-Taseeva syncline is supposed to be synchronous to the main phase of volcanic eruptions in the Northern part of Siberian platform and emplacement of ore-bearing intrusions in Noril'sk district. This study was funded by grant RFBR # 14-05-31447.

  20. The utilization of Malaysian Active GPS System data for geodynamic applications: a case study in East and West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Rabieahtul; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul

    2010-05-01

    Geodynamic studies of Malaysia have been ventured upon in the South-East Asia region since the first GeodySEA project in 1996. Both East and West Malaysia lies on the Eurasian Plate, and assumed to have no linear distortion between any two joined points relative to one another. However, Malaysia lies at the southern tip of the plate encroached by two frequently ruptured boundaries, the Indian-Australian plate and the Philippines plate, and it is also within the buffer of the Ring of fire. Hence, this paper is essential to determine the relative movement of Malaysia, and with the possibilities to identify the presences of slip-fault formation which might be of threat to the stable platform that we have taken for granted. Availability of uninterrupted GPS observations over the Malaysian Active GPS System known as MASS stations situated across the country established by the Department of Survey and Mapping (DSMM) evidently help provides the data for this study. There are currently eighteen MASS stations mounted with Trimble 4000 dual frequency antenna and data recorded at fine second interval made accessible in hourly files. Satellite data collected continuously over a long period of time are processed by Bernese GPS processing software. Fifteen International GNSS Service (IGS) stations were selected within similar period of observations were gathered, processed, later act as tie points to the MASS stations. Apparently with this Malaysia will form a network to the globe. In this research the author will output the relative MASS stations coordinates and velocity estimates in International terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) 2000 since GPS data used are before the derivation of ITRF2005. At present the measures of quality for GPS derived coordinates given by commercial software packages tend to be unrealistic because unmodelled errors remain unaccounted for. The commercial software packages are either over-optimistic or conversely, therefore, have low fidelity. Thus

  1. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  2. PALEOARCHEAN MAFIC ROCKS OF THE SOUTHWESTERN SIBERIAN CRATON: PRELIMINARY GEOCHRONOLOGY AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian craton consists of Archean blocks, which were welded up into the same large unit by ca 1.9 Ga [Gladkochub et al., 2006; Rojas-Agramonte et al., 2011]. The history of the constituent Archean blocks is mosaic because of limited number of outcrops, insufficient sampling coverage because of their location in remote regions and deep forest and difficulties with analytical studies of ancient rocks, which commonly underwent metamorphic modifications and secondary alterations. In this short note, we report data on discovery of unusual for Archean mafic rocks of ultimate fresh appearance. These rocks were discovered within southwestern Siberian craton in a region near a boundary between Kitoy granulites of the Sharyzhalgai highgrade metamorphic complex and Onot green-schist belt (Fig. 1. Here we present preliminary data on geochronology of these rocks and provide their geochemical characterization.

  3. Branching patterns of the aortic arch in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangyun; Sim, Jeong-Ha; Kim, Jong-Teak; Oh, Hong-Shik; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon

    2018-02-02

    This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771) from South Korea. A total of eight of the nine expected types, based on the branching site and bilateral levels of the costocervical trunk (CCT) and subclavian artery (SB), were observed in the arterial silicone casts of 35 deer (16 males, 19 females). This deer has no typical type. The three most common types were present in 28.6, 25.7 and 20.0% of cases and resulted from different branching patterns of the left CCT and left SB. These results suggest that the Siberian roe deer in the Korean peninsula has various AA branching patterns, which differs from other ruminants.

  4. Adiabatic partial Siberian snake turn-on with no beam depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.A.; Anferov, V.A.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Kaufman, W.A.; Koulsha, A.V.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Raczkowksi, D.B.; Sund, S.E.; Wong, V.K.; Caussyn, D.D.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Baiod, R.; Khiari, F.Z.; Ratner, L.G.; Sato, H.

    1994-01-01

    A recent experiment in the IUCF cooler ring studied the adiabatic turn-on of a partial Siberian snake at 370 MeV, where the spin tune, ν s is 21/2 for all snake strengths. The snake consisted of two rampable warm solenoid magnets in series with a superconducting solenoid; this combination allowed varying the snake strength between about 0 and 25% at 370 MeV. We measured the beam polaraization after varying the snake either 1, 2, or 10 times; we found with good precision that no polarization was lost. This supports the conjecture that a Siberian snake can be ramped adiabatically at an energy where the spin tune is a half integer

  5. Adiabatic Siberian snake turn-on and acceleration through depolarizing resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulsha, A.V.; Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors plan to install in the IUCF Cooler Ring a rampable partial (30%) Siberian snake to test if the spin polarization is preserved during adiabatic turn-on. They also plan to use this ramped snake to accelerate polarized protons to 370 MeV while passing through two depolarizing resonances. The Siberian snake will consist of two small rampable warm solenoids placed symmetrically on either side of the exciting cold 2 T·m solenoid which would run dc at about 0.5 T·m. Ramping each warm magnet from about -0.25T·m to + 0.25 T·m. Recent experiments showed that turning on the snake in 100 msec at 370 MeV causes no serious beam loss

  6. Trouble Upstairs: Reconstructing Permian-Triassic Climate during Siberian Traps Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Neely, R. R., III; Lamarque, J. F.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Mills, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The eruption of large igneous provinces can transfer significant masses of volatiles from Earth's interior to the atmosphere. What are the consequences of this degassing for habitability and extinction? In this presentation, we consider this question in the context of Siberian Traps magmatism, which has been shown to overlap within geochronologic uncertainty with catastrophic deterioration of Permian-Triassic marine and terrestrial ecosystems. To investigate the impacts of endogenic gases on climate, atmospheric chemistry, and ocean circulation, we conducted a series of numerical experiments with a comprehensive global model for the Permian-Triassic. Our simulations predict the intensity and distribution of acid rain and ozone depletion, with implications for terrestrial biota. We further explore feedbacks between sulfur emissions, transient cooling, and shifts in ocean circulation. We suggest that Siberian Traps magmatism may have triggered several distinct kill mechanisms in the oceans and on land, contributing to a complex combined pattern of environmental stress and latest Permian ecological failure.

  7. Metal ion complex formation in small lakes of the Western Siberian Arctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremleva, Tatiana; Dinu, Marina

    2017-04-01

    The paper is based on joint investigation of the Tyumen State University (Russia, Tyumen) and the Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry Vernadsky Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russia) during 2012-2014 period. It presents the results of research of chemical composition of about 70 small lakes located in the area of tundra and northern taiga of West Siberia (Russia, Yamal-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Districts of the Tyumen region). The investigation includes determination of different parameters of natural water samples: • content of trace elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, etc., total more than 60 elements) by emission method with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) using mass spektrometrometre Element 2 equipment; • content of inorganic and total carbon (TIC and TC) by elemental analysis and the difference between the total and inorganic carbon gives the organic carbon content (TOC); • pH value by potentiometric method; • content of basic ions (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, NH4+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-) by ion chromatography. Determination of the chemical composition of samples was conducted in the accredited laboratory according to standard procedures with regular quality control of results. Heavy metals in natural waters can exist in various forms: free (hydrated) ions bound in complexes with organic or inorganic ligands, as well as in the form of suspensions. The form of metal existence has a significant influence on their availability to transport in aquatic organisms. Metal ions associated in stable complexes with organic substances are considered less toxic. From the previous investigations state that the most stable complexes are ligands with organic ions Fe3+, Al3+. The main conclusion of the present research states that if the total content of aluminum, iron and manganese ions (meq/dm3) is equal to or greater than the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (TOC, mg/dm3) in lakes water other heavy metals will

  8. Siberian tiger’s recent population bottleneck in the Russian Far East revealed by microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Alasaad, Samer; Soriguer, Ramón C.; Chelominab, Galina; Sushitsky, Yury Petrovich; Fickel, Joerns

    2011-01-01

    Because size reduced, or bottlenecked, populations are more prone to adverse events, the detection of genetic bottleneck signatures in wildlife species is highly relevant for conservation. Here we applied 11 microsatellite markers to the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) using tissue and blood samples of animals from the Primorsky region of the Russian Far East. Excess heterozygosity and mode shift in allele frequencies tests were positive, while the M-ratio test was nega...

  9. Peptic Ulcer Disease and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Different Siberian Ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, Vladislav V; Kasparov, Edward V; Tonkikh, Julia L; Shtygasheva, Olga V; Butorin, Nikolay N; Amelchugova, Olga S; Vasyutin, Alexander V; Bronnikova, Elena P; Fassan, Matteo; Rugge, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in eastern Siberia is consistently established. In the same geographic area, however, fragmentary information is available on the epidemiology of the peptic ulcer disease (PUD). To assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection (including CagA status) and PUD in different eastern Siberian ethnicities. An endoscopy population of 3149 eastern Siberian dyspeptic patients was considered [1727 Europoids and 1422 Mongoloids (Evenks = 792; Khakases = 630)]. H. pylori status was assessed by urease test and/or serum anti-H. pylori IgG and/or histology. CagA status was serologically assessed (anti-CagA antibodies). All the Siberian ethnicities featured high rates of H. pylori infection (Europoids = 87.1%, Evenks = 88.6%, Khakases = 85.4%). Among the 1504 H. pylori-positive Europoids, the prevalence of CagA-positive status (68.7%) was significantly higher than that featured by the 1240 H. pylori-positive Mongoloid ethnicities (46.9%; p Peptic ulcer disease significantly prevailed among Europoids (prevalence among Europoid Evenks and Khakases: 8.9% and 8.3%, respectively; prevalence among Mongoloid Evenks and Khakases = 1.0% and 4.4%, respectively). eastern Siberian populations feature consistent high rates of H. pylori infection, but different prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. In particular, Europoids featured a prevalence of both CagA-positive status and peptic ulcer disease significantly higher than that of the Mongoloid ethnicities. These results suggest that both environmental factors (coexisting with the H. pylori infection) and host-related variables modulate the clinicopathological expression of the H. pylori -associated gastric diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of the East Siberian barrier on the echinoderm dispersal in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, A. N.; Dilman, A. B.

    2010-06-01

    The distributional patterns were analyzed for 43 species and 33 genera of echinoderms in the Laptev and East Siberian seas and for 59 species and 35 genera of the asteroid species in the Arctic Ocean. The probable colonization route through the Arctic was suggested for each species based on (1) the distributional patterns of the Arctic species, (2) the distributional patterns of the closely related species, and (3) the location of the center of the diversity of the species belonging to a certain genus. The species of the Pacific origin prevailed in the asteroid fauna of the Arctic seas. The asteroid species diversity and the ratio of the species of Pacific origin decreased from the Barents towards the Laptev Sea and increased, respectively, in the East Siberian and the Chukchee seas. The species range limits were found for 19 species in the East Siberian Sea compared to only 3 species in the Laptev Sea. The East Siberian Sea was a limiting area for the dispersal of four species groups: (1) invaders from the North Pacific dispersing along the Asian coast of the Arctic (shallow-water stenobathic species), (2) invaders from the North Pacific dispersing along the American coast of the Arctic and further on back into the Arctic along the Eurasian coast (secondarily Atlantic species); (3) originally invaders from the Northern Atlantic; (4) representatives of the Arctic autochthonous fauna. A great width of the biotic boundaries (i.e., the zones of the species range boundaries crowding) was typical for the Arctic Basin, which was a sign of their young geological age.

  11. Environmental Hazard Identification Technique Developing of Territorial Administrations Strategy as Exemplified in Siberian Federal District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Garmishev, V. V.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This work, on the example of the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation, presents a method for determining mass airbursts of combustion gaseous eco-toxicants, as a technique for assessing the contributory environmental load on the atmosphere. Potential environmental hazards are analyzed by mass of contaminated airbursts. A comparison of specific gross toxicants’ emissions in territorial entities of the Russian Federation is made.

  12. Intraspecific phylogenetic analysis of Siberian woolly mammoths using complete mitochondrial genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Drautz, Daniela I; Lesk, Arthur M

    2008-01-01

    We report five new complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of Siberian woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), sequenced with up to 73-fold coverage from DNA extracted from hair shaft material. Three of the sequences present the first complete mtDNA genomes of mammoth clade II. Analysis...... to indicate any important functional difference between genomes belonging to the two clades, suggesting that the loss of clade II more likely is due to genetic drift than a selective sweep....

  13. Siberian Regional Identity in the Context of Historical Consciousness (Content Analysis of Tomsk Regional Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Bocharov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model to study the Siberian regional identity in the context of historical consciousness, as well as the results of its practical application in the content analysis of the publications by the Tomsk regional media. On the basis of the content analysis procedures the author demonstrates how, through historical memory, the regional identity is formed and manifested in the regional media in various spheres of society.

  14. [ATP content in cryopreserved sperm of Siberian white cranes Grus leucogeranus (Aves: Gruiformes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksudov, G Iu; Erokhin, A S; Nesterenko, O N; Panchenko, V G

    2002-01-01

    ATP contents were studied in the native and cryoconserved sperm of Siberian white cranes Grus leucogeranus using bioluminescence analysis. The ATP content in freshly obtained spermatozoa was 12.7 nmol/10(8) cells. No ATP was found in the seminal plasma. In the process of freezing-thawing, the ATP concentration in the spermatozoa decreased by 30%. The differences in the dynamics of ATP content during cryoconservation of sperm of white cranes and other birds and mammals are discussed.

  15. Modelling of the soft X-ray tungsten spectra expected to be registered by GEM detection system for WEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrocki Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER, the interaction between the plasma and the tungsten chosen as the plasma-facing wall material imposes that the hot central plasma loses energy by X-ray emission from tungsten ions. On the other hand, the registered X-ray spectra provide alternative diagnostics of the plasma itself. Highly ionized tungsten emits extremely complex X-ray spectra that can be understood only after exhaustive theoretical studies. The detailed analyses will be useful for proper interpretation of soft X-ray plasma radiation expected to be registered on ITER-like machines, that is, Tungsten (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak (WEST. The simulations of the soft X-ray spectra structures for tungsten ions have been performed using the flexible atomic code (FAC package within the framework of collisional-radiative (CR model approach for electron temperatures and densities relevant to WEST tokamak.

  16. Fracture system influence on the reservoirs rock formation of Ordovician-Devonian carbonates in West Siberia tectonic depression

    OpenAIRE

    Koveshnikov, Aleksandr Evgenievich; Nesterova, A. C.; Dolgaya, Tatiana Fedorovna

    2016-01-01

    During the Paleozoic period from the beginning of the Cambrian to the end of the Carboniferous in the boundaries of the West Siberia tectonic depression there occurred the sea, where the carbonate platforms were formed by the limestones accumulation. All the area at the end of the Carboniferous period was turned to land. Resulting from Gertsynskaya folding in the times of Permian - Triassic the formed deposits were folded and denudated to a considerable extent. Besides, the reservoir rocks of...

  17. Associations between dietary factors and plasma lipids related to cardiovascular disease among Siberian Yupiks of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobmann, E D; Ebbesson, S O; White, R G; Bulkow, L R; Schraer, C D

    1999-10-01

    The diet of northern Native people has been postulated to protect against cardiovascular disease. We asked whether nutrient and food intakes of Eskimos were correlated with their plasma cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides and LDL-HDL ratio. Frequency of consumption of 91 foods among 64 Siberian Yupik adults was measured during home-based interviews. Intake of monounsaturated fat by men was negatively correlated with LDL. Foods and nutrients that contribute to the LDL-HDL ratio explained 42% of its variation among all subjects. Inclusion of the body mass index (BMI) explained 59% of the variation in the LDL-HDL ratio. Coefficients were negative for alpha-tocopherol, fresh bird, evaporated milk and cheese, and positive for BMI, syrup and pizza. BMI had a positive effect on the LDL-HDL ratio among younger adults, women and the entire sample, but did not contribute to explaining the variation among older adults or men. This emphasizes the importance of weight control among younger Siberian Yupik women. While coefficients were both positive and negative for traditional and western foods, the presence of traditional foods that were negatively correlated in the regression supports the hypothesis that consumption of traditional foods is important for maintaining cardiovascular health among Siberian Yupiks.

  18. Global nickel anomaly links Siberian Traps eruptions and the latest Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R; Rodriguez, Sedelia; Baransky, Eva; Cai, Yue

    2017-09-29

    Anomalous peaks of nickel abundance have been reported in Permian-Triassic boundary sections in China, Israel, Eastern Europe, Spitzbergen, and the Austrian Carnic Alps. New solution ICP-MS results of enhanced nickel from P-T boundary sections in Hungary, Japan, and Spiti, India suggest that the nickel anomalies at the end of the Permian were a worldwide phenomenon. We propose that the source of the nickel anomalies at the P-T boundary were Ni-rich volatiles released by the Siberian volcanism, and by coeval Ni-rich magma intrusions. The peaks in nickel abundance correlate with negative δ 13 C and δ 18 O anomalies, suggesting that explosive reactions between magma and coal during the Siberian flood-basalt eruptions released large amounts of CO 2 and CH 4 into the atmosphere, causing severe global warming and subsequent mass extinction. The nickel anomalies may provide a timeline in P-T boundary sections, and the timing of the peaks supports the Siberian Traps as a contributor to the latest Permian mass extinction.

  19. Physics moves to the provinces: the Siberian physics community and Soviet power, 1917-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Paul; Sorokin, Aleksandr

    2017-06-01

    The rich tradition of Siberian science and higher education is little known outside Russian academic circles. Using institutional history, this article focuses on the founding and pre-war period of the Siberian Physical Technical Institute, the establishment of its research focus and its first difficult steps to become a leading centre of R & D in Siberia. Based on archival materials, the article describes how local and national physicists justified the institute's creation by demonstrating ties with industry and building on the presence of a cohort of locally trained physicists, whose numbers were augmented by Leningrad specialists. The strength of local cadres enabled the institute to navigate civil war and cultural revolution successfully. Physicists were able to take advantage of ongoing industrialization campaigns to gain support to create the institute, although local disputes and economic problems slowed its further development. The article describes the circulation of scientific, political and philosophical knowledge between Moscow, Leningrad and the provinces, and the impact of Bolshevik rule and Stalinism on the Siberian physics enterprise.

  20. Construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from Siberian tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Qing; Lu, Tao-Feng; Feng, Bao-Gang; Liu, Dan; Guan, Wei-Jun; Ma, Yue-Hui

    2010-10-01

    In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×10(6) pfu/ml and 1.62×10(9) pfu/ml respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. A total of 282 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 328 to 1,142 bps were then analyzed the BLASTX score revealed that 53.9% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.6% as nominal and 7.4% as weak match. 28.0% of them were found to be related to enzyme/catalytic protein, 20.9% ESTs to metabolism, 13.1% ESTs to transport, 12.1% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.9% ESTs to structure protein, 3.9% ESTs to immunity protein/defense metabolism, 3.2% ESTs to cell cycle, and 8.9 ESTs classified as novel genes. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genomic research of Siberian tigers.

  1. Sources and characteristics of terrestrial carbon in Holocene-scale sediments of the East Siberian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Kirsi; Tesi, Tommaso; Bröder, Lisa; Andersson, August; Pearce, Christof; Sköld, Martin; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-09-01

    Thawing of permafrost carbon (PF-C) due to climate warming can remobilise considerable amounts of terrestrial carbon from its long-term storage to the marine environment. PF-C can be then be buried in sediments or remineralised to CO2 with implications for the carbon-climate feedback. Studying historical sediment records during past natural climate changes can help us to understand the response of permafrost to current climate warming. In this study, two sediment cores collected from the East Siberian Sea were used to study terrestrial organic carbon sources, composition and degradation during the past ˜ 9500 cal yrs BP. CuO-derived lignin and cutin products (i.e., compounds solely biosynthesised in terrestrial plants) combined with δ13C suggest that there was a higher input of terrestrial organic carbon to the East Siberian Sea between ˜ 9500 and 8200 cal yrs BP than in all later periods. This high input was likely caused by marine transgression and permafrost destabilisation in the early Holocene climatic optimum. Based on source apportionment modelling using dual-carbon isotope (Δ14C, δ13C) data, coastal erosion releasing old Pleistocene permafrost carbon was identified as a significant source of organic matter translocated to the East Siberian Sea during the Holocene.

  2. Construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from Siberian tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Qing; Lu, Tao-Feng; Feng, Bao-Gang; Liu, Dan; Guan, Wei-Jun; Ma, Yue-Hui

    2010-01-01

    In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×106 pfu/ml and 1.62×109 pfu/ml respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. A total of 282 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 328 to 1,142bps were then analyzed the BLASTX score revealed that 53.9% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.6% as nominal and 7.4% as weak match. 28.0% of them were found to be related to enzyme/catalytic protein, 20.9% ESTs to metabolism, 13.1% ESTs to transport, 12.1% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.9% ESTs to structure protein, 3.9% ESTs to immunity protein/defense metabolism, 3.2% ESTs to cell cycle, and 8.9 ESTs classified as novel genes. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genomic research of Siberian tigers. PMID:20941376

  3. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS AND HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES OF THE "SIBERIAN LIFT CO., LTD."].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, V P; Usatov, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was carried out a hygienic assessment of the working conditions and health of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". When studying occupational factors on workplaces intensity, the temperature radiation, natural and artificial lighting, and also the content of chemicals they were revealed to fail to answer to the hygienic specifications. It is established that in 82% of employees the class of working conditions was detected as admissible (2) and in 18%--harmful (3.1 and 3.2). Results of the performed periodic medical examination of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". It is testified that 6.14% out of them are persistently unfit of the work with harmful and (or) dangerous substances and occupational factors also. 4.68% of employees demand an additional examination. 11,70% of workers need for out-patient examination and treatment. Sanatorium treatment is required for 1 (0.29%) the person. 4,68% of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd." need dispensary supervision. There are suggested measures for the improvement of working conditions and health of the employees.

  4. “The History and Culture of the Western Siberian Tatars”: Some Notes about the Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Tychinskikh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a collective monograph “The History and Culture of the Western Siberian Tatars” published in 2015 by Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. This book is the first academic work, which integrated and multidimensionally accumulated almost all materials (of demography, genetics, linguistics, history, ethnography and ethnosociology available in modern science related to the formation and development of the Turkic-Tatar population of Western Siberia from ancient times to the early 21st century. The monograph is distinguished by the ethnoterritorial approach: the authors focus on the entire Turkic-Tatar population of Western Siberia, which was formed in different historical periods and includes two main components – population called in ethnographic science the “Siberian Tatars” and the group of Tatars who migrated (mainly from the Volga region to the Siberian region during the 16th–20th centuries. The book contains a large number of illustrations, which were collected during the expeditions of the authors in the rural settlements of the Tatars of Western Siberia, during archaeological excavations, in numerous archives and museums in Russia. Many photos are presented for the first time.

  5. Geographic information systems for mapping the National Exam Result of Junior High School in 2014 at West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Rejito, Juli; Rosadi, Rudi; Candra Permana, Fahmi

    2017-10-01

    National Exam level of schooling is implemented by the Ministry of Education and Culture for the development of education in Indonesia. The national examinations are centrally evaluated by the National Education Standards Agency, and the expected implementation of the national exams can describe the successful implementation of education at the district, municipal, provincial, or national level. In this study, we evaluate, analyze, and explore the implementation of the national exam database of the results of the Junior High School in 2014, with the Junior High School (SMP/MTs) as the smallest unit of analysis at the district level. The method used in this study is a data mining approach using the methodology of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) using descriptive analysis and spatial mapping of national examinations. The results of the classification of the data mining process to national exams of Junior High School in 2014 using data 6,878 SMP/MTs in West Java showed that 81.01 % were at moderate levels. While the results of the spatial mapping for SMP/MTs in West Java can be explained 36,99 % at the unfavorable level. The evaluation results visualization in graphic is done using ArcGIS to provide position information quality of education in municipal, provincial or national level. The results of this study can be used by management to make decision to improve educational services based on the national exam database in West Java. Keywords: KDD, spatial mapping, national exam.

  6. Preliminary Results of De Novo Whole Genome Sequencing of the Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. and the Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Krutovsky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Illumina HiSeq2000 DNA sequencing generated 2 906 977 265 high quality paired-end nucleotide sequences (reads and 576 Gbp for Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. that corresponds to 48X coverage of the larch genome (12.03 Gbp, and 3 427 566 813 reads and 679 Gbp for Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour that corresponds to 29X coverage of its genome (23.6 Gbp. These data are not enough to assemble and annotate whole genomes, but the obtained nucleotide sequences have allowed us to discover and develop effective highly polymorphic molecular genetic markers, such as microsatellite loci that are required for population genetic studies and identification of the timber origin. Sequence data can be used also to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genomic studies of Russian boreal forests and major phytopathogens associated with them will also allow us to identify biomarkers that can be used for solving important scientific and economic problems related to the conservation of forest genetic resources and breeding more resilient and fast growing trees with improved timber and resistance to diseases and adverse environmental factors.

  7. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbai R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ragavendran Abbai,1,* Ramya Mathiyalagan,1,* Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Chao Wang,2 Priyanka Singh,2 Sungeun Ahn,2 Mohamed El-Agamy Farh,2 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Ginseng Bank, Graduate School of Biotechnology, 2Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs. First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E, total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line at 10 µg·mL-1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844, and Escherichia coli (BL21 treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1

  8. Carbon exchange in Western Siberian watershed mires and implication for the greenhouse effect. A spatial temporal modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borren, W.

    2007-01-01

    wetter climatic conditions the mire growth could continue much longer, whereas under dryer conditions an earlier termination will occur. Mire drainage leads to aerobic decay of peat and thus to CO2 emission instead of uptake. In a modeling study in a mire catchment containing both drained and undrained parts, the effect of drainage was quantified. The results show that the water table drawdown not only affected the drained mire part, but also influenced the undrained part over a zone of 1-1.5 km. In this zone peat growth and carbon accumulation were decreased. The contribution of a mire system to the greenhouse effect is depending on the exchange of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. CH4 is a much stronger greenhouse gas than CO2, but has a much shorter atmospheric lifetime. With a stocks-and-flows approach the radiative forcing of both gases could be calculated. This approach has been applied in two cases: (1) the northward shift of bioclimatic zones in Western Siberia under 21st century warming and (2) the carbon exchange in a Western Siberian mire resulting from the 3-D dynamic model. The results show that Western Siberian mires form a sink of greenhouse gases at present and have therefore a negative contribution to the greenhouse effect. Under 21st century warming or drainage conditions the mires will turn into a source of greenhouse gases, thus enhancing the greenhouse effect. However, in the case of warming the increase in CH4 emission will be overruled by the increase in CO2 uptake on the long term, thus leading to a negative contribution again

  9. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E

    2014-04-01

    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental

  10. Permafrost dynamics in 20th and 21st centuries along the east-Siberian and Alaskan transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Tatiana Sergeevna

    High latitude ecosystems where the mean annual ground surface temperature is around or below 0°C are highly sensitive to global warming. This is largely because these regions contain vast areas of permafrost, which will begin to degrade when the mean annual ground temperatures will rise above 0°C. The Alaskan and East Siberian transects, centered on the 155° WL and 135° EL, were chosen for evaluation of permafrost---atmosphere interactions. The analysis of measured data shows a significant increase in air and ground temperatures that started from the late 1960s within both these transects and the magnitude of this increase is from 0.2 to 0.5°C per decade. This trend is comparable to trends predicted by majority of global warming scenarios. A simple and accurate model for evaluating the permafrost dynamics was developed in Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL). The GIPL model is a fusion of the modified Kudryavtsev's approach, which is a set of analytical formulas for active layer thickness (ALT) and mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) calculations, with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The evaluation of the GIPL performance showed that when applied to long-term (decadal or longer time scale) averages, this model achieves an accuracy of +/-0.2--0.4°C for the mean annual ground temperatures and +0.1--0.3 m for the active layer thickness calculations. The GIPL model was used for the hindcast of the permafrost dynamics in the 20th century, using a combination of observationally-based and simulated monthly grids of surface air temperature. The results showed that during the 20th century there were a number of relatively cold and warm periods. These climatic variations produced 1 to 3°C changes in MAGT and up to 1 m in the ALT. The forecast for the period of 2000--2100 was performed using climatic parameters from six Global Climate Models provided by Arctic Climate Impact Assessment program. The results showed that by the end of 21st century mean

  11. Characterization of the terrigenous organic matter distribution in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; Sánchez-García, Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a Mediterranean sea with exceptionally large shelves that account for approximately 50% of the total area of the enclosed ocean. Accordingly, the inorganic and organic character of the sediments both on the shelves and in the basins of the Arctic Ocean strongly reflect a pervasive influence from the surrounding land/thawing permafrost (Macdonald et al., 2008). The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is an enormous, shallow shelf that receives most of its particulate supply from coastal erosion A notable characteristic of the ESAS is an extremely large gradient of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters from Long Strait/Wrangell Island to the Lena River Delta that corresponds to geographically critical contrasts in the Arctic system where the Pacific and local shelf waters interact over the shelf (Semiletov et al., 2005). ESAS is clearly important region for storing and processing material that derives from the land and the sea. Here we synthesize the lithological and biogochemical data obtained in the ESAS by Laboratory of Arctic studies POI in cooperation with the IARC and SU during the last 10 years (1999-2009). Highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the surface sediment (up to 4w/w%) was found near mouths of major rivers (Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alaseya, Kolyma), and near highly eroded coast (1-2 w/w %). .However, sedimentation over the major portion of shallow ESAS is dominated by coastal erosion not riverine runoff. It has been shown that contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (CTOM) is up to 100% in areas strongly impacted by coastal erosion. Lowest OC values (~0.1-0.5 w/w %) were found in the relic sediments of shoals (e.g. Semenovskaya, Vasilevskaya, and Diomid). New detail maps of distribution of sediment OC, CTOM, and C/N are considered along with the sediment sizing and mineralogical data. This multi-year study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russian NSF), FEBRAS, NOAA, NSF, Wallenberg Foundation

  12. Sahel megadrought during Heinrich Stadial 1: evidence for a three-phase evolution of the low- and mid-level West African wind system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouimetarhan, Ilham; Prange, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno; Dupont, Lydie; Lippold, Jörg; Mulitza, Stefan; Zonneveld, Karin

    2012-12-01

    Millennial-scale dry events in the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions during the last Glacial period are commonly attributed to southward shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) associated with an intensification of the northeasterly (NE) trade wind system during intervals of reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Through the use of high-resolution last deglaciation pollen records from the continental slope off Senegal, our data show that one of the longest and most extreme droughts in the western Sahel history, which occurred during the North Atlantic Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), displayed a succession of three major phases. These phases progressed from an interval of maximum pollen representation of Saharan elements between ˜19 and 17.4 kyr BP indicating the onset of aridity and intensified NE trade winds, followed by a millennial interlude of reduced input of Saharan pollen and increased input of Sahelian pollen, to a final phase between ˜16.2 and 15 kyr BP that was characterized by a second maximum of Saharan pollen abundances. This change in the pollen assemblage indicates a mid-HS1 interlude of NE trade wind relaxation, occurring between two distinct trade wind maxima, along with an intensified mid-tropospheric African Easterly Jet (AEJ) indicating a substantial change in West African atmospheric processes. The pollen data thus suggest that although the NE trades have weakened, the Sahel drought remained severe during this time interval. Therefore, a simple strengthening of trade winds and a southward shift of the West African monsoon trough alone cannot fully explain millennial-scale Sahel droughts during periods of AMOC weakening. Instead, we suggest that an intensification of the AEJ is needed to explain the persistence of the drought during HS1. Simulations with the Community Climate System Model indicate that an intensified AEJ during periods of reduced AMOC affected the North African climate by enhancing moisture

  13. Polymorphism rs3088232 in the BRDT gene is associated with idiopathic male infertility in the West Siberian Region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Wainer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelic variants of genes involved in spermatogenesis can contribute to the genetic predisposition to idiopathic male infertility. In the present study we investigated the association of polymorphism rs3088232 in the BRDT gene with the risk of this pathology on the sample of 105 infertile patients and 230 healthy controls. We revealed the association of allele G (OR = 1.80; CI 1.16—2.80; p = 0.008 and genotype GG (OR = 6.47; CI 1.23—34.15; p = 0.01 with idiopathic male infertility.

  14. The Formation of the Urban Environment in the West Siberian Oil and Gas Region: Problems and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, N. V.; Speranskaya, N. I.; Shabatura, L. N.; Iatsevich, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the problems faced by the person in relation to the culture of creating a sustainable urban environment. The urban environment is seen as space of human existence, influencing its spiritual and physical health. All the experts involved in the urban environment, think about the culture of its formation, unfortunately, only from a departmental point of view. Differently organized human environment inevitably affects behavior, emotional state of a man, his perception and understanding of space. The cultural heritage of society fits in the space of an artificial environment created by a man, and determines the behavior of people.For the solution of problems of formation of the urban environment, it is necessary to apply a set of interrelated technical, social, environmental, aesthetic and other measures. In this capacity, landscape design as a set of methods has to build a sustainable urban environment to ensure harmonious living.Current trends, methods, and techniques of landscape design are to create sustainable environment for a person - creative, spiritual, comfortable, attractive, safe, harmonious.

  15. Increased mantle heat flow with on-going rifting of the West Antarctic rift system inferred from characterisation of plagioclase peridotite in the shallow Antarctic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. P.; Cooper, A. F.; Price, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    The lithospheric, and shallow asthenospheric, mantle in Southern Victoria Land are known to record anomalously high heat flow but the cause remains imperfectly understood. To address this issue plagioclase peridotite xenoliths have been collected from Cenozoic alkalic igneous rocks at three localities along a 150 km transect across the western shoulder of the West Antarctic rift system in Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. There is a geochemical, thermal and chronological progression across this section of the rift shoulder from relatively hot, young and thick lithosphere in the west to cooler, older and thinner lithosphere in the east. Overprinting this progression are relatively more recent mantle refertilising events. Melt depletion and refertilisation was relatively limited in the lithospheric mantle to the west but has been more extensive in the east. Thermometry obtained from orthopyroxene in these plagioclase peridotites indicates that those samples most recently affected by refertilising melts have attained the highest temperatures, above those predicted from idealised dynamic rift or Northern Victoria Land geotherms and higher than those prevailing in the equivalent East Antarctic mantle. Anomalously high heat flow can thus be attributed to entrapment of syn-rift melts in the lithosphere, probably since regional magmatism commenced at least 24 Myr ago. The chemistry and mineralogy of shallow plagioclase peridotite mantle can be explained by up to 8% melt extraction and a series of refertilisation events. These include: (a) up to 8% refertilisation by a N-MORB melt; (b) metasomatism involving up to 1% addition of a subduction-related component; and (c) addition of ~ 1.5% average calcio-carbonatite. A high MgO group of clinopyroxenes can be modelled by the addition of up to 1% alkalic melt. Melt extraction and refertilisation mainly occurred in the spinel stability field prior to decompression and uplift. In this region mantle plagioclase originates by a

  16. Stress state reconstruction and tectonic evolution of the northern slope of the Baikit anteclise, Siberian Craton, based on 3D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, A. N.; Khudoley, A. K.; Khusnitdinov, R. R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we consider application of an original method for determining the indicators of the tectonic stress fields in the northern Baikit anteclise based on 3D seismic data for further reconstruction of the stress state parameters when analyzing structural maps of seismic horizons and corresponded faults. The stress state parameters are determined by the orientations of the main stress axes and shape of the stress ellipsoid. To calculate the stress state parameters from data on the spatial orientations of faults and slip vectors, we used the algorithms from quasiprimary stress computation methods and cataclastic analysis, implemented in the software products FaultKinWin and StressGeol, respectively. The results of this work show that kinematic characteristics of faults regularly change toward the top of succession and that the stress state parameters are characterized by different values of the Lode-Nadai coefficient. Faults are presented as strike-slip faults with normal or reverse component of displacement. Three stages of formation of the faults are revealed: (1) partial inversion of ancient normal faults, (2) the most intense stage with the predominance of thrust and strike-slip faults at north-northeast orientation of an axis of the main compression, and (3) strike-slip faults at the west-northwest orientation of an axis of the main compression. The second and third stages are pre-Vendian in age and correlate to tectonic events that took place during the evolution of the active southwestern margin of the Siberian Craton.

  17. Labile pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon in major Siberian Arctic rivers: Implications for wildfire-stream metabolic linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers-Pigg, Allison N.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amon, Rainer M. W.; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pierce, Kayce; Rubtsov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    burning produces a spectrum of thermally altered materials that releases pyrogenic carbon (PyC) to terrestrial, atmospheric, and aquatic systems. Most studies focus on the refractory end of the PyC spectrum, derived from middle- to high-temperature combustion. Low-temperature PyC is produced during wildfires and has been found to be particularly labile and water soluble. Here we find that in each of the major Siberian watersheds, low-temperature fire-derived biomarkers are present in detectable concentrations during all flow regimes of the 2004-2006 sampling period, confirming that PyC is an intrinsic component of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool mobilized by hydrologic events. Gymnosperm combustion, from the southern portions of these watersheds, is the primary source of this Py-DOC input. Using first-order degradation rates and transit times of water through these rivers, about half of the total estimated flux of this material may be remineralized during transport from fire source to river mouth (20-40 days), demonstrating the input of a labile source of PyC to these watersheds.

  18. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  19. Water resources management using the WRF-Hydro modelling system: Case-study of the Tono dam in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naabil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water resources are a major source of economic development for most West African (WA countries. There is, however inadequate information on these resources for the purposes of planning, decision-making and management. This paper explores the potential for using a state of the art hydrological model (WRF-Hydro in a fully coupled (i.e. land surface hydrology-atmosphere mode to assess these water resources, particularly the Tono basin in Ghana. The WRF-Hydro model is an enhanced version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF which allows simulating river discharge. A 2-domain configuration is chosen: an outer domain at 25 km horizontal resolution encompassing the West African Region and an inner domain at 5 km horizontal resolution centered on the Tono basin. The infiltration partition parameter and Manning’s roughness parameter were calibrated to fit the WRF-Hydro simulated discharge with the observed data. The simulations were done from 1999 to 2003, using 1999 as a spin-up period. The results were compared with TRMM precipitation, CRU temperature and available observed hydrological data. The WRF-Hydro model captured the attributes of the “observed” streamflow estimate; with Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE of 0.78 and Pearson’s correlation of 0.89. Further validation of model results is based on using the output from the WRF-Hydro model as input into a water balance model to simulate the dam levels. WRF-Hydro has shown the potential for use in water resource planning (i.e. with respect to streamflow and dam level estimation. However, the model requires further improvement with respect to calibration of model parameters (e.g. baseflow and saturated hydraulic conductivity considering the effect of the accumulation of model bias in dam level estimation.

  20. Mapping post-disturbance stand age distribution in Siberian larch forest based on a novel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Loboda, T. V.; Krylov, A.; Potapov, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Siberian larch forest, which accounts for nearly 20% of the global boreal forest biome, is unique, important, yet significantly understudied. These deciduous needleleaf forests with a single species dominance over a large continuous area are not found anywhere except the extreme continental zones of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Most of these forests are located in remote and sparsely populated areas and, therefore, little is known about spatial variability of their structure and dynamics. Wall-to-wall repeated observations of this area are available only since the 2000s. Previously, we developed methods for reconstruction of stand-age distribution from a sample of 1980-2000 disturbances in Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. However, availability of those images in Siberian larch forests is particularly limited. Built upon the hypothesis that the spectral characteristics of the disturbed forest in the region change with time consistently, this paper proposes a novel method utilizing the newly released Global Forest Change (GFC) 2000-2012 dataset. We exploit the data-rich era of annual forest disturbance samples identified between 2000 and 2012 in the Siberian larch forest by the GFC dataset to build a robust training set of spectral signatures from regrowing larch forests as they appear in Landsat imagery in 2012. The extracted statistics are ingested into a random forest, which predicts the approximate stand age for every forested pixel in the circa 2000 composite. After merging the estimated stand age distribution for 1989-2000 with the observed disturbance records for 2001-2012, a gap-free 30 m resolution 24-year long record of stand age distribution is obtained. A preliminary accuracy assessment against the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) burned area product suggested satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Cold Adaptation in Indigenous Siberian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alexia; Pagani, Luca; Antao, Tiago; Lawson, Daniel J.; Eichstaedt, Christina A.; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Shwe, Ma Than Than; Wee, Joseph; Romero, Irene Gallego; Raj, Srilakshmi; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Willerslev, Eske; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Malyarchuk, Boris A.; Derenko, Miroslava V.; Kivisild, Toomas

    2014-01-01

    Following the dispersal out of Africa, where hominins evolved in warm environments for millions of years, our species has colonised different climate zones of the world, including high latitudes and cold environments. The extent to which human habitation in (sub-)Arctic regions has been enabled by cultural buffering, short-term acclimatization and genetic adaptations is not clearly understood. Present day indigenous populations of Siberia show a number of phenotypic features, such as increased basal metabolic rate, low serum lipid levels and increased blood pressure that have been attributed to adaptation to the extreme cold climate. In this study we introduce a dataset of 200 individuals from ten indigenous Siberian populations that were genotyped for 730,525 SNPs across the genome to identify genes and non-coding regions that have undergone unusually rapid allele frequency and long-range haplotype homozygosity change in the recent past. At least three distinct population clusters could be identified among the Siberians, each of which showed a number of unique signals of selection. A region on chromosome 11 (chr11:66–69 Mb) contained the largest amount of clustering of significant signals and also the strongest signals in all the different selection tests performed. We present a list of candidate cold adaption genes that showed significant signals of positive selection with our strongest signals associated with genes involved in energy regulation and metabolism (CPT1A, LRP5, THADA) and vascular smooth muscle contraction (PRKG1). By employing a new method that paints phased chromosome chunks by their ancestry we distinguish local Siberian-specific long-range haplotype signals from those introduced by admixture. PMID:24847810

  2. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Siberian roe deer, Caproulus pygargus, in central and peripheral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Markov, Nickolay; Argunov, Alexander; Voloshina, Inna; Bayarlkhagva, Damdingiin; Kim, Baek-Jun; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2016-10-01

    Current understanding of phylogeographical structure and genetic diversity of Siberian roe deer remains limited mainly due to small sample size and/or low geographical coverage in previous studies. Published data suggest at least two phylogroups: western (Ural Mountains and Western Siberia) and eastern (east from lake Baikal, including the Korean peninsula), but their phylogenetic relationship remains unclear. Combined sequences of cytochrome b (1140 bp) and the mtDNA control region (963 bp) were analyzed from 219 Siberian roe deer from 12 locations in Russia, Mongolia, and South Korea, which cover a large part of its range, to assess genetic diversity and phylogeographical status. Special emphasis was placed on the demographic history and genetic features of central, peripheral, and isolated populations. Results of median-joining network and phylogenetic tree analyses indicate that Siberian roe deer from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean are genetically diverse and that geographical distribution and composition of haplogroups coincide with previously described ranges of the subspecies Capreolus pygargus pygargus and Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus . We found that peripheral populations in the northwestern parts of the species range (Urals), as well as the isolated population from Jeju Island, are genetically distinct from those in the core part of the range, both in terms of genetic diversity and quantitative composition of haplogroups. We also found that northwestern (Urals) and northern (Yakutia) peripheral populations share the same haplogroup and fall into the same phylogenetic clade with the isolated population from Jeju Island. This finding sheds light on the taxonomic status of the Jeju Island population and leads to hypotheses about the discordance of morphological and genetic evolution in isolated populations and specific genetic features of peripheral populations.

  3. Methane oxidation associated to submerged brown-mosses buffers methane emissions from Siberian polygonal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Susanne; Zeyer, Josef; Knoblauch, Christian

    2010-05-01

    study gives first evidence for MAMO in submerged brown-mosses and in the oligotrophic polygonal peatlands of the Lena Delta. It shows that MAMO might effectively reduce methane fluxes to the atmosphere also in Arctic GHG emission hot spots. References: [1] Zhang, T., Barry, R.G., Knowles, K., Heginbottom, J.A., and Brown, J. (1999) Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground-ice distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 23(2): 132-154 [2] Schuur, E.A.G., Bockheim, J., Candell, J.G., Euskirchen, E., Field, C.B., Goryachkin, S.V., Hagemann, S., Kuhry, P., Lafleur, P.M., Lee, H., Mazhitova, G., Nelson, F.E., Rinke, A., Romanovsky, V., Shiklomanov, N., Tarnocai, C., Venevsky, S., Vogel, J., and Zimov, S. (2008) Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon to Climate Change: Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. BioScience 58 (8): 701-714 [3] Denman, K.L., Brasseur G., Chidthaisong A., Ciais, P., Cox, P.M., Dickinson, R.E., Hauglustaine, D., Heinze, C., Holland, E., Jacob, D., Lohmann, U., Ramachandran, S., da Silva Dias, P.L., Wofsy, S.C., and Zhang, X. (2007) Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA [4] Wuebbles, J., and Hayhoe, K. (2002) Atmospheric methane and global change. Earth-Science Reviews 57: 177-210 [5] Sachs, T., Wille, C., Boike, J., and Kutzbach, L. (2008) Environmental controls on ecosystem-scale CH4 emission from polygonal tundra in the Lena River Delta, Siberia. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: G00A03 [6] Wille, C., Kutzbach, L., Sachs, T., Wagner, D., and Pfeiffer, E.M. (2008) Methane emissions from Siberian arctic polygonal tundra: Eddy covariance measurements and

  4. Co-Production at the Strategic Level: Co-Designing an Integrated Care System with Lay Partners in North West London, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Morton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In North West London, health and social care leaders decided to design a system of integrated care with the aim of improving the quality of care and supporting people to maintain independence and participation in their community. Patients and carers, known as ‘lay partners,’ were to be equal partners in co-production of the system. Lay partners were recruited by sending a role profile to health, social care and voluntary organisations and requesting nominations. They formed a Lay Partners Advisory Group from which pairs were allocated to system design workstreams, such as which population to focus on, financial flow, information technology and governance. A larger and more diverse Lay Partners Forum provided feedback on the emerging plans. A key outcome of this approach was the development of an integration toolkit co-designed with lay partners. Lay partners provided challenge, encouraged innovation, improved communication, and held the actions of other partners to account to ensure the vision and aims of the emerging integrated care system were met. Key lessons from the North West London experience for effective co-production include: recruiting patients and carers with experience of strategic work; commitment to the vision; willingness to challenge and to listen; strong connections within the community being served; and enough time to do the work. Including lay partners in co-design from the start, and at every level, was important. Agreeing the principles of working together, providing support and continuously recruiting lay representatives to represent their communities are keys to effective co-production.

  5. Factors Associated with Receipt of Pre-pregnancy Preventive Dental Care Among Women in West Virginia: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, Amna; Haile, Zelalem Teka; Ahmadi-Montecalvo, Halima; Chertok, Ilana R Azulay

    To examine the association between sociodemographic, economic and health-related lifestyle factors and receipt of pre-pregnancy dental cleaning in West Virginia. A population-based secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2009-2010 West Virginia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) dataset. The study population consisted of 3050 women who answered the survey question about pre-pregnancy dental cleaning. Approximately 47% of the participants visited a dentist during the 12 months before pregnancy. Results from the logistic regression model showed that pre-pregnant Non-Hispanic white women were more likely to get their teeth cleaned compared to women from other racial/ethnic backgrounds (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.01-3.04). Women with more than a high-school education (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.22-2.62), young women pregnancy (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.04-1.64) were more likely to have dental cleaning before pregnancy compared to women with less than a high-school education, women between the ages of 20-29, uninsured women and women who had unintended pregnancy, respectively. Identifying factors associated with dental cleaning can aid healthcare providers and policy makers in developing approaches to promoting oral care among women of childbearing age.

  6. Comparison of physiological load tolerances between the Siberian husky and the Czechoslovakian wolfdog, during sport training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Gulda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the physiological load tolerances of two breeds of dogs used for sports, namely the Siberian husky and the Czechoslovakian wolfdog, on the basis of measurements of surface temperature and blood lactic acid levels.Two breeds - Czechoslovakian wolfdog (10 individuals and Siberian husky (10 individuals, 20 dogs - male, 4-6 years old, were selected for the study. All the qualified animals were previously examined by a veterinarian and considered to be healthy. The dogs tested were used in dogtrekking sport competitions. For both breeds, an attempt was made to test the dogtrekking harness for 5 km of non-stop track running. The animals trotted while being led by a guide. Three attempts were made for each dog at 48 hour intervals. All dogs were tested for two parameters, first before and then after the exercise – measuring surface temperature at selected points of the body as well as lactic acid concentration. A higher and statistically significant level of lactic acid was recorded in the case of Siberian husky. Before the run, the level of lactic acid was comparable in both breeds. The second parameter was the surface temperature measured at the selected measuring points. Significant statistical differences were noted for the wolfdog breed at P≤0.05 before the exercise and 10 minutes after resting, at the neck, rump and abdominal points. In addition, the same level of statistical significance was measured by surface thermography at the abdominal point, both before and immediately after the run. The high statistically significant increase (P≤0.01 in surface temperature was noted for muscles of the so-called rump, both before and after the exertion. There was no statistically significant difference in the back thermography in the wolfdog breed. In the Siberian husky breed, statistically significant differences (P≤0.05 were observed at the neck, rump and chest points, in confrontation with the

  7. Endogenous lipid (cholesterol) pneumonia in three captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollo, Enrico; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Chiappino, Laura; Sereno, Alessandra; Triberti, Orfeo; Schröder, Cathrin

    2012-05-01

    During the years 2009-2011, 7 Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), aged between 2 and 14 years, from the Safaripark of Pombia were referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). Three tigers, aged 10 (2 animals) and 14 years, had multifocal, irregularly distributed, white, soft, subpleural, 3-mm nodules scattered throughout the lungs. Histologically, there was a marked infiltration of macrophages, with foamy cytoplasm, and multinucleate giant cells interspersed with numerous clusters of cholesterol clefts. A mild lymphocytic infiltration was localized around the lesion. The findings were consistent with endogenous lipid pneumonia, which was considered an incidental finding of no clinical significance.

  8. Pentalogy of Fallot in a captive Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Frine E; Tursi, Massimiliano; Chiappino, Laura; Schröder, Cathrin; Triberti, Orfeo; Bollo, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    A 2-yr-old male Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) died during a fight with a conspecific. At necropsy, significant abnormalities included severe cardiomegaly with cardiac malformations consisting of a large atrial septal defect, a membranous ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and stenosis of the pulmonary valve with secondary concentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Endocardiosis of the mitral valve was also noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a pentalogy of Fallot in a large felid that resulted in sudden death.

  9. TUBERCULOSIS IN SIBERIAN AND FAR EASTERN FEDERAL DISTRICTS (2007-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Alekseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes changes in the main tuberculosis epidemiological indicators in Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts over the last decade. The rate of changes was analyzed for 21 regions within two districts, total number and structure of those followed up by phthisiologists in 2007-2016 were compared. TB situation has not significantly improved since the drug resistance and HIV infection become more and more frequent, providing an indirect impact on the epidemiological indicators. It is very difficult to treat such categories of patients and these difficulties do not allow enhancing treatment efficiency and cause an abrupt growth of the costs per one patient, both financial and organizational ones.

  10. Siberian lidar station: the basic complex of remote laser sounding of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Matvienko, G. G.; Balin, Yu. S.; Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Nevzorov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Siberian Lidar Station created at V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics and operating in Tomsk (56.5° N, 85.0° E) is a unique atmospheric observatory. It combines up-to-date instruments for remote laser and passive sounding for the study of aerosol and cloud fields, air temperature and humidity, and ozone and gaseous components of the ozone cycles. In addition to controlling a wide range of atmospheric parameters, the observatory allows simultaneous monitoring of the atmosphere throughout the valuable altitude range 0-75 km. In this paper, the instruments and results received at the Station are described.

  11. Exploration of horizontal intrinsic spin resonances with two partial Siberian snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Two partial Siberian snakes were used to avoid all the spin imperfection and vertical intrinsic resonances in the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, the horizontal betatron motion can cause polarization loss resulting from the nonvertical stable spin direction in the presence of two partial snakes. This type of resonance, called a horizontal intrinsic spin resonance, was observed and systematically studied in the AGS. A simplified analytic model and numerical simulation have been developed to compare with experimental data. Properties of the horizontal intrinsic resonance are discussed.

  12. Architectural Trend of the Epoch: Architect Chernyshev as a bright representative of the Siberian Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Uspenskaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is about a bright representative of the Siberian Modern, Leonid Alexandrovich Chernyshev, who made a great contribution to the development of Krasnoyarsk city architecture. On the initiative of the Board of the Krasnoyarsk regional organization of the Union of Architects of Russia the year 2015 in Krasnoyarsk was announced the Year of the Architect Chernyshev to commemorate his 140th anniversary. During the anniversary year several important events will be held to demonstrate the architect’s creative heritage both to architects and citizens.

  13. [Telomere length and phylogenetic relationship of Baikal and Siberian planarians (Turbellaria, Tricladida)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, A G; Evtushenko, E V; Timoshkin, O A; Vershinin, A V; Kiril'chik, S V

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the telomeric DNA (tDNA) and the phylogeny of the Baikal and Siberian planarians have been studied based on the analysis of the 18S rDNA and beta-actin gene fragments. A relationship between tDNA and the planarians size has been demonstrated. Giant planarians with a minor exception have longer tDNA than little planarians. Phylogenetic affinity between the species that have the stretched tracks of tDNA, big size and similar habitats may indicate possible role of tDNA in the development of the indefinite regenerative capacity of planarians.

  14. ETHNOCULTURAL CONTEXT IN “SIBERIAN TALES” OF V.G. KOROLENKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Ivanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The special features of ethnocultural context in the “Siberian Tales” of V.G. Korolenko based on the stories “Makar’s Dream”, “Sokolinets”,“Marusya’s wood house” are analyzed in this paper. The representatives of such nationalities as Yakuts, Russians and Tatars are regarded. The specific peculiarities of the representatives of these nationalities are pointed out. The dependence of the main national character features from the environment, severe climate and Yakut conditions is underlined.

  15. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A D; Butenko, A V; Kekelidze, V D; Mikhaylov, V A; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yu N; Kondratenko, A M

    2016-01-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented. (paper)

  16. Spin Transparency Mode in the NICA Collider with Solenoid Siberian Snakes for Proton and Deuteron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2017-12-01

    Two solenoid Siberian Snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in spin transparency mode of the NICA collider. The snake solenoids with a total field integral of 2×50 T·m are placed into the straight sections of the NICA collider. It allows one to control polarization of protons and deuterons up to 13.5 GeV/c and 4 GeV/c respectively. The snakes introduce a strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Snakes are presented.

  17. Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saneev, B.G.; Sokolov, A.D.; Popov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

  18. Constraining the composition and thermal state of lithospheric mantle from inversion of seismic data: Implications for the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskov, Oleg; Kronrod, Victor; Prokofyev, Alexey; Zhidikova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative estimation of the temperature distribution in the Earth's mantle is a key problem in petrology and geophysics. In this study, we discuss the method of estimating temperature, composition and thickness of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath some Archean cratons from absolute seismic velocities. The phase composition and physical properties of the lithospheric mantle were modelled within the Na2O-TiO2-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system including the non-ideal solid solution phases. For the computation of the phase diagram for a given chemical composition, we have used a method of minimization of the total Gibbs free energy combined with a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state. Our forward calculation of phase diagram, seismic velocities and density and inverse calculation of temperature includes anharmonic and anelastic parameters as well as mineral reaction effects, including modes and chemical compositions of coexisting phases. Sensitivity of density and velocities to temperature, pressure and composition was studied. Inverse code computes the temperature distribution in the upper mantle from seismic and compositional constraints. The output results contain the self-consistent information on phase assemblages, densities and velocities. The approach used here requires a small number of thermodynamically defined parameters and has important advantages over earlier procedures, which contain no information about entropy, enthalpy and Grüneisen parameter. We inverted for temperature the recent P and S velocity models of the Kaapvaal craton as well as the IASP91 reference Earth model. Several long-range seismic profiles were carried out in Russia with Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE). The velocity models from PNEs recorded along these profiles were used to infer upper mantle temperature profiles beneath the Siberian craton. The seismic profiles were inverted on the basis of low and high temperature xenoliths of garnet peridotites from kimberlite pipes of

  19. Withdrawals from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas, December 1974 through March 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurry, Dee L.; Pavlicek, Dianne J.

    1991-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units (fig. 1) are being studied as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program. The aquifer system, which underlies about 40,000 mi2 in west-central Texas, comprises mostly near-surface carbonate rocks, sand, and sandstone of Early Cretaceous age (Bush, 1986). Most groundwater withdrawals in this report are from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. However, two other sources contiguous and hydraulically connected to the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system yield appreciable water in the northwestern part of the study area. Withdrawals in Crane, Culberson, Loving, Ward, and Winkler Counties are from the Cenozoic alluvium. In Reeves County, approximately one-half of the withdrawals are from the Cenozoic alluvium and one-half are from the Edwards-Trinity system. Withdrawals in Andrews, Martin, northern Ector, and northern Midland Counties are from the High Plains aquifer. Other contiguous hydraulically connected minor aquifers are the source of withdrawals in counties along the northern boundary of the study area. No known potable water exists in the contiguous hydraulically connected units along the southeastern boundary of the system.

  20. Structure and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath Siberian craton, thermobarometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor V.; Pokhilenko, Nikolai P.; Vladykin, Nikolai V.; Logvinova, Alla M.; Afanasiev, Valentin P.; Pokhilenko, Lyudmila N.; Kuligin, Sergei S.; Malygina, Elena V.; Alymova, Natalia A.; Kostrovitsky, Sergey I.; Rotman, Anatolii Y.; Mityukhin, Sergey I.; Karpenko, Mikhail A.; Stegnitsky, Yuri B.; Khemelnikova, Olga S.

    2010-04-01

    Monomineral thermobarometry (MTB) data derived from EMP analyses for heavy monomineral separates from > 20 Yakutian kimberlite pipes were used to compile a SSE-NNW traverse of the mantle beneath the Siberian craton. Orthopyroxene (Opx) MBT for the mantle section beneath Udachnaya gives three PT paths: a low temperature (LT) conductive branch (Boyd et al., 1997), estimated with thermometers of Krogh (1988) or/and O'Neill and Wood (1979), and two other HT paths. The three paths correspond to different values of Fe# in Ol (0.075, 0.085 and 0.11). They are reproduced by the modified MTB equations for clinopyroxene, garnet, chromite and ilmenites (Ashchepkov et al., 2008a), a mono-version of the O'Neill and Wood (1979) thermometer with corrections to Cr and Ca/Mg ratios which mark conductive geotherm. PT estimates for garnets and pyroxenes reflect mantle layering, whereas those for ilmenite reflect varying conditions of polybaric mantle protokimberlite systems and metasomatism. MTB for xenoliths from the Udachnaya, Mir, Dalnyaya, and Komsomolskaya kimberlites show the colder branches if PT path using heavy mineral analyses them according to PT for xenoliths according to TB (O'Neill and Wood, 1979; Finnerty and Boyd, 1987; McGregor, 1974; Brey and Kohler, 1990) producing smoother geotherms. MTB gives a wider range PT points reflecting heating near magmatic channels. Regularities of mantle sections and layering in the Daldyn field are recognized on the PT and P- X diagrams. The lower part of the mantle sections were heated by protokimberlite melts which created the megacrystalline associations. PT values of sub-calcic garnets correlate with those of picroilmenites. Mantle columns beneath the large pipes reveal stepped 7-12 layering for Udachnaya pipe units correlating with the peaks of Re/Os ages (Griffin et al., 2002b) is marked by periodic increase in Fe# in minerals. Pyroxenites and 'hot' eclogites (Pokhilenko et al., 1999) are found in layers at ˜ ˜ 40, 50-65, and

  1. Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater Flowing Through Arsenic Source Sediments in an Aquifer System of West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Pal, T.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Beckie, R. D.

    2017-11-01

    The source of geogenic arsenic (As) contaminating a shallow aquifer in West Bengal was traced to fine-grained sediments deposited in an abandoned river channel. Along with As-bearing phases, these sediments contain 0.46% codeposited organic carbon. The release of As and the geochemistry of groundwater within the channel-fill deposits is investigated using a detailed mass balance model supported by aqueous, solid-phase, and mineralogical data. The model describes the evolution of groundwater chemistry along a flow path extending from its recharge in an abandoned channel pond, through the channel fill, to the underlying aquifer. Variations in groundwater composition are explained in terms of mineral weathering of host sediments driven by organic carbon decay. Arsenic is released through the reductive dissolution of goethite and the weathering of chlorite. Concomitantly, some As is sequestered in precipitating vivianite. These competing processes reach equilibrium deeper in the channel-fill sequence as groundwater As concentrations stabilize. The model yields estimates of mineral reaction (or precipitation) rates including rates of organic carbon oxidation (1.15 mmol C L-1 a-1) and net As release (4.57×10-4 mmol L-1 a-1). Fine-grained, slightly permeable, deposits such as channel fill containing reactive organic carbon and As-bearing goethite and phyllosilicates are centers of intense chemical weathering conducive to As mobilization.

  2. Enhancing Sustainability of Cotton Production Systems in West Africa: A Summary of Empirical Evidence from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Vitale

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been hesitant to adopt agricultural biotechnology, lagging behind global trends over the past decade. One exception is Burkina Faso, a West African country that commercially released 125,000 ha of Bt cotton in 2009. Bt cotton may serve as a working example of how African countries can enhance sustainability using modern, science-driven technology to increase production levels while reducing input use and energy consumption. This paper reports the potential impact that Bt cotton can have on sustainability in Burkina Faso’s cotton sector based by summarizing empirical evidence from previously published studies. Based on the summary of published data collected from six years of field trials and producer surveys, Bt cotton increased cotton yields by an average of 21.3% and raised income by $106.14 per ha. Using an energy balance model, the introduction of Bt cotton would also result in a 6.6% saving in energy use. The significant increase in productivity and economic returns could be the catalyst for Burkina Faso, and other African countries, to emerge from the decade or so of stagnation and regain their competitive stance in world cotton markets while providing environmental and social benefits.

  3. Improving the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse in the North-West Control Area of the Mexican Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G.; Inda-Ruiz, G.A.; Tovar, G.E. [Gerencia de Analisis de Redes, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Eleectricas

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports the application of a static approach for assessing the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the North-West Control Area (NWCA) of the Mexican Power System. The approach uses both optimal load flow (OLF) and conventional load flow (LF) solutions, and singular value decomposition of the load flow Jacobian matrix (J). Additionally, the approach allows to determine suitable locations for corrective actions such as, the addition of new equipment or load shedding. The results shows that the combination of OLF and LF resulted in a steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the NWCA 7.2% higher than the case when only conventional load flow solutions were considered. (author)

  4. USE OF TERRITORY AND CONSOLIDATION OF AGRIBUSINESS IN REGION CENTER-WEST: A STUDY ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION THROUGH SYSTEM OF AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gallo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to make some reflections on the use of small aircrafts for the integration and modernization of the Brazilian territory. The system of air transport, in a country of large territorial extension, is very important to narrow the regional ties and it is an important  element of the productive space circuit of the modern agriculture developed in the Brazilian Center-West. The small aircrafts of not-regular routes, act as basic vector of the interactional fluidity, speeding the transport of people, in function of its flexibility of displacement and time, act as basic vector of the productivity integration of the Brazilian territory, a time that the production properly said and corporative command if had separated given to the possibilities techniques of the actual technician-scientific and informational period. 

  5. Black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats as ecological surrogates and ecological equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Hanebury, L.R.; Miller, B.J.; Powell, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ecologically equivalent species serve similar functions in different communities, and an ecological surrogate species can be used as a substitute for an equivalent species in a community. Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanii) and black-footed ferrets (M. nigripes) have long been considered ecological equivalents. Polecats also have been used as investigational surrogates for black-footed ferrets, yet the similarities and differences between the 2 species are poorly understood. We contrasted activity patterns of radiotagged polecats and ferrets released onto ferret habitat. Ferrets tended to be nocturnal and most active after midnight. Polecats were not highly selective for any period of the day or night. Ferrets and polecats moved most during brightly moonlit nights. The diel activity pattern of ferrets was consistent with avoidance of coyotes (Canis latrans) and diurnal birds of prey. Similarly, polecat activity was consistent with avoidance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in their natural range. Intraguild predation (including interference competition) is inferred as a selective force influencing behaviors of these mustelines. Examination of our data suggests that black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats might be ecological equivalents but are not perfect surrogates. Nonetheless, polecats as surrogates for black-footed ferrets have provided critical insight needed, especially related to predation, to improve the success of ferret reintroductions. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Evaluation of four suture materials for surgical incision closure in Siberian sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, S. Shaun; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Peterson, Douglas C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Shelton, James L.; Divers, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The visual and microscopic tissue reactions to the absorbable monofilament Monocryl, absorbable monofilament triclosan-coated Monocryl-Plus, absorbable multifilament Vicryl, and nonabsorbable monofilament Prolene were evaluated for their use of surgical closure in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Postoperative assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 8, 12, and 26 and 55 weeks to visually evaluate the surgical incision for suture retention, incision healing, erythema, and swelling. Incisions were also assessed microscopically at 1, 2, and 8 weeks for necrosis, inflammation, hemorrhage, and fibroplasia. The results indicated that incisions closed with either Vicryl or Prolene suture materials were more likely to exhibit more erythema or incomplete healing compared with those closed with Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus. The surgical implantation of a transmitter in the coelomic cavity did not significantly affect the response variables among the four suture materials. Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus were equally effective and superior to other suture materials used for closing surgical incisions in Siberian Sturgeon or closely related species of sturgeon. Furthermore, Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus may decrease the risk of transmitter expulsion through the incision, as surgical wounds appear to heal faster and exhibit less erythema compared with those closed with Vicryl.

  7. Outbreak and genotyping of canine distemper virus in captive Siberian tigers and red pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Shan, Fen; Zhou, Xia; Li, Bing; Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-08-15

    In this study, four canine distemper virus (CDV) strains were isolated from captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) during two separate CDV outbreaks in a zoo in Guangdong province, China. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype Asia-1. Prior to confirmation of CDV in Siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuated combination CDV vaccine was used among almost all carnivore animals except for red pandas in which another recombinant combination CDV vaccine was used. However, about two months later, CDV re-emerged and caused the death among red pandas. Based on the vaccination records, the live combination vaccine could be considered an ideal weapon against CDV in zoo carnivore animals. Although the recombinant combination CDV vaccine was safe for red pandas, its protection effectiveness remains to be further investigated. Moreover, according to the outbreak interval time and sequence characterization, we suspected that stray cats circulating in the zoo were the intermediate host, which contributed to CDV spread from stray dogs to zoo animals. This study revealed the importance of vaccination and biosecurity for zoo animals.

  8. CCK reduces the food intake mainly through CCK1R in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Tang, Ni; Qi, Jinwen; Wang, Shuyao; Hao, Jin; Wu, Yuanbing; Chen, Hu; Tian, Zhengzhi; Wang, Bin; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2017-09-29

    To explore the effect of CCK on food intake in Siberian sturgeon, cck cDNA sequence of 1005 bp was obtained, and cck mRNA possessed the highest expression in brain. The expressions of cck were significantly increased after feeding 1 and 3 h, while displaying significant decrease after fasting within 15 days in brain and duodenum. Re-feeding for 3 days induced cck level returned to basic level. Acute i.p. injection experiment showed 100 and 200 ng/g BW CCK8 inhibited the food intake in 0-1 h together with the cumulative food intake within 3 h. 7 days chronic i.p. injection of 100 and 200 ng/g BW CCK8, both daily food intake and cumulative food intake were significantly decreased. In addition, chronic i.p injection of CCK8 induced the expression of feeding related factors changes including cck, ucn3, cart, apelin, pyy and npy in respective organization. Moreover, as revealed by the results, Lorglumide, the CCK1R selective antagonist, effectively reversed the inhibitory effects of CCK8 on food intake and the levels of feeding related factors. On the other hand, LY 225910, the CCK2R selective antagonist, partially reversed these effects. These results indicate CCK is a satiety factor inhibits the feeding of Siberian sturgeon primarily through CCK1R.

  9. Adult wheel access interaction with activity and boldness personality in Siberian dwarf hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, L Leann; Abdulhay, Amir; Erickson, Caitlin

    2017-05-01

    Individual animal personalities interact with environmental conditions to generate differences in behavior, a phenomenon of growing interest for understanding the effects of environmental enrichment on captive animals. Wheels are common environmental enrichment for laboratory rodents, but studies conflict on how this influences behavior, and interaction of wheels with individual personalities has rarely been examined. We examined whether wheel access altered personality profiles in adult Siberian dwarf hamsters. We assayed animals in a tunnel maze twice for baseline personality, then again at two and at seven weeks after the experimental group was provisioned with wheels in their home cages. Linear mixed model selection was used to assess changes in behavior over time and across environmental gradient of wheel exposure. While animals showed consistent inter-individual differences in activity, activity personality did not change upon exposure to a wheel. Boldness also varies among individuals, and there is evidence for female boldness scores converging after wheel exposure, that is, opposite shifts in behavior by high and low boldness individuals, although sample size is too small for the mixed model results to be robust. In general, Siberian dwarf hamsters appear to show low behavioral plasticity, particularly in general activity, in response to running wheels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate-induced mortality of "dark needle conifer" in Siberian taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav; Im, Sergei; Petrov, Ilya

    2017-04-01

    Within Siberia fir (Abies sibirica) and Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) (so called "dark needle conifers", DNC) mortality increased in the southern part of the DNC range. Siberian pine and fir showed decreased radial growth increment within southern Siberia since the 1980s with increasing mortality recorded since the year 2000. Tree ring width was strongly correlated with vapor pressure deficit, aridity and root zone moisture. Water stress from droughts made trees more susceptible to insect attacks causing mortality in about 10% of DNC stands in southern Siberia. Biogeographically, tree mortality was located within the DNC - forest-steppes transition. Tree mortality was significantly correlated with drought and soil moisture anomalies. Within the interior of the DNC range mortality occurred within relief features with high water stress risk (i.e., steep convex south facing slopes with shallow well-drained soils). In general, DNC mortality in Siberia was induced by increased aridity and severe drought (inciting factors) in synergy with biotic attacks (contributing factor). In particular, bark beetle Polygraphus proximus made a strong input on the fir mortality. In future climate scenarios with predicted increase in aridity DNC could be eliminated from the southern part of its current range and will be replaced by drought-resistant conifers and broadleaf species (e.g., Larix sibirica, Pinus sylvestris, and Betula pubescence).

  11. Central Siberian taiga mapping using by SPOT 4 and inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    One of the main purposes of this research was evaluation of the suitability of satellite data middle resolution for Central Siberian forest mapping. The study area is located on the right bank of the Yenisei River between Podkamennaya Tunguska and Nizhnyaya Tunguska rivers (the Central Siberian Plateau) on the Central Siberian Natural Biosphere reserve. Nowadays there are several maps for this region which could be divided for two types conditionally: cartographic material obtained through field work of the 1930-1980 (for some part the last inventory was conducted in 1990) and satellite maps based on the coarse resolution images (such as AVHRR, SPOT VEGETATION and MODIS). General idea was to develop methodology main trees species precision mapping by SPOT 4 data sets. Training samples for the images classification was based on the results of the field inventory researches conducted in 2009-2011. A technology sample plot lying was oriented on the spatial resolution of SPOT4 multispectral bands. Each point geometrically represented a square of 20 x 20 meters and describes the following each of trees species parameters: max and min diameters, numbers of stems, max/min height, density, plot's altitude. During the field works was prepared 43 sample plots spread over a total area of 70 sq km (total Reserve area is about 1 million sq ha); each point's location determined by the landscape oriented approach, geo-referencing was carried out with the GPS. Also during the project the digital elevation model of the Reserve has been adjusted using the updated field data. Time series of satellite images was selected not only for summer periods of 2009-2011 but also a few clouds free winter images. Mapping technology involves several stages thematic processing: initially classification carried out strictly according to the results of fields' works data sets inside the local area of 70 sq km; processing was based on statistical supervised methods of classification. On the next step

  12. Economy of Fertilizer Nitrogen through Organic Sources in Rain-Fed Rice-Legume Cropping Systems in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Puste

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at a farmers’ plot adjacent to the Regional Research Station, red and laterite zone, Sub-center Sekhampur (Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, situated 23° 24' N latitude, 87° 24' E longitude, to study the effect of different bio- and organic sources of nutrients instead of total fertilizer N in terms of crop productivity in the sequence and building up of soil fertility. During the wet seasons of 1997 and 1998, 12 combinations of bio- and organic sources (crop residues, well decomposed cow dung, dhanicha as green manure were substituted for 25–50% of N fertilizer applied on transplanted rice (Cv. IR 36. Subsequently, during the winters of 1997–1998 and 1998–1999, leguminous pulse crops like lentil (Lens culinaris [L.] Medic., gram (Cicer arietinum L. and lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L. were grown with and without inoculation of Rhizobium. Results revealed that the application of inorganic N in combination with organic sources exhibited a significant increase in rice yield (3.60–3.84 t ha-1 compared to the yield from sole application of N (3.19–3.26 t ha-1. The study showed that about 25% of total applied N was saved without significant yield reduction with simultaneous improvement of soil physical properties (pH, organic matter, available N, P, K, and CEC. Seed yield of pulses (lentil, gram, and lathyrus were more pronounced in the treatment inoculated with Rhizobium, with a saving of 42.6–48.4 kg N ha-1. Therefore, the results suggest that the combined application of inorganic and organic N sources in a 75:25 ratio is a superior N-management practice with regards to crop yields as well as improvement of soil fertility.

  13. Economy of fertilizer nitrogen through organic sources in rain-fed rice-legume cropping systems in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puste, A M; Bandyopadhyay, S; Das, D K

    2001-12-11

    Field experiments were conducted at a farmers" plot adjacent to the Regional Research Station, red and laterite zone, Sub-center Sekhampur (Birbhum district) of West Bengal, India, situated 23 degrees 24' N latitude, 87 degrees 24' E longitude, to study the effect of different bio- and organic sources of nutrients instead of total fertilizer N in terms of crop productivity in the sequence and building up of soil fertility. During the wet seasons of 1997 and 1998, 12 combinations of bio- and organic sources (crop residues, well decomposed cow dung, dhanicha as green manure) were substituted for 25-50% of N fertilizer applied on transplanted rice (Cv. IR 36). Subsequently, during the winters of 1997-1998 and 1998-1999, leguminous pulse crops like lentil (Lens culinaris [L.] Medic.), gram ( Cicer arietinum L.) and lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L.) were grown with and without inoculation of Rhizobium. Results revealed that the application of inorganic N in combination with organic sources exhibited a significant increase in rice yield (3.60-3.84 t ha(-1) ) compared to the yield from sole application of N (3.19-3.26 t ha(-1) ). The study showed that about 25% of total applied N was saved without significant yield reduction with simultaneous improvement of soil physical properties (pH, organic matter, available N, P, K, and CEC). Seed yield of pulses (lentil, gram, and lathyrus) were more pronounced in the treatment inoculated with Rhizobium, with a saving of 42.6-48.4 kg N ha(-1). Therefore, the results suggest that the combined application of inorganic and organic N sources in a 75:25 ratio is a superior N-management practice with regards to crop yields as well as improvement of soil fertility.

  14. Peroxy radical observations over West Africa during AMMA 2006: photochemical activity in the outflow of convective systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radical measurements made on board the DLR-Falcon research aircraft over West Africa within the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA campaign during the 2006 wet monsoon are presented in this study. The analysis of data focuses on the photochemical activity of air masses sampled during episodes of intense convection and biomass burning. Generally, the total sum of peroxy radical mixing ratios, measured in the outflow of convective clouds, are quite variable but occasionally are coupled with the NO variations indicating the coexistence or simultaneous emission of NOx, with a potential radical precursor (i.e. formaldehyde, acetone or peroxides, which has likely been transported to higher atmospheric altitudes. Based on the measurements, significant O3 production rates around 1 ppb/h in the MCS outflow are estimated by using a box model with simplified chemistry. Peroxy radicals having mixing ratios around 20–25 pptv and with peak values of up to 60–70 pptv are measured within biomass burning plumes, detected at the coast in Ghana. Calculations of back-trajectory densities confirm the origin of these air masses being a biomass burning region at southern latitudes and close to the Gulf of Guinea, according to satellite pictures.

    Measured peroxy radical concentrations agree reasonably with modelled estimations taking into account simple local chemistry. Moreover, the vertical profiles taken at the aircraft base in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, indicate the common feature of having maximum concentrations between 2 and 4 km, in agreement with other literature values obtained under similar conditions.

  15. Hybridization and introgression between the exotic Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, and the native Field elm, U. minor, in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the first Dutch elm disease (DED) pandemic, Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, was planted to replace the native elm, U. minor, in Italy. The potential for hybridization between these two species is high and repeated hybridization could result in the genetic swamping of the native species an...

  16. Morphological Characteristics and Water-Use Efficiency of Siberian Elm Trees (Ulmus pumila L. within Arid Regions of Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Eun Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L. is one of the most commonly found tree species in arid areas of northeast Asia. To understand the morphological and physiological characteristics of Siberian elms in arid regions, we analyzed leaves from seven study sites (five arid or semi-arid and two mesic in China, Mongolia and the Republic of Korea, which covered a wide range of average annual precipitation (232 mm·year−1 to 1304 mm·year−1 under various aridity indexes (AI and four different microenvironments: sand dune, steppe, riverside and forest. The traits of Siberian elms varied widely along different annual precipitation (P and AI gradients. Tree height (H, leaf size (LS and stomatal area per unit leaf area (AS/AL decreased with increasing AI, whereas leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA and water-use efficiency (WUE increased significantly. In addition, trees at the five arid sites showed significant differences in LS, LMA and AS/AL but not in H and WUE. Thus, our study indicated that indigenous Siberian elm trees in arid areas have substantially altered their morphological and physiological characteristics to avoid heat stress and increase water conservation in comparison to mesic areas. However, their changes differed depending on the surrounding microenvironment even in arid areas. Trees in sand dunes had a smaller LS, higher LMA, thicker leaf cuticle layer and higher stomatal density and AS than those in steppes and near a riverside.

  17. Development of Cytoplasmatic SSR-Markers for Population Genetic Studies of the Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus Sibirica Du Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Shilkina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Three chloroplast and one mitochondrial DNA markers were developed and used for genotyping of 60 trees in two populations of the Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour. Two chloroplast loci were monomorphic in both populations, and one polymorphic with two alleles. Therefore, four chloroplast haplotypes were revealed totally. A mitochondrial DNA marker had two alleles or haplotypes (mitotypes.

  18. New paleomagnetic poles from Arctic Siberia support Indian Ocean option for the Neoproterozoic APWP of the Siberian craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasenko, A.; Malyshev, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Quantity and quality of paleomagnetic poles obtained so far for Neoproterozoic of Siberia are still insufficient even to outline the general trend of APWP of Siberia for this huge and very interesting time interval. Meanwhile, the solution of this problem is crucial for choice of polarity option for Siberian proterozoic paleomagnetic directions, for construction and testing of world paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. For example, whether or not the Siberian craton could be connected with Laurentia within the supercontinent Rodinia depends directly on paleomagnetic polarity option choice, which , in its turn, is determined by either we choose for neoproterozoic drift of Siberian paleomagnetic poles Pacific ocean trend [Smethurst et al., 1998] or Indian ocean [Pavlov et al., 2015] trend. To advance in solution of this problem we have carried out the paleomagnetic investigations of several sedimentary sections and sills of Arctic Siberia considered to be meso-neoproterozoic in age. In particular we have studied the terrigenous Udza and Unguohtah Formations and basic sills of the Udzha Uplift; the carbonate Khaipakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift; the carbonate Burovaya Formation of the Turukhansk Uplift; basic sills of the Kparaulakh Mountains.In this report we present the paleomagnetic poles obtained, discuss their bearing on construction of the adequate Siberian neoproterozoic APWP and show that our new data rather support the Indian ocean option.This research were supported by Grant from RF President #MK-739.2017.5

  19. Initial assessment of multi-scale measures of C02 and H20 flux in the Siberian taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.Y. Hollinger; F.M. Kelliher; E.-D. Schulze; N.N. Vygodskaya; A. Varlagin; I. Milukova; J.N. Byers; A. Sogachov; J.E. Hunt; T.M. McSeveny; K.I. Kobak; G. Bauer; A. Arneth

    1995-01-01

    We measured CO2 and H2O fluxes between undisturbed Larix gmelinii forest and the atmosphere at a remote Eastern Siberian site in July 1993. Scaled-up leaf-level porometer measurements agreed with those derived from the eddy correlation technique for the canopy fluxes of CO2 and H...

  20. Dynamics of mantle rock metasomatic transformation in permeable lithospheric zones beneath Siberian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Victor; Sorokin, Konstantin; Perepechko, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The numerical descriptions of hydrodynamic model of two - velocity heat and mass transfer in permeable zones above the asthenospheric lenses was formulated and solved basing on the study the composition of inclusions in minerals of low crust ultra metamorphic rocks and lithospheric mantle metasomatites and estimation of thermodynamic conditions of the processes. Experimental study of influence of the simulated hot reduced gas flows on the minerals of low crust and mantle xenolith of the Siberian craton platform (SP) give the basic information for this processes. In detail: 1. Thermobarometric study of composition of inclusions in granulite and lithospheric mantle rocks beneath the diamondiferous cratons allowed to estimate the gas phase compositions during the metamorphism and metasomatism as well as products of their re equilibration during decompression. 2. Results of the pilot study of the influence of hot gas impact flows on minerals of mantle xenoliths are taken into account. This allowed to reproduce the elements and heterophase kinetics of interactions within a temperature range of about 300 to 1300o on relative to the interactions between the solid, liquid and gas phases. 3. Correct mathematical two-velocities model of fluid dynamics for compressible multiphase fluid -rock systems. 4. Numerical schemes are simulated and solved for the problems of quantitative description of 2D dynamics behavior of P and T within the permeable zone above the asthenospheric lens. 5. Quantitative description of heterophase non isothermal fluid-rock interaction within the framework of the approximation was obtained on the basis of the parallel solutions of the exchange between the ideal gas flow and solid phase according to the model of multi-reservoir reactors based on minimization of the Gibbs potential. Qualitatively the results of numerical simulation are as follows: 1) appearance in permeable zones of the any composition fluid flows from the upper mantle magma chambers

  1. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  2. AN EVOLUTIONARY STUDY ON CROP PRODUCTION IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS IN THE MID-WEST REGION OF BRAZIL BASED ON A LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amelia Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on an agro-technical study for the mid-west region of Brazil, and considering financial conditions like monthly expenses and long-term investments, a mixed integer and dynamic linear model has been proposed for representing crop production systems. This model establishes a monthly dynamic treatment of production and financial activities over a long-term planning horizon for small and medium farm systems. In this paper, by considering more recent government financial policies for the Brazilian agricultural sector related to the Pronaf and Proger credit lines, a mathematical model is updated for distinct situations derived from the use of short and long-term loans which were defined for small and medium farmers. In this way, new versions of the original model are obtained by separately implementing into the production systems economic and financial conditions of credit lines for the years 2006 and 2009. Computational tests are performed and the results obtained are presented in several scenarios. Also, an evolutionary analysis on the socio-economic and financial feasibility of the agricultural farm system is drawn over the last decade by comparing the results obtained to one known from the year 2002.

  3. A skilful prediction scheme for West China autumn precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Song, Wenling; Dong, Wenjie; Ke, Zongjian; Sun, Linhai; Wen, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    West China is one of the country's largest precipitation centres in autumn. This region's agriculture and people are highly vulnerable to the variability in the autumn rain. This study documents that the water vapour for West China autumn precipitation (WCAP) is from the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea and the Western Pacific. A strong convergence of the three water vapour transports (WVTs) and their encounter with the cold air from the northern trough over Lake Barkersh-Lake Baikal result in the intense WCAP. Three predictors in the preceding spring or summer are identified for the interannual variability of WCAP: (1) sea surface temperature in the Indo-Pacific warm pool in summer, (2) soil moisture from the Hexi Corridor to the Hetao Plain in summer and (3) snow cover extent over East Europe and West Siberian in spring. The cold SSTAs contribute to an abnormal regional meridional circulation and intensified WVTs. The wet soil results in greater air humidity and anomalous southerly emerging over East Asia. Reduced snow cover stimulates a Rossby wave train that weakens the cold air, favouring autumn rainfall in West China. The three predictors, which demonstrate the influences of air-sea interaction, land surface processes and the cryosphere on the WCAP, have clear physical significance and are independent with each other. We then develop a new statistical prediction model with these predictors and the multilinear regression analysis method. The predicted and observed WCAP shows high correlation coefficients of 0.63 and 0.51 using cross-validation tests and independent hindcasts, respectively.

  4. Fire-induced surface forcing of the Siberian larch forests since 2000 in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Loboda, T. V.; He, T.; Zhang, Y.; Liang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Siberian larch forests are a major component of the global boreal biome with wildfire being the most important disturbance agent. However, due to their unique characteristics and remote location, coupled with a limited record of remotely sensed datasets, we know little about the post-fire albedo dynamics in the region as well as the associated climatic impact, especially over a relatively longer temporal span at the regional scale. This is unfortunate as it has been suggested that the fire-induced albedo changes may have a pivotal role in controlling the net climatic impact of the boreal forests. Utilizing a 30-m 24-year stand age distribution map of the Siberian larch forests, combined with the full record of the MODIS albedo product, this study quantified the surface forcing induced by stand-replacing fires in the Siberian larch forests over 2001-2015. The results show that the larch forests experienced stand-replacing fires in the region has a cooling effect lasting for more than 25 years, and the magnitude of the cooling (-9.60 ± 0.03 Wm-2) is much larger than previously expected. Due to the strong cooling of stand-replacing fires, coupled with their wide distribution, the net surface forcing of the Siberian larch forests between 2001 and 2013 is negative (-0.78 Wm-2). In contrast, the forests that did not experience stand-replacing fires since 2000 show a warming effect, which is largely attributable to a lengthening of snow-free duration in the region. These results together indicate that wildfire may play a much bigger role in modulating the climatic impact of the Siberian larch forests than we previously thought, but this role is likely weakened by the considerable warming in the region, thus needs to be evaluated in the context of global climate change.

  5. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  6. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  7. High Water Contents in the Siberian Cratonic Mantle: An FTIR Study of Udachnaya Peridotite Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Luc S.; Peslier, Anne H.; Ionov, Dimitri A.; Brandon, Alan D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ashchepkov, Igor V.

    2013-01-01

    Water is believed to be a key factor controlling the long-term stability of cratonic lithosphere, but mechanisms responsible for the water content distribution in the mantle remain poorly constrained. Water contents were obtained by FTIR in olivine, pyroxene and garnet for 20 well-characterized peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite (central Siberian craton) and equilibrated at 2-7 GPa. Water contents in minerals do not appear to be related to interaction with the host kimberlite. Diffusion modeling indicates that the core of olivines preserved their original water contents. The Udachnaya peridotites show a broad range of water contents in olivine (6.5 +/- 1.1 to 323 +- 65 ppm H2O (2 sigma)), and garnet (0 - 23 +/- 6 ppm H2O). The water contents of olivine and garnet are positively correlated with modal clinopyroxene, garnet and FeO in olivine. Water-rich garnets are also rich in middle rare earth elements. This is interpreted as the result of interaction between residual peridotites and water rich-melts, consistent with modal and cryptic metasomatism evidenced in the Siberian cratonic mantle. The most water-rich Udachnaya minerals contain 2 to 3 times more water than those from the Kaapvaal craton, the only craton with an intact mantle root for which water data is available. The highest water contents in olivine and orthopyroxene in this study (>= 300 ppm) are found at the bottom of the lithosphere (> 6.5 GPa). This is in contrast with the Kaapvaal craton where the olivines of peridotites equilibrated at > 6.4 GPa have peridotites at > 6 GPa is lower or similar (8.4× 10(exp 16) to 8.0× 10(exp 18) Pa./s) to that of the asthenosphere (peridotites are likely not representative of the overall Siberian cratonic lithosphere. Their composition is linked to spatially limited melt metasomatism in mantle regions above asthenospheric upwellings responsible for the kimberlite magmatism prior to their ascent and eruption.

  8. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  9. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  10. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cronin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1 and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1, and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1. Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.. Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1 followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  11. Deglacial remobilization of permafrost carbon to sediments along the East Siberian Arctic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, J.; Wild, B.; Bröder, L.; Andersson, A.; Pearce, C.; O'Regan, M.; Jakobsson, M.; Tesi, T.; Muschitiello, F.; Sköld, M.; Semiletov, I. P.; Dudarev, O.; Gustafsson, O.

    2017-12-01

    Current climate change is expected to thaw large quantities of permafrost carbon (PF-C) and expose it to degradation which emits greenhouse gases (i.e. CO2 and CH4). Warming causes a gradual deepening of the seasonally thawed active layer surface of permafrost soils, but also the abrupt collapse of deeper Ice Complex Deposits (ICD), especially along Siberian coastlines. It was recently hypothesized that past warming already induced large-scale permafrost degradation after the last glacial, which ultimately amplified climate forcing. We here assess the mobilization of PF-C to East Siberian Arctic Sea sediments during these warming periods. We perform source apportionment using bulk carbon isotopes (ΔΔ14C, δ13C) together with terrestrial biomarkers (CuO-derived lignin phenols) as indicators for PF-C transfer. We apply these techniques to sediment cores (SWERUS-L2) from the Chukchi Sea (4-PC1) and the southern Lomonosov Ridge (31-PC1). We found that PF-C fluxes during the Bølling-Allerød warming (14.7 to 12.7 cal ka BP), the Younger Dryas cooling (12.7 to 11.7 cal ka BP) and the early Holocene warming (until 11 cal ka BP) were overall higher than mid and late Holocene fluxes. In the Chukchi Sea, PF-C burial was 2x higher during the deglaciation (7.2 g m-2 a-1) than in the mid and late Holocene (3.6 g m-2 a-1), and ICD were the dominant source of PF-C (79.1%). Smaller fractions originated from the active layer (9.1%) and marine sources (11.7%). We conclude that thermo-erosion of ICD released large amounts of PF-C to the Chukchi Sea, likely driven by climate warming and the deglacial sea level rise. This contrasts to earlier analyses of Laptev Sea sediments where active layer material from river transport dominated the carbon flux. Preliminary data on lignin phenol concentrations of Lomonosov Ridge sediments suggest that the postglacial remobilization of PF-C was one order of magnitude higher (10x) than during both the preceding glacial and the subsequent Holocene

  12. Сonditions of sedimentation and paleogeographic zoning of the Bazhenov horizon (Tithon-Lower Berrias in West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Stafeev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the global Upper Jurassic-Neocomian (Oxford-Valanginian black-shale interval, the Bazhenov Formation occupies only the Tithonian – Lower Berriasian. The main regional reasons for this localization were the tectonic regime, the morphology of the basin’s bottom and hydrodynamics. Under the conditions of sublatitudinal transtension southward of the active Priuralsko-Khatanga left shift on the western and eastern slopes of the basin, sharp increased the deflections that began in the Late Oxford. The central part of the West Siberian basin became isolated as a shallow (up to 100 m hilled plateau, surrounded by deep (up to 500 m troughs. Along the north-western Nadym-Karaminsky fault a zone of relative uplifts was formed, dividing the basin into two sub-basins – Ob and Pur-Taz. The Taz palaeodepression is limited to meridional downthrow, it served as a traprock for terrigenous material that was carried down from Siberian platform and Taimyrsky Island. Beginning from Tithonian, a large debrise cone of interbasin drainage flow was formed in the Taz trough. The dischange current followed the Kheta channel, filled the deep-water trough with cold arctic waters and pycnocline was formed in the basin. Contour currents were formed on the Purskoy stage, which is situated on the western slope of the shallow. The fluent of these currents and the upwelling from the Taz trough provided the nutrients to the surface. The high primary bioproductivity that resulted in the accumulation of black shales in the West Siberian basin is a result of genetically related sequence of environments and facies: the fluvial facies of the runoff stream of the Bukaty Formation – the fan of outflow of runoff currents of the Yanovstanskaya formation – mainly the biochemogenic Bazhenov formation of upwelling. Rapid immersion of the shallow hilled plateau in the Berriasian time led to stop the accumulation of black shales almost throughout all West Siberian basin, the bottom

  13. Intra-stand variation of cone structure and seed production in Siberian stone pine: pattern and use for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Akimov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour in Russia is primarily valued as a nut-bearing species. Therefore, intra-standvariation in its cone structure and seed production have been actively studied during the last 50 years. However, these studies arepoorly related to practical breeding. We used a novel system of traits to characterize yearly seed crops at the different levels of itsstructural organization. The purpose is to analyze the results of long-term observations of the intra-stand variation of the reproductivefeatures complex, and to reveal the pattern and character of its diversity. This information would be useful to develop the method ofsearching the initial material for breeding. The research plot is established in the Nizhne-Sechenovo forest located 25 km fromTomsk in the south part of the boreal zone (170 years old, mean height 22 m, mean d.b.h. 60 cm. The number of sampled trees variedbetween 40-120 among years. The registration of seed crop and analysis of its structure was conducted every year from 1990 to 2005. Theintra-stand variation of the traits' level was determined as a standard deviation in percent from the simple average. The level ofvariability rose sharply and the correlations between them decreased in the years of the low crops. The results concerning variation in seedand cone traits are listed in the next table. The number of full seeds depended rather on losses in the processes of development (r =0.80*-0.85* than on their starting number (r =0.55*-0.60*. The mass of one seed with sound endosperm rose with an increase in the ratio ofthe ovules, which were lost at the earlier stagesof development (r = 0.20-0.25* and the flat seed ratio (r = 0.35*-0.40*. In year-to-year dynamics, the number of cones per tree ispositively connected with the number of filled seeds per cone (r = 0.78* and with other indices characterizing 'the crop quality'.The breeding rank of trees by all important

  14. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...... past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about...

  15. Siberian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatigue syndrome, diabetes, high cholesterol, improving loss of sensation in extremities (peripheral neuropathy), fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, reducing the effects of a hangover, flu, colds, chronic bronchitis, and tuberculosis. It is also used ...

  16. Siberian Syrphidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violovitsh, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Syrphidae constitute one of the most representative families in the sub-order of Diptera Brachycera, the fauna of Siberia numbering about 600-700 species (the whole of the U.S.S.R. numbering about 1100). They occur practically everywhere and are of considerable economic importance, chiefly as

  17. Joint Seismic-Geodetic Algorithm for Finite-Fault Detection and Slip Inversion in the West Coast ShakeAlert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Felizardo, C.; Minson, S. E.; Boese, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Finite-fault source algorithms can greatly benefit earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. Estimates of finite-fault parameters provide spatial information, which can significantly improve real-time shaking calculations and help with disaster response. In this project, we have focused on integrating a finite-fault seismic-geodetic algorithm into the West Coast ShakeAlert framework. The seismic part is FinDer 2, a C++ version of the algorithm developed by Böse et al. (2012). It interpolates peak ground accelerations and calculates the best fault length and strike from template matching. The geodetic part is a C++ version of BEFORES, the algorithm developed by Minson et al. (2014) that uses a Bayesian methodology to search for the most probable slip distribution on a fault of unknown orientation. Ultimately, these two will be used together where FinDer generates a Bayesian prior for BEFORES via the methodology of Minson et al. (2015), and the joint solution will generate estimates of finite-fault extent, strike, dip, best slip distribution, and magnitude. We have created C++ versions of both FinDer and BEFORES using open source libraries and have developed a C++ Application Protocol Interface (API) for them both. Their APIs allow FinDer and BEFORES to contribute to the ShakeAlert system via an open source messaging system, ActiveMQ. FinDer has been receiving real-time data, detecting earthquakes, and reporting messages on the development system for several months. We are also testing FinDer extensively with Earthworm tankplayer files. BEFORES has been tested with ActiveMQ messaging in the ShakeAlert framework, and works off a FinDer trigger. We are finishing the FinDer-BEFORES connections in this framework, and testing this system via seismic-geodetic tankplayer files. This will include actual and simulated data.

  18. Mechanical fasteners used in historical Siberian shipbuilding: perspectives for metallurgical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent discoveries of shipwrecked vessels in the northern reaches of the river Yenisei led to a number of questions concerning the history of shipbuilding in Siberia and the technical features of the first vessels of the industrial era to navigate the Northern Sea Route and the Yenisei. One of these questions addresses the features of mechanical fasteners used in the construction of the Siberian vessels. The answer to this question may provide information on how the first vessels, constructed in Siberia during the 1870’s, were able to sail the high seas of the Arctic Ocean and reach European ports. In this paper, we provide a description of iron mechanical fasteners obtained from one shipwrecked vessel and discuss on the perspectives of a metallurgical analysis This research has been funded by a grant of the Russian Fund of Humanities Research (Russian Fund of Fundamental Research) and the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Fund under Grant number 16-11-24010.

  19. Community Organization of Siberian Coachmen in Late XVI – XVII Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Semenov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the wide range of archival data, mostly introduced into scientific use for the first time, studies communal (secular and church organization of Siberian coachmen in late XVI – XVII centuries. The paper touches upon the issue, concerning the time of its establishment, thoroughly characterizes the structure, functions and officials. The features of interrelation between coachmen ‘world’ and state and other corporate communities of the region are showed. The conclusion that, despite the dependence on the authorities, the processes of bureaucratization and the growth of the villeinage trends, common for the country, coachmen played significant role in the social life of Siberia is made. They intensively protected their interests and forced the government to consider them.

  20. Historical records of organic matter supply and degradation status in the East Siberian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Andersson, August

    2016-01-01

    Destabilization and degradation of permafrost carbon in the Arctic regions could constitute a positive feedback to climate change. A better understanding of its fate upon discharge to the Arctic shelf is therefore needed. In this study, bulk carbon isotopes as well as terrigenous and marine...... biomarkers were used to construct two centennial records in the East Siberian Sea. Differences in topsoil and Pleistocene Ice Complex Deposit permafrost concentrations, modeled using δ13C and δ14C, were larger between inner and outer shelf than the changes over time. Similarly, lignin-derived phenol...... (factor of 3-6). By contrast, the fraction for marine OC drastically decreased during burial with a half-life of 19-27 years. Vegetation and degradation proxies suggested supply of highly degraded gymnosperm wood tissues. Lipid Carbon Preference Index (CPI) values indicated more extensively degraded HMW n...

  1. Sterile nodular panniculitis with lung and lymph node involvement in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shou-Ping; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Jiao-Er; Cai, Xue-Hui; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; He, Xi-Jun

    2017-12-22

    A 2- to 4-year-old uncastrated male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altica) bred in a local wild animal park presented with generalized clinical signs including abdominal pain, fever, lethargy, and anorexia, along with subcutaneous nodules along the trunk. The patient subsequently died of chronic, progressive dyspnea despite 45 days of antibiotic treatment. At necropsy, mesenteric fat inflammation and multiple subcutaneous, peritoneal, and intraabdominal nodules were observed. The lungs demonstrated congestion and heavy coagulation, and necrotic foci were observed on the cut surface. Histopathologically, the nodules were identified as granulomatous fatty tissue with numerous lymphocytes, infiltration with lipid-laden macrophages, and fibrosis. These changes were also noted in the lung. The etiology of this condition remains undetermined.

  2. Clinical course of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Rütten, Maja; Ruess-Melzer, Katja; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Lischer, Christoph; Oevermann, Anna; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    A 14-year-old male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was admitted with an ulcerating mass on the right thoracic wall. Radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation indicated 2 isolated cutaneous masses without any signs of metastasis. Histology of a Tru-Cut biopsy revealed an anaplastic sarcoma with giant cells. Both tumors were resected with appropriate normal tissue margins. The size of the defect did not allow primary closure of the wound; therefore, a mesh expansion technique was attempted. Three months later, the tiger had to be euthanized due to extensive metastasis to the lungs. Histomorphological features and immunohistochemical results confirmed the diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. In contrast to domestic animal experience, the tumor had spread extensively to the lungs without local reccurrence in a short period of time. Correct diagnosis requires various immunohistochemical evaluations of the tumor tissue.

  3. T-lymphocyte-rich thymoma and myasthenia gravis in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, K; Masters, N; Rivers, S; Berry, K; Routh, A; Lamm, C

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old captive male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) presented with acute onset collapse, vomiting and dyspnoea, preceded by a 6-month period of progressive muscle wasting. Following humane destruction, post-mortem examination revealed a large multilobulated mass in the cranial mediastinum, which was diagnosed as a T-lymphocyte-rich thymoma with the aid of immunohistochemistry. Retrospective serology for acetylcholine receptor antibodies (titre 3.90 nmol/l) confirmed a diagnosis of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis. Thymomas are reported rarely in wild carnivores, but when detected they appear to be similar in morphology to those seen in domestic carnivores and may also be accompanied by paraneoplastic syndromes. The clinical signs of myasthenia gravis in the tiger were consistent with those reported in cats and dogs and the condition is proposed as an important differential diagnosis for generalized weakness in captive Felidae. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Eosinophilic granulomatous gastroenterocolitis and hepatitis in a 1-year-old male Siberian Husky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellou, G D; Kleinschmidt, S; Meneses, F; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2006-11-01

    A case of eosinophilic granulomatous gastroenterocolitis and hepatitis in a 1-year-old male Siberian Husky is described. The dog presented with a history of diarrhea, weakness, lethargy, and anorexia of several months' duration. Hematologic and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, computer tomography, and exploratory laparotomy were performed. Histopathologic examination of full-thickness biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract and liver revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa and tunica muscularis of stomach, jejunum, ileum, colon, and liver. Infectious agents were not detected by light microscopic and electron microscopic examination or by immunohistochemistry. On the basis of the findings, it is concluded that the disease in this dog represents an unusual manifestation of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. District Police Officers in the Siberian Region: to the Social Portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Khramtsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In article based on for the first time the archive documents introduced for scientific use social composition of district police officers as chiefs of police authorities on the example of the Siberian region is researched (1867–1917: origin, religion, age, education, etc. Stages of service by Police Chiefs, data on their encouragement and penalties are noted. Feature of their service was rotation. Office movements of district chiefs allowed to increase quality of service (to stop rise in crime and to reduce corruption in police agencies. It is concluded that the administrative board of local police represented rather vicious circle of persons. Mainly representatives of the hereditary nobility and ober-officers were appointed to this post.

  6. Basal metabolism of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and the Siberian polecat (M. eversmannii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, L.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Alldredge, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) and Siberian polecats (M. eversmannii) are medium-sized (about 1 kg) mustelids with similar ecological and morphological characteristics. We measured basal metabolic rates (BMR) for both species. In contrast with the commonly stated belief that mustelids have relatively high mass-specific BMR, neither the BMR of ferrets nor that of polecats in winter was greater than standard allometric predictions for all mammals. As suggested by previous authors, we believe that our relatively lower measurements for BMR are due to our efforts to minimize stress during the experimental procedure. These results support the contention that BMR in mustelids is no different from what is expected of mammals of this body mass. Seasonal differences were found in polecat BMR (higher in summer) but not in ferret BMR. Reasons for this interspecific difference may relate to differences in natural histories of these species.

  7. A Novel System for Rapid and Cost-Effective Production of Detection and Diagnostic Reagents of West Nile Virus in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyun He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of West Nile virus (WNV epidemics necessitates the development of a technology platform that can produce reagents to support detection and diagnosis rapidly and inexpensively. A plant expression system is attractive for protein production due to its low-cost and high-scalability nature and its ability to make appropriate posttranslational modifications. Here, we investigated the feasibility of using plants to produce two WNV detection and diagnostic reagents to address the current cost and scalability issues. We demonstrated that WNV DIII antigen and E16 monoclonal antibody are rapidly produced at high levels in two plant species and are easily purified. Furthermore, they are effective in identifying WNV and in detecting human IgM response to WNV infection. E16 mAb does not cross-react with other flaviviruses, therefore, is valuable for improving diagnostic accuracy. This study provides a proof of principle for using plants as a robust and economical system to produce diagnostic reagents for arboviruses.

  8. Effects of dietary arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) and endogenous probiotics on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and gut micrbiota of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraylou, Z.; Souffreau, C.; Rurangwa, E.; Meester, de L.; Courtin, C.M.; Delcour, J.A.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of administration of putative endogenous probiotics Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis or Bacillus circulans, alone and in combination with arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), a new class of candidate prebiotics, in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Eight

  9. Fermentation of Arabinoxylan-Oligosaccharides, Oligofructose and their Monomeric Sugars by Hindgut Bacteria from Siberian Sturgeon and African Catfish in Batch Culture in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraylou, Z.; Rurangwa, E.; Wiele, van der T.; Courtin, C.M.; Delcour, J.A.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation of two Non-Digestible Oligosaccharide (NDO) preparations, Arabinoxylan- Oligosaccharides (AXOS) and Oligofructose (OF), and their respective monomeric sugars, xylose and fructose, were investigated by hindgut microbiota of two major aquaculture fish species, Siberian

  10. Neocortical neuronal morphology in the Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cameron B; Schall, Matthew; Tennison, Mackenzie E; Garcia, Madeleine E; Shea-Shumsky, Noah B; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H; Bertelsen, Mads F; Waller, Leona C; Walsh, Timothy; Roberts, John F; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C; Manger, Paul R; Jacobs, Bob

    2016-12-01

    Despite extensive investigations of the neocortex in the domestic cat, little is known about neuronal morphology in larger felids. To this end, the present study characterized and quantified the somatodendritic morphology of neocortical neurons in prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices of the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). After neurons were stained with a modified Golgi technique (N = 194), dendritic branching and spine distributions were analyzed using computer-assisted morphometry. Qualitatively, aspiny and spiny neurons in both species appeared morphologically similar to those observed in the domestic cat. Although the morphology of spiny neurons was diverse, with the presence of extraverted, inverted, horizontal, and multiapical pyramidal neurons, the most common variant was the typical pyramidal neuron. Gigantopyramidal neurons in the motor cortex were extremely large, confirming the observation of Brodmann ([1909] Vergleichende Lokalisationlehre der Grosshirnrinde in ihren Prinzipien dargestellt auf Grund des Zellenbaues. Leipzig, Germany: J.A. Barth), who found large somata for these neurons in carnivores in general, and felids in particular. Quantitatively, a MARSplines analysis of dendritic measures differentiated typical pyramidal neurons between the Siberian tiger and the clouded leopard with 93% accuracy. In general, the dendrites of typical pyramidal neurons were more complex in the tiger than in the leopards. Moreover, dendritic measures in tiger pyramidal neurons were disproportionally large relative to body/brain size insofar as they were nearly as extensive as those observed in much larger mammals (e.g., African elephant). Comparison of neuronal morphology in a more diverse collection of larger felids may elucidate the comparative context for the relatively large size of the pyramidal neurons observed in the present study. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3641-3665, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  12. Susceptibility of the Siberian polecat to subcutaneous and oral Yersinia pestis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, K.T.; Biggins, D.; Carter, L.G.; Chu, M.; Innes, Kim; Wimsatt, J.

    2001-01-01

    To determine if the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmannii) represents a suitable model for the study of plague pathogenesis and prevention in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), polecats were exposed to 103, 107, or 1010 Yersinia pestis organisms by subcutaneous injection; an additional group was exposed to Y. pestis via ingestion of a plague-killed mouse. Plague killed 88% of polecats exposed to Y. pestis (71% mortality in the 103 group, 100% mortality in the 107 and 1010 groups, and 83% mortality in the mouse-fed group). Within the challenged group, mean day of death post-challenge ranged from 3.6 to 7.6 days; all polecats died on or before day 12 post-challenge. Animals receiving the lowest parenteral dose survived significantly longer than those receiving higher parenteral doses. Within challenged animals, mean survival time was lower in those presenting with significant weight loss by day 3, lethargy, and low fecal output; time to onset of lethargy and other signs was also related to risk of dying and/or plague dose. Six polecats developed serum antibody titers to the Y. pestis F1 protein. Three seropositive polecats survived the initial challenge and a subsequent exposure to a plague-killed mouse, while two seropositive animals later died. This study confirms that the Siberian polecat is susceptible to plague and suggests that this species will offer an appropriate surrogate for black-footed ferrets in future plague studies and related vaccine trials.

  13. VGF-derived peptide, TLQP-21, regulates food intake and body weight in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Keyte, John W; Carter, Wayne G; Bolton, Neil; Bruggraber, Michael; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P

    2007-08-01

    The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regulating these seasonal cycles by determining the effects of a VGF-derived peptide (TLQP-21) on food intake and body weight. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TLQP-21 decreased food intake, and chronic treatment caused a sustained reduction in food intake and body weight and decreased abdominal fat depots. Behavioral analysis revealed that TLQP-21 reduced meal size but not the frequency of feeding bouts, suggesting a primary action on satiety. Hamsters treated with TLQP-21 lost a similar amount of weight as a pair-fed group in which food intake was matched to that of the TLQP-21-treated group. Central or peripheral treatment with TLQP-21 did not produce a significant effect on resting metabolic rate. We conclude that the primary action of TLQP-21 is to decrease food intake rather than increase energy expenditure. TLQP-21 treatment caused a decrease in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, but hypothalamic expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes remained unchanged after TLQP-21 treatment, although compensatory increases in NPY and AgRP mRNA were observed in the pair-fed hamsters. The effects of TLQP-21 administration are similar to those in hamsters in short days, suggesting that increased VGF activity may contribute to the hypophagia that underlies the seasonal catabolic state.

  14. Monitoring the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into West Africa: design and implementation of a population-based surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Mackenzie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs in developing countries is expected to lead to a significant reduction in childhood deaths. However, PCVs have been associated with replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. We established a population-based surveillance system to document the direct and indirect impact of PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and radiological pneumonia in those aged 2 months and older in The Gambia, and to monitor changes in serotype-specific IPD. Here we describe how this surveillance system was set up and is being operated as a partnership between the Medical Research Council Unit and the Gambian Government. This surveillance system is expected to provide crucial information for immunisation policy and serves as a potential model for those introducing routine PCV vaccination in diverse settings.

  15. The evolution of the clear water hatchery system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the French West Indies from 1979 to 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Denis; Robin, Thierry; Sica Aquacole De Martinique,; Aquacop,

    1985-01-01

    The clearwater larval rearing method for Macrobrachium rosenbergii was perfected in the french research center of Tahiti in 1977 nad carried on to improve the technique especially on recirculating system. This aquaculture is launched in Martinique by the regional council in 1976. A first "green water" hatchery is built and provides juveniles to the first ponds.

  16. System technology for climate-centered electric power supply in West Germany in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaschning, V.

    2000-01-01

    The book investigates the potentials of wind power, hydroelectric power, biomass and PV systems in Germnay. Trends on the consumption side are analyzed, and the resulting changes in load curves and possibilities of demand management are determined. Further issues are storage capacity requirements, changes in the base load power supply share for different renewable energy scenarios, and enhanced international electricity trade [de

  17. Paleomagnetism of the Permian-Triassic intrusions from the Tunguska syncline and the Angara-Taseeva depression, Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province: Evidence of contrasting styles of magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A. V.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the detailed paleomagnetic investigation, we distinguished different styles of intrusive magmatic activity in two regions of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (LIP). The emplacement of intrusions in the Angara-Taseeva depression (the southern periphery of the Siberian Traps LIP) occurred as brief but intense bursts of magmatic activity that led to the emplacement of large and extensive sills. We argue that this pulsating style of intrusive magmatic activity is common for the margins of the Siberian Traps LIP. We also estimated the duration of the main magmatic events as 200-250 km in diameter and dozens of thousands km2 in square). On the contrary, in the central part of the Siberian Traps LIP (the Tunguska syncline) the intrusive magmatism was more or less continuous without intense peaks of magmatic activity. Furthermore, we obtained the first reliable magnetostratigraphic data from the volcanic section of the Tunguska syncline. Finally, we analyzed the available paleomagnetic and geochronological data from the Siberian platform and suggested the correlation scheme of the studied intrusive complexes with the volcanic sequences of the Siberian Traps LIP.

  18. A Study of the Civilian-Military Contingency Hospital System at Keeler Army Community Hospital, West Point, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Rochelle Hospital Medical Center 16 Guion Place, Box 321 New Rochelle, New York 10802 Edward C. Ackerman 231 (914) 631-5100 Executive Director Phelps...Hospital New Rochelle Medical Center DoD Executive Agent 16 Guion Place New Rochelle, N.Y. Date:_____________ Date: ,//_ _ FOR THE VETERANS...3) Make maximum use of locally available communication system to include EMS and Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio (HEAR). d. Transportation

  19. Design and Development of an Automatic Level Crossing Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network in West Central Railway Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka DUBEY

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Indian railway is the largest rail network of Asia. There were 21,792 unmanned and 16,549 manned level crossings on Indian Railway System. At present, 6446 manned level crossings are interlocked and 14502 are provided with telephones. For reducing the rate of accidents due to level crossing a wireless sensor network is developed which monitor these manned and unmanned level crossing and automatic operate the gate with horn.

  20. Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to support the control of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähnrich, C; Denecke, K; Adeoye, O O; Benzler, J; Claus, H; Kirchner, G; Mall, S; Richter, R; Schapranow, M P; Schwarz, N; Tom-Aba, D; Uflacker, M; Poggensee, G; Krause, G

    2015-03-26

    In the context of controlling the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the World Health Organization claimed that 'critical determinant of epidemic size appears to be the speed of implementation of rigorous control measures', i.e. immediate follow-up of contact persons during 21 days after exposure, isolation and treatment of cases, decontamination, and safe burials. We developed the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to improve efficiency and timeliness of these measures. We used the Design Thinking methodology to systematically analyse experiences from field workers and the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after successful control of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. We developed a process model with seven personas representing the procedures of EVD outbreak control. The SORMAS system architecture combines latest In-Memory Database (IMDB) technology via SAP HANA (in-memory, relational database management system), enabling interactive data analyses, and established SAP cloud tools, such as SAP Afaria (a mobile device management software). The user interface consists of specific front-ends for smartphones and tablet devices, which are independent from physical configurations. SORMAS allows real-time, bidirectional information exchange between field workers and the EOC, ensures supervision of contact follow-up, automated status reports, and GPS tracking. SORMAS may become a platform for outbreak management and improved routine surveillance of any infectious disease. Furthermore, the SORMAS process model may serve as framework for EVD outbreak modeling.

  1. Software Configuration Management Plan for the K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Project A.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    This document provides a configuration control plan for the software associated with the operation and control of the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS). It establishes requirements for ensuring configuration item identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, defect reporting and resolution of computer software. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998) and HNF-PRO-309 Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, and applicable sections of administrative procedure CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment.

  2. Acceptance for Beneficial Use for the Canister Cleaning System for the K West basin Project - A.2.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the documentation that is required to be turned over to Operations with the Canister Cleaning System (CCS). The Acceptance for Beneficial Use will be updated as required prior to turnover. This document is prepared for the purposes of documenting an agreement among the various disciplines and organizations within the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project as to what is required in terms of installed components of the CCS. This documentation will be used to achieve project closeout and turnover of ownership of the CCS to K Basins Operations

  3. Effects of sewage water on bio-optical properties and primary production of coastal systems in West Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Waite, A.M.; Markager, Svend Stiig

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between key phytoplankton attributes including Chl a-specific light absorption, pigment composition and concentration, photosynthesis, primary production and community structure were studied in two open shallow nutrient-poor coastal systems receiving similar amounts of sewage water...... pigments, 20-50% higher Chl a-specific absorption coefficients and higher photosynthetic capacity. Although maximum rates of Chl a-normalised photosynthesis were strongly related to nitrate availability, no effects were found on the derived areal primary production or algal biomass suggesting...... that photosynthetic and optical parameters are more sensitive indicators of nutrient enrichment than biomass or productivity....

  4. Software Configuration Management Plan for the K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) - Project A.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREEN, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a configuration control plan for the software associated with the operation and control of the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS). It establishes requirements for ensuring configuration item identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, defect reporting and resolution of computer software. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998) and HNF-PRO-309 Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, and applicable sections of administrative procedure CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment

  5. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, J. Daniel [Arthur Langhus Layne, LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  6. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzorov Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E. The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  7. Measuring the characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer and total ozone concentration at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, Aleksey; Bazhenov, Oleg; Burlakov, Vladimir; Dolgii, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5 °N, 85.0 °E). The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of TOMS satellite data for the period 1979- 1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk after a series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, researchers record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  8. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, Aleksey; Bazhenov, Oleg; Burlakov, Vladimir; Dolgii, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E). The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  9. Composition of the lithospheric mantle in the northern part of Siberian craton: Constraints from peridotites in the Obnazhennaya kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Kostrovisky, Sergey I.; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Yang, Jin-Hui; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Yang, Yue-Heng; Kalashnikova, Tatiana; Fan, Sheng

    2017-12-01

    The character of the lithospheric mantle of the northern Siberian craton is not well established; nearly all published data are for mantle xenoliths from a single kimberlite in the center of the craton (Udachnaya). We report major elements of the whole rock, trace elements data of clinopyroxene and Re-Os isotope and PGE concentration of mantle xenoliths from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite pipe (160 Ma) in the northern part of Siberian craton. The Obnazhennaya mantle xenoliths include spinel harzburgites, spinel dunites, spinel lherzolites and spinel-garnet lherzolite. The spinel harzburgites and dunites have refractory compositions, with 0.23-1.35 wt% Al2O3, 0.41-3.11 wt% CaO and 0.00-0.09 wt% TiO2, whereas the lherzolites (both spinel- and spinel-garnet-) have more fertile compositions, containing 2.16-6.55 wt% Al2O3, 2.91-7.55 wt% CaO and 0.04-0.15 wt% TiO2. The trace element compositions and mineralogical textures of the Obnazhennaya xenoliths indicate the occurrence of metasomatic enrichments, including carbonatite melts, basaltic melts from Siberian Trap and kimberlitic melts. The spinel harzburgites and dunites have 187Os/188Os of 0.11227-0.11637, giving a TRD age of 1.6-2.2 Ga. This suggests that old cratonic mantle still existed beneath the Obnazhennaya. In contrast, both spinel and spinel-garnet lherzolites have more radiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.11931-0.17627), enriched P-PGEs. But the higher Al2O3 and Os character of these lherzolites suggest that they were not juvenile mantle but the refertilized ancient mantle. Therefore, our results suggest that the cratonic mantle beneath the northern part of Siberian craton contain both ancient and reworked lithospheric mantle, and the metasomatism may not be effective at overprinting/eroding the pre-existing lithosphere.

  10. Can we explain vagrancy in Europe with the autumn migration phenology of Siberian warbler species in East Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Bozó László; Heim Wieland; Harnos Andrea; Csörgő Tibor

    2016-01-01

    We examined the autumn migration phenology of nine Siberian breeding songbirds: Thick-billed Warbler (Iduna aedon), Black-browed Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps), Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella certhiola), Lanceolated Warbler (L. lanceolata), Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus), Arctic Warbler (Ph. borealis), Dusky Warbler (Ph. fuscatus), Radde’s Warbler (Ph. schwarzi), Two-barred Warbler (Ph. plumbeitarsus) and compared the migration dynamic characteristics with ...

  11. De novo transcriptomic analysis and development of EST-SSR markers in the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Yujiao; Ma, Qin; Zhu, Minghao; Liu, Dan; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Chen, Hongyan; Guan, Weijun

    2016-12-01

    The Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, is an endangered species, and much more work is needed to protect this species, which is still vulnerable to extinction. Conservation efforts may be supported by the genetic assessment of wild populations, for which highly specific microsatellite markers are required. However, only a limited amount of genetic sequence data is available for this species. To identify the genes involved in the lung transcriptome and to develop additional simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the Siberian tiger, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to characterize the Siberian tiger transcriptome in lung tissue (designated 'PTA-lung') and a pooled tissue sample (designated 'PTA'). Approximately 47.5 % (33,187/69,836) of the lung transcriptome was annotated in four public databases (Nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG). The annotated genes formed a potential pool for gene identification in the tiger. An analysis of the genes differentially expressed in the PTA lung, and PTA samples revealed that the tiger may have suffered a series of diseases before death. In total, 1062 non-redundant SSRs were identified in the Siberian tiger transcriptome. Forty-three primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification reactions, and 26 of the 43 pairs were also used to evaluate the levels of genetic polymorphism. Fourteen primer pairs (32.56 %) amplified products that were polymorphic in size in P. tigris altaica. In conclusion, the transcriptome sequences will provide a valuable genomic resource for genetic research, and these new SSR markers comprise a reasonable number of loci for the genetic analysis of wild and captive populations of P. tigris altaica.

  12. The effects of frequent electroejaculation on the semen characteristics of a captive Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUI, Daisuke; NAGANO, Masashi; NAKAMURA, Ryohei; BANDO, Gen; NAKATA, Shinichi; KOSUGE, Masao; SAKAMOTO, Hideyuki; MATSUI, Motozumi; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) can help to avoid inbreeding and genetic degeneration for sustaining genetically healthy populations of endangered species in captivity. Collection of a sufficient quantity of viable sperm is an essential first step in the AI process. In the present study, we examined the effects of frequent electroejaculation on semen characteristics in a Siberian tiger. We collected semen in all 17 trials during 6 breeding seasons (6 years). The mean number of sperm and the perc...

  13. Spin motion at and near orbital resonance in storage rings with Siberian snakes I. At orbital resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.

    2006-12-01

    Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)

  14. Spin motion at and near orbital resonance in storage rings with Siberian snakes I. At orbital resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.

    2006-12-15

    Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)

  15. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub......West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...

  16. Performance of fall and winter crops in a no tillage system in west Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Paiola Albrecht

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The long-term exploitation of natural resources by agricultural activities has resulted in the need for alternative measures to restore degraded soil. The cultivation of cover crops can generate great benefits for agricultural systems, enabling the exploitation of natural resources, including water, light and nutrients, as well as the recovery of degraded soils. This work aimed to assess the coverage rate, fresh mass and dry mass of cover crops from fall and winter as well as the floristic composition of the weeds. The work was conducted in field conditions in soil classified as eutroferric Red Oxisol in the region of the city of Palotina, Paraná State, Brazil, using a random block experimental design with four replications. The treatments consisted of seven cover cultures: wild radish, linseed, triticale, rye, rapeseed, crambe, oats and fallow. The species with the highest coverage rates and fresh mass and dry mass values were wild radish, rapeseed and crambe. In the floristic and phytosociological data, the species with the highest incidence were Amaranthus retroflexus, Commelina benghalensis L., Brachiaria plantaginea and Gnaphalium spicatum.

  17. Features of formation of «developmental institutions» in Russia: a case of the Siberian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Sergeyevich Sablin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the features of the process of “developmental institutions” formation in the Siberian regions. The importance of the institutional environment and informal personalized connections affect its formation is articulated. The research is carried out according to the methodological base of public choice theory, especially — economics of bureaucracy, and the concept of D. North. Functional roles, which “developmental institutions” are performed in the Siberian regions, are disclosed: “affiliate” of the regional administration under its full organizational and financial control; “independent agent”, which expresses the interests of academic science and small innovative business; “subdivision” of federal innovative structure that promotes commercialization of innovations in the region; “conductor” of the federal level big business interests that favor large-scale projects realization in the region. As a result, different combinations of the elements of the institutional environment and informal personalized connections between subjects, who are involved in the process of “developmental institutions” formation in the Siberian regions, determine further success or “failure” of these organizational-economic structures.

  18. Endo-parasitic helminthes of four mormyrid species (Osteichthyes: Mormyridae) from a West African flood river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, C D; Oti, E E; Odoh, G E; Ezenwaji, H M G

    2008-01-15

    Mormyrus rume rume, Hyperopisus bebe bebe, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Gnathonemus petersii sampled from the Anambra river with a fleet of gill nets, traps and hook and line were examined for endo-parasitic helminthes from October 2005 to September 2006. Recovered helminthes were Rhadinorhynchus horridus from the intestine of H. bebe bebe and G. petersii; Procamallanus laeviconchus from the stomach of M. rume rume and C. tamandua; Spinitectus mormyri from the stomach of M. rume rume; Contracaecum sp. from the coelom of H. bebe bebe, G. petersii and C. tamandua, whereas an unidentified cestode infected the intestine of all the mormyrids. G. petersii constitutes a new host record for R. horridus; M. rume rume for S. mormyri and M. rume rume and C. tamandua for P. laeviconchus. In cases of mixed infection the parasites occupied their preferred habitats. The overall prevalence of the endo-parasites in the fish hosts was 41.9%, which is within the range (< 50%) typical of southern Nigerian freshwater lotic habitats. Prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of R. horridus in its host fishes were higher in the dry (October/November-March) than the rainy season (April-September/October); in the nematodes (P. laeviconchus, S. mormyri and Contracaecum) the reverse was the case, whereas no definite pattern was exhibited by the unidentified cestode. P. laeviconchus appeared reddish from engorgement of blood but no damage was evident at the point of attachment. Local inflammation where R. horridus was attached to the mucosa of the intestine was not considered severe. R. horridus and P. laeviconchus are probably the most important parasites of the mormyrids in terms of fishery management in the Anambra river system.

  19. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  20. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  1. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-24

    East Attiki and West Attiki, as well as the Market Inspection Directorate, Traffic Directorate, Immediate Action Directorate, Police Operations...subdirectorates are established in the West Attiki Police Directorate. Seven market inspection branches come under the Market Inspection Directorate...Banca (18) I Organizac . >nes empresari .’flos (19) ’SIMS Seguridad (yn\\ ii £•’*> \\ ■Hfl sodai K UJ r^;-; 26IS1I11 Par,idos (21

  2. DMD and West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardas, Ruxandra; Iliescu, Catrinel; Butoianu, Nina; Seferian, Andreea; Gataullina, Svetlana; Gargaun, Elena; Nectoux, Juliette; Bienvenu, Thierry; Craiu, Dana; Gidaro, Teresa; Servais, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent muscular dystrophy in childhood, with a worldwide incidence of one in 5000 live male births. It is due to mutations in the dystrophin gene leading to absence of full-length dystrophin protein. Central nervous system involvement is well-known in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. The multiple dystrophin isoforms expressed in brain have important roles in cerebral development and functioning. The association of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with seizures has been reported, and there is a higher prevalence of epilepsy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients (between 6.3% and 12.3%) than in the general pediatric population (0.5-1%). Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients may present with focal seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures or absences. We report on two boys in whom Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is associated with epileptic spasms and hypsarrhythmia that fulfil the criteria for West syndrome, thus extending the spectrum of seizure types described in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Population sizes and group characteristics of Siberian Crane (Leuco-geranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) in Poyang Lake Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming-Qin; Guo, Hong; Jiang, Jian-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Both the Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) have limited population sizes and are considered endangered by domestic Chinese and international agencies. To document the current size of their respective populations and characterize their groups, between October 2012 and April 2013 we undertook fieldwork at four nature reserve areas within the Poyang Lake wetlands. We divided Poyanghu National Nature Reserve (PYH) into the Wucheng (PWC) and Hengfeng areas (PHF), because each are each located in different counties. Our fieldwork showed that the Siberian Crane occurred mainly in PYH (364 in the PHF, 158 in the PWC) and the Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve (NJS, with 200 individuals). The Hooded Crane was mainly distributed in PYH (302 in the PHF and 154 in the PWC). Family groups accounted for more than 50% of the total number of groups among both species, with Hooded Cranes forming more family groups than Siberian Cranes. Typically, these groups were formed of two adults with one offspring (Siberian Crane), and two adults with two offspring (Hooded Crane), with the mean family group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane being respectively 2.65 ± 0.53 (n=43) and 3.09 ± 0.86 (n=47) individuals per group. The mean collective group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane included 28.09 ± 24.94 (n=23) and 28.94 ± 27.97 (n=16) individuals per group, respectively, with the proportion of juveniles among Hooded Cranes being more than double that seen among the Siberian Cranes.

  4. Use of a primary care online consultation system, by whom, when and why: evaluation of a pilot observational study in 36 general practices in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hannah B; Marques, Elsa; Hollingworth, William; Horwood, Jeremy; Farr, Michelle; Bernard, Elly; Salisbury, Chris; Northstone, Kate

    2017-11-22

    Evaluation of a pilot study of an online consultation system in primary care. We describe who used the system, when and why, and the National Health Service costs associated with its use. 15-month observational study. Primary care practices in South West England. 36 General practices covering 396 828 patients took part in the pilot. The online consultation website was viewed 35 981 times over the pilot period (mean 9.11 visits per 1000 patients per month). 7472 patients went on to complete an 'e-consultation' (mean 2.00 online consultations per 1000 patients per month). E-consultations were mainly performed on weekdays and during normal working hours. Patient records (n=485) were abstracted for eight practices and showed that women were more likely to use e-consultations than men (64.7% vs 35.3%) and users had a median age of 39 years (IQR 30-50). The most common reason for an e-consultation was an administrative request (eg, test results, letters and repeat prescriptions (22.5%)) followed by infections/immunological issues (14.4%). The majority of patients (65.2%) received a response within 2 days. The most common outcome was a face-to-face (38%) or telephone consultation (32%). The former were more often needed for patients consulting about new conditions (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.27, p=0.049). The average cost of a practice's response to an e-consultation was £36.28, primarily triage time and resulting face-to-face/telephone consultations needed. Use of e-consultations is very low, particularly at weekends. Unless this can be improved, any impact on staff workload and patient waiting times is likely to be negligible. It is possible that use of e-consultations increases primary care workload and costs. Online consultation systems could be developed to improve efficiency both for staff and patients. These findings have implications for software developers as well as primary care services and policy-makers who are considering investing in online

  5. Geostatistical approach for management of soil nutrients with special emphasis on different forms of potassium considering their spatial variation in intensive cropping system of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sourov; Santra, Priyabrata; Majumdar, Kaushik; Ghosh, Debjani; Das, Indranil; Sanyal, S K

    2015-04-01

    A large part of precision agriculture research in the developing countries is devoted towards precision nutrient management aspects. This has led to better economics and efficiency of nutrient use with off-farm advantages of environmental security. The keystone of precision nutrient management is analysis and interpretation of spatial variability of soils by establishing management zones. In this study, spatial variability of major soil nutrient contents was evaluated in the Ghoragacha village of North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India. Surface soil samples from 100 locations, covering different cropping systems of the village, was collected from 0 to 15 cm depth using 100×100 m grid system and analyzed in the laboratory to determine organic carbon (OC), available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the soil as well as its water-soluble K (KWS), exchangeable K (KEX), and non-exchangeable forms of K (KNEX). Geostatistical analyses were performed to determine the spatial variation structure of each nutrient content within the village, followed by the generation of surface maps through kriging. Four commonly used semivariogram models, i.e., spherical, exponential, Gaussian, and linear models were fitted to each soil property, and the best one was used to prepare surface maps through krigging. Spherical model was found the best for available N and P contents, while linear and exponential model was the best for OC and available K, and for KWS and KNEK, Gausian model was the best. Surface maps of nutrient contents showed that N content (129-195 kg ha(-1)) was the most limiting factor throughout the village, while P status was generally very high ( 10-678 kg ha(-1)) in the soils of the present village. Among the different soil K fractions, KWS registered the maximum variability (CV 75%), while the remaining soil K fractions showed moderate to high variation. Interestingly, KNEX content also showed high variability, which essentially

  6. East Siberian Sea, an Arctic region of very high biogeochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelf seas are among the most active biogeochemical marine environments and the East Siberian Sea is a prime example. This sea is supplied by seawater from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and has a substantial input of river runoff. All of these waters contribute chemical constituents, dissolved and particulate, but of different signatures. Sea ice formation during the winter season and melting in the summer has a major impact on physical as well as biogeochemical conditions. The internal circulation and water mass distribution is significantly influenced by the atmospheric pressure field. The western region is dominated by input of river runoff from the Laptev Sea and an extensive input of terrestrial organic matter. The microbial decay of this organic matter produces carbon dioxide (CO2 that oversaturates all waters from the surface to bottom relative to atmospheric level, even when primary production, inferred from low surface water nutrients, has occurred. The eastern surface waters were under-saturated with respect to CO2 illustrating the dominance of marine primary production. The drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon equals a primary production of ~0.8 ± 2 mol C m−2, which when multiplied by half the area of the East Siberian Sea, ~500 000 km2, results in an annual primary production of 0.4 (± 1 × 1012 mol C or ~4 (± 10 × 1012 gC. Microbial decay occurs through much of the water column, but dominates at the sediment interface where the majority of organic matter ends up, thus more of the decay products are recycled to the bottom water. High nutrient concentrations and fugacity of CO2 and low oxygen and pH were observed in the bottom waters. Another signature of organic matter decomposition, methane (CH4, was observed in very high but variable concentrations. This is due to its seabed sources of glacial origin or modern production from

  7. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Medicine is owned by the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons. Aims: The aims of the Journal are: To provide a medium for international dissemination of information about medical science in West Africa and elsewhere. To furnish a means whereby ...

  8. The Socio-Political Crisis of the Siberian Region in the Post-February Period of the 1917 Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Vtorushin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of the Siberian region general crisis of the 1917 spring. The internal and external contradictions of the transformation process of socio-economic and political relations in Siberia are examined in terms of the post-February all- Russian revolutionary crisis development. The understanding of the socio-political Russian crisis in the spring of 1917, emerging after the February political coup, is essential in studying the revolutionary соnversion process of the early twentieth century Russian society, as this crisis has generally become the turning point in the country’s history and objectively led to the October political coup. The Russian revolutionary crisis constituents, its foreign and domestic manifestations require careful investigation in the issue formulation presented in the paper. The development specifics of the revolutionary crisis in the spring of 1917 in the trans-Uralian agricultural colony of the Russian Empire is of scientific interest, as well as the finding of its anti-crisis development scenarios in the paper presented period. The development of the nationwide crisis in Russia in the early twentieth century, due to the complex and contradictory processes of Russian society modernization in completing the industrial civilization and transition to the imperialist development stage, was complicated by the “Siberian historical issues” in the Siberian region. A set of these issues include the incompleteness of the regional peasantry land management, the contradictions between the old peasantry and Stolypin migrants, and also between the peasantry and the privileged regional Cossacks, the agricultural products export problems from Siberia to domestic and foreign markets, or marketing crisis, the contradictions between the regional and metropolis bourgeoisie, or the issue of the Siberians economic inequality, the local industry underdevelopment and the complete dependence of the local

  9. Paleomagnetism of Early Paleozoic Rocks from the de Long Archipelago and Tectonics of the New Siberian Islands Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, D. V.; Chernova, A. I.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Vernikovskiy, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The De Long archipelago is located to the north of the Anjou archipelago as a part of a large group between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea - the New Siberian Islands and consists of Jeannette Island, Bennett Island and Henrietta Island. These islands have been shown to be part of a single continental terrane, whose tectonic history was independent of other continental masses at least since the Ordovician. Paleomagnetic and precise geological data for the De Long archipelago were absent until recently. Only in 2013 special international field trips to the De Long Islands could be organized and geological, isotope-geochronological and paleomagnetic studies were carried out.On Jeannette Island a volcanic-sedimentary sequence intruded by mafic dikes was described. The age of these dikes is more likely Early Ordovician, close to 480 Ma, as evidenced by the results of our 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic investigations of the dolerites as well as the result from detrital zircons in the host rocks published before. On Bennett Island, there are widespread Cambrian-Ordovician mainly terrigenous rocks. Paleomagnetic results from these rocks characterize the paleogeographic position of the De Long archipelago at 465 Ma and perhaps at 530 Ma, although there is no evidence for the primary origin of magnetization for the latter. On Henrietta Island the Early Cambrian volcanic-sedimentary section was investigated. A paleomagnetic pole for 520 Ma was obtained and confirmed by new 40Ar/39Ar results. Adding to our previous paleomagnetic data for the Anjou archipelago the extended variant of the apparent polar wander path for the New Siberian Island terrane was created. The established paleolatitudes define its location in the equatorial and subtropical zone no higher than 40 degrees during the Early Paleozoic. Because there are no good confirmations for true polarity and related geographic hemisphere we present two possibilities for tectonic reconstruction. But both these

  10. The stability of the stratospheric ozone layer during the end-Permian eruption of the Siberian Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerling, David J; Harfoot, Michael; Lomax, Barry; Pyle, John A

    2007-07-15

    The discovery of mutated palynomorphs in end-Permian rocks led to the hypothesis that the eruption of the Siberian Traps through older organic-rich sediments synthesized and released massive quantities of organohalogens, which caused widespread O3 depletion and allowed increased terrestrial incidence of harmful ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315nm; Visscher et al. 2004 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12952-12956). Here, we use an extended version of the Cambridge two-dimensional chemistry-transport model to evaluate quantitatively this possibility along with two other potential causes of O3 loss at this time: (i) direct effects of HCl release by the Siberian Traps and (ii) the indirect release of organohalogens from dispersed organic matter. According to our simulations, CH3Cl released from the heating of coals alone caused comparatively minor O3 depletion (5-20% maximum) because this mechanism fails to deliver sufficiently large amounts of Cl into the stratosphere. The unusual explosive nature of the Siberian Traps, combined with the direct release of large quantities of HCl, depleted the model O3 layer in the high northern latitudes by 33-55%, given a main eruptive phase of less than or equal to 200kyr. Nevertheless, O3 depletion was most extensive when HCl release from the Siberian Traps was combined with massive CH3Cl release synthesized from a large reservoir of dispersed organic matter in Siberian rocks. This suite of model experiments produced column O3 depletion of 70-85% and 55-80% in the high northern and southern latitudes, respectively, given eruption durations of 100-200kyr. On longer eruption time scales of 400-600kyr, corresponding O3 depletion was 30-40% and 20-30%, respectively. Calculated year-round increases in total near-surface biologically effective (BE) UV-B radiation following these reductions in O3 layer range from 30-60 (kJm(-2)d(-1))BE up to 50-100 (kJm(-2)d(-1))BE. These ranges of daily UV-B doses appear sufficient to exert mutagenic

  11. Gas hydrates and permafrost in continental northern West Siberia; Gashydrate und Permafrost im kontinentalen noerdlichen Westsibirien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Braun, A.; Poelchau, H.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und Organische Geochemie; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1997-12-31

    The largest natural gas pool in the world is located in northern part of the West Siberian Basin. During the Quaternary this reservoir became overlaid with several hundreds of metres of permafrost. The pressure and temperature conditions prevailing under this permafrost zone have led to the development of gas hydrates. As far as is known today there is no genetic relationship between the formation of the gas pool and the development of gas hydrates. The present contribution deals with these questions in detail. (MSK) [Deutsch] Im Nordteil des westsibirischen Beckens liegt die groesste Erdgaslagerstaette der Erde. Darueber hat sich im Quartaer ein mehrere hundert Meter maechtiger Permafrost gebildet. Die unter der Premafrostzone herrschenden Druck-und Temperaturbedingungen ermoeglichten die Bildung von Gashydraten. Nach heutigen Erkenntnisse besteht kein genetischer Zusammenhang zwischen Lagerstaettenbildung und Gashydraten. Im Folgenden werden Einzelheiten geschildert.

  12. Rapid communication. New incursions of West Nile virus lineage 2 in Italy in 2013: the value of the entomological surveillance as early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Calzolari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is one of the most serious public health threats that Europe and the Mediterranean countries are currently facing. In Italy, WNV emerged in 1998 and has been circulating since 2008. To tackle its continuous incursions, Italian national and regional institutions set up a surveillance program, which includes the serological screening of sentinel horses, sentinel-chickens and backyard poultry flocks and the surveillance on all equine neurological cases, resident captured and wild dead birds, and vectors. This communication aims to assess the importance of the entomological surveillance program as an early warning system for WNV circulation. In the province of Modena, the circulation of WNV lineage 2 strains was first detected in pools of Culex pipiens on July the 3rd, 42 days prior to the onset of the first 2013 human WNV neuroinvasive case reported in the same province. Similarly in Veneto, WNV was first detected on July 3rd in a pool of Cx. pipiens collected in the province of Venezia. The first human neuroinvasive case in this region occurred in the Rovigo province on July the 24th, seven days after the detection of WNV lineage 2 in a mosquito pool collected in the same province. Up to the end of July 2013, WNV circulation was further detected in several other pools of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes collected in Emilia-Romagna, Veneto and Lombardia. According to the NS3 partial sequence alignments including all recent European and Italian Lineage 2 strains, the new circulating WNV lineage 2 strains share high nt homology with the Hungarian and with the previous lineage 2 strains isolated in Veneto and Sardegna in 2011 and 2012. These data provide a clear and practical demonstration of the relevance of a reliable entomological surveillance program to early detect WNV in Italy.

  13. Ground Motion Prediction Model Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems: An Example Based on the NGA-West 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, Mourad; Derras, Boumédiène; Zendagui, Djawed

    2017-12-01

    Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) are used here to obtain the robust ground motion prediction model (GMPM). Avoiding a priori functional form, ANFIS provides fully data-driven predictive models. A large subset of the NGA-West2 database is used, including 2335 records from 580 sites and 137 earthquakes. Only shallow earthquakes and recordings corresponding to stations with measured V s30 properties are selected. Three basics input parameters are chosen: the moment magnitude (Mw), the Joyner-Boore distance (R JB) and V s30. ANFIS model output is the peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and 5% damped pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) at periods from 0.01 to 4 s. A procedure similar to the random-effects approach is developed to provide between- and within-event standard deviations. The total standard deviation (SD) varies between [0.303 and 0.360] (log10 units) depending on the period. The ground motion predictions resulting from such simple three explanatory variables ANFIS models are shown to be comparable to the most recent NGA results (e.g., Boore et al., in Earthquake Spectra 30:1057-1085, 2014; Derras et al., in Earthquake Spectra 32:2027-2056, 2016). The main advantage of ANFIS compared to artificial neuronal network (ANN) is its simple and one-off topology: five layers. Our results exhibit a number of physically sound features: magnitude scaling of the distance dependency, near-fault saturation distance increasing with magnitude and amplification on soft soils. The ability to implement ANFIS model using an analytic equation and Excel is demonstrated.

  14. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ground Motion Prediction Model Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems: An Example Based on the NGA-West 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, Mourad; Derras, Boumédiène; Zendagui, Djawed

    2018-03-01

    Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) are used here to obtain the robust ground motion prediction model (GMPM). Avoiding a priori functional form, ANFIS provides fully data-driven predictive models. A large subset of the NGA-West2 database is used, including 2335 records from 580 sites and 137 earthquakes. Only shallow earthquakes and recordings corresponding to stations with measured V s30 properties are selected. Three basics input parameters are chosen: the moment magnitude ( Mw), the Joyner-Boore distance ( R JB) and V s30. ANFIS model output is the peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and 5% damped pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) at periods from 0.01 to 4 s. A procedure similar to the random-effects approach is developed to provide between- and within-event standard deviations. The total standard deviation (SD) varies between [0.303 and 0.360] (log10 units) depending on the period. The ground motion predictions resulting from such simple three explanatory variables ANFIS models are shown to be comparable to the most recent NGA results (e.g., Boore et al., in Earthquake Spectra 30:1057-1085, 2014; Derras et al., in Earthquake Spectra 32:2027-2056, 2016). The main advantage of ANFIS compared to artificial neuronal network (ANN) is its simple and one-off topology: five layers. Our results exhibit a number of physically sound features: magnitude scaling of the distance dependency, near-fault saturation distance increasing with magnitude and amplification on soft soils. The ability to implement ANFIS model using an analytic equation and Excel is demonstrated.

  16. Estimation of groundwater recharge via percolation outputs from a rainfall/runoff model for the Verlorenvlei estuarine system, west coast, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Miller, Jodie; Fleischer, Melanie; de Clercq, Willem

    2018-03-01

    Wetlands are conservation priorities worldwide, due to their high biodiversity and productivity, but are under threat from agricultural and climate change stresses. To improve the water management practices and resource allocation in these complex systems, a modelling approach has been developed to estimate potential recharge for data poor catchments using rainfall data and basic assumptions regarding soil and aquifer properties. The Verlorenvlei estuarine lake (RAMSAR #525) on the west coast of South Africa is a data poor catchment where rainfall records have been supplemented with farmer's rainfall records. The catchment has multiple competing users. To determine the ecological reserve for the wetlands, the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge had to be well constrained using the J2000 rainfall/runoff model. The majority of rainfall occurs in the mountains (±650 mm/yr) and considerably less in the valley (±280 mm/yr). Percolation was modelled as ∼3.6% of rainfall in the driest parts of the catchment, ∼10% of rainfall in the moderately wet parts of the catchment and ∼8.4% but up to 28.9% of rainfall in the wettest parts of the catchment. The model results are representative of rainfall and water level measurements in the catchment, and compare well with water table fluctuation technique, although estimates are dissimilar to previous estimates within the catchment. This is most likely due to the daily timestep nature of the model, in comparison to other yearly average methods. These results go some way in understanding the fact that although most semi-arid catchments have very low yearly recharge estimates, they are still capable of sustaining high biodiversity levels. This demonstrates the importance of incorporating shorter term recharge event modeling for improving recharge estimates.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by promoting trafficking of mononuclear leukocytes into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bimmi; Zhang, Bo; Purtha, Whitney E; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2008-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have shown essential protective roles for antiviral cytokines (e.g., alpha interferon [IFN-alpha] and IFN-gamma) against WNV in mice. However, studies using cell culture offer conflicting answers regarding whether tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has an anti-WNV function. To test the biological significance of TNF-alpha against WNV in vivo, experiments were performed with TNF receptor-1 (TNF-R1)-deficient and TNF-alpha-depleted C57BL/6 mice. TNF-R1(-/-) mice had enhanced mortality and decreased survival time after WNV infection compared to congenic wild-type mice. Consistent with this, administration of a neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody also decreased survival after WNV infection. Relatively small differences in viral burdens in peripheral tissues of TNF-R1(-/-) mice were observed, and this occurrence correlated with a modest antiviral effect of TNF-alpha on primary macrophages but not dendritic cells. In contrast, the viral titers detected in the central nervous systems of TNF-R1(-/-) mice were significantly increased compared to those of wild-type mice, although TNF-alpha did not have a direct antiviral effect in primary neuron cultures. Whereas no defect in priming of adaptive B- and T-cell responses in TNF-R1(-/-) mice was observed, there were significant reductions in accumulations of CD8+ T cells and macrophages in the brain. Our data are most consistent with a model in which interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1 protects against WNV infection by regulating migration of protective inflammatory cells into the brain during acute infection.

  18. Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2014-01-01

    if necessary. The Alaskan Iñupiaq has an opposition between past, present and future. In Inuktitut and West Greenlandic tense is marked by optional derivational affixes. In Inuktitut the tense affixes have developed a complicated remoteness system (future and past) (Swift, 2004). In West Greenlandic the future...... is unmarked and past time reference can be marked if necessary. The Alaskan Iñupiaq has an opposition between past, present and future. In Inuktitut and West Greenlandic tense is marked by optional derivational affixes. In Inuktitut the tense affixes have developed a complicated remoteness system (future......Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic Unlike European languages tense in the West Greenlandic (WG) language is not marked in the inflection, but it is marked by derivational affixes (henceforth affixes). The West Greenlandic language belongs to Inuit-languages, (Iñupiaq (Alaska...

  19. Climate-Induced Mortality of Siberian Pine and Fir in the Lake Baikal Watershed, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrova, IIya A.; Golyukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Yagunov, Mikhail N.

    2016-01-01

    Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and fir (Abies sibirica) (so called "dark needle conifers", DNC) showed decreased radial growth increment within the Lake Baikal watershed since the 1980s with increasing mortality recorded since the year 2000. Tree ring width was strongly correlated with vapor pressure deficit, aridity and root zone moisture. Water stress from droughts made trees more susceptible to insect attacks causing mortality in about 10% of DNC stands within the Lake Baikal watershed. Within Siberia DNC mortality increased in the southern part of the DNC range. Biogeographically, tree mortality was located within the DNC - forest-steppes transition. Tree mortality was significantly correlated with drought and soil moisture anomalies. Within the interior of the DNC range mortality occurred within relief features with high water stress risk (i.e., steep convex south facing slopes with shallow well-drained soils). In general, DNC mortality in Siberia was induced by increased aridity and severe drought (inciting factors) in synergy with biotic attacks (contributing factor). In future climate scenarios with predicted increase in aridity DNC could be eliminated from the southern part of its current range and will be replaced by drought-resistant conifers and broadleaf species (e.g., Larix sibirica, Pinus silvestris, and Betula pubescence).

  20. Siberian Ibex ( Capra sibirica Home Ranges in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Reading

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Siberian ibex ( Capra sibirica remain poorly understood, as little is known about their ecology . W e began studying ibex in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Dornogobi Aimag, Mongolia to better understand the species’ ecological needs and threats. In this paper we report on home range and core range sizes. We captured 27 ibex and fi t them with radio telemetry collars using drive nets for adults and juveniles ( n = 22 and hand captures for neonatal kids ( n = 5 . W e collected 1,029 locations from September 2003 to February 2007. Throughout the study, 9 ibex with 40+ fi xe s used mean, annual home range sizes of 3,115.5 ± 504.2 ha using the Minimum Convex Polygon method. Home ranges calculated using the fi xe d kernel method were smaller: 475.9 ± 14.7 ha for 50% kernel and 1,808.0 ± 88.1 ha for 95% kernel. Ibex from different demographic groups (males vs. females and juveniles vs. adults used remarkably similar home and core ranges; we found no signifi ca nt differences among any demographic groups. Although not quantifi ed , ibex mostly restricted their activities to areas with steep cliffs and rocky outcrops and home ranges overlapped extensively.