WorldWideScience

Sample records for system weathering processes

  1. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  2. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  3. Caltrans WeatherShare Phase II System: An Application of Systems and Software Engineering Process to Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-25

    In cooperation with the California Department of Transportation, Montana State University's Western Transportation Institute has developed the WeatherShare Phase II system by applying Systems Engineering and Software Engineering processes. The system...

  4. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  5. Understanding, representing and communicating earth system processes in weather and climate within CNRCWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushama, Laxmi; Arora, Vivek; de Elia, Ramon; Déry, Stephen; Duguay, Claude; Gachon, Philippe; Gyakum, John; Laprise, René; Marshall, Shawn; Monahan, Adam; Scinocca, John; Thériault, Julie; Verseghy, Diana; Zwiers, Francis

    2017-04-01

    The Canadian Network for Regional Climate and Weather Processes (CNRCWP) provides significant advances and innovative research towards the ultimate goal of reducing uncertainty in numerical weather prediction and climate projections for Canada's Northern and Arctic regions. This talk will provide an overview of the Network and selected results related to the assessment of the added value of high-resolution modelling that has helped fill critical knowledge gaps in understanding the dynamics of extreme temperature and precipitation events and the complex land-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks in Canada's northern and Arctic regions. In addition, targeted developments in the Canadian regional climate model, that facilitate direct application of model outputs in impact and adaptation studies, particularly those related to the water, energy and infrastructure sectors will also be discussed. The close collaboration between the Network and its partners and end users contributed significantly to this effort.

  6. Creating Weather System Ensembles Through Synergistic Process Modeling and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Posselt, D. J.; Nguyen, H.; Wu, L.; Su, H.; Braverman, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's weather and climate are sensitive to a variety of control factors (e.g., initial state, forcing functions, etc). Characterizing the response of the atmosphere to a change in initial conditions or model forcing is critical for weather forecasting (ensemble prediction) and climate change assessment. Input - response relationships can be quantified by generating an ensemble of multiple (100s to 1000s) realistic realizations of weather and climate states. Atmospheric numerical models generate simulated data through discretized numerical approximation of the partial differential equations (PDEs) governing the underlying physics. However, the computational expense of running high resolution atmospheric state models makes generation of more than a few simulations infeasible. Here, we discuss an experiment wherein we approximate the numerical PDE solver within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using neural networks trained on a subset of model run outputs. Once trained, these neural nets can produce large number of realization of weather states from a small number of deterministic simulations with speeds that are orders of magnitude faster than the underlying PDE solver. Our neural network architecture is inspired by the governing partial differential equations. These equations are location-invariant, and consist of first and second derivations. As such, we use a 3x3 lon-lat grid of atmospheric profiles as the predictor in the neural net to provide the network the information necessary to compute the first and second moments. Results indicate that the neural network algorithm can approximate the PDE outputs with high degree of accuracy (less than 1% error), and that this error increases as a function of the prediction time lag.

  7. 57Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy Studies of Meteorites: Implications for Weathering Rates, Meteorite Flux, and Early Solar System Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Smith, T. B.; Bevan, A. W. R.; Cadogan, J. M.; Sexton, A. S.; Franchi, L. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2002-01-01

    Ordinary chondrite finds, terrestrial age dated using 14 C analyses, from different meteorite accumulation sites, have been examined by Moessbauer spectroscopy to quantitatively determine terrestrial oxidation. We observe differences in weathering rates between sites, and also between different chondrite groups. A comparison of weathering over time, and its effect in 'eroding' meteorites, together with the number and mass distribution of meteorites in each region, enables us to derive estimates of the number of meteorite falls over a given mass per year. Studies of how the oxygen isotopic composition of samples varies with weathering indicate that incipient alteration may occur without a pronounced isotopic effect, possibly due to weathering of silicates to topotactically oriented smectite confined spaces where the water volume is limited. This finding has profound implications for the use of oxygen isotopes as a tool in understanding water-rock interaction. It also may reconcile previously contradictory data regarding the nebular or asteroidal location of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration. Finally, Moessbauer spectroscopy is also found to be a useful tool in determining mineral abundance in carbonaceous chondrites, where a fine-grained matrix makes traditional approaches inapplicable. Again, the results have implications for the modification of chondritic materials in the early solar system.

  8. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos

  9. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are

  10. Weather Augmented Risk Determination (WARD) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknejad, M.; Mazdiyasni, O.; Momtaz, F.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme climatic events have direct and indirect impacts on society, economy and the environment. Based on the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) data, over one third of the U.S. GDP can be considered as weather-sensitive involving some degree of weather risk. This expands from a local scale concrete foundation construction to large scale transportation systems. Extreme and unexpected weather conditions have always been considered as one of the probable risks to human health, productivity and activities. The construction industry is a large sector of the economy, and is also greatly influenced by weather-related risks including work stoppage and low labor productivity. Identification and quantification of these risks, and providing mitigation of their effects are always the concerns of construction project managers. In addition to severe weather conditions' destructive effects, seasonal changes in weather conditions can also have negative impacts on human health. Work stoppage and reduced labor productivity can be caused by precipitation, wind, temperature, relative humidity and other weather conditions. Historical and project-specific weather information can improve better project management and mitigation planning, and ultimately reduce the risk of weather-related conditions. This paper proposes new software for project-specific user-defined data analysis that offers (a) probability of work stoppage and the estimated project length considering weather conditions; (b) information on reduced labor productivity and its impacts on project duration; and (c) probabilistic information on the project timeline based on both weather-related work stoppage and labor productivity. The software (WARD System) is designed such that it can be integrated into the already available project management tools. While the system and presented application focuses on the construction industry, the developed software is general and can be used for any application that involves

  11. Processing of next generation weather radar-multisensor precipitation estimates and quantitative precipitation forecast data for the DuPage County streamflow simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Maitreyee; Ortel, Terry W.

    2018-01-12

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with DuPage County Stormwater Management Department, is testing a near real-time streamflow simulation system that assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek and West Branch DuPage River drainage basins in DuPage County, Illinois. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey maintains a database of hourly meteorological and hydrologic data for use in this near real-time streamflow simulation system. Among these data are next generation weather radar-multisensor precipitation estimates and quantitative precipitation forecast data, which are retrieved from the North Central River Forecasting Center of the National Weather Service. The DuPage County streamflow simulation system uses these quantitative precipitation forecast data to create streamflow predictions for the two simulated drainage basins. This report discusses in detail how these data are processed for inclusion in the Watershed Data Management files used in the streamflow simulation system for the Salt Creek and West Branch DuPage River drainage basins.

  12. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    An internet-accessible real-time weather information system has been developed. This system provides real-time accessibility to weather information from a multitude of spatially distributed weather stations. The Internet connectivity also offers...

  13. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  14. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  15. WEATHERING PROCESS IN EOCENE FLYSCH IN REGION OF SPLIT (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene flysh in the region of Split (Dalmatia, Croatia is char¬acterized by the presence of layers with different characteristics. It mainly includes thin-layered marls, clayey marls, calcareous marls, clastic lay¬ered limestones, calcarenites and breccias. Those parts that can be de¬scribed as the soft rocks or hard clays by the mechanical means, exposed to weathering reduce the durability within "an engineering time scale". The paper deals with the factors that influence the weathering process. The analyzed weathering is a combination of processes acting simulta¬neously. Most of these processes depend on the change of the water con¬tent, thus the weathering process mainly develops when a material is subjected to the wetting-drying process, On the base of these results form of degradation process is modeled. The weathering process can be main¬ly described as physical weathering combined with chemical weathering on the free surfaces and on the cracks walls. Erosion as a result of weath¬ering, is the dominant geomorphic process on analyzed flysch terrain. According to the analysis, as the most appropriate due to the characteris¬tics the tests are chosen as index properties. Some of these tests are modified in order to adapt them to the determined characteristics of ma¬terials from flysch layers. The correlations between the measured values are used as the basis for the classification proposal of the analyzed mate¬rial, according to its resistance to weathering processes. Roughly, three main groups of samples are recognizable: the first one with carbonate content more then 90% is not weathered at the engineers time scale; the second group with carbonate content from 75% to 90% include samples susceptible to weathering in engineers time scale; the third group with carbonate content less then 75% include samples in which the weather¬ing occurs immediately after the exposition to the weathering factors.

  16. 14 CFR 25.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. (a) The fuel system must perform satisfactorily in hot weather operation. This... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 25.961...

  17. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granet, M.

    2007-06-01

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  18. Weathering process in Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamaru, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Oiwane, H.; Miura, M.; Okuno, J.; Hayakawa, H.

    2016-12-01

    Weathering process under the hyper-arid and hypothermal environment is a key to understand the geomorphogic process and landscape evolution in Antarctica and on Mars. A nunber of studies have focused on weathering process of basaltic rocks in Antarctica, however, the nature of the weathering process of plutonic type rock, a common rock type on the Earth, have been less focused and remain unclear. Here, we report the physical/chemical weathering process of the granitic rocks obtained from Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica based on a multiplicity of petrological approaches. Loss on Ignition (LOI) and major element composition of the crust and core of the rock samples indicate that chemical weathering process in this area seems to be very limited. The microscopic observations and laser-Raman micro spectroscopy for thin sections from the crust and core indicate that goethite grains are formed mainly in the vein around the crust, which is consistent with the higher Fe3+/Fe2+ contrast from the core to crust. A negative correlation between the rock hardness and color strength index (CSI) values also indicate that crust of rock samples tend to less hard than core due to cracking of the rock samples and following goethite formation. On the other hand, EPMA analysis indicates that original Fe-Ti oxide grains in the core of rock samples are damaged by weathering, and altered to hematite, and to non-stoichiometric Fe-Ti compound associated with ilmenite grans in case of the higher relative height samples. These reveal that the weathering process of the plutonic rocks under the hyper-cold and hypothermal environment are mainly controlled by oxidation, including iron hydroxide formation in the veins formed by mechanical distraction, and Fe-Ti oxide alteration in rock interior.

  19. 14 CFR 27.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each suction lift fuel system and other fuel systems with features conducive to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 27.961...

  20. 14 CFR 29.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each suction lift fuel system and other fuel systems conducive to vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 29.961...

  1. Chemistry of uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, M. M.; Krishnaswami, S.; somayajulu, B. L. K.; Moore, W. S.

    1990-05-01

    The most comprehensive data set on uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra, one of the major river systems of the world, is reported here. The dissolved 238U concentration in these river waters ranges between 0.44 and 8.32 μ/1, and it exhibits a positive correlation with major cations (Na + K + Mg + Ca). The 238U /∑Cations ratio in waters is very similar to that measured in the suspended sediments, indicating congruent weathering of uranium and major cations. The regional variations observed in the [ 234U /238U ] activity ratio are consistent with the lithology of the drainage basins. The lowland tributaries (Chambal, Betwa, Ken, and Son), draining through the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Deccan Traps and the Vindhyan-Bundelkhand Plateau, have [ 234U /238U ] ratio in the range 1.16 to 1.84. This range is significantly higher than the near equilibrium ratio (~1.05) observed in the highland rivers which drain through sedimentary terrains. The dissolved 226Ra concentration ranges between 0.03 and 0.22 dpm/1. The striking feature of the radium isotopes data is the distinct difference in the 228Ra and 226Ra abundances between the highland and lowland rivers. The lowland waters are enriched in 228Ra while the highland waters contain more 226Ra. This difference mainly results from the differences in their weathering regimes. The discharge-weighted mean concentration of dissolved 238U in the Ganga (at Patna) and in the Brahmaputra (at Goalpara) are 1.81 and 0.63 μ/1, respectively. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system constitutes the major source of dissolved uranium to the Bay of Bengal. These rivers transport annually about 1000 tons of uranium to their estuaries, about 10% of the estimated global supply of dissolved uranium to the oceans via rivers. The transport of uranium by these rivers far exceeds that of the Amazon, although their water discharge is only about 20% of that of the Amazon. The high intensity of weathering of uranium in

  2. 14 CFR 23.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 23.961... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each fuel system must be free from vapor lock...

  3. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes, dissolved fluxes and water quality assessment. Chinmaya Maharana, Sandeep Kumar Gautam,. Abhay Kumar Singh and Jayant K Tripathi. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124(6) cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary data ...

  4. GEM-AQ, an on-line global multiscale chemical weather modelling system: model description and evaluation of gas phase chemistry processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaminski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric chemistry and air quality processes were implemented on-line in the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model. The integrated model, GEM-AQ, was developed as a platform to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module with 5 aerosols types. All tracers are advected using the semi-Lagrangian scheme native to GEM. The vertical transport includes parameterized subgrid-scale turbulence and large scale deep convection. Dry deposition is included as a flux boundary condition in the vertical diffusion equation. Wet deposition of gas-phase species is treated in a simplified way, and only below-cloud scavenging is considered. The emissions used include yearly-averaged anthropogenic, and monthly-averaged biogenic, ocean, soil, and biomass burning emission fluxes, as well as NOx from lightning. In order to evaluate the ability to simulate seasonal variations and regional distributions of trace gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, the model was run for a period of five years (2001–2005 on a global uniform 1.5°×1.5° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. Model results were compared with observations from satellites, aircraft measurement campaigns and balloon sondes. We find that GEM-AQ is able to capture the spatial details of the chemical fields in the middle and lower troposphere. The modelled ozone consistently shows good agreement with observations, except over tropical oceans. The comparison of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with satellite measurements emphasizes the need for more accurate, year-specific emissions fluxes for biomass burning and anthropogenic sources. Other species also compare well with available observations.

  5. Pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) concepts demonstration project. Phase 1: Pilot's weather information requirements and implications for weather data systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabill, Norman L.; Dash, Ernie R.

    1991-01-01

    The weather information requirements for pilots and the deficiencies of the current aviation weather support system in meeting these requirements are defined. As the amount of data available to pilots increases significantly in the near future, expert system technology will be needed to assist pilots in assimilating that information. Some other desirable characteristics of an automation-assisted system for weather data acquisition, dissemination, and assimilation are also described.

  6. wradlib - an Open Source Library for Weather Radar Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Jacobi, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    for interactive data exploration and analysis. Based on the powerful scientific python stack (numpy, scipy, matplotlib) and in parts augmented by functions compiled in C or Fortran, most routines are fast enough to also allow data intensive re-analyses or even real-time applications. From the organizational point of view, wradlib is intended to be community driven. To this end, the source code is made available using a distributed version control system (DVCS) with a publicly hosted repository. Code may be contributed using the fork/pull-request mechanism available to most modern DVCS. Mailing lists were set up to allow dedicated exchange among users and developers in order to fix problems and discuss new developments. Extensive documentation is a key feature of the library, and is available online at http://wradlib.bitbucket.org. It includes an individual function reference as well as examples, tutorials and recipes, showing how those routines can be combined to create complete processing workflows. This should allow new users to achieve results quickly, even without much prior experience with weather radar data.

  7. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.

  8. Detecting Anthropogenic Disturbance on Weathering and Erosion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, V.; Schoonejans, J.; Bellin, N.; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Y.; Opfergelt, S.; Christl, M.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical erosion, with direct implications on local biogeochemical cycling. However, the feedback mechanisms between soil erosion, chemical weathering and biogeochemical cycling in response to anthropogenic forcing are not yet fully understood. In this paper, we analyze dynamic soil properties for a rapidly changing anthropogenic landscape in the Spanish Betic Cordillera; and focus on the coupling between physical erosion, soil production and soil chemical weathering. Modern erosion rates were quantified through analysis of sediment deposition volumes behind check dams, and represent catchment-average erosion rates over the last 10 to 50 years. Soil production rates are derived from in-situ produced 10Be nuclide concentrations, and represent long-term flux rates. In each catchment, soil chemical weathering intensities were calculated for two soil-regolith profiles. Although Southeast Spain is commonly reported as the European region that is most affected by land degradation, modern erosion rates are low (140 t ha-1 yr-1). About 50 % of the catchments are losing soils at a rate of less than 60 t km-2 yr-1. Our data show that modern erosion rates are roughly of the same magnitude as the long-term or cosmogenically-derived erosion rates in the Betic Cordillera. Soils developed on weathered metamorphic rocks have no well-developed profile characteristics, and are generally thin and stony. Nevertheless, soil chemical weathering intensities are high; and question the occurrence of past soil truncation.

  9. Quality assurance of weather data for agricultural system model input

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that crop production and hydrologic variation on watersheds is weather related. Rarely, however, is meteorological data quality checks reported for agricultural systems model research. We present quality assurance procedures for agricultural system model weather data input. Problems...

  10. Hot weather stresses system : more supply needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Signs of stress in Ontario's electric system were revealed this summer, mainly as a result of the hot and humid weather experienced in the Toronto region in particular. A question was raised by the Executive Director of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) as to whether there are enough incentives for new supply or any unnecessary barriers, in light of the tight reserve margins and little new construction. No major failures or breakdowns were experienced, which proved to be a real test of the newly created market system. However, significant spikes in hourly prices and uplift charges were felt in July. At times, power had to be purchased from outside the province, and the prices paid for this power were much higher than the prices paid to in-province producers. There was proof that consumers were not adjusting their consumption in response to fluctuations in the prices, as had been expected by the system's designers. Pre-dispatch and real-time prices were disconnected, and large consumers did not benefit from reliable day-ahead price projections. Another major issue raised was that of finding new power supplies. The situation is not yet desperate as Ontario can trade electricity with other regions, but it is felt that the situation should be examined sooner rather than later. Import pricing is an issue that needs to be addressed now. The IPPSO is concerned that no new generating capacity plans are in the works at this time. The barriers to new investment in Ontario's generation must be identified, and a meeting between market participants and government should be scheduled for that purpose. A review of the presentation of price-related information is being conducted to allow consumers to adjust their consumption, cutting back when prices soar and saving money by the same token. It is felt that a more comfortable surplus of supply would either reduce or eliminate these problems. Some of the reasons believed to affect the level of investment in

  11. Hot weather stresses system : more supply needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-08-01

    Signs of stress in Ontario's electric system were revealed this summer, mainly as a result of the hot and humid weather experienced in the Toronto region in particular. A question was raised by the Executive Director of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) as to whether there are enough incentives for new supply or any unnecessary barriers, in light of the tight reserve margins and little new construction. No major failures or breakdowns were experienced, which proved to be a real test of the newly created market system. However, significant spikes in hourly prices and uplift charges were felt in July. At times, power had to be purchased from outside the province, and the prices paid for this power were much higher than the prices paid to in-province producers. There was proof that consumers were not adjusting their consumption in response to fluctuations in the prices, as had been expected by the system's designers. Pre-dispatch and real-time prices were disconnected, and large consumers did not benefit from reliable day-ahead price projections. Another major issue raised was that of finding new power supplies. The situation is not yet desperate as Ontario can trade electricity with other regions, but it is felt that the situation should be examined sooner rather than later. Import pricing is an issue that needs to be addressed now. The IPPSO is concerned that no new generating capacity plans are in the works at this time. The barriers to new investment in Ontario's generation must be identified, and a meeting between market participants and government should be scheduled for that purpose. A review of the presentation of price-related information is being conducted to allow consumers to adjust their consumption, cutting back when prices soar and saving money by the same token. It is felt that a more comfortable surplus of supply would either reduce or eliminate these problems. Some of the reasons believed to affect the

  12. Surface characterization of weathered wood using a laser scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, M.; Lemaster, R.L.; Dost, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the existing methods to assess the effect of weathering on wood surfaces have some drawbacks that limit their use to specific tasks. The amount of surface erosion is often used as a measure for the weathering action. The application of a laser scanning system to reproduce surface profiles and to measure weathering erosion was tested on various samples and was found to be a very useful and superior alternative to existing methods. Further improvements of the system used can be made by refinements of the calibration procedures and by more comprehensive profile analyses. (author)

  13. Thermoelectric generator installation at Divide Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOT&PF) has a network of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) environmental sensor stations (ESS) deployed along the road network. Six of the stations do not have access to commercial power an...

  14. National Weather Service (NWS) Station Information System (SIS), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — National Weather Service (NWS) Station Information System (SIS) contains observing station metadata from November 2016 to present. These are renditions are used for...

  15. Mobility of rare earth element in hydrothermal process and weathering product: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintjewas, L.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    The Rare Earth Element (REE), consists of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Lu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, are important elements to be used as raw materials of advanced technology such as semiconductors, magnets, and lasers. The research of REE in Indonesia has not been done. Several researches were conducted on granitic rocks and weathering product such as Bangka, Sibolga, West Kalimantan, West Sulawesi and Papua. REE can be formed by hydrothermal processes such as Bayan Obo, South China. The REE study on active hydrothermal system (geothermal) in this case also has the potential to produce mineral deposits. The purpose of this review paper is to know the mobility of REE on hydrothermal process and weathering products. Mobility of REE in the hydrothermal process can change the distribution patterns and REE content such as Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, and Y. Another process besides the hydrothermal is weathering process. REE mobility is influenced by weathering products, where the REE will experience residual and secondary enrichment processes in heavier minerals.

  16. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  17. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M; Gerlinger, K; Herrmann, N; Klein, R J.T.; Schneider, M; Sterr, H; Schellnhuber, H J

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  18. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  19. Corrosion processes on weathering steel railway bridge in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Viktor; Křivý, Vít; Buchta, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with experimental corrosion tests carried out on the weathering steel railway bridge in Prague. The basic specific property of the weathering steel is an ability to create in favourable environment a protective patina layer on its surface. Since 1968 weathering steel is used under the name “Atmofix” in the Czech Republic and can be used as a standard structural material without any corrosion protection. The weathering steel Atmofix is mostly used for bridge structures ...

  20. Weather and Climate Manipulation as an Optimal Control for Adaptive Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Soldatenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The weather and climate manipulation is examined as an optimal control problem for the earth climate system, which is considered as a complex adaptive dynamical system. Weather and climate manipulations are actually amorphous operations. Since their objectives are usually formulated vaguely, the expected results are fairly unpredictable and uncertain. However, weather and climate modification is a purposeful process and, therefore, we can formulate operations to manipulate weather and climate as the optimization problem within the framework of the optimal control theory. The complexity of the earth’s climate system is discussed and illustrated using the simplified low-order coupled chaotic dynamical system. The necessary conditions of optimality are derived for the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. This confirms that even a relatively simplified control problem for the atmospheric dynamics requires significant efforts to obtain the solution.

  1. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  2. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is

  3. Design of all-weather celestial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongchi; Mu, Rongjun; Du, Huajun; Wu, Peng

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize autonomous navigation in the atmosphere, an all-weather celestial navigation system is designed. The research of celestial navigation system include discrimination method of comentropy and the adaptive navigation algorithm based on the P value. The discrimination method of comentropy is studied to realize the independent switching of two celestial navigation modes, starlight and radio. Finally, an adaptive filtering algorithm based on P value is proposed, which can greatly improve the disturbance rejection capability of the system. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the three axis attitude is better than 10″, and it can work all weather. In perturbation environment, the position accuracy of the integrated navigation system can be increased 20% comparing with the traditional method. It basically meets the requirements of the all-weather celestial navigation system, and it has the ability of stability, reliability, high accuracy and strong anti-interference.

  4. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  5. Aircraft Icing Weather Data Reporting and Dissemination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Ellen J.; Minsk, Brian; Lindholm, Tenny; Politovich, Marcia; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The long-term operational concept of this research is to develop an onboard aircraft system that assesses and reports atmospheric icing conditions automatically and in a timely manner in order to improve aviation safety and the efficiency of aircraft operations via improved real-time and forecast weather products. The idea is to use current measurement capabilities on aircraft equipped with icing sensors and in-flight data communication technologies as a reporting source. Without requiring expensive avionics upgrades, aircraft data must be processed and available for downlink. Ideally, the data from multiple aircraft can then be integrated (along with other real-time and modeled data) on the ground such that aviation-centered icing hazard metrics for volumes of airspace can be assessed. As the effect of icing on different aircraft types can vary, the information should be displayed in meaningful ways such that multiple types of users can understand the information. That is, information must be presented in a manner to allow users to understand the icing conditions with respect to individual concerns and aircraft capabilities. This research provides progress toward this operational concept by: identifying an aircraft platform capable of digitally capturing, processing, and downlinking icing data; identifying the required in situ icing data processing; investigating the requirements for routing the icing data for use by weather products; developing an icing case study in order to gain insight into major air carrier needs; developing and prototyping icing display concepts based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research's existing diagnostic and forecast experimental icing products; and conducting a usability study for the prototyped icing display concepts.

  6. Random Vibration of Space Shuttle Weather Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Elishakoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with random vibrations of the space shuttle weather protection systems. The excitation model represents a fit to the measured experimental data. The cross-spectral density is given as a convex combination of three exponential functions. It is shown that for the type of loading considered, the Bernoulli-Euler theory cannot be used as a simplified approach, and the structure will be more properly modeled as a Timoshenko beam. Use of the simple Bernoulli-Euler theory may result in an error of about 50% in determining the mean-square value of the bending moment in the weather protection system.

  7. Space-weathering processes and products on volatile-rich asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D.; Schelling, P.; Consolmagno, G.; Bradley, T.

    2014-07-01

    Space weathering is a generic term for the effects on atmosphereless solid bodies in the solar system from a range of processes associated with direct exposure to the space environment. These include impact processes (shock, vaporization, fragmentation, heating, melting, and ejecta formation), radiation damage (from galactic and solar cosmic rays), solar-wind effects (irradiation, ion implantation, and sputtering), and the chemical reactions driven by these processes. The classic example of space weathering is the formation of the lunar spectral red slope associated with the production of nanophase Fe (npFe0) in the dusty lunar regolith (C.R. Chapman, 2004, Annual Review of Earth & Planet. Sci. 32, C.M. Pieters, 2000, MAPS 35). Similar npFe0 has been recovered from asteroid (25143) Itokawa and some asteroid classes do exhibit modest spectral red slopes (T. Noguchi, 2011, Science 333). Space weathering can be thought of as driven by a combination of the chemical environment of space (hard vacuum, low oxygen fugacity, solar-wind implantation of hydrogen) along with thermal energy supplied by micrometeorite impacts. The forward modeling of space weathering as thermodynamically-driven decomposition of common rock-forming minerals suggests the production of a range of daughter products: (1) The silicate products typically lose oxygen, other volatile elements (i.e., sulfur and sodium), and metallic cations, producing minerals that are typically more disordered and less optically active than the original parent materials. (2) The decomposed metallic cations form in nano-sized blebs including npFe0, on the surfaces or in condensing rims of mineral grains. This creates a powerful optical component as seen in the lunar red slope. Surfaces with exposed npFe0 are an ideal environment for catalyzing further reactions. (3) The liberated volatile elements and gases (O, S, Na) may form an observable exosphere (e.g., Moon and Mercury) and can either escape from the body or

  8. New Space Weather Systems Under Development and Their Contribution to Space Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Schunk, R.; Garrett, H.; Mertens, C.; Bowman, B.

    2008-12-01

    There have been notable successes during the past decade in the development of operational space environment systems. Examples include the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM) of the Earth's magnetosphere, 2000; SOLAR2000 (S2K) solar spectral irradiances, 2001; High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) neutral atmosphere densities, 2004; Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) ionosphere specification, 2006; Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry (HAF) solar wind parameters, 2007; Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS) ionosphere, high frequency radio, and scintillation S4 index prediction, 2008; and GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS) geosynchronous environment satellite charging specification and forecast, 2008. Operational systems that are in active operational implementation include the Jacchia-Bowman 2006/2008 (JB2006/2008) neutral atmosphere, 2009, and the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) aviation radiation model using the Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), 2010. U.S. national agency and commercial assets will soon reach a state where specification and prediction will become ubiquitous and where coordinated management of the space environment and space weather will become a necessity. We describe the status of the CAPS, GAPS, RAPS, and JB2008 operational development. We additionally discuss the conditions that are laying the groundwork for space weather management and estimate the unfilled needs as we move beyond specification and prediction efforts.

  9. The RMI Space Weather and Navigation Systems (SWANS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnant, Rene; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles; Spits, Justine; Stegen, Koen; Stankov, Stan

    The SWANS (Space Weather and Navigation Systems) research and development project (http://swans.meteo.be) is an initiative of the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) under the auspices of the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The RMI SWANS objectives are: research on space weather and its effects on GNSS applications; permanent mon-itoring of the local/regional geomagnetic and ionospheric activity; and development/operation of relevant nowcast, forecast, and alert services to help professional GNSS/GALILEO users in mitigating space weather effects. Several SWANS developments have already been implemented and available for use. The K-LOGIC (Local Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation) system is a nowcast system based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, data screening, and calculating the local geomagnetic K index. Simultaneously, the planetary Kp index is estimated from solar wind measurements, thus adding to the service reliability and providing forecast capabilities as well. A novel hybrid empirical model, based on these ground-and space-based observations, has been implemented for nowcasting and forecasting the geomagnetic index, issuing also alerts whenever storm-level activity is indicated. A very important feature of the nowcast/forecast system is the strict control on the data input and processing, allowing for an immediate assessment of the output quality. The purpose of the LIEDR (Local Ionospheric Electron Density Reconstruction) system is to acquire and process data from simultaneous ground-based GNSS TEC and digital ionosonde measurements, and subsequently to deduce the vertical electron density distribution. A key module is the real-time estimation of the ionospheric slab thickness, offering additional infor-mation on the local ionospheric dynamics. The RTK (Real Time Kinematic) status mapping provides a quick look at the small-scale ionospheric effects on the RTK

  10. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  11. Automatic processing, quality assurance and serving of real-time weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew; Cornford, Dan; Bastin, Lucy; Jones, Richard; Parker, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have produced a significant increase in the availability of free sensor data over the Internet. With affordable weather monitoring stations now available to individual meteorology enthusiasts, a reservoir of real time data such as temperature, rainfall and wind speed can now be obtained for most of the world. Despite the abundance of available data, the production of usable information about the weather in individual local neighbourhoods requires complex processing that poses several challenges. This paper discusses a collection of technologies and applications that harvest, refine and process this data, culminating in information that has been tailored toward the user. In this instance, this allows a user to make direct queries about the weather at any location, even when this is not directly instrumented, using interpolation methods provided by the INTAMAP project. A simplified example illustrates how the INTAMAP web processing service can be employed as part of a quality control procedure to estimate the bias and residual variance of user contributed temperature observations, using a reference standard based on temperature observations with carefully controlled quality. We also consider how the uncertainty introduced by the interpolation can be communicated to the user of the system, using UncertML, a developing standard for uncertainty representation.

  12. Operational Numerical Weather Prediction systems based on Linux cluster architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqui, M.; Baldi, M.; Gozzini, B.; Maracchi, G.; Giuliani, G.; Montagnani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in weather forecast and atmospheric science has been always closely linked to the improvement of computing technology. In order to have more accurate weather forecasts and climate predictions, more powerful computing resources are needed, in addition to more complex and better-performing numerical models. To overcome such a large computing request, powerful workstations or massive parallel systems have been used. In the last few years, parallel architectures, based on the Linux operating system, have been introduced and became popular, representing real high performance-low cost systems. In this work the Linux cluster experience achieved at the Laboratory far Meteorology and Environmental Analysis (LaMMA-CNR-IBIMET) is described and tips and performances analysed

  13. Looking toward to the next-generation space weather forecast system. Comments former a former space weather forecaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Fumihiko

    1999-01-01

    In the 21st century, man's space-based activities will increase significantly and many kinds of space utilization technologies will assume a vital role in the infrastructure, creating new businesses, securing the global environment, contributing much to human welfare in the world. Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been contributing to the safety of human activity in space and to the further understanding of the solar terrestrial environment through the study of space weather, including the upper atmosphere, magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the sun. The next-generation Space Weather Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) for future space activities based on the present international space weather forecasting system is introduced in this paper. (author)

  14. On-line data acquisition system for Aanderaa weather station

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa Weather Station can be installed at unattended remote places for collection of various weather parameters at regular preselected intervals. The weather parameters are recorded on the magnetic spool inside a battery operated datalogger which...

  15. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  16. Weather Types, temperature and relief relationship in the Iberian Peninsula: A regional adiabatic processes under directional weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Cortesi, Nicola; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed at monthly scale the spatial distribution of Pearson correlation between monthly mean of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures with weather types (WTs) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), represent them in a high spatial resolution grid (10km x 10km) from MOTEDAS dataset (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). The WT classification was that developed by Jenkinson and Collison, adapted to the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara, using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The spatial distribution of Pearson correlations shows a clear zonal gradient in Tmax under the zonal advection produced in westerly (W) and easterly (E) flows, with negative correlation in the coastland where the air mass come from but positive correlation to the inland areas. The same is true under North-West (NW), North-East (NE), South-West (SW) and South-East (SE) WTs. These spatial gradients are coherent with the spatial distribution of the main mountain chain and offer an example of regional adiabatic phenomena that affect the entire IP (Peña-Angulo et al., 2015b). These spatial gradients have not been observed in Tmin. We suggest that Tmin values are less sensitive to changes in Sea Level Pressure and more related to local factors. These directional WT present a monthly frequency over 10 days and could be a valuable tool for downscaling processes. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298 Peña-Angulo, D., Trigo, R., Cortesi, C., González-Hidalgo, J.C. (2015b): The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

  17. Study of frontal weather system using satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, J.; Ershad, S.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan which is situated in the south Asian sub continent, has a peculiar climatological position. It is one of the few countries in the world, which undergo a complete transformation from summer to winter season. However this project only pertains to the winter weather conditions in Pakistan. During winter, the land masses cool off rapidly as compared to the seas and so high pressure cells are developed over land causing, weak anti-cyclonic circulation over the country. In between these cells of anti-cyclonic flow of wind, there are zones of convergence, which offer a good breeding place for low-pressure waves. The low-pressure waves are similar to the extra tropical depressions and approach and approach Pakistan from west. From the same reason these are locally called the western Disturbances. Consequently the focus of study is on the extra tropical cyclones which originate along the boundary between polar continental and tropical or polar maritime and tropical maritime air masses. The extra tropical cyclones (also called western disturbances and westerly waves.) which are embedded in westerly flow of air move across north of Pakistan are usually originate from the Mediterranean sea. These systems consist of two types of fronts i.e. warm and cold fronts. In fact these systems can be traced right from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The location of frontal weather is generally associated with the surrounding synoptic situation, geographical position of the westerly wave, location of subtropical jet stream, steering wind level etc. although the satellite imageries are quite helpful for forecasting the frontal weather over our region however the weather charts (both surface and upper air ) and jet maps are also very helpful for this purpose

  18. It's All About the Data: Workflow Systems and Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plale, B.

    2009-05-01

    Digital data is fueling new advances in the computational sciences, particularly geospatial research as environmental sensing grows more practical through reduced technology costs, broader network coverage, and better instruments. e-Science research (i.e., cyberinfrastructure research) has responded to data intensive computing with tools, systems, and frameworks that support computationally oriented activities such as modeling, analysis, and data mining. Workflow systems support execution of sequences of tasks on behalf of a scientist. These systems, such as Taverna, Apache ODE, and Kepler, when built as part of a larger cyberinfrastructure framework, give the scientist tools to construct task graphs of execution sequences, often through a visual interface for connecting task boxes together with arcs representing control flow or data flow. Unlike business processing workflows, scientific workflows expose a high degree of detail and control during configuration and execution. Data-driven science imposes unique needs on workflow frameworks. Our research is focused on two issues. The first is the support for workflow-driven analysis over all kinds of data sets, including real time streaming data and locally owned and hosted data. The second is the essential role metadata/provenance collection plays in data driven science, for discovery, determining quality, for science reproducibility, and for long-term preservation. The research has been conducted over the last 6 years in the context of cyberinfrastructure for mesoscale weather research carried out as part of the Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) project. LEAD has pioneered new approaches for integrating complex weather data, assimilation, modeling, mining, and cyberinfrastructure systems. Workflow systems have the potential to generate huge volumes of data. Without some form of automated metadata capture, either metadata description becomes largely a manual task that is difficult if not impossible

  19. Large-Scale Traveling Weather Systems in Mars’ Southern Extratropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2017-10-01

    Between late fall and early spring, Mars’ middle- and high-latitude atmosphere supports strong mean equator-to-pole temperature contrasts and an accompanying mean westerly polar vortex. Observations from both the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the MRO Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) indicate that a mean baroclinicity-barotropicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). Such extratropical weather disturbances are critical components of the global circulation as they serve as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of such traveling extratropical synoptic disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively-lifted and radiatively-active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to the northern-hemisphere counterparts, the southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are investigated, in addition to large-scale up-slope/down-slope flows and the diurnal cycle. A southern storm zone in late winter and early spring presents in the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate dynamical differences amongst the simulations and these are presented.

  20. Large-Scale Traveling Weather Systems in Mars Southern Extratropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2017-01-01

    Between late fall and early spring, Mars' middle- and high-latitude atmosphere supports strong mean equator-to-pole temperature contrasts and an accompanying mean westerly polar vortex. Observations from both the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the MRO Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) indicate that a mean baroclinicity-barotropicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). Such extratropical weather disturbances are critical components of the global circulation as they serve as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of such traveling extratropical synoptic disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively-lifted and radiatively-active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to the northern-hemisphere counterparts, the southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are investigated, in addition to large-scale up-slope/down-slope flows and the diurnal cycle. A southern storm zone in late winter and early spring presents in the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate dynamical differences amongst the simulations and these are presented.

  1. The variation of molybdenum isotopes within the weathering system of the black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianming, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Jian-Ming Zhu 1,2, De-Can Tan 2, Liang Liang 2, Wang Jing21 State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China 2 State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002, China Molybdenum (Mo) stable isotopes have been developed as a tracer to indicate the evolution of the atmospheric and oceanic oxygenation related with continent weathering, and to reveal the extent of ancient oceanic euxinia. Molybdenum isotopic variation within the weathering system of basalts has been studied, and was presented the whole trend with heavier isotopes preferentially removed during weathering processes. However, there are few researches to study the variation of Mo isotopes during black shale weathering, especiall on the behavoir of Mo isotopes within the perfect shales' profiles. Here, the weathering profiles of Mo and selenium(Se)-rich carbonaceous rocks in Enshi southwest Hubei Province were selected. The Mo isotopes was measured on Nu Plasma II's MC-ICP-MS using 97Mo-100Mo double spike, and δ98/95Mo was reported relative to NIST 3134. A comprehensive set of Mo isotopic composition and concentration data from the unweathered, weakly and intensely weathered rocks were collected. The δ98/95Mo in fresh shales (220±248 mg/kg Mo, 1SD, n=41) from Shadi and Yutangba drill cores varies from 0.41‰ to 0.99‰ with an average of 0.67±0.16‰, while the strongly weathered shales (19.9±5.8 mg/kg Mo, 1SD, n=5) from Shadi profiles are isotopically heavier with average δ98/95Mo values of 1.03±0.10‰ (1SD, n=5). The Locally altered shales exposed in a quarry at Yutangba are highly enriched in Mo, varing from 31 to 2377 mg/kg with an average of 428 ±605mg/kg (1SD, n=24), approximately 2 times greater than that in fresh shales samples. These rocks are presented a significant variation in δ98/95Mo values varing from -0.24 ‰ to -3.99 ‰ with

  2. Network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzi, Diego; Bechini, Renzo; Boraso, Rodolfo; Cremonini, Roberto; Fratianni, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The traffic over Internet is constantly increasing; this is due in particular to social networks activities but also to the enormous exchange of data caused especially by the so-called "Internet of Things". With this term we refer to every device that has the capability of exchanging information with other devices on the web. In geoscience (and, in particular, in meteorology and climatology) there is a constantly increasing number of sensors that are used to obtain data from different sources (like weather radars, digital rain gauges, etc.). This information-gathering activity, frequently, must be followed by a complex data analysis phase, especially when we have large data sets that can be very difficult to analyze (very long historical series of large data sets, for example), like the so called big data. These activities are particularly intensive in resource consumption and they lead to new computational models (like cloud computing) and new methods for storing data (like object store, linked open data, NOSQL or NewSQL). The weather radar systems can be seen as one of the sensors mentioned above: it transmit a large amount of raw data over the network (up to 40 megabytes every five minutes), with 24h/24h continuity and in any weather condition. Weather radar are often located in peaks and in wild areas where connectivity is poor. For this reason radar measurements are sometimes processed partially on site and reduced in size to adapt them to the limited bandwidth currently available by data transmission systems. With the aim to preserve the maximum flow of information, an innovative network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar system is here presented. The study is focused on the Monte Settepani operational weather radar system, located over a wild peak summit in north-western Italy.

  3. Evaluation of a variable speed limit system for wet and extreme weather conditions : phase 1 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Weather presents considerable challenges to the highway system, both in terms of safety and operations. From a safety standpoint, weather (i.e. precipitation in the form of rain, snow or ice) reduces pavement friction, thus increasing the potential f...

  4. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Alakananda, T.; Apoorva, M. L.; Ramesh, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms” (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources’ (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

  6. Parametric study on the advantages of weather-predicted control algorithm of free cooling ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medved, Sašo; Babnik, Miha; Vidrih, Boris; Arkar, Ciril

    2014-01-01

    Predicted climate changes and the increased intensity of urban heat islands, as well as population aging, will increase the energy demand for the cooling of buildings in the future. However, the energy demand for cooling can be efficiently reduced by low-exergy free-cooling systems, which use natural processes, like evaporative cooling or the environmental cold of ambient air during night-time ventilation for the cooling of buildings. Unlike mechanical cooling systems, the energy for the operation of free-cooling system is needed only for the transport of the cold from the environment into the building. Because the natural cold potential is time dependent, the efficiency of free-cooling systems could be improved by introducing a weather forecast into the algorithm for the controlling. In the article, a numerical algorithm for the optimization of the operation of free-cooling systems with night-time ventilation is presented and validated on a test cell with different thermal storage capacities and during different ambient conditions. As a case study, the advantage of weather-predicted controlling is presented for a summer week for typical office room. The results show the necessity of the weather-predicted controlling of free-cooling ventilation systems for achieving the highest overall energy efficiency of such systems in comparison to mechanical cooling, better indoor comfort conditions and a decrease in the primary energy needed for cooling of the buildings. - Highlights: • Energy demand for cooling will increase due to climate changes and urban heat island • Free cooling could significantly reduce energy demand for cooling of the buildings. • Free cooling is more effective if weather prediction is included in operation control. • Weather predicted free cooling operation algorithm was validated on test cell. • Advantages of free-cooling on mechanical cooling is shown with different indicators

  7. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  8. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  9. Improved Weather Forecasting for the Dynamic Scheduling System of the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kari; Maddalena, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    The Robert C Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) uses a software system that dynamically schedules observations based on models of vertical weather forecasts produced by the National Weather Service (NWS). The NWS provides hourly forecasted values for ~60 layers that extend into the stratosphere over the observatory. We use models, recommended by the Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunications Union, to derive the absorption coefficient in each layer for each hour in the NWS forecasts and for all frequencies over which the GBT has receivers, 0.1 to 115 GHz. We apply radiative transfer models to derive the opacity and the atmospheric contributions to the system temperature, thereby deriving forecasts applicable to scheduling radio observations for up to 10 days into the future. Additionally, the algorithms embedded in the data processing pipeline use historical values of the forecasted opacity to calibrate observations. Until recently, we have concentrated on predictions for high frequency (> 15 GHz) observing, as these need to be scheduled carefully around bad weather. We have been using simple models for the contribution of rain and clouds since we only schedule low-frequency observations under these conditions. In this project, we wanted to improve the scheduling of the GBT and data calibration at low frequencies by deriving better algorithms for clouds and rain. To address the limitation at low frequency, the observatory acquired a Radiometrics Corporation MP-1500A radiometer, which operates in 27 channels between 22 and 30 GHz. By comparing 16 months of measurements from the radiometer against forecasted system temperatures, we have confirmed that forecasted system temperatures are indistinguishable from those measured under good weather conditions. Small miss-calibrations of the radiometer data dominate the comparison. By using recalibrated radiometer measurements, we looked at bad weather days to derive better models for forecasting the

  10. Modernizing Distribution System Restoration to Achieve Grid Resiliency Against Extreme Weather Events: An Integrated Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Jianhui; Ton, Dan

    2017-07-07

    Recent severe power outages caused by extreme weather hazards have highlighted the importance and urgency of improving the resilience of the electric power grid. As the distribution grids still remain vulnerable to natural disasters, the power industry has focused on methods of restoring distribution systems after disasters in an effective and quick manner. The current distribution system restoration practice for utilities is mainly based on predetermined priorities and tends to be inefficient and suboptimal, and the lack of situational awareness after the hazard significantly delays the restoration process. As a result, customers may experience an extended blackout, which causes large economic loss. On the other hand, the emerging advanced devices and technologies enabled through grid modernization efforts have the potential to improve the distribution system restoration strategy. However, utilizing these resources to aid the utilities in better distribution system restoration decision-making in response to extreme weather events is a challenging task. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated solution: a distribution system restoration decision support tool designed by leveraging resources developed for grid modernization. We first review the current distribution restoration practice and discuss why it is inadequate in response to extreme weather events. Then we describe how the grid modernization efforts could benefit distribution system restoration, and we propose an integrated solution in the form of a decision support tool to achieve the goal. The advantages of the solution include improving situational awareness of the system damage status and facilitating survivability for customers. The paper provides a comprehensive review of how the existing methodologies in the literature could be leveraged to achieve the key advantages. The benefits of the developed system restoration decision support tool include the optimal and efficient allocation of repair crews

  11. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. Each has benefited from 3-dimensional analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive and complete understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Recent efforts have been undertaken to update the LDIS through the formal tasking process of NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit. The goals include upgrading LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporating new sources of observational data, and making adjustments to shell scripts written to govern the system. A series of scripts run a complete modeling system consisting of the preprocessing step, the main model integration, and the post-processing step. The preprocessing step prepares the terrain, surface characteristics data sets, and the objective analysis for model initialization. Data ingested through ADAS include (but are not limited to) Level II Weather Surveillance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from six Florida radars, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) visible and infrared satellite imagery, surface and upper air observations throughout Florida from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory/Global Systems Division

  12. Building resilience of the Global Positioning System to space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Genene; Kunches, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Almost every aspect of the global economy now depends on GPS. Worldwide, nations are working to create a robust Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), which will provide global positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services for applications such as aviation, electric power distribution, financial exchange, maritime navigation, and emergency management. The U.S. government is examining the vulnerabilities of GPS, and it is well known that space weather events, such as geomagnetic storms, contribute to errors in single-frequency GPS and are a significant factor for differential GPS. The GPS industry has lately begun to recognize that total electron content (TEC) signal delays, ionospheric scintillation, and solar radio bursts can also interfere with daily operations and that these threats grow with the approach of the next solar maximum, expected to occur in 2013. The key challenges raised by these circumstances are, first, to better understand the vulnerability of GPS technologies and services to space weather and, second, to develop policies that will build resilience and mitigate risk.

  13. A Weather Analysis and Forecasting System for Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, L. M.

    2006-05-01

    The weather of the Baja California Peninsula, part of northwestern Mexico, is mild and dry most of the year. However, during the summer, humid air masses associated with tropical cyclones move northward in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Added features that create a unique meteorological situation include mountain ranges along the spine of the peninsula, warm water in the Gulf of California, and the cold California Current in the Pacific. These features interact with the environmental flow to induce conditions that play a role in the occurrence of localized, convective systems during the approach of tropical cyclones. Most of these events occur late in the summer, generating heavy precipitation, strong winds, lightning, and are associated with significant property damage to the local populations. Our goal is to provide information on the characteristics of these weather systems by performing an analysis of observations derived from a regional network. This includes imagery from radar and geostationary satellite, and data from surface stations. A set of real-time products are generated in our research center and are made available to a broad audience (researchers, students, and business employees) by using an internet site. Graphical products are updated anywhere from one to 24 hours and includes predictions from numerical models. Forecasts are derived from an operational model (GFS) and locally generated simulations based on a mesoscale model (MM5). Our analysis and forecasting system has been in operation since the summer of 2005 and was used as a reference for a set of discussions during the development of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones. This basin had 15 named storms and none of them made landfall on the west coast of Mexico; however, four systems were within 800 km from the area of interest, resulting in some convective activity. During the whole season, a group of 30 users from our institution, government offices, and local businesses received daily information

  14. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňuchová, Zuzana; Brunetto, Rosario; Melita, Mario; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    The surfaces of small bodies in the outer Solar System are rich in organic compounds and carbonaceous refractories mixed with ices and silicates. As made clear by dedicated laboratory experiments space weathering (e.g. energetic ion bombardment) can produce red colored materials starting from bright and spectrally flat ices. In a classical scenario, the space weathering processes “nurture” alter the small bodies surface spectra but are in competition with resurfacing agents that restore the original colors, and the result of these competing processes continuously modifying the surfaces is supposed to be responsible for the observed spectral variety of those small bodies. However an alternative point of view is that the different colors are due to “nature” i.e. to the different primordial composition of different objects. In this paper we present a model, based on laboratory results, that gives an original contribution to the “nature” vs. “nurture” debate by addressing the case of surfaces showing different fractions of rejuvenated vs. space weathered surface, and calculating the corresponding color variations. We will show how a combination of increasing dose coupled to different resurfacing can reproduce the whole range of observations of small outer Solar System bodies. Here we demonstrate, for the first time that objects having a fully weathered material turn back in the color-color diagrams. At the same time, object with the different ratio of pristine and weathered surface areas lay on specific lines in color-color diagrams, if exposed to the same amount of irradiation.

  15. Operational Numerical Weather Prediction at the Met Office and potential ways forward for operational space weather prediction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  16. Magnetogram Forecast: An All-Clear Space Weather Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, Nasser; Falconer, David

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the drivers of severe space weather. Forecasting the probability of their occurrence is critical in improving space weather forecasts. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) currently uses the McIntosh active region category system, in which each active region on the disk is assigned to one of 60 categories, and uses the historical flare rates of that category to make an initial forecast that can then be adjusted by the NOAA forecaster. Flares and CMEs are caused by the sudden release of energy from the coronal magnetic field by magnetic reconnection. It is believed that the rate of flare and CME occurrence in an active region is correlated with the free energy of an active region. While the free energy cannot be measured directly with present observations, proxies of the free energy can instead be used to characterize the relative free energy of an active region. The Magnetogram Forecast (MAG4) (output is available at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center) was conceived and designed to be a databased, all-clear forecasting system to support the operational goals of NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group. The MAG4 system automatically downloads nearreal- time line-of-sight Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite, identifies active regions on the solar disk, measures a free-energy proxy, and then applies forecasting curves to convert the free-energy proxy into predicted event rates for X-class flares, M- and X-class flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and solar energetic particle events (SPEs). The forecast curves themselves are derived from a sample of 40,000 magnetograms from 1,300 active region samples, observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager. Figure 1 is an example of MAG4 visual output

  17. The communicative process of weather forecasts issued in the probabilistic form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Raimondi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of weather forecasting is that of protecting weather-sensitive human activities. Forecasts issued in the probabilistic form have a higher informative content, as opposed to deterministic one, since they bear information that give also a measure of their own uncertainty. However, in order to make an appropriate and effective use of this kind of forecasts in an operational setting, communication becomes significatively relevant.The present paper, after having briefly examined the weather forecasts concerning Hurricane Charley (August 2004, tackles the issue of the communicative process in detail.The bottom line of this study is that for the weather forecast to achieve its best predictive potential, an in-depth analysis of communication issues is necessary.

  18. The communicative process of weather forecasts issued in the probabilistic form (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Raimondi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of weather forecasting is that of protecting weather-sensitive human activities. Forecasts issued in the probabilistic form have a higher informative content, as opposed to deterministic one, since they bear information that give also a measure of their own uncertainty. However, in order to make an appropriate and effective use of this kind of forecasts in an operational setting, communication becomes significatively relevant.The present paper, after having briefly examined the weather forecasts concerning Hurricane Charley (August 2004, tackles the issue of the communicative process in detail.The bottom line of this study is that for the weather forecast to achieve its best predictive potential, an in-depth analysis of communication issues is necessary.

  19. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao; Wang, Shijie; Ji, Hongbing; Shi, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China), were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils). Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations) are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern China presented the

  20. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    Full Text Available The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China, were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils. Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern

  1. Integrated system of visualization of the meteorological information for the weather forecast - SIPROT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Aristizabal, Gloria Esperanza

    2006-01-01

    The SIPROT is an operating system in real time for the handling of weather data through of a tool; it gathers together GIS and geodatabases. The SIPROT has the capacity to receive, to analyze and to exhibit weather charts of many national and international weather data in alphanumeric and binary formats from meteorological stations and satellites, as well as the results of the simulations of global and regional meteorological and wave models. The SIPROT was developed by the IDEAM to facilitate the handling of million weather dataset that take place daily and are required like elements of judgment for the inherent workings to the analyses and weather forecast

  2. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  3. Environmental tracers for elucidating the weathering process in a phosphogypsum disposal site: Implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Bolívar, Juan P.

    2015-10-01

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and tracing the weathering of phosphogypsum wastes stack-piled directly on salt-marshes of the Tinto River (Estuary of Huelva, SW Spain). With that purpose, different types of highly-polluted acid solutions were collected in the stack. Connection between these solutions and the estuarine environment was studied by geochemical tracers, such as rare earth elements (REE) and their North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized patterns and Cl/Br ratios. Phosphogypsum-related wastewaters include process water stored on the surface, pore-water contained in the phosphogypsum profile and edge outflow water emerging from inside the stack. Edge outflow waters are produced by waterlogging at the contact between phosphogypsum and the nearly impermeable marsh surface and discharge directly into the estuary. Process water shows geochemical characteristics typical of phosphate fertilizers, i.e. REE patterns with an evident enrichment of heavy-REE (HREE) with respect to middle-REE (MREE) and light-REE (LREE). By contrast, REE patterns of deeper pore-water and edge outflows are identical to those of Tinto River estuary waters, with a clear enrichment of MREE relative to LREE and HREE denoting influence of acid mine drainage. Cl/Br ratios of these solutions are very close to that of seawater, which also supports its estuarine origin. These findings clearly show that process water is not chemically connected with edge outflows through pore-waters, as was previously believed. Phosphogypsum weathering likely occurs by an upward flow of seawater from the marsh because of overpressure and permeability differences. Several recommendations are put forward in this study to route restoration actions, such as developing treatment systems to improve the quality of the edge outflow waters before discharging to the receiving environment.

  4. 76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems... Operations. This notice requests information from manufacturers of systems meeting the technical requirements...

  5. Effects of space weather on high-latitude ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Risto

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems, such as power grids, pipelines, cables and railways, are a ground manifestation of space weather. The first GIC observations were already made in early telegraph equipment more than 150 years ago. In power networks, GIC may saturate transformers with possible harmful consequences extending even to a collapse of the whole system or to permanent damage of transformers. In pipelines, GIC and the associated pipe-to-soil voltages may enhance corrosion or disturb surveys associated with corrosion control. GIC are driven by the geoelectric field induced by a geomagnetic variation at the Earth’s surface. The electric and magnetic fields are primarily produced by ionospheric currents and secondarily affected by the ground conductivity. Of great importance is the auroral electrojet with other rapidly varying currents indicating that GIC are a particular high-latitude problem. In this paper, we summarize the GIC research done in Finland during about 25 years, and discuss the calculation of GIC in a given network. Special attention is paid to modelling a power system. It is shown that, when considering GIC at a site, it is usually sufficient to take account for a smaller grid in the vicinity of the particular site. Modelling GIC also provides a basis for developing forecasting and warning methods of GIC.

  6. Global Positioning System Energetic Particle Data: The Next Space Weather Data Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, Delores J.; Giles, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has revolutionized the process of getting from point A to point Band so much more. A large fraction of the worlds population relies on GPS (and its counterparts from other nations) for precision timing, location, and navigation. Most GPS users are unaware that the spacecraft providing the signals they rely on are operating in a very harsh space environment the radiation belts where energetic particles trapped in Earths magnetic field dash about at nearly the speed of light. These subatomic particles relentlessly pummel GPS satellites. So by design, every GPS satellite and its sensors are radiation hardened. Each spacecraft carries particle detectors that provide health and status data to system operators. Although these data reveal much about the state of the space radiation environment, heretofore they have been available only to system operators and supporting scientists. Research scientists have long sought a policy shift to allow more general access. With the release of the National Space Weather Strategy and Action Plan organized by the White House Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) a sample of these data have been made available to space weather researchers. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the National Center for Environmental Information released a months worth of GPS energetic particle data from an interval of heightened space weather activity in early 2014 with the hope of stimulating integration of these data sets into the research arena. Even before the public data release GPS support scientists from LANL showed the extraordinary promise of these data.

  7. Importance of silicate weathering, recharge and mixing processes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    The physical-chemical and isotopic characteristics of the groundwater in the Saloum detrital aquifer system obtained from a network of 74 sampling points have indicated the likely geochemical reactions and defined the groundwater flow regime in the context of a semi-arid region. The main geochemical zones with distinct ...

  8. Permanent radiation and weather monitoring systems at the Posiva nuclear waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukkanen, J.; Palomaeki, M.; Viitanen, P.; Kumpula, L.

    2012-12-01

    Posiva Oy is planning to build a complex of two nuclear waste facilities in Olkiluoto. The facilities will encapsulate and dispose the spent nuclear fuel from the nuclear power plants operated by Posiva's owners into Olkiluoto bedrock. The spent fuel is strongly radioactive, so the radiation safety of the facilities and their processes for its users and the environment must be ensured. This paper deals with of the stationary radiation and weather measurement systems designed for the monitoring of Posiva's nuclear waste facilities and their processes. The systems are used for monitoring the encapsulation and disposal facilities and processes, as well as the emissions to the environment. The document collects also the system design basis and other requirements to be considered in the design of these systems at this early stage. (orig.)

  9. Method and System for Dynamic Automated Corrections to Weather Avoidance Routes for Aircraft in En Route Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, B. David (Inventor); Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic weather route system automatically analyzes routes for in-flight aircraft flying in convective weather regions and attempts to find more time and fuel efficient reroutes around current and predicted weather cells. The dynamic weather route system continuously analyzes all flights and provides reroute advisories that are dynamically updated in real time while the aircraft are in flight. The dynamic weather route system includes a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize, evaluate, modify if necessary, and implement proposed reroutes.

  10. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  11. Space weather biological and systems effects for suborbital flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    The Aerospace Corporation was tasked to assess the impacts of space weather on both RLVs and ELVs operating at suborbital altitudes from launch sites located in the low (equatorial regions), middle, and high latitudes. The present report presents a b...

  12. Weather in the Cockpit: Priorities, Sources, Delivery, and Needs in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    System GSD ----------- NOAA/ESRL/ Global Systems Division IAF ------------- Initial Approach Fix IFR ------------- Instrument Flight Rules IMC... uncertainties . A distillation of our review of the literature and a new detailed analysis of our own leads to the weather factors shown in Figure 1...ratings of weather factors differed between operating in visual flight rules (VFR) and operating in instrument flight rules ( IFR ). In characterizing

  13. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  14. Kenya public weather processed by the Global Yield Gap Atlas project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Hugo; Adimo, Ochieng; Claessens, Lieven; Wart, Van Justin; Bussel, van Lenny G.J.; Grassini, Patricio; Wolf, Joost; Guilpart, Nicolas; Boogaard, Hendrik; Oort, van Pepijn A.J.; Yang, Haishun S.; Ittersum, van Martin K.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2017-01-01

    The Global Yield Gap Atlas project (GYGA - http://yieldgap.org) has undertaken a yield gap assessment following the protocol recommended by van Ittersum et al. (2013). One part of the activities consists of collecting and processing weather data as an input for crop simulation models in sub-Saharan

  15. Kenya public weather processed by the Global Yield Gap Atlas project (old version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de H.L.E.; Adimo, A.O.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Wart, van J.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, Nicolas; Boogaard, H.L.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Yang, H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Yield Gap Atlas project (GYGA - http://yieldgap.org ) has undertaken a yield gap assessment following the protocol recommended by van Ittersum et. al. (van Ittersum et. al., 2013). One part of the activities consists of collecting and processing weather data as an input for crop

  16. Structural control of weathering processes within exhumed granitoids: Compartmentalisation of geophysical properties by faults and fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, J.; Géraud, Y.; Diraison, M.; Herquel, G.; Edel, J.-B.; Bano, M.; Le Garzic, E.; Walter, B.

    2016-03-01

    In the latter stages of exhumation processes, rocks undergo weathering. Weathering halos have been described in the vicinity of structures such as faults, veins or dykes, with a lateral size gradually narrowing with depth, symmetrically around the structures. In this paper, we describe the geophysical characterisation of such alteration patterns on two granitoid outcrops of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (Spain), each of which is affected by one major fault, as well as minor faults and fractures. Seismic, electric and ground penetrating radar surveys were carried out to map the spatial distribution of P-wave velocity, electrical resistivity and to identify reflectors of electromagnetic waves. The analysis of this multi-method and complementary dataset revealed that, at shallow depth, geophysical properties of the materials are compartmentalised and asymmetric with respect to major and subsidiary faults affecting the rock mass. This compartmentalisation and asymmetry both tend to attenuate with depth, whereas the effect of weathering is more symmetric with respect to the major structure of the outcrops. We interpret such compartmentalisation as resulting from the role of hydraulic and mechanical boundaries played by subsidiary faults, which tend to govern both the chemical and physical alterations involved in weathering. Thus, the smoothly narrowing halo model is not always accurate, as weathering halos can be strongly asymmetrical and present highly irregular contours delimiting sharp contrasts of geophysical properties. These results should be considered when investigating and modelling fluid storage and transfer in top crystalline rock settings for groundwater applications, hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs, as well as mineral deposits.

  17. Geologic processes and sedimentary system on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A S

    1988-01-01

    The subject is covered under following headings: (1) morphology and processes at the martian surface (impact craters, water and ice, landslide, aeolian processes, volcanism, chemical weathering); (2) the sedimentary system (martian geologic documentation, sedimentary balance, regolith, pyroclastics, erosion phenomena, deposit and loss of sediments) as well as (3) summary and final remarks. 72 refs.

  18. Arduino Based Weather Monitoring Telemetry System Using NRF24L01+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidqi, Rafi; Rio Rynaldo, Bagus; Hadi Suroso, Satya; Firmansyah, Rifqi

    2018-04-01

    Abstract-Weather is an important part of the natural environment, thus knowing weather information is needed before doing activity. The main purpose of this research was to develop a weather monitoring system which capable to transmit weather data via radio frequency by using nRF24L01+ 2,4GHz radio module. This research implement Arduino UNO as the main controller of the system which send data wirelessly using the radio module and received by a receiver system. Received data then logged and displayed using a Graphical User Interface on a personal computer. Test and experiment result show that the system was able to transmit weather data via radio wave with maximum transmitting range of 32 meters.

  19. COSMIC Payload in NCAR-NASPO GPS Satellite System for Severe Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai-Chen, C.

    Severe weather, such as cyclones, heavy rainfall, outburst of cold air, etc., results in great disaster all the world. It is the mission for the scientists to design a warning system, to predict the severe weather systems and to reduce the damage of the society. In Taiwan, National Satellite Project Office (NSPO) initiated ROCSAT-3 program at 1997. She scheduled the Phase I conceptual design to determine the mission for observation weather system. Cooperating with National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR), NSPO involved an international cooperation research and operation program to build a 32 GPS satellites system. NCAR will offer 24 GPS satellites. The total expanse will be US 100 millions. NSPO also provide US 80 millions for launching and system engineering operation. And NCAR will be responsible for Payload Control Center and Fiducial Network. The cooperative program contract has been signed by Taiwan National Science Council, Taipei Economic Cultural Office of United States and American Institute in Taiwan. One of the payload is COSMIC, Constellation Observation System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate. It is a GPS meteorology instrument system. The system will observe the weather information, e. g. electron density profiles, horizontal and vertical TEC and CFT scintillation and communication outage maps. The mission is to obtain the weather data such as vertical temperature profiles, water vapor distribution and pressure distribution over the world for global weather forecasting, especially during the severe weather period. The COSMIC Conference held on November, 1998. The export license was also issued by Department of Commerce of Unites States at November, 1998. Recently, NSPO begun to train their scientists to investigate the system. Scientists simulate the observation data to combine the existing routine satellite infrared cloud maps, radar echo and synoptic weather analysis for severe weather forecasting. It is hopeful to provide more accurate

  20. Implications of Automotive and Trucking On-Board Information Systems for General Aviation Cockpit Weather Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2002-01-01

    In this study, current characteristics and future developments of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in the automobile and trucking industry are investigated to identify the possible implications of such systems for General Aviation (GA) cockpit weather systems. First, ITS are explained based on tracing their historical development in various countries. Then, current systems and the enabling communication technologies are discussed. Finally, a market analysis for GA is included.

  1. Space Weather Effects on Current and Future Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, D.; Dutta, O.; Tandoi, C.; Brandauer, W.; Mohamed, A.; Damas, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses the effects of Geomagnetic Disturbances (GMDs) on the present bulk power system as well as the future smart grid, and discusses the mitigation of these geomagnetic impacts, so as to reduce the vulnerabilities of the electric power network to large space weather events. Solar storm characterized by electromagnetic radiation generates geo-electric fields that result in the flow of Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) through the transmission lines, followed by transformers and the ground. As the ground conductivity and the power network topology significantly vary with the region, it becomes imperative to estimate of the magnitude of GICs for different places. In this paper, the magnitude of GIC has been calculated for New York State (NYS) with the help of extensive modelling of the whole NYS electricity transmission network using real data. Although GIC affects only high voltage levels, e.g. above 300 kV, the presence of coastline in NYS makes the low voltage transmission lines also susceptible to GIC. Besides this, the encroachment of technologies pertaining to smart grid implementation, such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), Microgrids, Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have been analyzed for GMD impacts. Inaccurate PMU results due to scintillation of GPS signals that are affected by electromagnetic interference of solar storm, presence of renewable energy resources in coastal areas that are more vulnerable to GMD, the ability of FACTS devices to either block or pave new path for GICs and so on, shed some light on impacts of GMD on smart grid technologies.

  2. Climate and weather of the Sun-Earth system (CAWSES) highlights from a priority program

    CERN Document Server

    Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) is the most important scientific program of SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). CAWSES has triggered a scientific priority program within the German Research Foundation for a period of 6 years. Approximately 30 scientific institutes and 120 scientists were involved in Germany with strong links to international partners. The priority program focuses on solar influence on climate, atmospheric coupling processes, and space climatology. This book summarizes the most important results from this program covering some impor

  3. Application of dynamical systems theory to global weather phenomena revealed by satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel; Tang, Chung-Muh

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical studies of low frequency and seasonal weather variability; dynamical properties of observational and general circulation model (GCM)-generated records; effects of the hydrologic cycle and latent heat release on extratropical weather; and Earth-system science studies are summarized.

  4. Transportation system resilience, extreme weather and climate change : a thought leadership series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes key findings from the Transportation System Resilience, Extreme Weather and Climate Change thought leadership series held at Volpe, the National Transportation Systems Center from fall 2013 to spring 2014.

  5. A high-fidelity weather time series generator using the Markov Chain process on a piecewise level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersvik, K.; Endrerud, O.-E. V.

    2017-12-01

    A method is developed for generating a set of unique weather time-series based on an existing weather series. The method allows statistically valid weather variations to take place within repeated simulations of offshore operations. The numerous generated time series need to share the same statistical qualities as the original time series. Statistical qualities here refer mainly to the distribution of weather windows available for work, including durations and frequencies of such weather windows, and seasonal characteristics. The method is based on the Markov chain process. The core new development lies in how the Markov Process is used, specifically by joining small pieces of random length time series together rather than joining individual weather states, each from a single time step, which is a common solution found in the literature. This new Markov model shows favorable characteristics with respect to the requirements set forth and all aspects of the validation performed.

  6. Cockpit weather information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  7. Observations of ionospheric electric fields above atmospheric weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Aggson, T. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Hanson, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the observations of a number of quasi-dc electric field events associated with large-scale atmospheric weather formations. The observations were made by the electric field experiment onboard the San Marco D satellite, operational in an equatorial orbit from May to December 1988. Several theoretical studies suggest that electric fields generated by thunderstorms are present at high altitudes in the ionosphere. In spite of such favorable predictions, weather-related events are not often observed since they are relatively weak. We shall report here on a set of likely E field candidates for atmospheric-ionospheric causality, these being observed over the Indonesian Basin, northern South America, and the west coast of Africa; all known sites of atmospheric activity. As we shall demonstrate, individual events often be traced to specific active weather features. For example, a number of events were associated with spacecraft passages near Hurricane Joan in mid-October 1988. As a statistical set, the events appear to coincide with the most active regions of atmospheric weather.

  8. Analysis of Sulfidation Routes for Processing Weathered Ilmenite Concentrates Containing Impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sazzad; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Pownceby, Mark I.; Bruckard, Warren J.

    Rutile is the preferred feedstock for producing high-grade TiO2 pigment but due to decreasing resources, alternative materials such as ilmenite is now used to produce a synthetic rutile (SR) feedstock. This requires removal of impurities (e.g. Fe, Mg, Mn) which, for a primary ilmenite is straightforward process. Processing of weathered ilmenite however, is complex, especially when chrome-bearing impurities are present since minor chromium downgrades the SR market value as it imparts color to the final TiO2 pigment, Chrome-bearing spinels are a problem in weathered ilmenites from the Murray Basin, Australia as their physical and chemical properties overlap with ilmenite making separation difficult. In this paper, different sulfidation process routes for weathered ilmenites are analyzed for their applicability to Murray Basin deposits as a mean of remove chrome spinel impurities. Thermodynamic and experimental studies indicated that selective sulfidation of chrome-bearing spinel can be achieved under controlled pO2 and pS2 processing conditions thereby making them amenable to separation.

  9. Impact of extreme weather events and climate change for health and social care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Sarah; Fair, Alistair; Wistow, Jonathan; Val, Dimitri V; Oven, Katie

    2017-12-05

    This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience. We highlight a number of general conclusions which are likely to be of international relevance, although the review focussed on the situation in the UK. Extreme weather events impact the operation of health services through the effects on built, social and institutional infrastructures which support health and health care, and also because of changes in service demand as extreme weather impacts on human health. Strategic planning for extreme weather and impacts on the care system should be sensitive to within country variations. Adaptation will require changes to built infrastructure systems (including transport and utilities as well as individual care facilities) and also to institutional and social infrastructure supporting the health care system. Care sector organisations, communities and individuals need to adapt their practices to improve resilience of health and health care to extreme weather. Preparedness and emergency response strategies call for action extending beyond the emergency response services, to include health and social care providers more generally.

  10. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  11. The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    . The investigation is based on calculations with validated models. Solar heating systems with different solar collector types, heat storage volumes and solar fractions are included in the investigation. The yearly solar radiation varies with approximately 20 % in the period from 1990 until 2002. The calculations......The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar combi systems, solar domestic hot water systems and solar heating plants is investigated. The investigation is based on weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY and weather data measured for a period from 1990 until 2002...... show that the thermal performance of the investigated systems varies due to the weather variation. The variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar heating plant is about 40 % while the variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system is about 30...

  12. Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) for Space Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) is a critical module of the Virtual Test Bed development to support 'go/no go' decisions for Space Shuttle operations in the Intelligent Launch and Range Operations program of NASA. The weather rules characterize certain aspects of the environment related to the launching or landing site, the time of the day or night, the pad or runway conditions, the mission durations, the runway equipment and landing type. Expert system rules are derived from weather contingency rules, which were developed over years by NASA. Backward chaining, a goal-directed inference method is adopted, because a particular consequence or goal clause is evaluated first, and then chained backward through the rules. Once a rule is satisfied or true, then that particular rule is fired and the decision is expressed. The expert system is continuously verifying the rules against the past one-hour weather conditions and the decisions are made. The normal procedure of operations requires a formal pre-launch weather briefing held on Launch minus 1 day, which is a specific weather briefing for all areas of Space Shuttle launch operations. In this paper, the Web-based Weather Expert System of the Intelligent Launch and range Operations program is presented.

  13. Devils Lake Climate, Weather, and Water Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfall, F. M.; Kluck, D. R.; Brewer, M.; Timofeyeva, M. M.; Symonds, J.; Dummer, S.; Frazier, M.; Shulski, M.; Akyuz, A.

    2010-12-01

    North Dakota’s Devils Lake area represents an example of a community struggling with a serious climate-related problem. The Devils Lake water level elevation has been rising since 1993 due to a prolonged wet period, and it is now approaching the spill stage into the Cheyenne River and ultimately into the Red River of the North. The impacts of the rising water have already caused significant disruption to the surrounding communities, and even greater impacts will be seen if the lake reaches the spill elevation. These impacts include flooding, water quality issues, impacts to agriculture and ecosystems, and impacts to local and regional economies. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), through the National Weather Service (NWS), the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), and the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), provides the U.S. public with climate, water, and weather services, including meteorological, hydrological and climate data, warnings, and forecasts of weather and climate from near- to longer-term timescales. In support of the people of Devils Lake, the surrounding communities, the people of North Dakota, and the other Federal agencies with responsibilities in the area, NOAA launched the first ever climate-sensitive decision support web site (www.devilslake.noaa.gov) in July 2010. The website is providing integrated weather, water, and climate information for the area, and has links to information from other agencies, such as USGS, to help decision makers as they address this ongoing challenge. This paper will describe the website and other ongoing activities by NOAA in support of this community.

  14. Web processing service for climate impact and extreme weather event analyses. Flyingpigeon (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Nils; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Brockmann, Patrick; Falk, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Jörg; Kindermann, Stephan; Koziol, Ben; Nangini, Cathy; Radanovics, Sabine; Vautard, Robert; Yiou, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of extreme weather events and their impacts often requires big data processing of ensembles of climate model simulations. Researchers generally proceed by downloading the data from the providers and processing the data files ;at home; with their own analysis processes. However, the growing amount of available climate model and observation data makes this procedure quite awkward. In addition, data processing knowledge is kept local, instead of being consolidated into a common resource of reusable code. These drawbacks can be mitigated by using a web processing service (WPS). A WPS hosts services such as data analysis processes that are accessible over the web, and can be installed close to the data archives. We developed a WPS named 'flyingpigeon' that communicates over an HTTP network protocol based on standards defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), to be used by climatologists and impact modelers as a tool for analyzing large datasets remotely. Here, we present the current processes we developed in flyingpigeon relating to commonly-used processes (preprocessing steps, spatial subsets at continent, country or region level, and climate indices) as well as methods for specific climate data analysis (weather regimes, analogues of circulation, segetal flora distribution, and species distribution models). We also developed a novel, browser-based interactive data visualization for circulation analogues, illustrating the flexibility of WPS in designing custom outputs. Bringing the software to the data instead of transferring the data to the code is becoming increasingly necessary, especially with the upcoming massive climate datasets.

  15. A model for the identification of tropical weather systems over South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-07-03

    Jul 3, 2002 ... with, these two high-pressure systems, controls to a large extent, the weather of ... researchers provided general rules to differentiate between tropical- ..... inclusion of this graph therefore does not serve as a verification of.

  16. Gateway National Weather Service (NWS) Service Records and Retention System (SRRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Service Records Retention System (SRRS) was developed to store weather observations, summaries, forecasts, warnings, and advisories provided by the U.S. National...

  17. Personal Insights and Anecdotes about the Weatherization Assistance Program Process Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treitler, Inga [Anthropology Imagination, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The present report is based on the research conducted for the Process Field Study between March and September 2011. The Process Field Study documents how Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) services were delivered to clients, and the quality with which those services were delivered. The assessments were conducted by visiting 19 agencies in 19 states around the country interviewing agency managers, staff, and contractors; observing program intake along, with 43 audits, 45 measure installation and 37 final inspections; and conducting debriefing interviews with clients and weatherization staff following the observation of service delivery. In this report, we turn to detailed observations of a few field interactions. The client stories from our observations illustrate some of the ways clients and crew interact to build the success of the program, but shows there will always be unanticipated obstacles to building trust and getting the program to the public. Stories of staff and crew career paths indicate that weatherization technology and techniques are being learned and used by technicians out of the new home construction industry and that their new knowledge provides them with technical tools and methods that many hope to take back into the construction industry if and when they return. This report is organized according to the four stages of weatherization: intake, audit, installation, and inspection. It contributes to our understanding of the area where policy, environment, culture, and individual decisions influence social innovation. The anecdotes reveal the realities of implementing programs for the benefit of the greater good at minimal cost and sacrifice in times of ever restricting budgets. As the authors revisited their field notes and compiled memorable narratives to communicate the essence of the weatherization experience, they identified three key takeaways that summarize the major issues. First, in WAP as in all services there will always be

  18. An Automated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Based Nowcasting System: Software Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    14. ABSTRACT A Web service /Web interface software package has been engineered to address the need for an automated means to run the Weather Research...An Automated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)- Based Nowcasting System: Software Description by Stephen F. Kirby, Brian P. Reen, and...Based Nowcasting System: Software Description Stephen F. Kirby, Brian P. Reen, and Robert E. Dumais Jr. Computational and Information Sciences

  19. Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, K.-N.

    1986-01-01

    Current understanding and knowledge of the composition and structure of cirrus clouds are reviewed and documented in this paper. In addition, the radiative properties of cirrus clouds as they relate to weather and climate processes are described in detail. To place the relevance and importance of cirrus composition, structure and radiative properties into a global perspective, pertinent results derived from simulation experiments utilizing models with varying degrees of complexity are presented; these have been carried out for the investigation of the influence of cirrus clouds on the thermodynamics and dynamics of the atmosphere. In light of these reviews, suggestions are outlined for cirrus-radiation research activities aimed toward the development and improvement of weather and climate models for a physical understanding of cause and effect relationships and for prediction purposes.

  20. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ośródka Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.

  1. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Terrestrial weathering processes in cold-desert climates such as the Dry Valleys of Antarctica may provide an excellent analog to chemical weathering and diagenesis of soils on Mars. Detailed studies of soil development and the chemical and mineralogical alterations occurring within soil columns in Wright Valley, Antarctica show incredible complexity in the upper meter of soil. Previous workers noted the ice-free Dry Valleys are the best terrestrial approximations to contemporary Mars. Images returned from the Pathfinder and Spirit landers show similarities to surfaces observed within the Dry Valleys. Similarities to Mars that exist in these valleys are: mean temperatures always below freezing (-20 C), no rainfall, sparse snowfall-rapidly removed by sublimation, desiccating winds, diurnal freeze-thaw cycles (even during daylight hours), low humidity, oxidative environment, relatively high solar radiation and low magnetic fields . The Dry Valley soils contain irregular distributions and low abundances of soil microorganisms that are somewhat unusual on Earth. Physical processes-such as sand abrasion-are dominant mechanisms of rock weathering in Antarctica. However, chemical weathering is also an important process even in such extreme climates. For example, ionic migration occurs even in frozen soils along liquid films on individual soil particles. It has also been shown that water with liquid-like properties is present in soils at temperatures on the order of approx.-80 C and it has been observed that the percentage of oxidized iron increases with increasing soil age and enrichments in oxidized iron occurs toward the surface. The presence of evaporates is evident and appear similar to "evaporite sites" within the Pathfinder and Spirit sites. Evaporites indicate ionic migration and chemical activity even in the permanently frozen zone. The presence of evaporates indicates that chemical weathering of rocks and possibly soils has been active. Authogenic zeolites have

  2. Weather Webcam System for the Safety of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Miyazaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemaru, Katsuhiro; Katzer, Robert; Hanato, Syu; Nakamura, Koji; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Hidenobu

    In Japan, the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) system was initiated in 2001 and introduced to Miyazaki Prefecture in 2012. Mountainous areas occupy 88% of Miyazaki's land area, and HEMS flights can be subject to the effects of weather. Therefore, ensuring safety in changing weather conditions is a necessity for HEMS. The weather webcam system (WWS) was established to observe the meteorological conditions in 29 locations. Assessments of the probability of a flight based on conventional data including a weather chart provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency and meteorological reports provided by the Miyazaki Airport were compared with the assessment based on the combination of the information obtained from the WWS and the conventional data. The results showed that the probability of a flight by HEMS increased when using the WSS, leading to an increased transportation opportunity for patients in the mountains who rely on HEMS. In addition, the results indicate that the WWS may prevent flights in unfavorable weather conditions. The WWS used in conjunction with conventional weather data within Miyazaki HEMS increased the pilot's awareness of current weather conditions throughout the Prefecture, increasing the probability of accepting a flight. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Process-based modeling of silicate mineral weathering responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steven A.; Berg, Astrid; Beerling, David J.

    2009-12-01

    A mathematical model describes silicate mineral weathering processes in modern soils located in the boreal coniferous region of northern Europe. The process model results demonstrate a stabilizing biological feedback mechanism between atmospheric CO2 levels and silicate weathering rates as is generally postulated for atmospheric evolution. The process model feedback response agrees within a factor of 2 of that calculated by a weathering feedback function of the type generally employed in global geochemical carbon cycle models of the Earth's Phanerozoic CO2 history. Sensitivity analysis of parameter values in the process model provides insight into the key mechanisms that influence the strength of the biological feedback to weathering. First, the process model accounts for the alkalinity released by weathering, whereby its acceleration stabilizes pH at values that are higher than expected. Although the process model yields faster weathering with increasing temperature, because of activation energy effects on mineral dissolution kinetics at warmer temperature, the mineral dissolution rate laws utilized in the process model also result in lower dissolution rates at higher pH values. Hence, as dissolution rates increase under warmer conditions, more alkalinity is released by the weathering reaction, helping maintain higher pH values thus stabilizing the weathering rate. Second, the process model yields a relatively low sensitivity of soil pH to increasing plant productivity. This is due to more rapid decomposition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) under warmer conditions. Because DOC fluxes strongly influence the soil water proton balance and pH, this increased decomposition rate dampens the feedback between productivity and weathering. The process model is most sensitive to parameters reflecting soil structure; depth, porosity, and water content. This suggests that the role of biota to influence these characteristics of the weathering profile is as important, if not

  4. The Planeterrella: an Analog Model for Teaching About the Invisible Electromagnetic Processes Driving Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masongsong, E. V.; Glesener, G. B.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lilensten, J.; Bingley, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Planeterrella can be used as an analog to help students visualize and understand the electromagnetic processes driving space weather that affect our daily lives. Solar storms and solar wind charged particles (plasma) cause "space weather" via their interaction with Earth's protective magnetic shield, the magnetosphere. The Planeterrella uses magnetized spheres in a vacuum chamber to demonstrate solar wind energy transfer to Earth and planets, with polar localization of aurora due to charged particles traveling along geomagnetic field lines. The Planeterrella provides a unique opportunity to experience and manipulate plasma, the dominant form of matter in our universe, yet seldom observable on Earth. Severe space weather events produce spectacular auroral displays as well as devastating consequences: radiation exposure to air and space travelers, prolonged radio blackouts, and damage to critical GPS and communications satellites. We will (1) discuss ways in which the Planeterrella may be most useful in classroom settings, including large lecture halls, laboratories, and small discussion sessions; (2) provide information on how instructors can produce their own Planeterrella for their courses; and (3) invite meeting attendees to engage in a discussion on how we might be able to improve on the current design of the Planeterrella, and how to reach students in more parts of the world.

  5. Impact of profile observations on the German Weather Service's NWP system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cress

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for a study on the potential impact of a space-borne Doppler wind lidar on the quality of NWP products, a series of assimilations and forecasts were conducted to estimate the potential benefit of conventional wind and temperature profile measurements over North America to numerical weather forecasts for the Northern Hemisphere and specifically, Europe. A comparison of the forecast quality of a control run, using all available observations, to experiments omitting wind and temperature data from specific instruments (radiosondes, pilot stations and aircraft makes it possible to estimate the importance of the omitted data, and clarify whether winds derived from the geostrophic relation are sufficient or whether observed wind profiles result in a more realistic definition of the initial state for numerical weather prediction systems in the extra-tropic regions. Very little impact on forecast quality was noted when wind or temperature observations from radiosondes and pilots were excluded from the assimilation process. However, a clear deterioration in forecast quality was observed when additionally all available wind or temperature measurements from aircraft were also withheld. Comparisons of the relative utility of wind and temperature observations over North America show that assimilations and forecasts derive more benefit from wind data than from temperature data. The greatest deterioration could be observed if both wind and temperature observations were omitted from the assimilation cycle. By tracing the differences between the control forecasts and the experimental forecasts to their initial difference, the regions around Hudson Bay, Novia Scotia, Buffin Bay and Northern Canada could be identified as sensitive areas, i.e. those where a missing observation could have a substantial effect on the forecast for the Northern Hemisphere and Europe. Comparisons of the relative utility of radiosonde wind and temperature observations over

  6. Establishment Criteria for Integrated Wind Shear Detection Systems: Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), and Modified Airport Surveillance Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Overviev . ......................................... 9 2. Programs , Syr!ems, and Services ........................ 11 a. National Weather Service...Equipment Appropriation. ADA, a computer system developed and maintained by the Office of Aviation Policy and rlans, facilitates APS-I processing... Program Plan. The primary benefit of LLWAS, TDWR, and modified airport surveillance radar is reduced risk and expected incidence of wind shear-related

  7. Establishment and Discontinuance Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    supplement the probable cause(s).* Referring back to Figure 20, it is observed that all weat-her cause citations combined from 1975 through 1979 accounted...direction 70 p-rcynt of all arrivals. For the other 30 percent of all arrivals, it i7 r;s-;Lind that the Unicorn is not operating and that no other... vc P. 1W4 ui W Z L C 0e 14 ..t w 0 .- Z) LWWE W>-C" z .. JIL OC I.- -- =Z)- z " -- A tl 0 L- W < uo- z = - e a * w Z0)WI.>Z . - N m =) m " =r P- a3

  8. Measuring weather for aviation safety in the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for an improved aviation weather system are defined and specifically include the need for (1) weather observations at all airports with instrument approaches, (2) more accurate and timely radar detection of weather elements hazardous to aviation, and (3) better methods of timely distribution of both pilot reports and ground weather data. The development of the discrete address beacon system data link, Doppler weather radar network, and various information processing techniques are described.

  9. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  10. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  11. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-08-30

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and -35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to -15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to -25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear.

  12. Streamlining On-Demand Access to Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Data Products for Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Tislin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) support National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters, whose Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) Data Delivery (DD) will access JPSS data products on demand from the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Product Distribution and Access (PDA) service. Based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Service, this on-demand service promises broad interoperability and frugal use of data networks by serving only the data that a user needs. But the volume, velocity, and variety of JPSS data products impose several challenges to such a service. It must be efficient to handle large volumes of complex, frequently updated data, and to fulfill many concurrent requests. It must offer flexible data handling and delivery, to work with a diverse and changing collection of data, and to tailor its outputs into products that users need, with minimal coordination between provider and user communities. It must support 24x7 operation, with no pauses in incoming data or user demand; and it must scale to rapid changes in data volume, variety, and demand as new satellites launch, more products come online, and users rely increasingly on the service. We are addressing these challenges in order to build an efficient and effective on-demand JPSS data service. For example, on-demand subsetting by many users at once may overload a server's processing capacity or its disk bandwidth - unless alleviated by spatial indexing, geolocation transforms, or pre-tiling and caching. Filtering by variable (/ band / layer) may also alleviate network loads, and provide fine-grained variable selection; to that end we are investigating how best to provide random access into the variety of spatiotemporal JPSS data products. Finally, producing tailored products (derivatives, aggregations) can boost flexibility for end users; but some tailoring operations may impose significant server loads

  13. Revisiting dirt cracking as a physical weathering process in warm deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2011-12-01

    A half century ago C.D. Ollier proposed that insolation-driven temperature changes expand and contract fill in fissures enough to widen cracks, a process that would permit progressively deeper penetration of fissure fills, that would in turn generate a positive feedback of greater and greater strain until desert boulders and bedrock shatters. Although desert physical weathering by "dirt cracking" has occasionally been cited, this hypothesized process remains without support from subsequent research. Here, field observations, electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, particle-size analysis, and laboratory experiments shed new light on dirt cracking. Little clear evidence supports the original notion of expansive pressures from thermal fluctuations. However, mineralogical, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, back-scattered electron microscopy, and experimental evidence support two alternative processes of widening fractures: wetting and drying of fills inside fissures; and the precipitation and remobilization of calcium carbonate. A re-envisioned dirt-cracking wedging process starts with calcium carbonate precipitating in fissures less than 5 μm wide. First precipitation, and then ongoing dissolution of this laminar calcrete, opens enough space for dust to penetrate into these narrow fractures. Wetting of expansive clays in the fissure fill exerts enough pressure to widen and deepen the fissure, allowing the carbonate precipitation process to penetrate even deeper and allowing even more dust to move into a fracture. As the dust infiltrates, its texture changes from a chaotic mix of particles to an alignment of clays parallel to fissure sides. This parallel alignment could increase the efficiency of fill wedging. Ollier's concept of a positive feedback remains supported; each increment of fracture deepening and widening permits more, even deeper infiltration of laminar calcrete and dust. Field and electron microscope observations of rock spalling

  14. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Zhang, X.; Gong, S.; Wang, Y.; Xue, M.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction (ACI) scheme has been developed under a China Meteorological Administration (CMA) chemical weather modeling system, GRAPES/CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System, CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment). Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are interactively fed online into a two-moment cloud scheme (WRF Double-Moment 6-class scheme - WDM6) and a convective parameterization to drive cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred.The results show that aerosols that interact with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content, and cloud droplet number concentrations, while decreasing the mean diameters of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive microphysical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24 to 48 % enhancements of threat score for 6 h precipitation in almost all regions. The aerosols that interact with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3 °C.

  15. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive aerosol–cloud–precipitation interaction (ACI scheme has been developed under a China Meteorological Administration (CMA chemical weather modeling system, GRAPES/CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System, CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment. Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN are interactively fed online into a two-moment cloud scheme (WRF Double-Moment 6-class scheme – WDM6 and a convective parameterization to drive cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred.The results show that aerosols that interact with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content, and cloud droplet number concentrations, while decreasing the mean diameters of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive microphysical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24 to 48 % enhancements of threat score for 6 h precipitation in almost all regions. The aerosols that interact with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3 °C.

  16. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  17. Study on the behavior of naturally occurring radioactivity originated from heavy minerals in weathering process of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Nakashima, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Mass fraction of biotite and of heavy minerals originally in granite rocks at Naegi granite area are 3% and 1 x 10 -4 %, respectively. Though their values are very small, specific activities of 238 U is 1.3 Bq/g and 80 Bq/g, respectively. Their values are much higher than that of gross granite (0.1 Bq/g). Therefore, they play important roles in the weathering process. Authors separated biotite and heavy minerals from less-weathered and weathered (outcrop, plastic materials) granite samples by using heavy liquid, and determined each specific activities and activity ratios. Furthermore, the surface of heavy minerals were washed in 6 N HCl for 20 minutes. And lost fraction of activity in the heavy minerals was determined. The result suggested that activity around heavy mineral's surface was removed into surroundings or external environment through weathering process. (5 figs.)

  18. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Kahre, Melinda; Haberle, Robert; Urata, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems.Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  19. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  20. Weathering processes in waste materials from a mining area in a semiarid zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro-Hervás, Cortes; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sánchez, María José; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz; Molina, José

    2012-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical characterization of waste materials present in an abandoned Pb, Zn–Ag mining site (SE, Spain) was carried out. In unaltered rocks, the mineralogy is characterized by plagioclase, pyroxene, magnetite, ilmenite, amphibole, biotite and quartz. Trace-element contents of these samples represent unaltered values. In mine-waste materials, pH ranged from acidic to slightly acidic and trace-element content was generally high, especially for Pb and Zn, although there were also substantial As concentrations. X-ray diffraction results suggested that these samples have a complex mineralogy, including alteration products. Surficial materials in the study area were affected by weathering processes, generating supergene assemblages, including Fe and Mn oxides and hydroxides, carbonates, hydrated sulfates and jarosite. Knowledge of the geochemical processes that took place in the past and which are still taking place provide an important tool for assessing associated environmental problems in this area.

  1. Development of GNSS PWV information management system for very short-term weather forecast in the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han-Earl; Yoon, Ha Su; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Cho, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) was in the spotlight as a meteorological research tool. The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) developed a GNSS precipitable water vapor (PWV) information management system to apply PWV to practical applications, such as very short-term weather forecast. The system consists of a DPR, DRS, and TEV, which are divided functionally. The DPR processes GNSS data using the Bernese GNSS software and then retrieves PWV from zenith total delay (ZTD) with the optimized mean temperature equation for the Korean Peninsula. The DRS collects data from eighty permanent GNSS stations in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and provides the PWV retrieved from GNSS data to a user. The TEV is in charge of redundancy of the DPR. The whole process is performed in near real-time where the delay is ten minutes. The validity of the GNSS PWV was proved by means of a comparison with radiosonde data. In the experiment of numerical weather prediction model, the GNSS PWV was utilized as the initial value of the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model for heavy rainfall event. As a result, we found that the forecasting capability of the WRF is improved by data assimilation of GNSS PWV.

  2. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  3. A support system for assessing local vulnerability to weather and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Alex; Howe, Peter D.; Yarnal, Brent; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The changing number and nature of weather- and climate-related natural hazards is causing more communities to need to assess their vulnerabilities. Vulnerability assessments, however, often require considerable expertise and resources that are not available or too expensive for many communities. To meet the need for an easy-to-use, cost-effective vulnerability assessment tool for communities, a prototype online vulnerability assessment support system was built and tested. This prototype tool guides users through a stakeholder-based vulnerability assessment that breaks the process into four easy-to-implement steps. Data sources are integrated in the online environment so that perceived risks—defined and prioritized qualitatively by users—can be compared and discussed against the impacts that past events have had on the community. The support system is limited in scope, and the locations of the case studies do not provide a sufficiently broad range of sample cases. The addition of more publically available hazard databases combined with future improvements in the support system architecture and software will expand opportunities for testing and fully implementing the support system.

  4. Paired-Associate and Feedback-Based Weather Prediction Tasks Support Multiple Category Learning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kaiyun; Fu, Qiufang; Sun, Xunwei; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear whether probabilistic category learning in the feedback-based weather prediction task (FB-WPT) can be mediated by a non-declarative or procedural learning system. To address this issue, we compared the effects of training time and verbal working memory, which influence the declarative learning system but not the non-declarative learning system, in the FB and paired-associate (PA) WPTs, as the PA task recruits a declarative learning system. The results of Experiment 1 showed...

  5. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series; Constantes de temps des processus d'erosion et d'alteration dans le systeme himalayen: approche geochimique elementaire et isotopique par les series de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granet, M

    2007-06-15

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  6. Using airborne GAMMA-ray spectrometry (uranium, thorium, potassium) to quantify weathering and erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, F.

    2005-01-01

    The airborne gamma-ray spectrometry survey carried out on the Armorican Massif provided soil contents in U, Th and K in ppm. Chemical and mechanical erosion processes within a homogeneous geological unit have been estimated using their variations and those of the 137 Cs. Our new approach, based on a multivariate analysis (hierarchic ascending classification), integrates the airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data, with their broad spatial distribution, together with precisely located station data (major elements, traces and isotopic geochemistry) resulting from a soil and river water erosion products survey. The total export of potassium was estimated in any point of an area catchment (50-m resolution) until 17+2 t/km 2 /a for a 50-m thick weathering profile. Erosion study by river sampling provide important biases, for the perennial river does not integrate the whole range of erosion products: the geochemical signature of the valleys is currently more represented than plateau areas. (author)

  7. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  8. CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) Science: Progress thus far and the next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallamraju, D.; Kozyra, J.; Basu, S.

    Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System CAWSES is the current program of Scientific Committee for Solar Terrestrial Physics SCOSTEP for 2004 - 2008 The main aim of CAWSES is to bring together scientists from various nations to address the coupled and global nature of the Sun-Earth System phenomena Towards that end CAWSES provides a platform for international cooperation in observations data analysis theory and modeling There has been active international participation thus far with endorsement of the national CAWSES programs in some countries and many scientists around the globe actively volunteering their time in this effort The CAWSES Science Steering Group has organized the CAWSES program into five Themes for better execution of its science Solar Influence on Climate Space Weather Science and Applications Atmospheric Coupling Processes Space Climatology and Capacity Building and Education CAWSES will cooperate with International programs that focus on the Sun-Earth system science and at the same time compliment the work of programs whose scope is beyond the realm of CAWSES This talk will briefly review the science goals of CAWSES provide salient results from different Themes with emphasis on those from the Space Weather Theme This talk will also indicate the next steps that are being planned in this program and solicit inputs from the community for the science efforts to be carried out in the future

  9. Revision of deposition and weathering parameters for the ingestion dose module (ECOSYS) of the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    The ECOSYS model is the ingestion dose model integrated in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. The parameters used in this model have however not been updated in recent years, where the level of knowledge on various environmental processes has increased...... considerably. A Nordic work group has carried out a series of evaluations of the general validity of current ECOSYS default parameters. This paper specifically discusses the parameter revisions required with respect to the modelling of deposition and natural weathering of contaminants on agricultural crops......, to enable the trustworthy prognostic modelling that is essential to ensure justification and optimisation of countermeasure strategies. New modelling approaches are outlined, since it was found that current ECOSYS approaches for deposition and natural weathering could lead to large prognostic errors....

  10. Silica Retention and Enrichment in Open-System Chemical Weathering on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Thompson, L. M.; Berger, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical signatures of weathering are evident in the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) datasets from Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gale Crater. Comparisons across the landing sites show consistent patterns indicating silica retention and/or enrichment in open-system aqueous alteration.

  11. Review of power sources for Alaska DOT & PF road weather information systems (RWIS) : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the findings related to a review of power sources for six off-grid Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) in : Alaska. Various power sources were reviewed as a means of reliably operating the off-grid RWIS sites throughout the ...

  12. User's guide to the weather model: a component of the western spruce budworm modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. P. Kemp; N. L. Crookston; P. W. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A stochastic model useful in simulating daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation developed by Bruhn and others has been adapted for use in the western spruce budworm modeling system. This document describes how to use the weather model and illustrates some aspects of its behavior.

  13. A short-range multi-model ensemble weather prediction system for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available prediction system (EPS) at the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are examined. The ensemble consists of different forecasts from the 12-km LAM of the UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) and the Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) covering the South...

  14. The 2017 Hurricane Season: A Revolution in Geostationary Weather Satellite Imaging and Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, A. M.; Gundy, J.; Brown-Bertold, B.; Yates, H.; Dobler, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Since their introduction, geostationary weather satellites have enabled us to track hurricane life-cycle movement from development to dissipation. During the 2017 hurricane season, the new GOES-16 geostationary satellite demonstrated just how far we have progressed technologically in geostationary satellite imaging, with hurricane imagery showing never-before-seen detail of the hurricane eye and eyewall structure and life cycle. In addition, new ground system technology, leveraging high-performance computing, delivered imagery and data to forecasters with unprecedented speed—and with updates as often as every 30 seconds. As additional satellites and new products become operational, forecasters will be able to track hurricanes with even greater accuracy and assist in aftermath evaluations. This presentation will present glimpses into the past, a look at the present, and a prediction for the future utilization of geostationary satellites with respect to all facets of hurricane support.

  15. Improvements in medium range weather forecasting system of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system is based on the latest Grid Statistical Interpolation (GSI) scheme and it has the provision to use most of .... ified Simplified-Arakawa Scheme (SAS) (Han and. Pan 2010). ..... Kim Y-J and Arakawa A 1995 Improvement of orographic gravity wave ... Yang F, Mitchell K, Hou Y-T, Dai Y, Deng X, Wang Z and. Liang X-Z ...

  16. Constraining Silicate Weathering Processes in an Active Volcanic Complex: Implications for the Long-term Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, K.; West, A. J.; Hartmann, J.; Amann, T.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.

    2017-12-01

    While analyzing geochemical archives and carbon cycle modelling can further our understanding of the role of silicate weathering as a sink in the long-term carbon cycle, it is necessary to study modern weathering processes to inform these efforts. A recent compilation of data from rivers draining basaltic catchments estimates that rock weathering in active volcanic fields (AVFs) consumes atmospheric CO2 approximately three times faster than in inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), suggesting that the eruption and subsequent weathering of large igneous provinces likely played a major role in the carbon cycle in the geologic past [1]. The study demonstrates a significant correlation between catchment mean annual temperature (MAT) and atmospheric CO2 consumption rate for IVFs. However CO2 consumption due to weathering of AVFs is not correlated with MAT as the relationship is complicated by variability in hydrothermal fluxes, reactive surface area, and groundwater flow paths. To investigate the controls on weathering processes in AVFs, we present data for dissolved and solid weathering products from Mount Aso Caldera, Japan. Aso Caldera is an ideal site for studying the how the chemistry of rivers draining an AVF is impacted by high-temperature water/rock interactions, volcanic ash weathering, and varied groundwater flow paths and residence times. Samples were collected over five field seasons from two rivers and their tributaries, cold groundwater springs, and thermal springs. These samples capture the region's temperature and precipitation seasonality. Solid samples of unaltered volcanic rocks, hydrothermally-altered materials, volcanic ash, a soil profile, and suspended and bedload river sediments were also collected. The hydrochemistry of dissolved phases were analyzed at the University of Hamburg, while the mineralogy and geochemical compositions of solid phases were analyzed at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles. This work will be discussed in the context of

  17. Natural Information Processing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Sweller; Susan Sweller

    2006-01-01

    Natural information processing systems such as biological evolution and human cognition organize information used to govern the activities of natural entities. When dealing with biologically secondary information, these systems can be specified by five common principles that we propose underlie natural information processing systems. The principles equate: (1) human long-term memory with a genome; (2) learning from other humans with biological reproduction; (3) problem solving through random ...

  18. Testing space weather connections in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Souček, J.; Krupař, V.; Píša, D.; Santolík, O.; Taubenschuss, U.; Němec, F.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims at testing and validating tools for prediction of the impact of solar events in the vicinity of inner and outer solar system planets using in-situ spacecraft data (primarily MESSENGER, STEREO and ACE, but also VEX and Cassini), remote Jovian observations (Hubble telescope, Nançay decametric array), existing catalogues (HELCATS and Tao et al. (2005)) and the tested propagating models (the ICME radial propagation tool of the CDPP and the 1-D MHD code propagation model presented in Tao et al. (2005)).

  19. Reproducibility of Carbon and Water Cycle by an Ecosystem Process Based Model Using a Weather Generator and Effect of Temporal Concentration of Precipitation on Model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, T.; Machimura, T.

    2014-12-01

    GCM is generally used to produce input weather data for the simulation of carbon and water cycle by ecosystem process based models under climate change however its temporal resolution is sometimes incompatible to requirement. A weather generator (WG) is used for temporal downscaling of input weather data for models, where the effect of WG algorithms on reproducibility of ecosystem model outputs must be assessed. In this study simulated carbon and water cycle by Biome-BGC model using weather data measured and generated by CLIMGEN weather generator were compared. The measured weather data (daily precipitation, maximum, minimum air temperature) at a few sites for 30 years was collected from NNDC Online weather data. The generated weather data was produced by CLIMGEN parameterized using the measured weather data. NPP, heterotrophic respiration (HR), NEE and water outflow were simulated by Biome-BGC using measured and generated weather data. In the case of deciduous broad leaf forest in Lushi, Henan Province, China, 30 years average monthly NPP by WG was 10% larger than that by measured weather in the growing season. HR by WG was larger than that by measured weather in all months by 15% in average. NEE by WG was more negative in winter and was close to that by measured weather in summer. These differences in carbon cycle were because the soil water content by WG was larger than that by measured weather. The difference between monthly water outflow by WG and by measured weather was large and variable, and annual outflow by WG was 50% of that by measured weather. The inconsistency in carbon and water cycle by WG and measured weather was suggested be affected by the difference in temporal concentration of precipitation, which was assessed.

  20. Effect of processing method on surface and weathering characteristics of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2004-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  1. Effect of processing method on accelerated weathering of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2003-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  2. The Optimal Dispatch of a Power System Containing Virtual Power Plants under Fog and Haze Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing influence of fog and haze (F-H weather and the rapid development of distributed energy resources (DERs and smart grids, the concept of the virtual power plant (VPP employed in this study would help to solve the dispatch problem caused by multiple DERs connected to the power grid. The effects of F-H weather on photovoltaic output forecast, load forecast and power system dispatch are discussed according to real case data. The wavelet neural network (WNN model was employed to predict photovoltaic output and load, considering F-H weather, based on the idea of “similar days of F-H”. The multi-objective optimal dispatch model of a power system adopted in this paper contains several VPPs and conventional power plants, under F-H weather, and the mixed integer linear programming (MILP and the Yalmip toolbox of MATLAB were adopted to solve the dispatch model. The analysis of the results from a case study proves the validity and feasibility of the model and the algorithms.

  3. DOE Workshop; Pan-Gass Conference on the Representation of Atmospheric Processes in Weather and Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Hugh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-11-12

    This is the first meeting of the whole new GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Atmospheric System Study (GASS) project that has been formed from the merger of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Project and the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies (GABLS). As such, this meeting will play a major role in energizing GEWEX work in the area of atmospheric parameterizations of clouds, convection, stable boundary layers, and aerosol-cloud interactions for the numerical models used for weather and climate projections at both global and regional scales. The representation of these processes in models is crucial to GEWEX goals of improved prediction of the energy and water cycles at both weather and climate timescales. This proposal seeks funds to be used to cover incidental and travel expenses for U.S.-based graduate students and early career scientists (i.e., within 5 years of receiving their highest degree). We anticipate using DOE funding to support 5-10 people. We will advertise the availability of these funds by providing a box to check for interested participants on the online workshop registration form. We will also send a note to our participants' mailing lists reminding them that the funds are available and asking senior scientists to encourage their more junior colleagues to participate. All meeting participants are encouraged to submit abstracts for oral or poster presentations. The science organizing committee (see below) will base funding decisions on the relevance and quality of these abstracts, with preference given to under-represented populations (especially women and minorities) and to early career scientists being actively mentored at the meeting (e.g. students or postdocs attending the meeting with their adviser).

  4. Online data processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Yagi, Hideyuki; Yamada, Takayuki

    1979-02-01

    A pulse height analyzer terminal system PHATS has been developed for online data processing via JAERI-TOKAI computer network. The system is controled by using a micro-computer MICRO-8 which was developed for the JAERI-TOKAI network. The system program consists of two subprograms, online control system ONLCS and pulse height analyzer control system PHACS. ONLCS links the terminal with the conversational programming system of FACOM 230/75 through the JAERI-TOKAI network and controls data processing in TSS and remote batch modes. PHACS is used to control INPUT/OUTPUT of data between pulse height analyzer and cassette-MT or typewriter. This report describes the hardware configuration and the system program in detail. In the appendix, explained are real time monitor, type of message, PEX to PEX protocol and Host to Host protocol, required for the system programming. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems; Beitraege des Instituts zum COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, R.; Flender, F.; Hagen, M.; Hoeller, H.; Keil, C.; Meischner, P.

    1998-07-01

    Across Europe more than 110 weather radars are in operation. More than 60 of them are Doppler radars and this number is increasing steadily. Doppler systems are becoming an operational standard. Most systems operate in C-band, with the exception of the Spanish radar network which is composed of S-band Doppler radars. Radar product composites are available for Scandinavia and Central Europe. National networks exist for the UK, France and Spain. Europe further is fortunate to have 8 polarimetric Doppler radars used mainly for research. In Italy some of those systems are used also for operational nowcasting applications for dedicated customers. The Chilbolton multiparameter Doppler radar operates at S-band. (orig.)

  6. Process evaluation distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  7. Geochemistry of radioactive elements in the process of weathering of carbonatites, acidic and alkali rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmodik, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    Geochemical peculiarities of uranium and thorium behaviour under formation of area crusts of weathering of granitoids, alkali rocks and carbonatites of certain areas of East Siberia are considered. The presented crysts of weathering have been formed under different climatic conditions, they have different age (in the limit of upper Cretaceous period - Neogene up to Quaternary time), chemical and mineral composition. Factors determining and controlling the level of uranium and thorium concentrations in weathering products are disclosed on the basis of facts using the methods of neutron-fragmentary radiography and by-fractional balances. Uranium and thorium distribution in granulometric fractions of crysts of weathering is considered in detail. Data on change in forms of radioactive elements under weathering, effect of fine-dispersed hypergene minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, goethite, etc.) on the character of uranium and thorium distribution in eluvial products as well as on sources of migrating uranium in crusts of weathering are presented. Scales of uranium and thorium redistribution under weathering are revealed. Supposition on the source of uranium and throium in sediments is made

  8. Prioritization Scheme for Proposed Road Weather Information System Sites: Montana Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Kaisy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for prioritization of new proposed environmental sensor station (ESS sites is developed and presented in this paper. The model assesses the overall merit (OM of a proposed ESS site as part of a Road Weather Information System (RWIS using weather, traffic, and safety data among other variables. The purpose of the proposed model is to help in selecting optimum sites for new ESS locations, which is important in guiding RWIS system expansion. Inputs to the OM model include weather index (WI, traffic index (TI, crash index, geographic coverage, and opportunistic factors. The WI at a proposed site is determined using multiple indicators of weather severity and variability. The crash index, another major input to the OM model, incorporates crash rate along the route and the percentage of weather-related crashes over the analysis period. The TI, in turn, reflects the amount of travel on the highway network in the area surrounding the proposed ESS site. The fourth input to the merit model accounts for the ESS existing coverage in the area where the proposed site is located, while the fifth and last input is concerned with the availability and ease of access to power and communications. Model coefficients are represented by weights that reflect the contribution of each input (variable to the OM of the ESS site. Those weights are user-specified and should be selected to reflect the agency preferences and priorities. The application of the proposed merit model on sample sites in Montana demonstrated the utility of the model in ranking candidate sites using data readily available to highway agencies.

  9. COST ES0602: towards a European network on chemical weather forecasting and information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kukkonen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The COST ES0602 action provides a forum for benchmarking approaches and practices in data exchange and multi-model capabilities for chemical weather forecasting and near real-time information services in Europe. The action includes approximately 30 participants from 19 countries, and its duration is from 2007 to 2011 (http://www.chemicalweather.eu/. Major efforts have been dedicated in other actions and projects to the development of infrastructures for data flow. We have therefore aimed for collaboration with ongoing actions towards developing near real-time exchange of input data for air quality forecasting. We have collected information on the operational air quality forecasting models on a regional and continental scale in a structured form, and inter-compared and evaluated the physical and chemical structure of these models. We have also constructed a European chemical weather forecasting portal that includes links to most of the available chemical weather forecasting systems in Europe. The collaboration also includes the examination of the case studies that have been organized within COST-728, in order to inter-compare and evaluate the models against experimental data. We have also constructed an operational model forecasting ensemble. Data from a representative set of regional background stations have been selected, and the operational forecasts for this set of sites will be inter-compared and evaluated. The Action has investigated, analysed and reviewed existing chemical weather information systems and services, and will provide recommendations on best practices concerning the presentation and dissemination of chemical weather information towards the public and decision makers.

  10. Numerical simulation of rainfall and temperature over Kenya using weather research and forecasting-environmental modelling system (WRF-EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagero Obaigwa Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on one of the high resolution models used for weather forecasting at Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD. It reviews the skill and accuracy of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF - Environmental Modeling System (EMS model, in simulating weather over Kenya. The study period was March to May 2011, during the rainy season over Kenya. The model output was compared with the observed data from 27 synoptic stations spread over the study area, to determine the performance of the model in terms of its skill and accuracy in forecasting. The spatial distribution of rainfall and temperature showed that the WRF model was capable of reproducing the observed general pattern especially for temperature. The model has skill in forecasting both rainfall and temperature over the study area. However, the model may underestimate rainfall of more than 10 mm/day and displace its location and overestimate rainfall of less than 1 mm/day. Therefore, during the period of enhanced rainfall especially in the month of April and part of May the model forecast needs to be complemented by other models or forecasting methods before giving a forecast. There is need to improve its performance over the domain through review of the parameterization of small scale physical processes and more observed data need to be simulated into the model.

  11. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  12. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF 6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF 6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF 6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  13. Weather forecast

    CERN Document Server

    Courtier, P

    1994-02-07

    Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.

  14. Impact of sub-horizontal discontinuities and vertical heterogeneities on recharge processes in a weathered crystalline aquifer in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Madeleine; Selles, Adrien; Bour, Olivier; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Crenner, Marion; Wajiduddin, Mohammed; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2017-04-01

    In the face of increasing demands for irrigated agriculture, many states in India are facing water scarcity issues, leading to severe groundwater depletion. Because perennial water resources in southern India consist mainly of crystalline aquifers, understanding how recharge takes place and the role of preferential flow zones in such heterogeneous media is of prime importance for successful and sustainable aquifer management. Here we investigate how vertical heterogeneities and highly transmissive sub-horizontal discontinuities may control groundwater flows and recharge dynamics. Recharge processes in the vadose zone were examined by analysing the propagation of an infiltration front and mass transfers resulting from the implementation of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) structure. Said structure was set up in the Experimental Hydrogeological Park in Telangana (Southern India), a well-equipped and continuously monitored site, which is periodically supplied with surface water deviated from the nearby Musi river, downstream of Hyderabad. An initial volume balance equation was applied to quantify the overall inputs from the MAR structure into the groundwater system, which was confirmed using a chloride mass balance approach. To understand how this incoming mass is then distributed within the aquifer, we monitored the evolution of water volumes in the tank, and the resulting lateral propagation front observed in the surrounding borehole network. Borehole logs of temperature and conductivity were regularly performed to identify preferential flow paths. As a result we observed that mass transfers take place in the way of preferential lateral flow through the most transmissive zones of the profile. These include the interface between the lower portion of the upper weathered horizon (the saprolite) and the upper part of the underlying fissured granite, as well as the first flowing fractures. This leads to a rapid lateral transfer of recharge, which allows quick

  15. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LDIS was developed by NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features

  16. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  17. Wind gust estimation by combining numerical weather prediction model and statistical post-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlakas, Platon; Drakaki, Eleni; Galanis, George; Spyrou, Christos; Kallos, George

    2017-04-01

    The continuous rise of off-shore and near-shore activities as well as the development of structures, such as wind farms and various offshore platforms, requires the employment of state-of-the-art risk assessment techniques. Such analysis is used to set the safety standards and can be characterized as a climatologically oriented approach. Nevertheless, a reliable operational support is also needed in order to minimize cost drawbacks and human danger during the construction and the functioning stage as well as during maintenance activities. One of the most important parameters for this kind of analysis is the wind speed intensity and variability. A critical measure associated with this variability is the presence and magnitude of wind gusts as estimated in the reference level of 10m. The latter can be attributed to different processes that vary among boundary-layer turbulence, convection activities, mountain waves and wake phenomena. The purpose of this work is the development of a wind gust forecasting methodology combining a Numerical Weather Prediction model and a dynamical statistical tool based on Kalman filtering. To this end, the parameterization of Wind Gust Estimate method was implemented to function within the framework of the atmospheric model SKIRON/Dust. The new modeling tool combines the atmospheric model with a statistical local adaptation methodology based on Kalman filters. This has been tested over the offshore west coastline of the United States. The main purpose is to provide a useful tool for wind analysis and prediction and applications related to offshore wind energy (power prediction, operation and maintenance). The results have been evaluated by using observational data from the NOAA's buoy network. As it was found, the predicted output shows a good behavior that is further improved after the local adjustment post-process.

  18. Offshore Variability in Critical Weather Conditions in Large-Scale Wind Based Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    of the variability for the 2020 Danish power system, one can see that in the worst case, up to 1500 MW of power can be lost in 30 minutes. We present results showing how this issue is partially solved by the new High Wind Storm Controller presented by Siemens in the TWENTIES project.......Offshore wind power has a significant development potential, especially in North Europe. The geographical concentration of offshore wind power leads to increased variability and in the case of critical weather conditions it may lead to sudden and considerable loss of production. In this context......, the chances of losing several GW of wind power due to critical weather conditions in a very short time period could potentially jeopardize the whole system’s reliability and stability. Forecasting such events is not trivial and the results so far are not encouraging. When assessing the impact...

  19. Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for Weather and Climate using the Multi-testbed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Lee, T.; Buban, M.; Dumas, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for Weather and Climate using the Multi-testbed approachC. Bruce Baker1, Ed Dumas1,2, Temple Lee1,2, Michael Buban1,21NOAA ARL, Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division, Oak Ridge, TN2Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN The development of a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) testbeds that can be used to validate, integrate, calibrate and evaluate new technology and sensors for routine boundary layer research, validation of operational weather models, improvement of model parameterizations, and recording observations within high-impact storms is important for understanding the importance and impact of using sUAS's routinely as a new observing platform. The goal of the multi-testbed approach is to build a robust set of protocols to assess the cost and operational feasibility of unmanned observations for routine applications using various combinations of sUAS aircraft and sensors in different locations and field experiments. All of these observational testbeds serve different community needs, but they also use a diverse suite of methodologies for calibration and evaluation of different sensors and platforms for severe weather and boundary layer research. The primary focus will be to evaluate meteorological sensor payloads to measure thermodynamic parameters and define surface characteristics with visible, IR, and multi-spectral cameras. This evaluation will lead to recommendations for sensor payloads for VTOL and fixed-wing sUAS.

  20. Decoupling Weather Influence from User Habits for an Optimal Electric Load Forecast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Massidda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The balance between production and consumption in a smart grid with high penetration of renewable sources and in the presence of energy storage systems benefits from an accurate load prediction. A general approach to load forecasting is not possible because of the additional complication due to the increasing presence of distributed and usually unmeasured photovoltaic production. Various methods are proposed in the literature that can be classified into two classes: those that predict by separating the portion of load due to consumption habits from the part of production due to local weather conditions, and those that attempt to predict the load as a whole. The characteristic that should lead to a preference for one approach over another is obviously the percentage of penetration of distributed production. The study site discussed in this document is the grid of Borkum, an island located in the North Sea. The advantages in terms of reducing forecasting errors for the electrical load, which can be obtained by using weather information, are explained. In particular, when comparing the results of different approaches gradually introducing weather forecasts, it is clear that the correct functional dependency of production has to be taken into account in order to obtain maximum yield from the available information. Where possible, this approach can significantly improve the quality of the forecasts, which in turn can improve the balance of a network—especially if energy storage systems are in place.

  1. SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  2. Electron beam processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam Processing Systems (EPS) are used as useful and powerful tools in many industrial application fields such as the production of cross-linked wire, rubber tire, heat shrinkable film and tubing, curing, degradation of polymers, sterilization and environmental application. In this paper, the feature and application fields, the selection of machine ratings and safety measures of EPS will be described. (author)

  3. Behaviour of elements in soils developed from nephelinites at Mount Etinde (Cameroon): Impact of hydrothermal versus weathering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etame, J.; Gerard, M.; Bilong, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2009-05-01

    The progressive weathering of 0.65 Ma nephelinites from Mount Etinde (South Western Cameroon) in a humid tropical setting has resulted in the formation of a 150 cm thick weathering crust. The soil profiles consist of three horizons: Ah/Bw/C. A major differentiation of the chemical and mineralogical parameters is related to the complexity of the saprolites, some of which were hydrothermally altered. Bulk geochemical and microgeochemical analyses were performed on selected minerals from the different horizons of two reference profiles, of which one (E 4) was developed from unaltered nephelinite (nephelinite U) while the other (BO 1) formed from hydrothermally altered nephelinite (nephelinite H). The results show that the primary minerals (clinopyroxene, nepheline, leucite, haüyne, titanomagnetite, perovskite, apatite and sphene) experienced differential weathering rates with primary minerals rich in rare earth elements (titanomagnetite, perovskite, apatite and sphene) surviving in the saprolite and the Bw horizons. The weathering of the primary minerals is reflected in the leaching of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements, except for Ba and Rb in the hydrothermalised nephelinite soil. The order of mobility is influenced by hydrothermal processes: Na > K > Rb > Ca > Cs > Sr in nephelinite U soil , Na > K > Sr > Ca > Mg in nephelinite H soil; Rb/Sr and Sr/Mg can be used as indicators of the kinetic of the weathering on nephelinite U and on nephelinite H. Barium enrichment is related to variable concentrations in the nephelinites, to the formation of crandallites and the leaching of surface horizons. The content of metallic elements is higher in nephelinite H soil than in the nephelinite U soil. Results show that hydrothermal alteration leads to an enrichment of light (La, Ce, Nd) and intermediate (Sm, Eu, Dy) rare earth elements. The enrichment in Cr and Pb in the surface horizons is discussed in relation to organic matter activity, the dissolution of magnetites, and

  4. A study of the relationship between cloud-to-ground lightning and precipitation in the convective weather system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, the correlation between cloud-to-ground (CG lightning and precipitation has been studied by making use of the data from weather radar, meteorological soundings, and a lightning location system that includes three direction finders about 40 km apart from each other in the Pingliang area of east Gansu province in P. R. China. We have studied the convective systems that developed during two cold front processes passing over the observation area, and found that the CG lightning can be an important factor in the precipitation estimation. The regression equation between the average precipitation intensity (R and the number of CG lightning flashes (L in the main precipitation period is R = 1.69 ln (L - 0.27, and the correlation coefficient r is 0.86. The CG lightning flash rate can be used as an indicator of the formation and development of the convective weather system. Another more exhaustive precipitation estimation method has been developed by analyzing the temporal and spatial distributions of the precipitation relative to the location of the CG lightning flashes. Precipitation calculated from the CG lightning flashes is very useful, especially in regions with inadequate radar cover.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity; lightning; precipitation

  5. The Determination of Feasible Control Variables for Geoengineering and Weather Modification Based on the Theory of Sensitivity in Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical cybernetics allows for exploring weather and climate modification (geoengineering as an optimal control problem in which the Earth’s climate system is considered as a control system and the role of controller is given to human operators. In mathematical models used in climate studies control actions that manipulate the weather and climate can be expressed via variations in model parameters that act as controls. In this paper, we propose the “instability-sensitivity” approach that allows for determining feasible control variables in geoengineering. The method is based on the sensitivity analysis of mathematical models that describe various types of natural instability phenomena. The applicability of this technique is illustrated by a model of atmospheric baroclinic instability since this physical mechanism plays a significant role in the general circulation of the atmosphere and, consequently, in climate formation. The growth rate of baroclinic unstable waves is taken as an indicator of control manipulations. The information obtained via calculated sensitivity coefficients is very beneficial for assessing the physical feasibility of methods of control of the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and for designing optimal control systems for climatic processes. It also provides insight into potential future changes in baroclinic waves, as a result of a changing climate.

  6. Design of remote weather monitor system based on embedded web database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jiugang; Zhuang Along

    2010-01-01

    The remote weather monitoring system is designed by employing the embedded Web database technology and the S3C2410 microprocessor as the core. The monitoring system can simultaneously monitor the multi-channel sensor signals, and can give a dynamic Web pages display of various types of meteorological information on the remote computer. It gives a elaborated introduction of the construction and application of the Web database under the embedded Linux. Test results show that the client access the Web page via the GPRS or the Internet, acquires data and uses an intuitive graphical way to display the value of various types of meteorological information. (authors)

  7. Neural Fuzzy Inference System-Based Weather Prediction Model and Its Precipitation Predicting Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a weather prediction model in this article based on neural network and fuzzy inference system (NFIS-WPM, and then apply it to predict daily fuzzy precipitation given meteorological premises for testing. The model consists of two parts: the first part is the “fuzzy rule-based neural network”, which simulates sequential relations among fuzzy sets using artificial neural network; and the second part is the “neural fuzzy inference system”, which is based on the first part, but could learn new fuzzy rules from the previous ones according to the algorithm we proposed. NFIS-WPM (High Pro and NFIS-WPM (Ave are improved versions of this model. It is well known that the need for accurate weather prediction is apparent when considering the benefits. However, the excessive pursuit of accuracy in weather prediction makes some of the “accurate” prediction results meaningless and the numerical prediction model is often complex and time-consuming. By adapting this novel model to a precipitation prediction problem, we make the predicted outcomes of precipitation more accurate and the prediction methods simpler than by using the complex numerical forecasting model that would occupy large computation resources, be time-consuming and which has a low predictive accuracy rate. Accordingly, we achieve more accurate predictive precipitation results than by using traditional artificial neural networks that have low predictive accuracy.

  8. Automation of Field Operations and Services (AFOS) National Weather Service (NWS) Service Records and Retention System (SRRS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Service Records and Retention System (SRRS) is historical digital data set DSI-9949, a collection of products created by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) and...

  9. Exploring clouds, weather, climate, and modeling using bilingual content and activities from the Windows to the Universe program and the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D.; Denning, S.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Hatheway, B.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.

    2008-12-01

    The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its third year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences through its affiliation with the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). W2U web pages are written at three levels in English and Spanish. This information targets learners at all levels, educators, and families who seek to understand and share resources and information about the nature of weather and the climate system, and career role models from related research fields. This resource can also be helpful to educators who are building bridges in the classroom between the sciences, the arts, and literacy. Visitors to the W2U's CMMAP web portal can access a beautiful new clouds image gallery; information about each cloud type and the atmospheric processes that produce them; a Clouds in Art interactive; collections of weather-themed poetry, art, and myths; links to games and puzzles for children; and extensive classroom- ready resources and activities for K-12 teachers. Biographies of CMMAP scientists and graduate students are featured. Basic science concepts important to understanding the atmosphere, such as condensation, atmosphere pressure, lapse rate, and more have been developed, as well as 'microworlds' that enable students to interact with experimental tools while building fundamental knowledge

  10. Advanced information processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  11. Use of Sr isotopes as a tool to decipher the soil weathering processes in a tropical river catchment, southwestern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurumurthy, G.P.; Balakrishna, K.; Tripti, M.; Riotte, Jean; Audry, Stéphane; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Udaya Shankar, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    River water composition (major ion and "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr ratio) was monitored on a monthly basis over a period of three years from a mountainous river (Nethravati River) of southwestern India. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentration is relatively low (46 mg L"−"1) with silica being the dominant contributor. The basin is characterised by lower dissolved Sr concentration (avg. 150 nmol L"−"1), with radiogenic "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr isotopic ratios (avg. 0.72041 at outlet). The composition of Sr and "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr and their correlation with silicate derived cations in the river basin reveal that their dominant source is from the radiogenic silicate rock minerals. Their composition in the stream is controlled by a combination of physical and chemical weathering occurring in the basin. The molar ratio of SiO_2/Ca and "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr isotopic ratio show strong seasonal variation in the river water, i.e., low SiO_2/Ca ratio with radiogenic isotopes during non-monsoon and higher SiO_2/Ca with less radiogenic isotopes during monsoon season. Whereas, the seasonal variation of Rb/Sr ratio in the stream water is not significant suggesting that change in the mineral phase being involved in the weathering reaction could be unlikely for the observed molar SiO_2/Ca and "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr isotope variation in river water. Therefore, the shift in the stream water chemical composition could be attributed to contribution of ground water which is in contact with the bedrock (weathering front) during non-monsoon and weathering of secondary soil minerals in the regolith layer during monsoon. The secondary soil mineral weathering leads to limited silicate cation and enhanced silica fluxes in the Nethravati river basin. - Highlights: • Systematic monthly geochemical monitoring of a mountainous tropical river. • Soil weathering has dominant control on the surface water chemistry in the basin. • Soil redox process plays a dominant role in leaching of soil minerals. • Soil mineral weathering in

  12. Aviation Model: A Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System for Aviation Applications at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kin Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO is planning to implement a fine-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model for supporting the aviation weather applications at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA. This new NWP model system, called Aviation Model (AVM, is configured at a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and 200 m. It is based on the WRF-ARW (Advance Research WRF model that can have sufficient computation efficiency in order to produce hourly updated forecasts up to 9 hours ahead on a future high performance computer system with theoretical peak performance of around 10 TFLOPS. AVM will be nested inside the operational mesoscale NWP model of HKO with horizontal resolution of 2 km. In this paper, initial numerical experiment results in forecast of windshear events due to seabreeze and terrain effect are discussed. The simulation of sea-breeze-related windshear is quite successful, and the headwind change observed from flight data could be reproduced in the model forecast. Some impacts of physical processes on generating the fine-scale wind circulation and development of significant convection are illustrated. The paper also discusses the limitations in the current model setup and proposes methods for the future development of AVM.

  13. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  14. Extratropical Weather Systems on Mars: Radiatively-Active Water Ice Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Urata, R. A.; Montmessin, F.

    2017-01-01

    Extratropical, large-scale weather disturbances, namely transient, synoptic-period,baroclinic barotropic eddies - or - low- (high-) pressure cyclones (anticyclones), are components fundamental to global circulation patterns for rapidly rotating, differentially heated, shallow atmospheres such as Earth and Mars. Such "wave-like" disturbances that arise via (geophysical) fluid shear instability develop, mature and decay, and travel west-to-east in the middle and high latitudes within terrestrial-like planetary atmospheres. These disturbances serve as critical agents in the transport of heat and momentum between low and high latitudes of the planet. Moreover, they transport trace species within the atmosphere (e.g., water vapor/ice, other aerosols (dust), chemical species, etc). Between early autumn through early spring, middle and high latitudes on Mars exhibit strong equator-to-pole mean temperature contrasts (i.e., "baroclinicity"). Data collected during the Viking era and observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that such strong baroclinicity supports vigorous, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems [Banfield et al., 2004; Barnes et al., 1993]. A good example of traveling weather systems, frontal wave activity and sequestered dust activity from MGS/MOC image analyses is provided in Figure 1 (cf. Wang et al. [2005]). Utilizing an upgraded and evolving version of the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Mars global climate model, investigated here are key dynamical and physical aspects of simulated northern hemisphere (NH) large-scale extratropica lweather systems,with and without radiatively-active water ice clouds. Mars Climate Model:

  15. Operation of a Data Acquisition, Transfer, and Storage System for the Global Space-Weather Observation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nagatsuma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A system to optimize the management of global space-weather observation networks has been developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT. Named the WONM (Wide-area Observation Network Monitoring system, it enables data acquisition, transfer, and storage through connection to the NICT Science Cloud, and has been supplied to observatories for supporting space-weather forecast and research. This system provides us with easier management of data collection than our previously employed systems by means of autonomous system recovery, periodical state monitoring, and dynamic warning procedures. Operation of the WONM system is introduced in this report.

  16. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 2. Guideline for using weather data; 1974 nendo kisho data ni saishite no shishin. 2. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the guideline for using weather data in R and D on solar energy system. Solar radiation is defined as direct, scattered and reflected radiation in a range of near UV-near IR radiation. Direct solar radiation is observed by silver disk pyrheliometer, while global solar radiation by thermostat or bimetal pyranometer. Accuracy standards of such meters are indispensable to keep the accuracy uniformly. To keep the uniformity and accuracy of observation data all over the world, the international comparative observation is held every 5 years. Solar radiation observation in Japan started in 1932 by installing silver disk pyrheliometers all over the country. In 1938 the observation stations were increased to 79 sites, however, in 1953 those were integrated into 13 long-term weather observation stations. Sunshine duration is defined as the time direct sunbeam aims at the ground, and observed generally by Jordan's heliograph which observes sunshine durations with burned holes on photosensitive recording paper by direct sunbeam through 2 small holes on both sides of a cylinder. The history of statistical processing of solar radiation and sunshine duration data in Meteorological Agency is also presented. (NEDO)

  17. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Chemistry of Weathering

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Several important developments in our understanding of the chemistry of weathering have occurred in the last few years: 1. There has been a major breakthrough in our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the kinetics of sil icate dissolution, and there have been major advances in computer modeling of weathering processes. 2. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of organic solutes in the weathering process, and hence of the inter-relationships between mineral weathering and the terrestrial ecosystem. 3. The impact of acid deposition ("acid rain") has been widely recognized. The processes by which acid deposition is neutral ized are closely related to the processes of normal chemical weathering; an understanding of the chemistry of weathering is thus essential for predicting the effects of acid deposition. 4. More high-qual ity data have become available on the chemical dynamics of smal I watersheds and large river systems, which represent the integrated effects of chemical weathering.

  18. Weather-Driven Variation in Dengue Activity in Australia Examined Using a Process-Based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Williams, Craig; Ritchie, Scott A.; Rau, Gina; Lindesay, Janette; Mercer, Geoff; Harley, David

    2013-01-01

    The impact of weather variation on dengue transmission in Cairns, Australia, was determined by applying a process-based dengue simulation model (DENSiM) that incorporated local meteorologic, entomologic, and demographic data. Analysis showed that inter-annual weather variation is one of the significant determinants of dengue outbreak receptivity. Cross-correlation analyses showed that DENSiM simulated epidemics of similar relative magnitude and timing to those historically recorded in reported dengue cases in Cairns during 1991–2009, (r = 0.372, P < 0.01). The DENSiM model can now be used to study the potential impacts of future climate change on dengue transmission. Understanding the impact of climate variation on the geographic range, seasonality, and magnitude of dengue transmission will enhance development of adaptation strategies to minimize future disease burden in Australia. PMID:23166197

  19. Weathering profiles in granitoid rocks of the Sila Massif uplands, Calabria, southern Italy: New insights into their formation processes and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Critelli, Salvatore; Borrelli, Luigi; Coniglio, Sabrina; Muto, Francesco; Perri, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we characterized several weathering profiles developed on granitoid rocks in the Sila Massif upland (Calabria, southern Italy), integrating detailed macro- and micromorphological observations with physico-mechanical field tests and petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analyses. We focused our attention on the main weathering and pedogenetic processes, trying to understand apparent discrepancies between weathering grade classes based on field description and geomechanical properties, and two common weathering indices, such as the micropetrographic index (Ip) and the chemical index of alteration (CIA). Our results showed that sericite on plagioclase and biotite chloritization, that represent inherited features formed during late-stage hydrothermal alteration of granitoid rocks, may cause an overestimation of the real degree of weathering of primary mineral grains under meteoric conditions, especially in lower weathering grade classes. Moreover, the frequent identification of Fe-Mn oxides and clay coatings of illuvial origin (rather than or in addition to those formed in situ), both at the macro- and microscale, may also explain an overestimation of the weathering degree with respect to field-based classifications. Finally, some apparent inconsistencies between field geomechanical responses and chemical weathering were interpreted as related to physical weathering processes (cryoclastism and thermoclastism), that lead to rock breakdown even when chemical weathering is not well developed. Hence, our study showed that particular caution is needed for evaluating weathering grades, because traditional field and geochemical-petrographic tools may be biased by inherited hydrothermal alteration, physical weathering and illuvial processes. On the basis of chronological constraints to soil formation obtained from a 42 ka-old volcanic input (mixed to granite parent materials) detected in the soil cover of the Sila Massif upland, a first attempt to estimate

  20. The weathering and transformation process of lead in China's shooting ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeling; Zhu, Yongbing; Zhao, Sanping; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Corroding steel-core bullets from three shooting ranges in different climate zones of China were collected. Multiple technical methods (EMPA, SEM, XRD, and ICP-OES) were applied to investigate the structure, morphology, and weathering product of this type of bullet in China to analyze the weathering mechanisms in different types of soils. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to view the morphology and microstructure of corrosion layers. On the corroded lead layer surface, unevenness, micro cracks, and spallation were usually present. Around the micro cracks, many types of euhedral and subhedral crystals of the secondary products of lead were formed, most of which were composed of cerussite (PbCO3), while hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) was predominant in the bullet collected from the humid environment. X-ray power diffraction (XRD) results show that the secondary weathering products in the three shooting range soils are clearly different. In the Fangyan shooting range, which has a neutral and semi-arid soil, the lead weathering product was mainly hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2), while no substantial amount of crystal phase of lead compound could be found in acidic, damp soils from the Fenghuang shooting range, possibly due to the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of lead compounds at lower pH and higher content of organic matter in the soil. In hot and arid environment of the Baicheng shooting range, cerussite might have undergone thermal decomposition, thus generating shannonite (Pb2O(CO3)). These results indicate that the formation of secondary Pb minerals is largely affected by the climatic zone or the soil properties, which may have implications for range management practices.

  1. A 100% renewable power system for Europe - Let the weather and physics decide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Martin; Heide, Dominik; Rasmussen, Morten Grud

    The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modeling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system....... This approach is based on weather data with good spatio-temporal resolution, which is first converted into wind and solar power generation and then used to derive estimates on the optimal mix between the renewable resources and the storage needs.......The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modeling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system...

  2. Radiation signal processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.; Knoll, G.; Strange, D.

    1980-01-01

    An improved signal processing system for radiation imaging apparatus comprises: a radiation transducer producing transducer signals proportional to apparent spatial coordinates of detected radiation events; means for storing true spatial coordinates corresponding to a plurality of predetermined apparent spatial coordinates relative to selected detected radiation events said means for storing responsive to said transducer signal and producing an output signal representative of said true spatial coordinates; and means for interpolating the true spatial coordinates of the detected radiation events located intermediate the stored true spatial coordinates, said means for interpolating communicating with said means for storing

  3. South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) regional traveler information system for weather responsive traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    FHWAs Road Weather Management Program partnered : with the South Dakota DOT to develop and implement a : Weather Responsive Traffic Management (WRTM) : strategy that involves mobile data collection and traveler : information dissemination during w...

  4. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  5. Projected changes of extreme weather events in the eastern United States based on a high resolution climate modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Fu, J S; Drake, J B; Liu, Y; Lamarque, J-F

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first evaluation of dynamical downscaling using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model on a 4 km × 4 km high resolution scale in the eastern US driven by the new Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM v1.0). First we examined the global and regional climate model results, and corrected an inconsistency in skin temperature during the downscaling process by modifying the land/sea mask. In comparison with observations, WRF shows statistically significant improvement over CESM in reproducing extreme weather events, with improvement for heat wave frequency estimation as high as 98%. The fossil fuel intensive scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 was used to study a possible future mid-century climate extreme in 2057–9. Both the heat waves and the extreme precipitation in 2057–9 are more severe than the present climate in the Eastern US. The Northeastern US shows large increases in both heat wave intensity (3.05 °C higher) and annual extreme precipitation (107.3 mm more per year). (letter)

  6. Development of an Urban High-Resolution Air Temperature Forecast System for Local Weather Information Services Based on Statistical Downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaeyeon Yi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korean peninsula has complex and diverse weather phenomena, and the Korea Meteorological Administration has been working on various numerical models to produce better forecasting data. The Unified Model Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System is a limited-area working model with a horizontal resolution of 1.5 km for estimating local-scale weather forecasts on the Korean peninsula. However, in order to numerically predict the detailed temperature characteristics of the urban space, in which surface characteristics change rapidly in a small spatial area, a city temperature prediction model with higher resolution spatial decomposition capabilities is required. As an alternative to this, a building-scale temperature model was developed, and a 25 m air temperature resolution was determined for the Seoul area. The spatial information was processed using statistical methods, such as linear regression models and machine learning. By comparing the accuracy of the estimated air temperatures with observational data during the summer, the machine learning was improved. In addition, horizontal and vertical characteristics of the urban space were better represented, and the air temperature was better resolved spatially. Air temperature information can be used to manage the response to heat-waves and tropical nights in administrative districts of urban areas.

  7. Using Weather Radar to Optimise Operation of an Urban Drainage System with Distributed Rainwater Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2012-01-01

    and with passive local rainwater storage tanks are used as a reference. The results show that local rain water storage tanks reduce the CSO’s by 50% and lower the maximal water levels in the storm drainage system. The active control clearly outperforms the passive storage strategy.......The perspective of controlling the local rain water storage tanks for a small catchment is investigated to evaluate if a predictive control reduces the CSO from the storm drainage system. A weather radar based nowcast system is used to predict the actual precipitation two hours ahead. In case...... of more than 1 mm rain - the control strategy is set to empty all rainwater storage tanks down to 50% capacity in order to capture a significant part of the approaching rain. This strategy is evaluated though simulation with the MOUSE model. Simulations of scenarios without local storage tanks...

  8. Impacts from urban water systems on receiving waters - How to account for severe wet-weather events in LCA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Eva; Gasperi, Johnny; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent; Roux, Philippe; Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Sinfort, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Sewage systems are a vital part of the urban infrastructure in most cities. They provide drainage, which protects public health, prevents the flooding of property and protects the water environment around urban areas. On some occasions sewers will overflow into the water environment during heavy rain potentially causing unacceptable impacts from releases of untreated sewage into the environment. In typical Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of urban wastewater systems (UWS), average dry-weather conditions are modelled while wet-weather flows from UWS, presenting a high temporal variability, are not currently accounted for. In this context, the loads from several storm events could be important contributors to the impact categories freshwater eutrophication and ecotoxicity. In this study we investigated the contributions of these wet-weather-induced discharges relative to average dry-weather conditions in the life cycle inventory for UWS. In collaboration with the Paris public sanitation service (SIAAP) and Observatory of Urban Pollutants (OPUR) program researchers, this work aimed at identifying and comparing contributing flows from the UWS in the Paris area by a selection of routine wastewater parameters and priority pollutants. This collected data is organized according to archetypal weather days during a reference year. Then, for each archetypal weather day and its associated flows to the receiving river waters (Seine), the parameters of pollutant loads (statistical distribution of concentrations and volumes) were determined. The resulting inventory flows (i.e. the potential loads from the UWS) were used as LCA input data to assess the associated impacts. This allowed investigating the relative importance of episodic wet-weather versus "continuous" dry-weather loads with a probabilistic approach to account for pollutant variability within the urban flows. The analysis at the scale of one year showed that storm events are significant contributors to the impacts

  9. Energy operations and planning decision support for systems using weather forecast information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altalo, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Hydroelectric utilities deal with uncertainties on a regular basis. These include uncertainties in weather, policy and markets. This presentation outlined regional studies to define uncertainty, sources of uncertainty and their affect on power managers, power marketers, power insurers and end users. Solutions to minimize uncertainties include better forecasting and better business processes to mobilize action. The main causes of uncertainty in energy operations and planning include uncaptured wind, precipitation and wind events. Load model errors also contribute to uncertainty in energy operations. This presentation presented the results of a 2002-2003 study conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on the impact uncertainties in northeast energy weather forecasts. The study demonstrated the cost of seabreeze error on transmission and distribution. The impact of climate scale events were also presented along with energy demand implications. It was suggested that energy planners should incorporate climate change parameters into planning, and that models should include probability distribution forecasts and ensemble forecasting methods that incorporate microclimate estimates. It was also suggested that seabreeze, lake effect, fog, afternoon thunderstorms and frontal passage should be incorporated into forecasts. tabs., figs

  10. Space Weather, from the Sun to the Earth, the key role of GNSS. Part II: Training on daily Global Positioning System (GPS) data

    OpenAIRE

    Amory Mazaudier , Christine; Fleury , Rolland; Gadimova , Sharafat; Touzani , Abderrahmane

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The goal of this paper is to give a clear view of the Sun Earth relationships that are complex. The phenomena acting at large scales and essentially related to dynamic and electromagnetic physical processes have been addressed. Besides physics, the work done to develop the training in Space Weather by focusing on Global Navigation Satellite Systems has also been presented. Readers may recall that we published the first part of this article which focused on physics of t...

  11. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron

  12. Radioisotope waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Safety Bureau established the policy entitled ''On Common Processing System of Radioactive Wastes'' consulting with the Liaison Committee of Radioactive Waste Processing. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) had been discussing the problems required for the establishment of the common disposal facilities based on the above policy, and they started the organization in spring, 1978. It is a foundation borrowing equipments from JAERI though installing newly some of them not available from JAERI, and depending the fund on JRIA. The operation expenses will be borne by those who want to dispose the wastes produced. The staffs are sent out from JAERI and JRIA. For animal wastes contaminated with RI, formaldehyde dipping should be abolished, but drying and freezing procedures will be taken before they are burnt up in a newly planned exclusive furnace with disposing capacity of 50 kg/hour. To settle the problems of other wastes, enough understanding and cooperation of users are to be requested. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. Jupiter's Spot Seen Glowing - Scientists Get First Look at Weather Inside the Solar System's Biggest Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    from these giant observatories is for the first time comparable to visible-light images from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. VISIR allows the astronomers to map the temperature, aerosols and ammonia within and surrounding the storm. Each of these parameters tells us how the weather and circulation patterns change within the storm, both spatially (in 3D) and with time. The years of VISIR observations, coupled with those from the other observatories, reveals how the storm is incredibly stable despite turbulence, upheavals and close encounters with other anticyclones that affect the edge of the storm system. "One of the most intriguing findings shows the most intense orange-red central part of the spot is about 3 to 4 degrees warmer than the environment around it," says lead author Leigh Fletcher. This temperature difference might not seem like a lot, but it is enough to allow the storm circulation, usually counter-clockwise, to shift to a weak clockwise circulation in the very middle of the storm. Not only that, but on other parts of Jupiter, the temperature change is enough to alter wind velocities and affect cloud patterns in the belts and zones. "This is the first time we can say that there's an intimate link between environmental conditions - temperature, winds, pressure and composition - and the actual colour of the Great Red Spot," says Fletcher. "Although we can speculate, we still don't know for sure which chemicals or processes are causing that deep red colour, but we do know now that it is related to changes in the environmental conditions right in the heart of the storm." Notes [1] VISIR stands for VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid Infrared (eso0417). It is a complex multi-mode instrument designed to operate in the 10 and 20 micron atmospheric windows, i.e. at wavelengths up to about 40 times longer than visible light, and to provide images as well as spectra. More information This research was presented in a paper to appear in Icarus ("Thermal

  14. A space weather forecasting system with multiple satellites based on a self-recognizing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2014-05-05

    This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV). The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  15. A Space Weather Forecasting System with Multiple Satellites Based on a Self-Recognizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tokumitsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV. The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  16. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Song, Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite’s system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite. PMID:15682505

  17. On the Rust Products Formed on Weathering and Carbon Steels Exposed to Chloride in Dry-Wet Cyclical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Barrero, C. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The rust products formed on weathering and carbon steels exposed to dry-wet cyclical processes in different chloride-rich solutions are carefully examined by means of different techniques. Special emphasis is given to the methodology of analysis of the data using 300 K and 77 K Moessbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The rust that is loosely bound to the metal surface and that it is lost during the corrosion process, for both types of steel, was found to be composed of lepidocrocite, superparamagnetic goethite, hematite, and traces of akaganeite. On the other hand, the adherent rust, which is differentiated as scraped and hit according to the way it is obtained, from both steels was found to be composed of akaganeite, spinel phase, goethite exhibiting broad distribution of particle sizes and lepidocrocite. The relative abundances of rust components for both steels were very similar, suggesting similar corrosion processes. Mass loss measurements show that the corrosion rates increases with increasing the chloride concentration. The presence of large quantities of spinel phase and akaganeite are a consequence of a corrosion process under the influence of very high chloride concentrations. Our results are useful for assessing the behavior of weathering steels where the levels of chlorides are high or in contact with sea water.

  18. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG. (WB) [de

  19. Neutron radiography and X-ray computed tomography for quantifying weathering and water uptake processes inside porous limestone used as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanckele, J.; De Kock, T.; Fronteau, G.; Derluyn, H.; Vontobel, P.; Dierick, M.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2014-01-01

    Euville and Savonnières limestones were weathered by acid test and this resulted in the formation of a gypsum crust. In order to characterize the crystallization pattern and the evolution of the pore structure below the crust, a combination of high resolution X-ray computed tomography and SEM–EDS was used. A time lapse sequence of the changing pore structure in both stones was obtained and afterwards quantified by using image analysis. The difference in weathering of both stones by the same process could be explained by the underlying microstructure and texture. Because water and moisture play a crucial role in the weathering processes, water uptake in weathered and non-weathered samples was characterized based on neutron radiography. In this way the water uptake was both visualized and quantified in function of the height of the sample and in function of time. In general, the formation of a gypsum crust on limestone slows down the initial water uptake in the materials. - Highlights: • Time lapse sequence in 3D of changing pore structures inside limestone • A combination of X-ray CT, SEM and neutron radiography was used. • Quantification of water content in function of time, height and weathering • Characterization of weathering processes due to gypsum crystallization

  20. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  1. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Sauerborn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Matrix effects in applying mono- and polyclonal ELISA systems to the analysis of weathered oils in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, S J T; Farmer, J G; Knight, D M; Young, P J

    2002-01-01

    Commercial mono- and polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems were applied to the on-site analysis of weathered hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at a former integrated steelworks. Comparisons were made between concentrations of solvent extractable matter (SEM) determined gravimetrically by Soxhlet (dichloromethane) extraction and those estimated immunologically by ELISA determination over a concentration range of 2000-330,000 mg SEM/kg soil dry weight. Both ELISA systems tinder-reported for the more weathered soil samples. Results suggest this is due to matrix effects in the sample rather than any inherent bias in the ELISA systems and it is concluded that, for weathered hydrocarbons typical of steelworks and coke production sites, the use of ELISA requires careful consideration as a field technique. Consideration of the target analyte relative to the composition of the hydrocarbon waste encountered appears critical.

  3. Environmental processes and parameters influencing the consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity weather and season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeri, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    Seasonal, climatic and meteorological conditions may have a substantial influence on the physical factors involved in transport and deposition of airborne contaminants, and on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. As well, these environmental conditions can also have a significant influence on living habits and practices, and thus on potential radiological and economical impacts. Moreover, these conditions may affect the features and the impact of countermeasures which are adopted for the protection of the public in case of an accidental release. During a Special Session that the Committee of Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) held on the 1st-2nd September 1986 to review the radiological aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, it was agreed that a consultant should prepare a report reviewing different accident consequences in a radiation protection and public health perspective, and identify the influence of such parameters as time of the year, weather and environmental conditions on the overall impact and the determination of appropriate countermeasures. A Consultant Report on this issue was prepared, by Dr. G. Boeri, and submitted to the CRPPH for review and consideration at its meeting of 22nd-24th November 1987. The CRPPH subsequently agreed that the Consultant Report should be revised and completed, taking into account comments and suggestions sent to the Secretariat and focussing especially on the effect of seasonal and weather conditions in terms of their influence on the radiological impact of an accident and on the emergency countermeasures to be taken. It was decided that the Consultant Report should be developed into an Overview Paper for a workshop on this issue to be organised by the NEA in 1988

  4. Coral-rubble ridges as dynamic coastal features - short-term reworking and weathering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiske, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    A coral-rubble ridge built by storm waves at Anegada (British Virgin Islands) underwent remarkable changes in shape and weathering in a 23-month period. The ridge is located along the island's north shore, in the lee of a fringing reef and a reef flat. This coarse-clast ridge showed two major changes between March 2013, when first examined, and February 2015, when revisited. First, a trench dug in 2013, and intentionally left open for further examination, was found almost completely infilled in 2015, and the ridge morphology was modified by slumping of clasts down the slope and by reworking attributable to minor storm waves. In size, composition and overall condition, most of the clasts that filled the trench resemble reworked clasts from the ridge itself; only a small portion had been newly brought ashore. Second, a dark gray patina formed on the whitish exteriors of the carbonate clasts that had been excavated in 2013. These biologically weathered, darkened clasts had become indistinguishable from clasts that had been at the ridge surface for a much longer time. The findings have two broader implications. First, coastal coarse-clast ridges respond not solely to major storms, but also to tropical storms or minor hurricanes. The modification and reworking of the ridge on Anegada most probably resulted from hurricane Gonzalo which was at category 1-2 as it passed about 60 km north of the island in October 2014. Second, staining of calcareous clasts by cyanobacteria in the supralittoral zone occurs within a few months. In this setting, the degree of darkening quickly saturates as a measure of exposure age.

  5. Paired-Associate and Feedback-Based Weather Prediction Tasks Support Multiple Category Learning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyun; Fu, Qiufang; Sun, Xunwei; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear whether probabilistic category learning in the feedback-based weather prediction task (FB-WPT) can be mediated by a non-declarative or procedural learning system. To address this issue, we compared the effects of training time and verbal working memory, which influence the declarative learning system but not the non-declarative learning system, in the FB and paired-associate (PA) WPTs, as the PA task recruits a declarative learning system. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the optimal accuracy in the PA condition was significantly decreased when the training time was reduced from 7 to 3 s, but this did not occur in the FB condition, although shortened training time impaired the acquisition of explicit knowledge in both conditions. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the concurrent working memory task impaired the optimal accuracy and the acquisition of explicit knowledge in the PA condition but did not influence the optimal accuracy or the acquisition of self-insight knowledge in the FB condition. The apparent dissociation results between the FB and PA conditions suggested that a non-declarative or procedural learning system is involved in the FB-WPT and provided new evidence for the multiple-systems theory of human category learning.

  6. Longitudinal Study of the Market Penetration of Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Harry Paul, III; Sireli, Yesim; Ozan, Erol; Kauffmann, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research of the market penetration of cockpit weather information systems (CWIS) is to contribute to the body of knowledge on modeling advanced technology feasibility in aviation by tracking and analyzing the market adoption of CWIS over a three year period. This research takes advantage of a previous study, conducted by Dr. Paul Kauffmann in 2000, which demonstrated an integrated and cost effective approach to evaluate advanced technology feasibility, examining the feasibility of CWIS in five market segments: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. The longitudinal research consists of two consecutive studies and produced two reports. The first report was submitted in August 2003 and included general market analysis about the CWIS products in the market at the time, identified their characteristics and examined developing market dynamics.

  7. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  8. AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies: Dynamic, College-Level Geoscience Courses Emphasizing Current Earth System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies are introductory college-level courses developed by the American Meteorological Society, with NSF and NOAA support, for local offering at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The courses place students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate the atmosphere and world ocean using real-world and real-time environmental data. Over 360 colleges throughout the United States have offered these courses in course environments ranging from traditional lecture/laboratory to completely online. AMS Diversity Projects aim to increase undergraduate student access to the geosciences through implementation of the courses at minority-serving institutions and training programs for MSI faculty. The AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies course packages consist of a hard-cover, 15-chapter textbook, Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities, and course website containing weekly current weather and ocean investigations. Course instructors receive access to a faculty website and CD containing answer keys and course management system-compatible files, which allow full integration to a college's e-learning environment. The unique aspect of the courses is the focus on current Earth system data through weekly Current Weather Studies and Current Ocean Studies investigations written in real time and posted to the course website, as well as weekly news files and a daily weather summary for AMS Weather Studies. Students therefore study meteorology or oceanography as it happens, which creates a dynamic learning environment where student relate their experiences and observations to the course, and actively discuss the science with their instructor and classmates. With NSF support, AMS has held expenses-paid course implementation workshops for minority-serving institution faculty planning to offer AMS Weather Studies or AMS Ocean Studies. From May 2002-2007, AMS conducted week-long weather workshops

  9. Space Weather Research: Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Choudhary, R. K.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Manoharan, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather, just like its meteorological counterpart, is of extreme importance when it comes to its impact on terrestrial near- and far-space environments. In recent years, space weather research has acquired an important place as a thrust area of research having implications both in space science and technology. The presence of satellites and other technological systems from different nations in near-Earth space necessitates that one must have a comprehensive understanding not only of the origin and evolution of space weather processes but also of their impact on technology and terrestrial upper atmosphere. To address this aspect, nations across the globe including India have been investing in research concerning Sun, solar processes and their evolution from solar interior into the interplanetary space, and their impact on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In India, over the years, a substantial amount of work has been done in each of these areas by various agencies/institutions. In fact, India has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of space research and has ambitious future programs concerning these areas encompassing space weather. This review aims at providing a glimpse of this Indian perspective on space weather research to the reader and presenting an up-to-date status of the same.

  10. Examining the controlling factors on Southern Ocean clouds and their radiative effects in the context of midlatitude weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M. K.; Grise, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds and their associated radiative effects are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the present generation of global climate models. One region where model biases are especially large is over the Southern Ocean, where many models systematically underestimate the climatological shortwave cloud radiative effects (CRE) and/or misrepresent the relationship between shortwave CRE and atmospheric dynamics. Previous research has shown that two "cloud controlling factors", estimated inversion strength (EIS) and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity, are helpful in explaining the relationship between CRE and atmospheric dynamics on monthly timescales. For example, when the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude jet shifts poleward on monthly timescales, the high clouds and their associated longwave CRE shift poleward with the jet, consistent with a poleward shift of the storm track and the attendant vertical velocity anomalies. However, the observed changes in shortwave CRE with a poleward jet shift are small due to a trade-off between the competing effects of opposing EIS and vertical velocity anomalies. This study extends these previous findings to examine the relationship between Southern Ocean cloud controlling factors and CRE on daily timescales. On a daily timescale, the relationship of EIS and vertical velocity with CRE is more complex, due in part to the presence of transient weather systems. Composites of EIS, vertical velocity, longwave CRE, and shortwave CRE around extratropical cyclones and anticyclones are constructed to examine how the CRE anomalies vary in different sectors of midlatitude weather systems and the role that EIS and vertical velocity play in determining those anomalies. The relationships between the cloud controlling factors and CRE on daily timescales provide key insight into the underlying physical processes responsible for the relationships between midlatitude cloud controlling factors and CRE previously documented on monthly timescales.

  11. Evaluation of weather forecast systems for storm surge modeling in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon, Juan L.; Ferreira, Celso M.; Padilla-Hernandez, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Accurate forecast of sea-level heights in coastal areas depends, among other factors, upon a reliable coupling of a meteorological forecast system to a hydrodynamic and wave system. This study evaluates the predictive skills of the coupled circulation and wind-wave model system (ADCIRC+SWAN) for simulating storm tides in the Chesapeake Bay, forced by six different products: (1) Global Forecast System (GFS), (2) Climate Forecast System (CFS) version 2, (3) North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM), (4) Rapid Refresh (RAP), (5) European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and (6) the Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT2). This evaluation is based on the hindcasting of four events: Irene (2011), Sandy (2012), Joaquin (2015), and Jonas (2016). By comparing the simulated water levels to observations at 13 monitoring stations, we have found that the ADCIR+SWAN System forced by the following: (1) the HURDAT2-based system exhibited the weakest statistical skills owing to a noteworthy overprediction of the simulated wind speed; (2) the ECMWF, RAP, and NAM products captured the moment of the peak and moderately its magnitude during all storms, with a correlation coefficient ranging between 0.98 and 0.77; (3) the CFS system exhibited the worst averaged root-mean-square difference (excepting HURDAT2); (4) the GFS system (the lowest horizontal resolution product tested) resulted in a clear underprediction of the maximum water elevation. Overall, the simulations forced by NAM and ECMWF systems induced the most accurate results best accuracy to support water level forecasting in the Chesapeake Bay during both tropical and extra-tropical storms.

  12. A prototype informatics system integrating weather and health data to manage meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Yoksas, T.; Hayden, M.; Hopson, T.; Laing, A.; Lazo, J.; Warner, T.; Rice, J.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Hodgson, A.; Semazzi, F.; Mera, R.; Thomson, M.; Trzaska, S.; Lamptey, B.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation will describe progress in developing the informatics system that will support a newly funded project designed to integrate health and environmental data for health-related decision-making in Africa. This infromatics system supports a project in which the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, and North Carolina State University in the United States, and the Navrongo Health Research Centre in Ghana will build and implement a prototype decision-support system that integrates two- to 14-day weather forecasts and epidemiological data to provide actionable information that can be used to contain the spread of meningitis epidemics in Ghana. By applying a preliminary economic evaluation of this decision support system, we will also assess the potential benefit of using environmental data to improve public health outcomes, help prioritize continuing investment in meningitis management in Ghana and throughout the Meningitis Belt, and determine the appropriateness of extending the prototype to other diseases, nations, and continents. This effort is a small piece of an overall Google.org effort to develop an Earth-gauging System that will integrate environmental, health and development data into products that stakeholders and researchers can use to monitor variables, analyze trends and identify relationships among different variables. The Earth-gauging System will support the prediction of emerging threats, and provide the basis for an robust early-warning system that will improve health, food security, and development and conservation outcomes. For the informatics session, our presentation will focus on the projects' leveraging of current UCAR Unidata data management software to create and populate an archive of meteorological and epidemiological data. We will also describe strategies to extend the Unidata network for data distribution - which currently provides real-time access

  13. A Two-Dimensional Gridded Solar Forecasting System using Situation-Dependent Blending of Multiple Weather Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S.; Hwang, Y.; Shao, X.; Hamann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Previously, we reported the application of a "weather situation" dependent multi-model blending approach to improve the forecast accuracy of solar irradiance and other atmospheric parameters. The approach uses machine-learning techniques to classify "weather situations" by a set of atmospheric parameters. The "weather situation" classification is location-dependent and each "weather situation" has characteristic forecast errors from a set of individual input numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The input models are thus corrected or combined differently for different "weather situations" to minimize the overall forecast error. While the original implementation of the model-blending is applicable to only point-like locations having historical data of both measurements and forecasts, here we extend the approach to provide two-dimensional (2D) gridded forecasts. An experimental 2D forecasting system has been set up to provide gridded forecasts of solar irradiance (global horizontal irradiance), temperature, wind speed, and humidity for the contiguous United States (CONUS). Validation results show around 30% enhancement of 0 to 48 hour ahead solar irradiance forecast accuracy compared to the best input NWP model. The forecasting system may be leveraged by other site- or region-specific solar energy forecast products. To enable the 2D forecasting system, historical solar irradiance measurements from around 1,600 selected sites of the remote automated weather stations (RAWS) network have been employed. The CONUS was divided into smaller sub-regions, each containing a group of 10 to 20 RAWS sites. A group of sites, as classified by statistical analysis, have similar "weather patterns", i.e. the NWPs have similar "weather situation" dependent forecast errors for all sites in a group. The model-blending trained by the historical data from a group of sites is then applied for all locations in the corresponding sub-region. We discuss some key techniques developed for

  14. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system for air-conditioning in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yi; Yang, Hongxing; Wang, Jinggang

    2010-01-01

    The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is becoming attractive for air-conditioning in some moderate-weather regions due to its high energy efficiency and reliable operation capability. However, when the technology is used in buildings where there is only cooling load in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong, the heat rejected into the ground by the GCHP systems will accumulate around the ground heat exchangers (GHE). This heat accumulation will result in degradation of system performance and increment of system operating costs. This problem can be resolved by using the hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) system, which uses supplemental heat rejecters to reject the accumulated heat. This paper presents a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system by modeling the heat transfer process of the system's main components. The computer program based on this hourly simulation model can be used to calculate the hour-by-hour operation data of the HGCHP system. As a case study, both a HGCHP system and a traditional GCHP system are designed for a hypothetic private residential building located in Hong Kong, and the economic comparisons are conducted between these two types of systems. The simulation results show that the HGCHP system can effectively solve the heat accumulation problem and reduce both the initial costs and operating costs of the air-conditioning system in the building.

  15. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system for air-conditioning in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yi; Yang, Hongxing [Renewable Energy Research Group, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Jinggang [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2010-09-15

    The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is becoming attractive for air-conditioning in some moderate-weather regions due to its high energy efficiency and reliable operation capability. However, when the technology is used in buildings where there is only cooling load in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong, the heat rejected into the ground by the GCHP systems will accumulate around the ground heat exchangers (GHE). This heat accumulation will result in degradation of system performance and increment of system operating costs. This problem can be resolved by using the hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) system, which uses supplemental heat rejecters to reject the accumulated heat. This paper presents a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system by modeling the heat transfer process of the system's main components. The computer program based on this hourly simulation model can be used to calculate the hour-by-hour operation data of the HGCHP system. As a case study, both a HGCHP system and a traditional GCHP system are designed for a hypothetic private residential building located in Hong Kong, and the economic comparisons are conducted between these two types of systems. The simulation results show that the HGCHP system can effectively solve the heat accumulation problem and reduce both the initial costs and operating costs of the air-conditioning system in the building. (author)

  16. Study on hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system for air-conditioning in hot-weather areas like Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Y.; Yang, H.X. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Renewable Energy Research Group, Hung Hom, Kowloon, (Hong Kong). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Due to its high energy efficiency and reliable operation capability, the ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is becoming attractive for air-conditioning in some moderate-weather regions. However, when the technology is used in buildings where there is only cooling load in hot-weather areas such as Hong Kong, the heat rejected into the ground by the GCHP systems will accumulate around the ground heat exchangers (GHE), resulting in degradation of system performance and increased system operating costs. This problem can be resolved by using a hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) system, as it uses supplemental heat rejecters to reject the accumulated heat. By modeling the heat transfer process of the system's main components, this paper presented a practical hourly simulation model of the HGCHP system. Based on this hourly simulation model, the computer program could be used to calculate the hour-by-hour operation data of the HGCHP system according to the cooling and hot water heating loads of a building. The paper discussed a case study that involved a design of both a HGCHP system and a traditional GCHP system for a hypothetical private residential building located in Hong Kong. The economic comparisons were performed between these two types of systems. It was concluded through the simulations that the HGCHP system could effectively solve the heat accumulation problem and reduce both the initial cost and operating cost of the air-conditioning system in the building. 19 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  17. Analysis of errors introduced by geographic coordinate systems on weather numeric prediction modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most atmospheric models, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, use a spherical geographic coordinate system to internally represent input data and perform computations. However, most geographic information system (GIS input data used by the models are based on a spheroid datum because it better represents the actual geometry of the earth. WRF and other atmospheric models use these GIS input layers as if they were in a spherical coordinate system without accounting for the difference in datum. When GIS layers are not properly reprojected, latitudinal errors of up to 21 km in the midlatitudes are introduced. Recent studies have suggested that for very high-resolution applications, the difference in datum in the GIS input data (e.g., terrain land use, orography should be taken into account. However, the magnitude of errors introduced by the difference in coordinate systems remains unclear. This research quantifies the effect of using a spherical vs. a spheroid datum for the input GIS layers used by WRF to study greenhouse gas transport and dispersion in northeast Pennsylvania.

  18. A short-range weather prediction system for South Africa based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accurate prediction of rainfall events, in terms of their timing, location and rainfall depth, is important to a wide range of social and economic applications. At many operational weather prediction centres, as is also the case at the South African Weather Service, forecasters use deterministic model outputs as guidance to ...

  19. Powertrain preheating system of tracked hybrid electric vehicle in cold weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Yichun; Feng, Chaoqing; Zhang, Xilong

    2015-01-01

    In order to make sure that the heavy duty tracked vehicle can work in various conditions, especially severe cold weather, preheating system of powertrain should be adopted, and a novel preheating system is presented for the tracked hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) in which heat is generated by the low-speed drive motor. The new preheating system can meet the need of cold start without adding any additional device. The characteristic of heat generation by motor is tested when the rotor of motor is rotated in very low speed. The heat loss from power cabin to external environment has been simulated, and the relevant test has been done to verify the simulation results. Combining the characteristic of heat generation and heat loss situation about preheating system, the heat transfer model of preheating system was implemented by MATLAB. The total energy required for preheating in different ambient temperature was calculated by this model. The results showed that: the minimum heating power was 70 kW and energy required was about 180 MJ when the HEV worked in −46 °C. If lithium ferrous phosphate (LFP) battery was used in power system, the minimum battery capacity is about 290 A h. - Highlights: • A novel preheating method was proposed for heavy duty tracked HEV. • Thermal energy in preheating system is produced by the PMSM in driving system. • This method can achieve preheating target by its own components without any adding. • Analyzing low temperature performance of power battery and select its capacity.

  20. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  1. Impact of Moist Physics Complexity on Tropical Cyclone Simulations from the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, E. A.; Biswas, M.; Newman, K.; Grell, E. D.; Bernardet, L.; Frimel, J.; Carson, L.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of moist physics in numerical weather prediction models plays an important role in modulating tropical cyclone structure, intensity, and evolution. The Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast system (HWRF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's operational model for tropical cyclone prediction, uses the Scale-Aware Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SASAS) cumulus scheme and a modified version of the Ferrier-Aligo (FA) microphysics scheme to parameterize moist physics. The FA scheme contains a number of simplifications that allow it to run efficiently in an operational setting, which includes prescribing values for hydrometeor number concentrations (i.e., single-moment microphysics) and advecting the total condensate rather than the individual hydrometeor species. To investigate the impact of these simplifying assumptions on the HWRF forecast, the FA scheme was replaced with the more complex double-moment Thompson microphysics scheme, which individually advects cloud ice, cloud water, rain, snow, and graupel. Retrospective HWRF forecasts of tropical cyclones that occurred in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific ocean basins from 2015-2017 were then simulated and compared to those produced by the operational HWRF configuration. Both traditional model verification metrics (i.e., tropical cyclone track and intensity) and process-oriented metrics (e.g., storm size, precipitation structure, and heating rates from the microphysics scheme) will be presented and compared. The sensitivity of these results to the cumulus scheme used (i.e., the operational SASAS versus the Grell-Freitas scheme) also will be examined. Finally, the merits of replacing the moist physics schemes that are used operationally with the alternatives tested here will be discussed from a standpoint of forecast accuracy versus computational resources.

  2. The Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process – Its discovery and vital importance for weather and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude Storelvmo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process refers to the rapid growth of ice crystals at the expense of surrounding cloud droplets, which frequently occurs in atmospheric mixed-phase clouds. The process is a result of the difference in saturation vapor pressures with respect to liquid and ice, and may in some circumstances lead to abrupt and complete cloud glaciation at temperatures between −40 °C and 0 °C in the Earth's atmosphere. The process is named after three eminent scientists who were active in the first half of the 20th century, among them being German meteorologist Walter Findeisen (1909–1945. In his classical paper published in 1938, Findeisen described the contemporary understanding of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process and other key cloud microphysical processes. Here, we compare the understanding of the aforementioned processes at the time with that of the present, and find that they are remarkably similar. We also discuss how the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process is implemented in state-of-the-art numerical models of the atmosphere, and highlight its importance for both weather and climate.

  3. Parameterization of synoptic weather systems in the South Atlantic Bight for modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Voulgaris, George; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-10-01

    An event based, long-term, climatological analysis is presented that allows the creation of coastal ocean atmospheric forcing on the coastal ocean that preserves both frequency of occurrence and event time history. An algorithm is developed that identifies individual storm event (cold fronts, warm fronts, and tropical storms) from meteorological records. The algorithm has been applied to a location along the South Atlantic Bight, off South Carolina, an area prone to cyclogenesis occurrence and passages of atmospheric fronts. Comparison against daily weather maps confirms that the algorithm is efficient in identifying cold fronts and warm fronts, while the identification of tropical storms is less successful. The average state of the storm events and their variability are represented by the temporal evolution of atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind velocity, and wave directional spectral energy. The use of uncorrected algorithm-detected events provides climatologies that show a little deviation from those derived using corrected events. The effectiveness of this analysis method is further verified by numerically simulating the wave conditions driven by the characteristic wind forcing and comparing the results with the wave climatology that corresponds to each storm type. A high level of consistency found in the comparison indicates that this analysis method can be used for accurately characterizing event-based oceanic processes and long-term storm-induced morphodynamic processes on wind-dominated coasts.

  4. Photovoltaics (PV System Energy Forecast on the Basis of the Local Weather Forecast: Problems, Uncertainties and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Brecl

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available When integrating a photovoltaic system into a smart zero-energy or energy-plus building, or just to lower the electricity bill by rising the share of the self-consumption in a private house, it is very important to have a photovoltaic power energy forecast for the next day(s. While the commercially available forecasting services might not meet the household prosumers interests due to the price or complexity we have developed a forecasting methodology that is based on the common weather forecast. Since the forecasted meteorological data does not include the solar irradiance information, but only the weather condition, the uncertainty of the results is relatively high. However, in the presented approach, irradiance is calculated from discrete weather conditions and with correlation of forecasted meteorological data, an RMS error of 65%, and a R2 correlation factor of 0.85 is feasible.

  5. Personal Investigations Processing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIPS is a system that maintains the Security/Suitability Investigations Index (SII) for OPM. It contains over 11 million background investigation records of Federal...

  6. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  7. Weather Information Communication Technologies for Increased Safety and Mobility in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Glenn Research Center Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) project was to develop advanced communications and information technologies to enable the high-quality and timely dissemination of strategic weather information between the flight deck and ground users as well as tactical turbulence hazard information between relevant aircraft and to the ground. This report will document and reference accomplishments on the dissemination of weather information during the en route phase of flight from ground-based weather information providers to the flight deck (ground-to-air), from airborne meteorological sensors to ground users (air-to-ground), and weather turbulence and icing hazard information between relevant aircraft (air-to-air). In addition, references in this report will demonstrate the architecture necessary to implement and perform successful transmission and reception of weather information to the cockpit, show that weather information flow does not impact "normal" traffic, demonstrate the feasibility of operational implementation, and lay foundation for future data link development.

  8. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    This work is a further development in the study of weather pathogenic index (WPI) and negative influence of urbanization processes on the state of people's health with adaptation disorder. This problem is socially significant. According to the data of the WHO, in the world there are from 20 to 45% of healthy people and from 40 to 80% of people with chronic diseases who suffer from the raised meteosensitivity. As a result of our researches of meteosensitivity of people during their short-duration on mountain resorts there were used negative adaptive reactions (NAR) under 26 routine tests, stress-reactions under L.H. Garkavi's hemogram, vegetative indices, tests of neuro-vascular reactivity, signs of imbalance of vegetative and neurohumoral regulation according to the data of biorhythm fractal analysis and sudden aggravations of diseases (SAD) as an indicator of negative climatic and urbanization influence. In 2010-2011 the Caucasian mountain resorts were having long periods of climatic anomalies, strengthening of anthropogenic emissions and forest fires when record-breaking high waves of NAR and SAD were noticed. There have also been specified indices ranks of weather pathogenicity from results of comparison of health characteristics with indicators of synoptico-dynamic processes according to Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF); air ionization N+, N-, N+/N- spectra of aerosol particles (the size from 500 to 20000 nanometers) and concentrations of chemically active gases (O3, NO, NO2, ), volatile phytoorganic substances in the surface atmosphere, bactericidal characteristics of vegetation by criterion χ2 (not above 0,05). It has allowed us to develop new physiological optimum borders, norm and pessimum, to classify emergency ecologo-weather situations, to develop a new techniques of their forecasting and prevention of meteopathic reactions with meteosensitive patients (Method of treatment and the early (emergency) and planned prevention meteopatic reactions

  9. Real-time information and processing system for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stoica, M.; Badea, E.; Guta, V.

    1999-01-01

    The real-time information and processing system has as main task to record, collect, process and transmit the radiation level and weather data, being proposed for radiation protection, environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities and for civil defence. Such a system can offer information in order to provide mapping, data base, modelling and communication and to assess the consequences of nuclear accidents. The system incorporates a number of stationary or mobile radiation monitoring equipment, weather parameter measuring station, a GIS-based information processing center and the communication network, all running on a real-time operating system. It provides the automatic data collection on-line and off-line, remote diagnostic, advanced presentation techniques, including a graphically oriented executive support, which has the ability to respond to an emergency by geographical representation of the hazard zones on the map.The system can be integrated into national or international environmental monitoring systems, being based on local intelligent measuring and transmission units, simultaneous processing and data presentation using a real-time operating system for PC and geographical information system (GIS). Such an integrated system is composed of independent applications operating under the same computer, which is capable to improve the protection of the population and decision makers efforts, updating the remote GIS data base. All information can be managed directly from the map by multilevel data retrieving and presentation by using on-line dynamic evolution of the events, environment information, evacuation optimization, image and voice processing

  10. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  11. Evaluating the effects of terrestrial ecosystems, climate and carbon dioxide on weathering over geological time: a global-scale process-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Banwart, Steve A.; Valdes, Paul J.; Leake, Jonathan R.; Beerling, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Global weathering of calcium and magnesium silicate rocks provides the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on a timescale of millions of years by causing precipitation of calcium carbonates on the seafloor. Catchment-scale field studies consistently indicate that vegetation increases silicate rock weathering, but incorporating the effects of trees and fungal symbionts into geochemical carbon cycle models has relied upon simple empirical scaling functions. Here, we describe the development and application of a process-based approach to deriving quantitative estimates of weathering by plant roots, associated symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and climate. Our approach accounts for the influence of terrestrial primary productivity via nutrient uptake on soil chemistry and mineral weathering, driven by simulations using a dynamic global vegetation model coupled to an ocean–atmosphere general circulation model of the Earth's climate. The strategy is successfully validated against observations of weathering in watersheds around the world, indicating that it may have some utility when extrapolated into the past. When applied to a suite of six global simulations from 215 to 50 Ma, we find significantly larger effects over the past 220 Myr relative to the present day. Vegetation and mycorrhizal fungi enhanced climate-driven weathering by a factor of up to 2. Overall, we demonstrate a more realistic process-based treatment of plant fungal–geosphere interactions at the global scale, which constitutes a first step towards developing ‘next-generation’ geochemical models. PMID:22232768

  12. Complex airborne system with combined action on the conditions of risk weather phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the weather phenomena is one of the main concerns of scientists. Initially, theresearches in this area were intended to provide military structures new ways of fighting in wars suchas the wars in Korea or Vietnam and then continued with the development of technologies to combatthe phenomena that affect the normal conditions of agriculture, the environment, etc. -extremephenomena- hail, low precipitation regime, etc. Since the last decade of last century also in Romaniathere were a number of initiatives supported through a national program of research in the fightagainst hail and stimulation of precipitation. In this context, INCAS proposed in 2008 a researchproject to implement a complex airborne system, which carry out actions to limit the effects of extremeweather events on crops and objectives of national and strategic interest, on the basis of informationreceived from a system of sensors located on the air platform and intended for measuring the physicalcharacteristics of the atmosphere. Also, as a long-term effect, the action of the complex airbornesystem may lead to the rainfall regulation and control, with all the implications arising from this(avoiding flooding, providing protection from frost of autumn crop, etc.The aerial platform chosen for this research approach is the aircraft for school and training IAR99SOIM, INCAS being the author of its structural design and also holding the patent for IndustrialDesign nr.00081 registered with OSIM. Project acronym : COMAEROPREC.

  13. Predictability of heavy sub-hourly precipitation amounts for a weather radar based nowcasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Joan; Berenguer, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Heavy precipitation events and subsequent flash floods are one of the most dramatic hazards in many regions such as the Mediterranean basin as recently stressed in the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment) international programme. The focus of this study is to assess the quality of very short range (below 3 hour lead times) precipitation forecasts based on weather radar nowcasting system. Specific nowcasting amounts of 10 and 30 minutes generated with a nowcasting technique (Berenguer et al 2005, 2011) are compared against raingauge observations and also weather radar precipitation estimates observed over Catalonia (NE Spain) using data from the Meteorological Service of Catalonia and the Water Catalan Agency. Results allow to discuss the feasibility of issuing warnings for different precipitation amounts and lead times for a number of case studies, including very intense convective events with 30minute precipitation amounts exceeding 40 mm (Bech et al 2005, 2011). As indicated by a number of verification scores single based radar precipitation nowcasts decrease their skill quickly with increasing lead times and rainfall thresholds. This work has been done in the framework of the Hymex research programme and has been partly funded by the ProFEWS project (CGL2010-15892). References Bech J, N Pineda, T Rigo, M Aran, J Amaro, M Gayà, J Arús, J Montanyà, O van der Velde, 2011: A Mediterranean nocturnal heavy rainfall and tornadic event. Part I: Overview, damage survey and radar analysis. Atmospheric Research 100:621-637 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.12.024 Bech J, R Pascual, T Rigo, N Pineda, JM López, J Arús, and M Gayà, 2007: An observational study of the 7 September 2005 Barcelona tornado outbreak. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 7:129-139 http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/nhess-7-129-2007 Berenguer M, C Corral, R Sa0nchez-Diezma, D Sempere-Torres, 2005: Hydrological validation of a radar based nowcasting technique. Journal of

  14. Weathering processes under various moisture conditions in a lignite mine spoil from As Pontes (N.W. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Processes contributing to acid release/consumption during weathering of a lignite mine spoil (2.3% w/w S as sulfides) from As Pontes (N.W. Spain) were studied under three moisture conditions (at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying or forced percolation), which were simulated in laboratory experiments. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfates was favoured under all three moisture conditions, releasing most acid in spoil kept at field capacity. Hydroxysulfates formed in spoil kept at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying conditions, thereby contributing to acid release. Acid consumption by dissolution of clay minerals, especially micas, was favoured under all three moisture conditions, but was particularly intense in spoil at field capacity. Dissolution of aluminium oxides was also favoured under all the moisture conditions studied. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law.

  16. An interoperable standard system for the automatic generation and publication of the fire risk maps based on Fire Weather Index (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Selvas, Núria; Ninyerola Casals, Miquel

    2015-04-01

    It has been implemented an automatic system to predict the fire risk in the Principality of Andorra, a small country located in the eastern Pyrenees mountain range, bordered by Catalonia and France, due to its location, his landscape is a set of a rugged mountains with an average elevation around 2000 meters. The system is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that consists on different components, each one, measuring a different aspect of the fire danger calculated by the values of the weather variables at midday. CENMA (Centre d'Estudis de la Neu i de la Muntanya d'Andorra) has a network around 10 automatic meteorological stations, located in different places, peeks and valleys, that measure weather data like relative humidity, wind direction and speed, surface temperature, rainfall and snow cover every ten minutes; this data is sent daily and automatically to the system implemented that will be processed in the way to filter incorrect measurements and to homogenizer measurement units. Then this data is used to calculate all components of the FWI at midday and for the level of each station, creating a database with the values of the homogeneous measurements and the FWI components for each weather station. In order to extend and model this data to all Andorran territory and to obtain a continuous map, an interpolation method based on a multiple regression with spline residual interpolation has been implemented. This interpolation considerer the FWI data as well as other relevant predictors such as latitude, altitude, global solar radiation and sea distance. The obtained values (maps) are validated using a cross-validation leave-one-out method. The discrete and continuous maps are rendered in tiled raster maps and published in a web portal conform to Web Map Service (WMS) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. Metadata and other reference maps (fuel maps, topographic maps, etc) are also available from this geoportal.

  17. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  18. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  19. Processors and systems (picture processing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmar, P

    1983-01-01

    Automatic picture processing requires high performance computers and high transmission capacities in the processor units. The author examines the possibilities of operating processors in parallel in order to accelerate the processing of pictures. He therefore discusses a number of available processors and systems for picture processing and illustrates their capacities for special types of picture processing. He stresses the fact that the amount of storage required for picture processing is exceptionally high. The author concludes that it is as yet difficult to decide whether very large groups of simple processors or highly complex multiprocessor systems will provide the best solution. Both methods will be aided by the development of VLSI. New solutions have already been offered (systolic arrays and 3-d processing structures) but they also are subject to losses caused by inherently parallel algorithms. Greater efforts must be made to produce suitable software for multiprocessor systems. Some possibilities for future picture processing systems are discussed. 33 references.

  20. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  1. Probing the Architecture of the Weathering Zone in a Tropical System in the Rio Icacos Watershed (Puerto Rico) With Drilling and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J.; Comas, X.; Mount, G. J.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Weathering processes in rapidly eroding systems such as humid tropical environments are complex and not well understood. The interface between weathered material (regolith) and non-weathered material (bedrock) is particularly important in these systems as it influences water infiltration and groundwater flow paths and movement. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of this interface is highly heterogeneous and difficult to image with conventional techniques such as direct coring and drilling. In this work we present results from a preliminary geophysical study in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) located in the rain forest in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico. The Luquillo Mountains are composed of volcaniclastic rocks which have been uplifted and metamorphosed by the Tertiary Rio Blanco quartz diorite intrusion. The Rio Blanco quartz diorite weathers spheroidally, creating corestones of relatively unweathered material that are surrounded by weathered rinds. A number of boreholes were drilled near the top of the Rio Icacos watershed, where the corestones are thought to be in the primary stages of formation, to constrain the regolith/bedrock interface and to provide an understanding of the depth to which corestones form. The depth of the water table was also a target goal in the project. Drilling reveals that corestones are forming in place, separated by fractures, even to depths of 10s of meters below ground surface. One borehole was drilled to a depth of about 25 meters and intersected up to 7 bedrock blocks (inferred to be incipient corestones) and the water table was measured at about 15 meters. Ground Penetrating Radar surveys were conducted in the same location to determine if GPR images variable thicknesses of saprolite overlying corestones. GPR common offset measurements and common midpoint surveys with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antenna frequencies were combined with borehole drillings in order to constrain geophysical results. We

  2. Impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetutu, Eric M.; Ball, Andy S. [School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001 (Australia); Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Dandie, Catherine E. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: Albert.Juhasz@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was investigated in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The extent of {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation varied depending on the bioremediation strategy employed. Under enhanced natural attenuation conditions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation after 98 days was 8.5 {+-} 3.7% compared to < 1.2% without nitrogen and phosphorus additions. {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was further enhanced through Tween 80 amendments (28.9 {+-} 2.4%) which also promoted the growth of a Phanerochaete chyrsosporium fungal mat. Although fungal growth in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil could be promoted through supplementing additional carbon sources (Tween 80, sawdust, compost, pea straw), fungal {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was negligible when sodium azide was added to soil microcosms to inhibit bacterial activity. In contrast, when fungal activity was inhibited through nystatin additions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation ranged from 6.5 {+-} 0.2 to 35.8 {+-} 3.8% after 98 days depending on the supplied amendment. Bacteria inhibition with sodium azide resulted in a reduction in bacterial diversity (33-37%) compared to microcosms supplemented with nystatin or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. However, alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms, highlighting the important role of this bacterial group in {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The roles of different microbial groups in hydrocarbon mineralisation was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting fungal growth did not affect {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting bacterial growth resulted in negligible {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms. Black

  3. Impact of bacterial and fungal processes on 14C-hexadecane mineralisation in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetutu, Eric M.; Ball, Andy S.; Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Dandie, Catherine E.; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of bacterial and fungal processes on 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was investigated in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The extent of 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation varied depending on the bioremediation strategy employed. Under enhanced natural attenuation conditions, 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation after 98 days was 8.5 ± 3.7% compared to 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was further enhanced through Tween 80 amendments (28.9 ± 2.4%) which also promoted the growth of a Phanerochaete chyrsosporium fungal mat. Although fungal growth in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil could be promoted through supplementing additional carbon sources (Tween 80, sawdust, compost, pea straw), fungal 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was negligible when sodium azide was added to soil microcosms to inhibit bacterial activity. In contrast, when fungal activity was inhibited through nystatin additions, 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation ranged from 6.5 ± 0.2 to 35.8 ± 3.8% after 98 days depending on the supplied amendment. Bacteria inhibition with sodium azide resulted in a reduction in bacterial diversity (33–37%) compared to microcosms supplemented with nystatin or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. However, alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms, highlighting the important role of this bacterial group in 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. - Highlights: ► The roles of different microbial groups in hydrocarbon mineralisation was assessed. ► Inhibiting fungal growth did not affect 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. ► Inhibiting bacterial growth resulted in negligible 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. ► alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms. ► The importance of alkB groups in 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was highlighted.

  4. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Desrosiers, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Dosimetry serves important functions in radiation processing, where large absorbed doses and dose rates from photon and electron sources have to be measured with reasonable accuracy. Proven dosimetry systems are widely used to perform radiation measurements in development of new processes, validation, qualification and verification (quality control) of established processes and archival documentation of day-to-day and plant-to-plant processing uniformity. Proper calibration and traceability of routine dosimetry systems to standards are crucial to the success of many large-volume radiation processes. Recent innovations and advances in performance of systems that enhance radiation measurement assurance and process diagnostics include dose-mapping media (new radiochromic film and solutions), optical waveguide systems for food irradiation, solid-state devices for real-time and passive dosimetry over wide dose-rate and dose ranges, and improved analytical instruments and data acquisition. (author)

  5. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques in identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, T. A.

    2003-04-01

    This paper’s objectives are twofold: to test the potential of cation exchange capacity (CEC) analysis for refinement of the knowledge of the hydrological system in landslide areas; and to examine two laboratory CEC analysis techniques on their applicability to partly weathered marls. The NH4Ac and NaCl laboratory techniques are tested. The geochemical results are compared with the core descriptions and interpreted with respect to their usefulness. Both analysis techniques give identical results for CEC, and are plausible on the basis of the available clay content information. The determination of the exchangeable cations was more difficult, since part of the marls dissolved. With the ammonium-acetate method more of the marls are dissolved than with the sodium-chloride method. This negatively affects the results of the exchangeable cations. Therefore, the NaCl method is to be preferred for the determination of the cation fractions at the complex, be it that this method has the disadvantage that the sodium fraction cannot be determined. To overcome this problem it is recommended to try and use another salt e.g. SrCl2 as displacement fluid. Both Alvera and Boulc-Mondorès examples show transitions in cation composition with depth. It was shown that the exchangeable cation fractions can be useful in locating boundaries between water types, especially the boundary between the superficial, rain fed hydrological system and the lower, regional ground water system. This information may be important for landslide interventions since the hydrological system and the origin of the water need to be known in detail. It is also plausible that long-term predictions of slope stability may be improved by knowledge of the hydrogeochemical evolution of clayey landslides. In the Boulc-Mondorès example the subsurface information that can be extracted from CEC analyses was presented. In the Boulc-Mondorès cores deviant intervals of CEC could be identified. These are interpreted as

  6. Modern and prospective technologies for weather modification activities: Developing a framework for integrating autonomous unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelice, T. P.; Axisa, Duncan

    2017-09-01

    This paper builds upon the processes and framework already established for identifying, integrating and testing an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) with sensing technology for use in rainfall enhancement cloud seeding programs to carry out operational activities or to monitor and evaluate seeding operations. We describe the development and assessment methodologies of an autonomous and adaptive UAS platform that utilizes in-situ real time data to sense, target and implement seeding. The development of a UAS platform that utilizes remote and in-situ real-time data to sense, target and implement seeding deployed with a companion UAS ensures optimal, safe, secure, cost-effective seeding operations, and the dataset to quantify the results of seeding. It also sets the path for an innovative, paradigm shifting approach for enhancing precipitation independent of seeding mode. UAS technology is improving and their application in weather modification must be explored to lay the foundation for future implementation. The broader significance lies in evolving improved technology and automating cloud seeding operations that lowers the cloud seeding operational footprint and optimizes their effectiveness and efficiency, while providing the temporal and spatial sensitivities to overcome the predictability or sparseness of environmental parameters needed to identify conditions suitable for seeding, and how such might be implemented. The dataset from the featured approach will contain data from concurrent Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives over sub-cloud scales that will facilitate the development of cloud seeding decision support tools.

  7. An Overview of Scientific and Space Weather Results from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; de la Beaujardiere, O.; Hunton, D.; Heelis, R.; Earle, G.; Strauss, P.; Bernhardt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory is described. C/NOFS science objectives may be organized into three categories: (1) to understand physical processes active in the background ionosphere and thermosphere in which plasma instabilities grow; (2) to identify mechanisms that trigger or quench the plasma irregularities responsible for signal degradation; and (3) to determine how the plasma irregularities affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves. The satellite was launched in April, 2008 into a low inclination (13 deg), elliptical (400 x 850 km) orbit. The satellite sensors measure the following parameters in situ: ambient and fluctuating electron densities, AC and DC electric and magnetic fields, ion drifts and large scale ion composition, ion and electron temperatures, and neutral winds. C/NOFS is also equipped with a GPS occultation receiver and a radio beacon. In addition to the satellite sensors, complementary ground-based measurements, theory, and advanced modeling techniques are also important parts of the mission. We report scientific and space weather highlights of the mission after nearly four years in orbit

  8. Geochemical processes in acidic water caused by the weathering of metal sulphides; Procesos geoquimicos en aguas acidas por meteorizacion de sulfuros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta Andres, M. P.; Acero Salazar, P.; Auque Sanz, L. F.; Gimeno Serrano, M. J.; Gomez Jimenez, J. B.

    2011-07-01

    Acid generated by the oxidative dissolution of metal sulphides is one of the main sources of pollution in runoff water, groundwater, soils and sediments throughout the world. These types of water are very acidic and contain high concentrations of sulphate and other potentially contaminating elements such Fe, As, Cd, Sb, Zn and Cu. The acidity generated by sulphide oxidation processes is mainly controlled by the type, quantity and distribution of the sulphide-rich rocks, by the physical characteristics of the rocks (since they determine the accessibility of aqueous solutions and gases to the sulphides), by the presence of microorganisms able to catalyze the main chemical reactions involved in the formation of acid drainage, and by the existence of minerals capable of neutralizing acidity. As a result, the generation of acidic water is a very complex problem, the study of which must be undertaken via a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological aspects among others. The aim of our work is to provide a general overview of these processes and other factors that influence the generation and evolution of these systems, together with information concerning current scientific knowledge about each of these approaches. Thus we hope to provide a basic background to the understanding and study of acid-water systems associated with the weathering of metal sulphides and the processes involved in the generation, migration, evolution and natural attenuation of acidic waters in these environments. (Author) 65 refs.

  9. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  10. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  11. The Process of Systemic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Solomon, Monica; Caine, Geoffrey; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Almeida, Luis; Frick, Theodore; Thompson, Kenneth; Koh, Joyce; Ryan, Christopher D.; DeMars, Shane

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents several brief papers about the process of systemic change. These are: (1) Step-Up-To-Excellence: A Protocol for Navigating Whole-System Change in School Districts by Francis M. Duffy; (2) The Guidance System for Transforming Education by Charles M. Reigeluth; (3) The Schlechty Center For Leadership In School Reform by Monica…

  12. Preparing for Operational Use of High Priority Products from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) in Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S.; Layns, A. L.; Goldberg, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Ling, Y.; Collard, A.; Grumbine, R. W.; Sapper, J.; Ignatov, A.; Yoe, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    This work describes end to end operational implementation of high priority products from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) operational polar-orbiting satellite constellation, to include Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System series initial satellite (JPSS-1), into numerical weather prediction and earth systems models. Development and evaluation needed for the initial implementations of VIIRS Environmental Data Records (EDR) for Sea Surface Temperature ingestion in the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (RTG) and Polar Winds assimilated in the National Weather Service (NWS) Global Forecast System (GFS) is presented. These implementations ensure continuity of data in these models in the event of loss of legacy sensor data. Also discussed is accelerated operational implementation of Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Temperature Data Records (TDR) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Sensor Data Records, identified as Key Performance Parameters by the National Weather Service. Operational use of SNPP after 28 October, 2011 launch took more than one year due to the learning curve and development needed for full exploitation of new remote sensing capabilities. Today, ATMS and CrIS data positively impact weather forecast accuracy. For NOAA's JPSS initial satellite (JPSS-1), scheduled for launch in late 2017, we identify scope and timelines for pre-launch and post-launch activities needed to efficiently transition these capabilities into operations. As part of these alignment efforts, operational readiness for KPPs will be possible as soon as 90 days after launch. The schedule acceleration is possible because of the experience with S-NPP. NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellite constellation provides continuity and enhancement of earth systems observations out to 2036. Program best practices and lessons learned will inform future implementation for follow-on JPSS-3 and -4

  13. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques for identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, T. A.; Buma, J. T.; Klawer, C. J. M.

    2004-03-01

    This paper's objective is to determine how useful geochemistry can be in landslide investigations. More specifically, what additional information can be gained by analysing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation composition in respect to the hydrological system of a landslide area in clayey material. Two cores from the Boulc-Mondorès landslide (France) and one core from the Alvera landslide (Italy) were analysed. The NH 4Ac and NaCl laboratory techniques are tested. The geochemical results are compared with the core descriptions and interpreted with respect to their usefulness. Both analysis techniques give identical results for CEC, and are plausible on the basis of the available clay content information. The determination of the exchangeable cations was more difficult, since part of the marls dissolved. With the ammonium-acetate method more of the marls are dissolved than with the sodium-chloride method. The NaCl method is preferred for the determination of the cation fractions at the complex, be it that this method has the disadvantage that the sodium fraction cannot be determined. To overcome this problem, it is recommended to try other displacement fluids. In the Boulc-Mondorès example, the subsurface information that can be extracted from CEC analyses was presented. In the Boulc-Mondorès cores deviant intervals of CEC could be identified. These are interpreted as weathered layers (and preferential flow paths) that may develop or have already developed into slip surfaces. The major problem of the CEC analyses was to explain the origin of the differences found in the core samples. Both Alvera and Boulc-Mondorès examples show transitions in cation composition with depth. It was shown that the exchangeable caution fractions can be useful in locating boundaries between water types, especially the boundary between the superficial, rain-fed hydrological system and the lower, regional groundwater system. This information may be important for landslide

  14. Application of global weather and climate model output to the design and operation of wind-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Judith [Climate Forecast Applications Network, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    This project addressed the challenge of providing weather and climate information to support the operation, management and planning for wind-energy systems. The need for forecast information is extending to longer projection windows with increasing penetration of wind power into the grid and also with diminishing reserve margins to meet peak loads during significant weather events. Maintenance planning and natural gas trading is being influenced increasingly by anticipation of wind generation on timescales of weeks to months. Future scenarios on decadal time scales are needed to support assessment of wind farm siting, government planning, long-term wind purchase agreements and the regulatory environment. The challenge of making wind forecasts on these longer time scales is associated with a wide range of uncertainties in general circulation and regional climate models that make them unsuitable for direct use in the design and planning of wind-energy systems. To address this challenge, CFAN has developed a hybrid statistical/dynamical forecasting scheme for delivering probabilistic forecasts on time scales from one day to seven months using what is arguably the best forecasting system in the world (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, ECMWF). The project also provided a framework to assess future wind power through developing scenarios of interannual to decadal climate variability and change. The Phase II research has successfully developed an operational wind power forecasting system for the U.S., which is being extended to Europe and possibly Asia.

  15. Weather hazards and vulnerabilities for the European transport system - a risk panorama. EWENT project D5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molarius, R.; Leviakangas, P.; Ronty, J.; Oiva, K. (eds.)

    2012-09-15

    This deliverable of EWENT project estimates the risks of extreme weather on European transport system. The main object of work package 5 in EWENT project was to perform a risk analysis based on impact and probability assessments carried out in earlier work packages (WP2-WP3). The results of WP 5 can be used as a starting point when deciding on the risk reduction measures, strategies and policies in the European Union. This deliverable also serves as a background material for the synthesis report (named shortly as Risk Panorama), which will summarise the findings of risk assessment and previous work packages. The methodological approach of EWENT is based on the generic risk management standard (IEC 60300-3-9) and starts with the identification of hazardous extreme weather phenomena, followed by an impact assessment and concluded by mitigation and risk control measures. This report pools the information from EWENT's earlier work packages, such as risk identification and estimation, into a 'risk panorama' and provides a holistic picture on the risks of extreme weather in different parts of Europe and EU transport network. The risk assessment is based on the definition of transport systems' vulnerability to extreme weather events in different countries and on calculations of the most probable causal chains, starting from adverse weather phenomena and ending up with events that pose harmful consequences to the transport systems in different climate regions. The latter part, the probabilistic section, is the hazard analysis. The vulnerability of a particular mode in a particular country is a function of exposure (indicated by transport or freight volumes and population density), susceptibility (infrastructure quality index, indicating overall resilience) and coping capacity (measured by GDP per capita). Hence, we define the extreme weather risk as Risk = hazard times vulnerability = P(negative consequences) times V[f(exposure, susceptibility, coping

  16. The use of imprecise processing to improve accuracy in weather and climate prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Düben, Peter D., E-mail: dueben@atm.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (United Kingdom); McNamara, Hugh [University of Oxford, Mathematical Institute (United Kingdom); Palmer, T.N. [University of Oxford, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    The use of stochastic processing hardware and low precision arithmetic in atmospheric models is investigated. Stochastic processors allow hardware-induced faults in calculations, sacrificing bit-reproducibility and precision in exchange for improvements in performance and potentially accuracy of forecasts, due to a reduction in power consumption that could allow higher resolution. A similar trade-off is achieved using low precision arithmetic, with improvements in computation and communication speed and savings in storage and memory requirements. As high-performance computing becomes more massively parallel and power intensive, these two approaches may be important stepping stones in the pursuit of global cloud-resolving atmospheric modelling. The impact of both hardware induced faults and low precision arithmetic is tested using the Lorenz '96 model and the dynamical core of a global atmosphere model. In the Lorenz '96 model there is a natural scale separation; the spectral discretisation used in the dynamical core also allows large and small scale dynamics to be treated separately within the code. Such scale separation allows the impact of lower-accuracy arithmetic to be restricted to components close to the truncation scales and hence close to the necessarily inexact parametrised representations of unresolved processes. By contrast, the larger scales are calculated using high precision deterministic arithmetic. Hardware faults from stochastic processors are emulated using a bit-flip model with different fault rates. Our simulations show that both approaches to inexact calculations do not substantially affect the large scale behaviour, provided they are restricted to act only on smaller scales. By contrast, results from the Lorenz '96 simulations are superior when small scales are calculated on an emulated stochastic processor than when those small scales are parametrised. This suggests that inexact calculations at the small scale could reduce

  17. The use of imprecise processing to improve accuracy in weather and climate prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Düben, Peter D.; McNamara, Hugh; Palmer, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    The use of stochastic processing hardware and low precision arithmetic in atmospheric models is investigated. Stochastic processors allow hardware-induced faults in calculations, sacrificing bit-reproducibility and precision in exchange for improvements in performance and potentially accuracy of forecasts, due to a reduction in power consumption that could allow higher resolution. A similar trade-off is achieved using low precision arithmetic, with improvements in computation and communication speed and savings in storage and memory requirements. As high-performance computing becomes more massively parallel and power intensive, these two approaches may be important stepping stones in the pursuit of global cloud-resolving atmospheric modelling. The impact of both hardware induced faults and low precision arithmetic is tested using the Lorenz '96 model and the dynamical core of a global atmosphere model. In the Lorenz '96 model there is a natural scale separation; the spectral discretisation used in the dynamical core also allows large and small scale dynamics to be treated separately within the code. Such scale separation allows the impact of lower-accuracy arithmetic to be restricted to components close to the truncation scales and hence close to the necessarily inexact parametrised representations of unresolved processes. By contrast, the larger scales are calculated using high precision deterministic arithmetic. Hardware faults from stochastic processors are emulated using a bit-flip model with different fault rates. Our simulations show that both approaches to inexact calculations do not substantially affect the large scale behaviour, provided they are restricted to act only on smaller scales. By contrast, results from the Lorenz '96 simulations are superior when small scales are calculated on an emulated stochastic processor than when those small scales are parametrised. This suggests that inexact calculations at the small scale could reduce computation and

  18. An Analytical Approach for Performance Enhancement of FSO Communication System Using Array of Receivers in Adverse Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Shaina; Gupta, Amit

    2017-08-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) link exploits the tremendous network capacity and is capable of offering wireless communications similar to communications through optical fibres. However, FSO link is extremely weather dependent and the major effect on FSO links is due to adverse weather conditions like fog and snow. In this paper, an FSO link is designed using an array of receivers. The disparity of the link for very high attenuation conditions due to fog and snow is analysed using aperture averaging technique. Further effect of aperture averaging technique is investigated by comparing the systems using aperture averaging technique with systems not using aperture averaging technique. The performance of proposed model of FSO link has been evaluated in terms of Q factor, bit error rate (BER) and eye diagram.

  19. Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part I. Sectoral Analysis of Climate Impacts in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, M.; Goria, A.; Spantidaki, E.; Mombrini, P.

    2004-02-01

    This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is presented the statistical modelling of the impact of weather, through quantitative analysis of activity time series. In particular, the core sectors analysed include fires, health, energy use, tourism and agriculture

  20. Distinguishing high and low flow domains in urban drainage systems 2 days ahead using numerical weather prediction ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courdent, Vianney; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation constitutes a major contribution to the flow in urban storm- and wastewater systems. Forecasts of the anticipated runoff flows, created from radar extrapolation and/or numerical weather predictions, can potentially be used to optimize operation in both wet and dry weather periods. However, flow forecasts are inevitably uncertain and their use will ultimately require a trade-off between the value of knowing what will happen in the future and the probability and consequence of being wrong. In this study we examine how ensemble forecasts from the HIRLAM-DMI-S05 numerical weather prediction (NWP) model subject to three different ensemble post-processing approaches can be used to forecast flow exceedance in a combined sewer for a wide range of ratios between the probability of detection (POD) and the probability of false detection (POFD). We use a hydrological rainfall-runoff model to transform the forecasted rainfall into forecasted flow series and evaluate three different approaches to establishing the relative operating characteristics (ROC) diagram of the forecast, which is a plot of POD against POFD for each fraction of concordant ensemble members and can be used to select the weight of evidence that matches the desired trade-off between POD and POFD. In the first approach, the rainfall input to the model is calculated for each of 25 ensemble members as a weighted average of rainfall from the NWP cells over the catchment where the weights are proportional to the areal intersection between the catchment and the NWP cells. In the second approach, a total of 2825 flow ensembles are generated using rainfall input from the neighbouring NWP cells up to approximately 6 cells in all directions from the catchment. In the third approach, the first approach is extended spatially by successively increasing the area covered and for each spatial increase and each time step selecting only the cell with the highest intensity resulting in a total of 175 ensemble

  1. Chemical Alteration of Soils on Earth as a Function of Precipitation: Insights Into Weathering Processes Relevant to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, R.; Chadwick, O.; Ewing, S.; Sutter, B.; Owen, J.; McKay, C.

    2004-12-01

    Soils lie at the interface of the atmosphere and lithosphere, and the rates of chemical and physical processes that form them hinge on the availability of water. Here we quantify the effect of these processes on soil volume and mass in different rainfall regimes. We then use the results of this synthesis to compare with the growing chemical dataset for soils on Mars in order to identify moisture regimes on Earth that may provide crude analogues for past Martian weathering conditions. In this synthesis, the rates of elemental gains/losses, and corresponding volumetric changes, were compared for soils in nine soil chronosequences (sequences of soils of differing ages) - sequences formed in climates ranging from ~1 to ~4500 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP). Total elemental chemistry of soils and parent materials were determined via XRF, ICP-MS, and/or ICP-OES, and the absolute elemental gains or losses (and volume changes) were determined by normalizing data to an immobile index element. For the chronosequences examined, the initial stages of soil formation (103^ to 104^ yr), regardless of climate, generally show volumetric expansion due to (1) reduction in bulk density by biological/physical turbation, (2) addition of organic matter, (3) accumulation of water during clay mineral synthesis, and/or (4) accumulation of atmospheric salts and dust. Despite large differences in parent materials (basalt, sandstone, granitic alluvium), there was a systematic relationship between long-term (105^ to 106^ yr) volumetric change and rainfall, with an approximate cross-over point between net expansion (and accumulation of atmospheric solutes and dust) and net collapse (net losses of Si, Al, and alkaline earths and alkali metals) between approximately 20 and 100 mm MAP. Recently published geochemical data of soils at Gusev Crater (Gellert et al. 2004. Science 305:829), when normalized to Ti, show apparent net losses of Si and Al that range between 5 and 50% of values relative to

  2. Congestion Management System Process Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In January 1995, the Indianapolis Metropolitan Planning Organization with the help of an interagency Study Review Committee began the process of developing a Congestion Management System (CMS) Plan resulting in this report. This report documents the ...

  3. Human-Systems Integration Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to baseline a Human-Systems Integration Processes (HSIP) document as a companion to the NASA-STD-3001 and Human Integration Design...

  4. The New Data Assimilation System at the Italian Air Force Weather Service: Design and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    weather conditions (1999 Christmas storm in Europe , January 2000 snow storm over the eastern coast of the US) can be attributed to the inaccuracies in...over the normal modes of a linearized version of the model equations. These 5 normal modes can be classified (at least for the extratropics ) based

  5. System Theory and Physiological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W

    1963-05-03

    Engineers and physiologists working together in experimental and theoretical studies predict that the application of system analysis to biological processes will increase understanding of these processes and broaden the base of system theory. Richard W. Jones, professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and John S. Gray, professor of physiology at Northwestern's Medical School, discuss these developments. Their articles are adapted from addresses delivered in Chicago in November 1962 at the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology.

  6. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  7. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a

  8. Sun, weather, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references

  9. Design of object processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoras, D.R.; Hoede, C.

    Object processing systems are met rather often in every day life, in industry, tourism, commerce, etc. When designing such a system, many problems can be posed and considered, depending on the scope and purpose of design. We give here a general approach which involves graph theory, and which can

  10. Distinguishing high and low flow domains in urban drainage systems 2 days ahead using numerical weather prediction ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation constitutes a major contribution to the flow in urban storm- and wastewater systems. Forecasts of the anticipated runoff flows, created from radar extrapolation and/or numerical weather predictions, can potentially be used to optimize operation in both wet and dry weather periods...... to transform the forecasted rainfall into forecasted flow series and evaluate three different approaches to establishing the relative operating characteristics (ROC) diagram of the forecast, which is a plot of POD against POFD for each fraction of concordant ensemble members and can be used to select...... itself from earlier research in being the first application to urban hydrology, with fast runoff and small catchments that are highly sensitive to local extremes. Furthermore, no earlier reference has been found on the highly efficient third approach using only neighbouring cells with the highest threat...

  11. Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part 2. Individual Perception of Climate Extremes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, M.; Goria, A.; Spantidaki, E.; Mombrini, P.

    2004-02-01

    This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is considered the study of the perception of weather impacts through questionnaire survey to the general public. With regard to the individuals' perception survey, a sample of 300 individuals were interviewed by telephone: 150 extracted from the North of Italy and 150 from the South of Italy. Individuals were asked general questions about their perception of climate extremes, and about the impacts of weather extremes on their daily habits at work, at home, in their leisure activities, on their transport patterns, on their health and tourism choices

  12. Selection Process of ERP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár, Bálint; Szabó, Gyula; Benczúr, András

    2013-01-01

    Background: The application and introduction of ERP systems have become a central issue for management and operation of enterprises. The competition on market enforces the improvement and optimization of business processes of enterprises to increase their efficiency, effectiveness, and to manage better the resources outside the company. The primary task of ERP systems is to achieve the before-mentioned objectives. Objective: The selection of a particular ERP system has a decisive effect on th...

  13. Development and validation of a weather-based warning system to advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot on turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Kerns, J. P.; Walker, N. R.; Payne, A. F.; Horvath, B.; Inguagiato, J. C.; Kaminski, J. E.; Tomaso-Peterson, M.

    2018-01-01

    Dollar spot is one of the most common diseases of golf course turfgrass and numerous fungicide applications are often required to provide adequate control. Weather-based disease warning systems have been developed to more accurately time fungicide applications; however, they tend to be ineffective and are not currently in widespread use. The primary objective of this research was to develop a new weather-based disease warning system to more accurately advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot activity across a broad geographic and climactic range. The new dollar spot warning system was developed from data collected at field sites in Madison, WI and Stillwater, OK in 2008 and warning system validation sites were established in Madison, WI, Stillwater, OK, Knoxville, TN, State College, PA, Starkville, MS, and Storrs, CT between 2011 and 2016. A meta-analysis of all site-years was conducted and the most effective warning system for dollar spot development consisted of a five-day moving average of relative humidity and average daily temperature. Using this model the highest effective probability that provided dollar spot control similar to that of a calendar-based program across the numerous sites and years was 20%. Additional analysis found that the 20% spray threshold provided comparable control to the calendar-based program while reducing fungicide usage by up to 30%, though further refinement may be needed as practitioners implement this warning system in a range of environments not tested here. The weather-based dollar spot warning system presented here will likely become an important tool for implementing precision disease management strategies for future turfgrass managers, especially as financial and regulatory pressures increase the need to reduce pesticide usage on golf course turfgrass. PMID:29522560

  14. Microbial weathering processes after release of heavy metals and arsenic from fluvial tailing deposits; Mikrobielle Verwitterungsprozesse bei der Freisetzung von Schwermetallen und Arsen aus fluvialen Tailingablagerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, S. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Fak. fuer Forst, Geo und Hydrowissenschaften, Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

    2006-07-01

    Microbial processes play an important role in global metal cycles. The microbial weathering of mineral surfaces, including deposited anthropogenic mineral remainders, is a natural occurring process, taking place on uncovered dump surfaces as well as in deeper zones of dumps. Such weathering processes also occur in metal contaminated soils and sediments. In this work, a sulfidic fluvial tailing sediment was investigated for its acidity and salinity generating potential and the subsequent mobilisation of heavy metals, generated by biogeochemical processes. The long-term risks of such a deposit were evaluated. Unstabilised deposits of such materials can generate a considerable contamination of the surrounding ground and surface water. It could be shown in the experiments that in acid generating dumps and tailing materials besides the well known acidophilic autotrophs also acidotolerant heterotrophic microorganisms play a role in the mobilisation of metals. (orig.)

  15. Evaluating impacts of different longitudinal driver assistance systems on reducing multi-vehicle rear-end crashes during small-scale inclement weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Xing, Lu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hao; Dong, Changyin; Liu, Shanwen

    2017-10-01

    Multi-vehicle rear-end (MVRE) crashes during small-scale inclement (SSI) weather cause high fatality rates on freeways, which cannot be solved by traditional speed limit strategies. This study aimed to reduce MVRE crash risks during SSI weather using different longitudinal driver assistance systems (LDAS). The impact factors on MVRE crashes during SSI weather were firstly analyzed. Then, four LDAS, including Forward collision warning (FCW), Autonomous emergency braking (AEB), Adaptive cruise control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (CACC), were modeled based on a unified platform, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM). Simulation experiments were designed and a large number of simulations were then conducted to evaluate safety effects of different LDAS. Results indicate that the FCW and ACC system have poor performance on reducing MVRE crashes during SSI weather. The slight improvement of sight distance of FCW and the limitation of perception-reaction time of ACC lead the failure of avoiding MVRE crashes in most scenarios. The AEB system has the better effect due to automatic perception and reaction, as well as performing the full brake when encountering SSI weather. The CACC system has the best performance because wireless communication provides a larger sight distance and a shorter time delay at the sub-second level. Sensitivity analyses also indicated that the larger number of vehicles and speed changes after encountering SSI weather have negative impacts on safety performances. Results of this study provide useful information for accident prevention during SSI weather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influenza-like illness in a Vietnamese province: epidemiology in correlation with weather factors and determinants from the surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Bich; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal influenza affects from 5 to 15% of the world's population annually and causes an estimated 250,000-500,000 deaths worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 'sentinel surveillance' for influenza-like illness (ILI) because it is simple and calls for standardized methods at a relatively low cost that can be implemented throughout the world. In Vietnam, ILI is a key priority for public health also because of its annually recurring temporal pattern. Two major factors, on which the spread of influenza depends, are the strain of the virus and its rate of mutation, since flu strains constantly mutate as they compete with host immune systems. In the context of global climate change, the role of climatic factors has been discussed, as they may significantly contribute to the cause of large outbreaks of ILI. 1) To describe the epidemiology of ILI in Ha Nam province, Vietnam; 2) to seek scientific evidence on the association of ILI occurrence with weather factors in Ha Nam province; and 3) to analyze factors from the Ha Nam ILI surveillance system that contribute to explaining the correlation between the ILI and the weather factors. A data set of 89,270 monthly reported ILI cases from 2008 to 2012 in Ha Nam was used to describe ILI epidemiological characteristics. Spearman correlation analyses between ILI cases and weather factors were conducted to identify which preceding period of months and weather patterns influenced the occurrence of ILI cases. Ten in-depth interviews with health workers in charge of recording and reporting ILI cases at different levels of the ILI surveillance system were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of factors contributing to explaining the relation between the ILI and the weather factors. The results indicated that the ILI occurred annually in all districts of the Ha Nam province in the five studied years. An epidemic occurred in 2009 with the number of cases three times higher than the average threshold. There was a

  17. Influenza-like illness in a Vietnamese province: epidemiology in correlation with weather factors and determinants from the surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seasonal influenza affects from 5 to 15% of the world's population annually and causes an estimated 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends ‘sentinel surveillance’ for influenza-like illness (ILI because it is simple and calls for standardized methods at a relatively low cost that can be implemented throughout the world. In Vietnam, ILI is a key priority for public health also because of its annually recurring temporal pattern. Two major factors, on which the spread of influenza depends, are the strain of the virus and its rate of mutation, since flu strains constantly mutate as they compete with host immune systems. In the context of global climate change, the role of climatic factors has been discussed, as they may significantly contribute to the cause of large outbreaks of ILI. Objectives: 1 To describe the epidemiology of ILI in Ha Nam province, Vietnam; 2 to seek scientific evidence on the association of ILI occurrence with weather factors in Ha Nam province; and 3 to analyze factors from the Ha Nam ILI surveillance system that contribute to explaining the correlation between the ILI and the weather factors. Design: A data set of 89,270 monthly reported ILI cases from 2008 to 2012 in Ha Nam was used to describe ILI epidemiological characteristics. Spearman correlation analyses between ILI cases and weather factors were conducted to identify which preceding period of months and weather patterns influenced the occurrence of ILI cases. Ten in-depth interviews with health workers in charge of recording and reporting ILI cases at different levels of the ILI surveillance system were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of factors contributing to explaining the relation between the ILI and the weather factors. Results: The results indicated that the ILI occurred annually in all districts of the Ha Nam province in the five studied years. An epidemic occurred in 2009 with the number of

  18. Using AIRS retrievals in the WRF-LETKF system to improve regional numerical weather prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemasa Miyoshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional observations, atmospheric temperature and humidity profile data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS Version 5 retrieval products are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, using the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF. Although a naive assimilation of all available quality-controlled AIRS retrieval data yields an inferior analysis, the additional enhancements of adaptive inflation and horizontal data thinning result in a general improvement of numerical weather prediction skill due to AIRS data. In particular, the adaptive inflation method is enhanced so that it no longer assumes temporal homogeneity of the observing network and allows for a better treatment of the temporally inhomogeneous AIRS data. Results indicate that the improvements due to AIRS data are more significant in longer-lead forecasts. Forecasts of Typhoons Sinlaku and Jangmi in September 2008 show improvements due to AIRS data.

  19. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  20. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  1. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2004-01-01

    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows

  2. Waste glass weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass

  3. From Forecasters to the General Public: A Communication Tool to Understand Decision-making Challenges in Weather-related Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terti, G.; Ruin, I.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Sabbatini, T.; i Alonso, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies are currently adopted worldwide to improve weather forecasts and communication of the corresponding warnings to the end-users. "EnhANcing emergency management and response to extreme WeatHER and climate Events" (ANYWHERE) project is an innovating action that aims at developing and implementing a European decision-support platform for weather-related risks integrating cutting-edge forecasting technology. The initiative is built in a collaborative manner where researchers, developers, potential users and other stakeholders meet frequently to define needs, capabilities and challenges. In this study, we propose a role-playing game to test the added value of the ANYWHERE platform on i) the decision-making process and the choice of warning levels under uncertainty, ii) the management of the official emergency response and iii) the crisis communication and triggering of protective actions at different levels of the warning system (from hazard detection to citizen response). The designed game serves as an interactive communication tool. Here, flood and flash flood focused simulations seek to enhance participant's understanding of the complexities and challenges embedded in various levels of the decision-making process under the threat of weather disasters (e.g., forecasting/warnings, official emergency actions, self-protection). Also, we facilitate collaboration and coordination between the participants who belong to different national or local agencies/authorities across Europe. The game is first applied and tested in ANYWHERE's workshop in Helsinki (September, 2017) where about 30-50 people, including researchers, forecasters, civil protection and representatives of related companies, are anticipated to play the simulation. The main idea is to provide to the players a virtual case study that well represents realistic uncertainties and dilemmas embedded in the real-time forecasting-warning processes. At the final debriefing step the participants are

  4. The acid and alkalinity budgets of weathering in the Andes-Amazon system: Insights into the erosional control of global biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; West, A. Joshua; Clark, Kathryn E.; Paris, Guillaume; Bouchez, Julien; Ponton, Camilo; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-09-01

    The correlation between chemical weathering fluxes and denudation rates suggests that tectonic activity can force variations in atmospheric pCO2 by modulating weathering fluxes. However, the effect of weathering on pCO2 is not solely determined by the total mass flux. Instead, the effect of weathering on pCO2 also depends upon the balance between 1) alkalinity generation by carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and 2) sulfuric acid generation by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. In this study, we explore how the balance between acid and alkalinity generation varies with tectonic uplift to better understand the links between tectonics and the long-term carbon cycle. To trace weathering reactions across the transition from the Peruvian Andes to the Amazonian foreland basin, we measured a suite of elemental concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Si, Li, SO4, and Cl) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr and δ34S) on both dissolved and solid phase samples. Using an inverse model, we quantitatively link systematic changes in solute geochemistry with elevation to downstream declines in sulfuric acid weathering as well as the proportion of cations sourced from silicates. With a new carbonate-system framework, we show that weathering in the Andes Mountains is a CO2 source whereas foreland weathering is a CO2 sink. These results are consistent with the theoretical expectation that the ratio of sulfide oxidation to silicate weathering increases with increasing erosion. Altogether, our results suggest that the effect of tectonically-enhanced weathering on atmospheric pCO2 is strongly modulated by sulfide mineral oxidation.

  5. The CO2 system in rivers of the Australian Victorian Alps: CO2 evasion in relation to system metabolism and rock weathering on multi-annual time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, Benjamin; Cartwright, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The patterns of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) and aqueous CO 2 in rivers and estuaries sampled during summer and winter in the Australian Victorian Alps were examined. Together with historical (1978-1990) geochemical data, this study provides, for the first time, a multi-annual coverage of the linkage between CO 2 release via wetland evasion and CO 2 consumption via combined carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering. δ 13 C values imply that carbonate weathering contributes ∼36% of the DIC in the rivers although carbonates comprise less than 5% of the study area. Baseflow/interflow flushing of respired C3 plant detritus accounts for ∼50% and atmospheric precipitation accounts for ∼14% of the DIC. The influence of in river respiration and photosynthesis on the DIC concentrations is negligible. River waters are supersaturated with CO 2 and evade ∼27.7 x 10 6 mol/km 2 /a to ∼70.9 x 10 6 mol/km 2 /a CO 2 to the atmosphere with the highest values in the low runoff rivers. This is slightly higher than the global average reflecting higher gas transfer velocities due to high wind speeds. Evaded CO 2 is not balanced by CO 2 consumption via combined carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering which implies that chemical weathering does not significantly neutralize respiration derived H 2 CO 3 . The results of this study have implications for global assessments of chemical weathering yields in river systems draining passive margin terrains as high respiration derived DIC concentrations are not directly connected to high carbonate and aluminosilicate weathering rates.

  6. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  7. Using satellite fire detection to calibrate components of the fire weather index system in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C; Field, Robert D; Roswintiarti, Orbita; Guswanto

    2005-04-01

    Vegetation fires have become an increasing problem in tropical environments as a consequence of socioeconomic pressures and subsequent land-use change. In response, fire management systems are being developed. This study set out to determine the relationships between two aspects of the fire problems in western Indonesia and Malaysia, and two components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. The study resulted in a new method for calibrating components of fire danger rating systems based on satellite fire detection (hotspot) data. Once the climate was accounted for, a problematic number of fires were related to high levels of the Fine Fuel Moisture Code. The relationship between climate, Fine Fuel Moisture Code, and hotspot occurrence was used to calibrate Fire Occurrence Potential classes where low accounted for 3% of the fires from 1994 to 2000, moderate accounted for 25%, high 26%, and extreme 38%. Further problems arise when there are large clusters of fires burning that may consume valuable land or produce local smoke pollution. Once the climate was taken into account, the hotspot load (number and size of clusters of hotspots) was related to the Fire Weather Index. The relationship between climate, Fire Weather Index, and hotspot load was used to calibrate Fire Load Potential classes. Low Fire Load Potential conditions (75% of an average year) corresponded with 24% of the hotspot clusters, which had an average size of 30% of the largest cluster. In contrast, extreme Fire Load Potential conditions (1% of an average year) corresponded with 30% of the hotspot clusters, which had an average size of 58% of the maximum. Both Fire Occurrence Potential and Fire Load Potential calibrations were successfully validated with data from 2001. This study showed that when ground measurements are not available, fire statistics derived from satellite fire detection archives can be reliably used for calibration. More importantly, as a result of this work, Malaysia and

  8. Microprocessor based image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.I.; Siddiqui, M.N.; Rangoonwala, A.

    1987-01-01

    Rapid developments in the production of integrated circuits and introduction of sophisticated 8,16 and now 32 bit microprocessor based computers, have set new trends in computer applications. Nowadays the users by investing much less money can make optimal use of smaller systems by getting them custom-tailored according to their requirements. During the past decade there have been great advancements in the field of computer Graphics and consequently, 'Image Processing' has emerged as a separate independent field. Image Processing is being used in a number of disciplines. In the Medical Sciences, it is used to construct pseudo color images from computer aided tomography (CAT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Art, advertising and publishing people use pseudo colours in pursuit of more effective graphics. Structural engineers use Image Processing to examine weld X-rays to search for imperfections. Photographers use Image Processing for various enhancements which are difficult to achieve in a conventional dark room. (author)

  9. NSF's Perspective on Space Weather Research for Building Forecasting Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Webb, D. F.; Oughton, E. J.; Azeem, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather research at the National Science Foundation (NSF) is focused on scientific discovery and on deepening knowledge of the Sun-Geospace system. The process of maturation of knowledge base is a requirement for the development of improved space weather forecast models and for the accurate assessment of potential mitigation strategies. Progress in space weather forecasting requires advancing in-depth understanding of the underlying physical processes, developing better instrumentation and measurement techniques, and capturing the advancements in understanding in large-scale physics based models that span the entire chain of events from the Sun to the Earth. This presentation will provide an overview of current and planned programs pertaining to space weather research at NSF and discuss the recommendations of the Geospace Section portfolio review panel within the context of space weather forecasting capabilities.

  10. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy system (weather survey); 1976 nendo taiyo energy system no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kisho chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-31

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on weather survey for solar energy systems. Study was made on preparation of the global solar radiation (GSR) map of Japan. To obtain the estimation equation of GSR based on related weather data, analysis was made on data at A type GSR observation sites and related weather data. As some factors effective for estimating monthly mean GSR, a relative sunshine duration, snowfall index (ratio of days more than 10cm in snowfall) and solar altitude index (sine of solar altitude at culmination hour) were selected. The estimation equation was prepared on the basis of these above factors. GSR was affected by relative sunshine duration exceedingly, snowfall by 12%, and solar altitude difference by 6% within an error of 5%. The monthly and annual GSR maps were prepared every site by the above calculation. The continuous observation results in Kagoshima and Fukuoka by recording direct pyranometers are presented. Scattered solar radiation is defined as the difference between simultaneously measured GSR and direct solar radiation. Weather data preparation in Fukuoka for design of solar cooling/heating and hot water supply systems is also described. (NEDO)

  11. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of chondritic meteorites from the Atacama Desert, Chile: Implications for weathering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Valenzuela, M.; Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Some terrestrial areas have climatic and geomorphologic features that favor the preservation, and therefore, accumulation of meteorites. The Atacama Desert in Chile is among the most important of such areas, known as dense collection areas. This desert is the driest on Earth, one of the most arid, uninhabitable locals with semi-arid, arid and hyper-arid conditions. The meteorites studied here were collected from within the dense collection area of San Juan at the Central Depression and Coastal Range of Atacama Desert. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of the degree of weathering of the meteorites, through the determination of the proportions of the various Fe-bearing phases and in particular the amount of oxidized iron in the terrestrial alteration products. The abundance of ferric ions in weathered chondrites can be related to specific precursor compositions and to the level of terrestrial weathering. The aim of the study was the identification, quantification and differentiation of the weathering products in the ordinary chondrites found in the San Juan area of Atacama Desert.

  12. Forward Osmosis System And Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-01-01

    A forward osmosis fluid purification system includes a cross-flow membrane module with a membrane, a channel on each side of the membrane which allows a feed solution and a draw solution to flow through separately, a feed side, a draw side including a draw solute, where the draw solute includes an aryl sulfonate salt. The system can be used in a process to extract water from impure water, such as wastewater or seawater. The purified water can be applied to arid land.

  13. Forward Osmosis System And Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-08-22

    A forward osmosis fluid purification system includes a cross-flow membrane module with a membrane, a channel on each side of the membrane which allows a feed solution and a draw solution to flow through separately, a feed side, a draw side including a draw solute, where the draw solute includes an aryl sulfonate salt. The system can be used in a process to extract water from impure water, such as wastewater or seawater. The purified water can be applied to arid land.

  14. NASA's Advancements in Space-Based Spectrometry Lead to Improvements in Weather Prediction and Understanding of Climate Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS (Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder), was launched, in conjunction with AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) on the NASA polar orbiting research satellite EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite in May 2002 as a next generation atmospheric sounding system. Atmospheric sounders provide information primarily about the vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature and water vapor distribution. This is achieved by measuring outgoing radiation in discrete channels (spectral intervals) which are sensitive primarily to variations of these geophysical parameters. The primary objectives of AIRS/AMSU were to utilize such information in order to improve the skill of numerical weather prediction as well as to measure climate variability and trends. AIRS is a multi-detector array grating spectrometer with 2378 channels covering the spectral range 650/cm (15 microns) to 2660/cm (3.6 microns) with a resolving power (i/a i) of roughly 1200 where a i is the spectral channel bandpass. Atmospheric temperature profile can be determined from channel observations taken within the 15 micron (the long-wave CO2 absorption band) and within the 4.2 micron (the short-wave CO2 absorption band). Radiances in these (and all other) spectral intervals in the infrared are also sensitive to the presence of clouds in the instrument?s field of view (FOV), which are present about 95% of the time. AIRS was designed so as to allow for the ability to produce accurate Quality Controlled atmospheric soundings under most cloud conditions. This was achieved by having 1) extremely low channel noise values in the shortwave portion of the spectrum and 2) a very flat spatial response function within a channel?s FOV. IASI, the high spectral resolution IR interferometer flying on the European METOP satellite, does not contain either of these important characteristics. The AIRS instrument was also designed to be extremely stabile with regard to its spectral radiometric characteristics, which is

  15. Final Report, University of California Merced: Uranium and strontium fate in waste-weathered sediments: Scaling of molecular processes to predict reactive transport (DE-SC0007095)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Day, Peggy Anne [University of California Merced; Chorover, Jon [University of Arizona; Steefel, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mueller, Karl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Objectives of the Project: 1. Determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and contaminant (U and Sr) speciation in acid-uranium waste weathered Hanford sediments. 2. Establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. 3. Make conjunctive use of molecular- to bench-scale data to constrain the development of a mechanistic, reactive transport model that includes coupling of contaminant sorption-desorption and mineral transformation reactions. Hypotheses Tested: Uranium and strontium speciation in legacy sediments from the U-8 and U-12 Crib sites can be reproduced in bench-scale weathering experiments conducted on unimpacted Hanford sediments from the same formations; Reactive transport modeling of future uranium and strontium releases from the vadose zone of acid-waste weathered sediments can be effectively constrained by combining molecular-scale information on contaminant bonding environment with grain-scale information on contaminant phase partitioning, and meso-scale kinetic data on contaminant release from the waste-weathered porous media; Although field contamination and laboratory experiments differ in their diagenetic time scales (decades for field vs. months to years for lab), sediment dissolution, neophase nucleation, and crystal growth reactions that occur during the initial disequilibrium induced by waste-sediment interaction leave a strong imprint that persists over subsequent longer-term equilibration time scales and, therefore, give rise to long-term memory effects. Enabling Capabilities Developed: Our team developed an iterative measure-model approach that is broadly applicable to elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of reactive contaminant transport in geomedia subject to active weathering.

  16. Automation Processes and Blockchain Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hegadekatti, Kartik

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain Systems and Ubiquitous computing are changing the way we do business and lead our lives. One of the most important applications of Blockchain technology is in automation processes and Internet-of-Things (IoT). Machines have so far been limited in ability primarily because they have restricted capacity to exchange value. Any monetary exchange of value has to be supervised by humans or human-based centralised ledgers. Blockchain technology changes all that. It allows machines to have...

  17. The Geonames Processing System Synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    although it adds to costs), the majority of this discussion focuses on technical alter- natives for ideograph processing. Chinese hanzi and Japanese ...grammatical inflections. * ’ Hiragana ," used for exclamations, and "katakana," used for foreign words, each have 48 characters. Some characters may be...entry systems use varied strategies. "Hunt and peck" drives the Japanese typewriter, a two-dimensional array of 2000-plus keys (one character/key

  18. GPU-Accelerated Real-Time Surveillance De-Weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    A fully automatic de-weathering system to increase the visibility/stability in surveillance applications during bad weather has been developed. Rain, snow and haze during daylight are handled in real-time performance with acceleration from CUDA implemented algorithms. Video from fixed cameras is processed on a PC with no need of special hardware except an NVidia GPU. The system does not use any background model and does not require any precalibration. Increase in contrast is obtained in all h...

  19. XCPU2 process management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionkov, Latchesar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hensbergen, Eric [IBM AUSTIN RESEARCH LAB

    2009-01-01

    Xcpu2 is a new process management system that allows the users to specify custom file system for a running job. Most cluster management systems enforce single software distribution running on all nodes. Xcpu2 allows programs running on the cluster to work in environment identical to the user's desktop, using the same versions of the libraries and tools the user installed locally, and accessing the configuration file in the same places they are located on the desktop. Xcpu2 builds on our earlier work with the Xcpu system. Like Xcpu, Xcpu2's process management interface is represented as a set of files exported by a 9P file server. It supports heterogeneous clusters and multiple head nodes. Unlike Xcpu, it uses pull instead of push model. In this paper we describe the Xcpu2 clustering model, its operation and how the per-job filesystem configuration can be used to solve some of the common problems when running a cluster.

  20. The WC-130 Meteorological System and Its Utilization in Operational Weather Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    made using a J-scan display on the face of a cathode ray tube (CRT) in the indicator unit. The display is in the form of a base circle with two lobes...76-12W 31000 Ft NCA 35-42N 77-26W 31000 Ft ILM 34-21N 77-52W 31000 Ft CRY 33-49N 78-43W 31000 Ft CHS 32-54N 80-02W 31000 Ft 350 GOIF A 1A IF P\\ I V...Weather Service Ak6PE MS Primitive L -uation Nedel C PFC Central Pacific Hurricane Center CMI cathode ray tube2 LkJC Departmnent of Commierce WkL

  1. NDMAS System and Process Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Hull

    2012-10-01

    Experimental data generated by the Very High Temperature Reactor Program need to be more available to users in the form of data tables on Web pages that can be downloaded to Excel or in delimited text formats that can be used directly for input to analysis and simulation codes, statistical packages, and graphics software. One solution that can provide current and future researchers with direct access to the data they need, while complying with records management requirements, is the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This report describes the NDMAS system and its components, defines roles and responsibilities, describes the functions the system performs, describes the internal processes the NDMAS team uses to carry out the mission, and describes the hardware and software used to meet Very High Temperature Reactor Program needs.

  2. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  3. Mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical transformations in the initial steps of the weathering process of charnockite from the Caparaó Range, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Caroline Cibele Vieira; Varajão, Angélica Fortes Drummond Chicarino; Varajão, César Augusto Chicarino; Boulangé, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and Electron Probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and Wavelength-Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) were conducted on charnockite from the Caparaó Suite and its alteration cortex to determine the mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical transformations resulting from the weathering process. The hydrolysis of the charnockite occurred in different stages, in accordance with the order of stability of the minerals with respect to weathering: andesine/orthopyroxene, pargasite and alkali feldspar. The rock modifications had begun with the formation of a layer of incipient alteration due to the percolation of weathering solutions first in the pressure relief fractures and then in cleavage and mineral edges. The iron exuded from ferromagnesian minerals precipitated in the intermineral and intramineral discontinuities. The layer of incipient alteration evolves into an inner cortex where the plagioclase changes into gibbsite by direct alitisation, the ferromagnesian minerals initiate the formation of goethitic boxworks with kaolinitic cores, and the alkali feldspar initiates indirect transformation into gibbsite, forming an intermediate phase of illite and kaolinite. In the outer cortex, mostly traces of alkali feldspar remain, and they are surrounded by goethite and gibbsite as alteromorphics, characterising the formation of the isalteritic horizon that occurs along the slope and explains the bauxitization process at the Caparaó Range, SE Brazil.

  4. Musashi dynamic image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Yutaka; Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Taguchi, Akira

    1992-01-01

    In order to produce transmitted neutron dynamic images using neutron radiography, a real time system called Musashi dynamic image processing system (MDIPS) was developed to collect, process, display and record image data. The block diagram of the MDIPS is shown. The system consists of a highly sensitive, high resolution TV camera driven by a custom-made scanner, a TV camera deflection controller for optimal scanning, which adjusts to the luminous intensity and the moving speed of an object, a real-time corrector to perform the real time correction of dark current, shading distortion and field intensity fluctuation, a real time filter for increasing the image signal to noise ratio, a video recording unit and a pseudocolor monitor to realize recording in commercially available products and monitoring by means of the CRTs in standard TV scanning, respectively. The TV camera and the TV camera deflection controller utilized for producing still images can be applied to this case. The block diagram of the real-time corrector is shown. Its performance is explained. Linear filters and ranked order filters were developed. (K.I.)

  5. Modeling systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease in rats under the adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegudina Ye.D.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the lungs, heart and kidneys are found in all animals with experimental systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease and respectively in 47%, 47% and 40% of cases of intact rats in a hostile environment with xenobiotics air pollution (ammonia + benzene + formalin, herewith in every third or fourth individual lesions of visceral vessels developed. The negative environmental situation increases the frequency of morphological signs of the disease, such as proliferation of endothelial vessels of the heart by 68% and renal arterioles by 52%, in addition, there are direct correlations of angiopathy degree in individual organs; this depends on the nature of pathological process modeling and demonstrates air pollution as a risk factor of disease in humans. The impact of pulmonary vessels sclerosis on the development of bronhosclerosis, perivascular infiltration of the heart muscle on the lymphocyte-macrophage infiltration of the stroma of the myocardium and sclerosis of renal arterioles on the degree of nephroslerosis of stroma is directly associated, with the model of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases whereas air pollution by xenobiotics determines dependences of the degree of cellular infiltration of alveolar septa from perivascular pulmonary infiltration, the development of cardiomyocytes hypertrophy from proliferation of the heart endothelial vessels, increase of kidney mesangial matrix from the proliferation of endothelial glomerular capillaries.

  6. Modern integrated environmental monitoring and processing systems for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.

    2000-01-01

    The continuous activity to survey and monitor releases and the current radiation levels in the vicinity of a nuclear object is essential for person and environment protection. Considering the vast amount of information and data needed to keep an updated overview of a situation both during the daily surveillance work and during accident situations, the need for an efficient monitoring and processing system is evident. The rapid development, both in computer technology and in telecommunications, the evolution of fast and accurate computer codes enabling the on-line calculations improve the quality of decision-making in complex situations and assure a high efficiency. The monitoring and processing systems are used both for environmental protection and for controlling nuclear power plant emergency and post-accident situations. Such a system can offer information to the radiation management systems in order to assess the consequences of nuclear accidents and to establish a basis for right decisions in civil defense. The integrated environmental monitoring systems have as main task to record, collect, process and transmit the radiation levels and weather data, incorporating a number of stationary or mobile radiation monitoring equipment, weather parameter measuring station, an information processing center and the communication network, all running under a real-time operating system.They provide the automatic data collection on-line and off-line, remote diagnostic, advanced presentation techniques, including a graphically oriented executive support, which has the ability to respond to an emergency by geographical representation of the hazard zones on the map. The systems are based on local intelligent measuring and transmission units, simultaneous processing and data presentation using a real-time operating system for personal computers and geographical information system (GIS). All information can be managed directly from the map by multilevel data retrieving and

  7. Simulation Analysis of the Four Configurations of Solar Desiccant Cooling System Using Evaporative Cooling in Tropical Weather in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. S. Dezfouli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high demand for air conditioning systems exists in hot and humid regions because of the warm climate during the year. The high energy consumption of conventional air conditioning system is the reason for our investigation of the solar desiccant cooling system as an energy-efficient cooling system. Four model configurations were considered to determine the best configuration of a solar desiccant cooling system: one-stage ventilation, one-stage recirculation, two-stage ventilation, and two-stage recirculation. These models were stimulated for 8,760 hr of operation under hot and humid weather in Malaysia. Several parameters (i.e., coefficient of performance or COP, room temperature and humidity ratio, and the solar fraction of each system were evaluated by detecting the temperature and humidity ratio of the different points of each configuration by TRNSYS simulation. The latent and sensible loads of the test room were 0.875 kW and 2.625 kW, respectively. By investigating the simulation results of the four systems, the ventilation modes were found to be higher than the recirculation modes in the one- and two-stage solar desiccant cooling systems. The isothermal dehumidification COP of the two-stage ventilation was higher than that of the two-stage recirculation. Hence, the two-stage ventilation mode desiccant cooling system in a hot and humid area has higher efficiency than the other configurations.

  8. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  9. National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GIS International Weather Cooperative Observers Storm Spotters Tsunami Facts and Figures National Water Center WEATHER SAFETY NOAA Weather Radio StormReady Heat Lightning Hurricanes Thunderstorms Tornadoes Rip Currents Floods Winter Weather ...

  10. ACHEMA '85: Process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopf, E.

    1985-01-01

    The strategy obviously adopted by the well-established manufacturers is to offer 'easy-to-handle' equipment to gain new customers, and there is a variety of new compact systems or personal computers being put on the market. The changes and improvements within the processing sector proceed more or less in silence; high-capacity storage devices and multiprocessor configurations are obtainable at a moderate price, offering a greater variety of basic functions and enhanced control possibilities. Redundancy problems are handled with greater flexibility, and batch programs are advancing. Data communication has become a common feature, transmission speed and bus length have been improved. Important improvements have been made with regard to data display; even medium-sized equipment now offer the possibility of making dynamic flow-sheets and reserving space for process history display, and the hierarchy of displays has been considerably simplified. The user software also has been made more easy, 'fill-in-the-blancs' is the prevailing motto for dialog configurations, and such big terms as process computer' or 'programming skill' are passing into oblivion. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Fundamentals of process intensification: A process systems engineering view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Sales Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the fundamentals of process intensification from a process systems engineering point of view. The concept of process intensification, including process integration, is explained together with the drivers for applying process intensification, which can be achieved...

  12. Geochemistry of organic-rich river waters in Amazonia: Insights on weathering processes of intertropical cratonic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana Maria Coimbra; Lages, Anderson da Silva; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Seyler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In this study, eight organic-rich rivers that flow through the Brazilian craton in the southwestern Amazon rainforest are investigated. This investigation is the first of its type in this area and focuses on the effects of lithology, long-term weathering, thick soils, forest cover and hydrological period on the dissolved load compositions in rivers draining cratonic terrain. The major dissolved ion concentrations, alkalinity (TAlk), SiO 2 , trace element concentrations, and Sr isotope contents in the water were determined between April 2009 and January 2010. In addition, the isotopic values of oxygen and hydrogen were determined between 2011 and 2013. Overall, the river water is highly dilute and dominated by the major dissolved elements TAlk, SiO 2 and K + and the major dissolved trace elements Al, Fe, Ba, Mn, P, Zn and Sr, which exhibit large temporal and spatial variability and are closely correlated with the silicatic bedrock and hydrology. Additionally, rainwater and recycled water vapor and the size of the basin contribute to the geochemistry of the waters. The total weathering flux estimated from our results is 2–4 t km −2 .yr −1 , which is one of the lowest fluxes in the world. The CO 2 consumption rate is approximately 21–61 10 3  mol km −2  yr −1 , which is higher than expected given the stability of the felsic to basic igneous and metamorphic to siliciclastic basement rocks and the thick tropical soil cover. Thus, weathering of the cratonic terrain under intertropical humid conditions is still an important consumer of CO 2 . - Highlights: • Were studied rivers flowing the Brazilian craton covered by lateritic soils. • The river waters are highly diluted and dominated by TAlk, SiO 2 and K + . • There is spatial and temporal variability in the chemical composition. • The rain amount and recycled water vapor affect the O and D isotopes. • Geology, weathering, discharge and seasonality highlight a singular composition.

  13. Terrain and subsurface influences on runoff generation in a steep, deep, highly weathered system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, J. M.; McGlynn, B. L.; Richter, D. D., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of runoff generation in regions characterized by deep, highly weathered soils is incomplete, despite the prevalence occupation of these landscapes worldwide. To address this, we instrumented a first-order watershed in the Piedmont of South Carolina, USA, a region that extends east of the Appalachians from Maryland to Alabama, and home to some of the most rapid population growth in the country. Although regionally the relief is modest, the landscape is often highly dissected and local slopes can be steep and highly varied. The typical soils of the region are kaolinite dominated ultisols, with hydrologic properties controlled by argillic Bt horizons, often with >50% clay-size fraction. The humid subtropical climate creates relatively consistent precipitation intra-annually and seasonally variable energy availability. Consequently, the mixed deciduous and coniferous tree cover creates a strong evapotranspiration-mediated hydrologic dynamic. While moist soils and extended stream networks are typical from late fall through spring, relatively dry soils and contracting stream networks emerge in the summer and early fall. Here, we seek to elucidate the relative influence of the vertical soil and spatial terrain structure of this region on watershed hillslope hydrology and subsequent runoff generation. We installed a network of nested, shallow groundwater wells and soil water content probes within an ephemeral to first-order watershed to continuously measure soil and groundwater dynamics across soil horizons and landscape position. We also recorded local precipitation and discharge from this watershed. Most landscape positions exhibited minimal water table response to precipitation throughout dry summer periods, with infrequently observed responses rarely coincident with streamflow generation. In contrast, during the wetter late fall through early spring period, streamflow was driven by the interaction between transient perched water tables and

  14. Numerical study of Asian dust transport during the springtime of 2001 simulated with the Chemical Weather Forecasting System (CFORS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Itsushi; Satake, Shinsuke; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Tang, Youhua; Wang, Zifa; Takemura, Toshihiko; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Murayama, Toshiyuki; Cahill, Thomas A.; Cliff, Steven; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Ohta, Sachio; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2004-10-01

    The regional-scale aerosol transport model Chemical Weather Forecasting System (CFORS) is used for analysis of large-scale dust phenomena during the Asian Pacific Regional Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) intensive observation. Dust modeling results are examined with the surface weather reports, satellite-derived dust index (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI)), Mie-scattering lidar observation, and surface aerosol observations. The CFORS dust results are shown to accurately reproduce many of the important observed features. Model analysis shows that the simulated dust vertical loading correlates well with TOMS AI and that the dust loading is transported with the meandering of the synoptic-scale temperature field at the 500-hPa level. Quantitative examination of aerosol optical depth shows that model predictions are within 20% difference of the lidar observations for the major dust episodes. The structure of the ACE-Asia Perfect Dust Storm, which occurred in early April, is clarified with the help of the CFORS model analysis. This storm consisted of two boundary layer components and one elevated dust (>6-km height) feature (resulting from the movement of two large low-pressure systems). Time variation of the CFORS dust fields shows the correct onset timing of the elevated dust for each observation site, but the model results tend to overpredict dust concentrations at lower latitude sites. The horizontal transport flux at 130°E longitude is examined, and the overall dust transport flux at 130°E during March-April is evaluated to be 55 Tg.

  15. Characterization and risk assessment of seasonal and weather dynamics in organic pollutant mixtures from discharge of a separate sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Liza-Marie; Busch, Wibke; Krauss, Martin; Schulze, Tobias; Brack, Werner

    2018-05-15

    Sites of wastewater discharge are hotspots for pollution of freshwaters with organic micropollutants and are often associated with adverse effects to aquatic organisms. The assessment, monitoring and managment of these hotspots is challenged by variations in the pollutant mixture composition due to season, weather conditions and random spills. In this study, we unraveled temporal exposure patterns in organic micropollutant mixtures from wastewater discharge and analyzed respective acute and sublethal risks for aquatic organisms. Samples were taken from two components of a separate sewer system i) a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and ii) a rain sewer of a medium size town as well as from the receiving river in different seasons. Rain sewer samples were separately collected for rain and dry - weather conditions. We analyzed 149 compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By considering the pollution dynamics in the point sources, we reduced the complexity of pollutant mixtures by k-means clustering to a few emission groups representing temporal and weather-related pollution patterns. From these groups, we derived biological quality element (BQE) - specific risk patterns. In most cases, one main risk driving emission group and a few individual risk driving compounds were identified for each BQE. While acute risk for fish was quite low, algae were exposed to seasonally emitted herbicides (terbuthylazine, spiroxamine) and crustaceans to randomly spilled insecticides (diazinon, dimethoate). Sublethal risks for all BQE were strongly influenced by constantly emitted pollutants, above all, pharmaceuticals. Variability of risks in the river was mainly driven by water discharge of the river rather than by season or peak events. Overall, the studied WWTP represented the major pollution source with a specific emission of agricultural compounds. However, the investigated rain sewer showed to be a constant pollution source due to illicit connections

  16. Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m−2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the

  17. Next generation of weather generators on web service framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnachodteeranun, R.; Hung, N. D.; Honda, K.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Weather generator is a statistical model that synthesizes possible realization of long-term historical weather in future. It generates several tens to hundreds of realizations stochastically based on statistical analysis. Realization is essential information as a crop modeling's input for simulating crop growth and yield. Moreover, they can be contributed to analyzing uncertainty of weather to crop development stage and to decision support system on e.g. water management and fertilizer management. Performing crop modeling requires multidisciplinary skills which limit the usage of weather generator only in a research group who developed it as well as a barrier for newcomers. To improve the procedures of performing weather generators as well as the methodology to acquire the realization in a standard way, we implemented a framework for providing weather generators as web services, which support service interoperability. Legacy weather generator programs were wrapped in the web service framework. The service interfaces were implemented based on an international standard that was Sensor Observation Service (SOS) defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Clients can request realizations generated by the model through SOS Web service. Hierarchical data preparation processes required for weather generator are also implemented as web services and seamlessly wired. Analysts and applications can invoke services over a network easily. The services facilitate the development of agricultural applications and also reduce the workload of analysts on iterative data preparation and handle legacy weather generator program. This architectural design and implementation can be a prototype for constructing further services on top of interoperable sensor network system. This framework opens an opportunity for other sectors such as application developers and scientists in other fields to utilize weather generators.

  18. Renewal Processes and Repairable Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss the following topics: 1. Renewal reward processes The marginal distributions of renewal reward processes and its version, which we call in this thesis instantaneous reward processes, are derived. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson

  19. A gamma cammera image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weihua; Mei Jufang; Jiang Wenchuan; Guo Zhenxiang

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer based gamma camera image processing system has been introduced. Comparing with other systems, the feature of this system is that an inexpensive microcomputer has been combined with specially developed hardware, such as, data acquisition controller, data processor and dynamic display controller, ect. Thus the process of picture processing has been speeded up and the function expense ratio of the system raised

  20. Understanding the processes involved in weathering and experimental alteration of glassy materials. The case of some volcanic glasses from eastern Sicily (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study the effects of weathering and experimental alteration in order to understand the geochemical processes involved and the variation of mineral phases in altered natural glasses. For the first time, five samples of natural volcanic glasses having different composition were collected in eastern Sicily (Italy) in order to be artificially altered and analyzed. The study of naturally altered samples has allowed to observe the effects of weathering after a period of time corresponding to the age of the sample. Moreover, the use of samples of natural glass of volcanic origin has allowed to obtain some powder or thin plates of fresh silicate glass that have been subjected to artificial alteration in the laboratory, in order to model the geochemical processes that have occurred. Alteration experiments were conducted in pure water at 90 C; samples have been altered from 1 to 1000 days of experiment. The characterization of the samples was obtained by Raman spectroscopy, which showed the effects of the devitrification and the presence of some secondary minerals such as carbonates and anatase on the obsidian thin plates, but also phillipsite and chabazite, two varieties of zeolite usually found in the cavities of oldest basalts. Solid modifications were observed by SEM. The analysis showed the formation of several secondary minerals having a composition compatible with smectites, determined by EDS spectroscopy. All these results allow to test the geochemical modeling in the long term. Further analysis will be needed to reach a full understanding of the weathering of glassy materials. (author)

  1. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuya; Kuramitsu, Kiminori; Ishii, Tomoharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a system for processing radioactive liquid wastes containing laundry liquid wastes, shower drains or radioactive liquid wastes containing chemical oxygen demand (COD) ingredients and oil content generated from a nuclear power plant. Namely, a collecting tank collects radioactive liquid wastes. A filtering device is connected to the exit of the collective tank. A sump tank is connected to the exit of the filtering device. A powdery active carbon supplying device is connected to the collecting tank. A chemical fluid tank is connected to the collecting tank and the filtering device by way of chemical fluid injection lines. Backwarding pipelines connect a filtered water flowing exit of the filtering device and the collecting tank. The chemical solution is stored in the chemical solution tank. Then, radioactive materials in radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant are removed by the filtering device. The water quality standard specified in environmental influence reports can be satisfied. In the filtering device, when the filtering flow rate is reduced, the chemical fluid is supplied from the chemical fluid tank to the filtering device to recover the filtering flow rate. (I.S.)

  2. DUAL-PROCESS, a highly reliable process control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, L.; Gossanyi, A.; Parkanyi, T.; Szabo, G.; Vegh, E.

    1983-02-01

    A multiprocessor process control system is described. During its development the reliability was the most important aspect because it is used in the computerized control of a 5 MW research reactor. DUAL-PROCESS is fully compatible with the earlier single processor control system PROCESS-24K. The paper deals in detail with the communication, synchronization, error detection and error recovery problems of the operating system. (author)

  3. ICUD-0471 Weather radar rainfall for design of urban storm water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Wright, D. B.; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2017-01-01

    Long continuous series of high-resolution radar rainfall series provides valuable information on spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, which can be used in design of urban drainage systems. In design of especially large drainage systems with complex flow patterns (and potentially surface ...

  4. Contributions of wastewater, runoff and sewer deposit erosion to wet weather pollutant loads in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J; Gromaire, M C; Kafi, M; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G

    2010-12-01

    An observatory of urban pollutants was created in Paris for the purpose of assessing the dynamics of wastewater and wet weather flow (WW and WWF) pollutant loads within combined sewers. This observatory is composed of six urban catchments, covering land areas ranging in size from 42 ha to 2581 ha. For a wide array of parameters including total suspended solids (TSS), chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD(5)), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), heavy metals (Cu and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), this article is intended to evaluate the contributions of wastewater, runoff and in-sewer processes to WWF pollutant loads through the use of an entry-exit mass balance approach. To achieve this objective, a total of 16 rain events were sampled on these sites between May 2003 and February 2006. This study has confirmed that at the considered catchment scale (i.e. from 42 ha to 2581 ha) the production and transfer processes associated with WWF pollutant loads do not vary with basin scale. Entry-exit chemical mass balances over all catchments and for a large number of rain events indicate that wastewater constitutes the main source of organic and nitrogenous pollution, while runoff is the predominant source of Zn. For Cu, PAHs and TSS, the calculation underscores the major role played by in-sewer processes, specifically by sediment erosion, as a source of WWF pollution. A significant loss of dissolved metals was also observed during their transfer within the sewer network, likely as a consequence of the adsorption of dissolved metals on TSS and/or on sewer deposits. Moreover, the nature of eroded particles was examined and compared to the various sewer deposits. This comparison has highlighted that such particles exhibit similar organic and PAH contents to those measured in the organic layer, thus suggesting that the deposit eroded during a wet weather period is organic and of a nature comparable to the organic layer

  5. GEM-AQ/EC, an on-line global multi-scale chemical weather modelling system: model development and evaluation of global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC was developed by implementing tropospheric chemistry and aerosol processes on-line into the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model – GEM. Due to the multi-scale features of the GEM, the integrated model, GEM-AQ/EC, is able to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban domains. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module CAM (The Canadian Aerosol Module with 5 aerosols types: sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea-salt and soil dust. Monthly emission inventories of black carbon and organic carbon from boreal and temperate vegetation fires were assembled using the most reliable areas burned datasets by countries, from statistical databases and derived from remote sensing products of 1995–2004. The model was run for ten years from from 1995–2004 with re-analyzed meteorology on a global uniform 1° × 1° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. The simulating results were compared with various observations including surface network around the globe and satellite data. Regional features of global aerosols are reasonably captured including emission, surface concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For various types of aerosols, satisfactory correlations were achieved between modeled and observed with some degree of systematic bias possibly due to large uncertainties in the emissions used in this study. A global distribution of natural aerosol contributions to the total aerosols is obtained and compared with observations.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF NATURAL TROPICAL WEATHER ON INTERFACIAL BONDING PERFORMANCE OF CFRP-CONCRETE BONDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD H. MOHD HASHIM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing reinforced concrete structures may require rehabilitation and strengthening to overcome deficiencies due to defect and environmental deterioration. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP-concrete bonding systems can provide solution for the deficiencies, but the durability of the bonded joint needs to be investigated for reliable structural performance. In this research the interfacial bonding behaviour of CFRP-concrete system under tropical climate exposure is main interest. A 300 mm concrete prism was bonded with CFRP plate on its two sides and exposed for 3, 6, and 9 months to laboratory environment, continuous natural weather, and wet-dry exposure in 3.5% saltwater solution at room and 40 °C temperature. The prisms were subjected to tension and compression load under bonding test to measure the strain and determine stress distribution and shear stress transfer behaviour. The results of the bonding test showed that load transfer was fairly linear and uniform at lower load level and changed to non-linear and non- uniform at higher load level. The force transfers causes the shear stress distribution being shifted along the bonded length. The combination of climate effects may have provided better curing of the bonded joints, but longer duration of exposure may be required to weaken the bond strength. Nevertheless, CFRP-concrete bonding system was only minimally affected under the tropical climate and salt solution.

  7. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance

  8. A new system to quantify uncertainties in LEO satellite position determination due to space weather events

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new system for quantitative assessment of uncertainties in LEO satellite position caused by storm time changes in space environmental...

  9. WINDSUN: Weather INformation Display Systems for UAS in the NAS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is leading a large-scale effort to conduct research, develop standards, and integrate technologies to facilitate the insertion of Unmanned Aircraft Systems...

  10. Improving the health forecasting alert system for cold weather and heat-waves in England: a case-study approach using temperature-mortality relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masato, Giacomo; Cavany, Sean; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Dacre, Helen; Bone, Angie; Carmicheal, Katie; Murray, Virginia; Danker, Rutger; Neal, Rob; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    The health forecasting alert system for cold weather and heatwaves currently in use in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans for England is based on 5 alert levels, with levels 2 and 3 dependent on a forecast or actual single temperature action trigger. Epidemiological evidence indicates that for both heat and cold, the impact on human health is gradual, with worsening impact for more extreme temperatures. The 60% risk of heat and cold forecasts used by the alerts is a rather crude probabilistic measure, which could be substantially improved thanks to the state-of-the-art forecast techniques. In this study a prototype of a new health forecasting alert system is developed, which is aligned to the approach used in the Met Office's (MO) National Severe Weather Warning Service (NSWWS). This is in order to improve information available to responders in the health and social care system by linking temperatures more directly to risks of mortality, and developing a system more coherent with other weather alerts. The prototype is compared to the current system in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans via a case-study approach to verify its potential advantages and shortcomings. The prototype health forecasting alert system introduces an "impact vs likelihood matrix" for the health impacts of hot and cold temperatures which is similar to those used operationally for other weather hazards as part of the NSWWS. The impact axis of this matrix is based on existing epidemiological evidence, which shows an increasing relative risk of death at extremes of outdoor temperature beyond a threshold which can be identified epidemiologically. The likelihood axis is based on a probability measure associated with the temperature forecast. The new method is tested for two case studies (one during summer 2013, one during winter 2013), and compared to the performance of the current alert system. The prototype shows some clear improvements over the current alert system. It allows for a much greater

  11. A Photo Storm Report Mobile Application, Processing/Distribution System, and AWIPS-II Display Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, S. P.; Bikos, D.; Szoke, E.; Miller, S. D.; Brummer, R.; Lindsey, D. T.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones equipped with digital cameras and the ability to post images and information to the Internet in real-time has significantly improved the ability to report events almost instantaneously. In the context of severe weather reports, a representative digital image conveys significantly more information than a simple text or phone relayed report to a weather forecaster issuing severe weather warnings. It also allows the forecaster to reasonably discern the validity and quality of a storm report. Posting geo-located, time stamped storm report photographs utilizing a mobile phone application to NWS social media weather forecast office pages has generated recent positive feedback from forecasters. Building upon this feedback, this discussion advances the concept, development, and implementation of a formalized Photo Storm Report (PSR) mobile application, processing and distribution system and Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS-II) plug-in display software.The PSR system would be composed of three core components: i) a mobile phone application, ii) a processing and distribution software and hardware system, and iii) AWIPS-II data, exchange and visualization plug-in software. i) The mobile phone application would allow web-registered users to send geo-location, view direction, and time stamped PSRs along with severe weather type and comments to the processing and distribution servers. ii) The servers would receive PSRs, convert images and information to NWS network bandwidth manageable sizes in an AWIPS-II data format, distribute them on the NWS data communications network, and archive the original PSRs for possible future research datasets. iii) The AWIPS-II data and exchange plug-ins would archive PSRs, and the visualization plug-in would display PSR locations, times and directions by hour, similar to surface observations. Hovering on individual PSRs would reveal photo thumbnails and clicking on them would display the

  12. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  13. Theoretical variations of the thermal performance of different solar collectors and solar combi systems as function of the varying yearly weather conditions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The thermal performances of solar collectors and solar combi systems with different solar fractions are studied under the influence of the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file, and measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station situated at the Technical University of Denm...

  14. CCMC: bringing space weather awareness to the next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulaki, A.; Muglach, K.; Zheng, Y.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Thompson, B. J.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Pembroke, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Making space weather an element of core education is critical for the future of the young field of space weather. Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is an interagency partnership established to aid the transition of modern space science models into space weather forecasting while supporting space science research. Additionally, over the past ten years it has established itself as a global space science education resource supporting undergraduate and graduate education and research, and spreading space weather awareness worldwide. A unique combination of assets, capabilities and close ties to the scientific and educational communities enable our small group to serve as a hub for rising generations of young space scientists and engineers. CCMC offers a variety of educational tools and resources publicly available online and providing access to the largest collection of modern space science models developed by the international research community. CCMC has revolutionized the way these simulations are utilized in classrooms settings, student projects, and scientific labs. Every year, this online system serves hundreds of students, educators and researchers worldwide. Another major CCMC asset is an expert space weather prototyping team primarily serving NASA's interplanetary space weather needs. Capitalizing on its unique capabilities and experiences, the team also provides in-depth space weather training to hundreds of students and professionals. One training module offers undergraduates an opportunity to actively engage in real-time space weather monitoring, analysis, forecasting, tools development and research, eventually serving remotely as NASA space weather forecasters. In yet another project, CCMC is collaborating with Hayden Planetarium and Linkoping University on creating a visualization platform for planetariums (and classrooms) to provide simulations of dynamic processes in the large domain stretching from the solar corona to the Earth's upper

  15. Rice yield estimation based on weather conditions and on technological level of production systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Boffino de Almeida Monteiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate an estimation system for rice yield in Brazil, based on simple agrometeorological models and on the technological level of production systems. This estimation system incorporates the conceptual basis proposed by Doorenbos & Kassam for potential and attainable yields with empirical adjusts for maximum yield and crop sensitivity to water deficit, considering five categories of rice yield. Rice yield was estimated from 2000/2001 to 2007/2008, and compared to IBGE yield data. Regression analyses between model estimates and data from IBGE surveys resulted in significant coefficients of determination, with less dispersion in the South than in the North and Northeast regions of the country. Index of model efficiency (E1' ranged from 0.01 in the lower yield classes to 0.45 in higher ones, and mean absolute error ranged from 58 to 250 kg ha‑1, respectively.

  16. Method for Business Process Management System Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Westelaken, van de, Thijs; Terwee, Bas; Ravesteijn, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In recent years business process management (BPM) and specifically information systems that support the analysis, design and execution of processes (also called business process management systems (BPMS)) are getting more attention. This has lead to an increase in research on BPM and BPMS. However the research on BPMS is mostly focused on the architecture of the system and how to implement such systems. How to select a BPM system that fits the strategy and goals of a specific organization is ...

  17. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  18. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques in identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, T.A.; Buma, J.T.; Klawer, C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper’s objective is to determine how useful geochemistry can be in landslide investigations. More specifically, what additional information can be gained by analysing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation composition in respect to the hydrological system of a landslide area in clayey

  19. Social Network Supported Process Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.

  20. Social network supported process recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen

    2014-01-01

    Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.

  1. The Groningen image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.J.; Ekers, R.D.; Terlouw, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive, integrated software and hardware computer system for the reduction and analysis of astronomical images. A short historical introduction is presented before some examples of the astonomical data currently handled by the system are shown. A description is given of the present hardware and software structure. The system is illustrated by describing its appearance to the user, to the applications programmer, and to the system manager. Some quantitative information on the size and cost of the system is given, and its good and bad features are discussed

  2. Process control using modern systems of information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeweg, F.

    1984-01-01

    Modern digital automation techniques allow the application of demanding types of process control. These types of process control are characterized by their belonging to higher levels in a multilevel model. Functional and technical aspects of the performance of digital automation plants are presented and explained. A modern automation system is described considering special procedures of process control (e.g. real time diagnosis)

  3. Using ensemble weather forecast in a risk based real time optimization of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage system is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution in order to respond to increasing performance demand (e.g. reduction of Combined Sewer Overflow, protection of sensitive areas as bathing water etc.). The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA......) strategy was developed to operate Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) in order to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, the expected runoff volume based on a 2-hours radar forecast model and an estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecast....... However, such temporal horizon (1-2 hours) is relatively short when used for the operation of large storage facilities, which may require a few days to be emptied. This limits the performance of the optimization and control in reducing combined sewer overflow and in preparing for possible flooding. Based...

  4. Performance Investigation of FSO-OFDM Communication Systems under the Heavy Rain Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Florence; He, Jing; Chen, Lin

    2017-12-01

    The challenge in the free-space optical (FSO) communication is the propagation of optical signal through different atmospheric conditions such as rain, snow and fog. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing technique (OFDM) is proposed in the FSO communication system. Meanwhile, considering the rain attenuation models based on Marshal & Palmer and Carbonneau models, the performance of FSO communication system based on the OFDM is evaluated under the heavy-rain condition in Changsha, China. The simulation results show that, under a heavy-rainfall condition of 106.18 mm/h, with an attenuation factor of 7 dB/km based on the Marshal & Palmer model, the bit rate of 2.5 and 4.0 Gbps data can be transmitted over the FSO channels of 1.6 and 1.3 km, respectively, and the bit error rate of less than 1E - 4 can be achieved. In addition, the effect on rain attenuation over the FSO communication system based on the Marshal & Palmer model is less than that of the Carbonneau model.

  5. Yesterday's dinner, tomorrow's weather, today's news? US newspaper coverage of food system contributions to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Chan, Iris L; Smith, Katherine Clegg

    2009-07-01

    There is strong evidence that what we eat and how it is produced affects climate change. The present paper examines coverage of food system contributions to climate change in top US newspapers. Using a sample of sixteen leading US newspapers from September 2005 to January 2008, two coders identified 'food and climate change' and 'climate change' articles based on specified criteria. Analyses examined variation across time and newspaper, the level of content relevant to food systems' contributions to climate change, and how such content was framed. There were 4582 'climate change' articles in these newspapers during this period. Of these, 2.4% mentioned food or agriculture contributions, with 0.4% coded as substantially focused on the issue and 0.5% mentioning food animal contributions. The level of content on food contributions to climate change increased across time. Articles initially addressed the issue primarily in individual terms, expanding to address business and government responsibility more in later articles. US newspaper coverage of food systems' effects on climate change during the study period increased, but still did not reflect the increasingly solid evidence of the importance of these effects. Increased coverage may lead to responses by individuals, industry and government. Based on co-benefits with nutritional public health messages and climate change's food security threats, the public health nutrition community has an important role to play in elaborating and disseminating information about food and climate change for the US media.

  6. Process information systems in nuclear reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Keller, H.; Orth, H.

    1987-01-01

    On a production management level, a process information system in a nuclear reprocessing plant (NRP) has to fulfill conventional operating functions and functions for nuclear material surveillance (safeguards). Based on today's state of the art of on-line process control technology, the progress in hardware and software technology allows to introduce more process-specific intelligence into process information systems. Exemplified by an expert-system-aided laboratory management system as component of a NRP process information system, the paper demonstrates that these technologies can be applied already. (DG) [de

  7. Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau (SWSSWB) Records primarily created by the United States Army Signal Service from 1819 until the paid and voluntary...

  8. Super-rapid medical film processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, C.; Iwata, M.; Nozaki, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new super-rapid medical film processing system cuts processing time from 90 to 45 seconds, a critical advantage in traumatic injury, surgical operation, and other time-vital applications. The system consists of new films new processing chemicals (developer and fixer), and a new high-speed medical film processor. The system's creation is made possible by three new technologies. In film, multilayered monodispersed grains reduce processing time. In processing chemicals, an innovative design maximizes processing speed. And in the processor itself, a new drying apparatus increases drying efficiency. Together, these technologies achieve 45-second processing without degradation of image quality

  9. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  10. Radiation processing of aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.

    1997-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with about 60 μg/L perchloroethylene (PCE) is purified by a combined ozone/electron beam irradiation process for subsequent use as drinking water. The design of the first commercial plant for such a groundwater remediation having a capacity of 108 m 3 /h is described. The mechanism of the combined ozone/electron beam process for PCE decomposition is discussed with respect to other ozone based advanced oxidation processes like ozone/U.V. and ozone/hydrogen peroxide. The formation of trace amounts of trichloroacetic acid as the only organic by-product in all these processes has been interpreted as an indication that PCE decomposition proceeds via the same mechanism in all cases. (author)

  11. Rare Earth Element Behavior During Incongruent Weathering and Varying Discharge Conditions in Silicate Dominated River Systems: The Australian Victorian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, K. B.; Cartwright, I.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements was measured by ICP-MS on fresh, slightly weathered and weathered granite and surface water samples from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps during (i) high and (ii) low discharge conditions. River water REE concentrations are largely derived from atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), as indicated by similar Chondrite normalized REE patterns (higher LREE over HREE; negative Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies) and similar total REE concentrations during both dry and wet seasons. Calculations based on the covariance between REE and Cl concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate precipitation input coupled with subsequent evaporation may account for 30% o 100% of dissolved REE in stream waters. The dissolved contribution to the granitic substratum to stream water comes mainly from the transformation of plagioclase to smectite, kaolinite and gibbsite and minor apatite dissolution. However, since most REE of the regional granite are present in accessory minerals (titanite, zircon, etc.) they do not significantly contribute to the river REE pool. REE concentrations drop sharply downstream as a result of dilution and chemical attenuation. A trend of downstream enrichment of the heavier REE is due to selective partitioning of the lighter REE (as both free REE or REECO3 complexes) to hydrous oxides of suspended Al which, in turn, is controlled by a downstream increase of pH to values > 6.1 (for free REE) and > 7.3 (for REECO3 complexes). Although most circumneutral waters were supersaturated with REE phosphate compounds, precipitation of LnPO4 is not believed to have been a dominant process because the predicted phosphate fractionation pattern is inconsistent with the observed trends. Negative saturation indices of hydrous ferric oxides also militate against surface complexation onto goethite. Instead, REE attenuation most likely resulted from adsorption onto

  12. Relationship between synoptic scale weather systems and column averaged atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, M.; Yaremchuk, A.; Onishi, R.; Maksyutov, S.; Inoue, G.

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of the atmospheric CO2 observations with transport models contributes to the understanding of the geographical distributions of CO2 sources and sinks. Space-borne sensors could be advantageous for CO2 measurements as they can provide wider spatial and temporal coverage. Inversion studies have suggested requirement of better than 1% precision for the space-borne observations. Since sources and sinks are inferred from spatial and temporal gradients in CO2, the space-borne observations must have no significant geographically varying biases. To study the dynamical biases in column CO2 due to possible correlation between clouds and atmospheric CO2 at synoptic scale, we have made simulations of CO2 (1988-2003) using NIES tracer transport model. Model resolution is 2.5o x 2.5o in horizontal and it has 15 vertical sigma-layers. Fluxes for (1) fossil fuels, (2) terrestrial biosphere (CASA NEP), (3) the oceans, and (4) inverse model derived monthly regional fluxes from 11 land and 11 ocean regions are used. SVD truncation is used to filter out noise in the inverse model flux time series. Model reproduces fairly well CO2 global trend and observed time series at monitoring sites around the globe. Lower column CO2 concentration is simulated inside cyclonic systems in summer over North hemispheric continental areas. Surface pressure is used as a proxy for dynamics and it is demonstrated that anomalies in column averaged CO2 has fairly good correlation with the anomalies in surface pressure. Positive correlation, as high as 0.7, has been estimated over parts of Siberia and N. America in summer time. Our explanation is based on that the low-pressure system is associated the upward motion, which leads to lower column CO2 values over these regions due to lifting of CO2-depleted summertime PBL air, and higher column CO2 over source areas. A sensitivity study without inverse model fluxes shows same correlation. The low-pressure systems' induced negative biases are 0

  13. Library Information-Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    System works with Library of Congress MARC II format. System composed of subsystems that provide wide range of library informationprocessing capabilities. Format is American National Standards Institute (ANSI) format for machine-readable bibliographic data. Adaptable to any medium-to-large library.

  14. Causes of General Aviation Weather-Related, Non-Fatal Incidents: Analysis Using NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    first, fol- lowed by detailed analysis, finishing with a recap of the same conclusions. In technical terms, this cognitively primes11 the reader and...lowering ceiling, clouds, fog, rain, rising cloud tops, merging cloud layers) b) icing c) thunderstorms d) turbulence 11 In cognitive priming... stylistic differences in the way pilots tend to handle weather. In fact, each group seems to have problems with the exact worst category of weather with

  15. Adaptive processes in economic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Roy E

    1965-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;. methods for low-rank m

  16. Information systems process and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, Christine; Tbaishat, Dina; Yeoman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This book adopts a holistic interpretation of information architecture, to offer a variety of methods, tools, and techniques that may be used when designing websites and information systems that support workflows and what people require when 'managing information'.

  17. Sun-controlled spatial and time-dependent cycles in the climatic/weather system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1990-11-01

    We show, on the basis of meteorological records, that certain spatial and time-dependent cycles exist in the earth-atmosphere system (EAS). These cycles seem to be associated with sunspot cycles and hence have been referred to in the text as ''data-derived solar cycles''. Our analysis establishes three important characteristics of the data-derived solar cycles (DSC's). Firstly the crests and troughs of these data-derived solar cycles are mostly latitudinally aligned and have (zonal) spatial wavelengths greater than about 7 degrees of longitude. Secondly the DSC's have periods mostly lying between 6 years and 12 years. In certain stations, some DSC's coincide quite well with corresponding sunspot cycles. Thirdly the crests and troughs of the DSC's drift eastwards at speeds exceeding about 1.5 longitude degrees per year. Furthermore, these DSC's display peak-to-peak amplitudes of about 2 deg. C along East Africa. On the basis of earlier work and bearing in mind the considerable temperature-dependence of the stratospheric ozone layer, we predict existence of latitudinally aligned enhancement and depletion structures (corresponding to the DSC's) in the stratospheric ozone layer within cloudless midnight-to-predawn sectors. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  18. Geochemistry of bed and suspended sediment in the Mississippi river system: provenance versus weathering and winnowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D Z; Ludington, Steve; Duval, J S; Taylor, H E

    2006-06-01

    Stream-bed sediment for the size fraction less than 150 microm, examined in 14,000 samples collected mostly from minor tributaries to the major rivers throughout the Mississippi River drainage system, is composed of 5 mineral fractions identified by factor analysis-Al-silicate minerals, quartz, calcite and dolomite, heavy minerals, and an Fe-Mn fraction. The Al-silicate fraction parallels its distribution in the regolith, emphasizing the local sediment source as a primary control to its distribution. Quartz and the heavy-mineral fraction, and associated trace elements, exhibit a complementary distribution to that of the Al-silicate fraction, with a level of enrichment in the bed sediment that is achieved through winnowing and sorting. The carbonate fraction has a distribution suggesting its dissolution during transport. Trace elements partitioned onto the Fe-Mn, possibly amorphous oxyhydride, fraction are introduced to the streams, in part, through human activity. Except for the heavy-mineral fraction, these fractions are identified in suspended sediment from the Mississippi River itself. Although comparison of the tributary bed sediment with the riverine suspended sediment is problematic, the geochemistry of the suspended sediment seems to corroborate the interpretation of the geochemistry of the bed sediment.

  19. Capturing the WUnder: Using weather stations and WeatherUnderground to increase middle school students' understanding and interest in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, K. M.; Dunne, P.

    2014-12-01

    New models of elementary- and middle-school level science education are emerging in response to the need for science literacy and the development of the Next Generation Science Standards. One of these models is fostered through the NSF's Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) program, which pairs a graduate fellow with a science teacher at a local school for an entire school year. In our project, a PhD Earth Sciences student was paired with a local middle school science teacher with the goal of installing a weather station, and incorporating the station data into the 8th grade science curriculum. Here we discuss how we were able to use a school weather station to introduce weather and climate material, engage and involve students in the creative process of science, and motivate students through inquiry-based lessons. In using a weather station as the starting point for material, we were able to make science tangible for students and provide an opportunity for each student to experience the entire process of scientific inquiry. This hands-on approach resulted in a more thorough understanding the system beyond a knowledge of the components, and was particularly effective in challenging prior weather and climate misconceptions. We were also able to expand the reach of the lessons by connecting with other weather stations in our region and even globally, enabling the students to become members of a larger system.

  20. Method for Business Process Management System Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs van de Westelaken; Bas Terwee; Pascal Ravesteijn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years business process management (BPM) and specifically information systems that support the analysis, design and execution of processes (also called business process management systems (BPMS)) are getting more attention. This has lead to an increase in research on BPM and BPMS. However

  1. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  2. National Energy with Weather System Simultator (NEWS) Sets Bounds on Cost Effective Wind and Solar PV Deployment in the USA without the Use of Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. In 2009, we began a large-scale investigation into the characteristics of weather-driven renewables. The project utilized the best available weather data assimilation model to compute high spatial and temporal resolution power datasets for the renewable resources of wind and solar PV. The weather model used is the Rapid Update Cycle for the years of 2006-2008. The team also collated a detailed electrical load dataset for the contiguous USA from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for the same three-year period. The coincident time series of electrical load and weather data allows the possibility of temporally correlated computations for optimal design over large geographic areas. The past two years have seen the development of a cost optimization mathematic model that designs electric power systems. The model plans the system and dispatches it on an hourly timescale. The system is designed to be reliable, reduce carbon, reduce variability of renewable resources and move the electricity about the whole domain. The system built would create the infrastructure needed to reduce carbon emissions to 0 by 2050. The advantages of the system is reduced water demain, dual incomes for farmers, jobs for construction of the infrastructure, and price stability for energy. One important simplified test that was run included existing US carbon free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an

  3. On Distributed Port-Hamiltonian Process Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopezlena, Ricardo; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we use the term distributed port-Hamiltonian Process Systems (DPHPS) to refer to the result of merging the theory of distributed Port-Hamiltonian systems (DPHS) with the theory of process systems (PS). Such concept is useful for combining the systematic interconnection of PHS with the

  4. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  5. Denudational slope processes on weathered basalt in northern California: 130 ka history of soil development, periods of slope stability and colluviation, and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Eric; Harrison, Bruce; Baldwin, John; Page, William; Rood, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    The geomorphic history of hillslope evolution is controlled by multiple types of denudational processes. Detailed analysis of hillslope soil-stratigraphy provides a means to identify the timing of periods of slope stability and non-stability, evidence of the types of denudational processes, and possible links to climatic drivers. Moreover, the degree of soil formation and the presence of buried or truncated soils provide evidence of the relative age of alternating periods of colluviation and stability. We use evaluation of soil stratigraphy, for a small forested hillslope (soils and slope colluvium are derived from highly weathered basalt. Stratigraphic interpretation is reinforced with soil profile development index (PDI) derived age estimates, tephrochronology, luminescence ages on colluvium, and He3 nuclide exposure dates. Soils formed along hilltop ridges are well developed and reflect deep (>2-3 m) in-situ weathering of the basalt bedrock. PDI age estimates and He3 exposure dates indicate that these hilltop soils had been in place for 100-130 ka, implying a long period of relative surface stability. At about 40-30 ka, soil stratigraphy indicates the onset of 3 distinct cycles of denudation of the hilltop and slopes. Evidence for changes in stability and onset of soil erosion is the presence of several buried soils formed in colluvium downslope of the hilltop. These buried soils have formed in sediment derived from erosion of the hilltop soils (i.e. soil parent material of previously weathered soil matrix and basalt cobbles). The oldest buried soil indicates that slope stability was re-established between 32-23 ka, with stability and soil formation lasting to about 10 ka. Soil-stratigraphy indicates that two additional intervals of downslope transport of sediment between 6-10 ka, and 2-5 ka. Soil properties indicate that the primary method of downslope transport is largely due to tree throw and faunal burrowing. Onset of slope instability at 40-30 ka appears to

  6. A Meteorological Supersite for Aviation and Cold Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Komar, J.; Elfstrom, G.; Boudala, F.; Zhou, B.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand atmospheric boundary layer processes and parameters, and to evaluate physical processes for aviation applications using data from a supersite observing site. Various meteorological sensors, including a weather and environmental unmanned aerial vehicle (WE-UAV), and a fog and snow tower (FSOS) observations are part of the project. The PanAm University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) Meteorological Supersite (PUMS) observations are being collected from April 2015 to date. The FSOS tower gathers observations related to rain, snow, fog, and visibility, aerosols, solar radiation, and wind and turbulence, as well as surface and sky temperature. The FSOSs are located at three locations at about 450-800 m away from the PUMS supersite. The WE-UAV measurements representing aerosol, wind speed and direction, as well as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are provided during clear weather conditions. Other measurements at the PUMS site include cloud backscattering profiles from CL51 ceilometer, MWR observations of liquid water content (LWC), T, and RH, and Microwave Rain Radar (MRR) reflectivity profile, as well as the present weather type, snow water depth, icing rate, 3D-ultrasonic wind and turbulence, and conventional meteorological observations from compact weather stations, e.g., WXTs. The results based on important weather event studies, representing fog, snow, rain, blowing snow, wind gust, planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind research for UAV, and icing conditions are given. The microphysical parameterizations and analysis processes for each event are provided, but the results should not be generalized for all weather events and be used cautiously. Results suggested that integrated observing systems based on data from a supersite as well as satellite sites can provide better information applicable to aviation meteorology, including PBL weather research, validation of numerical weather model predictions, and

  7. Electrochemical soil remediation - accelerated soil weathering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A.; Hansen, H.K.; Jensen, P.E.; Pedersen, A.J. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Ribeiro, A.B. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, New Univ. of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    In electrochemical soil remediation systems, where enhancement solutions and complexing agents are not used, a developing acidic front is mobilizing the heavy metals and the electric current is removing the mobilized elements from the soil. The hypotheses investigated in this paper is whether this process may be comparable to the chemical soil weathering that occurs in the environment due to the acidic rain, where the mobilized elements are removed from the soil by the penetrating water. Even through the weathering process is highly accelerated in the electrochemical cell. This paper shows results from electrodialytic remediation experiments performed with four different Danish heavy metal polluted soils. The main emphasis is laid on the relation between the developing acidic front and electromigration of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Fe and Ca. (orig.)

  8. Robotic system for process sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyches, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    A three-axis cartesian geometry robot for process sampling was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and implemented in one of the site radioisotope separations facilities. Use of the robot reduces personnel radiation exposure and contamination potential by routinely handling sample containers under operator control in a low-level radiation area. This robot represents the initial phase of a longer term development program to use robotics for further sample automation. Preliminary design of a second generation robot with additional capabilities is also described. 8 figs

  9. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. A Classification Scheme for Production System Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Daniel Grud Hellerup; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing companies often have difficulties developing production platforms, partly due to the complexity of many production systems and difficulty determining which processes constitute a platform. Understanding production processes is an important step to identifying candidate processes...... for a production platform based on existing production systems. Reviewing a number of existing classifications and taxonomies, a consolidated classification scheme for processes in production of discrete products has been outlined. The classification scheme helps ensure consistency during mapping of existing...

  11. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  12. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  13. Development of KIAPS Observation Processing Package for Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeon-Ho; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Sihye; Han, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Su-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. Data assimilation team at KIAPS has been developing the observation processing system (KIAPS Package for Observation Processing: KPOP) to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Global Model (KIAPS Integrated Model - Spectral Element method based on HOMME: KIM-SH). Currently, the KPOP is capable of processing the satellite radiance data (AMSU-A, IASI), GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO), AIRCRAFT (AMDAR, AIREP, and etc…), and synoptic observation (SONDE and SURFACE). KPOP adopted Radiative Transfer for TOVS version 10 (RTTOV_v10) to get brightness temperature (TB) for each channel at top of the atmosphere (TOA), and Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) 1-dimensional forward module to get bending angle (BA) at each tangent point. The observation data are obtained from the KMA which has been composited with BUFR format to be converted with ODB that are used for operational data assimilation and monitoring at the KMA. The Unified Model (UM), Community Atmosphere - Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and KIM-SH model outputs are used for the bias correction (BC) and quality control (QC) of the observations, respectively. KPOP provides radiance and RO data for Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and also provides SONDE, SURFACE and AIRCRAFT data for Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR). We are expecting all of the observation type which processed in KPOP could be combined with both of the data assimilation method as soon as possible. The preliminary results from each observation type will be introduced with the current development status of the KPOP.

  14. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  15. Knowledge management: processes and systems | Igbinovia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management: processes and systems. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... observation, role reversal technique, and discussion forums as well as the forms of knowledge representation to include report writing, database management system and institutional repositories.

  16. IDAPS (Image Data Automated Processing System) System Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-24

    This document describes the physical configuration and components used in the image processing system referred to as IDAPS (Image Data Automated ... Processing System). This system was developed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) for Eglin Air Force Base. The system is designed

  17. Sensitivity of Numerical Weather Prediction to the Choice of Variable for Atmospheric Moisture Analysis into the Brazilian Global Model Data Assimilation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamiris B. Campos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric water vapor associated with the deficient methodologies used in its quantification and the imperfect physics parameterizations incorporated in the models, there are significant uncertainties in characterizing the moisture field. The process responsible for incorporating the information provided by observation into the numerical weather prediction is denominated data assimilation. The best result in atmospheric moisture depend on the correct choice of the moisture control variable. Normalized relative humidity and pseudo-relative humidity are the variables usually used by the main weather prediction centers. The objective of this study is to assess the sensibility of the Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies to choose moisture control variable in the data assimilation scheme. Experiments using these variables are carried out. The results show that the pseudo-relative humidity improves the variables that depend on temperature values but damage the moisture field. The opposite results show when the simulation used the normalized relative humidity. These experiments suggest that the pseudo-relative humidity should be used in the cyclical process of data assimilation and the normalized relative humidity should be used in non-cyclic process (e.g., nowcasting application in high resolution.

  18. Gaseous radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent explosion of hydrogen gas within gaseous radioactive waste by removing the hydrogen gas by means of a hydrogen absorber. Structure: A coolant extracted from a reactor cooling system is sprayed by nozzle into a gaseous phase (hydrogen) portion within a tank, thus causing slipping of radioactive rare gas. The gaseous radioactive waste rich in hydrogen, which is purged in the tank, is forced by a waste gas compressor into a hydrogen occlusion device. The hydrogen occlusion device is filled with hydrogen occluding agents such as Mg, Mg-Ni alloy, V-Nb alloy, La-Ni alloy and so forth, and hydrogen in the waste gas is removed through reaction to produce hydrogen metal. The gaseous radioactive waste, which is deprived of hydrogen and reduced in volume, is stored in an attenuation tank. The hydrogen stored in the hydrogen absorber is released and used again as purge gas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Soil remediation process and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monlux, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for remediation of soil containing up to about 30,000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants. It comprises: providing hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in a divided condition of minus 1 1/2 double-prime to a first confined zone where it is exposed to an open flame; heating while agitating the contaminated soil in an oxidizing atmosphere in the first zone to a temperature below soil ignition within a range of from about 375 degrees F. to about 750 degrees F. for a time sufficient to drive off as vapors a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon vapors from the first zone to a second zone; recovering heat from the hot gases in the second zone to condense a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon vapors as liquid hydrocarbons; recovering the liquid hydrocarbons; and removing the soil from the first zone as remediated soil having below about 1000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants

  20. Marine living thing processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshi, Takanori; Yanagisawa, Takao; Nakamura, Toshio; Ueda, Kiyokatsu; Terada, Takeshi.

    1994-01-01

    Marine living things collected upon cleaning of a seawater intake channel are sent to a solid/liquid separator. Discharged liquids containing separated sludges enter a coagulation/precipitation vessel. Condensed sludges precipitated in the vessel are sent to a dehydrator and converted into dehydrated cakes. On the other hand, supernatants discharged from the coagulation/precipitation vessel are sent to an ultra-filtration vessel and an active carbon vessel and then discharged to the sea area at improved the water quality. Further, the dehydrated cakes comprising condensed sluges are dried by a dryer, burnt in an incinerator and then processed as wastes. On the other hand, solid materials separated by the solid/liquid separator such as shells, are crushed finely by the crusher, then dried by an air stream dryer, baked in a high temperature baking furnace to form quick lime. The quick lime is sent to a digester and modified by hydration into slaked lime and it is shipped as slaked lime products. This can simplify the control for the operation and reduce the running cost. Further, resources of marine living (shells) can be utilized. (I.N.)

  1. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  2. Change in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Accuracy with Age of Input Data from the Global Forecast System (GFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    were downloaded from the University of Wyoming’s weather website (http://www.weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/sounding.html). An alternative site is the RAOB...Midwest US Amarillo, TX AMA 2016-01-02-12 37.12, –98.66 Dodge City, KS DDC and Lamont, OK LMN 2016-02-10-12 Norman, OK OUN...0-, 24-, 48-, 72-, or 96-h forecast from the same day, 1, 2, 3, or 4 days earlier, respectively. For example, for a 12 Coordinated Universal Time

  3. Information Processing Capacity of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Massar, Serge

    2012-07-01

    Many dynamical systems, both natural and artificial, are stimulated by time dependent external signals, somehow processing the information contained therein. We demonstrate how to quantify the different modes in which information can be processed by such systems and combine them to define the computational capacity of a dynamical system. This is bounded by the number of linearly independent state variables of the dynamical system, equaling it if the system obeys the fading memory condition. It can be interpreted as the total number of linearly independent functions of its stimuli the system can compute. Our theory combines concepts from machine learning (reservoir computing), system modeling, stochastic processes, and functional analysis. We illustrate our theory by numerical simulations for the logistic map, a recurrent neural network, and a two-dimensional reaction diffusion system, uncovering universal trade-offs between the non-linearity of the computation and the system's short-term memory.

  4. Information Processing Capacity of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Massar, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Many dynamical systems, both natural and artificial, are stimulated by time dependent external signals, somehow processing the information contained therein. We demonstrate how to quantify the different modes in which information can be processed by such systems and combine them to define the computational capacity of a dynamical system. This is bounded by the number of linearly independent state variables of the dynamical system, equaling it if the system obeys the fading memory condition. It can be interpreted as the total number of linearly independent functions of its stimuli the system can compute. Our theory combines concepts from machine learning (reservoir computing), system modeling, stochastic processes, and functional analysis. We illustrate our theory by numerical simulations for the logistic map, a recurrent neural network, and a two-dimensional reaction diffusion system, uncovering universal trade-offs between the non-linearity of the computation and the system's short-term memory. PMID:22816038

  5. BALTRAD Advanced Weather Radar Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michelson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BALTRAD software exchanges weather-radar data internationally, operationally, and in real-time, and it processes the data using a common toolbox of algorithms available to every node in the decentralized radar network. This approach enables each node to access and process its own and international data to meet its local needs. The software system is developed collaboratively by the BALTRAD partnership, mostly comprising the national Meteorological and Hydrological institutes in the European Union’s Baltic Sea Region. The most important sub-systems are for data exchange, data management, scheduling and event handling, and data processing. C, Java, and Python languages are used depending on the sub-system, and sub-systems communicate using well-defined interfaces. Software is available from a dedicated Git server. BALTRAD software has been deployed throughout Europe and more recently in Canada. Funding statement: From 2009–2014, the BALTRAD and BALTRAD+ projects were part-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund and European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument, with project numbers #009 and #101, respectively.

  6. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  7. Dynamics Explorer science data processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.H.; Freeman, C.H.; Hoffman, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Dynamics Explorer project has acquired the ground data processing system from the Atmosphere Explorer project to provide a central computer facility for the data processing, data management and data analysis activities of the investigators. Access to this system is via remote terminals at the investigators' facilities, which provide ready access to the data sets derived from groups of instruments on both spacecraft. The original system has been upgraded with both new hardware and enhanced software systems. These new systems include color and grey scale graphics terminals, an augmentation computer, micrographies facility, a versatile data base with a directory and data management system, and graphics display software packages. (orig.)

  8. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...

  9. Weather Information Services supporting Civilian UAS Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We build a system that supports the weather information needs of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) planning to fly in the National Airspace System (NAS). This weather...

  10. Data processing system for NBT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, C.; Hosokawa, M.; Shoji, T.; Fujiwara, M.

    1981-07-01

    Data processing system for Nagoya Bumpy Torus (NBT) has been developed. Since plasmas are produced and heated in steady state by use of high power microwaves, sampling and processing data prevails in long time scale on the order of one minute. The system, which consists of NOVA 3/12 minicomputer and many data acquisition devices, is designed to sample and process large amount of data before the next discharge starts. Several features of such long time scale data processing system are described in detail. (author)

  11. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended

  12. Process Information System - Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.; Barbic, B.; Linke, B.; Colak, I.

    1998-01-01

    Original NEK design was using several Process Computer Systems (PCS) for both process control and process supervision. PCS were built by different manufacturers around different hardware and software platforms. Operational experience and new regulatory requirements imposed new technical and functional requirements on the PCS. Requirements such as: - Acquisition of new signals from the technological processes and environment - Implementation of new application programs - Significant improvement of MMI (Man Machine Interface) - Process data transfer to other than Main Control Room (MCR) locations - Process data archiving and capability to retrieve same data for future analysis were impossible to be implemented within old systems. In order to satisfy new requirements, NEK has decided to build new Process Information System (PIS). During the design and construction of the PIS Project Phase I, in addition to the main foreign contractor, there was significant participation of local architect engineering and construction companies. This paper presents experience of NEK and local partners. (author)

  13. Power processing systems for ion thrusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, B. G.; Garth, D. R.; Finke, R. C.; Shumaker, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The proposed use of ion thrusters to fulfill various communication satellite propulsion functions such as east-west and north-south stationkeeping, attitude control, station relocation and orbit raising, naturally leads to the requirement for lightweight, efficient and reliable thruster power processing systems. Collectively, the propulsion requirements dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by the power processing. This paper will discuss the status of such power processing systems, present system design alternatives and project expected near future power system performance.

  14. Multidisciplinary systems engineering architecting the design process

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Demijohn, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering.  Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

  15. Using Artificial Intelligence to Inform Pilots of Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2006-01-01

    An automated system to assist a General Aviation (GA) pilot in improving situational awareness of weather in flight is now undergoing development. This development is prompted by the observation that most fatal GA accidents are attributable to loss of weather awareness. Loss of weather awareness, in turn, has been attributed to the difficulty of interpreting traditional preflight weather briefings and the difficulty of both obtaining and interpreting traditional in-flight weather briefings. The developmental automated system not only improves weather awareness but also substantially reduces the time a pilot must spend in acquiring and maintaining weather awareness.

  16. Boulders, biology and buildings: Why weathering is vital to geomorphology (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Heather A.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering is vital to geomorphology in three main senses. First, it is vital in the sense of being a fundamental and near-ubiquitous earth surface process without which landscapes would not develop, and which also provides a key link between geomorphology and the broader Earth system. Second, weathering is vital in the sense that, as it is heavily influenced by biotic processes, it demonstrates the importance of life to geomorphology and vice versa. In particular, weathering illustrates the many cross-linkages between microbial ecosystems and geomorphology. Finally, it is vital in the sense that weathering provides an important practical application of geomorphological knowledge. Geomorphologists in recent years have contributed much in terms of improving understanding the deterioration of rocks, stone and other materials in heritage sites and the built environment. This knowledge has also had direct implications for heritage conservation. This lecture reviews recent research on each of these three themes and on their linkages, and sets an integrated research agenda for the future. Weathering as a key process underpinning geomorphology and Earth system science has been the subject of much recent conceptual and empirical research. In particular, conceptual research advances have involved improving conceptualisation of scale issues and process synergies, and understanding weathering in terms of non-linear dynamical systems. Empirical advances have included the development of larger datasets on weathering rates, and the application of a wide range of non-destructive and remote sensing techniques to quantify weathering morphologies on boulder and rock surfaces. In recent years, understanding of the complex linkages between ecology and geomorphology (sometimes called biogeomorphology) has advanced particularly strongly in terms of weathering. For example, the influences of disturbance on biota and weathering have been conceptualised and investigated empirically in a

  17. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems). Digitale Prozessdaten-Kommunikations-Systeme (Bus Systeme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, K

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG.

  18. On-line process control monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes apparatus for monitoring at a plurality of locations within a system the concentration of at least one chemical substance involved in a chemical process. It comprises plurality of process cells; first means for carrying the light; second means for carrying the light; means for producing a spectrum from the light received by the second carrying means; multiplexing means for selecting one process cell of the plurality of process cells at a time so that the producing means can produce a process spectrum from the one cell of the process cells; a reference cell for producing a reference spectrum for comparison to the process spectrum; a standard cell for producing a standard spectrum for comparison to the process spectrum; and means for comparing the reference spectrum, the standard spectrum and the process spectrum and determining the concentration of the chemical substance in the process cell

  19. High temperature nuclear process heat systems for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The development planning and status of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor as a source of industrial process heat is presented. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system offers a unique combination of the two that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound. Conceptual studies of several energy-intensive processes coupled to a nuclear heat source are presented

  20. Integrated control system for electron beam processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, L.; Koleva, E.; Batchkova, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ISO/IEC 62264 standard is widely used for integration of the business systems of a manufacturer with the corresponding manufacturing control systems based on hierarchical equipment models, functional data and manufacturing operations activity models. In order to achieve the integration of control systems, formal object communication models must be developed, together with manufacturing operations activity models, which coordinate the integration between different levels of control. In this article, the development of integrated control system for electron beam welding process is presented as part of a fully integrated control system of an electron beam plant, including also other additional processes: surface modification, electron beam evaporation, selective melting and electron beam diagnostics.

  1. Designing low-carbon power systems for Great Britain in 2050 that are robust to the spatiotemporal and inter-annual variability of weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyringer, Marianne; Price, James; Fais, Birgit; Li, Pei-Hao; Sharp, Ed

    2018-05-01

    The design of cost-effective power systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires a modelling approach that simultaneously represents the whole energy system combined with the spatiotemporal and inter-annual variability of VRE. Here, we soft-link a long-term energy system model, which explores new energy system configurations from years to decades, with a high spatial and temporal resolution power system model that captures VRE variability from hours to years. Applying this methodology to Great Britain for 2050, we find that VRE-focused power system design is highly sensitive to the inter-annual variability of weather and that planning based on a single year can lead to operational inadequacy and failure to meet long-term decarbonization objectives. However, some insights do emerge that are relatively stable to weather-year. Reinforcement of the transmission system consistently leads to a decrease in system costs while electricity storage and flexible generation, needed to integrate VRE into the system, are generally deployed close to demand centres.

  2. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic

  3. A Process Management System for Networked Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Wang, Huifen; Liu, Linyan

    With the development of computer, communication and network, networked manufacturing has become one of the main manufacturing paradigms in the 21st century. Under the networked manufacturing environment, there exist a large number of cooperative tasks susceptible to alterations, conflicts caused by resources and problems of cost and quality. This increases the complexity of administration. Process management is a technology used to design, enact, control, and analyze networked manufacturing processes. It supports efficient execution, effective management, conflict resolution, cost containment and quality control. In this paper we propose an integrated process management system for networked manufacturing. Requirements of process management are analyzed and architecture of the system is presented. And a process model considering process cost and quality is developed. Finally a case study is provided to explain how the system runs efficiently.

  4. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  5. Architecture Of High Speed Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshio; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Ohki, Tohru

    1988-01-01

    One of architectures for a high speed image processing system which corresponds to a new algorithm for a shape understanding is proposed. And the hardware system which is based on the archtecture was developed. Consideration points of the architecture are mainly that using processors should match with the processing sequence of the target image and that the developed system should be used practically in an industry. As the result, it was possible to perform each processing at a speed of 80 nano-seconds a pixel.

  6. Constitutive mass balance relations between chemical composition, volume, density, porosity, and strain in metasomatic hydrochemical systems: Results on weathering and pedogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, George H.; Dietrich, William E.

    1987-03-01

    Relations characterizing the chemical, physical, and mechanical changes resulting from metasomatic hydrochemical processes are developed using mass balance models which formally link chemical composition to bulk density, mineral density, volumetric properties, porosity, and amount of deformation (strain). Rigorous analysis of aqueous solute transport effects is then made possible in a variety of porous media flow environments including chemical weathering, pedogenesis (soil formation), diagenesis, ore deposition and enrichment, and metamorphism. Application of these linear constitutive relations to chemical weathering profiles shows that immobile and locally mobile chemical elements, with masses conserved on the scale of soil profiles, can be accurately identified from analysis of appropriate data arrays and then used as natural geochemical tracers to infer the nature and extent of hydrochemical weathering processes and volume changes during pedogenesis. Assumptions commonly made in the past about the supposed immobility of certain elements, e.g., Ti and Zr, become unnecessary. Quantitative differentiation between the effects of residual and supergene fractionation is then easily made. These methods are applied to Ni-rich laterites developed by weathering of ultramafic rocks, showing that during ordinary residual enrichment, Ni is concentrated by as much as 4× protolith peridotite concentrations. This occurs simply by silicate mineral dissolution and removal of chemical elements other than Ni ( e.g., Mg) with a corresponding reduction in saprolite density and increase in bulk porosity without significant deformation. In contrast, laterites with mineable concentrations of Ni which are similarly undeformed (such as the Nickel Mountain Mine in Riddle, Oregon) have experienced, in addition to residual enrichment, strong supergene enrichment by fractionation of ore elements between a leached zone from which Ni is extracted and a complementary enriched zone positioned

  7. Features, Events, and Processes: System Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-04-19

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate System Level features, events, and processes (FEPs). The System Level FEPs typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem level analyses and models reports. The System Level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. This evaluation determines which of the System Level FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the information presented in analysis reports, model reports, direct input, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  8. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  9. Radiogenic Isotopes in Weathering and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J. D.; Erel, Y.

    2003-12-01

    There are a small group of elements that display variations in their isotopic composition, resulting from radioactive decay within minerals over geological timescales. These isotopic variations provide natural fingerprints of rock-water interactions and have been widely utilized in studies of weathering and hydrology. The isotopic systems that have been applied in such studies are dictated by the limited number of radioactive parent-daughter nuclide pairs with half-lives and isotopic abundances that result in measurable differences in daughter isotope ratios among common rocks and minerals. Prior to their application to studies of weathering and hydrology, each of these isotopic systems was utilized in geochronology and petrology. As in the case of their original introduction into geochronology and petrology, isotopic systems with the highest concentrations of daughter isotopes in common rocks and minerals and systems with the largest observed isotopic variations were introduced first and have made the largest impact on our understanding of weathering and hydrologic processes. Although radiogenic isotopes have helped elucidate many important aspects of weathering and hydrology, it is important to note that in almost every case that will be discussed in this chapter, our fundamental understanding of these topics came from studies of variations in the concentrations of major cations and anions. This chapter is a "tools chapter" and thus it will highlight applications of radiogenic isotopes that have added additional insight into a wide spectrum of research areas that are summarized in almost all of the other chapters of this volume.The first applications of radiogenic isotopes to weathering processes were based on studies that sought to understand the effects of chemical weathering on the geochronology of whole-rock samples and geochronologically important minerals (Goldich and Gast, 1966; Dasch, 1969; Blaxland, 1974; Clauer, 1979, 1981; Clauer et al., 1982); as well

  10. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  11. Mars Aqueous Processing System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  12. DIAPASON: a continuous process supervision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, D.; Penalva, J.M.; Coudouneau, L.; Leyval, L.; Montmain, J.

    1991-01-01

    DIAPASON is a system for the simulation and diagnosis aid of industrial processes. Qualitative simulation and defect diagnosis are briefly presented taking as an example a pulse column for liquid-liquid extraction in spent fuel reprocessing

  13. Cyclic LTI Systems in Digital Signal Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaidyanathan, P

    1998-01-01

    .... While circular convolution has been the centerpiece of many algorithms in signal processing for decades, such freedom, especially from the viewpoint of linear system theory, has not been studied in the past...

  14. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...and also English) natural language processing ( NLP ), containing code for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in Stephen Tratz’s

  15. Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  16. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  17. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  18. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  19. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  20. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  1. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  2. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  3. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  4. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  5. Internet Weather Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  6. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  7. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  8. Parallel asynchronous systems and image processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, D. D.; Perera, A. G. U.

    1989-01-01

    A new hardware approach to implementation of image processing algorithms is described. The approach is based on silicon devices which would permit an independent analog processing channel to be dedicated to evey pixel. A laminar architecture consisting of a stack of planar arrays of the device would form a two-dimensional array processor with a 2-D array of inputs located directly behind a focal plane detector array. A 2-D image data stream would propagate in neuronlike asynchronous pulse coded form through the laminar processor. Such systems would integrate image acquisition and image processing. Acquisition and processing would be performed concurrently as in natural vision systems. The research is aimed at implementation of algorithms, such as the intensity dependent summation algorithm and pyramid processing structures, which are motivated by the operation of natural vision systems. Implementation of natural vision algorithms would benefit from the use of neuronlike information coding and the laminar, 2-D parallel, vision system type architecture. Besides providing a neural network framework for implementation of natural vision algorithms, a 2-D parallel approach could eliminate the serial bottleneck of conventional processing systems. Conversion to serial format would occur only after raw intensity data has been substantially processed. An interesting challenge arises from the fact that the mathematical formulation of natural vision algorithms does not specify the means of implementation, so that hardware implementation poses intriguing questions involving vision science.

  9. Information processing in decision-making systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A David

    2012-08-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a "forward'' mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders.

  10. Teaching Information Systems Development via Process Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kek; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring the knowledge to assemble an integrated Information System (IS) development process that is tailored to the specific needs of a project has become increasingly important. It is therefore necessary for educators to impart to students this crucial skill. However, Situational Method Engineering (SME) is an inherently complex process that…

  11. Interactive data-processing system for metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathz, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Equipment indicates that system can rapidly and accurately process metallurgical and materials-processing data for wide range of applications. Advantages include increase in contract between areas on image, ability to analyze images via operator-written programs, and space available for storing images.

  12. Decision process simulation in training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, K.S.; Serov, A.A.; Ajnutdinov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the approaches to arrangement of training process an automated trainning systems (ATS) based on actjve use of knowledge of experienced operators is presented. Problems of mathematical model simulatjon of decision process by people not having special knowledge in mathematics are considered. A language of solution tables based on indistinct tables is suggested to the used as a simulation language. The problem of automation of decision process simulation in ATS is solued

  13. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  14. How Cities Make Their Own Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world's population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in d e near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters weather and climate processes. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-weather-climate system is incomplete. Recent literature continues to provide evidence that anomalies in precipitation exist over and downwind of major cities. Current and future research efforts are actively seeking to verify these literature findings and understand potential cause-effect relationships. The novelty of this study is that it utilizes rainfall data from multiple satellite data sources (e.g. TRMM precipitation radar, TRMM-geosynchronous-rain gauge merged product, and SSM/I) and ground-based measurements to identify spatial anomalies and temporal trends in precipitation for cities around the world. We will also present results from experiments using a regional atmospheric-land surface modeling system. Early results will be presented and placed within the context of weather prediction, climate assessment, and societal applications.

  15. Control system for technological processes in tritium processing plants with process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retevoi, Carmen Maria; Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Stefan, Liviu; Bucur, Ciprian

    2005-01-01

    Integration of a large variety of installations and equipment into a unitary system for controlling the technological process in tritium processing nuclear facilities appears to be a rather complex approach particularly when experimental or new technologies are developed. Ensuring a high degree of versatility allowing easy modifications in configurations and process parameters is a major requirement imposed on experimental installations. The large amount of data which must be processed, stored and easily accessed for subsequent analyses imposes development of a large information network based on a highly integrated system containing the acquisition, control and technological process analysis data as well as data base system. On such a basis integrated systems of computation and control able to conduct the technological process could be developed as well protection systems for cases of failures or break down. The integrated system responds to the control and security requirements in case of emergency and of the technological processes specific to the industry that processes radioactive or toxic substances with severe consequences in case of technological failure as in the case of tritium processing nuclear plant. In order to lower the risk technological failure of these processes an integrated software, data base and process analysis system are developed, which, based on identification algorithm of the important parameters for protection and security systems, will display the process evolution trend. The system was checked on a existing plant that includes a removal tritium unit, finally used in a nuclear power plant, by simulating the failure events as well as the process. The system will also include a complete data base monitoring all the parameters and a process analysis software for the main modules of the tritium processing plant, namely, isotope separation, catalytic purification and cryogenic distillation

  16. Trusted Spotter Network Austria - a new standard to utilize crowdsourced weather and impact observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krennert, Thomas; Kaltenberger, Rainer; Pistotnik, Georg; Holzer, Alois M.; Zeiler, Franz; Stampfl, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Information from voluntary storm spotters has been an increasingly important part for the severe weather warning process at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie and Geodynamik (ZAMG), Austria's National Weather Service, for almost 15 years. In 2010 a collaboration was formalized and an annual training was established to educate voluntary observers into Trusted Spotters. The return of this investment is a higher credibility of their observations after these spotters have undergone a basic meteorological training and have become aware of their responsibility. The European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) was included to this collaboration to adopt their successful quality control system of severe weather reports, which is employed in the European Severe Weather Database ESWD. That way, reports from Trusted Spotters automatically obtain a higher quality flag, which enables a faster processing by forecasters on duty for severe weather warnings, when time is a critical issue. The concept of combining training for voluntary storm spotters and a thorough quality management was recognized as a Best Practice Model by the European Meteorological Society. We propose to apply this concept also in other European countries and present its advancement into an even broader, pan-European approach. The European Weather Observer app EWOB, recently released by ESSL, provides a novel and easy-to-handle tool to submit weather and respective impact observations. We promote its use to provide better data and information for a further real-time improvement of severe weather warnings.

  17. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...

  18. National Recordal System IK holder catalogue process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this poster is to illustrate the South African National Recordal Systems (NRS) process whereby Indigenous Knowledge (IK) holder’s information is captured in a registry, as specified in South Africa’s Indigenous Knowledge Systems Policy...

  19. Models of Weather Impact on Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Flight delays have been a serious problem in the national airspace system costing about $30B per year. About 70 of the delays are attributed to weather and upto two thirds of these are avoidable. Better decision support tools would reduce these delays and improve air traffic management tools. Such tools would benefit from models of weather impacts on the airspace operations. This presentation discusses use of machine learning methods to mine various types of weather and traffic data to develop such models.

  20. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovanni Spelta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The information technology that supports the implementation of the business process management appproach is called Business Process Management System (BPMS. The main components of the BPMS solution framework are process definition repository, process instances repository, transaction manager, conectors framework, process engine and middleware. In this paper we define and characterize the role and importance of the components of BPMS's framework. The research method adopted was the case study, through the analysis of the implementation of the BPMS solution in an insurance company called Chubb do Brasil. In the case study, the process "Manage Coinsured Events"" is described and characterized, as well as the components of the BPMS solution adopted and implemented by Chubb do Brasil for managing this process.

  1. Development of DUMAS data processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    In the field of nuclear experiments, the speed-up of data processing has been required recently along with the increase of the amount of data per event or the rate of event occurrence per unit time. In the DUMAS project of RCNP, the development of data processing system has been required, which can perform the high speed transfer and processing. The system should transfer the data of 5 multiwire proportional counters and other counters from the laboratory to the counting room at the rate of 1000 events every second, and also should perform considerably complex processes such as histogramming, particle identification, calculation of various polarizations as well as dumping to the secondary memory in the counting room. Furthermore, easy start-up, adjustment, inspection and maintenance and non-special hardware and software should be considered. A system presently being investigated for satisfying the above requirements is described. The main points are as follows: to employ CAMAC system for the interface with readout circuit, to transfer data between the laboratory and the counting room by converting the byte-serial transfer to the bit-serial optical fiber communication, and to unify the data processing computers to the PDP-11 family by connecting two miniature computers. Development of such a data processing system seems to be useful as an preparatory research for the development of NUMATRON measuring instruments. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kukkonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed in this article include how weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry models are integrated into chemical weather forecasting systems, how physical processes are incorporated into the models through parameterization schemes, how the model architecture affects the predicted variables, and how air chemistry and aerosol processes are formulated. In addition, we discuss sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the models, user operational requirements, such as model availability and documentation, and output availability and dissemination. In this manner, this article allows for the evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various modelling systems and modelling approaches. Finally, this article highlights the most prominent gaps of knowledge for chemical weather forecasting models and suggests potential priorities for future research directions, for the following selected focus areas: emission inventories, the integration of numerical weather prediction and atmospheric chemical transport models, boundary conditions and nesting of models, data assimilation of the various chemical species, improved understanding and parameterization of physical processes, better evaluation of models against data and the construction of model ensembles.

  3. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  4. Data processing system for neutron experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T; Yamamuro, N [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. of Nuclear Reactor

    1979-03-01

    A data processing system for neutron experiments has been equipped at the Pelletron Laboratory of the Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors. The system comprises a Hewlett Packard 21 MX computer and a CAMAC standard. It can control two ADCs and some CAMAC modules. CAMAC control programs as well as data acquisition programs with high-level language can be readily developed. Terminals are well designed for man-machine interactions and program developments. To demonstrate the usefulness of the system, it was applied for the on-line data processing of neutron spectrum measurement.

  5. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  6. National Recordal System IK holder catalogue process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available good, based on IK.? Subsequently, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created a National Indigenous Knowledge Systems Office (NIKSO) that is taking the lead on interfacing IKS with other recognised knowledge holders... is to illustrate the South African National Recordal Systems (NRS) process whereby Indigenous Knowledge (IK) holder?s information is captured in a registry, as specified in South Africa?s Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Policy, through an IK cataloguing...

  7. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  8. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Naoyuki

    1995-01-01

    The present situation of dosimetry systems for radiation processing industry in Japan is reviewed. For gamma-rays irradiation the parallel-plate ionization chamber in TRCRE, JAERI has been placed as a reference standard dosimeter for processing-level dose. Various solid and liquid chemical dosimeters are used as routine dosimeters for gamma processing industries. Alanine dosimeters is used for the irradiation purpose which needs precise dosimetry. For electron-beam irradiation the electron current density meter and the total absorption calorimeter of TRCRE are used for the calibration of routine dosimeters. Plastic film dosimeters, such as cellulose triacetate and radiochromic dye are used as routine dosimeters for electron processing industries. When the official traceability systems for processing-level dosimetry now under investigation is completed, the ionization chamber of TRCRE is expected to have a role of the primary standard dosimeter and the specified alanine dosimeter will be nominated for the secondary or reference standard dosimeter. (author)

  10. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1

  11. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  12. Oscillating systems with cointegrated phase processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Rahbek, Anders; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    We present cointegration analysis as a method to infer the network structure of a linearly phase coupled oscillating system. By defining a class of oscillating systems with interacting phases, we derive a data generating process where we can specify the coupling structure of a network...... that resembles biological processes. In particular we study a network of Winfree oscillators, for which we present a statistical analysis of various simulated networks, where we conclude on the coupling structure: the direction of feedback in the phase processes and proportional coupling strength between...... individual components of the system. We show that we can correctly classify the network structure for such a system by cointegration analysis, for various types of coupling, including uni-/bi-directional and all-to-all coupling. Finally, we analyze a set of EEG recordings and discuss the current...

  13. Control measurement system in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, V.V.S.

    1985-01-01

    The dependence of a bulk facility handling Purex Process on the control measurement system for evaluating the process performance needs hardly be emphasized. process control, Plant control, inventory control and quality control are the four components of the control measurement system. The scope and requirements of each component are different and the measurement methods are selected accordingly. However, each measurement system has six important elements. These are described in detail. The quality assurance programme carried out by the laboratory as a mechanism through which the quality of measurements is regularly tested and stated in quantitative terms is also explained in terms of internal and external quality assurance, with examples. Suggestions for making the control measurement system more responsive to the operational needs in future are also briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Transportation System Vulnerability and Resilience to Extreme Weather Events and Other Natural Hazards : Final Results of Vulnerability Assessment of National Highway System for All KYTC Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Recent federal legislation and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) have directed state transportation agencies to identify potential vulnerabilities associated with extreme weather events and climate change, develop a risk-based asset managemen...

  15. A multitransputer parallel processing system (MTPPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jethra, A.K.; Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Khare, A.N.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a 16 node Multi Transputer Parallel Processing System(MTPPS) which is a platform for parallel program development. It is a MIMD machine based on message passing paradigm. The basic compute engine is an Inmos Transputer Ims T800-20. Transputer with local memory constitutes the processing element (NODE) of this MIMD architecture. Multiple NODES can be connected to each other in an identifiable network topology through the high speed serial links of the transputer. A Network Configuration Unit (NCU) incorporates the necessary hardware to provide software controlled network configuration. System is modularly expandable and more NODES can be added to the system to achieve the required processing power. The system is backend to the IBM-PC which has been integrated into the system to provide user I/O interface. PC resources are available to the programmer. Interface hardware between the PC and the network of transputers is INMOS compatible. Therefore, all the commercially available development software compatible to INMOS products can run on this system. While giving the details of design and implementation, this report briefly summarises MIMD Architectures, Transputer Architecture and Parallel Processing Software Development issues. LINPACK performance evaluation of the system and solutions of neutron physics and plasma physics problem have been discussed along with results. (author). 12 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs., 3 appendixes

  16. Ice detection and deicing system improves the economics of a wind turbine in the arctic weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, J [Labko Ice Detection Oy (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Finnish Lapland is an excellent test area for the wind turbines due to strong winds and heavy icing. Also the need of ice protection is evident, for wind turbines cannot be used in the area at all without such devices which keep the blades free of ice, rime frost or heavy snow. Labco Ice Detection Oy has been working in good cooperation with VTT and Kemijoki Oy to solve this problem technically and economically by developing an ice detector and deicing system. This system detects ice when its thickness is 0,5 mm and melts it so that the blades will stay clean during the ice accretion. The enclosed estimation process indicates that the investment in this system is economically profitable. (author)

  17. Ice detection and deicing system improves the economics of a wind turbine in the arctic weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, J. [Labko Ice Detection Oy (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The Finnish Lapland is an excellent test area for the wind turbines due to strong winds and heavy icing. Also the need of ice protection is evident, for wind turbines cannot be used in the area at all without such devices which keep the blades free of ice, rime frost or heavy snow. Labco Ice Detection Oy has been working in good cooperation with VTT and Kemijoki Oy to solve this problem technically and economically by developing an ice detector and deicing system. This system detects ice when its thickness is 0,5 mm and melts it so that the blades will stay clean during the ice accretion. The enclosed estimation process indicates that the investment in this system is economically profitable. (author)

  18. AUTOMATION DESIGN FOR MONORAIL - BASED SYSTEM PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunda BESA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, conventional methods of decline development put enormous cost pressure on the profitability of mining operations. This is the case with narrow vein ore bodies where current methods and mine design of decline development may be too expensive to support economic extraction of the ore. According to studies, the time it takes to drill, clean and blast an end in conventional decline development can be up to 224 minutes. This is because once an end is blasted, cleaning should first be completed before drilling can commence, resulting in low advance rates per shift. Improvements in advance rates during decline development can be achieved by application of the Electric Monorail Transport System (EMTS based drilling system. The system consists of the drilling and loading components that use monorail technology to drill and clean the face during decline development. The two systems work simultaneously at the face in such a way that as the top part of the face is being drilled the pneumatic loading system cleans the face. However, to improve the efficiency of the two systems, critical processes performed by the two systems during mining operations must be automated. Automation increases safety and productivity, reduces operator fatigue and also reduces the labour costs of the system. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to describe automation designs of the two processes performed by the monorail drilling and loading systems during operations. During automation design, critical processes performed by the two systems and control requirements necessary to allow the two systems execute such processes automatically have also been identified.

  19. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  20. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  1. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  2. A subsurface Fe-silicate weathering microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napieralski, S. A.; Buss, H. L.; Roden, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of microbially mediated weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals often invoke organic ligands (e.g. siderophores) used for nutrient acquisition. However, it is well known that the oxidation of Fe(II) governs the overall rate of Fe-silicate mineral dissolution. Recent work has demonstrated the ability of lithtrophic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) to grow via the oxidation of structural Fe(II) in biotite as a source of metabolic energy with evidence suggesting a direct enzymatic attack on the mineral surface. This process necessitates the involvement of dedicated outer membrane proteins that interact with insoluble mineral phases in a process known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). To investigate the potential role FeOB in a terrestrial subsurface weathering system, samples were obtained from the bedrock-saprolite interface (785 cm depth) within the Rio Icacos Watershed of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico. Prior geochemical evidence suggests the flux of Fe(II) from the weathering bedrock supports a robust lithotrophic microbial community at depth. Current work confirms the activity of microorganism in situ, with a marked increase in ATP near the bedrock-saprolite interface. Regolith recovered from the interface was used as inoculum to establish enrichment cultures with powderized Fe(II)-bearing minerals serving as the sole energy source. Monitoring of the Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratio and ATP generation suggests growth of microorganisms coupled to the oxidation of mineral bound Fe(II). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic libraries from in situ and enrichment culture samples lends further support to FeOB involvement in the weathering process. Multiple metagenomic bins related to known FeOB, including Betaproteobacteria genera, contain homologs to model EET systems, including Cyc2 and MtoAB. Our approach combining geochemistry and metagenomics with ongoing microbiological and genomic characterization of novel isolates obtained

  3. GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory

    2013-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

  4. An ecological process model of systems change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirson, Leslea J; Boydell, Katherine M; Ferguson, H Bruce; Ferris, Lorraine E

    2011-06-01

    In June 2007 the American Journal of Community Psychology published a special issue focused on theories, methods and interventions for systems change which included calls from the editors and authors for theoretical advancement in this field. We propose a conceptual model of systems change that integrates familiar and fundamental community psychology principles (succession, interdependence, cycling of resources, adaptation) and accentuates a process orientation. To situate our framework we offer a definition of systems change and a brief review of the ecological perspective and principles. The Ecological Process Model of Systems Change is depicted, described and applied to a case example of policy driven systems level change in publicly funded social programs. We conclude by identifying salient implications for thinking and action which flow from the Model.

  5. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  6. Response of Land-Sea Interface in Xiamen Bay to Extreme Weather Events Observed with the Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array, a Multifunctional Sensors System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Hong, H.; Pan, W.; Zhang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Recent climate observations suggest that global climate change may result in an increase of extreme weather events (such as tropical cyclones, intense precipitation i.e. heavy rains) in frequency and/or intensity in certain world regions. Subtropical coastal regions are often densely populated areas experiencing rapid development and widespread changes to the aquatic environment. The biogeochemical and ecological responses of coastal systems to extreme weather events are of increasing concern. Enhanced river nutrients input following rain storms has been linked to the ecological responses at land-sea interface. These land-sea interactions can be studied using multifunctional sensors systems. In our study, the Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array, a monitoring system with multiple sensors, was deployed in Xiamen Bay for near real time measurements of different parameters. The Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array is a deep water net cage which functions in long-term synchronous observation of dynamic ecological characteristics with the support of an aerograph, water-watch, LOBO (Land/Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory), ADCP, CTD chain system, YSI vertical profiler, flow cytometer, sea surface camera, and "communication box". The study showed that rain storms during multiple typhoons resulted in greater fluctuations of salinity, N concentration, and other water environmental conditions, which might have been connected with algal blooms (so-called red tide) in Xiamen Bay.

  7. Initializing numerical weather prediction models with satellite-derived surface soil moisture: Data assimilation experiments with ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System and the TMI soil moisture data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, M.

    2007-02-01

    Satellite-derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available and have been used successfully in hydrological applications. In many operational numerical weather prediction systems the initial soil moisture conditions are analyzed from the modeled background and 2 m temperature and relative humidity. This approach has proven its efficiency to improve surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and consequently the forecast on large geographical domains. However, since soil moisture is not always related to screen level variables, model errors and uncertainties in the forcing data can accumulate in root zone soil moisture. Remotely sensed surface soil moisture is directly linked to the model's uppermost soil layer and therefore is a stronger constraint for the soil moisture analysis. For this study, three data assimilation experiments with the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been performed for the 2-month period of June and July 2002: a control run based on the operational soil moisture analysis, an open loop run with freely evolving soil moisture, and an experimental run incorporating TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) derived soil moisture over the southern United States. In this experimental run the satellite-derived soil moisture product is introduced through a nudging scheme using 6-hourly increments. Apart from the soil moisture analysis, the system setup reflects the operational forecast configuration including the atmospheric 4D-Var analysis. Soil moisture analyzed in the nudging experiment is the most accurate estimate when compared against in situ observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet. The corresponding forecast for 2 m temperature and relative humidity is almost as accurate as in the control experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that the soil moisture analysis influences local weather parameters including the planetary boundary layer height and cloud coverage.

  8. The impact of reflectivity correction and accounting for raindrop size distribution variability to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land mesoscale convective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-11-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands, locally giving rise to rainfall accumulations exceeding 150 mm. Correctly measuring the amount of precipitation during such an extreme event is important, both from a hydrological and meteorological perspective. Unfortunately, the operational weather radar measurements were affected by multiple sources of error and only 30% of the precipitation observed by rain gauges was estimated. Such an underestimation of heavy rainfall, albeit generally less strong than in this extreme case, is typical for operational weather radar in The Netherlands. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two groups: (1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, radar calibration, vertical profile of reflectivity) and (2) errors resulting from variations in the raindrop size distribution that in turn result in incorrect rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates from observed reflectivity measurements. A stepwise procedure to correct for the first group of errors leads to large improvements in the quality of the estimated precipitation, increasing the radar rainfall accumulations to about 65% of those observed by gauges. To correct for the second group of errors, a coherent method is presented linking the parameters of the radar reflectivity-rain rate (Z - R) and radar reflectivity-specific attenuation (Z - k) relationships to the normalized drop size distribution (DSD). Two different procedures were applied. First, normalized DSD parameters for the whole event and for each precipitation type separately (convective, stratiform and undefined) were obtained using local disdrometer observations. Second, 10,000 randomly generated plausible normalized drop size distributions were used for rainfall estimation, to evaluate whether this Monte Carlo method would improve the quality of weather radar rainfall products. Using the

  9. Data processing system for ETL TPE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahagi, E.; Kiyama, M.

    1988-01-01

    The data processing system for ETL TPE-2 consists of 2 CPU systems and it is composing a duplex system. One system is used as a data acquisition system, which is abbreviated as DAS and functions controlling various data input devices, data acquisition, communication with the main controller of TPE-2 confirming safety system operation. Another one is used as data processing system, which is abbreviated as DPS and functions the processing of the data after the acquisition, the interconnections with the mainframe and the development of software. A transient memory system, which has 64 channels of 8 bits ADC with maximum sampling frequency of 20 MHz and 4 KB buffer memory in each channel, is used to record the time sequential experimental data. Two CAMAC crates are used for the acquisition of the informations of the experiment condition and Thomson scattering data. They are composing a serial high way system through fiber optics. The CAMAC crate for Thomson scattering data is controlled by a personal computer, HP-85, and is available stand-alone use, and the communication between the CAMAC system and DAS is easily performed by using a CAMAC memory module as an intermediator without complicated procedure in the connection of different type computers. Two magnetic disk pack units, which have the formatted storage capacity of 158 KB in each one and can record the data over 2,000 shots, are used in parallel with a magnetic tape handler for the data file. Thus we realized the high speed data processing over the wide range of experimental shots and confirmed the preservation of the data. (author)

  10. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  11. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centralized systems to indicate the presence of fecal pathogens, but are ineffective decentralized treatment process indicators as they generally occur at levels too low to assess log reduction targets. System challenge testing by spiking with high loads of fecal indicator organisms, like MS2 coliphage, has limitations, especially for large systems. Microbes that are endogenous to the decentralized system, occur in high abundances and mimic removal rates of bacterial, viral and/or parasitic protozoan pathogens during treatment could serve as alternative treatment process indicators to verify log reduction targets. To identify abundant microbes in wastewater, the bacterial and viral communities were examined using deep sequencing. Building infrastructure-associated bacteria, like Zoogloea, were observed as dominant members of the bacterial community in graywater. In blackwater, bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales constituted the majority of contiguous sequences from the viral community. This study identifies candidate treatment process indicators in decentralized systems that could be used to verify log removal during treatment. The association of the presence of treatment process indic

  12. The endocannabinoid system in brain reward processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, M; Goldberg, S R; Piomelli, D

    2008-05-01

    Food, drugs and brain stimulation can serve as strong rewarding stimuli and are all believed to activate common brain circuits that evolved in mammals to favour fitness and survival. For decades, endogenous dopaminergic and opioid systems have been considered the most important systems in mediating brain reward processes. Recent evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system also has an important role in signalling of rewarding events. First, CB(1) receptors are found in brain areas involved in reward processes, such as the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. Second, activation of CB(1) receptors by plant-derived, synthetic or endogenous CB(1) receptor agonists stimulates dopaminergic neurotransmission, produces rewarding effects and increases rewarding effects of abused drugs and food. Third, pharmacological or genetic blockade of CB(1) receptors prevents activation of dopaminergic neurotransmission by several addictive drugs and reduces rewarding effects of food and these drugs. Fourth, brain levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are altered by activation of reward processes. However, the intrinsic activity of the endocannabinoid system does not appear to play a facilitatory role in brain stimulation reward and some evidence suggests it may even oppose it. The influence of the endocannabinoid system on brain reward processes may depend on the degree of activation of the different brain areas involved and might represent a mechanism for fine-tuning dopaminergic activity. Although involvement of the various components of the endocannabinoid system may differ depending on the type of rewarding event investigated, this system appears to play a major role in modulating reward processes.

  13. Improving industrial process control systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Epting, U; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    System providers are today creating process control systems based on remote connectivity using internet technology, effectively exposing these systems to the same threats as corporate computers. It is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to patch/maintain the technical infrastructure monitoring and control systems to remove these vulnerabilities. A strategy including risk assessment, security policy issues, service level agreements between the IT department and the controls engineering groups must be defined. In addition an increased awareness of IT security in the controls system engineering domain is needed. As consequence of these new factors the control system architectures have to take into account security requirements, that often have an impact on both operational aspects as well as on the project and maintenance cost. Manufacturers of industrial control system equipment do however also propose progressively security related solutions that can be used for our active projects. The paper discusses ...

  14. Launch Processing System. [for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, F.; Doolittle, G. V.; Hockenberger, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a functional description of the Launch Processing System, which provides automatic ground checkout and control of the Space Shuttle launch site and airborne systems, with emphasis placed on the Checkout, Control, and Monitor Subsystem. Hardware and software modular design concepts for the distributed computer system are reviewed relative to performing system tests, launch operations control, and status monitoring during ground operations. The communication network design, which uses a Common Data Buffer interface to all computers to allow computer-to-computer communication, is discussed in detail.

  15. [Mechanized system for planning technological processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchenko, V S; Shapiro, A M

    1977-01-01

    A mechanized system for the production processes planning involving the use of an electronic code device for data preparation on a punched tape of the "EPECT-IT" type, at the base of which there are classifiers of standard operations and transitions to individual design members, is considered. A fragment of the classifier and a skeleton diagram of the system are presented. It is pointed out that the use of the system helps improve the quality of the design work, as well as to yield considerable economic advantages. The system is in operation at some enterprises of the medical engineering industry.

  16. Vodcasting Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Erickson, P. J.; Needles, M.

    2009-01-01

    The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of vodcasts (video podcasts) produced by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, MA). This paper discusses the production and distribution of the series via Webcast, Youtube, and other avenues. It also presents preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness and outreach of the project through feedback from both formal and information education venues. The vodcast series is linked to the NASA Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology project award "Multi-Instrument Investigation of Inner-Magnetospheric/Ionosphere Disturbances.” It is being carried out by Principal Investigator Dr. John Foster, under the auspices of NASA Grant # NNX06AB86G. The research involves using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observations to study the location, extent, and duration of perturbations within stormtime ionospheric electric fields at mid- to low latitudes. It combines ground-based global positioning system (GPS) TEC data, incoherent scatter radar measurements of the mid-latitude ionospheric state, and DMSP satellite observations to characterize conditions which lead to severe low-latitude ionospheric perturbations. Each vodcast episode covers a certain aspect of space weather and the research program.

  17. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  18. Data processing system of GA and PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Takayuki

    2001-11-01

    Results of research in 1997 to General Atomics (GA) and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are reported. The author visited the computer system of fusion group in GA. He joined the tokamak experiment in DIII-D, especially on the demonstration of the remote experiment inside U.S., and investigated the data processing system of DIII-D and the computer network, etc. After the visit to GA, He visited PPPL and exchanged the information about the equipment of remote experiment between JAERI and PPPL based on the US-Japan fusion energy research cooperation. He also investigated the data processing system of TFTR tokamak, the computer network and so on. Results of research of the second visit to GA in 2000 are also reported, which describes a rapid progress of each data processing equipment by the advance on the computer technology in just three years. (author)

  19. Systems integration processes for space nuclear electric propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.S.; Rice, J.W.; Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The various components and subsystems that comprise a nuclear electric propulsion system should be developed and integrated so that each functions ideally and so that each is properly integrated with the other components and subsystems in the optimum way. This paper discusses how processes similar to those used in the development and intergration of the subsystems that comprise the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System concepts can be and are being efficiently and effectively utilized for these purposes. The processes discussed include the development of functional and operational requirements at the system and subsystem level; the assessment of individual nuclear power supply and thruster concepts and their associated technologies; the conduct of systems integration efforts including the evaluation of the mission benefits for each system; the identification and resolution of concepts development, technology development, and systems integration feasibility issues; subsystem, system, and technology development and integration; and ground and flight subsystem and integrated system testing

  20. Space weather events in July 1982 and October 2003 and the effects of geomagnetically induced currents on Swedish technical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse in detail two famous space weather events; a railway problem on 13–14 July 1982 and a power blackout on 30 October 2003. Both occurred in Sweden during very intensive space weather storms and each of them a few years after the sunspot maximum. This paper provides a description of the conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind leading to the two GIC events on the ground. By applying modelling techniques introduced and developed in our previous paper, we also calculate the horizontal geoelectric field at the Earth's surface in southern Sweden during the two storms as well as GIC flowing in the southern Swedish 400 kV power grid during the event in October 2003. The results from the calculations agree with all measured data available. In the July-1982 storm, the geomagnetic field variation, ΔBx, reached values up to ~2500 nT/min and the geoelectric field reached values in the order of several volts per kilometer. In the October-2003 storm, the geomagnetic field fluctuations were smaller. However, GIC of some hundreds of amperes flowed in the power grid during the October-2003 event. Technological issues related to the railway signalling in July 1982 and to the power network equipment in October 2003 are also discussed.