Sample records for system tidal stream

  1. Spatial Assessment of a Biocriteria Applied to Texas Tidal Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Tolan


    Full Text Available This study reports on a derived multivariate method for assessing ecosystem health within tidally influenced portions of river basins and coastal basins. These tidally influenced areas are highly productive transitional areas which serve as important nursery areas for many fish and shellfish species. Numerous Texas tidal streams under varying degrees of anthropogenic stressors were analyzed jointly with this new, standardized methodology. Physical and chemical constituents of the tidal systems, as well as their resident nekton communities, were compared with nonparametric ordination techniques in order to uncover a biocriteria that might have general applicability over large spatial scales. All of the tidal stream communities were dominated by only a few taxa that each displays tremendous euryhaline/physiological tolerances, and these abilities allow taxa utilizing tidal streams to adapt to a wide variety of environmental stressors. The absence of any clear connections between degraded water-bodies and any impaired nektonic communities should not automatically be viewed as a constraint inherent to the techniques of the methodology presented, but rather a verification that impaired tidal streams are not that common of an occurrence along the Texas coast, at least not when using nekton communities as the degradation indicator.

  2. VLT observations of NGC 1097's ``dog-leg'' tidal stream. Dwarf spheroidals and tidal streams (United States)

    Galianni, P.; Patat, F.; Higdon, J. L.; Mieske, S.; Kroupa, P.


    Aims: We investigate the structure and stellar population of two large stellar condensations (knots A & B) along one of the faint optical “jet-like” tidal streams associated with the spiral NGC 1097, with the goal of establishing their physical association with the galaxy and their origin. Methods: We use the VLT/FORS2 to get deep V-band imaging and low-resolution optical spectra of two knots along NGC 1097's northeast “dog-leg” tidal stream. With this data, we explore their morphology and stellar populations. Results: Spectra were obtained for eleven sources in the field surrounding the tidal stream. The great majority of them turned out to be background or foreground sources, but the redshift of knot A (and perhaps of knot B) is consistent with that of NGC 1097. Using the V-band image of the “dog-leg” tidal feature we find that the two knots match the photometric scaling relations of canonical dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) very well. Spectral analysis shows that knot A is mainly composed of stars near G-type, with no signs of ongoing star formation. Comparing its spectrum with a library of high resolution spectra of galactic globular clusters (GCs), we find that the stellar population of this dSph-like object is most similar to intermediate to metal rich galactic GCs. We find moreover, that the tidal stream shows an “S” shaped inflection as well as a pronounced stellar overdensity at knot A's position. This suggests that knot A is being tidally stripped, and populating the stellar stream with its stars. Conclusions: We have discovered that two knots along NGC 1097's northeast tidal stream share most of their spectral and photometric properties with ordinary dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph). Moreover, we find strong indications that the “dog-leg” tidal stream arises from the tidal disruption of knot A. Since it has been demonstrated that tidally stripping dSph galaxies need to loose most of their dark matter before starting to loose stars

  3. Estimation of River Pollution Index in a Tidal Stream Using Kriging Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Wei


    Full Text Available Tidal streams are complex watercourses that represent a transitional zone between riverine and marine systems; they occur where fresh and marine waters converge. Because tidal circulation processes cause substantial turbulence in these highly dynamic zones, tidal streams are the most productive of water bodies. Their rich biological diversity, combined with the convenience of land and water transports, provide sites for concentrated populations that evolve into large cities. Domestic wastewater is generally discharged directly into tidal streams in Taiwan, necessitating regular evaluation of the water quality of these streams. Given the complex flow dynamics of tidal streams, only a few models can effectively evaluate and identify pollution levels. This study evaluates the river pollution index (RPI in tidal streams by using kriging analysis. This is a geostatistical method for interpolating random spatial variation to estimate linear grid points in two or three dimensions. A kriging-based method is developed to evaluate RPI in tidal streams, which is typically considered as 1D in hydraulic engineering. The proposed method efficiently evaluates RPI in tidal streams with the minimum amount of water quality data. Data of the Tanshui River downstream reach available from an estuarine area validate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. Results of this study demonstrate that this simple yet reliable method can effectively estimate RPI in tidal streams.

  4. Stingray tidal stream energy device - phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 150 kW Stingray demonstrator was designed, built and installed by The Engineering Business (EB) in 2002, becoming the world's first full-scale tidal stream generator. The concept and technology are described in the reports from Phases 1 and 2 of the project. This report provides an overview of Phase 3 - the re-installation of Stingray in Yell Sound in the Shetland Isles between July and September 2003 for further testing at slack water and on the flood tide to confirm basic machine characteristics, develop the control strategy and to demonstrate performance and power collection through periods of continuous operation. The overall aim was to demonstrate that electricity could be generated at a potentially commercially viable unit energy cost; cost modelling indicated a future unit energy cost of 6.7 pence/kWh when 100 MW capacity had been installed. The report describes: project objectives, targets and activities; design and production; marine operations including installation and demobilisation; environmental monitoring and impact, including pre-installation and post-decommissioning surveys; stakeholder involvement; test results on machine characteristics, sensor performance, power cycle analysis, power collection, transmission performance and efficiency, current data analysis; validation of the mathematical model; the background to the economic model; cost modelling; and compliance with targets set by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI).

  5. A Comprehensive Model for the Monoceros Tidal Stream

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penarrubia, J; Martínez Delgado, D; Rix, H. W; Gomez-Flechoso, M. A; Munn, J; Newberg, H; Bell, E. F; Yanny, B; Zucker, D; Grebel, E. K


    ...., van den Bosch et al. 2004). The fossil records of these merging processes may be observable nowadays in the form of long tidal streams or large-scale stellar substructures around the parent spiral galaxies...

  6. High-resolution modeling assessment of tidal stream resource in Western Passage of Maine, USA (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Feng, Xi; Xue, Huijie; Kilcher, Levi


    Although significant efforts have been taken to assess the maximum potential of tidal stream energy at system-wide scale, accurate assessment of tidal stream energy resource at project design scale requires detailed hydrodynamic simulations using high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models. Extended model validation against high quality measured data is essential to minimize the uncertainties of the resource assessment. Western Passage in the State of Maine in U.S. has been identified as one of the top ranking sites for tidal stream energy development in U.S. coastal waters, based on a number of criteria including tidal power density, market value and transmission distance. This study presents an on-going modeling effort for simulating the tidal hydrodynamics in Western Passage using the 3-D unstructured-grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The model domain covers a large region including the entire the Bay of Fundy with grid resolution varies from 20 m in the Western Passage to approximately 1000 m along the open boundary near the mouth of Bay of Fundy. Preliminary model validation was conducted using existing NOAA measurements within the model domain. Spatial distributions of tidal power density were calculated and extractable tidal energy was estimated using a tidal turbine module embedded in FVCOM under different tidal farm scenarios. Additional field measurements to characterize resource and support model validation were discussed. This study provides an example of high resolution resource assessment based on the guidance recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Specification.

  7. Tidal Turbines’ Layout in a Stream with Asymmetry and Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillou


    Full Text Available A refined assessment of tidal currents variability is a prerequisite for successful turbine deployment in the marine environment. However, the numerical evaluation of the tidal kinetic energy resource relies, most of the time, on integrated parameters, such as the averaged or maximum stream powers. Predictions from a high resolution three-dimensional model are exploited here to characterize the asymmetry and misalignment between the flood and ebb tidal currents in the “Raz de Sein”, a strait off western Brittany (France with strong potential for array development. A series of parameters is considered to assess resource variability and refine the cartography of local potential tidal stream energy sites. The strait is characterized by strong tidal flow divergence with currents’ asymmetry liable to vary output power by 60% over a tidal cycle. Pronounced misalignments over 20 ∘ are furthermore identified in a great part of energetic locations, and this may account for a deficit of the monthly averaged extractable energy by more than 12%. As sea space is limited for turbines, it is finally suggested to aggregate flood and ebb-dominant stream powers on both parts of the strait to output energy with reduced asymmetry.

  8. A new relativistic model for tidal stream evolution during tidal disruption events (United States)

    Servin, Juan; Kesden, Michael


    When stars are tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, approximately half of their original mass becomes gravitationally bound and may eventually produce a tidal flare. The stellar debris evolves into streams that can self-intersect due to relativistic pericenter precession. Energy loss in these inelastic collisions both circularizes the stream and contributes to the tidal flare. Models of this process often assume that all elements of the tidal stream have the same specific energy and angular momentum as the most bound debris element. Real tidal debris possesses a distribution of binding energies, however, which grants it a distribution of orbits. We propose a new treatment for this debris, wherein we evolve the elements of the stream individually. We determine the radial distance (from the black hole) and the time (after the disruption) of the stream collisions as a function of black-hole mass under both Newtonian gravity (N+1PN) and general relativity (GR). We also use the Lane-Emden equation to account for the mass differences among the debris elements when calculating the energy loss in the inelastic collisions. For the N+1PN method, we evolve the stream using Newtonian orbital mechanics and apply pericenter precession after each pericenter passage using a first-order post-Newtonian approximation. Our relativistic method directly integrates the geodesic equations of motion. We see that the higher precession in the fully relativistic method results in more prompt collisions, and that assuming equal masses for the colliding debris elements greatly overestimates the energy loss resulting from these collisions. We also provide light curves for the corresponding flares and compare our predictions to those of previous models.

  9. Extreme Value Analysis of Tidal Stream Velocity Perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Samuel; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Bryden, Ian


    This paper presents a statistical extreme value analysis of maximum velocity perturbations from the mean flow speed in a tidal stream. This study was performed using tidal velocity data measured using both an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at the same location which allows for direct comparison of predictions. The extreme value analysis implements of a Peak-Over-Threshold method to explore the effect of perturbation length and time scale on the magnitude of a 50-year perturbation.

  10. Shepherding tidal debris with the Galactic bar: the Ophiuchus stream (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.


    The dynamics of stellar streams in rotating barred potentials is explained for the first time. Naturally, neighbouring stream stars reach pericentre at slightly different times. In the presence of a rotating bar, these neighbouring stream stars experience different bar orientations during pericentric passage and hence each star receives a different torque from the bar. These differing torques reshape the angular momentum and energy distribution of stars in the stream, which in turn changes the growth rate of the stream. For a progenitor orbiting in the same sense as the bar's rotation and satisfying a resonance condition, the resultant stream can be substantially shorter or longer than expected, depending on whether the pericentric passages of the progenitor occur along the bar's minor or major axis, respectively. We present a full discussion of this phenomenon focusing mainly on streams confined to the Galactic plane. In stark contrast with the evolution in static potentials, which give rise to streams that grow steadily in time, rotating barred potentials can produce dynamically old, short streams. This challenges the traditional viewpoint that the inner halo necessarily consists of well phase-mixed material whilst the tidally disrupted structures in the outer halo are more spatially coherent. We argue that this mechanism may play an important role in explaining the mysteriously short Ophiuchus stream that was recently discovered near the bulge region of the Milky Way.

  11. Tidal stream energy in the Bay of Fundy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerman, G. [Virginia Tech Advanced Research Inst., VA (United States)


    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is now exploring tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) as a future energy supply option in collaboration with Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI). In addition to providing a power density higher than wind and solar energy, tidal power provides the same benefits as other indigenous renewable energy options. NSPI owns and operates the only tidal power plant in North America, and its renewable portfolio standard requires it to meet targets with commercial TISEC projects in 2015-2020. This presentation outlined plans for a tidal energy project to be located in the Minas Passage area in the Bay of Fundy. An outline of earth-moon-sun tidal forces was provided, as well as details of estuary influences and harmonic constants. The DFO WebTide prediction model was used to assess the suitability of the site. Turbine output over a full range of tidal stream velocities was assessed. Various conversion technologies were simulated. Results indicated that the passage is large enough to provide an average of 120 MW using monopile-based technology, as well as an average of 980 MW in deep water using submerged technology. Physical resources were estimated at 1010 MW per year. Environmental extraction limits are 15 per cent of physical resource, meaning that average extraction will be limited to 150 MW. Fully submersible solutions were investigated. Cost estimations were provided. It was concluded that TISEC promises to be one of the most environmentally benign energy supply options available in the region. Research is needed to examine the impact of ice and offshore procedures to raise and lower submerged units for inspection and maintenance. Numerical modelling of turbine array effects on near-field and far-field circulation are also needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Quantifying tidal stream disruption in a simulated Milky Way (United States)

    Sandford, Emily; Küpper, Andreas H. W.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Diemand, Jürg


    Simulations of tidal streams show that close encounters with dark matter subhaloes induce density gaps and distortions in on-sky path along the streams. Accordingly, observing disrupted streams in the Galactic halo would substantiate the hypothesis that dark matter substructure exists there, while in contrast, observing collimated streams with smoothly varying density profiles would place strong upper limits on the number density and mass spectrum of subhaloes. Here, we examine several measures of stellar stream 'disruption' and their power to distinguish between halo potentials with and without substructure and with different global shapes. We create and evolve a population of 1280 streams on a range of orbits in the Via Lactea II simulation of a Milky Way-like halo, replete with a full mass range of Λcold dark matter subhaloes, and compare it to two control stream populations evolved in smooth spherical and smooth triaxial potentials, respectively. We find that the number of gaps observed in a stellar stream is a poor indicator of the halo potential, but that (I) the thinness of the stream on-sky, (II) the symmetry of the leading and trailing tails and (III) the deviation of the tails from a low-order polynomial path on-sky ('path regularity') distinguish between the three potentials more effectively. We furthermore find that globular cluster streams on low-eccentricity orbits far from the galactic centre (apocentric radius ˜30-80 kpc) are most powerful in distinguishing between the three potentials. If they exist, such streams will shortly be discoverable and mapped in high dimensions with near-future photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  13. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Tidal Streams in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Savannah, GA (United States); Fritz, Hermann M. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Savannah, GA (United States); French, Steven P. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Neary, Vincent [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The project documented in this report created a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology.

  14. Stream systems. (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves


    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  15. Water Stage Forecasting in Tidal streams during High Water Using EEMD (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Kao, Su-Pai; Su, Pei-Yi


    There are so many factors may affect the water stages in tidal streams. Not only the ocean wave but also the stream flow affects the water stage in a tidal stream. During high water, two of the most important factors affecting water stages in tidal streams are flood and tide. However the hydrological processes in tidal streams during high water are nonlinear and nonstationary. Generally the conventional methods used for forecasting water stages in tidal streams are very complicated. It explains the accurately forecasting water stages, especially during high water, in tidal streams is always a difficult task. The study makes used of Ensemble Empirical Model Decomposition (EEMD) to analyze the water stages in tidal streams. One of the advantages of the EEMD is it can be used to analyze the nonlinear and nonstationary data. The EEMD divides the water stage into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual; meanwhile, the physical meaning still remains during the process. By comparing the IMF frequency with tidal frequency, it is possible to identify if the IMF is affected by tides. Then the IMFs is separated into two groups, affected by tide or not by tide. The IMFs in each group are assembled to become a factor. Therefore the water stages in tidal streams are only affected by two factors, tidal factor and flood factor. Finally the regression analysis is used to establish the relationship between the factors of the gaging stations in the tidal stream. The available data during 15 typhoon periods of the Tanshui River whose downstream reach is in estuary area is used to illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. The results show that the simple but reliable method is capable of forecasting water stages in tidal streams.

  16. Characterising the spatial variability of the tidal stream energy resource from floating turbines (United States)

    Ward, Sophie; Neill, Simon; Robins, Peter


    The shelf seas, in particular the northwest European shelf seas surrounding the UK, contain significant tidal power potential. Tidal stream energy is both predictable and reliable providing that sites are well-selected based upon the hydrodynamic regime and the device specifics. In this high resolution three-dimensional tidal modelling study, we investigate how the tidal stream resource around the Welsh coast (UK) varies with water depth and location, with particular focus on the Pembrokeshire region. The potential extractable energy for a floating tidal stream energy converter is compared with that for a bottom-fixed device, highlighting the need to vary the resource characterisation criteria based on device specifics. We demonstrate how small variations in the tidal current speeds - with hub depth or due to tidal asymmetry - can lead to substantial variations in potential power output. Further, the results indicate that power generation from floating tidal energy converters will be more significantly influenced by tidal elevations in regions characterised by a lower tidal range (more progressive waves) than regions that experience a high tidal range (standing waves). As numerical modelling capacity improves and tidal stream energy converter technologies develop, ongoing improved quantification of the tidal resource is needed, as well as consideration of the possible feedbacks of the devices and energy extraction on the hydrodynamic regime and the surrounding area.

  17. Complementary Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Tidal Stream Turbine Generation Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ghefiri


    Full Text Available The latest forecasts on the upcoming effects of climate change are leading to a change in the worldwide power production model, with governments promoting clean and renewable energies, as is the case of tidal energy. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to improve the efficiency and lower the costs of the involved processes in order to achieve a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE that allows these devices to be commercially competitive. In this context, this paper presents a novel complementary control strategy aimed to maximize the output power of a Tidal Stream Turbine (TST composed of a hydrodynamic turbine, a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG and a back-to-back power converter. In particular, a global control scheme that supervises the switching between the two operation modes is developed and implemented. When the tidal speed is low enough, the plant operates in variable speed mode, where the system is regulated so that the turbo-generator module works in maximum power extraction mode for each given tidal velocity. For this purpose, the proposed back-to-back converter makes use of the field-oriented control in both the rotor side and grid side converters, so that a maximum power point tracking-based rotational speed control is applied in the Rotor Side Converter (RSC to obtain the maximum power output. Analogously, when the system operates in power limitation mode, a pitch angle control is used to limit the power captured in the case of high tidal speeds. Both control schemes are then coordinated within a novel complementary control strategy. The results show an excellent performance of the system, affording maximum power extraction regardless of the tidal stream input.

  18. Painting a More Accurate Picture of the Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream (United States)

    Weiss, Jake; Arsenault, M.; Bechtel, T.; Desell, T.; Newberg, H. J.; Newby, M.; Thompson, J.


    We are improving the current spatial density profile for the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream and other tidal streams in the Milky Way halo, using new color corrections to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and a new statistical model for main sequence turnoff stars absolute magnitude distribution. Using the MilkyWay@home distributed computing platform, we implement a method of maximum likelihood to fit a model to both tidal streams and a smooth component of the halo. With this technique, we currently have one of the most accurate descriptions for part of the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream’s spatial density profile as well as a spatial density profile for part of a second (bifurcated) stream near the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream, whose origins are not well understood. Along with fitting the width, positions, and orientations of the previously mentioned streams, we also have found that the smooth component of the Milky Way halo is oblate. Using these results, we hope to run N-body simulations of the dwarf galaxy tidal disruption that created the tidal debris to constrain the dark matter profile of the Milky Way galaxy. This research was funded by NSF grant AST 10-09670 and the Rensselaer Center for Open Source Software (RCOS).

  19. Tidal Energy: The benthic effects of an operational tidal stream turbine. (United States)

    O'Carroll, J P J; Kennedy, R M; Creech, A; Savidge, G


    The effect of modified flow on epifaunal boulder reef communities adjacent to the SeaGen, the world's first grid-compliant tidal stream turbine, were assessed. The wake of the SeaGen was modelled and the outputs were used in conjunction with positional and substrate descriptor variables, to relate variation in epifaunal community structure to the modified physical environment. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Generalised Linear Model (GLM) were used to make predictions on the distribution of Ecological Status (ES) of epifaunal communities in relation to the turbulent wake of the SeaGen. ES was assigned using the High Energy Hard Substrate (HEHS) index. ES was largely High throughout the survey area and it was not possible to make predictions on the spatial distribution of ES using an ANN or GLM. Spatial pattern in epifaunal community structure was detected when the study area was partitioned into three treatment areas: area D1; within one rotor diameter (16 m) of the centre of SeaGen, area D2; between one and three rotor diameters, and area D3; outside of three rotor diameters. Area D1 was found to be significantly more variable than D2 and D3 in terms of epifaunal community structure, bare rock distributions and ES. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Looking for tidal streams around Galactic globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Delgado D.


    Full Text Available The picture of building the Milky Way halo from merging protogalactic fragments is considered the local manifestation of the hierarchical galaxy formation process. In this scenario, some observational evidences have suggested that the outer young Galactic halo globular cluster population might be associated (or even the nuclei to tidal disrupted dwarf spheroidals, now extinct galaxies. If this hypothesis is true, these systems might be surrounded by a distinct and still detectable stellar population. We have carried out a systematic observation of Galactic globulars covering the galactocentric distance range 10 < RGC< 40 kpc in both hemispheres. We have used wide field instruments both in La Palma and in La Silla observatories to obtain deep photometry of wide areas around these globulars to unveil the possible remnants of their progenitor dwarf galaxies.

  1. Linear perturbation theory for tidal streams and the small-scale CDM power spectrum (United States)

    Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.


    Tidal streams in the Milky Way are sensitive probes of the population of low-mass dark matter subhaloes predicted in cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. We present a new calculus for computing the effect of subhalo fly-bys on cold streams based on the action-angle representation of streams. The heart of this calculus is a line-of-parallel-angle approach that calculates the perturbed distribution function of a stream segment by undoing the effect of all relevant impacts. This approach allows one to compute the perturbed stream density and track in any coordinate system in minutes for realizations of the subhalo distribution down to 105 M⊙, accounting for the stream's internal dispersion and overlapping impacts. We study the statistical properties of density and track fluctuations with large suites of simulations of the effect of subhalo fly-bys. The one-dimensional density and track power spectra along the stream trace the subhalo mass function, with higher mass subhaloes producing power only on large scales, while lower mass subhaloes cause structure on smaller scales. We also find significant density and track bispectra that are observationally accessible. We further demonstrate that different projections of the track all reflect the same pattern of perturbations, facilitating their observational measurement. We apply this formalism to data for the Pal 5 stream and make a first rigorous determination of 10^{+11}_{-6} dark matter subhaloes with masses between 106.5 and 109 M⊙ within 20 kpc from the Galactic centre [corresponding to 1.4^{+1.6}_{-0.9} times the number predicted by CDM-only simulations or to fsub(r function down to 105 M⊙, thus definitively testing whether dark matter is clumpy on the smallest scales relevant for galaxy formation.

  2. Action-space Clustering of Tidal Streams to Infer the Galactic Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Sanderson, Robyn; Helmi, Amina; W. Hogg, David

    We present a new method for constraining the Milky Way halo gravitational potential by simultaneously fitting multiple tidal streams. This method requires three-dimensional positions and velocities for all stars to be fit, but does not require identification of any specific stream or determination

  3. Characterizing Milky Way Tidal Streams and Dark Matter with MilkyWay@home (United States)

    Newberg, Heidi Jo; Shelton, Siddhartha; Weiss, Jake


    MilkyWay@home is a 0.5 PetaFLOPS volunteer computing platform that is mapping out the density substructure of the Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream, the so-called bifurcated portion of the Sagittarius Stream, and the Virgo Overdensity, using turnoff stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It is also using the density of stars along tidal streams such as the Orphan Stream to constrain properties of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of this stream, including the dark matter portion. Both of these programs are enabled by a specially-built optimization package that uses differential evolution or particle swarm methods to find the optimal model parameters to fit a set of data. To fit the density of tidal streams, 20 parameters are simultaneously fit to each 2.5-degree-wide stripe of SDSS data. Five parameters describing the stellar and dark matter profile of the Orphan Stream progenitor and the time that the dwarf galaxy has been evolved through the Galactic potential are used in an n-body simulation that is then fit to observations of the Orphan Stream. New results from MilkyWay@home will be presented. This project was supported by NSF grant AST 16-15688, the NASA/NY Space Grant fellowship, and contributions made by The Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to Support Milky Way Research.

  4. Ice-Shelf Flexure and Tidal Forcing of Bindschadler Ice Stream, West Antarctica (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Bryron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar


    Viscoelastic models of ice-shelf flexure and ice-stream velocity perturbations are combined into a single efficient flowline model to study tidal forcing of grounded ice. The magnitude and timing of icestream response to tidally driven changes in hydrostatic pressure and/or basal drag are found to depend significantly on bed rheology, with only a perfectly plastic bed allowing instantaneous velocity response at the grounding line. The model can reasonably reproduce GPS observations near the grounding zone of Bindschadler Ice Stream (formerly Ice Stream D) on semidiurnal time scales; however, other forcings such as tidally driven ice-shelf slope transverse to the flowline and flexurally driven till deformation must also be considered if diurnal motion is to be matched

  5. Strategies for the Use of Tidal Stream Currents for Power Generation (United States)

    Orhan, Kadir; Mayerle, Roberto


    Indonesia is one of the priority countries in Southeast Asia for the development of ocean renewable energy facilities and The National Energy Council intends to increase the role of ocean energy significantly in the energy mix for 2010-2050. To this end, the joint German-Indonesian project "Ocean Renewable Energy ORE-12" aims at the identification of marine environments in the Indonesian Archipelago, which are suitable for the efficient generation of electric power by converter facilities. This study, within the ORE-12 project, is focused on the tidal stream currents on the straits between the Indian Ocean and Flores Sea to estimate the energy potentials and to develop strategies for producing renewable energy. FLOW module of Delft3D has been used to run hydrodynamic models for site assessment and design development. In site assessment phase, 2D models have been operated for a-month long periods and with a resolution of 500 m. Later on, in design development phase, detailed 3D models have been developed and operated for three-month long periods and with a resolution of 50 m. Bathymetric data for models have been obtained from the GEBCO_08 Grid and wind data from the Global Forecast System of NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. To set the boundary conditions of models, tidal forcing with 11 harmonic constituents was supplied from TPXO Indian Ocean Atlas (1/12° regional model) and data from HYCOM+NCODA Global 1/12° Analysis have been used to determine salinity and temperature on open boundaries. After the field survey is complete, water level time-series supplied from a tidal gauge located in the domain of interest (8° 20΄ 9.7" S, 122° 54΄ 51.9" E) have been used to verify the models and then energy potentials of the straits have been estimated. As a next step, correspondence between model outputs and measurements taken by the radar system of TerraSAR-X satellite (DLR) will be analysed. Also for the assessment of environmental impacts caused by tidal stream

  6. Reexamination of the possible tidal stream in front of the large Magellanic cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibata, RA; Lewis, GF; Beaulieu, JP


    It has recently been suggested that the stars in a vertical extension of the red clump feature seen in LMC color-magnitude diagrams could belong to a tidal stream of material located in front of that galaxy. If this claim is correct, this foreground concentration of stars could contribute

  7. Tidal streams in the local group and beyond observations and implications

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Jeffrey


    This volume is written by leading scientists in the field, who review the current state of our knowledge of tidal streams in the Milky Way, the Andromeda galaxy, and in other nearby galaxies.  The cosmological origins of dwarf galaxies and the physical processes by which they are tidally disrupted into streams and incorporated into galaxy halos are discussed. The techniques that have been used to identify tidal streams are presented, and will be useful to researchers who would like to find substructures in the next generation of optical sky surveys, including Pan-STARRS and LSST.  The methods that are currently under development to constrain both large scale distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way and the (small scale) lumpiness of the dark matter distribution are also explained.  The authors also provide motivation for future spectroscopic surveys of Milky Way halo stars, which will aid both in the identification of tidal streams and the constraint of dark matter properties.This volume is aimed at g...

  8. Bifurcation in tidal streams of Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy: Numerical Simulations (United States)

    Camargo Camargo, Y.; Casas-Miranda, R.


    We performed N-body simulations between Sagittarius dwarf galaxy and the Milky Way. The Sagittarius galaxy is modeled with two components: dark matter halo and stellar disc. The Milky Way is modeled with three components: dark matter halo, stellar disc and bulge. The goal of this work is to reproduce the bifurcations in the tidal tails and the physical properties of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. For it, we simulated the interaction of the progenitor of this galaxy with the Milky Way. Although bifurcations could be reproduced, the position and physical properties of Sagittarius remnant could not be obtained simultaneously.

  9. Numerical hydrodynamics study around turbine array of tidal stream farm in Zhoushan, China (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jisheng; Zhai, Yanyan; Zhang, Tiantian; Zheng, Jinhai


    In recent decades, great efforts have been made to efficiently explore tidal stream energy due to its unique advantages of easy prediction and great potential. China recently launched a national tidal stream farm demonstration project in the waterway between Putuoshan and Hulu Islands in the Zhoushan area. Before deployment of the turbine array, it is necessary to understand the hydrodynamic changes associated with the construction of a turbine array. In this study, we developed a depth-averaged hydrodynamics model that solves the shallow water governing equations to simulate the tidal hydrodynamics around the Zhoushan Archipelago. The simulation results agree with field data in terms of the water elevation and stream velocity. We considered two types of turbine arrays in this study and investigated their impacts on the local hydrodynamics. In general, the stream velocity in the northern and southern areas is reduced due to the power take-off of the turbine array, whereas stream velocity in the western and eastern areas is slightly increased due to the blockage impact of the turbine array.

  10. Using gaps in N-body tidal streams to probe missing satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngan, W. H. W.; Carlberg, R. G., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S3H4 (Canada)


    We use N-body simulations to model the tidal disruption of a star cluster in a Milky-Way-sized dark matter halo, which results in a narrow stream comparable to (but slightly wider than) Pal-5 or GD-1. The mean Galactic dark matter halo is modeled by a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White potential with subhalos predicted by the ΛCDM cosmological model. The distribution and mass function of the subhalos follow the results from the Aquarius simulation. We use a matched filter approach to look for 'gaps' in tidal streams at 12 length scales from 0.1 kpc to 5 kpc, which appear as characteristic dips in the linear densities along the streams. We find that, in addition to the subhalos' perturbations, the epicyclic overdensities (EOs) due to the coherent epicyclic motions of particles in a stream also produce gap-like signals near the progenitor. We measure the gap spectra—the gap formation rates as functions of gap length—due to both subhalo perturbations and EOs, which have not been accounted for together by previous studies. Finally, we project the simulated streams onto the sky to investigate issues when interpreting gap spectra in observations. In particular, we find that gap spectra from low signal-to-noise observations can be biased by the orbital phase of the stream. This indicates that the study of stream gaps will benefit greatly from high-quality data from future missions.

  11. Experimental Analysis and Evaluation of the Numerical Prediction of Wake Characteristics of Tidal Stream Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Zhang


    Full Text Available It is important to understand tidal stream turbine performance and flow field, if tidal energy is to advance. The operating condition of a tidal stream turbine with a supporting structure has a significant impact on its performance and wake recovery. The aim of this work is to provide an understanding of turbine submerged depth that governs the downstream wake structure and its recovery to the free-stream velocity profile. An experimentally validated numerical model, based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool, was present to obtain longitudinal, transverse and vertical velocity profiles. Wake characteristics measurements have been carried out in an open channel at Hohai University. The results indicate that varying the turbine proximity to the water surface introduces differential mass flow rate around the rotor that could make the wake persist differently downstream. CFD shows the same predicted wake recovery tendency with the experiments, and an agreement from CFD and experiments is good in the far-wake region. The results presented demonstrate that CFD is a good tool to simulate the performance of tidal turbines particularly in the far-wake region and that the turbine proximity to the water surface has an effect on the wake recovery.

  12. Relationships among nekton assemblage structure and abiotic conditions in three Texas tidal streams. (United States)

    Tolan, James M; Nelson, Janet M


    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of spatially and temporally varying abiotic conditions on the nekton residing in tidally influenced streams and determine the comparability of the assemblage response across the various gears needed to fully characterize the biota. Three tidal streams were sampled seasonally for 2 years for chemical (physiochemical profiles), physical (in-stream and riparian habitat classification), and biological (nekton sampled with bag seines, trawls, and gill nets) components of ecosystem integrity. Multiple sampling stations on each stream encompassed the transitional character of the tidally influenced ecosystem, from the freshwater of the river to the saltwater of the bay. Instead of characterizing the biota with traditional fish-based indexes of biotic integrity, analysis methodologies relying heavily on multivariate ordination techniques were used. This study showed that the temporal and spatial relationships among nekton assemblages and abiotic environmental conditions were quite gear dependent. The greatest degree of difference in indicators of ecosystem health all involved upstream-downstream gradients that appear to be driven by salinity structure. Based on the results of this study, dissolved oxygen concentration does not appear to be a major structuring factor in the physical, chemical, or biological component of ecosystem integrity.

  13. Modeling Evaluation of Tidal Stream Energy and the Impacts of Energy Extraction on Hydrodynamics in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsi Hsu


    Full Text Available Tidal stream speeds in straits are accelerated because of geographic and bathymetric features. For instance, narrow channels and shallows can cause high tidal stream energy. In this study, water level and tidal current were simulated using a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element model to investigate the complex tidal characteristics in the Taiwan Strait and to determine potential locations for harnessing tidal stream energy. The model was driven by nine tidal components (M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, and M4 at open boundaries. The modeling results were validated with the measured data, including water level and tidal current. Through the model simulations, we found that the highest tidal currents occurred at the Penghu Channel in the Taiwan Strait. The Penghu Channel is an appropriate location for the deployment of a tidal turbine array because of its deep and flat bathymetry. The impacts of energy extraction on hydrodynamics were assessed by considering the momentum sink approach. The simulated results indicate that only minimal impacts would occur on water level and tidal current in the Taiwan Strait if a turbine array (55 turbines was installed in the Penghu Channel.

  14. Quantification of tidal parameters from Solar system data


    Lainey, Valéry


    Tidal dissipation is the main driver of orbital evolution of natural satellites and a key point to understand the exoplanetary system configurations. Despite its importance, its quantification from observations still remains difficult for most objects of our own Solar system. In this work, we overview the method that has been used to determine, directly from observations, the tidal parameters, with emphasis on the Love number k2 and the tidal quality factor Q. Up-to-date values of these tidal...

  15. Tidal current and tidal energy changes imposed by a dynamic tidal power system in the Taiwan Strait, China (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Zhang, Jisheng; Zheng, Jinhai


    The Taiwan Strait has recently been proposed as a promising site for dynamic tidal power systems because of its shallow depth and strong tides. Dynamic tidal power is a new concept for extracting tidal potential energy in which a coast-perpendicular dike is used to create water head and generate electricity via turbines inserted in the dike. Before starting such a project, the potential power output and hydrodynamic impacts of the dike must be assessed. In this study, a two-dimensional numerical model based on the Delft3D-FLOW module is established to simulate tides in China. A dike module is developed to account for turbine processes and estimate power output by integrating a special algorithm into the model. The domain decomposition technique is used to divide the computational zone into two subdomains with grid refinement near the dike. The hydrodynamic processes predicted by the model, both with and without the proposed construction, are examined in detail, including tidal currents and tidal energy flux. The predicted time-averaged power yields with various opening ratios are presented. The results show that time-averaged power yield peaks at an 8% opening ratio. For semidiurnal tides, the flow velocity increases in front of the head of the dike and decreases on either side. For diurnal tides, these changes are complicated by the oblique incidence of tidal currents with respect to the dike as well as by bathymetric features. The dike itself blocks the propagation of tidal energy flux.

  16. Tidal instability in exoplanetary systems evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gal P.


    Full Text Available A new element is proposed to play a role in the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems: the tidal (or elliptical instability. It comes from a parametric resonance and takes place in any rotating fluid whose streamlines are (even slightly elliptically deformed. Based on theoretical, experimental and numerical works, we estimate the growth rate of the instability for hot-jupiter systems, when the rotation period of the star is known. We present the physical process, its application to stars, and preliminary results obtained on a few dozen systems, summarized in the form of a stability diagram. Most of the systems are trapped in the so-called "forbidden zone", where the instability cannot grow. In some systems, the tidal instability is able to grow, at short timescales compared to the system evolution. Implications are discussed in the framework of misaligned transiting systems, as the rotational axis of the star would be unstable in systems where this elliptical instability grows.

  17. The Effects of the Impedance of the Flow Source on the Design of Tidal Stream Generators (United States)

    Salter, S.


    The maximum performance of a wind turbine is set by the well-known Betz limit. If the designer of a wind turbine uses too fast a rotation, too large a blade chord or too high an angle of blade pitch, the air flow can take an easier path over or around the rotor. Most estimates of the tidal stream resource use equations borrowed from wind and would be reasonably accurate for a single unit. But water cannot flow through the seabed or over rotors which reach to the surface. If contra-rotating, vertical-axis turbines with a rectangular flow-window are placed close to one another and reach from the surface close to the seabed, the leakage path is blocked and they become more like turbines in a closed duct. Instead of an equation with area times velocity-cubed we should use the first power of volume flow rate though the rotor times the pressure difference across it. A long channel with a rough bed will already be losing lots of energy and will behave more like a high impedance flow. Attempts to block it with closely-packed turbines will increase the head across the turbines with only a small effect on flow rate. The same thing will occur if a close-packed line of turbines is built out to sea from a headland. It is necessary to understand the impedance of the flow source all the way out to mid-ocean. In deep seas where the current velocities at the seabed are too slow to disturb the ooze the friction coefficients will be similar to those of gloss paint, perhaps 0.0025. But the higher velocities in shallow water will remove ooze and quite large sediments leaving rough, bare rock and leading to higher friction-coefficients. Energy dissipation will be set by the higher friction coefficients and the cube of the higher velocities. The presence of turbines will reduce seabed losses and about one third of the present loss can be converted to electricity. The velocity reduction would be about 10%. In many sites the energy output will be far higher than the wind turbine equations

  18. Characteristics of the turbulence in the flow at a tidal stream power site. (United States)

    Milne, I A; Sharma, R N; Flay, R G J; Bickerton, S


    This paper analyses a set of velocity time histories which were obtained at a fixed point in the bottom boundary layer of a tidal stream, 5 m from the seabed, and where the mean flow reached 2.5 m s(-1). Considering two complete tidal cycles near spring tide, the streamwise turbulence intensity during non-slack flow was found to be approximately 12-13%, varying slightly between flood and ebb tides. The ratio of the streamwise turbulence intensity to that of the transverse and vertical intensities is typically 1 : 0.75 : 0.56, respectively. Velocity autospectra computed near maximum flood tidal flow conditions exhibit an f(-2/3) inertial subrange and conform reasonably well to atmospheric turbulence spectral models. Local isotropy is observed between the streamwise and transverse spectra at reduced frequencies of f>0.5. The streamwise integral time scales and length scales of turbulence at maximum flow are approximately 6 s and 11-14 m, respectively, and exhibit a relatively large degree of scatter. They are also typically much greater in magnitude than the transverse and vertical components. The findings are intended to increase the levels of confidence within the tidal energy industry of the characteristics of the higher frequency components of the onset flow, and subsequently lead to more realistic performance and loading predictions.

  19. The SPLASH Survey: Spectroscopy of Newly Discovered Tidal Streams in the Outer Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Beaton, R.; Bullock, J.; Chiba, M.; Fardal, M.; Geha, M.; Gilbert, K.; Howley, K.; Iye, M.; Johnston, K.; Kalirai, J.; Kirby, E.; Komiyama, Y.; Majewski, S.; Patterson, R.; Tanaka, M.; Tollerud, E.; SPLASH Collaboration


    We present Keck DEIMOS spectra of stars associated with three newly discovered tidal streams in the remote outer halo of the Andromeda spiral galaxy (M31). Two of these streams, Streams E and F (at Rproj 60 and 100 kpc, respectively, on the NW minor axis), were discovered by members of our collaboration in a deep, wide-field Subaru SuprimeCam imaging survey. The third stream (at Rproj 90 kpc near the SW major axis) was identified by others in their ongoing wide-field CFHT MegaCam survey. Spectroscopic and broadband photometric diagnostics (plus KPNO/Mosaic DDO51 photometry for the SW major axis stream) are used to distinguish between various categories of objects along the line of sight: red giant stars associated with the stream (kinematically cold), red giants in the general M31 field halo population (kinematically hot), and foreground/background contaminants (Milky Way dwarf stars and distant galaxies, respectively). We measure the surface brightness, mean velocity, velocity dispersion, and metallicity distribution of these three new tidal streams, based on spectroscopically confirmed secure red giant members. These measurements should be useful for constraining models of the tidal interactions that produced these streams (e.g. orbit and nature of progenitor). The properties of these new streams are viewed in the context of previously known tidal streams in the M31 halo. A comparison between the statistical properties of M31's tidal streams and state-of-the-art Lambda-CDM simulations provides insight into the details of the hierarchical formation process that leads to the growth of galaxy halos. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA/STScI.

  20. Understanding the physical dynamics and ecological interactions in tidal stream energy environments (United States)

    Fraser, Shaun; Williamson, Benjamin J.; Nikora, Vladimir; Scott, Beth E.


    Tidal stream energy devices are intended to operate in energetic physical environments characterised by high flows and extreme turbulence. These environments are often of ecological importance to a range of marine species. Understanding the physical dynamics and ecological interactions at fine scales in such sites is essential for device/array design and to understand environmental impacts. However, investigating fine scale characteristics requires high resolution field measurements which are difficult to attain and interpret, with data often confounded by interference related to turbulence. Consequently, field observations in tidal stream energy environments are limited and require the development of specialised analysis methods and so significant knowledge gaps are still present. The seabed mounted FLOWBEC platform is addressing these knowledge gaps using upward facing instruments to collect information from around marine energy infrastructure. Multifrequency and multibeam echosounder data provide detailed information on the distribution and interactions of biological targets, such as fish and diving seabirds, while simultaneously recording the scales and intensity of turbulence. Novel processing methodologies and instrument integration techniques have been developed which combine different data types and successfully separates signal from noise to reveal new evidence about the behaviour of mobile species and the structure of turbulence at all speeds of the tide and throughout the water column. Multiple platform deployments in the presence and absence of marine energy infrastructure reveal the natural characteristics of high energy sites, and enable the interpretation of the physical and biological impacts of tidal stream devices. These methods and results are relevant to the design and consenting of marine renewable energy technologies, and provide novel information on the use of turbulence for foraging opportunities in high energy sites by mobile species.

  1. Research and development of a 150kW tidal stream generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the results of a project evaluating the technical and commercial viability of the Stingray tidal stream generator. A description is given of the Stingray with its set of large hydroplanes capturing and converting the energy from the moving water into hydraulic power and using a hydraulic motor to drive an electric generator. Details are given of the investigation stage of the project, the mathematical and physical modelling, the identification of potential sites, the parametric cost study, and the design review and detail design. A preliminary base-line design for a 150kW Stingray generator is identified.

  2. Hydrostatic pressure affects selective tidal stream transport in the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon). (United States)

    Tielmann, Moritz; Reiser, Stefan; Hufnagl, Marc; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Eckardt, André; Temming, Axel


    The brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) is a highly abundant invertebrate in the North Sea, with its life cycle stages ranging from deep offshore spawning to shallow onshore nursery areas. To overcome the long distances between these two habitats, brown shrimp are suspected to use selective tidal stream transport (STST), moving with the cyclic tide currents towards their preferred water depths. However, it is not known which stimulus actually triggers STST behavior in brown shrimp. In this work, we determined the influence of different hyperbaric pressures on STST behavior of juvenile brown shrimp. Brown shrimp activity was recorded in a hyperbaric pressure chamber that supplied constant and dynamic pressure conditions simulating different depths, with and without a tidal cycle. Subsequent wavelet and Fourier analysis were performed to determine the periodicity in the activity data. The results of the experiments show that STST behavior in brown shrimp varies with pressure and therefore with depth. We further show that STST behavior can be initiated by cyclic pressure changes. However, an interaction with one or more other environmental triggers remains possible. Furthermore, a security ebb-tide activity was identified that may serve to avoid potential stranding in shallow waters and is 'remembered' by shrimp for about 1.5 days without contact with tidal triggers. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Nitrogen biogeochemistry in the stream and transient storage zones of a freshwater tidal ecosystem, Delaware, U.S.A. (United States)

    Barnes, R. T.; Sawyer, A. H.; Wallace, C.; Knights, D.


    Groundwater and surface water flow through riparian aquifer soils and streambed sediment, providing opportunities for microbial communities to transform nitrogen (N) and carbon (C). The efficiency of NO3- removal is generally thought to decrease from headwaters to coasts but is poorly constrained near coasts, particularly within tidal freshwater zones (TFZs). High resolution geochemical sampling of reactive and conservative species in White Clay Creek, an in-stream tracer study, laboratory incubations, and computer modeling reveal nitrogen removal and production hotspots within the stream bed and riparian aquifer. Nitrate removal was greatest in streambed sediments with removal rates decreasing with average stream depth. In the riparian aquifer (4-13 m from the stream channel) nitrate production dominated, with pore water nitrate-nitrogen reaching concentrations greater than 8 mg/L. Further, nitrogen processes vary more in space than time (i.e. over the tidal cycle); suggesting that nitrogen processing is driven in large part by substrate chemistry. Laboratory incubations reveal stream sediment nitrate removal potential increases with sediment organic matter content, resulting in greater nitrate removal potentials closer to the coast where finer, more organic rich, sediments dominate. However, modeling results indicate that denitrification rates decrease with increased tidal amplitude due to increased oxygen penetration into stream sediments. Results from a tracer study conducted during Spring 2016 to measure in-stream denitrification and determine if longitudinal variation in sediment characteristics or hydrologic variability is more important in determining net in-stream removal will be presented.

  4. Power Production and Economical Feasibility of Tideng Tidal Stream Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the contract between Aalborg University and TIDENG (by Bent Hilleke) on the evaluation and development of the TIDENG Tidal Energy Conversion System (TECS). The work has focused on the evaluation of the yearly power production of the device and its economical feasibility...

  5. Effect of tidal stream power generation on the region-wide circulation in a shallow sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro


    Full Text Available This paper quantifies the backward effect on the ocean currents caused by a tidal stream farm located in the open shallow sea. Recent studies in channels with 1-D models have indicated that the power potential is not given purely by the flux of kinetic energy, as has been commonly assumed. In this study, a 3-D ocean circulation model is used to estimate (i practically extractable energy resource at different levels of rated generation capacity of the farm, (ii changes in the strength of currents due to energy extraction, and (iii alterations in the pattern of residual currents and the pathways of passive tracers. As well as tidal streams, the model also takes into account the wind-driven and density-driven ocean currents. Numerical modelling has been carried out for a hypothetical tidal farm located in the Celtic Sea north of Cornwall, an area known for its high level of tidal energy. Modelling results clearly indicate that the extracted power does not grow linearly with the increase in the rated capacity of the farm. For the case study covered in this paper, a 100-fold increase in the rated generation capacity of the farm results in only 7-fold increase in extracted power. In the case of a high power farm, kinetic energy of currents is altered significantly as far as 10–20 km away from the farm. At high levels of extracted energy the currents tend to avoid flowing through the farm, an effect which is not captured with 1-D models. Residual currents are altered as far as a hundred kilometres away. The magnitude of changes in the dispersion of tracers is highly sensitive to the location. Some of the passive drifters analysed in this study experience significant variations in the end-to-start distance due to energy extraction ranging from 13% to 238% while others are practically unaffected. This study shows that both energy extraction estimates and effects on region wide circulation depend on a complex combination of factors, and the specific

  6. Effect of tidal stream power generation on the region-wide circulation in a shallow sea (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.


    This paper quantifies the backward effect on the ocean currents caused by a tidal stream farm located in the open shallow sea. Recent studies in channels with 1-D models have indicated that the power potential is not given purely by the flux of kinetic energy, as has been commonly assumed. In this study, a 3-D ocean circulation model is used to estimate (i) practically extractable energy resource at different levels of rated generation capacity of the farm, (ii) changes in the strength of currents due to energy extraction, and (iii) alterations in the pattern of residual currents and the pathways of passive tracers. As well as tidal streams, the model also takes into account the wind-driven and density-driven ocean currents. Numerical modelling has been carried out for a hypothetical tidal farm located in the Celtic Sea north of Cornwall, an area known for its high level of tidal energy. Modelling results clearly indicate that the extracted power does not grow linearly with the increase in the rated capacity of the farm. For the case study covered in this paper, a 100-fold increase in the rated generation capacity of the farm results in only 7-fold increase in extracted power. In the case of a high power farm, kinetic energy of currents is altered significantly as far as 10-20 km away from the farm. At high levels of extracted energy the currents tend to avoid flowing through the farm, an effect which is not captured with 1-D models. Residual currents are altered as far as a hundred kilometres away. The magnitude of changes in the dispersion of tracers is highly sensitive to the location. Some of the passive drifters analysed in this study experience significant variations in the end-to-start distance due to energy extraction ranging from 13% to 238% while others are practically unaffected. This study shows that both energy extraction estimates and effects on region wide circulation depend on a complex combination of factors, and the specific figures given in the

  7. Quantification of tidal parameters from Solar System data (United States)

    Lainey, Valéry


    Tidal dissipation is the main driver of orbital evolution of natural satellites and a key point to understand the exoplanetary system configurations. Despite its importance, its quantification from observations still remains difficult for most objects of our own Solar System. In this work, we overview the method that has been used to determine, directly from observations, the tidal parameters, with emphasis on the Love number k_2 and the tidal quality factor Q. Up-to-date values of these tidal parameters are summarized. Last, an assessment on the possible determination of the tidal ratio k_2/Q of Uranus and Neptune is done. This may be particularly relevant for coming astrometric campaigns and future space missions focused on these systems.

  8. A Comparison of Numerical Modelling Techniques for Tidal Stream Turbine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Masters


    Full Text Available To fully understand the performance of tidal stream turbines for the development of ocean renewable energy, a range of computational models is required. We review and compare results from several models of horizontal axis turbines at different spatial scales. Models under review include blade element momentum theory (BEMT, blade element actuator disk, Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS CFD (BEM-CFD, blade-resolved moving reference frame and coastal models based on the shallow water equations. To evaluate the BEMT, a comparison is made to experiments with three different rotors. We demonstrate that, apart from the near-field wake, there are similarities in the results between the BEM-CFD approach and a coastal area model using a simplified turbine fence at a headland case.

  9. Tidal variations in the Sundarbans estuarine system, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, M.; Shankar, D.; Sen, G.K.; Sanyal, P.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Chatterjee, A.; Amol, P.; Mukherjee, D.; Suprit, K.; Mukherjee, A.; Vijith, V.; Chatterjee, S.; Basu, A.; Das, M.; Chakraborti, S.; Kalla, A.; Misra, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Mandal, G.; Sarkar, K.

    Situated in the eastern coastal state of West Bengal, the Sundarbans Estuarine System (SES) is India’s largest monsoonal, macro-tidal delta-front estuarine system. It comprises the southernmost part of the Indian portion of the Ganga...

  10. Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices. (United States)

    Lepper, Paul A; Robinson, Stephen P


    The increasing international growth in the development of marine and freshwater wave and tidal energy harvesting systems has been followed by a growing requirement to understand any associated underwater impact. Radiated noise generated during operation is dependent on the device's physical properties, the sound-propagation environment, and the device's operational state. Physical properties may include size, distribution in the water column, and mechanics/hydrodynamics. The sound-propagation environment may be influenced by water depth, bathymetry, sediment type, and water column acoustic properties, and operational state may be influenced by tidal cycle and wave height among others This paper discusses some of the challenges for measurement of noise characteristics from these devices as well as a case study of the measurement of radiated noise from a full-scale wave energy converter.

  11. Design Automation for Streaming Systems (United States)


    Verilog back-end emits them as black boxes. 3.6 System Composition We synthesize a system as a composition of stream-connected pages, where a page...Figure 6.5 shows a sample state flow graph for clustering. Each node denotes a state and its action. Each black 242 Chapter 6. Streaming Programmable...Bilsen, Marc Engels, Rudy Lauwereins, and Jean Peper - straete. Cyclo-static dataflow. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 44(2):397– 408, February

  12. Monitoring Tidal Currents with a Towed ADCP System (United States)


    Monitoring tidal currents with a towed ADCP system Alexei Sentchev1 & Max Yaremchuk2 Received: 22 September 2015 /Accepted: 10 December 2015...English Channel) is measured during the var- ious stages of the tidal cycle with a low-cost towed Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler ( ADCP ) system for the...provided by the ADCP observations and their error statistics. Technically, the MARS model run provides the first guess (background) evo- lution of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Zhivitskaya


    Full Text Available The problem of formalisation and practical realisation of information streams of logistical systems, as the basic component of a separate kind of systems the logistical information systems having the features and properties that allows to investigate them by means of methods, applicable to information systems is considered.

  14. Tidal Stream Generators, current state and potential opportunities for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappatos, Vassilios; Georgoulas, George; Avdelidis, Nicolas


    Tidal power industry has made significant progress towards commercialization over the past decade. Significant investments from sector leaders, strong technical progress and positive media coverage have established the credibility of this specific renewable energy source. However, its progress......, an overview is given of the global tidal activity status (tidal energy market size and geography), the key industry activity and the regulations-standards related with tidal energy industry. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to provide a bird’s view of the current status of the tidal power industry...... to serve as a roadmap for the academia regarding the real needs of the tidal power industry....

  15. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur


    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  16. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.


    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the

  17. A Robust Streaming Media System (United States)

    Youwei, Zhang

    Presently, application layer multicast protocols (ALM) are proposed as substitute for IP multicast and have made extraordinary achievements. Integrated with Multi-data-stream mode such as Multiple Description Coding (MDC), ALM becomes more scalable and robust in high-dynamic Internet environment compared with single data stream. Although MDC can provide a flexible data transmission style, the synchronization of different descriptions encoded from one video source is proved to be difficult due to different delay on diverse transmission paths. In this paper, an ALM system called HMDC is proposed to improve accepted video quality of streaming media, hosts can join the separate overlay trees in different layers simultaneously, then the maximum synchronized descriptions of the same layer are worked out to acquire the best video quality. Simulations implemented on Internet-like topology indicate that HMDC achieves better video quality, lower link stress, higher robustness and comparable latency compared with traditional ALM protocols.

  18. Tidal variations in the Sundarbans Estuarine System, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 4. Tidal variations in the Sundarbans Estuarine System, India. Meenakshi Chatterjee D Shankar G K Sen P Sanyal D Sundar G S Michael Abhisek Chatterjee P Amol Debabrata Mukherjee K Suprit A Mukherjee V Vijith Siddhartha Chatterjee Anwesha ...

  19. Mass Transfer and Tidal Dynamics in White Dwarf Binary Systems (United States)

    Gerber, Jeffrey; Fuller, J.


    Compact white dwarf (WD) binary systems (with orbital periods ranging from minutes to hours) can produce a variety of interesting astrophysical objects (e.g., type Ia supernovae, AM CVn systems, R Cor Bor stars, sdB stars) upon the onset of mass transfer. These systems are driven toward Roche lobe overflow by the emission of gravitational radiation, but it is not known whether the mass transfer will be stable (forming an Am CVn system) or become unstable (resulting in a merger). We analyze how the combined effects of mass transfer and tidal torques affect the evolution of these systems by creating numerical models with the MESA stellar evolution program. Using new calculations of the tidal torque in rotating WDs, we predict the outcome of mass transfer in these systems as a function of the masses of the WD components. We find that the stability of mass transfer depends primarily on the peak mass transfer rate near the period minimum, which is highly dependent on the WD masses and on the strength of the tidal torques. Except for low WD accretor masses, the tidal torques are insufficient to significantly increase the stability of mass transfer. We find that mass transfer is generally unstable for WD donor masses greater than about 0.25 solar masses, and that the 12 minute system SDSS J0615 will end its inspiral in a WD merger, likely producing an R Cor Bor star.

  20. Production systems and energy potential of tidal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero-González


    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of tidal power and distinguishes the types of systems to exploitation the tidal energy; the same way; it also shows how this technology serves as a source of energy in some countries around the world, which is a role associated with the energy potential available in each region. This point equally shows through numbers in GWh/year per km2 reservoir surface. Last but not least, it is the influence that this technology has had on the environment, its contributions for improving and evaluating from an environmental point of view.

  1. In-stream PIT detection, estuary wetlands - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  2. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah


    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  3. Strong tidal variations in ice flow observed across the entire Ronne Ice Shelf and adjoining ice streams (United States)

    Rosier, Sebastian H. R.; Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; King, Matt A.; Nicholls, Keith W.; Makinson, Keith; Corr, Hugh F. J.


    We present a compilation of GPS time series, including those for previously unpublished sites, showing that flow across the entire Ronne Ice Shelf and its adjoining ice streams is strongly affected by ocean tides. Previous observations have shown strong horizontal diurnal and semidiurnal motion of the ice shelf, and surface flow speeds of Rutford Ice Stream (RIS) are known to vary with a fortnightly (Msf) periodicity. Our new data set shows that the Msf flow modulation, first observed on RIS, is also found on Evans, Talutis, Institute, and Foundation ice streams, i.e. on all ice streams for which data are available. The amplitude of the Msf signal increases downstream of grounding lines, reaching up to 20 % of mean flow speeds where ice streams feed into the main ice shelf. Upstream of ice stream grounding lines, decay length scales are relatively uniform for all ice streams but the speed at which the Msf signal propagates upstream shows more variation. Observations and modelling of tidal variations in ice flow can help constrain crucial parameters that determine the rate and extent of potential ice mass loss from Antarctica. Given that the Msf modulation in ice flow is readily observed across the entire region at distances of up to 80 km upstream of grounding lines, but is not completely reproduced in any existing numerical model, this new data set suggests a pressing need to identify the missing processes responsible for its generation and propagation. The new GPS data set is publicly available through the UK Polar Data Centre at

  4. Strong tidal variations in ice flow observed across the entire Ronne Ice Shelf and adjoining ice streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. R. Rosier


    Full Text Available We present a compilation of GPS time series, including those for previously unpublished sites, showing that flow across the entire Ronne Ice Shelf and its adjoining ice streams is strongly affected by ocean tides. Previous observations have shown strong horizontal diurnal and semidiurnal motion of the ice shelf, and surface flow speeds of Rutford Ice Stream (RIS are known to vary with a fortnightly (Msf periodicity. Our new data set shows that the Msf flow modulation, first observed on RIS, is also found on Evans, Talutis, Institute, and Foundation ice streams, i.e. on all ice streams for which data are available. The amplitude of the Msf signal increases downstream of grounding lines, reaching up to 20 % of mean flow speeds where ice streams feed into the main ice shelf. Upstream of ice stream grounding lines, decay length scales are relatively uniform for all ice streams but the speed at which the Msf signal propagates upstream shows more variation. Observations and modelling of tidal variations in ice flow can help constrain crucial parameters that determine the rate and extent of potential ice mass loss from Antarctica. Given that the Msf modulation in ice flow is readily observed across the entire region at distances of up to 80 km upstream of grounding lines, but is not completely reproduced in any existing numerical model, this new data set suggests a pressing need to identify the missing processes responsible for its generation and propagation. The new GPS data set is publicly available through the UK Polar Data Centre at

  5. Bridging Scales: A Model-Based Assessment of the Technical Tidal-Stream Energy Resource off Massachusetts, USA (United States)

    Cowles, G. W.; Hakim, A.; Churchill, J. H.


    Tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) facilities provide a highly predictable and dependable source of energy. Given the economic and social incentives to migrate towards renewable energy sources there has been tremendous interest in the technology. Key challenges to the design process stem from the wide range of problem scales extending from device to array. In the present approach we apply a multi-model approach to bridge the scales of interest and select optimal device geometries to estimate the technical resource for several realistic sites in the coastal waters of Massachusetts, USA. The approach links two computational models. To establish flow conditions at site scales ( 10m), a barotropic setup of the unstructured grid ocean model FVCOM is employed. The model is validated using shipboard and fixed ADCP as well as pressure data. For device scale, the structured multiblock flow solver SUmb is selected. A large ensemble of simulations of 2D cross-flow tidal turbines is used to construct a surrogate design model. The surrogate model is then queried using velocity profiles extracted from the tidal model to determine the optimal geometry for the conditions at each site. After device selection, the annual technical yield of the array is evaluated with FVCOM using a linear momentum actuator disk approach to model the turbines. Results for several key Massachusetts sites including comparison with theoretical approaches will be presented.

  6. The ocean response at multiple space and time scales to tidal stream energy extraction by a large-scale turbine array. (United States)

    De Dominicis, Michela; O'Hara Murray, Rory; Wolf, Judith


    A comprehensive assessment of the tidal energy resource realistically available for electricity generation and the study of the potential environmental impacts associated with its extraction in the Pentland Firth (Scottish Waters, UK) are presented. In order to examine both local (100 km) spatial scales, the Scottish Shelf Model (SSM), an unstructured grid three-dimensional FVCOM (Finite Volume Community Ocean Model) model implementation has been used, since it covers the entire NW European Shelf, with a high resolution where the tidal stream energy is extracted. A large theoretical array of tidal stream turbines has been designed and implemented in the model using the momentum sink approach, in which a momentum sink term represents the loss of momentum due to tidal energy extraction. The estimate of the maximum available power for electricity generation from the Pentland Firth is 1.64 GW, which requires thousands of turbines to be deployed. This estimate takes into account the tidal stream energy extraction feedbacks on the flow and considers, for the first time, the realistic operation of a generic tidal stream turbine, which is limited to operate in a range of flow velocities due to technological constraints. The ocean response to the extraction of 1.64 GW of energy has been examined by comparing a typical annual cycle of the NW European Shelf hydrodynamics reproduced by the SSM with the same period perturbed by tidal stream energy extraction. The changes were analysed at the temporal scale of a spring-neap tidal cycle and, for the first time, on longer term seasonal timescales. Tidal elevation mainly increases in the vicinity of the tidal farm, while far-field effects show a decrease in the mean spring tidal range of the order of 2 cm along the whole east coast of the UK, possibly counteracting some part of the predicted sea level rise due to climate change. Marine currents, both tidal and residual flows, are also affected. They can slow down due to the

  7. Dynamic Braking System of a Tidal Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Wright, Alan; Gevorgian, Vahan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath


    Renewable energy generation has experienced significant cost reductions during the past decades, and it has become more accepted by the global population. In the beginning, wind generation dominated the development and deployment of renewable energy; however, during recent decades, photovoltaic (PV) generation has grown at a very significant pace due to the tremendous decrease in the cost of PV modules. The focus on renewable energy generation has now expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input water flow to these types of resources is more predictable than wind or solar generation. The data used in this paper is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. The analysis is based on a generator with a power rating of 40 kW. The tidal generator under consideration is driven by two sets of helical turbines connected to each side of the generator located in between the turbines. The generator is operated in variable speed, and it is controlled to maximize the energy harvested as well as the operation of the turbine generator. The electrical system consists of a three-phase permanent magnet generator connected to a three-phase passive rectifier. The output of the rectifier is connected to a DC-DC converter to match the rectifier output to the DC bus voltage of the DC-AC inverter. The three-phase inverter is connected to the grid, and it is controlled to provide a good interface with the grid. One important aspect of river and tidal generation is the braking mechanism. In a tidal generator, the braking mechanism is important to avoid a runaway condition in case the connection to the grid is lost when there is a fault in the lines. A runaway condition may lead to an overspeed condition and cause extreme stresses on the turbine blade structure and eventual disintegration of the mechanical structure. In this paper, the concept of the dynamic braking system is developed and investigated for normal

  8. Complementary Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Tidal Stream Turbine Generation Plants


    Khaoula Ghefiri; Soufiene Bouallègue; Izaskun Garrido; Aitor J. Garrido; Joseph Haggège


    The latest forecasts on the upcoming effects of climate change are leading to a change in the worldwide power production model, with governments promoting clean and renewable energies, as is the case of tidal energy. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to improve the efficiency and lower the costs of the involved processes in order to achieve a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) that allows these devices to be commercially competitive. In this context, this paper presents a novel complementary c...

  9. Geometry of tidal inlet systems : A key factor for the net sediment transport in tidal inlets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridderinkhof, W; de Swart, H. E; van der Vegt, M; Alebregtse, N. C; Hoekstra, P


    .... Earlier studies showed that in a short basin, tidal flats favor peak ebb-currents stronger than peak flood currents, implying export of coarse sediment, while shallow basins favor stronger flood currents...

  10. Tidal Energy System for On-Shore Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Allan J


    Addressing the urgent need to develop LCOE competitive renewable energy solutions for US energy security and to replace fossil-fuel generation with the associated benefits to environment impacts including a reduction in CO2 emissions, this Project focused on the advantages of using hydraulic energy transfer (HET) in large-scale Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems for harvesting off-shore tidal energy in US waters. A recent DOE resource assessment, identifies water power resources have a potential to meet 15% of the US electric supply by 2030, with MHK technologies being a major component. The work covered a TRL-4 laboratory proof-in-concept demonstration plus modeling of a 15MW full scale system based on an approach patented by NASA-JPL, in which submerged high-ratio gearboxes and electrical generators in conventional MHK turbine systems are replaced by a submerged hydraulic radial pump coupled to on-shore hydraulic motors driving a generator. The advantages are; first, the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), or maintenance, can be extended from approximately 1 to 5 years and second, the range of tidal flow speeds which can be efficiently harvested can be extended beyond that of a conventional submerged generator. The approach uses scalable, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, facilitating scale-up and commercialization. All the objectives of the Project have been successfully met (1) A TRL4 system was designed, constructed and tested. It simulates a tidal energy turbine, with a 2-m diameter blade in up to a 2.9 m/sec flow. The system consists of a drive motor assembly providing appropriate torque and RPM, attached to a radial piston pump. The pump circulates pressurized, environmentally-friendly, HEES hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to an axial piston motor which drives an electrical generator, with a resistive load. The performance of the components, subsystems and system were evaluated during simulated tidal cycles. The pump is contained in a tank for

  11. Review of Tidal Lagoon Technology and Opportunities for Integration within the UK Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Todeschini


    Full Text Available The number of distributed resources for renewable energy installed worldwide has been increasing rapidly in the last decade, and the great majority of these installations consist of solar panels and wind turbines. Other renewable sources of energy are not exploited to the same level: for instance, tidal energy is still a minute portion of the global energy capacity, in spite of the large amount of potential energy stored in tidal waves, and of the successful experience of the few existing plants. The world’s second largest tidal range occurs in the UK but at the moment tidal installations in this country are limited to a few prototypes. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in harnessing tidal energy in the UK, and a few tidal lagoon projects have been evaluated by the UK government. This paper provides an overview of the historical and current developments of tidal plants, a description of operation of tidal lagoons, challenges and opportunities for their integration within the UK energy systems and solutions to improve the dispatchability of tidal energy. The concepts described in the paper are applied to a tidal project proposed for South Wales.

  12. A modeling study of tidal energy extraction and the associated impact on tidal circulation in a multi-inlet bay system of Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing


    Previous tidal energy projects in Puget Sound have focused on major deep channels such as Admiralty Inlet that have a larger power potential but pose greater technical challenges than minor tidal channels connecting to small sub-basins. This paper focuses on the possibility of extracting energy from minor tidal channels by using a hydrodynamic model to quantify the power potential and the associated impact on tidal circulation. The study site is a multi-inlet bay system connected by two narrow inlets, Agate Pass and Rich Passage, to the Main Basin of Puget Sound. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the study site and calibrated for tidal elevations and currents. We examined three energy extraction scenarios in which turbines were deployed in each of the two passages and concurrently in both. Extracted power rates and associated changes in tidal elevation, current, tidal flux, and residence time were examined. Maximum instantaneous power rates reached 250 kW, 1550 kW, and 1800 kW, respectively, for the three energy extraction scenarios. The model suggests that with the proposed level of energy extraction, the impact on tidal circulation is very small. It is worth investigating the feasibility of harnessing tidal energy from minor tidal channels of Puget Sound.

  13. Formation, tidal evolution, and habitability of the Kepler-186 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Raymond, Sean N.; Selsis, Franck; Hersant, Franck [Univ. Bordeaux, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Bordeaux, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Von Paris, Philip [Institut für Planetenforschung, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Barclay, Thomas, E-mail: [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    The Kepler-186 system consists of five planets orbiting an early M dwarf. The planets have physical radii of 1.0-1.50 R {sub ⊕} and orbital periods of 4-130 days. The 1.1 R {sub ⊕} Kepler-186f with a period of 130 days is of particular interest. Its insolation of roughly 0.32 S {sub ⊕} places it within the surface liquid water habitable zone (HZ). We present a multifaceted study of the Kepler-186 system, using two sets of parameters which are consistent with the data and also self-consistent. First, we show that the distribution of planet masses can be roughly reproduced if the planets were accreted from a high surface density disk presumably sculpted by an earlier phase of migration. However, our simulations predict the existence of one to two undetected planets between planets e and f. Next, we present a dynamical analysis of the system including the effect of tides. The timescale for tidal evolution is short enough that the four inner planets must have small obliquities and near-synchronous rotation rates. The tidal evolution of Kepler-186f is slow enough that its current spin state depends on a combination of its initial spin state, its dissipation rate, and the stellar age. Finally, we study the habitability of Kepler-186f with a one-dimensional climate model. The planet's surface temperature can be raised above 273 K with 0.5-5 bars of CO{sub 2}, depending on the amount of N{sub 2} present. Kepler-186f represents a case study of an Earth-sized planet in the cooler regions of the HZ of a cool star.

  14. Three-dimensional modelling for assessment of far-field impact of tidal stream turbine: A case study at the Anglesey Coast, Wales, UK (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Li, Ming; Wolf, Judith


    As a response to worldwide climate change, clean non-carbon renewable energy resources have been gaining significant attention. Among a range of renewable alternatives, tidal stream energy is considered very promising; due to its consistent predictability and availability. To investigate impacts of tidal stream devices on their surroundings, prototype experiments involving small scale laboratory studies have been implemented. Computational Flow Dynamics (CFD) modelling is also commonly applied to study turbine behaviours. However, these studies focus on impacts of the turbine in the near-field scale. As a result, in order to study and predict the far-field impacts caused by the operation of turbines, large scale 2D and 3D numerical oceanography models have been used, with routines added to reflect the impacts of turbines. In comparison to 2D models, 3D models are advantageous in providing complete prediction of vertical flow structures and hence mixing in the wake of a turbine. This research aims to deliver a thorough 3D tidal stream turbine simulation system, by considering major coastal processes, i.e. current, waves and sediment transport, based on a 3D wave-current-sediment fully coupled numerical oceanography model — the Unstructured Grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The energy extraction of turbines is simulated by adding a body force to the momentum equations. Across the water depth, the coefficient related to the additional body force is given different values according to the turbine configuration and operation to reflect the vertical variation of the turbine's impacts on the passing flow. Three turbulence perturbation terms are added to the turbulence closure to simulate the turbine-induced turbulence generation, dissipation and interference for the turbulence length-scale. Impacts of turbine operation on surface waves are also considered by modification of wave energy flux across the device. A thorough validation study is carried out in

  15. Truncated γ-exponential models for tidal stellar systems (United States)

    Gomez-Leyton, Y. J.; Velazquez, L.


    We introduce a parametric family of models to characterize the properties of astrophysical systems in a quasi-stationary evolution under the incidence evaporation. We start from an one-particle distribution fγ (q, p|β,ɛs) that considers an appropriate deformation of Maxwell-Boltzmann form with inverse temperature β, in particular, a power-law truncation at the scape energy ɛs with exponent γ > 0. This deformation is implemented using a generalized γ-exponential function obtained from the fractional integration of ordinary exponential. As shown in this work, this proposal generalizes models of tidal stellar systems that predict particles distributions with isothermal cores and polytropic haloes, e.g.: Michie-King models. We perform the analysis of thermodynamic features of these models and their associated distribution profiles. A nontrivial consequence of this study is that profiles with isothermal cores and polytropic haloes are only obtained for low energies whenever deformation parameter γ < γc ≃ 2.13. This study is a first approximation to characterize a self- gravitating system, so we consider equal to all the particles that constitute the system.

  16. On the Tidal Evolution of the Earth-Moon System: A Cosmological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab A. I.


    Full Text Available We have presented a cosmological model for the tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system. We have found that the expansion of the universe has immense consequences on our local systems. The model can be compared with the present observational data. The close approach problem inflicting the known tidal theory is averted in this model. We have also shown that the astronomical and geological changes of our local systems are of the order of Hubble constant.

  17. Taming the big data tidal wave finding opportunities in huge data streams with advanced analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Franks, Bill


    You receive an e-mail. It contains an offer for a complete personal computer system. It seems like the retailer read your mind since you were exploring computers on their web site just a few hours prior…. As you drive to the store to buy the computer bundle, you get an offer for a discounted coffee from the coffee shop you are getting ready to drive past. It says that since you're in the area, you can get 10% off if you stop by in the next 20 minutes…. As you drink your coffee, you receive an apology from the manufacturer of a product that you complained about yesterday on your Facebook pa

  18. Tidal dissipation in the ice-ocean system on Enceladus (United States)

    Hellard, H.; Sohl, F.; Van der Wal, W.; Steinke, T.; Hußmann, H.


    We investigate how the interior structure and dissipation of tidal energy on Enceladus affect the lateral layering of its outer ice shell. Structural models are created that satisfy the satellite's mean density and polar moment-of-inertia factor as derived from Cassini gravity field data. We particularly consider variations in core density, ice shell thickness and ocean composition. A partly dehydrated core is found to be consistent with current ice shell thickness estimates and power output measurements for Enceladus.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Rix, Hans-Walter; Maccio, Andrea V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Brodie, Jean P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Jay Gabany, R. [Black Bird Observatory, Mayhill, New Mexico (United States); Annibali, Francesca [Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fliri, Juergen [LERMA, CNRS UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Zibetti, Stefano [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute-University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Aloisi, Alessandra [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chonis, Taylor S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Texas (United States); Carballo-Bello, Julio A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain); Gallego-Laborda, J. [Fosca Nit Observatory, Montsec Astronomical Park, Ager (Spain); Merrifield, Michael R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)


    A candidate diffuse stellar substructure was previously reported in the halo of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4449 by Karachentsev et al. We map and analyze this feature using a unique combination of deep integrated-light images from the BlackBird 0.5 m telescope, and high-resolution wide-field images from the 8 m Subaru Telescope, which resolve the nebulosity into a stream of red giant branch stars, and confirm its physical association with NGC 4449. The properties of the stream imply a massive dwarf spheroidal progenitor, which after complete disruption will deposit an amount of stellar mass that is comparable to the existing stellar halo of the main galaxy. The stellar mass ratio between the two galaxies is {approx}1:50, while the indirectly measured dynamical mass ratio, when including dark matter, may be {approx}1:10-1:5. This system may thus represent a 'stealth' merger, where an infalling satellite galaxy is nearly undetectable by conventional means, yet has a substantial dynamical influence on its host galaxy. This singular discovery also suggests that satellite accretion can play a significant role in building up the stellar halos of low-mass galaxies, and possibly in triggering their starbursts.

  20. Enhancements to velocity-dependent dark matter interactions from tidal streams and shells in the Andromeda galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderson, Robyn E.; Mohayaee, Roya; Silk, Joe


    Dark matter substructures around nearby galaxies provide an interesting opportunity for confusion-free indirect detection of dark matter. We calculate the boost over a smooth background distribution of dark matter for gamma-ray emission from dark matter self-annihilations in tidal structures in M31,

  1. Tidal Interaction among Red Giants Close Binary Systems in APOGEE Database (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Majewski, Steven R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Weinberg, Nevin N.


    Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), the tidal evolution of binaries containing a red giant branch (RGB) star with a stellar or substellar companion was investigated. The tide raised by the companion in the RGB star leads to exchange of angular momentum between the orbit and the stellar spin, causing the orbit to contract. The tidal dissipation rate is computed using turbulent viscosity acting on the equilibrium tidal flow, where careful attention is paid to the effects of reduced viscosity for close-in companions. Evolutionary models for the RGB stars, from the zero-age main sequence to the present, were acquired from the MESA code. "Standard" turbulent viscosity gives rise to such a large orbital decay that many observed systems have decay times much shorter than the RGB evolution time. Several theories for "reduced" turbulent viscosity are investigated, and reduce the number of systems with uncomfortably short decay times.

  2. Studying Tidal Effects In Planetary Systems With Posidonius. A N-Body Simulator Written In Rust. (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Bolmont, Emeline


    Planetary systems with several planets in compact orbital configurations such as TRAPPIST-1 are surely affected by tidal effects. Its study provides us with important insight about its evolution. We developed a second generation of a N-body code based on the tidal model used in Mercury-T, re-implementing and improving its functionalities using Rust as programming language (including a Python interface for easy use) and the WHFAST integrator. The new open source code ensures memory safety, reproducibility of numerical N-body experiments, it improves the spin integration compared to Mercury-T and allows to take into account a new prescription for the dissipation of tidal inertial waves in the convective envelope of stars. Posidonius is also suitable for binary system simulations with evolving stars.

  3. Reactive power control and optimisation of hybrid off shore tidal turbine with system uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Mohanty


    Full Text Available This paper projects an isolated hybrid model of Offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine and discusses the stability and reactive power management issue of the whole system. The hybrid system often loses its stability as it becomes prone to uncertain load and input parameters and therefore the necessity of Reactive power management becomes necessary. The overall stability of the hybrid offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine is made possible by the management of reactive power in the hybrid system through the application of FACTS devices. And therefore the dynamic hybrid model of the DFIG and DDPMSG based offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine is analysed for stability with different input parameters like wind and tidal energies. For detailed modelling and simulation, a small signal model of the whole hybrid system is designed and reactive power management of the system is achieved by the incorporation of a STATCOM controller. For improvement of stability and reactive power compensation of the hybrid system, GA and PSO optimised STATCOM controller is used.

  4. Tidal dynamics and their influence on the climate system from the Cretaceous to present day (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Thomas, Maik


    Global numerical ocean models used for paleo-climate reconstructions commonly only consider the ocean's general circulation but neglect tidal dynamics. However, tidal dynamics affect the ocean's mean general circulation, in particular by vertical mixing and tidal residual mean currents. Through feedback loops the whole climate system is affected. Plate tectonics modify geometric resonance conditions in ocean basins and thereby tidal dynamics. We study the influence of ocean tides on the ocean general circulation and atmospheric parameters by forcing the coupled atmosphere-ocean model ECHAM5/MPIOM with the complete lunisolar tidal potential. Simulations have been performed for five tectonically important time-slices: the Early Albian (ca. 110 million years ago, Ma), the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (ca. 93 Ma, CTB), the Early Eocene (ca. 55 Ma), the Early Pliocene (ca. 3.5 Ma), and a pre-industrial period (ca. 1850 CE). The model results suggest that the global mean tidal potential energy in the Early Eocene is almost three times larger than in the CTB. The large potential energy input in the Early Eocene leads to a tripling of current velocities in 10% of the deep ocean. Although the effect of tides on the general ocean circulation is less pronounced in the other time-slices, horizontal velocities are modified by more than 20% in 55% of the deep ocean. The tidally induced shifts of ocean currents and vertical mixing also have an effect on the three-dimensional temperature distribution in the ocean. The impact of tidal dynamics on atmospheric temperatures is particularly strong in the Southern Ocean of the Early Pliocene and the pre-industrial period. By a feedback loop with the atmosphere, tidal forcing locally reduces sea-ice concentration by up to 30% and local atmospheric 2 m temperatures by up to 4°C. Although uncertainties in bathymetry reconstructions limit the significance of quantitative analysis, the qualitative conclusions suggest that the impacts of

  5. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.


    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  6. Distinguishing boson stars from black holes and neutron stars from tidal interactions in inspiraling binary systems (United States)

    Sennett, Noah; Hinderer, Tanja; Steinhoff, Jan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Ossokine, Serguei


    Binary systems containing boson stars—self-gravitating configurations of a complex scalar field—can potentially mimic black holes or neutron stars as gravitational-wave sources. We investigate the extent to which tidal effects in the gravitational-wave signal can be used to discriminate between these standard sources and boson stars. We consider spherically symmetric boson stars within two classes of scalar self-interactions: an effective-field-theoretically motivated quartic potential and a solitonic potential constructed to produce very compact stars. We compute the tidal deformability parameter characterizing the dominant tidal imprint in the gravitational-wave signals for a large span of the parameter space of each boson star model, covering the entire space in the quartic case, and an extensive portion of interest in the solitonic case. We find that the tidal deformability for boson stars with a quartic self-interaction is bounded below by Λmin≈280 and for those with a solitonic interaction by Λmin≈1.3 . We summarize our results as ready-to-use fits for practical applications. Employing a Fisher matrix analysis, we estimate the precision with which Advanced LIGO and third-generation detectors can measure these tidal parameters using the inspiral portion of the signal. We discuss a novel strategy to improve the distinguishability between black holes/neutrons stars and boson stars by combining tidal deformability measurements of each compact object in a binary system, thereby eliminating the scaling ambiguities in each boson star model. Our analysis shows that current-generation detectors can potentially distinguish boson stars with quartic potentials from black holes, as well as from neutron-star binaries if they have either a large total mass or a large (asymmetric) mass ratio. Discriminating solitonic boson stars from black holes using only tidal effects during the inspiral will be difficult with Advanced LIGO, but third-generation detectors should

  7. Exomoon habitability and tidal evolution in low-mass star systems (United States)

    Zollinger, Rhett R.; Armstrong, John C.; Heller, René


    Discoveries of extrasolar planets in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent star lead to questions about the habitability of massive moons orbiting planets in the HZ. Around low-mass stars, the HZ is much closer to the star than for Sun-like stars. For a planet-moon binary in such an HZ, the proximity of the star forces a close orbit for the moon to remain gravitationally bound to the planet. Under these conditions, the effects of tidal heating, distortion torques, and stellar perturbations become important considerations for exomoon habitability. Utilizing a model that considers both dynamical and tidal interactions simultaneously, we performed a computational investigation into exomoon evolution for systems in the HZ of low-mass stars (≲0.6 M⊙). We show that dwarf stars with masses ≲0.2 M⊙ cannot host habitable exomoons within the stellar HZ due to extreme tidal heating in the moon. Perturbations from a central star may continue to have deleterious effects in the HZ up to ≈0.5 M⊙, depending on the host planet's mass and its location in the HZ, amongst others. In addition to heating concerns, torques due to tidal and spin distortion can lead to the relatively rapid inward spiraling of a moon. Therefore, moons of giant planets in HZs around the most abundant type of star are unlikely to have habitable surfaces. In cases with lower intensity tidal heating, the stellar perturbations may have a positive influence on exomoon habitability by promoting long-term heating and possibly extending the HZ for exomoons.

  8. Tidal analysis and Arrival Process Mining Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data (United States)


    frequency lower than one report per 3 min will require a longer gap length or different transit generation method to reliably treat the data ...AIS) Data Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Brandan M. Scully January 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is...17-2 January 2017 Tidal Analysis and Arrival Process Mining Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data Brandan M. Scully Coastal and

  9. Catching the Tide: A Review of Tidal Energy Systems (United States)

    Harris, Frank


    Harnessing energy from the tides is a much-promoted but rarely realised way of generating electricity. This article examines some of the systems that are currently in use or under development, and outlines their economic, environmental and technical implications.

  10. Tidal stress and failure in the moon of binary asteroid systems: Application to asteroid (65803) Didymos (United States)

    Sophal Pou, Laurent; Garcia, Raphael F.; Mimoun, David; Murdoch, Naomi; Karatekin, Ozgur


    Rocky remnants left over from the early formation of the Solar System, asteroids are a target of choice for planetary science since much about the history of planetary formation and small body evolution processes can be learnt by studying them. Here we consider the case of the binary asteroid (65803) Didymos, the target of several mission proposals e.g., AIM [1] and DART [2]. A mission to Didymos would be a great opportunity for in-situ geophysical investigation, providing information on the surface and interior of asteroids. Such studies would improve our knowledge of binary asteroid formation and subsequent evolution of asteroids, thus of the history of the Solar System. As Didymos is a binary asteroid [3] with the main 800-meter diameter asteroid named Didymain and a 150-meter sized moon named Didymoon, both are subject to tidal stress. Recent investigations suggest that Didymoon is tidally locked and moves in a retrograde motion around Didymain along an elliptic orbit with a 0.03 eccentricity at most. In the case of an eccentric orbit, the tidal stress varies periodically and may be strong enough to cause tidal quakes on Didymoon at some points of the orbit. For this study, we modelled Didymoon as a spherical, layered body with different internal structures: a homogeneous model, and two models with a 1-meter and 10-meter regolith layer on top of a stronger internal core. Simulations show that, for a cohesionless body with an internal friction angle of 30°, tidal stress is strong enough to cause failure at the surface of Didymoon. A maximal stress is reached around the poles and for a mean anomaly of 90°. These results would mean that if tidal quakes occur on Didymoon, then they are likely to happen at these locations. An extension of these results to an ellipsoidal model of Didymoon is also presented for comparison with the spherical case and for application to other bodies. [1]: P. Michel et al., Science case for the asteroid impact mission (aim): A

  11. Tidal simulation using regional ocean modeling systems (ROMS) (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Chao, Yi; Li, Zhijin; Dong, Changming; Farrara, John; McWilliams, James C.; Shum, C. K.; Wang, Yu; Matsumoto, Koji; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; hide


    The purpose of our research is to test the capability of ROMS in simulating tides. The research also serves as a necessary exercise to implement tides in an operational ocean forecasting system. In this paper, we emphasize the validation of the model tide simulation. The characteristics and energetics of tides of the region will be reported in separate publications.

  12. Dynamical Studies of N-Body Gravity and Tidal Dissipation in the TRAPPIST-1 Star System (United States)

    Nayak, Michael; Kuettel, Donald H.; Stebler, Shane T.; Udrea, Bogdan


    To date, we have discovered a total of 2,729 planetary systems that contain more than 3,639 known exoplanets [1]. A majority of these are defined as compact systems, containing multiple exoplanets within 0.25 AU of the central star. It has been shown that tightly packed exoplanets avoid colliding due to long-term resonance-induced orbit stability [2]. However, due to extreme proximity, these planets experience intense gravitational forces from each other that are unprecedented within our own solar system, which makes the existence of exomoons doubtful. We present the results of an initial study evaluating dynamical stability of potential exomoons within such highly compact systems.This work is baselined around TRAPPIST-1, an ultra-cool dwarf star that hosts seven temperate terrestrial planets, three of which are in the habitable zone, orbiting within 0.06 AU [3]. N-body simulations place a grid of test particles varying semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination around the three habitable zone planets. We find that most exomoons with semi-major axes less than half the Hill sphere of their respective planet are stable over 10 kyrs, with several stable over 300 kyrs.However, in compact systems, tidal influences from other planets can compete with tidal effects from the primary planet, resulting in possible instabilities and massive amounts of tidal dissipation. We investigate these effects with a large grid search that incorporates exomoon radius, tidal quality factor and a range of planet rigidities. Results of simulations that combine n-body gravity effects with both planetary and satellite tides are presented and contrasted with n-body results. Finally, we examine long-term stability (> 1Myrs) of the stable subset of test particles from the n-body simulation with the addition of tidal dissipation, to determine if exomoons can survive around planets e, f, and g in the TRAPPIST-1 system.[1] Schneider (2017). The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. http

  13. Study of Repair Protocols for Live Video Streaming Distributed Systems


    Giroire, Frédéric; Huin, Nicolas


    International audience; —We study distributed systems for live video streaming. These systems can be of two types: structured and un-structured. In an unstructured system, the diffusion is done opportunistically. The advantage is that it handles churn, that is the arrival and departure of users, which is very high in live streaming systems, in a smooth way. On the opposite, in a structured system, the diffusion of the video is done using explicit diffusion trees. The advantage is that the dif...

  14. Tidal Energy Update 2009


    O'Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony


    Tidal energy has the potential to play a valuable part in a sustainable energy future. It is an extremely predictable energy source, depending only on the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun and the centrifugal forces created by the rotation of the earth-moon system. Tidal energy has been exploited on a significant scale since the construction of the La Rance tidal barrage in France in 1967. A tidal barrage utilises the potential energy of the tide and has proven to be very successful,...

  15. Numerical Study on Self-Starting Performance of Darrieus Vertical Axis Turbine for Tidal Stream Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu


    Full Text Available Self-starting performance is a key factor in the evaluation of a Darrieus straight-bladed vertical axis turbine. Most traditional studies have analyzed the turbine’s self-starting capability using the experimental and numerical data of the forced rotation. A 2D numerical model based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software ANSYS-Fluent was developed to simulate the self-starting process of the rotor at constant incident water-flow velocities. The vertical-axis turbine (VAT rotor is driven directly by the resultant torque generated by the water flow and system loads, including the friction and reverse loads of the generator. It is found that the incident flow velocity and the moment of inertia of the rotor have little effect on the averaged values of tip-speed ratios in the equilibrium stage under no-load conditions. In the system load calculations, four modes of the self-starting were found: stable equilibrium mode, unstable equilibrium mode, switch mode and halt mode. The dimensionless power coefficient in the simulations of passive rotation conditions is found to be, on average, 38% higher than those achieved in the simulations of forced rotation conditions.

  16. A perfluorochemical loss/restoration (L/R) system for tidal liquid ventilation. (United States)

    Libros, R; Philips, C M; Wolfson, M R; Shaffer, T H


    Tidal liquid ventilation is the transport of dissolved respiratory gases via volume exchange of perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid to and from the PFC-filled lung. All gas-liquid surface tension is eliminated, increasing compliance and providing lung protection due to lower inflation pressures. Tidal liquid ventilation is achieved by cycling fluid from a reservoir to and from the lung by a ventilator. Current approaches are microprocessor-based with feedback control. During inspiration, warmed oxygenated PFC liquid is pumped from a fluid reservoir/gas exchanger into the lung. PFC fluid is conserved by condensing (60-80% efficiency) vapor in the expired gas. A feedback-control system was developed to automatically replace PFC lost due to condenser inefficiency. This loss/restoration (L/R) system consists of a PFC-vapor thermal detector (+/- 2.5%), pneumatics, amplifiers, a gas flow detector (+/- 1%), a PFC pump (+/- 5%), and a controller. Gravimetric studies of perflubron loss from a flask due to evaporation were compared with experimental L/R results and found to be within +/- 1.4%. In addition, when L/R studies were conducted with a previously reported liquid ventilation system over a four-hour period, the L/R system maintained system perflubron volume to within +/- 1% of prime volume and 11.5% of replacement volume, and the difference between experimental PFC loss and that of the L/R system was 1.8 mL/hr. These studies suggest that the PFC L/R system may have significant economic (appropriate dosing for PFC loss) as well as physiologic (maintenance of PFC inventory in the lungs and liquid ventilator) impact on liquid ventilation procedures.

  17. Data stream management system for moving sensor object data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Željko


    Full Text Available Sensor and communication development has led to the development of new types of applications. Classic database data storage becomes inadequate when data streams arrive from multiple sensors. Then, data querying and result presentation are not efficient. The desired results are obtained with a delay, and the database is filled with a large amount of unnecessary data. To adequately support the above applications, Data Stream Management System (DSMS applications are needed. DSMSs provide real-time data stream processing. In this paper, a client-server system is presented with DSMS realized on the Java WebDSMS application server side. WebDSMS functionalities are tested with simulated data and in real-life usage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32043

  18. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system. (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting


    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  19. Groundwater flow and mixing in a wetland–stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms


    We combined electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) on land and in a stream with zone-based hydraulic conductivities (from multi-level slug testing) to investigate the local geological heterogeneity of the deposits in a wetland–stream system. The detailed geology was incorporated into a numerical...... this variability. Water quality analyses from multi-level sampling underneath the streambed and in the wetland showed a stratification in groundwater composition with an aerobic shallow zone with oxygen and nitrate (top ∼3 m) overlying a reduced, anoxic zone. While NO3- concentrations up to 58 mg L−1 were found...

  20. The Impact of Classroom Peers in a Streaming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardardottir, Arna


    This paper investigates educational production with a focus on the influence that socio-economic status of class peers has on academic outcomes of students in a streaming system. Employing the Swiss subsample of the PISA data, I provide evidence that while classroom assignment is not random within...

  1. Streaming of interstellar grains in the solar system (United States)

    Gustafson, B. A. S.; Misconi, N. Y.


    Results of a theoretical study of the interactions between interstellar grains streaming through the solar system and the solar wind are presented. It is shown that although elongated core-mantle interstellar particles of a characteristic radius of about 0.12 microns are subject to a greater force due to radiation pressure than to gravitational attraction, they are still able to penetrate deep inside the solar system. Calculations of particle trajectories within the solar system indicate substantial effects of the solar activity cycle as reflected in the interplanetary magnetic field on the distribution of 0.12- and 0.0005-micron interstellar grains streaming through the solar system, leading to a 50-fold increase in interstellar grain densities 3 to 4 AU ahead of the sun during years 8 to 17 of the solar cycle. It is noted that during the Solar Polar Mission, concentrations are expected which will offer the opportunity of detecting interstellar grains in the solar system.

  2. Tidal Features in a Coral Reef System (western Gulf of Mexico) (United States)

    Salas Perez, J.; Salas Monreal, D.; Arenas Fuentes, V.; Salas de Leon, D.; Riveron-Enzastiga, M.


    For the first time, eleven mini-CTD loggers were moored in the Veracruz Reef System during October and December months of 2004 to monitor ambiental parameters (pressure, temperature and salinity). In this study are presented the results computed from the temporal time-series of pressure, in order to define tide temporal and spatial behaviour. The predominant harmonics were the diurnal K1 and O1, followed by the semidiurnal M2 and S2. Also the lunar fortnightly constituent showed amplitudes comparable to the M2 harmonic. In general the amplitude of each harmonic remains homogeneous along the study area, thus bathymetric features seems not affect completelly this parameter of the tidal wave, oppositely the phase constituents of the tide showed notable differences along to the zone, this difference must be induced by bathymetric effects.

  3. [Efficacy of preoxygenation using tidal volume breathing: a comparison of Mapleson A, Bain's and Circle system]. (United States)

    Arora, Suman; Gupta, Priyanka; Arya, Virender Kumar; Bhatia, Nidhi

    Efficacy of preoxygenation depends upon inspired oxygen concentration, its flow rate, breathing system configuration and patient characteristics. We hypothesized that in actual clinical scenario, where breathing circuit is not primed with 100% oxygen, patients may need more time to achieve EtO 2 ≥90%, and this duration may be different among various breathing systems. We thus studied the efficacy of preoxygenation using unprimed Mapleson A, Bain's and Circle system with tidal volume breathing at oxygen flow rates of 5L.min -1 and 10L.min -1 . Patients were randomly allocated into one of the six groups, wherein they were preoxygenated using either Mapleson A, Bain's or Circle system at O 2 flow rate of either 5L.min -1 or 10L.min -1 . The primary outcome measure of our study was the time taken to achieve EtO 2 ≥90% at 5 and 10L.min -1 flow rates. At oxygen flow rate of 5L.min -1 , time to reach EtO 2 ≥90% was significantly longer with Bain's system (3.7±0.67min) than Mapleson A and Circle system (2.9±0.6, 3.3±0.97min, respectively). However at oxygen flow rate of 10L.min -1 this time was significantly shorter and comparable among all the three breathing systems (2.33±0.38min with Mapleson, 2.59±0.50min with Bain's and 2.60±0.47min with Circle system). With spontaneous normal tidal volume breathing at oxygen flow rate of 5L.min -1 , Mapleson A can optimally preoxygenate patients within 3min while Bain's and Circle system require more time. However at O 2 flow rate of 10L.min -1 all the three breathing systems are capable of optimally preoxygenating the patients in less than 3min. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Event streaming in the online system

    CERN Document Server

    Klous, S; The ATLAS collaboration


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently in operation at CERN in Geneva, is a circular 27-kilometer-circumference machine, accelerating bunches of protons in opposite directions. The bunches will cross at four different interaction points with a bunch-crossing frequency of 40MHz. ATLAS, the largest LHC experiment, registers the signals induced by particles traversing the detector components on each bunch crossing. When this happens a total of around 1.5MB of data are collected. This results in a data rate of around 60 TB/s flowing out of the detector. Note that the available event storage space is limited to about 6 PB per year. With an operational period of about 20 million seconds per year, this requires a data reduction factor of 200:000 in the trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) system. Events included in the recording rate budget are already subdivided and organized by ATLAS during data acquisition. So, the TDAQ system does not only take care of data reduction, but also organizes the collected events. ...

  5. Effect of a clinical decision support system on adherence to a lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eslami, Saeid; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; de Jonge, Evert; Schultz, Marcus J.


    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to measure the effect of a computerized decision support system (CDSS) on adherence to tidal volume (V(T)) recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective before-after evaluation study on applied V(T) to examine the impact of a CDSS on

  6. Eb- en vloedschaar systemen in de Nederlandse getijwateren - Ebb and Flood channel systems in the Netherlands tidal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; Van der Spek, A.; Zitman, T.; Van Veen, J.


    The present paper, "Eb- en vloedschaarsystemen in de Nederlandse getijwateren" (Ebb- and floodchannel systems in the Dutch tidal waters), which was published in 1950, should be considered as Van Veen's most important publication since his thesis. It summarizes the results of 20 years of intensive

  7. Fuzzily Connected Multimodel Systems Evolving Autonomously From Data Streams. (United States)

    Angelov, P


    A general framework and a holistic concept are proposed in this paper that combine computationally light machine learning from streaming data with the online identification and adaptation of dynamic systems in regard to their structure and parameters. According to this concept, the system is assumed to be decomposable into a set of fuzzily connected simple local models. The main thrust of this paper is in the development of an original approach for the self-design, self-monitoring, self-management, and self-learning of such systems in a dynamic manner from data streams which automatically detect and react to the shift in the data distribution by evolving the system structure. Novelties of this contribution lie in the following: 1) the computationally simple approach (simpl_e_Clustering-simplified evolving Clustering) to data space partitioning by recursive evolving clustering based on the relative position of the new data sample to the mean of the overall data, 2) the learning technique for online structure evolution as a reaction to the shift in the data distribution, 3) the method for online system structure simplification based on utility and inputs/feature selection, and 4) the novel graphical illustration of the spatiotemporal evolution of the data stream. The application domain for this computationally efficient technique ranges from clustering, modeling, prognostics, classification, and time-series prediction to pattern recognition, image segmentation, vector quantization, etc., to more general problems in various application areas, e.g., intelligent sensors, mobile robotics, advanced manufacturing processes, etc.

  8. Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system. (United States)

    Ju, Xinxin; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Yansheng; Dong, Renjie


    A novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) system was developed in this study. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of hydrogen sulphide control were evaluated. Ammonium removal of up to 80% was achieved with an inflow concentration of 60 mg/L in wetland systems with and without electrolysis integration. Effluent nitrate concentration decreased from 2 mg/L to less than 0.5 mg/L with the decrease in current intensity from 1.5 mA/cm(2) to 0.57 mA/cm(2) in the electrolysis-integrated wetland system, thus indicating that the current intensity of electrolysis plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 95% in the electrolysis-integrated CW system because of the in-situ formation of a ferric iron coagulant through the electro-dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Moreover, the electrolyzed wetland system effectively inhibits sulphide accumulation as a result of a sulphide precipitation coupled with ferrous-iron electro-dissolution and/or an inhibition of bacterial sulphate reduction under increased aerobic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a stereo-optical camera system for monitoring tidal turbines (United States)

    Joslin, James; Polagye, Brian; Parker-Stetter, Sandra


    The development, implementation, and testing of a stereo-optical imaging system suitable for environmental monitoring of a tidal turbine is described. This monitoring system is intended to provide real-time stereographic imagery in the near-field (animals and the turbine. A method for optimizing the stereo camera arrangement is given, along with a quantitative assessment of the system's ability to measure and track targets in three-dimensional space. Optical camera effectiveness is qualitatively evaluated under realistic field conditions to determine the range within which detection, discrimination, and classification of targets is possible. These field evaluations inform optimal system placement relative to the turbine rotor. Tests suggest that the stereographic cameras will likely be able to discriminate and classify targets at ranges up to 3.5 m and detect targets at ranges up to, and potentially beyond, 4.5 m. Future system testing will include the use of an imaging sonar ("acoustical camera") to evaluate behavioral disturbances associated with artificial lighting.

  10. Evolving fuzzy systems from data streams in real-time


    Angelov, Plamen; Zhou, Xiaowei


    An approach to real-time generation of fuzzy rule-base systems of extended Takagi-Sugeno (xTS) type from data streams is proposed in the paper. The xTS fuzzy system combines both zero and first order Takagi-Sugeno (TS) type systems. The fuzzy rule-base (system structure) evolves starting 'from scratch' based on the data distribution in the joint input/output data space. An incremental clustering procedure that takes into account the non-stationary nature of the data pattern and generates clus...

  11. StreamExplorer: A Multi-Stage System for Visually Exploring Events in Social Streams. (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Chen, Zhutian; Sun, Guodao; Xie, Xiao; Cao, Nan; Liu, Shixia; Cui, Weiwei


    Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present Stream

  12. Design Tools for Dynamic, Data-Driven, Stream Mining Systems (United States)


    1 Figure 1.1: An illustration of the design space for adaptive stream mining systems. science (e.g., water management and seismic monitoring), online... seismic monitoring), online financial analysis, manufacturing process control, multimedia search engines, health and life sciences, and medical...classifiers using MATLAB , trained the classifiers using the MIT CBCL face database [43], and then ported them to C for LiD4E-based actor im

  13. Evolution of Holocene tidal systems along the Dutch coast: effects of rivers, coastal boundary conditions, eco-engineering species, inherited relief and human interference (United States)

    Haas, T. D.; Pierik, H. J.; van der Spek, A.; Cohen, K.; van Maanen, B.; Kleinhans, M. G.


    Estuaries and tidal basins are partly enclosed coastal bodies of water with a free connection to the open sea at their tidal inlet and with no to marginal riverine input (tidal basins) or substantial riverine input (estuaries). Their tidal inlets can only remain open over Holocene timescales when (1) the formation of accommodation space exceeds infilling or (2) the inlet system is in dynamic equilibrium (sediment input equals output). Physical and numerical modelling suggest that estuaries and tidal basins develop toward a dynamic equilibrium under constant boundary conditions and remain open over long timescales, whereas many natural estuaries and tidal basins have filled up and were closed off or became deltas during the Holocene. This raises the question if and how tidal inlets can remain open over long timescales? And what is the effect of river inflow and sediment supply thereon? Here we compare the Holocene evolution of tidal systems along the Dutch coast to empirically identify the most important factors that control their long-term evolution. Along the coast of the Netherlands estuaries and tidal basins were formed during the middle Holocene driven by rapid relative sea-level rise and during the late Holocene driven by natural and human-induced subsidence in coastal plain peatlands. During the Holocene tidal inlets connected to rivers (estuaries) were able to persist and attain dynamic equilibrium while tidal basins without or with a very marginal riverine inflow were unstable and closed off under abundant sediment supply. There are many examples of long-lived tidal inlets that rapidly closed off after upstream river avulsion leading to a decrease and finally loss of riverine input. Long-term net import of sediment from the sea into Dutch tidal basins is favoured by strong, flood-dominated, tidal asymmetry along the Dutch coast, the shallow sand-rich floor of the North Sea and the abundance of mud in the coastal area supplied by the Rhine and Meuse rivers

  14. Tidal Energy. (United States)

    Impact of Science on Society, 1987


    States that tidal power projects are feasible in a relatively limited number of locations around the world. Claims that together they could theoretically produce the energy equivalent to more than one million barrels of oil per year. (TW)

  15. Tidal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A.C.


    The principal tidal power sites around the world are summarised, showing that the UK is fortunate in having three major potential sites. The first use of tidal power for generating electricity was a small scheme near Bristol built 56 years ago. Since then, the 240 MW Rance barrage and the recent 20 MW pilot 'Straflo' turbine installed at Annapolis Royal in the Bay of Funday are the main schemes built to date. These were built 'in the dry'. For an inlet off the White sea, North Russia, a samll tidal power plant was prefabricated complete and towed into position in the early 1960s. Alternative methods of operation are discussed and the economics of tidal power compared with thermal stations. Overall, the tides could be a highly predictable and substantial source of renewable energy whose development involves proven technology.

  16. Tidal Analysis and Arrival Process Mining Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data (United States)


    the time -based interquartile range of tidal elevations. Each year’s record of predicted tidal elevation (87,600 predictions at 6 min intervals for a...water level record using the time of vessel crossing and assigned to that transit. Vessels in transit generally move faster laterally than the tide...ERDC/CHL TR-17-2 34 Winkler, M. F., R. T. Wooley, and B. C. Barker. 2003. Monitoring navigation using time - lapse video recorders . ERDC/CHL CHETN

  17. Spectral analysis of one-way and two-way downscaling applications for a tidally driven coastal ocean forecasting system (United States)

    Solano, Miguel; Gonzalez, Juan; Canals, Miguel; Capella, Jorge; Morell, Julio; Leonardi, Stefano


    A prevailing problem for a tidally driven coastal ocean has been the adequate imposition of open boundary conditions. This study aims at assessing the role of open boundary conditions and tidal forcing for one and two way downscaling applications at high resolution. The operational system is based on the Caribbean Coastal Ocean Forecasting System (COFS) that uses the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a split-explicit ocean model in which the barotropic (2D) and baroclinic (3D) modes advance separately. This COFS uses a uniform horizontal grid with 1km resolution, but a grid sensitivity analysis is performed for both one and two way downscaling methodologies with horizontal resolutions up to 700m. Initial and lateral boundary conditions are derived from the U.S Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) operational AmSeas model forecast, a 3-km resolution of the regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) that encompasses the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Meteorological conditions are interpolated from the Navy's COAMPS model with the exception of surface stresses, which are computed from a 2-km application of the WRF model used by NCEP's National Digital Forecast Database. Tidal forcing is performed in two different ways: 1) tidal and sub-tidal variability is imposed to the barotropic and baroclinic modes by downscaling from the AmSeas NCOM regional model and 2) tidal variability is imposed using ROMS harmonic tidal forcing from OTPS and sub-tidal conditions are imposed by filtering high frequencies out the NCOM regional solution. Special focus is given to the latter approach, where the nudging time scales and the boundary update frequency play an important role in the evolution of the ocean state for short 3-day forecasts. A spectral analysis of the sea surface height and barotropic velocity is performed via Fourier's transform, continuous 1-D wavelet transforms, and classic harmonic analysis. Tide signals are then reconstructed and removed from the OBC's in 3

  18. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara


    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  19. Towards automatic parameter tuning of stream processing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bilal, Muhammad


    Optimizing the performance of big-data streaming applications has become a daunting and time-consuming task: parameters may be tuned from a space of hundreds or even thousands of possible configurations. In this paper, we present a framework for automating parameter tuning for stream-processing systems. Our framework supports standard black-box optimization algorithms as well as a novel gray-box optimization algorithm. We demonstrate the multiple benefits of automated parameter tuning in optimizing three benchmark applications in Apache Storm. Our results show that a hill-climbing algorithm that uses a new heuristic sampling approach based on Latin Hypercube provides the best results. Our gray-box algorithm provides comparable results while being two to five times faster.

  20. Mercury-T: A new code to study tidally evolving multi-planet systems. Applications to Kepler-62 (United States)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Raymond, Sean N.; Leconte, Jeremy; Hersant, Franck; Correia, Alexandre C. M.


    A large proportion of observed planetary systems contain several planets in a compact orbital configuration, and often harbor at least one close-in object. These systems are then most likely tidally evolving. We investigate how the effects of planet-planet interactions influence the tidal evolution of planets. We introduce for that purpose a new open-source addition to the MercuryN-body code, Mercury-T, which takes into account tides, general relativity and the effect of rotation-induced flattening in order to simulate the dynamical and tidal evolution of multi-planet systems. It uses a standard equilibrium tidal model, the constant time lag model. Besides, the evolution of the radius of several host bodies has been implemented (brown dwarfs, M-dwarfs of mass 0.1 M⊙, Sun-like stars, Jupiter). We validate the new code by comparing its output for one-planet systems to the secular equations results. We find that this code does respect the conservation of total angular momentum. We applied this new tool to the planetary system Kepler-62. We find that tides influence the stability of the system in some cases. We also show that while the four inner planets of the systems are likely to have slow rotation rates and small obliquities, the fifth planet could have a fast rotation rate and a high obliquity. This means that the two habitable zone planets of this system, Kepler-62e ad f are likely to have very different climate features, and this of course would influence their potential at hosting surface liquid water. The code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  1. Two-dimensional Value Stream Mapping: Integrating the design of the MPC system in the value stream map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Daryl; Olesen, Peter Bjerg


    Companies use value stream mapping to identify waste, often in the early stages of a lean implementation. Though the tool helps users to visualize material and information flows and to identify improvement opportunities, a limitation of this approach is the lack of an integrated method for analys......Companies use value stream mapping to identify waste, often in the early stages of a lean implementation. Though the tool helps users to visualize material and information flows and to identify improvement opportunities, a limitation of this approach is the lack of an integrated method...... for analysing and re-designing the MPC system in order to support lean improvement. We reflect on the current literature regarding value stream mapping, and use practical insights in order to develop and propose a two-dimensional value stream mapping tool that integrates the design of the MPC system within...

  2. Permeability of the Lucky Strike deep-sea hydrothermal system: Constraints from the poroelastic response to ocean tidal loading (United States)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartin, Javier; Sohn, Robert; Cannat, Mathilde


    We use the time delay between tidal loading and the induced subsurface flow response to constrain the poroelastic behavior and permeability of the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We demonstrate that high-temperature (T > 200 °C) exit-fluid discharge records from four hydrothermal sites across the field are highly coherent with contemporaneously acquired bottom pressure records at tidal periods, with the thermal response lagging pressure by ∼155° (5.3 h) on average across all sites for the semi-diurnal (M2) frequency over a three-year observation period. In a one-dimensional poroelastic model of ocean tidal loading this phase lag corresponds to a high-permeability system where pore pressure perturbations at the seafloor rapidly propagate downward from the seafloor interface until they encounter a permeability boundary. Our results suggest that at the Lucky Strike field this tidal pumping is largely restricted to the ∼600 m thick extrusive layer (i.e., seismic layer 2A). Under a plausible set of matrix elastic parameters, the ∼5.3 h lag between pressure and exit-fluid temperature is consistent with an effective matrix permeability of ∼10-10 m2 and an average vertical flow velocity of ∼0.02 m/s within the extrusive layer. Our results argue against tidal pumping of the entire crustal section between the seafloor and the axial magma chamber (at ∼3.4 kmbsf) because this scenario requires unrealistically high effective permeabilities (∼10-9 m2) and average vertical flow velocities (∼0.15 m/s) over this depth range. Our effective permeability estimate for the extrusive layer is broadly consistent with previous results, and indicates that flow must be channeled in discrete permeable pathways (e.g., faults, fissures) that cut through the extrusive volcanic layer.

  3. DTP: a Tidal Power Revolution (United States)

    Steijn, Robbert; Hulsbergen, Kees; van Banning, Gijs


    Tidal power can significantly contribute to the global mix of sustainable energy resources. It is climate-independent, fully predictable, and if designed properly it is environmentally friendly and socio-economically feasible. The two traditional methods of exploiting tidal power are Tidal Barrage and Tidal Stream. This study deals with an alternative Third Method, named Dynamic Tidal Power (DTP), which contrary to the other methods, utilises the oscillating character of tides, or more precisely: the acceleration inherent to unsteady flow. DTP uses a long dam (order of tens of km's), attached and perpendicular to a coast with shore-parallel tidal currents, to generate a local hydraulic head. This time-varying head is used to generate electricity in a more or less standard way with turbines and generators placed in (many) dam openings. For a first impression only: typical installed power for one DTP is more than 10 GW with electricity output > 2.1010 kWh/y and construction costs of ca. 1 EUR/W. The physical mechanism behind the creation of the head has been described by Hulsbergen e.a., (2012). Following a heuristic approach based on analytical work done by Kolkman (unpubl.), and output from numerical tidal models, Hulsbergen (2012) concluded that the maximum head (near the coast), is: hmax = 6,8*?*D*Vmax/(g*T), with Vmax the maximum alongshore flow velocity during the tidal cycle, T the tidal period and D the length of dam. Such simple relationship was also found by Mei (2012) who made a rigorous analysis of a process-based model. After a thorough reflection on DTP, this study will first check the above formula for hmax , by comparing its predictions with the output from various numerical tidal models. Any differences will be analysed in the study through an evaluation of the dominant physical processes and the schematisations inherent to both the analytical and the numerical models. The study will also address the effect of the openings in the dam, as well as the

  4. Characterization of steady streaming for a particle manipulation system. (United States)

    Amit, Roni; Abadi, Avi; Kosa, Gabor


    Accurate positioning of biological cells or microscopic particle without directly contacting them is a challenging task in biomedical engineering. Various trapping methods for controlling the position of a particle have been suggested. The common driving methods are based on laser and ultrasonic actuation principles. In this work we suggest a design for a hydrodynamic particle manoeuvring system. The system operates using steady streaming in a viscous fluid media induced by high frequency vibration of piezoelectric cantilevers. A particle within the workspace of the system can be trapped and manipulated to a desired position by the fairly unidirectional flow field created by the beams. In this paper, the flow field in the particle manipulation system is characterized numerically and experimentally. We find that the flow field resembles the analytical solutions of a flow field created by an oscillating sphere. Furthermore, we validate numerically the quadratic relation between the steady streaming velocity and the vibration amplitude of the beam. The calibration of the piezoelectric actuator's oscillation amplitudes enables effective positioning of particles with a diameter of 20 um to 1 mm. We find that a 30X0.8X2 mm(3) piezoelectric beam vibrating at its first resonance frequency, 200 Hz, is able to move a particle at a typical flow velocity ranging between 0.05 mm/sec and 0.13 mm/s in 430 cSt Si oil (Re=0.2).

  5. A multimedia streaming system for urban rail environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José


    Due to a large number of mostly stationary users inside a train and the availability of a radio connection to the outside world, urban rail environments serve as promising candidates for multimedia distribution systems deployment. This work proposes to offload the individual per-passenger cellular...... network connections by using the excessive Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) radio link bandwidth to deliver multimedia streams to a train, where it is subsequently distributed to the passengers using peer-to-peer based data distribution. Connections among the train passengers are implemented...

  6. A multimedia streaming system for urban rail environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José


    Due to a large number of mostly stationary users inside a train and the availability of a radio connection to the outside world, urban rail environments serve as promising candidates for multimedia distribution systems deployment. This work proposes to offload the individual per-passenger cellular...... using the Wi-Fi Direct connectivity and data exchange is coordinated by using the Peer-to-Peer Streaming Peer Protocol. This work presents the solution and evaluates it in the scope of urban rail deployment. Network emulation tests are used to analyze the factors impacting the number of concurrent users...

  7. On Power Stream in Motor or Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszota Zygmunt


    Full Text Available In a motor or a drive system the quantity of power increases in the direction opposite to the direction of power flow. Energy losses and energy efficiency of a motor or drive system must be presented as functions of physical quantities independent of losses. Such quantities are speed and load. But the picture of power stream in a motor or drive system is presented in the literature in the form of traditional Sankey diagram of power decrease in the direction of power flow. The paper refers to Matthew H. Sankey’s diagram in his paper „The Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines“ of 1898. Presented is also a diagram of power increase in the direction opposite to the direction of power flow. The diagram, replacing the Sankey’s diagram, opens a new prospect for research into power of energy losses and efficiency of motors and drive systems.

  8. Simulation of morphodinamic processes in small coastal systems: application to the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal) (United States)

    Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André B.; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier; Bruneau, Nicolas; Rodrigues, Marta


    In small and shallow coastal streams, morphological changes may have a dramatic effect on tidal propagation and distortion, on hydrodynamics and, ultimately, on the transport and fate of water-borne material. Hence, the ability to simulate the morphodynamic evolution of these dynamic and complex systems can be required for water quality studies. This work aimed at implementing, validating and exploring the morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D (Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004, Bertin et al., 2009) in the Aljezur stream, a small and dynamic coastal system located in south-west Portugal. Four extensive field campaigns were carried out in 2008 and 2009 to measure bathymetry, water levels, waves and currents, in both the estuary and the adjoining beach. Between the two 2009 campaigns, bathymetry was measured on a monthly basis. Data revealed significant morphological changes, including channel migration and the formation of sandbars. The morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D consists of a wave model (SWAN - Booij et al., 1999), a circulation model (ELCIRC - Zhang et al., 2004) and a sediment transport and bottom update model (SAND2D, Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004), and is controlled by a script that runs the models, manages the transfer of information between them and performs control checks. The model was shown to reproduce successfully the waves, the water levels and the velocities. Preliminary morphodynamic simulations revealed that the model is highly sensitive to small changes in the initial conditions, the parameterization of friction and the sediment transport formulation. This presentation will describe the calibration and validation of the morphodynamic modelling system and will investigate on the circumstances that can lead to the inlet closure (including wave action and river flow). Acknowledgements This work was sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT), project MADyCOS (PTDC/ECM/66484/2006). The authors thank the developers of the

  9. Tides and tidal currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.


    Basic phenomena, origin and generation of tides, analysis and prediction of tides, basic equation and types of long waves in one dimension, tidal propagation in one dimension, tidal propagation in two directions, analytical tidal computation, numerical tidal computation.

  10. A Modified Multiview Video Streaming System Using 3-Tier Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Fouad


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a modified inter-view prediction Multiview Video Coding (MVC scheme from the perspective of viewer's interactivity. When a viewer requests some view(s, our scheme leads to lower transmission bit-rate. We develop an interactive multiview video streaming system exploiting that modified MVC scheme. Conventional interactive multiview video systems require high bandwidth due to redundant data being transferred. With real data test sequences, clear improvements are shown using the proposed interactive multiview video system compared to competing ones in terms of the average transmission bit-rate and storage size of the decoded (i.e., transferred data with comparable rate-distortion.

  11. KIC 4544587: an eccentric, short-period binary system with δ Sct pulsations and tidally excited modes (United States)

    Hambleton, K. M.; Kurtz, D. W.; Prša, A.; Guzik, J. A.; Pavlovski, K.; Bloemen, S.; Southworth, J.; Conroy, K.; Littlefair, S. P.; Fuller, J.


    We present Kepler photometry and ground-based spectroscopy of KIC 4544587, a short-period eccentric eclipsing binary system with self-excited pressure and gravity modes, tidally excited modes, tidally influenced p modes and rapid apsidal motion of 182 yr per cycle. The primary and secondary components of KIC 4544587 reside within the δ Scuti and γ Dor instability region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, respectively. By applying the binary modelling software PHOEBE to prewhitened Kepler photometric data and radial velocity data obtained using the William Herschel Telescope and 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak Northern Observatory (KPNO), the fundamental parameters of this important system have been determined, including the stellar masses, 1.98 ±0.07 and 1.60 ± 0.06 M⊙, and radii, 1.76 ± 0.03 and 1.42 ± 0.02 R⊙, for the primary and secondary components, respectively. Frequency analysis of the residual data revealed 31 modes, 14 in the gravity mode region and 17 in the pressure mode region. Of the 14 gravity modes, 8 are orbital harmonics: a signature of tidal resonance. While the measured amplitude of these modes may be partially attributed to residual signal from binary model subtraction, we demonstrate through consideration of the folded light curve that these frequencies do in fact correspond to tidally excited pulsations. Furthermore, we present an echelle diagram of the pressure mode frequency region (modulo the orbital frequency) and demonstrate that the tides are also influencing the p modes. A first look at asteroseismology hints that the secondary component is responsible for the p modes, which is contrary to our expectation that the hotter star should pulsate in higher radial overtone, higher frequency p modes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.; Fouquet, S., E-mail: [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, Meudon F-92195 (France)


    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200–300 Myr ago, which has stripped their gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n{sub h} = 10{sup −4} cm{sup −3} at 50–70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L{sub MS}. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.

  13. Tidal Venuses: triggering a climate catastrophe via tidal heating. (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Mullins, Kristina; Goldblatt, Colin; Meadows, Victoria S; Kasting, James F; Heller, René


    Traditionally, stellar radiation has been the only heat source considered capable of determining global climate on long timescales. Here, we show that terrestrial exoplanets orbiting low-mass stars may be tidally heated at high-enough levels to induce a runaway greenhouse for a long-enough duration for all the hydrogen to escape. Without hydrogen, the planet no longer has water and cannot support life. We call these planets "Tidal Venuses" and the phenomenon a "tidal greenhouse." Tidal effects also circularize the orbit, which decreases tidal heating. Hence, some planets may form with large eccentricity, with its accompanying large tidal heating, and lose their water, but eventually settle into nearly circular orbits (i.e., with negligible tidal heating) in the habitable zone (HZ). However, these planets are not habitable, as past tidal heating desiccated them, and hence should not be ranked highly for detailed follow-up observations aimed at detecting biosignatures. We simulated the evolution of hypothetical planetary systems in a quasi-continuous parameter distribution and found that we could constrain the history of the system by statistical arguments. Planets orbiting stars with masseswater via tidal heating, as orbital stability is unlikely for the high eccentricities required for the tidal greenhouse. As the inner edge of the HZ is defined by the onset of a runaway or moist greenhouse powered by radiation, our results represent a fundamental revision to the HZ for noncircular orbits. In the appendices we review (a) the moist and runaway greenhouses, (b) hydrogen escape, (c) stellar mass-radius and mass-luminosity relations, (d) terrestrial planet mass-radius relations, and (e) linear tidal theories.

  14. System Regulates the Water Contents of Fuel-Cell Streams (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo; Lazaroff, Scott


    An assembly of devices provides for both humidification of the reactant gas streams of a fuel cell and removal of the product water (the water generated by operation of the fuel cell). The assembly includes externally-sensing forward-pressure regulators that supply reactant gases (fuel and oxygen) at variable pressures to ejector reactant pumps. The ejector supply pressures depend on the consumption flows. The ejectors develop differential pressures approximately proportional to the consumption flow rates at constant system pressure and with constant flow restriction between the mixer-outlet and suction ports of the ejectors. For removal of product water from the circulating oxygen stream, the assembly includes a water/gas separator that contains hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes. The water separator imposes an approximately constant flow restriction, regardless of the quality of the two-phase flow that enters it from the fuel cell. The gas leaving the water separator is nearly 100 percent humid. This gas is returned to the inlet of the fuel cell along with a quantity of dry incoming oxygen, via the oxygen ejector, thereby providing some humidification.

  15. Linking freshwater tidal hydrology to carbon cycling in bottomland hardwood wetlands (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Brooke J. Czwartacki; Craig J. Allan; Devendra M. Amatya


    Hydrology is recognized as one of the principal factors regulating soil biogeochemical processes in forested wetlands. However, the consequences of tidally mediated hydrology are seldom considered within forested wetlands that occur along tidal water bodies. These tidal water bodies may be either fresh or brackish, and the tidal streams function as a reservoir to...

  16. Tidal Power Exploitation in Korea (United States)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Jae Cheon

    The highest tides in South Korea are found along the northwest coast between latitudes 36-38 degrees and the number of possible sites for tidal range power barrages to create tidal basins is great due to irregular coastlines with numerous bays. At present Lake Sihwa tidal power plant is completed. The plant is consisted of 10 bulb type turbines with 8 sluice gates. The installed capacity of turbines and generators is 254MW and annual energy output expected is about 552.7 GWh taking flood flow generation scheme. Three other TPP projects are being progressed at Garolim Bay (20 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Kangwha (28 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Incheon (44 or 48 turbines with 30 MW capacity) and project features will be outlined here. The introduction of tidal barrages into four major TPP projects along the Kyeonggi bay will render wide range of potential impacts. Preliminary attempts were performed to quantify these impacts using 2 D hydrodynamic model demonstrating the changes in tidal amplitude and phase under mean tidal condition, associated changes in residual circulation (indicator for SPM and pollutant dispersion), bottom stress (indicator for bedload movement), and tidal front (positional indicator for bio-productivity) in both shelf scale and local context. Tidal regime modeling system for ocean tides in the seas bordering the Korean Peninsula is designed to cover an area that is broad in scope and size, yet provide a high degree of resolution in strong tidal current region including off southwestern tip of the Peninsula (Uldolmok , Jangjuk, Wando-Hoenggan), Daebang Sudo (Channel) and Kyeonggi Bay. With this simulation system, real tidal time simulation of extended springneap cycles was performed to estimate spatial distribution of tidal current power potentials in terms of power density, energy density and then extrapolated annual energy density.

  17. First in-situ passive acoustic monitoring for marine mammals during operation of a tidal turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinka, Chloe Elizabeth; Gillespie, Douglas; MacAulay, Jamie

    The development of marine renewables has raised concerns regarding impacts on marine wildlife, including collision risk. Here, we examine three months of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) data collected at Tidal Energy Ltd.’s DeltaStream turbine deployment, in Ramsey Sound, Wales, UK. The PAM...... on animal presence and movement close to the turbine. This is the first time a tidal turbine has been equipped with such a PAM monitoring system, and is the first description of how marine mammals behave around an operational tidal turbine. The environmental monitoring methods presented here could be scaled...... in porpoise acoustic detection, with tidal cycle state (flood / ebb), time of day, low frequency noise levels and moon phase best explaining the acoustic presence of porpoise. There was a limited sample of turbine operation, meaning that there was insufficient data to understand the effect of turbine rotation...

  18. Applying a Hydrodynamical Treatment of Stream Flow and Accretion Disk Formation in WASP-12/b Exoplanetary System (United States)

    Weaver, Ian; Lopez, Aaron; Macias, Phil


    WASP-12b is a hot Jupiter orbiting dangerously close to its parent star WASP-12 at a radius 1/44th the distance between the Earth and the Sun, or roughly 16 times closer than Mercury. WASP-12's gravitational influence at this incredibly close proximity generates tidal forces on WASP-12b that distort the planet into an egg-like shape. As a result, the planet's surface overflows its Roche lobe through L1, transferring mass to the host star at a rate of 270 million metric tonnes per second. This mass transferring stream forms an accretion disk that transits the parent star, which aids sensitive instruments, such as the Kepler spacecraft, whose role is to examine the periodic dimming of main sequence stars in order to detect ones with orbiting planets. The quasi-ballistic stream trajectory is approximated by that of a massless point particle released from analogous initial conditions in 2D. The particle dynamics are shown to deviate negligibly across a broad range of initial conditions, indicating applicability of our model to "WASP-like" systems in general. We then apply a comprehensive fluid treatment by way of hydrodynamical code FLASH in order to directly model the behavior of mass transfer in a non-inertial reference frame and subsequent disk formation. We hope to employ this model to generate virtual spectroscopic signatures and compare them against collected light curve data from the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS).

  19. Organic Carbon and Trace Element Cycling in a River-Dominated Tidal Coastal Wetland System (Tampa Bay, FL, USA) (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Powell, C. E.; Chappel, A. R.; Gerlach, M. J.; Kemp, A.; Breithaupt, J. L.


    Tampa Bay is the largest open water, river-fed estuary in Florida (USA), and is characterized by the presence of both mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Both coastal wetland systems, and small rivers such as the ones draining into Tampa Bay have historically been underestimated in terms of their role in the global carbon and elemental cycles. Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) are major threats in Tampa Bay and stand to disrupt hydrologic cycles, compromising sediment accumulation and the rate of organic carbon (OC) burial. This study evaluates organic carbon content, sediment accumulation, and carbon burial rates in salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems, along with measurements of fluxes of dissolved OC (DOC) and trace elements in the water column of the Little Manatee River (LMR) in Tampa Bay. The characterization of OC and trace elements in tidal rivers and estuaries is critical for quantitatively constraining these systems in local-to-regional scale biogeochemical budgets, and provide insight into biogeochemical processes occurring with the estuary and adjacent tidal wetlands. Material fluxes of DOC and trace elements were tied to discharge irrespective of season, and the estuarine habitats removed 15-65% of DOC prior to export to Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, material is available for cycling and burial within marsh and mangrove peats, however, LMR mangrove peats have higher OC content and burial rates than adjacent salt marsh peats. Sedimentary accretion rates in LMR marshes are not currently keeping pace with SLR, thus furthering the rapid marsh-to-mangrove conversions that have been seen in Tampa Bay over the past half-century. Additionally, wetlands in Tampa Bay tend to have a lower rate of carbon burial than other Florida tidal wetlands, demonstrating their high sensitivity to climate change and SLR.

  20. Combined impacts of tidal energy extraction and sea level rise in the Gulf of Maine (United States)

    Hashemi, M. R.; Kresning, B.


    The objective of this study was to assess the combined effects of SLR and tidal energy extraction on the dynamics of tides in the Gulf of Maine in both US and Canadian waters. The dynamics of tides in the Gulf of Maine is dominated by tidal resonance, which generates one of the largest tidal ranges in the world. Further, sea level rise (SLR) is affecting tidal circulations globally, and in the Gulf of Maine. A large tidal energy resource is available in the Gulf of Maine, particularly in the Bay of Fundy, and is expected to be harvested in the future. Currently, more than 6 projects are operational or under development in this region (in both US and Canadian waters). Understanding the far-field impacts of tidal-stream arrays is important for future development of tidal energy extraction. The impacts include possible changes in water elevation, which can potentially increase flooding in coastal areas. Further, SLR can affect tidal energy resources and the impacts of tidal energy extraction during the project lifetime - which is usually more than 25 years. A tidal model of the Gulf of Maine was developed using Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) at one arcminute scale. An array of turbines were simulated in the model. After validation of the model at NOAA tidal gauge stations and NERACOOS buoys, several scenarios; including SLR scenario, and tidal extraction scenario, were examined. In particular, the results of a recent research was used to assess the impacts of SLR on the boundary of the model domain, which was neglected in previous studies. The results of the impacts of the tidal energy extraction with and without the SLR were presented, and compared with those from literature. This includes the decrease of tidal range and M2 amplitude in Minas Basin due to the 2.5 GW extraction scenario, and possible changes in Massachusetts coastal area. The impacts were compared with the level of uncertainty in the model. It was shown that the impact of SLR on the dynamics of

  1. Impact of lateral flow on the transition from connected to disconnected stream-aquifer systems (United States)

    Xian, Yang; Jin, Menggui; Liu, Yanfeng; Si, Aonan


    Understanding the mechanisms by which stream water infiltrates through streambeds to recharge groundwater systems is essential to sustainable management of scarce water resources in arid and semi-arid areas. An inverted water table (IWT) can develop under a stream in response to the desaturation between the stream and underlying aquifer as the system changes from a connected to disconnected status. However, previous studies have suggested that the IWT can only occur at the bottom of a low permeability streambed in which only the vertical flow between the stream and groundwater during disconnection was assumed. In the present study, numerical simulations revealed that the lateral flow induced by capillarity or heterogeneity also plays an essential role on interactions between streams and aquifers. Three pathways were identified for the transition from connection to disconnection in homogenous systems; notably, the lowest point of an IWT can develop not only at the bottom of the streambed but also within the streambed or the aquifer in response to the initial desaturation at, above, or below the interface between the streambed and aquifer (IBSA), respectively. A sensitivity analysis indicated that in wide streams, the lowest point of an IWT only occurs at the bottom of the streambed; however, for a stream half width of 1 m above a 6 m thick sandy loam streambed, the lowest point occurs in the streambed as stream depth is less than 0.5 m. This critical stream depth increases with streambed thickness and decreases with stream width. Thus, in narrow streams the lowest point can also develop in a thick streambed under a shallow stream. In narrow streams, the lowest point also forms in the aquifer if the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed to that of the aquifer is greater than the ratio of the streambed thickness to the sum of the stream depth and the streambed thickness; correspondingly, the streambed is thin but relatively permeable and the stream is

  2. Appraising the extractable tidal energy resource of the UK's western coastal waters. (United States)

    Yates, Nick; Walkington, Ian; Burrows, Richard; Wolf, Judith


    A two-dimensional west coast tidal model, built on the ADCIRC platform (an unstructured grid two-dimensional depth-integrated shallow water model), has been developed to examine the scope for reliable and fully predictable electricity generation from UK coastal waters using an ambitious combination of estuary barrages, tidal lagoons and tidal stream generator arrays. The main emphasis has been towards conjunctive operation of major estuary barrages, initially including the presence of pilot-scale tidal stream developments, though ambitious exploitation of extensive tidal streams has also been explored.

  3. Tidal Power Plant Energy Estimation


    Silva–Casarín R.; Hiriart–Le Bert G.; López–González J.


    In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating:...

  4. Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach to Select Locations for the Practical Harvest of Electricity from Shallow Water Tidal Currents (United States)

    Domenech, John

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its effect on global climates, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes a Clean Power Plan (CPP) mandating CO2 reductions which will likely force the early retirement of inefficient, aging power plants. Consequentially, removing these plants equates to a shortfall of approximately 66 GW of electricity. These factors add to the looming resource problems of choosing whether to build large replacement power plants or consider alternative energy sources as a means to help close the gap between electricity supply and demand in a given region. One energy source, shallow water tidal currents, represents opportunities to convert kinetic energy to mechanical forms and provide electricity to homes and businesses. Nearly 2,000 National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tidal current data points from Maine to Texas are considered. This paper, based on systems engineering thinking, provides key attributes (e.g. turbine efficiency, array size, transmission losses) for consideration as decision makers seek to identify where to site Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems and the number of homes powered by the practical harvest of electricity from tidal currents at those locations with given attributes. A systems engineering process model is proposed for consideration as is a regression based equation to estimate MHK machine parameters needed for power a given number of homes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)


    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M{sub r{sup '}}<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun }, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  6. Tidal disruptions by rotating black holes: relativistic hydrodynamics with Newtonian codes (United States)

    Tejeda, Emilio; Gafton, Emanuel; Rosswog, Stephan; Miller, John C.


    We propose an approximate approach for studying the relativistic regime of stellar tidal disruptions by rotating massive black holes. It combines an exact relativistic description of the hydrodynamical evolution of a test fluid in a fixed curved space-time with a Newtonian treatment of the fluid's self-gravity. Explicit expressions for the equations of motion are derived for Kerr space-time using two different coordinate systems. We implement the new methodology within an existing Newtonian smoothed particle hydrodynamics code and show that including the additional physics involves very little extra computational cost. We carefully explore the validity of the novel approach by first testing its ability to recover geodesic motion, and then by comparing the outcome of tidal disruption simulations against previous relativistic studies. We further compare simulations in Boyer-Lindquist and Kerr-Schild coordinates and conclude that our approach allows accurate simulation even of tidal disruption events where the star penetrates deeply inside the tidal radius of a rotating black hole. Finally, we use the new method to study the effect of the black hole spin on the morphology and fallback rate of the debris streams resulting from tidal disruptions, finding that while the spin has little effect on the fallback rate, it does imprint heavily on the stream morphology, and can even be a determining factor in the survival or disruption of the star itself. Our methodology is discussed in detail as a reference for future astrophysical applications.

  7. Application of a constructed wetland system for polluted stream remediation (United States)

    Tu, Y. T.; Chiang, P. C.; Yang, J.; Chen, S. H.; Kao, C. M.


    In 2010, the multi-function Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland (KRRBW) was constructed to improve the stream water quality and rehabilitate the ecosystem of the surrounding environment of Dashu Region, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The KRRBW consists of five wetland basins with a total water surface area of 15 ha, a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.1 days at a averaged flow rate of 14 740 m3/day, and an averaged water depth of 1.1 m. The influent of KRRBW coming from the local drainage systems containing untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters. Based on the quarterly investigation results of water samples taken in 2011-2012, the overall removal efficiencies were 91% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 75% for total nitrogen (TN), 96% for total phosphorus (TP), and 99% for total coliforms (TC). The calculated first-order decay rates for BOD, TN, TP, NH3-N, and TC ranged from 0.14 (TN) to 0.42 (TC) 1/day. This indicates that the KRRBW was able to remove organics, TC, and nutrients effectively. The high ammonia/nitrate removal efficiency indicates that nitrification and denitrification processes occurred simultaneously in the wetland system, and the detected nitrite concentration confirmed the occurrence of denitrification/nitrification. Results from sediment analyses reveal that the sediment contained high concentrations of organics (sediment oxygen demand = 1.9-5.2 g O2/m2 day), nutrients (up to 15.8 g total nitrogen/kg of sediment and 1.48 g total phosphorus/kg of sediment), and metals (up to 547 mg/kg of Zn and 97 mg/kg of Cu). Appropriate wetland management strategies need to be developed to prevent the release of contaminants into the wetland system. The wetland system caused the variations in the microbial diversities and dominant microbial bacteria. Results show the dominant nitrogen utilization bacteria including Denitratisoma oestradiolicum, Nitrosospira sp., Nitrosovibrio sp., D. oestradiolicum, Alcaligenes sp

  8. Gas stream in Algol. [mass transfer in binary star systems (United States)

    Cugier, H.; Chen, K.-Y.


    Additional absorption features in the red wings of the Mg II resonance lines near 2800 A are found in observations of Algol made from the Copernicus satellite. The absorption features were clearly seen only during a part of the primary eclipse, in the phase interval 0.90-0.03. The observations are interpreted as being produced by a stream of matter flowing from Algol B in the direction of Algol A. The measured Doppler shifts of the features give the value of 150 km/s as the characteristic velocity of matter in the stream. The mass transfer connected with the stream is estimated to be of the order of 10 to the -13th power solar mass per year.

  9. Ocean renewable energy : Tidal power in the Yellow Sea


    Lee, Han Soo


    Ocean renewable energy sources are briefly introduced in this review article. Special focus on tidal energy from ocean renewable energy in the Yellow Sea and its practical utilization in South Korea are illustrated with several examples. Among them, the Sihwa Lake tidal power plant, the Garolim Bay tidal power project, the Incheon tidal power project, and the Uldolmok tidal current power station were introduced with more details. A numerical modelling system, Regional Ocean Tide Simulator, is...

  10. Tidal power in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisiks, E.G.


    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  11. Tidal Power Plant Energy Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva–Casarín R.


    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in "flow tide", "ebb tides" or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports.

  12. Hybrid Peer-to-peer Streaming System for Mobile Peers with Transcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zeng


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study in hybrid peer-to-peer (P2P streaming system, which includes fixed peers and mobile peers in the same network, and propose a flow rate allocation algorithm to optimize the streaming system. In the proposed algorithm, based on transcoding technique, we describe how to exchange original and transcoded data among video source server, fixed and mobile peers. The purpose of our algorithm is to reduce the bandwidth demand of video source server, while ensuring the flow rate of video data sending to any peer no less than its video coding rate. We compare the performance of P2P streaming system using our algorithm with traditional design in various situations in the simulation experiment, and test how much benefit the system can get from the new algorithm. The results show that, if the flow rate of video data is allocated appropriately, better performance of streaming system can be achieved.

  13. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.


    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones

  14. Accelerated tidal circularization via resonance locking in KIC 8164262 (United States)

    Fuller, Jim; Hambleton, Kelly; Shporer, Avi; Isaacson, Howard; Thompson, Susan


    Tidal dissipation in binary star and planetary systems is poorly understood. Fortunately, eccentric binaries known as heartbeat stars often exhibit tidally excited oscillations, providing observable diagnostics of tidal circularization mechanisms and time-scales. We apply tidal theories to observations of the heartbeat star KIC 8164262, which contains an F-type primary in a very eccentric orbit that exhibits a prominent tidally excited oscillation. We demonstrate that the prominent oscillation is unlikely to result from a chance resonance between tidal forcing and a stellar oscillation mode. However, the oscillation has a frequency and amplitude consistent with the prediction of resonance locking, a mechanism in which coupled stellar and orbital evolution maintain a stable resonance between tidal forcing and a stellar oscillation mode. The resonantly excited mode produces efficient tidal dissipation (corresponding to an effective tidal quality factor Q ∼ 5 × 104), such that tidal orbital decay/circularization proceeds on a stellar evolution time-scale.

  15. Developments in tidal power (United States)

    Charlier, R. H.

    Successful, planned, and potential tidal power plants and sites are discussed. Units are in operation in France and Russia, with the French plant using reversible blade turbines being used as a design guide for plants in Argentina and Australia. The U.S. is studying the feasibility of a plant in Passamaquaddy Bay, and Canada is pursuing construction of a plant in the Bay of Fundy. The Severn River in Great Britain is receiving a site study, and over a hundred plants have been built as local power systems in China. Bulb-type turbines, which enhance the volume emptying and filling the retaining basin, are considered as the highest performing power unit. Simpler one-way flow turbines have been suggested as more economical to install. Governmental, institutional, and investor impediments to tidal power plant are explored.

  16. Simulating the large-scale spatial sand-mud distribution in a schematized process-based tidal inlet system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheel, F.; van Ledden, M.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Stive, M.J.F.


    Tidal basins, as found in the Dutch Wadden Sea, are characterized by strong spatial variations in bathymetry and sediment distribution. In this contribution, the aim is at simulating the spatial sand-mud distribution of a tidal basin. Predicting this spatial distribution is however complicated, due

  17. Numerical and experimental investigation on novel systems for harvesting tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coiro, D.P. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering


    Theoretical and experimental tidal current energy investigations currently being conducted at an aerospace engineering department in Italy were presented. The department has set up a test site to harness marine and river current energy in the Messina Strait. A vertical axis hydro turbine developed by the department has been installed at the site. This presentation provided details of unsteady viscous numerical studies conducted to examine flow curvature effects on the turbine's airfoils and rotor design. Numerical studies were also conducted to develop a new generator and optimize the hydrodynamic efficiency of the turbine's rotor. The use of flow increasers to double output power was also examined. The aim of the study was to prove that the vertical axis turbine is capable of reaching the same efficiency levels as horizontal axis turbines. The department is also designing a 300 kW horizontal axis turbine that operates as an underwater ocean kite anchored at the bottom with a winched chain. Details of studies conducted to measure rotational speed, rotor torque, and thrust were presented, as well as details of tests performed at various depths and velocities in order to obtain cavitation numbers for the full-scale turbine. Details of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of the turbine modelled as an actuator disk were also included. tabs., figs.

  18. Stream-lined Gating Systems with Improved Yield - Dimensioning and Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Skov-Hansen, Søren Peter

    The paper describes how a stream-lined gating system where the melt is confined and controlled during filling can be designed. Commercial numerical modelling software has been used to compare the stream-lined design with a traditional gating system. These results are confirmed by experiments where...... the two types of lay-outs are cast in production. It is shown that flow in the stream-lined lay-out is well controlled and that the quality of the castings is as at least equal to that of castings produced with a traditional lay-out. Further, the yield is improved by 4 % relative to a traditional lay-out....

  19. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo; McKnight, Ursula S.; Rønde, Vinni


    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production...... of all three stream compartments – stream water, hyporheic zone, streambed sediment – made it possible to link chemical stressors to their respective sources and obtain new knowledge about source composition and origin. Moreover, toxic unit estimation and comparison to environmental standards revealed...... the stream water quality was substantially impaired by both geogenic and diffuse anthropogenic sources of metals along the entire corridor, while the streambed was less impacted. Quantification of the contaminant mass discharge originating from a former pharmaceutical factory revealed that several 100 kgs...

  20. MODFLOW-NWT model of a hypothetical stream-aquifer system to assess capture map bias (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A MODFLOW-NWT (version 1.0.9) model of a hypothetical stream-aquifer system is presented for the evaluation and characterization of capture map bias. The...

  1. Simulation on Dual-stream Transmission System of Unmanned Tracked Armored Vehicle Using ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei


    Full Text Available For the dual-stream transmission system of unmanned tracked armored vehicle, simulation analysis is carried out. Using SolidWorks to establish three-dimensional model of its chassis, the result of the simulation is processed in AdAMS/Solver. The simulation results are showed in lines. Comparative analysis for each simulation lines is conducted, and it verifies the feasibility of the dual-stream transmission system.

  2. Tidal effects on stellar activity (United States)

    Poppenhaeger, K.


    The architecture of many exoplanetary systems is different from the solar system, with exoplanets being in close orbits around their host stars and having orbital periods of only a few days. We can expect interactions between the star and the exoplanet for such systems that are similar to the tidal interactions observed in close stellar binary systems. For the exoplanet, tidal interaction can lead to circularization of its orbit and the synchronization of its rotational and orbital period. For the host star, it has long been speculated if significant angular momentum transfer can take place between the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation. In the case of the Earth-Moon system, such tidal interaction has led to an increasing distance between Earth and Moon. For stars with Hot Jupiters, where the orbital period of the exoplanet is typically shorter than the stellar rotation period, one expects a decreasing semimajor axis for the planet and enhanced stellar rotation, leading to increased stellar activity. Also excess turbulence in the stellar convective zone due to rising and subsiding tidal bulges may change the magnetic activity we observe for the host star. I will review recent observational results on stellar activity and tidal interaction in the presence of close-in exoplanets, and discuss the effects of enhanced stellar activity on the exoplanets in such systems.

  3. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  4. Clouds, Streams and Bridges. Redrawing the blueprint of the Magellanic System with Gaia DR1 (United States)

    Belokurov, Vasily; Erkal, Denis; Deason, Alis J.; Koposov, Sergey E.; De Angeli, Francesca; Evans, Dafydd Wyn; Fraternali, Filippo; Mackey, Dougal


    We present the discovery of stellar tidal tails around the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) in the Gaia DR1 data. In between the Clouds, their tidal arms are stretched towards each other to form an almost continuous stellar bridge. Our analysis relies on the exquisite quality of the Gaia's photometric catalogue to build detailed star-count maps of the Clouds. We demonstrate that the Gaia DR1 data can be used to detect variable stars across the whole sky, and, in particular, RR Lyrae stars in and around the LMC and the SMC. Additionally, we use a combination of Gaia and GALEX to follow the distribution of Young Main Sequence stars in the Magellanic System. Viewed by Gaia, the Clouds show unmistakable signs of interaction. Around the LMC, clumps of RR Lyrae are observable as far as ˜20°, in agreement with the most recent map of Mira-like stars reported in Deason et al. The SMC's outer stellar density contours show a characteristic S-shape, symptomatic of the onset of tidal stripping. Beyond several degrees from the centre of the dwarf, the Gaia RR Lyrae stars trace the Cloud's trailing arm, extending towards the LMC. This stellar tidal tail mapped with RR Lyrae is not aligned with the gaseous Magellanic Bridge, and is shifted by some ˜5° from the Young Main Sequence bridge. We use the offset between the bridges to put constraints on the density of the hot gaseous corona of the Milky Way.

  5. Tidal wetlands of the Yaquina and Alsea River estuaries, Oregon: Geographic Information Systems layer development and recommendations for National Wetlands Inventory revisions (United States)

    Brophy, Laura S.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Janousek, Christopher N.


    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers of current, and likely former, tidal wetlands in two Oregon estuaries were generated by enhancing the 2010 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with expert local field knowledge, Light Detection and Ranging-derived elevations, and 2009 aerial orthophotographs. Data were generated for two purposes: First, to enhance the NWI by recommending revised Cowardin classifications for certain NWI wetlands within the study area; and second, to generate GIS data for the 1999 Yaquina and Alsea River Basins Estuarine Wetland Site Prioritization study. Two sets of GIS products were generated: (1) enhanced NWI shapefiles; and (2) shapefiles of prioritization sites. The enhanced NWI shapefiles contain recommended changes to the Cowardin classification (system, subsystem, class, and/or modifiers) for 286 NWI polygons in the Yaquina estuary (1,133 acres) and 83 NWI polygons in the Alsea estuary (322 acres). These enhanced NWI shapefiles also identify likely former tidal wetlands that are classified as upland in the current NWI (64 NWI polygons totaling 441 acres in the Yaquina estuary; 16 NWI polygons totaling 51 acres in the Alsea estuary). The former tidal wetlands were identified to assist strategic planning for tidal wetland restoration. Cowardin classifications for the former tidal wetlands were not provided, because their current hydrology is complex owing to dikes, tide gates, and drainage ditches. The scope of this project did not include the field evaluation that would be needed to determine whether the former tidal wetlands are currently wetlands, and if so, determine their correct Cowardin classification. The prioritization site shapefiles contain 49 prioritization sites totaling 2,177 acres in the Yaquina estuary, and 39 prioritization sites totaling 1,045 acres in the Alsea estuary. The prioritization sites include current and former (for example, diked) tidal wetlands, and provide landscape units appropriate for basin

  6. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies? (United States)

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca


    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research.

  7. Modelling the far field hydro-environmental impacts of tidal farms - A focus on tidal regime, inter-tidal zones and flushing (United States)

    Nash, S.; O'Brien, N.; Olbert, A.; Hartnett, M.


    The introduction of tidal stream turbines into water bodies can have an impact on the environment due to changes in the hydrodynamic flow fields resulting from the extraction of energy by the tidal turbines. Water levels, tidal currents and flushing characteristics could potentially be significantly altered with the introduction of tidal turbine farms, which could lead to possible loss of habitat and a change in the tidal regime. Therefore, planning of tidal turbines field deployments must take into account possible hydro-environmental impacts. This paper describes research undertaken by the authors in the Shannon Estuary to predict changes in the tidal regime and flushing characteristics, with the introduction of tidal turbine farms of different array configurations. The model was simulated using a 2D hydrodynamic model that was modified to incorporate the effects of tidal turbine fields. Water levels are shown to have been affected with the inclusion of turbines, especially in areas upstream of the turbine farm where inter-tidal zones could become predominately inundated resulting in loss of habitat in the estuary. Flushing parameters were also shown to be altered with the inclusion of turbines, with residence time shown to be increased, which could change pollutant transport in the region.

  8. Designs and applications for floating-hydro power systems in small streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehder, J.B.


    The project focuses on an appropriate technology for small-scale hydro power: floating waterwheels and turbines. For background, relic and existing systems such as early floating mills, traditional Amish waterwheels, and micro-hydro systems are examined. In the design phase of the project, new designs for Floating Hydro Power Systems include: an analysis of floatation materials and systems; a floating undershot waterwheel design; a floating cylinder (fiberglass storage tank) design; a submerged tube design; and a design for a floating platform with submerged propellers. Finally, in the applications phase, stream flow data from East Tennessee streams are used in a discussion of the potential applications of floating hydro power systems in small streams.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Kozlov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of distributed cluster system creation with streaming data replication. Ways of replication cluster implementation in CORBA-systems with ZeroMq technology are presented. Major advantages of ZeroMQ technology over similar technologies are considered in this type distributed systems creation.

  10. Networked telepresence system using web browsers and omni-directional video streams (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomoya; Yamazawa, Kazumasa; Sato, Tomokazu; Ikeda, Sei; Nakamura, Yutaka; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki; Yokoya, Naokazu


    In this paper, we describe a new telepresence system which enables a user to look around a virtualized real world easily in network environments. The proposed system includes omni-directional video viewers on web browsers and allows the user to look around the omni-directional video contents on the web browsers. The omni-directional video viewer is implemented as an Active-X program so that the user can install the viewer automatically only by opening the web site which contains the omni-directional video contents. The system allows many users at different sites to look around the scene just like an interactive TV using a multi-cast protocol without increasing the network traffic. This paper describes the implemented system and the experiments using live and stored video streams. In the experiment with stored video streams, the system uses an omni-directional multi-camera system for video capturing. We can look around high resolution and high quality video contents. In the experiment with live video streams, a car-mounted omni-directional camera acquires omni-directional video streams surrounding the car, running in an outdoor environment. The acquired video streams are transferred to the remote site through the wireless and wired network using multi-cast protocol. We can see the live video contents freely in arbitrary direction. In the both experiments, we have implemented a view-dependent presentation with a head-mounted display (HMD) and a gyro sensor for realizing more rich presence.

  11. A Context-Aware Adaptive Streaming Media Distribution System in a Heterogeneous Network with Multiple Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yepeng Ni


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of streaming media transmission in a heterogeneous network from a multisource server to home multiple terminals. In wired network, the transmission performance is limited by network state (e.g., the bandwidth variation, jitter, and packet loss. In wireless network, the multiple user terminals can cause bandwidth competition. Thus, the streaming media distribution in a heterogeneous network becomes a severe challenge which is critical for QoS guarantee. In this paper, we propose a context-aware adaptive streaming media distribution system (CAASS, which implements the context-aware module to perceive the environment parameters and use the strategy analysis (SA module to deduce the most suitable service level. This approach is able to improve the video quality for guarantying streaming QoS. We formulate the optimization problem of QoS relationship with the environment parameters based on the QoS testing algorithm for IPTV in ITU-T G.1070. We evaluate the performance of the proposed CAASS through 12 types of experimental environments using a prototype system. Experimental results show that CAASS can dynamically adjust the service level according to the environment variation (e.g., network state and terminal performances and outperforms the existing streaming approaches in adaptive streaming media distribution according to peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  12. Matisse: A Visual Analytics System for Exploring Emotion Trends in Social Media Text Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Pyle, Joshua M [ORNL; BogenII, Paul L. [Google Inc.


    Dynamically mining textual information streams to gain real-time situational awareness is especially challenging with social media systems where throughput and velocity properties push the limits of a static analytical approach. In this paper, we describe an interactive visual analytics system, called Matisse, that aids with the discovery and investigation of trends in streaming text. Matisse addresses the challenges inherent to text stream mining through the following technical contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sentiment/emotion analytics, (3) interactive coordinated visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that accesses multiple levels of detail. In addition to positive/negative sentiment prediction, Matisse provides fine-grained emotion classification based on Valence, Arousal, and Dominance dimensions and a novel machine learning process. Information from the sentiment/emotion analytics are fused with raw data and summary information to feed temporal, geospatial, term frequency, and scatterplot visualizations using a multi-scale, coordinated interaction model. After describing these techniques, we conclude with a practical case study focused on analyzing the Twitter sample stream during the week of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. The case study demonstrates the effectiveness of Matisse at providing guided situational awareness of significant trends in social media streams by orchestrating computational power and human cognition.

  13. Real-Time Clinical Decision Support System with Data Stream Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang


    Full Text Available This research aims to describe a new design of data stream mining system that can analyze medical data stream and make real-time prediction. The motivation of the research is due to a growing concern of combining software technology and medical functions for the development of software application that can be used in medical field of chronic disease prognosis and diagnosis, children healthcare, diabetes diagnosis, and so forth. Most of the existing software technologies are case-based data mining systems. They only can analyze finite and structured data set and can only work well in their early years and can hardly meet today's medical requirement. In this paper, we describe a clinical-support-system based data stream mining technology; the design has taken into account all the shortcomings of the existing clinical support systems.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    hydro-to-electric power system, which is being strongly recognized as a unique and unconventional renewable energy solution, is the marine and hydrokinetic energy conversion technology [8]. Hydrokinetic (In Stream, or water current) energy conversion implies the utilization of the kinetic energy of rivers, streams, tidal ...

  15. GASP. VIII. Capturing the Birth of a Tidal Dwarf Galaxy in a Merging System at z ˜ 0.05 (United States)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Moretti, Alessia; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Fasano, Giovanni; Fritz, Jacopo; Gullieuszik, Marco; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Jaffé, Yara; Bettoni, Daniela


    Within the GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE (GASP) sample, we identified an ongoing 1:1 merger between 2 galaxies and the consequent formation of a tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG). The system is observed at z = 0.05043 and is part of a poor group. Exploiting the exquisite quality of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE)/Very Large Telescope data, we present the spatially resolved kinematics and physical properties of gas and stars of this object and describe its evolutionary history. An old (luminosity weighted age ˜2 × 109 yr), gas-poor, early-type-like galaxy is merging with a younger (luminosity weighted age ˜2.5 × 108 yr), gas-rich, late-type galaxy. The system has a quite strong metallicity gradient, which is indicative of an early-stage phase. Comparing the spatial extension of the star formation at different epochs, we date the beginning of the merger between 2 × 107 yr kinematic pattern reflects that of the late-type object and is distorted in correspondence to the location of the impact. The stellar kinematic instead is more chaotic, as expected for mergers. The gas redistribution in the system induces high levels of star formation between the two components, where we indeed detect the birth of the TDG. This stellar structure has a mass of ˜6 × 109 M ⊙, a radius of ˜2 kpc, and even though it has already accreted large quantities of gas and stars, it is still located within the disk of the progenitor, is characterized by a high velocity dispersion, indicating that it is still forming, is dusty, and has high levels of star formation (star formation rate ˜ 0.3 M ⊙ yr-1). This TDG is originated in an early-stage merger, while these structures usually form in more evolved systems.

  16. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system (United States)

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D. M.; Kirby, J. T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.


    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient-forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  17. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system (United States)

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.


    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  18. Tracer gauge: an automated dye dilution gauging system for ice-affected streams (United States)

    Clow, D.W.; Fleming, A.C.


    In-stream flow protection programs require accurate, real-time streamflow data to aid in the protection of aquatic ecosystems during winter base flow periods. In cold regions, however, winter streamflow often can only be estimated because in-channel ice causes variable backwater conditions and alters the stage-discharge relation. In this study, an automated dye dilution gauging system, a tracer gauge, was developed for measuring discharge in ice-affected streams. Rhodamine WT is injected into the stream at a constant rate, and downstream concentrations are measured with a submersible fluorometer. Data loggers control system operations, monitor key variables, and perform discharge calculations. Comparison of discharge from the tracer gauge and from a Cipoletti weir during periods of extensive ice cover indicated that the root-mean-square error of the tracer gauge was 0.029 m3 s−1, or 6.3% of average discharge for the study period. The tracer gauge system can provide much more accurate data than is currently available for streams that are strongly ice affected and, thus, could substantially improve management of in-stream flow protection programs during winter in cold regions. Care must be taken, however, to test for the validity of key assumptions, including complete mixing and conservative behavior of dye, no changes in storage, and no gains or losses of water to or from the stream along the study reach. These assumptions may be tested by measuring flow-weighted dye concentrations across the stream, performing dye mass balance analyses, and evaluating breakthrough curve behavior.

  19. Evaluation of a stream channel-type system for southeast Alaska. (United States)

    M.D. Bryant; P.E. Porter; S.J. Paustian


    Nine channel types within a hierarchical channel-type classification system (CTCS) were surveyed to determine relations between salmonid densities and species distribution, and channel type. Two other habitat classification systems and the amount of large woody debris also were compared to species distribution and salmonid densities, and to stream channel types....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav BEDZHEV


    Full Text Available The stream ciphers are an important tool for providing information security in the present communication and computer networks. Due to this reason our paper describes a multicore computer system for design of stream ciphers based on the so - named random feedback shift registers (RFSRs. The interest to this theme is inspired by the following facts. First, the RFSRs are a relatively new type of stream ciphers which demonstrate a significant enhancement of the crypto - resistance in a comparison with the classical stream ciphers. Second, the studding of the features of the RFSRs is in very initial stage. Third, the theory of the RFSRs seems to be very hard, which leads to the necessity RFSRs to be explored mainly by the means of computer models. The paper is organized as follows. First, the basics of the RFSRs are recalled. After that, our multicore computer system for design of stream ciphers based on RFSRs is presented. Finally, the advantages and possible areas of application of the computer system are discussed.

  1. Holocene evolution of tidal systems in The Netherlands : Effects of rivers, coastal boundary conditions, eco-engineering species, inherited relief and human interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023190; Pierik, H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33876805X; van der Spek, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413123030; Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374; van Maanen, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411237640; Kleinhans, M.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217675123

    Estuaries and tidal embayments are partly enclosed coastal bodies of water with a free connection to the open sea at their tidal inlet and with minimal (tidal embayments) or substantial fluvial input (estuaries). Their tidal inlets can only remain open over multiple centuries to millennia when (1)

  2. A tidal encounter caught in the act: modelling a star-disc fly-by in the young RW Aurigae system (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Facchini, Stefano; Clarke, Cathie J.; Haworth, Thomas J.


    RW Aurigae (RW Aur) is a binary star system with a long molecular arm trailing the primary star. Cabrit et al. noted the resemblance between this extended structure and the tidal arm stripped from the primary star in the simulations of star-disc encounters by Clarke & Pringle. In this paper, we use new hydrodynamical models and synthetic observations to fit many of the parameters of RW Aur. Using hydrodynamic models, we find that the morphological appearance of RW Aur can be indeed explained by a tidal encounter with the secondary star. We reproduce all the major morphological and kinematic features of the system. Using radiative transfer calculations, we find that synthetic CO and dust continuum observations of our hydrodynamic models agree well with observations. We reproduce all the main features of the line profiles, from emission fluxes to the optical depth of the different components of the system. The agreement between observations and simulations thus lends strong support to the hypothesis of a tidal encounter scenario. Finally, we propose a possible solution for the origin of the dimming of the primary star observed in 2010/2011 by Rodriguez et al.



    Kamran Ahmed Samo*1, Andrew Ragai Henry Rigit2, Imran Ahmed Samo3, Abid Ali Shah Bukhari 4, Ahsanullah Soomro5, Azhaili Baharun6


    Renewable energy is the best solution and alternative to overcome the world growing energy demand and fossil fuels deficiency. Tidal energy is also renewable energy that uses barrage and tide height difference to extract energy. Kuching Barrage located in Sarawak was built to mitigate flood in the city of Kuching and has the potential for development into tidal power station. The purpose of this paper is to offer suitable tidal power plant system for tidal energy harnessing at Kuching Barrage...

  4. Storm surge and tidal range energy (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Robins, Peter; Evans, Paul; Neill, Simon


    The need to reduce carbon-based energy sources whilst increasing renewable energy forms has led to concerns of intermittency within a national electricity supply strategy. The regular rise and fall of the tide makes prediction almost entirely deterministic compared to other stochastic renewable energy forms; therefore, tidal range energy is often stated as a predictable and firm renewable energy source. Storm surge is the term used for the non-astronomical forcing of tidal elevation, and is synonymous with coastal flooding because positive storm surges can elevate water-levels above the height of coastal flood defences. We hypothesis storm surges will affect the reliability of the tidal range energy resource; with negative surge events reducing the tidal range, and conversely, positive surge events increasing the available resource. Moreover, tide-surge interaction, which results in positive storm surges more likely to occur on a flooding tide, will reduce the annual tidal range energy resource estimate. Water-level data (2000-2012) at nine UK tide gauges, where the mean tidal amplitude is above 2.5m and thus suitable for tidal-range energy development (e.g. Bristol Channel), were used to predict tidal range power with a 0D modelling approach. Storm surge affected the annual resource estimate by between -5% to +3%, due to inter-annual variability. Instantaneous power output were significantly affected (Normalised Root Mean Squared Error: 3%-8%, Scatter Index: 15%-41%) with spatial variability and variability due to operational strategy. We therefore find a storm surge affects the theoretical reliability of tidal range power, such that a prediction system may be required for any future electricity generation scenario that includes large amounts of tidal-range energy; however, annual resource estimation from astronomical tides alone appears sufficient for resource estimation. Future work should investigate water-level uncertainties on the reliability and

  5. Nearshore Tests of the Tidal Compensation System for Point-Absorbing Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci


    Full Text Available The power production of the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University is affected by variations of mean sea level. The reason is that these variations change the distance between the point absorber located on the surface and the linear generator located on the seabed. This shifts the average position of the translator with respect to the center of the stator, thereby reducing the generator output power. A device mounted on the point absorber that compensates for tides of small range by regulating the length of the connection line between the buoy at the surface and the linear generator has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the electro-mechanical, measurement, communication and control systems installed on the buoy and shows the results obtained before its connection to the generator. The adjustment of the line was achieved through a linear actuator, which shortens the line during low tides and vice versa. The motor that drives the mechanical device was activated remotely via SMS. The measurement system that was mounted on the buoy consisted of current and voltage sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges and inductive and laser sensors. The data collected were transferred via Internet to a Dropbox server. As described within the paper, after the calibration of the sensors, the buoy was assembled and tested in the waters of Lysekil harbor, a few kilometers from the Uppsala University research site. Moreover, the performance of the sensors, the motion of the mechanical device, the power consumption, the current control strategy and the communication system are discussed.

  6. Implementation of a novel postoperative monitoring system using automated Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) incorporating end-tidal capnography. (United States)

    Blankush, Joseph M; Freeman, Robbie; McIlvaine, Joy; Tran, Trung; Nassani, Stephen; Leitman, I Michael


    Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload. This study investigates whether the implementation of automated devices that utilize ongoing vital signs monitoring and MEWS calculations, inclusive of a score for end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), can be feasibly implemented on the general care hospital floor and effectively identify derangements in a post-operative patient's condition while limiting the amount of false alarms that would serve to increase provider workload. From July to November 2014, post-operative patients meeting the inclusion criteria (BMI > 30 kg/m(2), history of obstructive sleep apnea, or the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or epidural narcotics) were monitored using automated devices that record minute-by-minute VS included in classic MEWS calculations as well as EtCO2. Automated messages via pagers were sent to providers for instances when the device measured elevated MEWS, abnormal EtCO2, and oxygen desaturations below 85 %. Data, including alarm and message details from the first 133 patients, were recorded and analyzed. Overall, 3.3 alarms and pages sounded per hour of monitoring. Device-only alarms sounded 2.7 times per hour-21 % were technical alarms. The remaining device-only alarms for concerning VS sounded 2.0/h, 70 % for falsely recorded VS. Pages for abnormal EtCO2 sounded 0.4/h (82 % false recordings) while pages for low blood oxygen saturation sounded 0.1/h (55 % false alarms). 143 times (0.1 pages/h) the devices calculated a MEWS

  7. Data Stream Processing Study in a Multichannel Telemetry Data Registering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Sidyakin


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research that is aimed to improve the reliability of transmission of telemetry information (TMI through a communication channel with noise from the object of telemeasurements to the telemetry system for collecting and processing data. It considers the case where the quality of received information changes over time, due to movement of the object relative to the receiving station, or other factors that cause changes in the characteristics of noise in the channel, up to the total loss due to some temporary sites. To improve the reliability of transmission and ensure continuous communication with the object, it is proposed to use a multi-channel system to record the TMI. This system consists of several telemetry stations, which simultaneously register data stream transmitted from the telemetry object. The multichannel system generates a single stream of TMI for the user at the output. The stream comprises the most reliable pieces of information, being received at all inputs of the system.The paper investigates the task of constructing a multi-channel registration scheme for telemetry information (TMI to provide a simultaneous reception of the telemeasurement data by multiple telemetry stations and to form a single TMI stream containing the most reliable pieces of received data on the basis of quality analysis of information being received.In a multichannel registering system of TMI there are three main factors affecting the quality of the output of a single stream of information: 1 quality of the method used for protecting against errors during transmission over the communication channel with noise; 2 efficiency of the synchronization process of telemetry frames in the received flow of information; 3 efficiency of the applied criteria to form a single output stream from multiple input streams coming from different stations in the discussed multichannel registering system of TMI.In the paper, in practical

  8. Oblique second-order sand transport pathways on an intertidal sand flat in a natural tidal inlet system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice; Kroon, Aart


    A detailed digital elevation model (DEM) of an intertidal sand flat in the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data, reveals a large elongated bedform field with complex bedform morphologies and drainage channel networks....

  9. Stream catalog of the Wood River Lake System (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information on the red salmon runs to all the major spawning tributaries in the Wood River lake system, Bristol Bay, Alaska from 1946 to 1962 is cataloged in this...

  10. Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilt, de H.A.; Butkovskyi, A.; Tuantet, K.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Fernandes, T.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Zeeman, G.


    Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams was studied. Batch experiments with the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana grown on urine, anaerobically treated black water and synthetic urine were performed to assess the removal of six spiked

  11. An Efficient Resource Management System for a Streaming Media Distribution Network (United States)

    Cahill, Adrian J.; Sreenan, Cormac J.


    This paper examines the design and evaluation of a TV on Demand (TVoD) system, consisting of a globally accessible storage architecture where all TV content broadcast over a period of time is made available for streaming. The proposed architecture consists of idle Internet Service Provider (ISP) servers that can be rented and released dynamically…

  12. Upgrade of U.S. EPA's Experimental Stream Facility Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (United States)

    The Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the U.S. EPA’s Experimental Stream Facility (ESF) was upgraded using Camile hardware and software in 2015. The upgrade added additional hardwired connections, new wireless capabilities, and included a complete rewrit...

  13. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; BogenII, Paul L. [Google Inc.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G [ORNL; Pyle, Joshua M [ORNL


    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.

  14. streamgap-pepper: Effects of peppering streams with many small impacts (United States)

    Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason


    streamgap-pepper computes the effect of subhalo fly-bys on cold tidal streams based on the action-angle representation of streams. A line-of-parallel-angle approach is used to calculate the perturbed distribution function of a given stream segment by undoing the effect of all impacts. This approach allows one to compute the perturbed stream density and track in any coordinate system in minutes for realizations of the subhalo distribution down to 10^5 Msun, accounting for the stream's internal dispersion and overlapping impacts. This code uses galpy (ascl:1411.008) and the galpy extension, which implements the fast calculation of the perturbed stream structure.

  15. Scalable microphone array system optimized for streaming inverse acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.

    Sound source localization by using large microphone arrays commonly requires expensive hardware and an impractical large amount of cables and connectors. Our aim is to develop a compact and low-cost acquisition system that is expandable to hundreds of channels. Our design consists of a ring network

  16. Architecture of portable electronic medical records system integrated with streaming media. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shih, Chien-Chou


    Due to increasing occurrence of accidents and illness during business trips, travel, or overseas studies, the requirement for portable EMR (Electronic Medical Records) has increased. This study proposes integrating streaming media technology into the EMR system to facilitate referrals, contracted laboratories, and disease notification among hospitals. The current study encoded static and dynamic medical images of patients into a streaming video format and stored them in a Flash Media Server (FMS). Based on the Taiwan Electronic Medical Record Template (TMT) standard, EMR records can be converted into XML documents and used to integrate description fields with embedded streaming videos. This investigation implemented a web-based portable EMR interchanging system using streaming media techniques to expedite exchanging medical image information among hospitals. The proposed architecture of the portable EMR retrieval system not only provides local hospital users the ability to acquire EMR text files from a previous hospital, but also helps access static and dynamic medical images as reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed method protects property rights of medical images through information security mechanisms of the Medical Record Interchange Service Center and Health Certificate Authorization to facilitate proper, efficient, and continuous treatment of patients.

  17. Reinterpreting The Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Debris (United States)

    Newby, Matthew T.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Thompson, Jeffery M.; Weiss, Jake


    Tidal debris from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr) has been used as a primary constraint in several determinations of the Milky Way Galaxy's total mass and dark matter distribution. However, the apparent "bifurcation" of both the leading and trailing tidal tails has never been satisfactorily explained. Using the powerful MilkyWay@home volunteer computing platform, we were surprised that the apparently fainter of the bifurcated tidal tails required an extremely wide stream to fit the observed stellar densities. Here, through additional analysis, we show that both the primary and secondary tidal tails of Sgr, as well as the Virgo overdensity, are all wider than previously thought, and dominate star counts in the Galactic halo. Additionally, we present evidence of a stellar "envelope" about the primary Sgr stream, which may be direct evidence for a subhalo-rich (or "lumpy") dark matter distribution. This research was supported by the NSF through grant AST 10-09670, and crowd funding from the MilkyWay@home volunteers.

  18. System and method for image registration of multiple video streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillavou, Marcus W.; Shum, Phillip Corey; Guthrie, Baron L.; Shenai, Mahesh B.; Deaton, Drew Steven; May, Matthew Benton


    Provided herein are methods and systems for image registration from multiple sources. A method for image registration includes rendering a common field of interest that reflects a presence of a plurality of elements, wherein at least one of the elements is a remote element located remotely from another of the elements and updating the common field of interest such that the presence of the at least one of the elements is registered relative to another of the elements.

  19. Integrating tidal and nontidal ecological assessments (United States)

    Mark Southerland; Roberto Llanso


    The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) has a long history of conducting rigorous assessments of ecological conditions in both tidal and nontidal waters. The Long-Term Benthic (LTB) Monitoring Program and the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) both use reference-based indicators of benthic invertebrate communities to provide areawide estimates of ...

  20. Stellar Death by Black Hole: How Tidal Disruption Events Unveil the High Energy Universe (United States)

    Coughlin, Eric Robert


    When a star comes very close to a supermassive black hole, the tidal field of the hole can be strong enough to deform and stretch the star into a stream of debris. Half of this stellar debris stream returns to the black hole and forms an accretion disk, briefly lighting up the black hole and, in the most extreme cases, launching relativistic jets. These ``tidal disruption events,'' from the initial stellar destruction to the eventual jet production, are the focus of my thesis, and during this talk I will describe some of the theoretical advances we have made in understanding them. I will also discuss more recent work that shows how this relatively simple picture can be more complicated when the disrupting black hole is part of a binary system. Despite the added complexity, I will argue that there is a timescale over which one expects to see variation in the luminosity of a tidal disruption event from a binary supermassive black hole system. Using these predictions and a set of simulations, I will motivate such an interpretation for the superluminous supernova ASASSN-15lh.

  1. The MainSTREAM Component Platform: A Holistic Approach to Microfluidic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Søe, Martin Jensen


    of reaction chips; (2) highly parallel pumping and routing/valving capability; (3) methods to interface pumps and chip-to-liquid management systems; (4) means to construct a portable system; (5) reconfigurability/flexibility in system design; (6) means to interface to microscopes; and (7) compatibility...... with tested biological methods. It was found that LEGO Mindstorms motors, controllers, and software were robust, inexpensive, and an accessible choice as compared with corresponding custom-made actuators. MainSTREAM systems could operate continuously for weeks without leaks, contamination, or system failures...

  2. Workshop on tidal power and the environment in the 21. century : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    There is substantial interest in marine renewable energy development, particularly in ocean energy from waves, tidal power barrages, or from tidal stream turbines. This document provided a summary of the issues discussed at a workshop held by the Offshore Energy Environmental Research Association (OEER) on tidal research issues and priorities. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the opportunities and implications of using tidal stream generators to capture energy from the Bay of Fundy tides in Nova Scotia. Workshop participants included proponents, engineers, environmental scientists, regulators and non-government organizations. This summary report reviewed the opportunities presented for tidal power generation. It also identified and discussed the environmental implications of new proposals and suggested research strategies to address these implications. The workshop considered the issue of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and the appropriateness of OEER doing the SEA. The first day of the workshop involved a public forum on tidal energy. Participants discussed ecological issues; socioeconomic and community issues; physical processes and technology; policy and assessment processes; governance; resources; and modeling. The history of tidal power in the Bay of Fundy was also presented along with a review of in-stream tidal energy technology; general environmental issues for an in-stream tidal power plant feasibility study; and a regulatory overview. tabs., figs.

  3. ANALISIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI LAHAN PASANG SURUT UNTUK MENDUKUNG PENGEMBANGAN AGROINDUSTRI WILAYAH (An Analysis Integrated Farming System in Tidal Swamp Land to Support Regional Agroindustrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustan Massinai


    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed to the efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing the use of agriculture and livestock by-products. Each chain of cycle resulted a new product that has high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize the empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The objective of this research was to analyze integrated farming system in tidal swamp land to support agroindustry development in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. This research was done with survey and interview method in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. Primary data was collected from May 2011 to December 2011. The results showed that the management of agro-based enterprises integrated farming (rice, coffee and cattle obtained by the BC Ratio = 1.09, (greater than 1, IRR = 16,7% greater than the rate bank interest rate (12% and NPV values obtained for Rp 37,349,080 is positive (+, then the utilization of integrated agro-based farming in tidal land eligible to be developed. Agro-industry development opportunities based integrated farming in tidal land in the future have a chance to be applied in other areas, it can anticipate the growing number of people who have added each year. Keywords: Integrated farming system analysis, tidal swamp land, agroindustry   ABSTRAK Sistem pertanian terpadu diarahkan pada upaya memperpanjang siklus biologis dengan mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan hasil samping pertanian dan peternakan. Setiap mata rantai siklus menghasilkan produk baru yang memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi, sehingga dengan sistem ini diharapkan pemberdayaan dan pemanfaatan lahan marginal di seluruh daerah dapat lebih dioptimalkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sistem usahatani terpadu (Integrated Farming System di lahan pasang surut untuk mendukung pengembangan agroindustri di Kabupaten Pulang Pisau Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan metode survei dan wawancara

  4. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mehdian


    Full Text Available In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  5. Evaluation of an adsorption system to concentrate VOC in air streams prior to catalytic incineration. (United States)

    Campesi, María A; Luzi, Carlos D; Barreto, Guillermo F; Martínez, Osvaldo M


    Catalytic combustion is a well-developed process for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to reduce both the amount of catalyst needed for incineration and the surface area of recuperative heat exchangers, an evaluation of the use of thermal swing adsorption as a previous step for VOC concentration is made. An air stream containing ethyl acetate and ethanol (employed as solvents in printing processes) has been taken as a case study. Based on the characteristics of the adsorption/desorption system and the properties of the stream to be treated, a monolithic rotor concentrator with activated carbon as adsorbent material is adopted. Once the temperature of the inlet desorption stream TD is chosen, the minimum possible desorption flow rate, WD,min, and the amount of adsorbent material can be properly defined according to the extent of the Mass Transfer Zone (MTZ) at the end of the adsorption stage. An approximate procedure to speed up the calculations needed for sizing the bed and predicting the operating variables is also presented. In the case studied here, the concentration of the VOC stream can reach 6 times that of the primary effluent when TD = 200 °C is chosen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)


    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. No Snowball on Habitable Tidally Locked Planets (United States)

    Checlair, Jade; Menou, Kristen; Abbot, Dorian S.


    The TRAPPIST-1, Proxima Centauri, and LHS 1140 systems are the most exciting prospects for future follow-up observations of potentially inhabited planets. All of the planets orbit nearby M-stars and are likely tidally locked in 1:1 spin-orbit states, which motivates the consideration of the effects that tidal locking might have on planetary habitability. On Earth, periods of global glaciation (snowballs) may have been essential for habitability and remote signs of life (biosignatures) because they are correlated with increases in the complexity of life and in the atmospheric oxygen concentration. In this paper, we investigate the snowball bifurcation (sudden onset of global glaciation) on tidally locked planets using both an energy balance model and an intermediate-complexity global climate model. We show that tidally locked planets are unlikely to exhibit a snowball bifurcation as a direct result of the spatial pattern of insolation they receive. Instead, they will smoothly transition from partial to complete ice coverage and back. A major implication of this work is that tidally locked planets with an active carbon cycle should not be found in a snowball state. Moreover, this work implies that tidally locked planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone with low CO2 outgassing fluxes will equilibrate with a small unglaciated substellar region rather than cycling between warm and snowball states. More work is needed to determine how the lack of a snowball bifurcation might affect the development of life on a tidally locked planet.

  8. Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.; Belt, K.C.


    We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media

  9. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream. (United States)

    Yusupbekov, N R; Marakhimov, A R; Igamberdiev, H Z; Umarov, Sh X


    This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach.

  10. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream (United States)

    Marakhimov, A. R.; Igamberdiev, H. Z.; Umarov, Sh. X.


    This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081

  11. Development of a Multi-Stream Monitoring and Control System for Dense Medium Cyclones


    Addison, Coby Braxton


    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) have become the workhorse of the coal preparation industry due to their high efficiency, large capacity, small footprint and low maintenance requirements. Although the advantages of DMCs make them highly desirable, size-by-size partitioning data collected from industrial operations suggest that DMC performance can suffer in response to fluctuations in feed coal quality. In light of this problem, a multi-stream monitoring system that simultaneously measures the den...

  12. Performance Evaluation of UML2-Modeled Embedded Streaming Applications with System-Level Simulation


    Tero Arpinen; Erno Salminen; Timo D. Hämäläinen; Marko Hännikäinen


    This article presents an efficient method to capture abstract performance model of streaming data real-time embedded systems (RTESs). Unified Modeling Language version 2 (UML2) is used for the performance modeling and as a front-end for a tool framework that enables simulation-based performance evaluation and design-space exploration. The adopted application meta-model in UML resembles the Kahn Process Network (KPN) model and it is targeted at simulation-based performance evaluation. The app...

  13. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)


    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  14. Tidal viscosity of Enceladus (United States)

    Efroimsky, Michael


    In the preceding paper (Efroimsky, 2017), we derived an expression for the tidal dissipation rate in a homogeneous near-spherical Maxwell body librating in longitude. Now, by equating this expression to the outgoing energy flux due to the vapour plumes, we estimate the mean tidal viscosity of Enceladus, under the assumption that the Enceladean mantle behaviour is Maxwell. This method yields a value of 0.24 × 1014 Pa s for the mean tidal viscosity, which is very close to the viscosity of ice near the melting point.

  15. A Complexity-Aware Video Adaptation Mechanism for Live Streaming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Homer H


    Full Text Available The paradigm shift of network design from performance-centric to constraint-centric has called for new signal processing techniques to deal with various aspects of resource-constrained communication and networking. In this paper, we consider the computational constraints of a multimedia communication system and propose a video adaptation mechanism for live video streaming of multiple channels. The video adaptation mechanism includes three salient features. First, it adjusts the computational resource of the streaming server block by block to provide a fine control of the encoding complexity. Second, as far as we know, it is the first mechanism to allocate the computational resource to multiple channels. Third, it utilizes a complexity-distortion model to determine the optimal coding parameter values to achieve global optimization. These techniques constitute the basic building blocks for a successful application of wireless and Internet video to digital home, surveillance, IPTV, and online games.

  16. Study on the geochemical character of carbon and nitrogen and sedimentary environment evolution of radial tidal sand ridges system in the South Yellow Sea, China (United States)

    Ge, C.


    07SR03 core was collected from Dabei trough eastern sand ridge of radial tidal and ridge system in Jiangsu offshore, South Yellow Sea in China. The present work integrates sedimentary facies,14C dating, δ13C, and C/N with geologic and geomorphologic data available from literature. Twenty-eight sediment samples recorded ages ranging from 7490±50 to 41420±61514C yr B.P.. Facies analysis indicated fine to coarse grained sands with parallel lamination or cross stratification, massive or laminated muds . δ13C values are in the range of -26.504‰ to -21.812‰, and C/N ratios are in the range of 0.045 to 64.156. These indicate the organic matters have typical characteristics of mixed terrigenous and marine provenance. The results confirm an obvious land-sea interaction in the South Yellow Sea since late Pleistocene. At the depth of 18-20 m and 55.6 to 70 m corresponding to the sedimentary facies of land clay and river deposition respectively, which indicate the regression period in lower sea level, δ13C values are higher obviously. These may result from the C4 plant growing in the study area during those times. According to the 07SR03 information and relevant literature, determine the sea level fluctuations in DaBei trough area around the South Yellow Sea since late pleistocene. Transgressive and regressive were alternating since 50kaB.P.. About 20kaB. P. with the Last Glacial Maximum coming the relative sea-level dropped to -100m. With the increasing temperature, the sea level rises gradually except for the little regression during Younger Dryas period. From then on, the sea level rises rapidly with the advent of Holocene transgression, followed by the slow falling and then being relatively stable. The distribution of δ13C, and C/N with the depth of the core, together with facies associations, led to identify depositional settings related to tidal sand ridge facies, shoreland, tidal flat, land clay sedimentation, tidal flat and river deposition (from the top

  17. Tidal disruption by extreme mass ratio binaries and application to ASASSN-15lh (United States)

    Coughlin, Eric R.; Armitage, Philip J.


    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) observed in massive galaxies with inferred central black hole masses Mh > 108 M⊙ are presumptive candidates for TDEs by lower mass secondaries in binary systems. We use hydrodynamic simulations to quantify the characteristics of such TDEs, focusing on extreme mass ratio binaries and mpc separations where the debris stream samples the binary potential. The simulations are initialized with disruption trajectories from three-body integrations of stars with parabolic orbits with respect to the binary centre of mass. The most common outcome is found to be the formation of an unbound debris stream, with either weak late-time accretion or no accretion at all. A substantial fraction of streams remain bound, however, and these commonly yield structured fallback rate curves that exhibit multiple peaks or sharp drops. We apply our results to the superluminous supernova candidate ASASSN-15lh and show that its features, including its anomalous rebrightening at ˜100 d after detection, are consistent with the tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole in a binary system.

  18. Characterizing the differences in bankfull channel geometry across the tidal-fluvial zone of micro- to macro- tidal fluvial systems: Lower Trinity River, TX, USA vs Chehalis River, WA, USA (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Prokocki, E.; Best, J.; Ashworth, P. J.; Simpson, C.; Constantine, S.


    Bankfull channel width measurements and bankfull stage-discharge relationships, coupled with published and/or collected channel depth sounding readings, were utilized to examine bankfull channel geometries (in the single-thread meandering channel reaches only) spanning from the fluvial 'normal flow' moving downstream through the tidal-fluvial 'backwater' hydraulic regime of two rivers that are micro- (lower Trinity River) and macro- tidally influenced (Chehalis River). This analysis reveals that moving downstream from the fully-fluvial 'normal flow' regime through to the tidal-fluvial 'backwater' regime, the micro-tidal lower Trinity River displays: (a) a decrease in bankfull channel width and an increase in bankfull channel depth, (b) a decrease in bankfull channel width/depth ratio, (c) a bankfull channel cross-sectional area that remains nearly constant, and (d) both measured and calculated bankfull discharge remains constant at approximately 900 m3sec-1. Conversely, the macro-tidal lower Chehalis River displays: (a) an increase in both bankfull channel width and depth, (b) bankfull channel width/depth ratios that remain constant, (c) a bankfull channel cross-sectional area that increases significantly, and (d) both measured and/or calculated bankfull discharge values range from approximately 800 (normal flow) to 10,000 m3sec-1 (downstream end of backwater regime). Importantly, along the Chehalis River a maximum of ~ 2,000 m3sec-1 of the total bankfull water discharge (10,000 m3sec-1), at the downstream end of the 'backwater flow' regime, can be accounted for by the Chehalis River proper and two tributary inputs. This suggests, at this channel cross-sectional location, that the additional 8,000 m3sec-1 of total bankfull water discharge must be supplied by the downstream tidally-sourced component of total water discharge. These results, coupled with the rates of change of measured and/or computed metrics from above, will be utilized to provide insight into the

  19. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš


    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  20. Sustainable tidal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsum, E. van


    North America is increasingly searching for ways to achieve energy self-sufficiency. This paper discussed the tidal power potential of the Upper Bay of Fundy, located on Canada's east coast. The Bay of Fundy has the largest tides in the world. It is also close to a major electricity market. Tidal power plants could mean substantial quantities of clean, renewable energy. Some of the environmental concerns with the development of tidal power plants on the Bay of Fundy include: siltation, shorebird survival, fish-stock survival, sea-mammal survival, drainage of agricultural lands, and changes in the tidal regime of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine Basin. In this paper, the author proved that it is possible to qualitatively assess those concerns, but that the quantitative assessment is more complex. A quantitative assessment of the effect on living organisms would require assessing the overall performance of an ecologically designed, built and operated pilot tidal power plant. The author argued that a full-fledged tidal power plant construction can take place once a pilot plant has been proven to operate symbiotically with a thriving marine shore-based flora and fauna. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of mobile harvesting equipment and sediment delivery to streams during forest harvest operations on steep terrain: Experimental design (United States)

    Daniel Bowker; Jeff Stringer; Chris Barton; Songlin. Fei


    Sediment mobilized by forest harvest machine traffic contributes substantially to the degradation of headwater stream systems. This study monitored forest harvest machine traffic to analyze how it affects sediment delivery to stream channels. Harvest machines were outfitted with global positioning system (GPS) dataloggers, recording machine movements and working status...

  2. System and process for capture of acid gasses at elevated pressure from gaseous process streams (United States)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Linehan, John C.; Rainbolt, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.; Zheng, Feng


    A system, method, and material that enables the pressure-activated reversible chemical capture of acid gasses such as CO.sub.2 from gas volumes such as streams, flows or any other volume. Once the acid gas is chemically captured, the resulting product typically a zwitterionic salt, can be subjected to a reduced pressure whereupon the resulting product will release the captures acid gas and the capture material will be regenerated. The invention includes this process as well as the materials and systems for carrying out and enabling this process.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, Vera [Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute, Research Centre of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, Budapest (Hungary); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 08544, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat.

  4. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  5. Assessment of Kinetic Tidal Energy Resources Using SELFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasa Ranjan Behera


    Full Text Available An investigation is carried out to study the theoretical tidal stream energy resource in the Singapore Strait to support the search for renewable energy in the effort to reduce the carbon footprints in the Southeast Asia. The tidal hydrodynamics in the Singapore Strait has been simulated using a Semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian Finite-Element (SELFE model solving the 3D shallow water equations with Boussinesq approximations. Potential sites, with high tidal current (2.5 m/s and suitable for Tidal Energy Converter (TEC array installation to generate sustainable energy, have been identified. Further, various operational factors for installation of Tidal Energy Converters are considered before computing the theoretical power output for a typical TEC array. An approximate estimation of the possible theoretical power extraction from a TEC array shows an energy potential of up to 4.36% of the total energy demand of Singapore in 2011. Thus, the study suggests a detailed investigation of potential sites to quantify the total tidal stream energy potential in the Singapore Strait.

  6. Measuring aerobic respiration in stream ecosystems using the resazurin-resorufin system (United States)

    GonzáLez-Pinzón, Ricardo; Haggerty, Roy; Myrold, David D.


    The use of smart tracers to study hydrologic systems is becoming more widespread. Smart tracers are compounds that irreversibly react in the presence of a process or condition under investigation. Resazurin (Raz) is a smart tracer that undergoes an irreversible reduction to resorufin (Rru) in the presence of cellular metabolic activity. We quantified the relationship between the transformation of Raz and aerobic bacterial respiration in pure culture experiments using two obligate aerobes and two facultative anaerobes, and in colonized surface and shallow (respiration in all experiments. These results suggest that Raz can be used as a surrogate to measure respiration in situ and in vivoat different spatial scales, thus providing an alternative to investigate mechanistic controls of solute transport and stream metabolism on nutrient processing. Lastly, a comparison of respiration and mass-transfer rates in streams suggests that field-scale respiration is controlled by the slower of respiration and mass transfer, highlighting the need to understand both biogeochemistry and physics in stream ecosystems.

  7. Tidal Dissipation in WASP-12 (United States)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Essick, Reed


    WASP-12 is a hot Jupiter system with an orbital period of P = 1.1 days, making it one of the shortest-period giant planets known. Recent transit timing observations by Maciejewski et al. and Patra et al. found a decreasing period with P/| \\dot{P}| = 3.2 Myr. This has been interpreted as evidence of either orbital decay due to tidal dissipation or a long-term oscillation of the apparent period due to apsidal precession. Here, we consider the possibility that it is orbital decay. We show that the parameters of the host star are consistent with either a M * ≃ 1.3 M ⊙ main sequence star or a M * ≃ 1.2 M ⊙ subgiant. We find that if the star is on the main sequence, the tidal dissipation is too inefficient to explain the observed \\dot{P}. However, if it is a subgiant, the tidal dissipation is significantly enhanced due to nonlinear wave-breaking of the dynamical tide near the star’s center. The subgiant models have a tidal quality factor Q{{\\prime} }* ≃ 2× {10}5 and an orbital decay rate that agrees well with the observed \\dot{P}. It would also explain why the planet survived for ≃3 Gyr while the star was on the main sequence and yet is now inspiraling on a 3 Myr timescale. Although this suggests that we are witnessing the last ∼0.1% of the planet’s life, the probability of such a detection is a few percent given the observed sample of ≃30 hot Jupiters in P 1.2 M ⊙ hosts.

  8. Adaptive-array Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostics using data streaming in a Software Defined Radio system (United States)

    Idei, H.; Mishra, K.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Hamasaki, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Onchi, T.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; the QUEST Team


    Measurement of the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) spectrum is one of the most popular electron temperature diagnostics in nuclear fusion plasma research. A 2-dimensional ECE imaging system was developed with an adaptive-array approach. A radio-frequency (RF) heterodyne detection system with Software Defined Radio (SDR) devices and a phased-array receiver antenna was used to measure the phase and amplitude of the ECE wave. The SDR heterodyne system could continuously measure the phase and amplitude with sufficient accuracy and time resolution while the previous digitizer system could only acquire data at specific times. Robust streaming phase measurements for adaptive-arrayed continuous ECE diagnostics were demonstrated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis with the SDR system. The emission field pattern was reconstructed using adaptive-array analysis. The reconstructed profiles were discussed using profiles calculated from coherent single-frequency radiation from the phase array antenna.

  9. Morphodynamics of tidal networks: advances and challenges (United States)

    Coco, G.; Olabarrieta, M.; van Maanen, B.; Zhou, Z.; Tinoco, R.


    Tidal embayments are complex environments at the boundary between land and sea. Their evolution, natural or human-induced, feeds back onto ecological, economic and societal functions. Overall, the ability to manage tidal embayments successfully and maintain their value hinges on our knowledge of the system. The morphological behaviour of tidal embayments, however, is very complex because of the variety of feedback mechanisms which lead to morphological change. In recent years, numerical studies have highlighted that the feedback between the hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphological evolution can lead to the development of tidally-forced morphological networks characterized by slowly-evolving bifurcating channels. Both tidal range and the initial bathymetry appear to have a strong control on the morphological characteristics of the tidal network by affecting final basin hypsometry and channel patterns. Although promising, none of the numerical models presented in the literature and capable of simulating the growth of a tidal network have been scrutinized against field or laboratory data. Here, we show and discuss the performance of one of those numerical models against detailed laboratory data. Preliminary results indicate that numerical simulations can reproduce the general features of pattern development but that a better description of many fast- and small-scale processes is needed to achieve better model-data agreement. Unsurprisingly, the model shows a strong sensitivity to frictional effects and resuspension parameterizations. Numerical models of morphodynamics tend to neglect some physical or biological processes that affect the short- and long-term evolution of tidal networks. In terms of physical processes, wind waves, interacting with the ebb shoal and tidal currents at the mouth of the embayment can significantly affect hydro- and morphodynamics. Under high wave conditions waves can break in the inlet area producing wave induced circulation

  10. The γ-ray afterglows of tidal disruption events. (United States)

    Chen, Xian; Gómez-Vargas, Germán Arturo; Guillochon, James


    A star wandering too close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) will be tidally disrupted. Previous studies of such 'tidal disruption event' (TDE) mostly focus on the stellar debris that are bound to the system, because they give rise to luminous flares. On the other hand, half of the stellar debris in principle are unbound and can stream to a great distance, but so far there is no clear evidence that this 'unbound debris stream' (UDS) exists. Motivated by the fact that the circum-nuclear region around SMBHs is usually filled with dense molecular clouds (MCs), here we investigate the observational signatures resulting from the collision between an UDS and an MC, which is likely to happen hundreds of years after a TDE. We focus on γ-ray emission (0.1-10(5) GeV), which comes from the encounter of shock-accelerated cosmic rays with background protons and, more importantly, is not subject to extinction. We show that because of the high proton density inside an MC, the peak γ-ray luminosity, about 10(39) erg s(-1), is at least 100 times greater than that in the case without an MC (only with a smooth interstellar medium). The luminosity decays on a time-scale of decades, depending on the distance of the MC, and about a dozen of these 'TDE afterglows' could be detected within a distance of about 16 Mpc by the future Cherenkov Telescope Array. Without careful discrimination, these sources potentially could contaminate the searches for starburst galaxies, galactic nuclei containing millisecond pulsars or dark matter annihilation signals.

  11. Quality Analysis of Massive High-Definition Video Streaming in Two-Tiered Embedded Camera-Sensing Systems


    Joongheon Kim; Eun-Seok Ryu


    This paper presents the quality analysis results of high-definition video streaming in two-tiered camera sensor network applications. In the camera-sensing system, multiple cameras sense visual scenes in their target fields and transmit the video streams via IEEE 802.15.3c multigigabit wireless links. However, the wireless transmission introduces interferences to the other links. This paper analyzes the capacity degradation due to the interference impacts from the camera-sensing nodes to the ...

  12. Geometric properties of hydraulic-relevant tidal bedforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Ferret, Yann; Lefebvre, Alice


    Large compound tidal bedforms (also termed dunes, sandwaves, megaripples by different authors) constitute prominent roughness elements in tidal channels and estuaries. Quantitative knowledge on their geometry, dynamics and hydraulic effect is crucial for coastal system understanding and process...... to technical constraints and data reduction the (historic) data bases mostly are restricted to information on mean geometrical states, whereas individual bedform properties are often not reported. Recently Lefebvre et al. (2011) showed that the hydraulic effect of asymmetric compound tidal bedforms depends...... on the tidal stage: Whereas the secondary bedforms act as roughness elements throughout the tidal cycle, the large primary bedforms dominate the hydraulics when the tidal flow is in the (dominant) direction of the bedform orientation (e.g. ebb-directed primary bedforms act during ebb currents) when...

  13. Turbulent viscosity and Jupiter's tidal Q. [energy dissipation function (United States)

    Goldreich, P.; Nicholson, P. D.


    A recent estimate of tidal dissipation by turbulent viscosity in Jupiter's convective interior predicts that the current value of the planet's tidal Q is roughly 5 million. We point out a fundamental error in this calculation, and show that turbulent dissipation alone implies that at present Q is about 50 trillion. Our reduced estimate for the rate of tidal dissipation shows conclusively that tidal torques have produced only negligible modifications of the orbits of the Galilean satellites over the age of the solar system.

  14. Performance Evaluation of UML2-Modeled Embedded Streaming Applications with System-Level Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpinen Tero


    Full Text Available This article presents an efficient method to capture abstract performance model of streaming data real-time embedded systems (RTESs. Unified Modeling Language version 2 (UML2 is used for the performance modeling and as a front-end for a tool framework that enables simulation-based performance evaluation and design-space exploration. The adopted application meta-model in UML resembles the Kahn Process Network (KPN model and it is targeted at simulation-based performance evaluation. The application workload modeling is done using UML2 activity diagrams, and platform is described with structural UML2 diagrams and model elements. These concepts are defined using a subset of the profile for Modeling and Analysis of Realtime and Embedded (MARTE systems from OMG and custom stereotype extensions. The goal of the performance modeling and simulation is to achieve early estimates on task response times, processing element, memory, and on-chip network utilizations, among other information that is used for design-space exploration. As a case study, a video codec application on multiple processors is modeled, evaluated, and explored. In comparison to related work, this is the first proposal that defines transformation between UML activity diagrams and streaming data application workload meta models and successfully adopts it for RTES performance evaluation.

  15. Biological Implications of Internal Waves and Internal Tidal Bores in the Southern Part of the California Current System (United States)

    Ladah, L. B.; Leichter, J. J.; Tapia, F. J.


    Internal waves and internal tidal bores have been shown to cause rapid changes in temperature associated with vertical and horizontal displacements of water masses in many settings. Their role in the cross-shore transport of matter and energy implies that internal motions have important biological ramifications, particularly in biogeographic transition zones, such as the Southern California Current. Benthic invertebrates and macroalgae depend greatly on the nearshore pelagic environment for the transport of larvae and nutrients. We present 2 examples of how internal motions may modulate benthic populations in this transition zone by enhancing the transport of larvae or the provision of nutrients from offshore sites to the coast. At two sites along the Baja California peninsula, high-frequency variability in thermal structure and horizontal flows were observed. Physical observations show episodes (lasting about 1 h) of rapid variations (every 1 to 5 min) in horizontal flows and temperature in the nearshore water column. We show that the timing and intensity of larval settlement, as well as the residence of cold nutrient - rich water on the shelf, is related with internal motions just offshore. Variability in the direction from which these perturbations propagate may determine small-scale spatial patterns in demography of benthic populations. We discuss the importance of these events in modulating benthic invertebrate and macroalgal populations and how climate change in this transition zone may have important biological consequences via changes in thermocline depth and its subsequent impact on the occurrence of internal motions.

  16. Assessment of tidal circulation and tidal current asymmetry in the Iroise sea with specific emphasis on characterization of tidal energy resources around the Ushant Island. (United States)

    Thiébaut, Maxime; Sentchev, Alexei


    We use the current velocity time series recorded by High Frequency Radars (HFR) to study circulation in highly energetic tidal basin - the Iroise sea. We focus on the analysis of tidal current pattern around the Ushant Island which is a promising site of tidal energy. The analysis reveals surface current speeds reaching 4 m/s in the North of Ushant Island and in the Fromveur Strait. In these regions 1 m/s is exceeded 60% of time and up to 70% of time in center of Fromveur. This velocity value is particularly interesting because it represents the cut-in-speed of the most of marine turbine devices. Tidal current asymmetry is not always considered in tidal energy site selection. However, this quantity plays an important role in the quantification of hydrokinetic resources. Current velocity times series recorded by HFR highlights the existence of a pronounced asymmetry in current magnitude between the flood and ebb tide ranging from -0.5 to more 2.5. Power output of free-stream devices depends to velocity cubed. Thus a small current asymmetry can generate a significant power output asymmetry. Spatial distribution of asymmetry coefficient shows persistent pattern and fine scale structure which were quantified with high degree of accuracy. The particular asymmetry evolution on both side of Fromveur strait is related to the spatial distribution of the phase lag of the principal semi-diurnal tidal constituent M2 and its higher order harmonics. In Fromveur, the asymmetry is reinforced due to the high velocity magnitude of the sixth-diurnal tidal harmonics. HF radar provides surface velocity speed, however the quantification of hydrokinetic resources has to take into account the decreasing of velocity with depth. In order to highlight this phenomenon, we plot several velocity profiles given by an ADCP which was installed in the HFR study area during the same period. The mean velocity in the water column calculated by using the ADCP data show that it is about 80% of the

  17. Documentation of a daily mean stream temperature module—An enhancement to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (United States)

    Sanders, Michael J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Regan, R. Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight


    A module for simulation of daily mean water temperature in a network of stream segments has been developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This new module is based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stream Network Temperature model, a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport model. The new module is integrated in PRMS. Stream-water temperature simulation is activated by selection of the appropriate input flags in the PRMS Control File and by providing the necessary additional inputs in standard PRMS input files.This report includes a comprehensive discussion of the methods relevant to the stream temperature calculations and detailed instructions for model input preparation.

  18. Streaming TPEG contents in the MPEG-4 system over DMB network (United States)

    Jung, Hyun; Cha, Kyung-Ae; Lim, Jeongyoen; Kim, Munchurl


    Telematics, a compound word with Telecommunications and Informatics, represents a kind of information service which, for example, provides traffic, public transport and emergency information to automobile terminals via mobile communication networks such CDMA and GSM. Moreover telematics services make it possible for users to access their necessary information anytime anywhere. TPEG (Transport Protocol Experts Group) is an expert group which aims at defining a byte-oriented protocol for broadcasting of transport information. Transport information includes Road Traffic Messages, Public Transport Information and Location Information which enable safe and efficient driving for drivers. TPEG data is to be serviced over the DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) system so that traffic and travel information can then broadcast to the DAB terminals. Recently, Korea begins to start the DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) service which is based on H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding), BSAC (Bit Sliced Arithmetic Coder) over the MPEG-4 System. The DMB service has an aim at providing digital broadcasting service to mobile terminals, and utilizes the stream mode of the DAB system in order to deliver streaming contents over the DAB network. We include the TPEG contents in the MPEG-4 System as an additional object in addition to the DMB video object (H.264/MPEG-4 AVC) and audio object (MPEG-4 BSAC). In our implementation, the TPEG content with the DMB content allows to be delivered in a unified framework. This service can be a converging way of broadcasting and telematics, which is called Broadtelematics. In this paper, we show a scheme for the TPEG service over the DMB terminal, and exhibit the system implementation and experimental results.

  19. Groundwater and stream E. coli concentrations in coastal plain watersheds served by onsite wastewater and a municipal sewer treatment system. (United States)

    Humphrey, Charles; Finley, Algernon; O'Driscoll, Michael; Manda, Alex; Iverson, Guy


    The goal of this study was to determine if onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWS) were influencing groundwater and surface water Escherichia coli concentrations in a coastal plain watershed. Piezometers for groundwater monitoring were installed at four residences served by OWS and five residences served by a municipal wastewater treatment system (MWS). The residences were located in two different, but nearby (Effluent from the four septic tanks, groundwater from piezometers, and the streams draining the OWS and MWS watersheds were sampled on five dates between September 2011 and May 2012. Groundwater E. coli concentrations and specific conductivity were elevated within the flow path of the OWS and near the stream, relative to other groundwater sampling locations in the two watersheds. Groundwater discharge in the OWS watershed could be a contributor of E. coli to the stream because E. coli concentrations in groundwater at the stream bank and in the stream were similar. Stream E. coli concentrations were higher for the OWS in relation to MWS watersheds on each sampling date. Water quality could be improved by ensuring OWS are installed and operated to maintain adequate separation distances to water resources.

  20. Tidal power plants in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernshtein, L.B. (Hydroproject Assoc., Moscow (Russian Federation))


    This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

  1. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System. (United States)

    Doyle, Andy; Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren


    Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years.

  2. Optimal policies for activated sludge treatment systems with multi effluent stream generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia R.


    Full Text Available Most industrial processes generate liquid waste, which requires treatment prior to disposal. These processes are divided into sectors that generate effluents with time dependent characteristics. Each sector sends the effluent to wastewater treatment plants through pumping-stations. In general, activated sludge is the most suitable treatment and consists of equalization, aeration and settling tanks. During the treatment, there is an increase in the mass of microorganisms, which needs to be removed. Sludge removal represents the major operating costs for wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work is to propose an optimization model to minimize sludge generation using a superstructure in which the streams from pumping-stations can be sent to the equalization tank. In addition, the aeration tank is divided into cells that can be fed in series and parallel. The model relies on mass balances, kinetic equations, and the resulting Nonlinear Programming problem generates the best operational strategy for the system feed streams with a high substrate removal. Reductions of up to 30 % can be achieved with the proposed strategy maintened BOD efficiency removal upper than 98 %.

  3. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)


    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  4. On the superposition of bedforms in a tidal channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, C; Vittori, G.; Ernstsen, V.B.


    High resolution bathymetric measurements reveal the super-imposition of bedforms in the Grådyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea. Preliminary results of numerical model simulations are discussed: A linear stability model was tested to explain the large bedforms as being caused by tidal system ...

  5. Modeling of channel patterns in short tidal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciano, R.; Wang, Z.B.; Hibma, A.; De Vriend, H.J.; Defina, A.


    We model branching channel patterns in short tidal basins with two methods. A theoretical stability analysis leads to a relationship between the number of channels and physical parameters of the tidal system. The analysis reveals that width and spacing of the channels should decrease as the slope of

  6. Temporal bed level variations in the Yangtze tidal flats (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, H.; Van Prooijen, B.C.


    The Yangtze River is one of the largest rivers in the world and the longest one in Asia. Its estuary forms an important entrance for shipping, but is also a key ecological system. Especially the inter-tidal flats are valuable habitats. The health and integrity of the estuarine tidal flat are however

  7. Stellar streams and the galaxies they reside in (United States)

    Pearson, Sarah


    As galaxies collide, as smaller galaxies are disrupted by larger galaxies, or as clusters of stars orbit a galaxy, a gravitational tidal interaction unfolds and the systems tear apart into distinct morphological and kinematic structures. In my thesis, I have exploited these structures to understand various components of galaxies, such as the baryon cycle in dwarf galaxy interactions (Pearson et al. 2016, Pearson et al. 2017b). In this talk, I will focus on my thesis work related to the stellar stream emerging from the old, globular cluster, Palomar 5 (Pal 5), orbiting our own Milky Way. As the stellar stream members were once closely tied together in energy and angular momentum space, we can use their distribution in phase space to trace back where they were once located and what affected them along their paths. In particular, I will show that the mere existence of Pal 5’s thin stream can rule out a moderately triaxial potential model of our Galaxy (Pearson et al. 2015) and that the debris of Pal 5-like streams will spread much further in space in a triaxial potential (a mechanism which I dubbed “stream fanning”) . Additionally, I will show that the Milky Way's Galactic bar, can punch holes in stellar streams and explain the recently discovered length asymmetry between Pal 5’s leading and trailing arm (Pearson et al. 2017a). These holes grow and have locations along stellar streams dependent on the Galactic bar orientation, mass and rotational speed, which provides an intriguing methodology for studying our own Milky Way’s Galactic bar in more detail. The fact that the bar can create under densities in stellar streams, further demonstrates that we should be careful when interpreting gaps in stellar streams as indirect evidence of the existence of dark matter subhalos in our Galaxy.

  8. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperatures in the Columbia River System (United States)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Crozier, L.


    The Columbia River system, a drainage basin of 668,000 sq. km that includes the Columbia and Snake River rivers, supports a large population of anadromous, cold-water fishes. 13 species of these fishes are listed under the Endangered Species Act and are vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Bioenergetics models for these species have been developed by the federal agencies that operate the Federal Columbia River Power System. These models simulate the impacts on anadromous fishes as they move through the power system both upstream as adults and downstream as juveniles. Water temperature simulations required for input to the bioenergetics models were made for two different segments of the Columbia River system; one being the portions from the Canadian border to Bonneville Dam and the Snake River from Brownlee Dam in Idaho to its confluence and the other, the Salmon River basin in Idaho. Simulations were performed for the period 1928-1998 with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model, RBM, for existing conditions and for a two 2040 climate scenarios, a cool, dry condition (ECHO_g model) and a warm, wet condition (MIROC_3.2 model). Natural flows were simulated with the variable infiltration capacity model, VIC, and modified for Columbia River project operations using HYDSIM, a hydro system regulation model that simulates month-to-month operation of the Pacific Northwest hydropower system.

  9. Propagation of tidal waves up in Yangtze Estuary during the dry season (United States)

    Lu, Sheng; Tong, Chaofeng; Lee, Dong-Young; Zheng, Jinhai; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yixin


    Tide is one of the most important hydrodynamic driving forces and has unique features in the Yangtze Estuary (YE) due to the complex geometry of third-order bifurcations and four outlets. This paper characterizes the tidal oscillations, tidal dampening, tidal asymmetry, and tidal wave propagation, which provides insights into the response of the estuary to tides during the dry season. The structural components of tidal oscillations are initially attained by tidal analysis. The increasingly richer spectrum inside the estuary shows an energy transfer corresponding to the generation and development of nonlinear overtides and compound tides. A 2-D numerical model is further set up to reproduce tidal dynamics in the estuary. The results show that the estuary is a strongly dissipative estuary with a strong nonlinear phenomenon. Three amplifications are presented in the evolution process of tidal ranges due to the channel convergence. Tidal asymmetry is spatiotemporally characterized by the M4/M2 amplitude ratio, the 2M2-M4 phase difference, and the flood-ebb duration-asymmetry parameter, and the estuary tends to be flood-dominant. There exists mimic standing waves with the phase difference of the horizontal and vertical tide close to 90° when tidal wave propagates into the estuary, especially during the neap tide. In addition, the differences in tidal distortion, tidal ranges, and tidal waves along the two routes in the South Branch (S-B) suggest the branched system behaves differently from a single system.

  10. System design and treatment efficiency of a surface flow constructed wetland receiving runoff impacted stream water. (United States)

    Maniquiz, M C; Choi, J Y; Lee, S Y; Kang, C G; Yi, G S; Kim, L H


    This study reported the efficiency of a free water surface flow constructed wetland (CW) system that receives runoff impacted stream water from a forested and agricultural watershed. Investigations were conducted to examine the potential effect of hydraulic fluctuations on the CW as a result of storm events and the changes in water quality along the flow path of the CW. Based on the results, the incoming pollutant concentrations were increased during storm events and greater at the near end of the storm than at the initial time of storm. A similar trend was observed to the concentrations exiting the CW due to the wetland being a relatively small percentage of the watershed (time during storm events. The concentrations of most pollutants were significantly reduced (p retention of most pollutants during storm events as the actual water quality of the outflow was significantly better by 21-71% than the inflow and the levels of pollutants were reduced to appreciable levels.

  11. Elliptical Accretion and Low Luminosity from High Accretion Rate Stellar Tidal Disruption Events (United States)

    Svirski, Gilad; Piran, Tsvi; Krolik, Julian


    Models for tidal disruption events (TDEs) in which a supermassive black hole disrupts a star commonly assume that the highly eccentric streams of bound stellar debris promptly form a circular accretion disc at the pericentre scale. However, the bolometric peak luminosity of most TDE candidates, ˜ 1044 erg s- 1, implies that we observe only ˜1 per cent of the energy expected from radiatively efficient accretion. Even the energy that must be lost to circularize the returning tidal flow is larger than the observed energy. Recently, Piran et al. suggested that the observed optical TDE emission is powered by shocks at the apocentre between freshly infalling material and earlier arriving matter. This model explains the small radiated energy, the low temperature and the large radius implied by the observations as well as the t-5/3 light curve. However the question of the system's low bolometric efficiency remains unanswered. We suggest that the high orbital energy and low angular momentum of the flow make it possible for magnetic stresses to reduce the matter's already small angular momentum to the point at which it can fall ballistically into the supermassive black hole before circularization. As a result, the efficiency is only ˜1-10 per cent of a standard accretion disc's efficiency. Thus, the intrinsically high eccentricity of the tidal debris naturally explains why most TDE candidates are fainter than expected.

  12. Tidal Tales II: Molecular Gas and Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers (United States)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul A.; Groppi, Christopher E.


    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio pivotal role in the formation of most large galaxies. Tidal debris regions have large amounts of neutral gas but a lower gas density and may have higher turbulence. We use star formation tracers such as young star cluster populations and H-alpha and CII emission to determine the different factors that may influence star formation in tidal debris. These tracers were compared to the reservoirs of molecular and neutral gas available for star formation to estimate the star formation efficiency (SFE). The SFR in tidal debris can reach up to 50% of the total star formation in the system. The SFE of tidal tails in minor mergers can range over orders of magnitude on both local and global scales. From the tidal debris environments in our study, this variance appears to stem from the formation conditions of the debris. Current surveys of the 2.12 micron line of molecular hydrogen, CO(1-0), and HI for 15 minor mergers, are providing a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation that can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  13. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers (United States)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Scowen, Paul A.; Groppi, Christopher E.


    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio pivotal role in the formation of most large galaxies. Tidal debris regions have large amounts of neutral gas but a lower gas density and may have higher turbulence. We use star formation tracers such as young star cluster populations and H-alpha and CII emission to determine the different factors that may influence star formation in tidal debris. These tracers were compared to the reservoirs of molecular and neutral gas available for star formation to estimate the star formation efficiency (SFE). The SFR in tidal debris can reach up to 50% of the total star formation in the system. The SFE of tidal tails in minor mergers can range over orders of magnitude on both local and global scales, and include several star forming regions with higher than normal SFE. From the tidal debris environments in our study, this variance appears to stem from the formation conditions of the debris. Current surveys of the 2.12 micron line of molecular hydrogen, CO(1-0), and HI for 15 minor mergers, are providing a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation that can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  14. Streams with Strahler Stream Order (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  15. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan A.


    Full Text Available In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s−1 at peak, rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ∼ 2 − 5, created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  16. Biological Removal of Ammonia from Contaminated Air Streams Using Biofiltration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri, H Taghipour, B Bina, H Movahdian


    Full Text Available Ammonia is a colorless, toxic, reactive and corrosive gas with a sharp odor. It is irritating to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Ammonia gas occurs in the environment naturally and is emitted by many industries and, therefore, its control is essential. Biofiltration is a new emerging technology that is being used as a control procedure. This study evaluates the use of a mixture of compost, sludge, and pieces of PVC as biofilter media to remove ammonia gas. The study investigates the effects of parameters such as inlet concentration, accumulation time, and depth of filter media to evaluate the removal efficiency. A laboratory scale biofilter column was built and operated to investigate the removal of ammonia from a waste gas stream. The findings indicate that for inlet concentrations of 236 ppm, and ammonia loading of less than 9.86 g-NH3/m3.h at empty bed residence time of 1 min, an ammonia removal efficiency of more than 99.9% was obtained. The acclimation period of the bacteria was 10 days. The average pressure drop during measurement was 4.44 mm H2O. The study also revealed that for concentration levels of 99, 211, and 236 ppmv, biofilter media depths of 40, 80, and 120 cm will be required, respectively. The results obtained in this study indicate that the biofiltration system composed of compost in the mixture of sludge and smashed polyvinyl chloride as biofilter media is an efficient method for the removal of ammonia from waste gas streams. It is also found that the optimum depth of biofilter media depends on the inlet concentration of ammonia.

  17. In-stream nitrate responses integrate human and climate systems in an intensively managed landscape (United States)

    Ward, A. S.; Davis, C. A.; Burgin, A. J.; Loecke, T.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Schnoebelen, D. J.; Just, C. L.; Thomas, S. A.; Weber, L. J.; St Clair, M. A.; Spak, S.; Dalrymple, K. E.; Li, Y.; Prior, K.


    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is a cornerstone of modern agriculture, but the practice also leads to eutrophication, hypoxia, and harmful algal blooms in both inland and coastal waters. Several studies identify Iowa, Illinois and Indiana as major source areas of N discharged by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico where large-scale hypoxia develops annually. Continental-scale management of nitrogen requires a comprehensive understanding of watershed-specific hydrologic dynamics and their consequences for nitrate flushing from agricultural landscapes. Spatiotemporal variation in nitrate fluxes is inherently complex due to the broad range of physicochemical and hydraulic properties that influence N movement through soils, groundwater, and rivers. In-stream N fluxes respond to both short- and long-term climactic forcing interacting with the cumulative human modification to both physical and biogeochemical systems in agricultural catchments. Here, we synthesize results from three individual studies in the Iowa River watershed. First, we demonstrate significant inter- and intra-annual variability in stream responses to rainfall events as a function of antecedent moisture conditions in three nested catchments (first through third-order). This study highlights the use of in-situ, high temporal resolution sensor networks as an emerging tool. Next, we leverage a catchment-wide synoptic study repeated in 2013 to demonstrate the landscape-scale impact of climate dynamics interacting with management decisions on the landscape. This study highlights the role of changes in extreme event frequency on water quality in agricultural landscapes. Finally, we extend results onto the landscape, using a numerical model to quantify heterogeneity of key controlling variables within the landscape (e.g., soil texture) and N retention or mobilization. We compare variability in key controls with variability driven by climate over a 60-yr period of record.

  18. Tidal Power in the UK and Worldwide to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Hammons


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of Tidal Power in the UK in fulfilling the UK's requirements for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Generating electricity from tidal range of the Severn Estuary has the potential to generate some 5% of UK electricity from a renewable indigenous resource. The paper focuses primarily on the proposed Severn Barrage considering potential benefits, conditions for sustainable development, energy policy context and compliance with environment legislation. UK tidal resource is reviewed: stream resource (that is KE contained in fast-flowing tidal currents, and tidal range resource (that refers to gravitation potential energy. The top tidal range and tidal stream sites in the UK with the resource (in TWh/year are indicated. A feasibility study for Tidal Range development in the Mersey Estuary is also summarised and other schemes including the Loughor Estuary (Wales, Duddon Estuary (located on the Cumbrian coast and the Thames Estuary proposals are reported. Also given is a strategic overview of the Severn Estuary resource, electric output and characteristics, carbon emissions (carbon payback and carbon reduction potential and physical implications of a barrage.

  19. Using Video Streaming: Setting Up a Cheap System for Distributing Information to Teachers and Students (United States)

    McNeal, Thomas, Jr.; Kearns, Landon


    Video streaming can be a very useful tool for educators. It is now possible for a school?s technical specialist or classroom teacher to create a streaming server with tools that are available in many classrooms. In this article we describe how we created our video streamer using free software, older computers, and borrowed hardware. The system…

  20. Dissipation of Tidal Energy (United States)


    The moon's gravity imparts tremendous energy to the Earth, raising tides throughout the global oceans. What happens to all this energy? This question has been pondered by scientists for over 200 years, and has consequences ranging from the history of the moon to the mixing of the oceans. Richard Ray at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and Gary Egbert of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. studied six years of altimeter data from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite to address this question. According to their report in the June 15 issue of Nature, about 1 terawatt, or 25 to 30 percent of the total tidal energy dissipation, occurs in the deep ocean. The remainder occurs in shallow seas, such as on the Patagonian Shelf. 'By measuring sea level with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter, our knowledge of the tides in the global ocean has been remarkably improved,' said Richard Ray, a geophysicist at Goddard. The accuracies are now so high that this data can be used to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. (Red areas, above) The deep-water tidal dissipation occurs generally near rugged bottom topography (seamounts and mid-ocean ridges). 'The observed pattern of deep-ocean dissipation is consistent with topographic scattering of tidal energy into internal motions within the water column, resulting in localized turbulence and mixing', said Gary Egbert an associate professor at OSU. One important implication of this finding concerns the possible energy sources needed to maintain the ocean's large-scale 'conveyor-belt' circulation and to mix upper ocean heat into the abyssal depths. It is thought that 2 terawatts are required for this process. The winds supply about 1 terawatt, and there has been speculation that the tides, by pumping energy into vertical water motions, supply the remainder. However, all current general circulation models of the oceans ignore the tides. 'It is possible that properly

  1. Mass transfer, transiting stream, and magnetopause in close-in exoplanetary systems with applications to WASP-12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, D.; Helling, C.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.


    We study mass transfer by Roche lobe overflow in close-in exoplanetary systems. The planet's atmospheric gas passes through the inner Lagrangian point and flows along a narrow stream, accelerating to 100-200 km s(-1) velocity before forming an accretion disk. We show that the cylinder-shaped

  2. A Novel Multimedia Streaming System for Urban Rail Environments Using Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José


    to passenger devices using Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology. Such a multimedia distribution system can be deployed incrementally, as it can function concurrently with Wi-Fi connections already available in a number of trains. This paper presents the results obtained by emulating multimedia streaming...

  3. New architecture for MPEG video streaming system with backward playback support. (United States)

    Fu, Chang-Hong; Chan, Yui-Lam; Ip, Tak-Piu; Siu, Wan-Chi


    MPEG digital video is becoming ubiquitous for video storage and communications. It is often desirable to perform various video cassette recording (VCR) functions such as backward playback in MPEG videos. However, the predictive processing techniques employed in MPEG severely complicate the backward-play operation. A straightforward implementation of backward playback is to transmit and decode the whole group-of-picture (GOP), store all the decoded frames in the decoder buffer, and play the decoded frames in reverse order. This approach requires a significant buffer in the decoder, which depends on the GOP size, to store the decoded frames. This approach could not be possible in a severely constrained memory requirement. Another alternative is to decode the GOP up to the current frame to be displayed, and then go back to decode the GOP again up to the next frame to be displayed. This approach does not need the huge buffer, but requires much higher bandwidth of the network and complexity of the decoder. In this paper, we propose a macroblock-based algorithm for an efficient implementation of the MPEG video streaming system to provide backward playback over a network with the minimal requirements on the network bandwidth and the decoder complexity. The proposed algorithm classifies macroblocks in the requested frame into backward macroblocks (BMBs) and forward/backward macroblocks (FBMBs). Two macroblock-based techniques are used to manipulate different types of macroblocks in the compressed domain and the server then sends the processed macroblocks to the client machine. For BMBs, a VLC-domain technique is adopted to reduce the number of macroblocks that need to be decoded by the decoder and the number of bits that need to be sent over the network in the backward-play operation. We then propose a newly mixed VLC/DCT-domain technique to handle FBMBs in order to further reduce the computational complexity of the decoder. With these compressed-domain techniques, the

  4. Movement patterns of Brook Trout in a restored coastal stream system in southern Massachusetts (United States)

    Snook, Erin L.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Dubreuil, Todd L.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Danylchuk, Andy J.


    Coastal Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are found from northern Canada to New England. The extent of anadromy generally decreases with latitude, but the ecology and movements of more southern populations are poorly understood. We conducted a 33-month acoustic telemetry study of Brook Trout in Red Brook, MA, and adjacent Buttermilk Bay (marine system) using 16 fixed acoustic receivers and surgically implanting acoustic transmitters in 84 individuals. Tagged Brook Trout used the stream, estuary (50% of individuals) and bay (10% of individuals). Movements into full sea water were brief when occurring. GAMM models revealed that transitions between habitat areas occurred most often in spring and fall. Environmental data suggest that use of the saline environment is limited by summer temperatures in the bay. Movements may also be related to moon phase. Compared to more northern coastal populations of Brook Trout, the Red Brook population appears to be less anadromous overall, yet the estuarine segment of the system may have considerable ecological importance as a food resource.

  5. Tidal and subtidal hydrodynamics and energetics in a constricted estuary (United States)

    Zarzuelo, Carmen; López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Díez-Minguito, Manuel; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel


    The dynamics of coastal plain estuaries are mainly associated with variable tidal forcing and local winds in combination with bathymetric complexity and coastline irregularity. Specific features, such as constricted areas, can potentially affect and energize the hydrodynamics of these types of systems. Particularly, tidal range and tidal currents can be significantly amplified where the incoming tidal wave becomes constricted. In this work, the impact of a narrow constriction on a mesotidal estuary was analysed at tidal and subtidal time scales. Tidal hydrodynamics, energy fluxes and energy dissipation were determined for the entire Cádiz Bay (southwestern Spain) using the Delft3D numerical model. Field observations were used to analyse tidal propagation and energy dissipation along the bay constriction and to calibrate and test the numerical model. The results indicate that the presence of the constriction transformed and distorted the tide and increased the tidal range and flow velocities along the channel, with implications on energy dissipation. The tidal currents were oriented along-channel at the central part of the constriction, although abrupt bathymetric changes at the channel inner boundary provoked a sudden rotation of the flow. Although the energy fluxes were higher for spring tides and were strongly influenced by winds, the energy dissipation was controlled by bed shear stresses and vertical dispersion. The significance of this energy dissipation was that it destabilized the water column, which resulted in a weakly stratified system with implications on water quality. At a subtidal scale, the residual water volume exchange was the result of the combined effects of the neap/spring tides, wind and waves, whereas tides were dominant at the tidal scale.

  6. Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events (United States)

    Bonnerot, Clément; Price, Daniel J.; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M.


    When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to pervade its debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of ˜10. However, this value represents a lower limit since it increases with numerical resolution. For an initial field strength of 1 G, the magnetic field never becomes dynamically important. Instead, the disruption of a star with a strong 1 MG magnetic field produces a debris stream within which magnetic pressure becomes similar to gas pressure a few tens of hours after disruption. If the remnant of one or multiple partial disruptions is eventually fully disrupted, its magnetic field could be large enough to magnetically power the relativistic jet detected from Swift J1644+57. Magnetized streams could also be significantly thickened by magnetic pressure when it overcomes the confining effect of self-gravity.

  7. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)


    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  8. Tidal Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzenmuller, Nickolas [Univ of Washington; Aliseda, Alberto [Univ of Washington; Palodichuk, Michael [Univ of Washington; Polagye, Brian [Univ of Washington; Thomson, James [Univ of Washington; Chime, Arshiya [Univ of Washington; Malte, Philip [Univ of washington


    This technical report contains results on the following topics: 1) Testing and analysis of sub-scale hydro-kinetic turbines in a flume, including the design and fabrication of the instrumented turbines. 2) Field measurements and analysis of the tidal energy resource and at a site in northern Puget Sound, that is being examined for turbine installation. 3) Conceptual design and performance analysis of hydro-kinetic turbines operating at high blockage ratio, for use for power generation and flow control in open channel flows.

  9. User aware video streaming (United States)

    Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy


    We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.

  10. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  11. Integrated assessment of chemical stressors and ecological impact in mixed land use stream systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo

    activities, including contaminated sites. To determine potential impacts, the chemical quality of both organic (i.e. pharmaceuticals, gasoline constituents, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides) and inorganic (i.e. metals, general water chemistry and macroions) compounds was assessed in all three stream...... stream compartments revealed a substantial influence on both stream water and hyporheic zone from the diffuse metal sources (aluminum, barium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc) of both geogenic and anthropogenic origin in the catchment. The release of metals (particularly copper, nickel, zinc) was additionally...... their mutual importance and to reveal “new” sources. It further demonstrated the importance of contaminated sites as a potential noteworthy source to continuously impact the chemical stream quality (> ½ tonne per year of organic xenobiotics). An assessment of the chemical patterns (similarities) along...

  12. Microwave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.


    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, high temperature capability refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. The invention may be incorporated into a high temperature process device and implemented in situ for example, such as with a DC graphite electrode plasma arc furnace. The invention further provides a system for the elemental analysis of process streams by removing particulate and/or droplet samples therefrom and entraining such samples in the gas flow which passes through the plasma flame. Introduction of and entraining samples in the gas flow may be facilitated by a suction pump, regulating gas flow, gravity or combinations thereof.

  13. Sampling frequency for water quality variables in streams: Systems analysis to quantify minimum monitoring rates. (United States)

    Chappell, Nick A; Jones, Timothy D; Tych, Wlodek


    Insufficient temporal monitoring of water quality in streams or engineered drains alters the apparent shape of storm chemographs, resulting in shifted model parameterisations and changed interpretations of solute sources that have produced episodes of poor water quality. This so-called 'aliasing' phenomenon is poorly recognised in water research. Using advances in in-situ sensor technology it is now possible to monitor sufficiently frequently to avoid the onset of aliasing. A systems modelling procedure is presented allowing objective identification of sampling rates needed to avoid aliasing within strongly rainfall-driven chemical dynamics. In this study aliasing of storm chemograph shapes was quantified by changes in the time constant parameter (TC) of transfer functions. As a proportion of the original TC, the onset of aliasing varied between watersheds, ranging from 3.9-7.7 to 54-79 %TC (or 110-160 to 300-600 min). However, a minimum monitoring rate could be identified for all datasets if the modelling results were presented in the form of a new statistic, ΔTC. For the eight H(+), DOC and NO3-N datasets examined from a range of watershed settings, an empirically-derived threshold of 1.3(ΔTC) could be used to quantify minimum monitoring rates within sampling protocols to avoid artefacts in subsequent data analysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly Scalable Monitoring System on Chip for Multi-Stream Auto-Adaptable Vision System


    Isavudeen, Ali; Ngan, Nicolas; DOKLADALOVA, Eva; Akil , Mohamed


    International audience; The integration of multiple and technologically heterogeneous sensors (infrared, color, etc) in vision systems tend to democratize. The objective is to benefit from the multi-modal perception allowing to improve the quality and ro-bustness of challenging applications such as the advanced driver assistance, 3-D vision, inspection systems or military observation equipment. However, the multiplication of heterogeneous processing pipelines makes the design of efficient com...

  15. Query Processing on Data Streams


    Stegmaier, Bernhard


    Data stream processing is currently gaining importance due to the rapid increase in data volumes and developments in novel application areas like e-science, e-health, and e-business. In this thesis, we propose an architecture for a data stream management system and investigate methods for query processing on data streams in such systems. In contrast to traditional database management systems (DBMSs), queries on data streams constitute continuous subscriptions for retrieving interesting data r...

  16. Stream Crossings (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  17. Development, installation and testing of a large-scale tidal current turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thake, J.


    This report summarises the findings of the Seaflow project to investigate the feasibility of building and operating a commercial scale marine current horizontal axis tidal turbine and to evaluate the long-term economics of producing electricity using tidal turbines. Details are given of competitive tidal stream technologies and their commercial status, the selection of the site on the North Devon coast of the UK, and the evaluation of the turbine design, manufacture, testing, installation, commissioning, and maintenance of the turbine. The organisations working on the Seaflow project and cost estimations are discussed.

  18. Energy potential of a tidal fence deployed near a coastal headland. (United States)

    Draper, S; Borthwick, A G L; Houlsby, G T


    Enhanced tidal streams close to coastal headlands appear to present ideal locations for the deployment of tidal energy devices. In this paper, the power potential of tidal streams near an idealized coastal headland with a sloping seabed is investigated using a near-field approximation to represent a tidal fence, i.e. a row of tidal devices, in a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical model. Simulations indicate that the power extracted by the tidal fence is limited because the flow will bypass the fence, predominantly on the ocean side, as the thrust applied by the devices increases. For the dynamic conditions, fence placements and headland aspect ratios considered, the maximum power extracted at the fence is not related in any obvious way to the local undisturbed kinetic flux or the natural rate of energy dissipation due to bed friction (although both of these have been used in the past to predict the amount of power that may be extracted). The available power (equal to the extracted power net of vertical mixing losses in the immediate wake of devices) is optimized for devices with large area and small centre-to-centre spacing within the fence. The influence of energy extraction on the natural flow field is assessed relative to changes in the M2 component of elevation and velocity, and residual bed shear stress and tidal dispersion.

  19. System-level design methodology for streaming multi-processor embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolov, Hristo N.


    This dissertation introduces new design methodology for automated design, programming, and implementation of multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) starting at a high level of abstraction. The proposed methodology offers a fully integrated tool-flow for very fast exploration and implementation of

  20. Assessment of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts on Physical Systems: Development of MHK Module and Analysis of Effects on Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping


    In this report we describe (1) the development, test, and validation of the marine hydrokinetic energy scheme in a three-dimensional coastal ocean model (FVCOM); and (2) the sensitivity analysis of effects of marine hydrokinetic energy configurations on power extraction and volume flux in a coastal bay. Submittal of this report completes the work on Task 2.1.2, Effects of Physical Systems, Subtask, Hydrodynamics and Subtask, Screening Analysis, for fiscal year 2011 of the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy project.

  1. Modeling the Gravitational Potential of a Cosmological Dark Matter Halo with Stellar Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Robyn E. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th St, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hartke, Johanna; Helmi, Amina, E-mail: [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)


    Stellar streams result from the tidal disruption of satellites and star clusters as they orbit a host galaxy, and can be very sensitive probes of the gravitational potential of the host system. We select and study narrow stellar streams formed in a Milky-Way-like dark matter halo of the Aquarius suite of cosmological simulations, to determine if these streams can be used to constrain the present day characteristic parameters of the halo’s gravitational potential. We find that orbits integrated in both spherical and triaxial static Navarro–Frenk–White potentials reproduce the locations and kinematics of the various streams reasonably well. To quantify this further, we determine the best-fit potential parameters by maximizing the amount of clustering of the stream stars in the space of their actions. We show that using our set of Aquarius streams, we recover a mass profile that is consistent with the spherically averaged dark matter profile of the host halo, although we ignored both triaxiality and time evolution in the fit. This gives us confidence that such methods can be applied to the many streams that will be discovered by the Gaia mission to determine the gravitational potential of our Galaxy.

  2. Gravitational tidal effects on galactic open clusters (United States)

    Bergond, G.; Leon, S.; Guibert, J.


    We have investigated the 2-D stellar distribution in the outer parts of three nearby open clusters: NGC 2287 (equiv M 41), NGC 2516, and NGC 2548 (equiv M 48). Wide-field star counts have been performed in two colours on pairs of digitized ESO and SRC Schmidt plates, allowing us to select likely cluster members in the colour-magnitude diagrams. Cluster tidal extensions were emphasized using a wavelet transform. Taking into account observational biases, namely the galaxy clustering and differential extinction in the Galaxy, we have associated these stellar overdensities with real open cluster structures stretched by the galactic gravitational field. As predicted by theory and simulations, and despite observational limitations, we detected a general elongated (prolate) shape in a direction parallel to the galactic Plane, combined with tidal tails extended perpendicularly to it. This geometry is due both to the static galactic tidal field and the heating up of the stellar system when crossing the Disk. The time varying tidal field will deeply affect the cluster dynamical evolution, and we emphasize the importance of adiabatic heating during the Disk-shocking. In the case of NGC 2548, our dating of the last shocking with the Plane (based on a tidal clump) is consistent with its velocity. During the 10-20 Z-oscillations experienced by a cluster before its dissolution in the Galaxy, crossings through the galactic Disk contribute to at least 15% of the total mass loss. Using recent age estimations published for open clusters, we find a destruction time-scale of about 600 Myr for clusters in the solar neighbourhood. Plate scanning was done at the Centre d'Analyse des Images (CAI) with M.A.M.A. (Machine Automatique àMesurer pour l'Astronomie), a facility located at the Observatoire de Paris, developed and operated by INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers, CNRS). Web site

  3. The development of a system to assess the ecological quality of streams based on macroinvertebrates - design of the sampling programme within the AQEM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hering, D.; Buffagni, A.; Moog, O.; Sandin, L.; Sommerhäuser, M.; Strubauer, I.; Feld, C.; Johnson, R.; Pinto, P.; Skoulikidis, N.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Zahrádková, S.


    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires river assessment systems based on benthic invertebrates. The AQEM project is developing, at a European scale, such a methodology, based on a comparison of communities of reference streams and degraded streams. The project is focussing on three main

  4. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream (United States)

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel


    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  5. Transient, tidal-scale, nitrogen transformations in an estuarine turbidity maximum-fluid mud system (The Gironde, S.W. France)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abril, G.; Riou, S.A.; Etcheber, H.; Frankignoulle, M.; De Wit, R.; Middelburg, J.J.


    The maximum turbidity zone (MTZ) of the Gironde Estuary is a site of important mineralization of particulate organic nitrogen. Moreover, this MTZ is characterized by intense cycles of settling and resuspension of anoxic fluid mud at both tidal and neap-spring time-scales. In the upper layer of the

  6. Spatiotemporal height variations of large-scale bedforms in the Grådyb tidal inlet channel (Denmark): a case study on coastal system impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice; Bartholdy, Jesper


    In autumn 2004, the dredger Thor R sank in the Grådyb tidal inlet channel (Denmark). After recovery, the dredger had left a large scour hole in the channel, which subsequently acted as sink, being completely refilled in 2008. Since 2002, annual bathymetric surveys were carried out in the outer pa...

  7. Delft FEWS: an open interface that connects models and data streams for operational forecasting systems (United States)

    de Rooij, Erik; Werner, Micha


    Many of the operational forecasting systems that are in use today are centred around a single modelling suite. Over the years these systems and the required data streams have been tailored to provide a closed-knit interaction with their underlying modelling components. However, as time progresses it becomes a challenge to integrate new technologies into these model centric operational systems. Often the software used to develop these systems is out of date, or the original designers of these systems are no longer available. Additionally, the changing of the underlying models may requiring the complete system to be changed. This then becomes an extensive effort, not only from a software engineering point of view, but also from a training point of view. Due to significant time and resources being committed to re-training the forecasting teams that interact with the system on a daily basis. One approach to reducing the effort required in integrating new models and data is through an open interface architecture, and through the use of defined interfaces and standards in data exchange. This approach is taken by the Delft-FEWS operational forecasting shell, which has now been applied in some 40 operational forecasting centres across the world. The Delft-FEWS framework provides several interfaces that allow models and data in differing formats to be flexibly integrated with the system. The most common approach to the integration of modes is through the Delft-FEWS Published Interface. This is an XML based data exchange format that supports the exchange of time series data, as well as vector and gridded data formats. The Published Interface supports standardised data formats such as GRIB and the NetCDF-CF standard. A wide range of models has been integrated with the system through this approach, and these are used operationally across the forecasting centres using Delft FEWS. Models can communicate directly with the interface of Delft-FEWS, or through a SOAP service. This

  8. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and Telegraph...

  9. Diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO2 concentration and H2O concentration in a fluid stream (United States)

    Partridge, Jr., William P.; Jatana, Gurneesh Singh; Yoo, Ji-Hyung; Parks, II, James E.


    A diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO.sub.2 concentration and H.sub.2O concentration in a fluid stream is described. The system may include one or more probes that sample the fluid stream spatially, temporally and over ranges of pressure and temperature. Laser light sources are directed down pitch optical cables, through a lens and to a mirror, where the light sources are reflected back, through the lens to catch optical cables. The light travels through the catch optical cables to detectors, which provide electrical signals to a processer. The processer utilizes the signals to calculate CO.sub.2 concentration based on the temperatures derived from H.sub.2O vapor concentration. A probe for sampling CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2O vapor concentrations is also disclosed. Various mechanical features interact together to ensure the pitch and catch optical cables are properly aligned with the lens during assembly and use.

  10. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like (United States)

    Graves, Steven W.; Habberset, Robert C.


    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  11. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using low-power laser source (United States)

    Graves, Steven W.; Habbersett, Robert C.


    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  12. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using low-power laser source (United States)

    Graves, Steven W.; Habbersett, Robert C.


    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  13. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using a low power laser source (United States)

    Graves, Steven W; Habbersett, Robert C


    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  14. Performance of small-scale tidal power plants (United States)

    Fay, J. A.; Smachlo, M. A.


    Small-scale tidal power plants - having electric power between 1 and 100 MW, approximately - possess several attractive economic and environmental benefits. The dynamical behavior of such systems is calculated in terms of dimensionless variables and parameters, so that the size of the system is inconsequential (except for one parameter related to the slope of the walls of the tidal basin). Two measures of system performance are defined: capacity factor (ratio of average to rated power) and effectiveness (ratio of average to ideal tidal power). It was found that improving both parameters is mutually incompatible so that an economic analysis will determine the optimum values of the system design and performance parameters. The effects of variation of tidal range and basin shape were determined. Using typical variable flow properties of low-head hydroturbines, a favorable design head could be determined from the analysis. It was found that the change in the area of the intertidal zone relative to the surface area of the tidal pond is greater for small, as compared to large, systems, possibly leading to proportionately greater environmental effects. A comparison of the performance of several tidal power plant designs with the methodology of this paper showed generally good agreement with the dimensionless performance parameters and only a modest difference among them over several orders of magnitude in size of power plant.

  15. Method and system for purification of gas/liquid streams for fuel cells or electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides in embodiments a method for purification of inlet gas/liquid streams in a fuel cell or electrolysis cell, the fuel cell or electrolysis cell comprising at least a first electrode, an electrolyte and a second electrode, the method comprising the steps of: - providing...... at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and - purifying the gas...... with the at least one scrubber, with the proviso that the fuel cell or electrolysis cell is not a solid oxide cell....

  16. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian


    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability...... and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture....... This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez


    Full Text Available Presentamos dos modalidades tecnológicas de enseñanza en red: la consolidada y ampliamente utilizada tecnología video-streaming, y el futuro de la comunicación a distancia, la teleinmersión. La primera permite la transmisión de audio/vídeo por la red para que puede ser vista por el usuario en su ordenador personal, desde cualquier lugar que disponga de una conexión a red. La información será recibida y decodificada por el usuario final utilizando cualquier reproductor de los que existen en el mercado. La teleinmersión, por su parte, permite crear espacios virtuales de colaboración entre profesionales, ofreciendo entornos muy cercanos a la realidad. Esta tecnología revolucionará, sin duda, nuestros sistemas de enseñanza en los próximos años, facilitando la interacción profesor-alumno. Es evidente que la formación e-learning aporta a los alumnos y a los docentes grandes ventajas como: menores tiempos de aprendizaje, flexibilidad de horarios y de ubicación geográfica, entre otras. We describe two technological modes of on-line teaching: the consolidated and widely used video-streaming mode and teleimmersion, the future of distance communications. The former mode allows the transmission of audio/video through the network so that it can be seen by the user on a PC from anywhere harbouring a network connection. The information is received and decoded by the final user using any reproducer available on the market. Teleimmersion allows the creation of virtual spaces for collaboration among professionals, offering venues that are very similar to reality. This technology will undoubtedly revolutionize our teaching systems in the near future, facilitating instructor-student interaction. It is clear that e-learning- instruction offers both students and instructors huge advantages, such as shorter learning times and schedule and geographic flexibility, among others.

  18. Temporal dynamics of a fish community in the lower portion of a tidal creek, Pando sub-estuarine system, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurdek

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estuaries are highly dynamic ecosystems subjected to variability of their fish communities over different time scales. The nearshore fish community of the lower Pando estuary, a temperate sub-system of the Río de la Plata estuary, was sampled from May 2002 to June 2003. A total of 2,165 fishes, represented by 16 species were caught by seine netting. Captures were dominated by juveniles (>90%, as well as by the sciaenid Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (82.8%. The fish community showed high seasonal variability, with the greatest diversity and biomass in summer and spring and the highest species richness during summer. Lowest values of all community parameters occurred in winter and autumn, seasons that presented the highest similarity in fish composition. Number of species was correlated with water temperature and salinity. The ichthyofaunal composition showed significant diel differences in summer and spring. Diel changes were observed in the density of M. furnieri and Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835, occurring mainly during the day, and of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836, Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken, 1874 and Brevoortia aurea (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, caught mostly during the night. Temporal variability was attributed to environmental fluctuations, life cycle of species as well as to feeding patterns and small-scale displacements. Presented findings in the Pando sub-estuary denote similar juvenile use and seasonal patterns to those found in estuaries. Further studies in the nursery function and juvenile dynamics over the year are recommended in order to better understand the ecological role of sub-estuaries.

  19. Tritium enrichment for process flow streams of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant having a hot-cold system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, H.; Schindewolf, U.


    During the nuclear fuel reprocessing tritium is partially transferred into the aqueous process streams. At normal pressure, the most promising enrichment method appears to be an inverse current exchanger system using electrolysis at the bottom of the inverse current column apparatus and recombination in an oxyhydrogen gas flame at the top of the column apparatus. A hydrophobic catalyst is used which is made of a pulverized mix of platinized activated carbon and PTFE.

  20. A summary of the San Francisco tidal wetlands restoration series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown


    Full Text Available The four topical articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series summarized and synthesized much of what is known about tidal wetlands and tidal wetland restoration in the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Despite a substantial amount of available information, major uncertainties remain. A major uncertainty with regard to fishes is the net benefit of restored tidal wetlands relative to other habitats for native fishes in different regions of the Estuary given the presence of numerous invasive alien species. With regard to organic carbon, a major uncertainty is the net benefit of land use change given uncertainty about the quantity and quality of different forms of organic carbon resulting from different land uses. A major challenge is determining the flux of organic carbon from open systems like tidal wetlands. Converting present land uses to tidal wetlands will almost certainly result in increased methylation of mercury at the local scale with associated accumulation of mercury within local food webs. However, it is unclear if such local accumulation is of concern for fish, wildlife or humans at the local scale or if cumulative effects at the regional scale will emerge. Based on available information it is expected that restored tidal wetlands will remain stable once constructed; however, there is uncertainty associated with the available data regarding the balance of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, and sediment erosion. There is also uncertainty regarding the cumulative effect of many tidal restoration projects on sediment supply. The conclusions of the articles highlight the need to adopt a regional and multidisciplinary approach to tidal wetland restoration in the Estuary. The Science Program of the CALFED effort provides an appropriate venue for addressing these issues.

  1. Harmonic analysis and tidal prediction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_12.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_12.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text.../plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  3. Tidal controls on riverbed denitrification along a tidal freshwater zone (United States)

    Knights, Deon; Sawyer, Audrey H.; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Musial, Cole T.; Bray, Samuel


    In coastal rivers, tidal pumping enhances the exchange of oxygen-rich river water across the sediment-water interface, controlling nitrogen cycling in riverbed sediment. We developed a one-dimensional, fluid flow and solute transport model that quantifies the influence of tidal pumping on nitrate removal and applied it to the tidal freshwater zone (TFZ) of White Clay Creek (Delaware, USA). In field observations and models, both oxygenated river water and anoxic groundwater deliver nitrate to carbon-rich riverbed sediment. A zone of nitrate removal forms beneath the aerobic interval, which expands and contracts over daily timescales due to tidal pumping. At high tide when oxygen-rich river water infiltrates into the bed, denitrification rates decrease by 25% relative to low tide. In the absence of tidal pumping, our model predicts that the aerobic zone would be thinner, and denitrification rates would increase by 10%. As tidal amplitude increases toward the coast, nitrate removal rates should decrease due to enhanced oxygen exchange across the sediment-water interface, based on sensitivity analysis. Denitrification hot spots in TFZs are more likely to occur in less permeable sediment under lower tidal ranges and higher rates of ambient groundwater discharge. Our models suggest that tidal pumping is not efficient at removing surface water nitrate but can remove up to 81% of nitrate from discharging groundwater in the TFZ of White Clay Creek. Given the high population densities of coastal watersheds, the reactive riverbeds of TFZs play a critical role in mitigating new nitrogen loads to coasts.

  4. What controls differences in Stream Water Evaporation Lines in a nested catchment system? (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Pfister, L.


    Catchment properties, together with the hydro-meteorological conditions, influence the transformation of the stable isotopic signal from precipitation to stream discharge and the fraction of isotopic fractionated water (by evaporation) in stream flow. Several studies showed that catchments often exhibit a lower slope of the regression line between δOxygen-18 (δ18O) and δDeuterium (δD) of stream water (Stream Water Evaporation Lines: SEL) compared to the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL). Here we hypothesize that the combination of land use, geology, and topography is controlling these differences. In this work we test this hypothesis relying on regression analysis in the nested river setup of the Attert catchment (250 km2), with 9 sub-catchment ranging from 0.45 km2 to 161 km2. We employed a three year time series of bi-weekly stable isotope samples of stream water at the catchment outlets. The different sub-catchments show remarkable different catchment characteristics in terms of geology and land use, while the hydro-meteorological forcing is rather uniform between the sub-catchments. Eventually, we found that an elevation effect strongly controlled the differences in mean δ18O and δD of stream flow between the catchments (-1.2‰ δD/100 m). Stream flow also showed remarkable evaporative enrichment, the slopes of the SEL ranges from 3.2 to 5.1. Sandstone showed the highest explanatory power in simple linear regression with R2=0.46. Increasing fractions of sandstone geology and forest cover generally lead to lower slopes of the SEL, while the extent of alluvial floodplain lead to slopes more similar to the LMWL. None of the multiple linear regression models showed higher explanatory power than 0.7 (adjusted R2) based on alluvial coverage and geological permeability. This contribution shows how different catchment properties influence the relationship δ18O and δD that is generally controlled by non-kinetic fractionation. Further work on the processes that

  5. A Distributed Dynamic Super Peer Selection Method Based on Evolutionary Game for Heterogeneous P2P Streaming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen


    Full Text Available Due to high efficiency and good scalability, hierarchical hybrid P2P architecture has drawn more and more attention in P2P streaming research and application fields recently. The problem about super peer selection, which is the key problem in hybrid heterogeneous P2P architecture, is becoming highly challenging because super peers must be selected from a huge and dynamically changing network. A distributed super peer selection (SPS algorithm for hybrid heterogeneous P2P streaming system based on evolutionary game is proposed in this paper. The super peer selection procedure is modeled based on evolutionary game framework firstly, and its evolutionarily stable strategies are analyzed. Then a distributed Q-learning algorithm (ESS-SPS according to the mixed strategies by analysis is proposed for the peers to converge to the ESSs based on its own payoff history. Compared to the traditional randomly super peer selection scheme, experiments results show that the proposed ESS-SPS algorithm achieves better performance in terms of social welfare and average upload rate of super peers and keeps the upload capacity of the P2P streaming system increasing steadily with the number of peers increasing.

  6. Exploring a QoS Driven Scheduling Approach for Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming Systems with Network Coding (United States)

    Cui, Laizhong; Lu, Nan; Chen, Fu


    Most large-scale peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming systems use mesh to organize peers and leverage pull scheduling to transmit packets for providing robustness in dynamic environment. The pull scheduling brings large packet delay. Network coding makes the push scheduling feasible in mesh P2P live streaming and improves the efficiency. However, it may also introduce some extra delays and coding computational overhead. To improve the packet delay, streaming quality, and coding overhead, in this paper are as follows. we propose a QoS driven push scheduling approach. The main contributions of this paper are: (i) We introduce a new network coding method to increase the content diversity and reduce the complexity of scheduling; (ii) we formulate the push scheduling as an optimization problem and transform it to a min-cost flow problem for solving it in polynomial time; (iii) we propose a push scheduling algorithm to reduce the coding overhead and do extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness of our approach. Compared with previous approaches, the simulation results demonstrate that packet delay, continuity index, and coding ratio of our system can be significantly improved, especially in dynamic environments. PMID:25114968

  7. A continuous-flow system for measuring in vitro oxygen and nitrogen metabolism in separated stream communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, C.; Jeppesen, E.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj


    and dissolved oxygen are measured continuously and the data stored on magnetic tape. Water samples are collected in a refrigerator and analysed using standard chemical procedures. 2. The application of the system is illustrated using results obtained during a 2-day summer experiment in a shallow macrophyte...... production and dark respiration occurred at similar rates (6-7g O2 m-2 day-1), net balance being about zero. Inorganic nitrogen was consumed both by the sediment and to a greater extent by the macrophytes, the diel average consumption being 1g N m-2 day-1. 3. The sum of the activity in the macrophyte...... and sediment chambers corresponded to the overall activity of the stream section as determined by upstream/downstream mass balance. This indicates that the results obtained with the continuous-flow chambers realistically describe the oxygen and the nitrogen metabolism of the stream....

  8. A decision support system using combined-classifier for high-speed data stream in smart grid (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Li, Peng; He, Zhian; Guo, Xiaobin; Fong, Simon; Chen, Huajun


    Large volume of high-speed streaming data is generated by big power grids continuously. In order to detect and avoid power grid failure, decision support systems (DSSs) are commonly adopted in power grid enterprises. Among all the decision-making algorithms, incremental decision tree is the most widely used one. In this paper, we propose a combined classifier that is a composite of a cache-based classifier (CBC) and a main tree classifier (MTC). We integrate this classifier into a stream processing engine on top of the DSS such that high-speed steaming data can be transformed into operational intelligence efficiently. Experimental results show that our proposed classifier can return more accurate answers than other existing ones.

  9. Stellar streams as gravitational experiments. II. Asymmetric tails of globular cluster streams (United States)

    Thomas, G. F.; Famaey, B.; Ibata, R.; Renaud, F.; Martin, N. F.; Kroupa, P.


    Kinematically cold tidal streams of globular clusters (GC) are excellent tracers of the Galactic gravitational potential at moderate Galactocentric distances, and can also be used as probes of the law of gravity on Galactic scales. Here, we compare for the first time the generation of such streams in Newtonian and Milgromian gravity (MOND). We first computed analytical results to investigate the expected shape of the GC gravitational potential in both frameworks, and we then ran N-body simulations with the Phantom of Ramses code. We find that the GCs tend to become lopsided in MOND. This is a consequence of the external field effect which breaks the strong equivalence principle. When the GC is filling its tidal radius the lopsidedness generates a strongly asymmetric tidal stream. In Newtonian dynamics, such markedly asymmetric streams can in general only be the consequence of interactions with dark matter subhalos, giant molecular clouds, or interaction with the Galactic bar. In these Newtonian cases, the asymmetry is the consequence of a very large gap in the stream, whilst in MOND it is a true asymmetry. This should thus allow us in the future to distinguish these different scenarios by making deep observations of the environment of the asymmetric stellar stream of Palomar 5. Moreover, our simulations indicate that the high internal velocity dispersion of Palomar 5 for its small stellar mass would be natural in MOND. The movie is available in electronic form at

  10. On luminescence bleaching of tidal channel sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten; Murray, Andrew S.


    We investigate the processes responsible for bleaching of the quartz OSL signal from tidal channel sediment. Tidal dynamics are expected to play an important role for complete bleaching of tidal sediments. However, no studies have examined the amount of reworking occurring in tidal channels...... and on tidal flats due to the mixing caused by currents and waves. We apply bed level data to evaluate the amount of vertical sediment reworking in modern tidal channels and at a tidal flat. Cycles of deposition and erosion are measured with a bed level sensor, and the results show that gross sedimentation...... was several times higher than net sedimentation. We propose that tidal channel sediment is bleached either on the tidal flat before it is transported to the tidal channels and incorporated in channel-fill successions or, alternatively, on the shallow intertidal part of the channel banks. Based...

  11. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  12. Tidal locking of habitable exoplanets (United States)

    Barnes, Rory


    Potentially habitable planets can orbit close enough to their host star that the differential gravity across their diameters can produce an elongated shape. Frictional forces inside the planet prevent the bulges from aligning perfectly with the host star and result in torques that alter the planet's rotational angular momentum. Eventually the tidal torques fix the rotation rate at a specific frequency, a process called tidal locking. Tidally locked planets on circular orbits will rotate synchronously, but those on eccentric orbits will either librate or rotate super-synchronously. Although these features of tidal theory are well known, a systematic survey of the rotational evolution of potentially habitable exoplanets using classic equilibrium tide theories has not been undertaken. I calculate how habitable planets evolve under two commonly used models and find, for example, that one model predicts that the Earth's rotation rate would have synchronized after 4.5 Gyr if its initial rotation period was 3 days, it had no satellites, and it always maintained the modern Earth's tidal properties. Lower mass stellar hosts will induce stronger tidal effects on potentially habitable planets, and tidal locking is possible for most planets in the habitable zones of GKM dwarf stars. For fast-rotating planets, both models predict eccentricity growth and that circularization can only occur once the rotational frequency is similar to the orbital frequency. The orbits of potentially habitable planets of very late M dwarfs ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) are very likely to be circularized within 1 Gyr, and hence, those planets will be synchronous rotators. Proxima b is almost assuredly tidally locked, but its orbit may not have circularized yet, so the planet could be rotating super-synchronously today. The evolution of the isolated and potentially habitable Kepler planet candidates is computed and about half could be tidally locked. Finally, projected TESS planets

  13. Tidal locking of habitable exoplanets (United States)

    Barnes, Rory


    Potentially habitable planets can orbit close enough to their host star that the differential gravity across their diameters can produce an elongated shape. Frictional forces inside the planet prevent the bulges from aligning perfectly with the host star and result in torques that alter the planet's rotational angular momentum. Eventually the tidal torques fix the rotation rate at a specific frequency, a process called tidal locking. Tidally locked planets on circular orbits will rotate synchronously, but those on eccentric orbits will either librate or rotate super-synchronously. Although these features of tidal theory are well known, a systematic survey of the rotational evolution of potentially habitable exoplanets using classic equilibrium tide theories has not been undertaken. I calculate how habitable planets evolve under two commonly used models and find, for example, that one model predicts that the Earth's rotation rate would have synchronized after 4.5 Gyr if its initial rotation period was 3 days, it had no satellites, and it always maintained the modern Earth's tidal properties. Lower mass stellar hosts will induce stronger tidal effects on potentially habitable planets, and tidal locking is possible for most planets in the habitable zones of GKM dwarf stars. For fast-rotating planets, both models predict eccentricity growth and that circularization can only occur once the rotational frequency is similar to the orbital frequency. The orbits of potentially habitable planets of very late M dwarfs ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) are very likely to be circularized within 1 Gyr, and hence, those planets will be synchronous rotators. Proxima b is almost assuredly tidally locked, but its orbit may not have circularized yet, so the planet could be rotating super-synchronously today. The evolution of the isolated and potentially habitable Kepler planet candidates is computed and about half could be tidally locked. Finally, projected TESS planets

  14. Turbine Control of a Tidal and River Power Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Wright, Alan; Gevorgian, Vahan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath


    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input variations to these types of resources are slower but also steadier than wind or solar generation. The level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another, however, the control algorithm can be adjusted to local environment. This paper describes the hydrokinetic aspects of river and tidal generation based on a river and tidal generator. Although the information given in this paper is not that of an exact generator deployed on site, the data used is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. In this paper, the hydrokinetic and associated electrical controller of the system were not included; however, the focus of this paper is on the hydrodynamic control.

  15. Turbine Control of a Tidal and River Power Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath


    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input variations to these types of resources are slower but also steadier than wind or solar generation. The level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another, however, the control algorithm can be adjusted to local environment. This paper describes the hydrokinetic aspects of river and tidal generation based on a river and tidal generator. Although the information given in this paper is not that of an exact generator deployed on site, the data used is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. In this paper, the hydrokinetic and associated electrical controller of the system were not included; however, the focus of this paper is on the hydrodynamic control.

  16. The distribution and tapping tidal energy


    Zygmunt Kowalik


    Tidal power along tidal shores has been used for centuries to run small tidal mills. Generating electricity by tapping tidal power proved to be very successful only in the last century through the tidal power plant constructed in 1967 in La Rance, France. This used a large barrier to generate the sea level head necessary for driving turbines. Construction of such plants evolved very slowly because of prohibitive costs and concerns about the environmental impact. Developments in the...

  17. Towards a decision support system for stream restoration in the Netherlands: an overview of restoration projects and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Nijboer, R.C.


    Stream restoration is one of the answers to the lowland stream deterioration. For making proper choices in stream restoration, one firstly needs to understand the complex spatial and temporal interactions between physical, chemical and biological components in the stream ecosystem. Several

  18. PENGEMBANGAN KONSEP AGROINDUSTRI BERBASIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI WILAYAH PASANG SURUT BAGIAN I: (KONSEP PEMIKIRAN The Concept Development of Agroindustry Based on Integrated Farming System at Tidal Swamp Land Areas Chapter I: Conceptual Thinkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustan Massinai


    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed in efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing use of agriculture and livestock products. Each chain of cycle resulted new product that have high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The problems encountered in agricultural systems in tidal swamp land in general, i.e; (a limitations in the form of land, human resources, technology, and capital owned by farmers, then the potential of local resources need to be managed optimally, directed, integrated and sustainable with a view to improve land productivity and living standards of farmers by way of application of integrated farming systems by integrating crop and livestock based on the potential of local areas, and (b socio-economic problems and constraints in the development of food crops was due to a swamp area. The objective of this research was to produce integrated farming system concept to support agroindustry development in tidal swamp land in Pulang Pisau regency of Central Kalimantan province. This research was conducted with a book study method, which identifies a system consisting of integrated farming and agroindustry systems. In the both identification is performed by the system includes four aspects, i,e; economic aspects, technical aspects, social aspects of cultural and environmental. Integrated farming systems concept in tidal swamp land was generated from the production of integrated farming systems should first be processed through the processing system (agroindustry in the form of home industry, or using a mechanical device. After that, it was carried out the marketing of products, systems concepts was expected to increase the added value of agricultural production (rice, coffee and cow. With the application of agroindustry systems in tidal swamp land Pulang Pisau regency of Central Kalimantan Province is expected to increase the economic income of farmers in

  19. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Pharmaceutical Discovery, Vision, and Bioluminescence - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  20. A Stream Tilling Approach to Surface Area Estimation for Large Scale Spatial Data in a Shared Memory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiping


    Full Text Available Surface area estimation is a widely used tool for resource evaluation in the physical world. When processing large scale spatial data, the input/output (I/O can easily become the bottleneck in parallelizing the algorithm due to the limited physical memory resources and the very slow disk transfer rate. In this paper, we proposed a stream tilling approach to surface area estimation that first decomposed a spatial data set into tiles with topological expansions. With these tiles, the one-to-one mapping relationship between the input and the computing process was broken. Then, we realized a streaming framework towards the scheduling of the I/O processes and computing units. Herein, each computing unit encapsulated a same copy of the estimation algorithm, and multiple asynchronous computing units could work individually in parallel. Finally, the performed experiment demonstrated that our stream tilling estimation can efficiently alleviate the heavy pressures from the I/O-bound work, and the measured speedup after being optimized have greatly outperformed the directly parallel versions in shared memory systems with multi-core processors.

  1. Improvement of information stream in a procurement system : Case: Monolit Ltd


    Abramova, Anastasia


    Information flow is a crucial objective in the international procurement. Optimized information transfer between involved supply chain parties provides a strategic opportunity to improve the managerial actions, an accurate maintain of inventory reply to changes in demand and decrease on spending logistics costs. The purpose of the presented study was to deter-mine, examine and clarify the information stream in all stages during purchasing activity of Russian manufacturer Monolit Ltd. Since co...

  2. A low-resolution, GSa/s streaming digitizer for a correlation-based trigger system


    Nishimura, Kurtis; Andrew, Matthew; Cao, Zhe; Cooney, Michael; Gorham, Peter; Macchiarulo, Luca; Ritter, Lisa; Romero-Wolf, Andres; Varner, Gary


    Searches for radio signatures of ultra-high energy neutrinos and cosmic rays could benefit from improved efficiency by using real-time beamforming or correlation triggering. For missions with power limitations, such as the ANITA-3 Antarctic balloon experiment, full speed high resolution digitization of incoming signals is not practical. To this end, the University of Hawaii has developed the Realtime Independent Three-bit Converter (RITC), a 3-channel, 3-bit, streaming analog-to-digital conve...

  3. Streaming media bible

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mack, Steve


    This book "tells you everything you need to know to produce professional-quality streaming media for the Internet, from an overview of the available systems and tools to high-end techniques for top quality results...

  4. Relative susceptibility of stream macroinvertebrates to temephos and chlorpyrifos, determined in laboratory continuous-flow systems. (United States)

    Muirhead-Thomson, R C


    Laboratory techniques are described for evaluating the lethal and behavioral impact of pesticides on a range of stream macroinvertebrates under continuous through-flow and simulated stream conditions. The same basic test unit has been used, with slight modifications, to study the reactions of both Simulium larvae and non-target stream invertebrates. On the basis of a standard 1-hr exposure period to different concentrations followed by a 24-hr holding period in a continuous flow of clean water, different test organisms showed wide and consistent differences in tolerance to each of the two insecticides tested. The widest difference between two organisms occurred in the case of the Amphipod, Gammarus pulex (LC90-95, greater than 1 ppm) which was found to be about 5000 x more tolerant to temephos than are nymphs of the mayfly, Baetis rhodani. (LC 90-95, 0.001-0.002 ppm) The widest difference in the reactions of any one species is shown on the part of Gammarus which is about 100 times more susceptible to chlorpyrifos (LC 90-95, 0.05-0.1 ppm) than to temephos. The susceptibility levels of other indicator species such as Agrion, Hydropsyche, Brachycentrus, Ephemera, etc. are discussed in relation to susceptibility levels of Simulium larvae under the same test conditions, and also in relation to current field dosages of the two insecticides in practical and experimental Simulium control.

  5. Distribution, abundance, and genetic diversity of Clinostomum spp. metacercariae (Trematoda:Digenea) in a modified Ozark stream system. (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M; Steffen, Michael A; Trujano-Alvarez, Ana L; Martin, Samuel D; Bursey, Charles R; McAllister, Chris T


    Land-use alterations can have profound influences on faunal distributions, including host-parasite relationships. Yellow grub trematodes ( Clinostomum spp.) have complex life cycles involving 3 hosts: a snail, a fish or amphibian, and a bird. Here, we analyze the distribution, prevalence, intensity, abundance, and genetic diversity of encysting metacercariae of Clinostomum spp. in salamanders and fishes throughout an aquatic system that includes a natural Ozark stream and man-made ponds. We found Clinostomum sp. infecting permanently aquatic Oklahoma salamanders ( Eurycea tynerensis ; 56% prevalence) and larval grotto salamanders ( Eurycea spelaea ) immediately downstream from a man-made pond. However, Clinostomum sp. did not infect any salamanders in the spring that supplies this pond, or in sections farther downstream (~0.5 and 2 km). Metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. were present in ~90% of introduced largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in the man-made pond adjunct to the stream. Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1 ( Co1 ) and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S show that fishes and salamanders at this site are primarily infected with Clinostomum marginatum . There is a relatively high degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in C. marginatum at this site but no consistent genetic difference between parasites in largemouth bass from the man-made pond and those in salamanders from the stream. Based on the microgeographic distribution and relationships of metacercariae of C. marginatum at this site, we hypothesize that the adjunct man-made pond has created an ecological situation that brings the cercariae of this parasite into contact with novel stream salamander hosts.

  6. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.


    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  7. Integration of Tidal Prism Model and HSPF for simulating indicator bacteria in coastal watersheds (United States)

    Sobel, Rose S.; Rifai, Hanadi S.; Petersen, Christina M.


    Coastal water quality is strongly influenced by tidal fluctuations and water chemistry. There is a need for rigorous models that are not computationally or economically prohibitive, but still allow simulation of the hydrodynamics and bacteria sources for coastal, tidally influenced streams and bayous. This paper presents a modeling approach that links a Tidal Prism Model (TPM) implemented in an Excel-based modeling environment with a watershed runoff model (Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN, HSPF) for such watersheds. The TPM is a one-dimensional mass balance approach that accounts for loading from tidal exchange, runoff, point sources and bacteria die-off at an hourly time step resolution. The novel use of equal high-resolution time steps in this study allowed seamless integration of the TPM and HSPF. The linked model was calibrated to flow and E. Coli data (for HSPF), and salinity and enterococci data (for the TPM) for a coastal stream in Texas. Sensitivity analyses showed the TPM to be most influenced by changes in net decay rates followed by tidal and runoff loads, respectively. Management scenarios were evaluated with the developed linked models to assess the impact of runoff load reductions and improved wastewater treatment plant quality and to determine the areas of critical need for such reductions. Achieving water quality standards for bacteria required load reductions that ranged from zero to 90% for the modeled coastal stream.

  8. Tidal energy extraction: renewable, sustainable and predictable. (United States)

    Nicholls-Lee, R F; Turnock, S R


    The tidal flow of sea water induced by planetary motion is a potential source of energy if suitable systems can be designed and operated in a cost-effective manner This paper examines the physical origins of the tides and how the local currents are influenced by the depth of the seabed and presence of land mass and associated coastal features. The available methods of extracting energy from tidal movement are classified into devices that store and release potential energy and those that capture kinetic energy directly. A survey is made of candidate designs and, for the most promising, the likely efficiency of energy conversion and methods of installing them are considered. Overall, the need to reduce CO2 emissions, a likely continued rise in fossil fuel cost will result in a significantly increased use of tidal energy. What is still required, especially for kinetic energy devices, is a much greater understanding of how they can be designed to withstand long-term immersion in the marine environment.

  9. Tidal Love numbers of a slowly spinning neutron star (United States)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Ferrari, Valeria


    By extending our recent framework to describe the tidal deformations of a spinning compact object, we compute for the first time the tidal Love numbers of a spinning neutron star to linear order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic distortions, and new classes of spin-induced ("rotational") tidal Love numbers emerge. We focus on stationary tidal fields, which induce axisymmetric perturbations. We present the perturbation equations for both electric-led and magnetic-led rotational Love numbers for generic multipoles and explicitly solve them for various tabulated equations of state and for a tidal field with an electric (even parity) and magnetic (odd parity) component with ℓ=2 , 3, 4. For a binary system close to the merger, various components of the tidal field become relevant. In this case we find that an octupolar magnetic tidal field can significantly modify the mass quadrupole moment of a neutron star. Preliminary estimates, assuming a spin parameter χ ≈0.05 , show modifications ≳10 % relative to the static case, at an orbital distance of five stellar radii. Furthermore, the rotational Love numbers as functions of the moment of inertia are much more sensitive to the equation of state than in the static case, where approximate universal relations at the percent level exist. For a neutron-star binary approaching the merger, we estimate that the approximate universality of the induced mass quadrupole moment deteriorates from 1% in the static case to roughly 6% when χ ≈0.05 . Our results suggest that spin-tidal couplings can introduce important corrections to the gravitational waveforms of spinning neutron-star binaries approaching the merger.

  10. Sustainable and Efficient Pathways for Bioenergy Recovery from Low-Value Process Streams via Bioelectrochemical Systems in Biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet P. Borole


    Full Text Available Conversion of biomass into bioenergy is possible via multiple pathways resulting in the production of biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. Efficient and sustainable conversion of biomass, however, requires consideration of many environmental and societal parameters in order to minimize negative impacts. Integration of multiple conversion technologies and inclusion of upcoming alternatives, such as bioelectrochemical systems, can minimize these impacts via production of hydrogen, electricity or other forms of energy from the low value streams and improve conservation of resources, such as water and nutrients via recycle and reuse. This report outlines alternate pathways integrating microbial electrolysis in biorefinery schemes to improve energy efficiency, while evaluating environmental sustainability parameters.

  11. Sudden increase in tidal response linked to calving and acceleration at a large Greenland outlet glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Juan, Julia; Elósegui, Pedro; Nettles, Meredith


    Large calving events at Greenland's largest outlet glaciers are associated with glacial earthquakes and near-instantaneous increases in glacier flow speed. At some glaciers and ice streams, flow is also modulated in a regular way by ocean tidal forcing at the terminus. At Helheim Glacier, analysi...

  12. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith


    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  13. Holocene canyon activity under a combination of tidal and tectonic forcing (United States)

    Mountjoy, Joshu; Micallef, Aaron; Stevens, Craig; Stirling, Mark


    The majority of submarine canyon systems that are active during sea level highstands are coupled to terrestrial or littoral sediment transport systems (e.g. high sediment-yield rivers, wave-base sediment disturbance). However, non-coupled canyon systems can also exhibit sedimentary activity. Characterising the nature, origin, and spatial and temporal influence of the processes responsible for this sedimentary activity is important to understand the extent of sediment and carbon transfer to the deep sea, the impact of sedimentary flows on biological colonisation and diversity, and the control of recent seafloor processes on canyon morphology. The Cook Strait canyon system, between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting canyon on an active subduction margin. The canyon comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially-coupled system. Sediment transport on the continental shelf, associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the canyon and the processes driving it. The canyon system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine canyon system. Analysis of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data reveals a system where oceanographic (tidal) and tectonic (earthquake) processes are moving sediment from the continental shelf, through the upper canyon, and finally to the deep ocean. Sediment accumulation rates may reach several mm/yr in the upper canyons, with data suggesting minimum rates of 0.5 mm/yr. We demonstrate that tidal currents are sufficient to mobilise fine to medium sand around and within the upper canyon

  14. Relations among geology, physiography, land use, and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas (United States)

    Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.


    This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more

  15. The Gulf Stream frontal system: A key oceanographic feature in the habitat selection of the leatherback turtle? (United States)

    Chambault, Philippine; Roquet, Fabien; Benhamou, Simon; Baudena, Alberto; Pauthenet, Etienne; de Thoisy, Benoît; Bonola, Marc; Dos Reis, Virginie; Crasson, Rodrigue; Brucker, Mathieu; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien


    Although some associations between the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea and the Gulf Stream current have been previously suggested, no study has to date demonstrated strong affinities between leatherback movements and this particular frontal system using thorough oceanographic data in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. The importance of the Gulf Stream frontal system in the selection of high residence time (HRT) areas by the North Atlantic leatherback turtle is assessed here for the first time using state-of-the-art ocean reanalysis products. Ten adult females from the Eastern French Guianese rookery were satellite tracked during post-nesting migration to relate (1) their horizontal movements to physical gradients (Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Sea Surface Height (SSH) and filaments) and biological variables (micronekton and chlorophyll a), and (2) their diving behaviour to vertical structures within the water column (mixed layer, thermocline, halocline and nutricline). All the turtles migrated northward towards the Gulf Stream north wall. Although their HRT areas were geographically remote (spread between 80-30 °W and 28-45 °N), all the turtles targeted similar habitats in terms of physical structures, i.e. strong gradients of SST, SSH and a deep mixed layer. This close association with the Gulf Stream frontal system highlights the first substantial synchronization ever observed in this species, as the HRTs were observed in close match with the autumn phytoplankton bloom. Turtles remained within the enriched mixed layer at depths of 38.5±7.9 m when diving in HRT areas, likely to have an easier access to their prey and maximize therefore the energy gain. These depths were shallow in comparison to those attained within the thermocline (82.4±5.6 m) while crossing the nutrient-poor subtropical gyre, probably to reach cooler temperatures and save energy during the transit. In a context of climate change, anticipating the evolution of such frontal

  16. Tidal variations of earth rotation (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.


    The periodic variations of the earths' rotation resulting from the tidal deformation of the earth by the sun and moon were rederived including terms with amplitudes of 0.002 millisec and greater. The series applies to the mantle, crust, and oceans which rotate together for characteristic tidal periods; the scaling parameter is the ratio of the fraction of the Love number producing tidal variations in the moment of inertia of the coupled mantle and oceans (k) to the dimensionless polar moment of inertia of the coupled moments (C). The lunar laser ranging data shows that k/C at monthly and fortnightly frequencies equals 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 0.99 + or - 0.20 as compared to the theoretical value of 0.94 + or - 0.04.

  17. Korea tidal power and beyond (United States)

    Song, W. O.; van Walsum, E.

    A study evaluating the tidal power potential on the west coast of Korea is presented. The tidal power plant concept applied to all sites features prefabricated caissons from which the powerhouse and the sluice sections of the plant are built up. In the screening process, all 13 potential sites were compared on the basis of a single basin and single effect schemes operated to produce the maximum amount of energy. The four sites identified as having potential for development (the inner Asan Bay, the outer Asan Bay, the Incheon Bay, and the Garorim Bay) are economically evaluated. It is noted that harbor development and land reclamation can proceed in conjunction with tidal power development.

  18. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  19. From a water resource to a point pollution source: the daily journey of a coastal urban stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR. Rörig

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures.

  20. From a water resource to a point pollution source: the daily journey of a coastal urban stream. (United States)

    Rörig, L R; Tundisi, J G; Schettini, C A F; Pereira-Filho, J; Menezes, J T; Almeida, T C M; Urban, S R; Radetski, C M; Sperb, R C; Stramosk, C A; Macedo, R S; Castro-Silva, M A; Perez, J A A


    The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures.

  1. Stream Evaluation (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  2. ISP: an optimal out-of-core image-set processing streaming architecture for parallel heterogeneous systems. (United States)

    Ha, Linh Khanh; Krüger, Jens; Dihl Comba, João Luiz; Silva, Cláudio T; Joshi, Sarang


    Image population analysis is the class of statistical methods that plays a central role in understanding the development, evolution, and disease of a population. However, these techniques often require excessive computational power and memory that are compounded with a large number of volumetric inputs. Restricted access to supercomputing power limits its influence in general research and practical applications. In this paper we introduce ISP, an Image-Set Processing streaming framework that harnesses the processing power of commodity heterogeneous CPU/GPU systems and attempts to solve this computational problem. In ISP, we introduce specially designed streaming algorithms and data structures that provide an optimal solution for out-of-core multiimage processing problems both in terms of memory usage and computational efficiency. ISP makes use of the asynchronous execution mechanism supported by parallel heterogeneous systems to efficiently hide the inherent latency of the processing pipeline of out-of-core approaches. Consequently, with computationally intensive problems, the ISP out-of-core solution can achieve the same performance as the in-core solution. We demonstrate the efficiency of the ISP framework on synthetic and real datasets.

  3. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation techniques in an alluvial aquifer system with an intermittent/ephemeral stream (Queensland, Australia) (United States)

    King, Adam C.; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E.; Cendón, Dioni I.


    This study demonstrates the importance of the conceptual hydrogeological model for the estimation of groundwater recharge rates in an alluvial system interconnected with an ephemeral or intermittent stream in south-east Queensland, Australia. The losing/gaining condition of these streams is typically subject to temporal and spatial variability, and knowledge of these hydrological processes is critical for the interpretation of recharge estimates. Recharge rate estimates of 76-182 mm/year were determined using the water budget method. The water budget method provides useful broad approximations of recharge and discharge fluxes. The chloride mass balance (CMB) method and the tritium method were used on 17 and 13 sites respectively, yielding recharge rates of 1-43 mm/year (CMB) and 4-553 mm/year (tritium method). However, the conceptual hydrogeological model confirms that the results from the CMB method at some sites are not applicable in this setting because of overland flow and channel leakage. The tritium method was appropriate here and could be applied to other alluvial systems, provided that channel leakage and diffuse infiltration of rainfall can be accurately estimated. The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method was also applied to data from 16 bores; recharge estimates ranged from 0 to 721 mm/year. The WTF method was not suitable where bank storage processes occurred.

  4. Properties of active tidal bedforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Lefebvre, Alice; Becker, Marius


    Bedforms of various shapes and sizes are ubiquitous in tidal channels, inlets and estuaries. They constitute a form roughness which has a large scale effect on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport of coastal environments. It has been shown that this form roughness can be expressed in terms...... of the lee side slope of bedforms. This study compiles data on the topography and hydraulics of compound dunes from different settings in the German Bight to discuss implications of a critical lee slope in tidal environments with reversing flow. Data from the Weser estuary is used to exemplify and quantify...

  5. Streaming video-based 3D reconstruction method compatible with existing monoscopic and stereoscopic endoscopy systems (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; van der Mark, Wannes; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Landsmeer, Sander H.; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Wieringa, F. Pieter; van Basten, Jean-Paul


    Compared to open surgery, minimal invasive surgery offers reduced trauma and faster recovery. However, lack of direct view limits space perception. Stereo-endoscopy improves depth perception, but is still restricted to the direct endoscopic field-of-view. We describe a novel technology that reconstructs 3D-panoramas from endoscopic video streams providing a much wider cumulative overview. The method is compatible with any endoscope. We demonstrate that it is possible to generate photorealistic 3D-environments from mono- and stereoscopic endoscopy. The resulting 3D-reconstructions can be directly applied in simulators and e-learning. Extended to real-time processing, the method looks promising for telesurgery or other remote vision-guided tasks.

  6. The Open Source DataTurbine Initiative: Streaming Data Middleware for Environmental Observing Systems (United States)

    Fountain T.; Tilak, S.; Shin, P.; Hubbard, P.; Freudinger, L.


    The Open Source DataTurbine Initiative is an international community of scientists and engineers sharing a common interest in real-time streaming data middleware and applications. The technology base of the OSDT Initiative is the DataTurbine open source middleware. Key applications of DataTurbine include coral reef monitoring, lake monitoring and limnology, biodiversity and animal tracking, structural health monitoring and earthquake engineering, airborne environmental monitoring, and environmental sustainability. DataTurbine software emerged as a commercial product in the 1990 s from collaborations between NASA and private industry. In October 2007, a grant from the USA National Science Foundation (NSF) Office of Cyberinfrastructure allowed us to transition DataTurbine from a proprietary software product into an open source software initiative. This paper describes the DataTurbine software and highlights key applications in environmental monitoring.

  7. The Kislaya Guba tidal power plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernshtein, L.B; Gavrilov, V.G; Gel'fer, S.L; Nehoroshev, N.N; Suponitskii, L.I; Usachev, I.N; Monosov, M.L; Silakov, V.N; Pylev, I.M; Platov, V.I; Vestfal, V.L; Trifel, M.S


    This book examines the experience of designing, constructing, and testing the experimental Kislaya Guba tidal power plant, which was created in order to examine new methods of utilizing tidal energy...

  8. The distribution and tapping tidal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik


    Full Text Available Tidal power along tidal shores has been used for centuries to run small tidal mills. Generating electricity by tapping tidal power proved to be very successful only in the last century through the tidal power plant constructed in 1967 in La Rance, France. This used a large barrier to generate the sea level head necessary for driving turbines. Construction of such plants evolved very slowly because of prohibitive costs and concerns about the environmental impact. Developments in the construction of small, efficient and inexpensive underwater turbines admit the possibility of small scale operations that will use local tidal currents to bring electricity to remote locations. Since the generation of such electricity is concerned with the tidal energy in local water bodies, it is important to understand the site-specific energy balance, i.e., the energy flowing in through open boundaries, and the energy generated and dissipated within the local domain. The question is how to tap the tidal energy while keeping possible changes in the present tidal regimes to a minimum. The older approach of constructing barrages may still be quite useful in some locations. The basics of such tidal power plants constructed in a small bay are analyzed in order to understand the principal parameter for tidal plant evaluation, i.e., the power produced.     The new approach is to place turbines - devices similar to windmills - in the pathway of tidal currents. Theoretically, the amount of power available by such turbines for electricity generation is proportional to the water density and velocity cubed of the tidal flow. The naturally dissipated tidal power due to bottom friction forces is also proportional to the cube of the velocity. Because of this similarity, the exploitation of tidal energy can be directed to reinvesting the naturally dissipated power into tidal power for the generation of electricity. This approach to tidal power exploitation is better tuned

  9. Impact of intertidal area characteristics on estuarine tidal hydrodynamics: A modelling study for the Scheldt Estuary (United States)

    Stark, J.; Smolders, S.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.


    Marsh restoration projects are nowadays being implemented as ecosystem-based strategies to reduce flood risks and to restore intertidal habitat along estuaries. Changes in estuarine tidal hydrodynamics are expected along with such intertidal area changes. A validated hydrodynamic model of the Scheldt Estuary is used to gain fundamental insights in the role of intertidal area characteristics on tidal hydrodynamics and tidal asymmetry in particular through several geomorphological scenarios in which intertidal area elevation and location along the estuary is varied. Model results indicate that the location of intertidal areas and their storage volume relative to the local tidal prism determine the intensity and reach along the estuary over which tidal hydrodynamics are affected. Our model results also suggest that intertidal storage areas that are located within the main estuarine channel system, and hence are part of the flow-carrying part of the estuary, may affect tidal hydrodynamics differently than intertidal areas that are side-basins of the main estuarine channel, and hence only contribute little to the flow-carrying cross-section of the estuary. If tidal flats contribute to the channel cross-section and exert frictional effects on the tidal propagation, the elevation of intertidal flats influences the magnitude and direction of tidal asymmetry along estuarine channels. Ebb-dominance is most strongly enhanced if tidal flats are around mean sea level or slightly above. Conversely, flood-dominance is enhanced if the tidal flats are situated low in the tidal frame. For intertidal storage areas at specific locations besides the main channel, flood-dominance in the estuary channel peaks in the vicinity of those areas and generally reduces upstream and downstream compared to a reference scenario. Finally, the model results indicate an along-estuary varying impact on the tidal prism as a result of adding intertidal storage at a specific location. In addition to known

  10. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK


    Sustainable Development Commission


    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  11. An Innovative Streaming Video System With a Point-of-View Head Camera Transmission of Surgeries to Smartphones and Tablets: An Educational Utility. (United States)

    Chaves, Rafael Oliveira; de Oliveira, Pedro Armando Valente; Rocha, Luciano Chaves; David, Joacy Pedro Franco; Ferreira, Sanmari Costa; Santos, Alex de Assis Santos Dos; Melo, Rômulo Müller Dos Santos; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques


    In order to engage medical students and residents from public health centers to utilize the telemedicine features of surgery on their own smartphones and tablets as an educational tool, an innovative streaming system was developed with the purpose of streaming live footage from open surgeries to smartphones and tablets, allowing the visualization of the surgical field from the surgeon's perspective. The current study aims to describe the results of an evaluation on level 1 of Kirkpatrick's Model for Evaluation of the streaming system usage during gynecological surgeries, based on the perception of medical students and gynecology residents. Consisted of a live video streaming (from the surgeon's point of view) of gynecological surgeries for smartphones and tablets, one for each volunteer. The volunteers were able to connect to the local wireless network, created by the streaming system, through an access password and watch the video transmission on a web browser on their smartphones. Then, they answered a Likert-type questionnaire containing 14 items about the educational applicability of the streaming system, as well as comparing it to watching an in loco procedure. This study is formally approved by the local ethics commission (Certificate No. 53175915.7.0000.5171/2016). Twenty-one volunteers participated, totalizing 294 items answered, in which 94.2% were in agreement with the items affirmative, 4.1% were neutral, and only 1.7% answers corresponded to negative impressions. Cronbach's α was .82, which represents a good reliability level. Spearman's coefficients were highly significant in 4 comparisons and moderately significant in the other 20 comparisons. This study presents a local streaming video system of live surgeries to smartphones and tablets and shows its educational utility, low cost, and simple usage, which offers convenience and satisfactory image resolution, thus being potentially applicable in surgical teaching.

  12. Atmospheric dynamics of tidally synchronized extrasolar planets. (United States)

    Cho, James Y-K


    Tidally synchronized planets present a new opportunity for enriching our understanding of atmospheric dynamics on planets. Subject to an unusual forcing arrangement (steady irradiation on the same side of the planet throughout its orbit), the dynamics on these planets may be unlike that on any of the Solar System planets. Characterizing the flow pattern and temperature distribution on the extrasolar planets is necessary for reliable interpretation of data currently being collected, as well as for guiding future observations. In this paper, several fundamental concepts from atmospheric dynamics, likely to be central for characterization, are discussed. Theoretical issues that need to be addressed in the near future are also highlighted.

  13. Long-Term Morphological Modeling of Barrier Island Tidal Inlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Styles


    Full Text Available The primary focus of this study is to apply a two-dimensional (2-D coupled flow-wave-sediment modeling system to simulate the development and growth of idealized barrier island tidal inlets. The idealized systems are drawn from nine U.S. coastal inlets representing Pacific Coast, Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast geographical and climatological environments. A morphological factor is used to effectively model 100 years of inlet evolution and the resulting morphological state is gauged in terms of the driving hydrodynamic processes. Overall, the model performs within the range of established theoretically predicted inlet cross-sectional area. The model compares favorably to theoretical models of maximum inlet currents, which serve as a measure of inlet stability. Major morphological differences are linked to inlet geometry and tidal forcing. Narrower inlets develop channels that are more aligned with the inlet axis while wider inlets develop channels that appear as immature braided channel networks similar to tidal flats in regions with abundant sediment supply. Ebb shoals with strong tidal forcing extend further from shore and spread laterally, promoting multi-lobe development bisected by ebb shoal channels. Ebb shoals with moderate tidal forcing form crescent bars bracketing a single shore-normal channel. Longshore transport contributes to ebb shoal asymmetry and provides bed material to help maintain the sediment balance in the bay.

  14. Heartbeat stars, tidally excited oscillations and resonance locking (United States)

    Fuller, Jim


    Heartbeat stars are eccentric binary stars in short-period orbits whose light curves are shaped by tidal distortion, reflection and Doppler beaming. Some heartbeat stars exhibit tidally excited oscillations and present new opportunities for understanding the physics of tidal dissipation within stars. We present detailed methods to compute the forced amplitudes, frequencies and phases of tidally excited oscillations in eccentric binary systems. Our methods (i) factor out the equilibrium tide for easier comparison with observations, (ii) account for rotation using the traditional approximation, (iii) incorporate non-adiabatic effects to reliably compute surface luminosity perturbations, (iv) allow for spin-orbit misalignment and (v) correctly sum over contributions from many oscillation modes. We also discuss why tidally excited oscillations (TEOs) are more visible in hot stars with surface temperatures T ≳ 6500 K, and we derive some basic probability theory that can be used to compare models with data in a statistical manner. Application of this theory to heartbeat systems can be used to determine whether observed TEOs can be explained by chance resonances with stellar oscillation modes, or whether a resonance locking process is operating.

  15. A Gossip-Based Optimistic Replication for Efficient Delay-Sensitive Streaming Using an Interactive Middleware Support System (United States)

    Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X.; Karatza, Helen D.


    While sharing resources the efficiency is substantially degraded as a result of the scarceness of availability of the requested resources in a multiclient support manner. These resources are often aggravated by many factors like the temporal constraints for availability or node flooding by the requested replicated file chunks. Thus replicated file chunks should be efficiently disseminated in order to enable resource availability on-demand by the mobile users. This work considers a cross layered middleware support system for efficient delay-sensitive streaming by using each device's connectivity and social interactions in a cross layered manner. The collaborative streaming is achieved through the epidemically replicated file chunk policy which uses a transition-based approach of a chained model of an infectious disease with susceptible, infected, recovered and death states. The Gossip-based stateful model enforces the mobile nodes whether to host a file chunk or not or, when no longer a chunk is needed, to purge it. The proposed model is thoroughly evaluated through experimental simulation taking measures for the effective throughput Eff as a function of the packet loss parameter in contrast with the effectiveness of the replication Gossip-based policy.

  16. Variability of pesticide exposure in a stream mesocosm system: Macrophyte-dominated vs. non-vegetated sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beketov, Mikhail A. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail:; Liess, Matthias [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)


    For flowing water bodies no information is available about patterns of contaminant distribution in flowing water compared to macrophyte-dominated structures. The aim of the study was to examine temporal dynamic and spatial cross-channel variability of pulse exposure of the insecticide thiacloprid in outdoor stream mesocosms. Two distinct cross-channel sections have been considered: macrophyte-dominated littoral and non-vegetated midstream. Median disappearance time ranged from 17 to 43 h (water phase, midstream). We showed that during the exposure pulse (10 h) thiacloprid concentrations in the macrophyte-dominated section were 20-60% lower than those in the non-vegetated section. This suggests that spatial variability in contaminant concentrations, particularly in streams containing macrophytes, should be taken into account to enable a more realistic assessment of (i) exposure and associated effects and (ii) mass transport of pesticides and other chemicals into river systems (e.g. losses with surface runoff). - Spatial cross-channel variability of contaminant concentrations is noteworthy and important.

  17. Tidally induced lateral dispersion of the Storfjorden overflow plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wobus


    Full Text Available We investigate the flow of brine-enriched shelf water from Storfjorden (Svalbard into Fram Strait and onto the western Svalbard Shelf using a regional set-up of NEMO-SHELF, a 3-D numerical ocean circulation model. The model is set up with realistic bathymetry, atmospheric forcing, open boundary conditions and tides. The model has 3 km horizontal resolution and 50 vertical levels in the sh-coordinate system which is specially designed to resolve bottom boundary layer processes. In a series of modelling experiments we focus on the influence of tides on the propagation of the dense water plume by comparing results from tidal and non-tidal model runs. Comparisons of non-tidal to tidal simulations reveal a hotspot of tidally induced horizontal diffusion leading to the lateral dispersion of the plume at the southernmost headland of Spitsbergen which is in close proximity to the plume path. As a result the lighter fractions in the diluted upper layer of the plume are drawn into the shallow coastal current that carries Storfjorden water onto the western Svalbard Shelf, while the dense bottom layer continues to sink down the slope. This bifurcation of the plume into a diluted shelf branch and a dense downslope branch is enhanced by tidally induced shear dispersion at the headland. Tidal effects at the headland are shown to cause a net reduction in the downslope flux of Storfjorden water into the deep Fram Strait. This finding contrasts previous results from observations of a dense plume on a different shelf without abrupt topography.

  18. Spatiotemporal Information Organization and Visualization on Tidal Level (United States)

    Huang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Q.


    The amount and location of oceanographic stations vary in different time and the observation information of the same station shows temporality. Hence, ocean observation information has strong spatiotemporal characteristics. This article firstly introduces storage strategy and representation method of spatiotemporal information on tidal level. Then the prototype system was built with the ability of storing, updating, analyzing, and early warning of tidal level in Shandong Peninsula of China. The system achieves the inquiry and visualization of realtime and historical information of oceanographic stations, which provides technical support for oceanographers and decisionmakers.

  19. Hydrodynamic modelling of tidal inlets in Hue, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, N.T.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Wegen, M.


    Application of an one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamic simulation of a complex lagooninlet system in Vietnam is presented. Model results help to get a better understanding on the behaviour of the system. Based on the numerical model results and analytic solutions, stability of tidal

  20. Sociocultural Adaptation of Caboclos Communities to Extreme Tidal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project outputs will include early warning systems for extreme tidal events, information systems for decision-making, adaptation plans for district municipalities, policy briefs, ... Prise en compte des sexospécificités dans la gestion des déchets solides dans les zones urbaines et périurbaines (Amérique latine et Caraïbes).

  1. Pelagic molybdenum concentration anomalies and the impact of sediment resuspension on the molybdenum budget in two tidal systems of the North Sea (United States)

    Kowalski, Nicole; Dellwig, Olaf; Beck, Melanie; Gräwe, Ulf; Neubert, Nadja; Nägler, Thomas F.; Badewien, Thomas H.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Böttcher, Michael E.


    The seasonal dynamics of molybdenum (Mo) were studied in the water column of two tidal basins of the German Wadden Sea (Sylt-Rømø and Spiekeroog) between 2007 and 2011. In contrast to its conservative behaviour in the open ocean, both, losses of more than 50% of the usual concentration level of Mo in seawater and enrichments up to 20% were observed repeatedly in the water column of the study areas. During early summer, Mo removal by adsorption on algae-derived organic matter (e.g. after Phaeocystis blooms) is postulated to be a possible mechanism. Mo bound to organic aggregates is likely transferred to the surface sediment where microbial decomposition enriches Mo in the pore water. First δ98/95Mo data of the study area disclose residual Mo in the open water column being isotopically heavier than MOMo (Mean Ocean Molybdenum) during a negative Mo concentration anomaly, whereas suspended particulate matter shows distinctly lighter values. Based on field observations a Mo isotope enrichment factor of ε = -0.3‰ has been determined which was used to argue against sorption on metal oxide surfaces. It is suggested here that isotope fractionation is caused by biological activity and association to organic matter. Pelagic Mo concentration anomalies exceeding the theoretical salinity-based concentration level, on the other hand, cannot be explained by replenishment via North Sea waters alone and require a supply of excess Mo. Laboratory experiments with natural anoxic tidal flat sediments and modelled sediment displacement during storm events suggest fast and effective Mo release during the resuspension of anoxic sediments in oxic seawater as an important process for a recycling of sedimentary sulphide bound Mo into the water column.

  2. Arroyo channel head evolution in a flash-flood-dominated discontinuous ephemeral stream system (United States)

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Johnson, Joel P.L.; Whipple, Kelin X.


    We study whether arroyo channel head retreat in dryland discontinuous ephemeral streams is driven by surface runoff, seepage erosion, mass wasting, or some combination of these hydrogeomorphic processes. We monitored precipitation, overland flow, soil moisture, and headcut migration over several seasonal cycles at two adjacent rangeland channel heads in southern Arizona. Erosion occurred by headward retreat of vertical to overhanging faces, driven dominantly by surface runoff. No evidence exists for erosion caused by shallow-groundwater–related processes, even though similar theater-headed morphologies are sometimes attributed to seepage erosion by emerging groundwater. At our field site, vertical variation in soil shear strength influenced the persistence of the characteristic theater-head form. The dominant processes of erosion included removal of grains and soil aggregates during even very shallow (1–3 cm) overland flow events by runoff on vertical to overhanging channel headwalls, plunge-pool erosion during higher-discharge runoff events, immediate postrunoff wet mass wasting, and minor intra-event dry mass wasting on soil tension fractures developing subparallel to the headwall. Multiple stepwise linear regression indicates that the migration rate is most strongly correlated with flow duration and total precipitation and is poorly correlated with peak flow depth or time-integrated flow depth. The studied channel heads migrated upslope with a self-similar morphologic form under a wide range of hydrological conditions, and the most powerful flash floods were not always responsible for the largest changes in landscape form in this environment. 

  3. Removal of Nutrients from Septic Effluent with Re-circulated Hybrid Tidal Flow Constructed Wetland (United States)

    Lihua Cui; Jigkun Feng; Ying Ouyang; Peiwen. Deng


    Hybrid tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) with recirculation is an improved biological and engineering technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewater. This study investigated the removal efficiency of total phosphorus (TP), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and total nitrogen (TN) from septic tank effluent with the hybrid tidal flow CW system...

  4. Speciation of heavy metals in inter—tidal sediments of Okrika river

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The species and total metal concentrations of some environmentally toxic metals in inter-tidal sediments of the Okrika river system was examined. The determination of the heavy metal loadings, speciation patterns and other chemical parameters has revealed some. significant correlation in inter-tidal sediments ...

  5. General relativistic tidal heating for Moller pseudotensor

    CERN Document Server

    So, Lau Loi


    Thorne elucidated that the relativistic tidal heating is the same as the Newtonian theory. Moreover, Thorne also claimed that the tidal heating is independent of how one localizes gravitational energy and is unambiguously given by a certain formula. Purdue and Favata calculated the tidal heating for different classical pseudotensors including Moller and obtained the results all matched with the Newtonian perspective. After re-examined this Moller pseudotensor, we find that there does not exist any tidal heating value. Thus we claim that the relativistic tidal heating is pseudotensor independent under the condition that if the peusdotensor is a Freud typed superpotential.

  6. Data streams algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Muthukrishnan, S


    Data stream algorithms as an active research agenda emerged only over the past few years, even though the concept of making few passes over the data for performing computations has been around since the early days of Automata Theory. The data stream agenda now pervades many branches of Computer Science including databases, networking, knowledge discovery and data mining, and hardware systems. Industry is in synch too, with Data Stream Management Systems (DSMSs) and special hardware to deal with data speeds. Even beyond Computer Science, data stream concerns are emerging in physics, atmospheric

  7. Mainstream capnography system for nonintubated children in the postanesthesia care unit: Performance with changing flow rates, and a comparison to side stream capnography. (United States)

    Nagoshi, Makoto; Morzov, Rica; Hotz, Justin; Belson, Paula; Matar, Marla; Ross, Patrick; Wetzel, Randall


    Monitoring of exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in nonintubated patients is challenging. We compared the precision of a mainstream mask capnography to side stream sampling nasal cannula capnography. In addition, we compared the effect of gas flow rates on the measured exhaled CO2 between mainstream mask and side stream nasal cannula capnography. A mainstream mask capnography system (cap-ONE) was tested. Children (weight of 7-40 kg, ASA 1-2) following anesthesia for minor procedures were assigned randomly to side stream or mainstream sampling groups. The side stream group wore a nasal cannula with CO2 side port (NC). In the postanesthesia care unit, O2 flow was started at 5 l·min(-1) , reduced to 2 and then 0.25 l·min(-1) every 3 min. Capnogram analysis measuring heights of all the waveforms was performed for continuous 120 s from the end of recording at each O2 flow rate for each group. Fifty-eight children were enrolled and 39 were analyzed (18 side stream NC and 21 mainstream mask). There were two mouth breathing children excluded from study in side stream NC group due to failure to capture measurable CO2 waveforms. Peak CO2 values measured by mainstream mask system were normally (Gaussian) distributed with smaller standard deviation (sd) at each O2 flow than were those measured by side stream NC system which demonstrated irregular distributions with larger sd. Peak CO2 values measurement was less affected by a change in flow rate in mainstream mask group than in side stream NC group (P = 0.04 in 5-0.25 l·min(-1) O2 flow change). A new mainstream mask system (cap-ONE) performed with greater precision than side stream NC monitoring regardless of mouth breathing. Measurement of peak CO2 values by mainstream mask system showed normal distribution with smaller standard deviation (sd) and was less affected by O2 flow change in predictable fashion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Michael Leroy [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Xue, Huijie [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Johnson, Teresa R. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME


    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  9. Tidal stripping of stars near supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandford R.


    Full Text Available In a binary system composed of a supermassive black hole and a star orbiting the hole in an equatorial, circular orbit, the stellar orbit will shrink due to the action of gravitational radiation, until the star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO of the hole or plunges into the hole. In the former case, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1 to the hole. If this tidal stripping process happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the entropy as a function of the interior mass is conserved. The star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will recede from the hole while filling its Roche lobe. We calculate how the stellar equilibrium properties change, which determines how the stellar orbital period and mass-transfer rate change through the “Roche evolution” for various types of stars in the relativistic regime. We envisage that the mass stream eventually hits the accretion disc, where it forms a hot spot orbiting the hole and may ultimately modulate the luminosity with the stellar orbital frequency. The ultimate goal is to probe the mass and spin of the hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. The observability of such a modulation is discussed along with a possible interpretation of an intermittent 1 hour period in the X-ray emission of RE J1034+ 396.

  10. Experimental And Numerical Investigations of Ejector Jet Refrigeration System With Primary Stream Swirl


    Parveen Banu, Jiautheen; Mallikarjuna, Jawali Maharudrappa; Mani, Annamalai


    Among the various heat powered refrigerated systems, vapour jet refrigeration system (VJRS) is attractive because of its simple and rugged nature. Ejector is a key component in VJRS and the performance of the whole system depends on the effective performance of the ejector. Ejector can be operated with low grade energy by utilizing the heat from solar energy, waste heat from industrial exhaust, automobile exhaust, etc, at minimum temperature of about 60°C[1]. Besides that, this system requir...

  11. Experimental analysis of flow of ductile cast iron in stream lined gating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Hansen, Søren; Green, Nick; Tiedje, Niels Skat


    Streamlined gating systems have been developed for production of high integrity ductile cast iron parts. Flow of ductile cast iron in streamlined gating systems was studied in glass fronted sand moulds where flow in the gating system and casting was recorded by a digital video camera. These results...

  12. Streaming the Archives: Repurposing Systems to Advance a Small Media Digitization and Dissemination Program (United States)

    Anderson, Talea


    In 2013-2014, Brooks Library at Central Washington University (CWU) launched library content in three systems: a digital asset-management system, an institutional repository (IR), and a web-based discovery layer. In early 2014, the archives at the library began to use these systems to disseminate media recently digitized from legacy formats. As…

  13. Limits to tidal current power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Cummins, Patrick [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans (Canada)


    Estimating the extractable power of tidal currents in channels is a practical question that has received attention recently. Analysis has clearly shown that the power potential is not given by the flux of kinetic energy, as has been commonly assumed. A general formula for the maximum available power is reviewed, along with assessments of the reduction if only partial fences are used, as would be required for navigational and ecological reasons. In typical situations, the maximum power obtainable may be achieved with a surprisingly small number of turbines, especially if allowance is made for the flow reduction caused by drag on the supporting structures of turbines which reduces the maximum power available. Finally, the flow through tidal turbines is compared with the cooling water demands of nuclear reactors generating the same power. (author)

  14. Breakdown of Hydrostatic Assumption in Tidal Channel with Scour Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Li


    Full Text Available Hydrostatic condition is a common assumption in tidal and subtidal motions in oceans and estuaries.. Theories with this assumption have been largely successful. However, there is no definite criteria separating the hydrostatic from the non-hydrostatic regimes in real applications because real problems often times have multiple scales. With increased refinement of high resolution numerical models encompassing smaller and smaller spatial scales, the need for non-hydrostatic models is increasing. To evaluate the vertical motion over bathymetric changes in tidal channels and assess the validity of the hydrostatic approximation, we conducted observations using a vessel-based acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. Observations were made along a straight channel 18 times over two scour holes of 25 m deep, separated by 330 m, in and out of an otherwise flat 8 m deep tidal pass leading to the Lake Pontchartrain over a time period of 8 hours covering part of the diurnal tidal cycle. Out of the 18 passages over the scour holes, 11 of them showed strong upwelling and downwelling which resulted in the breakdown of hydrostatic condition. The maximum observed vertical velocity was ~ 0.35 m/s, a high value in a tidal channel, and the estimated vertical acceleration reached a high value of 1.76×10-2 m/s2. Analysis demonstrated that the barotropic non-hydrostatic acceleration was dominant. The cause of the non-hydrostatic flow was the that over steep slopes. This demonstrates that in such a system, the bathymetric variation can lead to the breakdown of hydrostatic conditions. Models with hydrostatic restrictions will not be able to correctly capture the dynamics in such a system with significant bathymetric variations particularly during strong tidal currents.

  15. On deriving transport pathways and morphodynamics in a tidal inlet from high-resolution MBES and LiDAR surveys: the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice; Fraccascia, Serena

    and the different transport pathways shaping the system is needed to assess the impact of potentially changing environmental conditions, such as accelerating sea level rise, increasing storm intensities and frequencies, or shifting wind directions. The aim of this study is to investigate the sand transport pathways...... and morphodynamics in a natural tidal inlet system, the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, by coupling investigations in the sub-tidal inlet channel and the adjacent inter-tidal and supra-tidal areas to encompass the complete system. More specifically, the objective is to develop a conceptual model...... and possible recirculation of sand between the inlet channel and the inter-tidal flat with the direction of the exchange depending on the forcing conditions, i.e. whether calm or storm conditions. Acknowledgements This work is funded by the Danish Council for Independent Research | Natural Sciences under...

  16. Tidal peritoneal dialysis: preliminary experience. (United States)

    Flanigan, M J; Doyle, C; Lim, V S; Ullrich, G


    To determine the feasibility of home tidal peritoneal dialysis (TPD) and to assess whether eight hours of TPD can achieve uremia control and urea removal equal to that of continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). An open enrollment pilot study. The Home Dialysis Training Center of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, a tertiary care teaching hospital. Nine patients experienced with CCPD and living 80 km to 280 km from the dialysis center began TPD, because they wished to decrease their dialysis time. Following baseline measurements, each patient was taught to perform TPD. TPD consisted of an initial fill volume of 40 mL/kg, a residual volume approximately 20 mL/kg, and tidal exchanges of 10 to 20 mL/kg to achieve the desired hourly flow rate. Clinic assessments took place every four to six weeks, and prescriptions were subsequently altered to attain urea removal equal to that of CCPD. Patient interviews were used to determine TPD acceptance. Prior to each clinic visit, dialysate effluent volume and dialysis duration were recorded, and a sterile sample of the effluent was obtained for urea, creatinine, and total nitrogen measurement. Urea and creatinine clearances increased with dialysate flow. Dialysate nonurea nitrogen was 3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/kg/D and changed minimally with increasing dialysate volumes. Eight hours of TPD (initial fill: 40 mL/kg; residual volume: 20 mL/kg; tidal inflow: 20 mL/kg) with hourly tidal flow exceeding 40 mL/kg/hr and no daytime volume achieved urea removal equal to that of the patient's prior CCPD prescription. TPD can provide dialysis equal to that of CCPD within a shorter amount of time (eight vs ten hours), but uses a greater volume of dialysate (16.0 L for TPD vs 9.5 L for CCPD).

  17. Trans World Tidal Gravity Profile. (United States)


    2 :Areas added or modified in the SchwidersKi maps. 7 Asin’m AC TB, 6 R A cos a Figure 3 A observed vector (A amplitude, = : phase) R tidal vector ...for an elastic non-viscous earth with liquid core but oceanless (R : amplitude, zero phase) L ocean attraction and loading vector (L : amplitude, X...3M D 80KM CENTRO POLITECNICO- GEODESIA -U.F*PR. PROF. CGEMAEL GRAVIMETRE GEODYNAMICS 783 PMELCHIOR - OBSERVATOIRE ROYAL DC BCLGIQUE CALIBRATION

  18. Surviving the Glut: The Management of Event Streams in Cyberphysical Systems (United States)

    Buchmann, Alejandro

    Alejandro Buchmann is Professor in the Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, where he heads the Databases and Distributed Systems Group. He received his MS (1977) and PhD (1980) from the University of Texas at Austin. He was an Assistant/Associate Professor at the Institute for Applied Mathematics and Systems IIMAS/UNAM in Mexico, doing research on databases for CAD, geographic information systems, and objectoriented databases. At Computer Corporation of America (later Xerox Advanced Information Systems) in Cambridge, Mass., he worked in the areas of active databases and real-time databases, and at GTE Laboratories, Waltham, in the areas of distributed object systems and the integration of heterogeneous legacy systems. 1991 he returned to academia and joined T.U. Darmstadt. His current research interests are at the intersection of middleware, databases, eventbased distributed systems, ubiquitous computing, and very large distributed systems (P2P, WSN). Much of the current research is concerned with guaranteeing quality of service and reliability properties in these systems, for example, scalability, performance, transactional behaviour, consistency, and end-to-end security. Many research projects imply collaboration with industry and cover a broad spectrum of application domains. Further information can be found at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Anna Kudlek


    Full Text Available A significant number of anthropogenic organic micropollutants are classified as hardly- or non-biodegradable compounds, which may adversely affect on living organisms, including human health. Municipal wastewater and wastewater from various industry sectors are considered as the main source of this type of pollutants. The aim of the conducted study was to develop a method for the removal of selected micropollutants such as diclofenac, octylphenol, anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene from various water streams based on advanced oxidation processes and membrane filtration techniques. The research was carried out on solutions prepared based on deionised water and a model real and real effluent from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment line. The concentration of micropollutions was 0.5 mg/dm3. Photocatalytic oxidation was applied in the presence of TiO2 in a batch reactor equipped with a UV lamp of 150 W. The post-processing solutions ware subjected to the ultrafiltration process, which allowed for the separation of catalyst particles and the retention of high molecular weight organic compounds occurring in the treated water streams. The membrane filtration process was operated in a dead-end mode at a transmembrane pressure of 2 MPa. For their complete elimination, the second stage of membrane filtration using a nanofiltration membrane was applied. The chromatographic analysis, performed to determine the removal degree of tested micropollutants in the post-processing solutions, indicated their incomplete decomposition in the photocatalysis process and the generation of a significant number of their oxidation by-products. The proposed sequential system, that combines photocatalysis with two-stage membrane filtration, allowed for over 91% removal of micropollutants from water solutions prepared on the basis of deionised water and for a complete removal of the compounds and their oxidation by-products from model and real wastewater effluents.

  20. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  1. Evaluation of Stream Mining Classifiers for Real-Time Clinical Decision Support System: A Case Study of Blood Glucose Prediction in Diabetes Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong


    Full Text Available Earlier on, a conceptual design on the real-time clinical decision support system (rt-CDSS with data stream mining was proposed and published. The new system is introduced that can analyze medical data streams and can make real-time prediction. This system is based on a stream mining algorithm called VFDT. The VFDT is extended with the capability of using pointers to allow the decision tree to remember the mapping relationship between leaf nodes and the history records. In this paper, which is a sequel to the rt-CDSS design, several popular machine learning algorithms are investigated for their suitability to be a candidate in the implementation of classifier at the rt-CDSS. A classifier essentially needs to accurately map the events inputted to the system into one of the several predefined classes of assessments, such that the rt-CDSS can follow up with the prescribed remedies being recommended to the clinicians. For a real-time system like rt-CDSS, the major technological challenges lie in the capability of the classifier to process, analyze and classify the dynamic input data, quickly and upmost reliably. An experimental comparison is conducted. This paper contributes to the insight of choosing and embedding a stream mining classifier into rt-CDSS with a case study of diabetes therapy.

  2. The role of observer variation in determining Rosgen stream types in northeastern Oregon mountain streams (United States)

    Brett B. Roper; John M. Buffington; Eric Archer; Chris Moyer; Mike Ward


    Consistency in determining Rosgen stream types was evaluated in 12 streams within the John Day Basin, northeastern Oregon. The Rosgen classification system is commonly used in the western United States and is based on the measurement of five stream attributes: entrenchment ratio, width-to-depth ratio, sinuosity, slope, and substrate size. Streams were classified from...

  3. About Tidal Evolution of Quasi-Periodic Orbits of Satellites (United States)

    Ershkov, Sergey V.


    Tidal interactions between Planet and its satellites are known to be the main phenomena, which are determining the orbital evolution of the satellites. The modern ansatz in the theory of tidal dissipation in Saturn was developed previously by the international team of scientists from various countries in the field of celestial mechanics. Our applying to the theory of tidal dissipation concerns the investigating of the system of ODE-equations (ordinary differential equations) that govern the orbital evolution of the satellites; such an extremely non-linear system of 2 ordinary differential equations describes the mutual internal dynamics for the eccentricity of the orbit along with involving the semi-major axis of the proper satellite into such a monstrous equations. In our derivation, we have presented the elegant analytical solutions to the system above; so, the motivation of our ansatz is to transform the previously presented system of equations to the convenient form, in which the minimum of numerical calculations are required to obtain the final solutions. Preferably, it should be the analytical solutions; we have presented the solution as a set of quasi- periodic cycles via re-inversing of the proper ultra- elliptical integral. It means a quasi-periodic character of the evolution of the eccentricity, of the semi-major axis for the satellite orbit as well as of the quasi-periodic character of the tidal dissipation in the Planet.

  4. Seed dynamics linked to variability in movement of tidal water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, E. R.; Veeneklaas, R. M.; Bakker, J. P.

    Question: Community structure may be influenced by patterns of dispersed seeds (seed rain) because they contribute to the template of plant community development. We explored factors influencing seed rain in a system dominated by tidal water, where direction and magnitude of water flow are difficult

  5. Bedform evolution in a tidal inlet referred from wavelet analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraccascia, Serena; Winter, Christian; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge


    Bedforms are common morphological features in subaqueous and aeolian environments and their characterization is commonly the first step to better understand forcing factors acting in the system. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectral characteristics of compound bedforms in a tidal...

  6. Integrating novel data streams to support biosurveillance in commercial livestock production systems in developed countries: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carolyn eGates


    Full Text Available Reducing the burden of emerging and endemic infectious diseases on commercial livestock production systems will require the development of innovative technology platforms that enable information from diverse animal health resources to be collected, analyzed, and communicated in near real-time. In this paper, we review recent initiatives to leverage data routinely observed by farmers, production managers, veterinary practitioners, diagnostic laboratories, regulatory officials, and slaughterhouse inspectors for disease surveillance purposes. The most commonly identified challenges were (1 the lack of standardized systems for recording essential data elements within and between surveillance data streams, (2 the additional time required to collect data elements that are not routinely recorded by participants, (3 the concern over the sharing and use of business sensitive information with regulatory authorities and other data analysts, (4 the difficulty in developing sustainable incentives to maintain long-term program participation, and (5 the limitations in current methods for analyzing and reporting animal health information in a manner that facilitates actionable response. With the significant recent advances in information science, there are many opportunities to develop more sophisticated systems that meet national disease surveillance objectives, while still providing participants with valuable tools and feedback to manage routine animal health concerns.

  7. A Generic Local Algorithm for Mining Data Streams in Large Distributed Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a large network of computers or wireless sensors, each of the components (henceforth, peers) has some data about the global state of the system. Much of the...

  8. Guidelines to indirectly measure and enhance detection efficiency of stationary PIT tag interrogation systems in streams (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Wolf, Keith; O'Neal, Jennifer S.


    With increasing use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and reliance on stationary PIT tag interrogation systems to monitor fish populations, guidelines are offered to inform users how best to use limited funding and human resources to create functional systems that maximize a desired level of detection and precision. The estimators of detection efficiency and their variability as described by Connolly et al. (2008) are explored over a span of likely performance metrics. These estimators were developed to estimate detection efficiency without relying on a known number of fish passing the system. I present graphical displays of the results derived from these estimators to show the potential efficiency and precision to be gained by adding an array or by increasing the number of PIT-tagged fish expected to move past an interrogation system.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroimsky, Michael; Makarov, Valeri V., E-mail:, E-mail: [US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)


    Tidal torques play a key role in rotational dynamics of celestial bodies. They govern these bodies' tidal despinning and also participate in the subtle process of entrapment of these bodies into spin-orbit resonances. This makes tidal torques directly relevant to the studies of habitability of planets and their moons. Our work begins with an explanation of how friction and lagging should be built into the theory of bodily tides. Although much of this material can be found in various publications, a short but self-consistent summary on the topic has been lacking in the hitherto literature, and we are filling the gap. After these preparations, we address a popular concise formula for the tidal torque, which is often used in the literature, for planets or stars. We explain why the derivation of this expression, offered in the paper by Goldreich and in the books by Kaula (Equation (4.5.29)) and Murray and Dermott (Equation (4.159)), implicitly sets the time lag to be frequency independent. Accordingly, the ensuing expression for the torque can be applied only to bodies having a very special (and very hypothetical) rheology which makes the time lag frequency independent, i.e., the same for all Fourier modes in the spectrum of tide. This expression for the torque should not be used for bodies of other rheologies. Specifically, the expression cannot be combined with an extra assertion of the geometric lag being constant, because at finite eccentricities the said assumption is incompatible with the constant-time-lag condition.

  10. Tidal and non-tidal sea level variations at two adjacent ports on the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    systems on the northern Gulf of Mexico, in Estuarine variability, edited by D A Wolfe, (Academic Press, London) 1986, pp. 355-367. 3 Smith N P, Tidal and nontidal flushing of Florida’s Indian River lagoon, Estuaries, 16 (1993) 739-746. 4 Foreman M G G...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gongjie [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Winn, Joshua N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    The obliquities of planet-hosting stars are clues about the formation of planetary systems. Previous observations led to the hypothesis that for close-in giant planets, spin–orbit alignment is enforced by tidal interactions. Here, we examine two problems with this hypothesis. First, Mazeh and coworkers recently used a new technique—based on the amplitude of starspot-induced photometric variability—to conclude that spin–orbit alignment is common even for relatively long-period planets, which would not be expected if tides were responsible. We re-examine the data and find a statistically significant correlation between photometric variability and planetary orbital period that is qualitatively consistent with tidal interactions. However it is still difficult to explain quantitatively, as it would require tides to be effective for periods as long as tens of days. Second, Rogers and Lin argued against a particular theory for tidal re-alignment by showing that initially retrograde systems would fail to be re-aligned, in contradiction with the observed prevalence of prograde systems. We investigate a simple model that overcomes this problem by taking into account the dissipation of inertial waves and the equilibrium tide, as well as magnetic braking. We identify a region of parameter space where re-alignment can be achieved, but it only works for close-in giant planets, and requires some fine tuning. Thus, while we find both problems to be more nuanced than they first appeared, the tidal model still has serious shortcomings.

  12. Observations of a tidal intrusion front in a tidal channel (United States)

    Lu, Shasha; Xia, Xiaoming; Thompson, Charlie E. L.; Cao, Zhenyi; Liu, Yifei


    A visible front indicated by a surface colour change, and sometimes associated with foam or debris lines, was observed in a tidal channel during neap tide. This is an example of a tidal intrusion front occurring in the absence of sudden topographical changes or reversing flows, typically reported to be associated with such fronts. Detailed Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler and conductivity/temperature/depth measurements were taken on repeated transects both with fronts apparent and with fronts absent. The results indicated that the front occurred as a result of stratification, which was sustained by the buoyancy flux and the weak tide-induced mixing during neap ebb tide. The stronger tide-induced mixing during spring tide restrained stratification, leading to the absence of a front. The mechanism of the frontogenesis was the density gradient between the stratified water formed during neap ebb tide, and the more mixed seawater during neap flood tide; thus, the water on the landward (southwestern) side of the front was stratified, and that on the seaward side (northeastern) of the front was vertically well mixed. Gradient Richardson number estimates suggest that the flow between the stratified and mixed water was near the threshold 0.25 for shear instability. Meanwhile, the density gradient would provide an initial baroclinic contribution to velocity convergence, which is indicated by the accumulation of buoyant matter such as foam, grass, and debris into a sharply defined line along the surface. The front migrates with the flood current, with a local maximum towards the eastern side of the channel, leading to an asymmetrical shape with the eastern side of the front driven further into the Tiaozhoumen tidal channel.

  13. Tidal deformation of a slowly rotating material body: Interior metric and Love numbers (United States)

    Landry, Philippe


    The metric outside a compact body deformed by a quadrupolar tidal field is universal up to its Love numbers, constants which encode the tidal response's dependence on the body's internal structure. For a nonrotating body, the deformed external geometry is characterized by the familiar gravitational Love numbers K2el and K2mag . For a slowly rotating body, these must be supplemented by rotational-tidal Love numbers, which measure the response to couplings between the body's spin and the external tidal field. By integrating the interior field equations, I find that the response of a barotropic perfect fluid to spin-coupled tidal perturbations is described by two rotational-tidal Love numbers, which I calculate explicitly for polytropes. Two other rotational-tidal Love numbers identified in prior work are found to have a fixed, universal value for all barotropes. Equipped with the complete interior solution, I calculate the amplitude of the time-varying internal currents induced by the gravitomagnetic part of the tidal field. For a typical neutron star in an equal-mass binary system, the size of the equatorial velocity perturbation is on the order of kilometers per second.

  14. Dynamics of tidal and non-tidal currents along the southwest continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aruna, C.; Ravichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Rasheed, P.A.A; Lekshmi, S.

    The tidal regimes over the continental shelves are often less documented due to lack of coastal water level data. This is of concern since continental shelves rule the global dissipation of tidal energy. The tides along the Southwest Indian shelf...

  15. Near Real-Time Gyrotron Data Streaming and Data Acquisition with ns Resolution on the DIII-D ECH System (United States)

    Torrezan, A. C.; Ponce, D.; Gorelov, Y. A.; Cengher, M.; Lohr, J.


    As part of the expansion and upgrade of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) systen on DIII-D, a new data acquisition setup has been implemented to acquire and display waveform data from all gyrotrons in near real time with high time resolution. The data acquisition for each gyrotron system is based on a fast digitizer with 8 channels running at 2 MS/s/channel and a resolution of 14 bits. This enables the operator to monitor all gyrotron-relevant variables as well as fast diagnostic signals such as window arcs. The data are transferred to a local computer through a 132 MB/s PCI bus, and then are streamed to the ECH operator and to a local network attached storage using 1 GB Ethernet links. The data are displayed to the ECH operator by means of a graphical user interface developed in LabVIEW, replacing physical scopes. Acquired gyrotron data are accessible at DIII-D through a local database (PTDATA) connected to the ECH data acquisition system by an Ethernet line, a configuration that eliminates the need for legacy CAMAC hardware in the data link. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  16. Measuring aerobic respiration in stream ecosystems using the resazurin-resorufin system (United States)

    R. González-Pinzón; R. Haggerty; D.D. Myrold


    The use of smart tracers to study hydrologic systems is becoming more widespread. Smart tracers are compounds that irreversibly react in the presence of a process or condition under investigation. Resazurin (Raz) is a smart tracer that undergoes an irreversible reduction to resorufin (Rru) in the presence of cellular metabolic activity. We quantified the relationship...

  17. A generalized method for controlling end-tidal respiratory gases during nonsteady physiological conditions. (United States)

    O'Connor, Shawn M; Wong, Jeremy D; Donelan, J Maxwell


    While forcing of end-tidal gases by regulating inspired gas concentrations is a common technique for studying cardiorespiratory physiology, independently controlling end-tidal gases is technically challenging. Feedforward control methods are challenging because end-tidal values vary as a dynamic function of both inspired gases and other nonregulated physiological parameters. Conventional feedback control is limited by delays within the lungs and body tissues and within the end-tidal forcing system itself. Consequently, modern end-tidal forcing studies have generally restricted their analysis to simple time courses of end-tidal gases and to resting steady-state conditions. To overcome these limitations, we have designed and validated a more generalized end-tidal forcing system that removes the need for manual tuning and rule-of-thumb based control heuristics, while allowing for accurate control of gases along spontaneous and complicated time courses and under nonsteady physiological conditions. On average during resting, steady walking, and walking with time varying speed, our system achieved step changes in PetCO2 within 3.0 ± 0.9 (mean ± SD) breaths and PetO2 within 4.4 ± 0.9 breaths, while also maintaining small steady-state errors of 0.1 ± 0.2 mmHg for PetCO2 and 0.3 ± 0.8 mmHg for PetO2 The system also accurately tracked more complicated changes in end-tidal values through a bandwidth of 1/10 the respiratory (sampling) frequency, a practical limit of feedback control systems. The primary mechanism enabling this controller performance is a generic mathematical model of the cardiopulmonary system that captures the breath-by-breath relationship between inspired and end-tidal gas concentrations, with secondary contributions from reduced delays in controlled air delivery.

  18. Array Optimization for Tidal Energy Extraction in a Tidal Channel – A Numerical Modeling Analysis


    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea


    This paper presents an application of a hydrodynamic model to simulate tidal energy extraction in a tidal dominated estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast. A series of numerical experiments were carried out to simulate tidal energy extraction with different turbine array configurations, including location, spacing and array size. Preliminary model results suggest that array optimization for tidal energy extraction in a real-world site is a very complex process that requires consideration of m...

  19. Rapid Prototyping for Heterogeneous Multicomponent Systems: An MPEG-4 Stream over a UMTS Communication Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Y


    Full Text Available Future generations of mobile phones, including advanced video and digital communication layers, represent a great challenge in terms of real-time embedded systems. Programmable multicomponent architectures can provide suitable target solutions combining flexibility and computation power. The aim of our work is to develop a fast and automatic prototyping methodology dedicated to signal processing application implementation on parallel heterogeneous architectures, two major features required by future systems. This paper presents the whole methodology based on the SynDEx CAD tool that directly generates a distributed implementation onto various platforms from a high-level application description, taking real-time aspects into account. It illustrates the methodology in the context of real-time distributed executives for multilayer applications based on an MPEG-4 video codec and a UMTS telecommunication link.

  20. Rapid Prototyping for Heterogeneous Multicomponent Systems: An MPEG-4 Stream over a UMTS Communication Link (United States)

    Raulet, M.; Urban, F.; Nezan, J.-F.; Moy, C.; Deforges, O.; Sorel, Y.


    Future generations of mobile phones, including advanced video and digital communication layers, represent a great challenge in terms of real-time embedded systems. Programmable multicomponent architectures can provide suitable target solutions combining flexibility and computation power. The aim of our work is to develop a fast and automatic prototyping methodology dedicated to signal processing application implementation on parallel heterogeneous architectures, two major features required by future systems. This paper presents the whole methodology based on the SynDEx CAD tool that directly generates a distributed implementation onto various platforms from a high-level application description, taking real-time aspects into account. It illustrates the methodology in the context of real-time distributed executives for multilayer applications based on an MPEG-4 video codec and a UMTS telecommunication link.

  1. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process (United States)

    Gardner, Timothy J.; Lott, Stephen E.; Lockwood, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.


    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  2. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei


    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  3. Tidal phenomena in reservoirs; Fenomeno de mare em reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinilla Cortes, John Freddy


    This work models the oceanic tidal effect on reservoirs by coupling geomechanic principles with equations for fluid in a deformable porous media. The coupling revealed the importance of establishing properly the system compressibility under the various possible configurations of the loading system. The basic models for infinite reservoir, constant outer-pressure reservoir and closed reservoir were considered. It was verified that it was possible to apply the superposition of effects on the solution for the basic models by carrying a simple transformation on the solution variable. The problem was treated by in the context of test analysis, concerning dimensionless form of variables and the inclusion of well effects. The solution for the infinite reservoir including tidal effects. The solution for the infinite reservoir including tidal effects was obtained in the Laplace space and was inverted numerically by using Crump's routine. The results were incorporated to conventional type curves, and were validated by comparison with real and simulated pressure test data. Finally, alternate practices were suggested to integrate the well test analysis in reservoirs affected by the tidal effect. (author)

  4. Tidal strain observations in Chu-Chie, Taiwan (United States)

    Takemoto, Shuzo; Lee, Min; Chen, Chih-Yen; Kao, Ming-Chien; Mukai, Atsushi; Ikawa, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tohru; Abe, Taisuke


    In Chu-Chie, Taiwan, tidal strain observation with a borehole strainmeter system has been carried out since 2001. The Chu-Chie station (N23°31'39″, E120°35'59″, h = 300 m) is located in the central part of Taiwan and is about 40 km distant from the epicenter of the destructive Chi-Chi earthquake ( ML = 7.3) which occurred on September 21, 1999. The strainmeter system detects three components of horizontal strains in 82°, 202° and 322° measured from the North in clockwise directions using differential transformers. We analyzed tidal strains and determined amplitudes and phase lags of 13 major constituents by applying the tidal-analysis program BAYTAP-G to 1-year strain data of 2003. The "observed" tidal strain amplitudes were compared with the "theoretically expected" amplitudes that were obtained from the GOTIC2 program. As a result, the ratio of the observed amplitudes and the theoretically expected amplitudes ranges between 0.7 and 3.3. Some parts of these discrepancies may be caused by uncertainty of determination of scale factors of instruments. Other reasons to be considered are complicated geological and topographic effects around the observation site.

  5. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.


    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  6. Chemical compositions of stars in two stellar streams from the Galactic thick disc (United States)

    Ramya, P.; Reddy, Bacham E.; Lambert, David L.


    We present abundances for 20 elements for stars in two stellar streams identified by Arifyanto & Fuchs: 18 stars from the Arcturus stream and 26 from a new stream, which we call the AF06 stream, both from the Galactic thick disc. Results show that both streams are metal poor and very old (10-14 Gyr) with kinematics and abundances overlapping with the properties of local field thick-disc stars. Both streams exhibit a range in metallicity but with relative elemental abundances that are identical to those of thick-disc stars of the same metallicity. These results show that neither stream can result from dissolution of an open cluster. It is highly unlikely that either stream represents tidal debris from an accreted satellite galaxy. Both streams most probably owe their origin to dynamical perturbations within the Galaxy.

  7. MIVIS image geocoding experience on merging position attitude system data and public domain GPS stream (ASI-GeoDAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pignatti


    Full Text Available The use of airborne scanners involves geo-referencing problems, which are difficult because of the need to know the exact platform position and attitude for each scan line. The errors of the onboard navigation system are normally corrected using ground control point on the image. This post-processing correction procedure is too long in case of multiple flight campaigns, and besides it implies the need to have available 1:10000 orthophotoimages or maps in digital format. To optimize the above procedure a new method to correct MIVIS navigational data in the post-processing phase has been implemented. The procedure takes into consideration the GPS stream in Rinex format of common knowledge and findable on the web, acquired at the ground stations of the Geodetic Data Archiving Facilities provided by ASI. The application of this correction entails the assumption that the environmental variables affecting both onboard and geodetic GPS equally affect the position measurements. The airborne data correction was carried out merging the two data sets (onboard and ground station GPS to achieve a more precise aircraft trajectory. The present study compares the geo-coded images obtained by means of the two post-processing methods.

  8. Determining Tidal Phase Differences from X-Band Radar Images (United States)

    Newman, Kieran; Bell, Paul; Brown, Jennifer; Plater, Andrew


    Validation will be attempted using data from a POLCOMS-WAM model run for Liverpool Bay at 180m resolution for February 2008 (Brown, 2011), and ongoing work to develop a model at 5m resolution using DELFT3D-FLOW. There are also a series of ADCP and other direct measurements of tidal current and elevation available, although periods of measurement do not all overlap. However, this could still be used for some validation. Conclusion While this work is in very early stages, it could present a method to determine fine-scale variations in tidal phase without a network of current recorders, and an improvement in the accuracy of bathymetric methods using X-band Radar. References Bell, P.S., Bird, C.O., Plater, A.J., 2016. A temporal waterline approach to mapping intertidal areas using X-band marine radar. Coastal Engineering, 07: 84-101. Brown, J.M., Bolaños, R., Wolf, J., 2011. Impact assessment of advanced coupling features in a tide-surge-wave model, POLCOMS-WAM, in a shallow water application. Journal of Marine Systems, 87: 13-24. Deltares, 2010. Delft3D FLOW. Delft: Deltares.

  9. Slow Rotating Trojans: Tidally Synchronized Binaries? (United States)

    Noll, Keith


    We propose HST observations of six slow-rotating Trojans to search for tidally synchronous binaries similar to the Patroclus binary system. A significant excess of slow rotators over Maxwellian suggests that additional binaries may be present. If any of the targets are binary, they can be resolved by HST. This target selection strategy has recently yielded the third known resolved Trojan binary, detected in a sample of seven slow-rotating Trojans. We wish to extend this successful strategy with another similarly selected sample. Even one additional resolved binary in the Trojans, which would become the fourth, would be of extreme interest. The discovery of no binaries among this group of slow rotators would challenge the understanding of the source of the excess slow rotators in the Trojans.

  10. Environmental monitoring of urban streams using a primary fish gill cell culture system (FIGCS). (United States)

    Schnell, Sabine; Bawa-Allah, Kafilat; Otitoloju, Adebayo; Hogstrand, Christer; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Bury, Nic R


    The primary fish gill cell culture system (FIGCS) is an in vitro technique which has the potential to replace animals in whole effluent toxicity tests. In the current study FIGCS were transported into the field and exposed to filtered (0.2μm) river water for 24h from 4 sites, on 2 different sampling dates. Sites 1 and 2 are situated in an urban catchment (River Wandle, London, UK) with site 1 downstream of a sewage treatment work; site 3 is located in a suburban park (River Cray, Kent, UK), and site 4 is more rural (River Darent, Kent, UK). The change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), the expression of the metal responsive genes metallothionein A (mta) and B (mtb), cytochrome P450 1A1 (cyp1a1) and 3A27 (cyp3a27), involved in phase 1 metabolism, were assessed following exposure to sample water for 24h. TER was comparable between FIGCS exposed to 0.2μm filtered river water and those exposed to synthetic moderately soft water for 24h. During the first sampling time, there was an increase in mta, cyp1a1 and cyp3a27 gene expression in epithelium exposed to water from sites 1 and 2, and during the second sampling period an increase in cyp3a27 gene expression at sites 1 and 4. Urban river water is a complex mixture of contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and the increase in the expression of genes encoding mta, cyp1a1 and cyp3a27 in FIGCS is indicative of the presence of biologically active pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.


    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  12. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Tidal Disruption Flares (United States)

    Cenko, Stephen B.


    When a star passes within the sphere of disruption of a massive black hole, tidal forces will overcome self-gravity and unbind the star. While approximately half of the stellar debris is ejected at high velocities, the remaining material stays bound to the black hole and accretes, resulting in a luminous, long-lived transient known as a tidal disruption flare (TDF). In addition to serving as unique laboratories for accretion physics,TDFs offer the hope of measuring black hole masses in galaxies much too distant for resolved kinematic studies.In order to realize this potential, we must better understand the detailed processes by which the bound debris circularizes and forms an accretion disk. Spectroscopy is critical to this effort, as emission and absorption line diagnostics provide insight into the location and physical state (velocity, density, composition) of the emitting gas (in analogy with quasars). UV spectra are particularly critical, as most strong atomic features fall in this bandpass, and high-redshift TDF discoveries from LSST will sample rest-frame UV wavelengths.Here I present recent attempts to obtain UV spectra of tidal disruption flares. I describe the UV spectrum of ASASSN-14li, in which we detect three classes of features: narrow absorption from the Milky Way (probably a high-velocity cloud), and narrow absorption and broad (2000-8000 km s-1) emission lines at or near the systemic host velocity. The absorption lines are blueshifted with respect to the emission lines by 250-400 km s-1. Due both to this velocity offset and the lack of common low-ionization features (Mg II, Fe II), we argue these arise from the same absorbing material responsible for the low-velocity outflow discovered at X-ray wavelengths. The broad nuclear emission lines display a remarkable abundance pattern: N III], N IV], and He II are quite prominent, while the common quasar emission lines of C III] and Mg II are weak or entirely absent. Detailed modeling of this spectrum will

  13. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina


    Full Text Available tidal pool water was compared to South African and other marine water quality guidelines. The microbial quality of a marine tidal pool on South Africa's Atlantic coast was found to be inferior to that of the adjoining seawater (the latter Complying...

  14. Organic matter processing in tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.


    Processing of organic matter in tidal estuaries modifies its transfer from the river to the sea. We examined the distribution and the elemental and isotopic composition of organic matter in nine tidal estuaries along the Atlantic coast of Europe (Elbe, Ems, Thames, Rhine, Scheldt, Loire, Gironde,

  15. Tidal power from the Bay of Fundy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Walsum, W.


    The potential for tidal power development in New Brunswick`s Bay of Fundy was discussed. Alternative methods of tidal plant operation, suitable for the site conditions of the head of the Bay (where there are two continuous basins), were described. Tidal power is strongly influenced by site conditions. A simple mathematical model has shown that for the location at the head of the Bay, a linked-basins plant could produce 5 per cent more energy with only 53 per cent of the power generating machinery that would be required for a conventional paired basins scheme. The challenge is to find an economical, environmentally friendly way of extracting power and energy from the tides. An early study series from 1966 to 1988 has shown that tidal power can be economical, yet nothing has materialized beyond an 18 MW pilot plant at Annapolis because of environmental concerns. In 1977, this single basin tidal power plant was found to increase the tidal range at Boston by 30 cm. It was suggested that a `tidal fence` may be an ecologically acceptable solution to this problem. Attention was drawn to the need to draft a master plan for the development of Fundy`s tidal power potential, making sure that early development does not jeopardize optimum development of the total resource. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Tidal power plant prototype achieves 99% availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLory, R.P.


    In 1984 the Annapolis Royal tidal power plant (Canada) was connected to the national grid and achieved 99% availability in its first year. It is the first tidal power plant built in North America and the first in the world which operates a large-diameter Straflo turbine.

  17. Prototype tidal power plant achieves 99% availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lory, R.P.


    The Annapolis Royal (Canada) tidal power plant officially came on line in 1984. In its first year it achieved 99% availability. It is the first tidal power plant in North America and the first plant in the world to employ a large diameter Straflo turbine. The performance of the prototype plant is discussed.

  18. The secret gardener: vegetation and the emergence of biogeomorphic patterns in tidal environments. (United States)

    Da Lio, Cristina; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Marani, Marco


    The presence and continued existence of tidal morphologies, and in particular of salt marshes, is intimately connected with biological activity, especially with the presence of halophytic vegetation. Here, we review recent contributions to tidal biogeomorphology and identify the presence of multiple competing stable states arising from a two-way feedback between biomass productivity and topographic elevation. Hence, through the analysis of previous and new results on spatially extended biogeomorphological systems, we show that multiple stable states constitute a unifying framework explaining emerging patterns in tidal environments from the local to the system scale. Furthermore, in contrast with traditional views we propose that biota in tidal environments is not just passively adapting to morphological features prescribed by sediment transport, but rather it is 'The Secret Gardener', fundamentally constructing the tidal landscape. The proposed framework allows to identify the observable signature of the biogeomorphic feedbacks underlying tidal landscapes and to explore the response and resilience of tidal biogeomorphic patterns to variations in the forcings, such as the rate of relative sea-level rise.

  19. Tidal hydrodynamics in a two-inlet coastal lagoon in the Gulf of California (United States)

    Serrano, David; Ramírez-Félix, Evlin; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo


    The aim of this study is to understand the effects of friction and advection in the hydrodynamics of a two-inlet coastal lagoon, Santa María La Reforma, in Northwest Mexico. A vertically integrated numerical model is used to describe sea level variations and tidal currents, and to study the dynamics inside the system. Observed sea level and current measurements were used to calibrate the model. Results show a ˜90 min phase lag of the tidal signal in the center of the system with respect to both inlets. Tidal currents greater than 1.0 m s-1 were recorded and modeled at both inlets. The sea level in the lagoon shows one-quarter of period of M2 out of phase (˜3 h) with respect to the velocity. Bottom friction generated the greatest M4 harmonic and largest tidal asymmetries at the narrowest section of the lagoon, ˜35 km away from the inlets. The tidal momentum balance along the main axis of the lagoon was dominated by pressure gradient and friction, describing a quasi-standing tidal wave in currents and in amplitude. This behavior resulted from waves traveling in opposite directions from the two tidal inlets, causing constructive interference in elevation but destructive interference inflow.

  20. Modeling Interactions between Backbarrier Marshes, Tidal Inlets, Ebb-deltas, and Adjacent Barriers Exposed to Rising Sea Levels (United States)

    Hanegan, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; FitzGerald, D.


    Along barrier island chains, tidal exchange between the backbarrier and the coastal ocean supports unique saltwater and brackish ecosystems and is responsible for exporting sediment and nutrients to the surrounding coast. Tidal prism, basement controls, and wave and tidal energy dictate the size and number of tidal inlets and the volume of sand sequestered in ebb-tidal deltas. The inlet tidal prism is a function of bay area, tidal range, and secondary controls, including flow inertia, basinal hypsometry, and frictional factors. Sea- level rise (SLR) is threatening coastal environments, causing mainland flooding, changes in sediment supply, and conversion of wetlands and tidal flats to open water. These factors are impacting basinal hypsometry and increasing open water area, resulting in enlarging tidal prisms, increased dimensions of tidal inlets and ebb-tidal deltas, and erosion along adjacent barrier shorelines. Although the effects of SLR on coastal morphology are difficult to study by field observations alone, physics-based numerical models provide a sophisticated means of analyzing coastal processes over decadal time-scales and linking process causation to long term development. Here, we use a numerical model that includes relevant features in the barrier/tidal basin system, linking back-barrier marsh degradation, inlet expansion, and ebb-delta growth to barrier erosion through long-term hydrodynamic and morphology simulations. Sediment exchange and process interactions are investigated using an idealized domain resembling backbarrier basins of mixed energy coasts so that the sensitivity to varying SLR rates, interior marsh loss, sediment supply, and hydrodynamic controls can be more easily analyzed. Model runs explore these processes over geologic time scales, demonstrating the vulnerability of backbarrier systems to projected SLR and marsh loss. Results demonstrate the links between changing basin morphology and shoreface sedimentation patterns that initiate

  1. On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimbrall, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean


    Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kW tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated. A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 MW tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation s 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one MW per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine s Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 MPa, 2900 psi) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, watermiscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC s cross-flow turbines are also discussed. For 15 MW of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

  2. Annual Energy Production (AEP) optimization for tidal power plants based on Evolutionary Algorithms - Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant AEP optimization (United States)

    Kontoleontos, E.; Weissenberger, S.


    In order to be able to predict the maximum Annual Energy Production (AEP) for tidal power plants, an advanced AEP optimization procedure is required for solving the optimization problem which consists of a high number of design variables and constraints. This efficient AEP optimization procedure requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software) and an AEP calculation tool that can simulate all different operating modes of the units (bidirectional turbine, pump and sluicing mode). The EASY optimization software is a metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA) that can be used in both single- and multi-objective optimization problems. The AEP calculation tool, developed by ANDRITZ HYDRO, in combination with EASY is used to maximize the tidal annual energy produced by optimizing the plant operation throughout the year. For the Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant project, the AEP optimization along with the hydraulic design optimization and the model testing was used to evaluate all different hydraulic and operating concepts and define the optimal concept that led to a significant increase of the AEP value. This new concept of a triple regulated “bi-directional bulb pump turbine” for Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant (16 units, nominal power above 320 MW) along with its AEP optimization scheme will be presented in detail in the paper. Furthermore, the use of an online AEP optimization during operation of the power plant, that will provide the optimal operating points to the control system, will be also presented.

  3. Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices. (United States)

    Wiklund, Martin; Green, Roy; Ohlin, Mathias


    In part 14 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we provide a qualitative description of acoustic streaming and review its applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. The paper covers boundary layer driven streaming, including Schlichting and Rayleigh streaming, Eckart streaming in the bulk fluid, cavitation microstreaming and surface-acoustic-wave-driven streaming.

  4. Elastography using multi-stream GPU: an application to online tracked ultrasound elastography, in-vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikant P Deshmukh

    Full Text Available A system for real-time ultrasound (US elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE, which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images.

  5. Elastography Using Multi-Stream GPU: An Application to Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography, In-Vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System (United States)

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P.; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D.; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.


    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  6. Reinvestigation of the Dynamic Tidal Power Dams and their Influences on Hydrodynamic Environment (United States)

    Shao, Dong; Feng, Weibing; Feng, Xi; Xu, Yinfeng


    Dynamic tidal power (DTP) system is known as an efficient method to exploit the tidal power. Large storage of tidal power in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea along the Chinese coastline is revealed by previous studies. In the consideration of the local environment, combination of smaller DTP dams located at three attractive positions in this area is investigated. Their efficiency is compared with that of larger DTP dams working singly. The influences of the triple smaller dams are also discussed together with those of the single larger dams placed at the same locations.

  7. Anthropogenic changes to the tidal channel network, sediment rerouting, and social implications in southwest Bangladesh (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Sams, S.; Small, C.


    infills remaining channels, which amounts to ~12% of the total annual sediment load supplied to the tidal deltaplain. This suggests that significant sediment is available in the system for elevation remediation of polders, however the hydrodynamic feasibility of reopening clogged channels and effective sediment dispersal is questionable

  8. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura


    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  9. The effect of loading efficiency on the groundwater response to water level changes in shallow lakes and streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.


    The loading efficiency (sometimes called the tidal efficiency) is often neglected when simulating the head response in an aquifer to water level changes in lakes and streams. This is not appropriate when the lake or stream only partially penetrates the aquifer. In such cases, the aquifer extends

  10. Diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO.sub.2 concentration and H.sub.2O concentration in a fluid stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, Jr., William P.; Jatana, Gurneesh Singh; Yoo, Ji Hyung; Parks, II, James E.


    A diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO.sub.2 concentration and H.sub.2O concentration in a fluid stream is described. The system may include one or more probes that sample the fluid stream spatially, temporally and over ranges of pressure and temperature. Laser light sources are directed down pitch optical cables, through a lens and to a mirror, where the light sources are reflected back, through the lens to catch optical cables. The light travels through the catch optical cables to detectors, which provide electrical signals to a processer. The processer utilizes the signals to calculate CO.sub.2 concentration based on the temperatures derived from H.sub.2O vapor concentration. A probe for sampling CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2O vapor concentrations is also disclosed. Various mechanical features interact together to ensure the pitch and catch optical cables are properly aligned with the lens during assembly and use.

  11. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of nine community water systems that withdraw from streams, 2002-05 (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hopple, Jessica A.


    Source water, herein defined as stream water collected at a water-system intake prior to water treatment, was sampled at nine community water systems, ranging in size from a system serving about 3,000 people to one that serves about 2 million people. As many as 17 source-water samples were collected at each site over about a 12-month period between 2002 and 2004 for analysis of 258 anthropogenic organic compounds. Most of these compounds are unregulated in drinking water, and the compounds analyzed include pesticides and selected pesticide degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use compounds, and solvents. The laboratory analytical methods used in this study have relatively low detection levels - commonly 100 to 1,000 times lower than State and Federal standards and guidelines for protecting water quality. Detections, therefore, do not necessarily indicate a concern to human health but rather help to identify emerging issues and to track changes in occurrence and concentrations over time. About one-half (134) of the compounds were detected at least once in source-water samples. Forty-seven compounds were detected commonly (in 10 percent or more of the samples), and six compounds (chloroform, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, deethylatrazine, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran (HHCB) were detected in more than one-half of the samples. Chloroform was the most commonly detected compound - in every sample (year round) at five sites. Findings for chloroform and the fragrances HHCB and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) indicate an association between occurrence and the presence of large upstream wastewater discharges in the watersheds. The herbicides atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor also were among the most commonly detected compounds. Degradates of these herbicides, as well as those of a few other commonly occurring herbicides, generally were detected at concentrations similar to or greater than concentrations of the parent

  12. Modification of streaming potential by precipitation of calcite in a sand-water system: laboratory measurements pH range from 4 to 12


    Guichet, Xavier; Jouniaux, Laurence; Catel, Nicole


    The definitive version is available at; We acknowledge the Geophysical Journal International, the Royal Astronomical Society and Blackwell Publishing. Full bibliographic reference is : Guichet, X., L. Jouniaux, and N. Catel, Modification of streaming potential by precipitation of calcite in a sand-water system: laboratory measurements in the pH range from 4 to 12, Geophysical Journal International, 166, 445-460, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.02922.x, 2006; Spontaneous...

  13. Integrated analysis of hydrological system, use and management. Langueyu stream basin, Tandil, Argentina; Analisis integral del sistema hidrico, uso y gestion. Cuenca del arroyo Langueyu, Tandil, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, V.A.; Banda Noriega, R.B.; Barranquero, R.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Rodriguez, C.I.; Miguel, R.E.


    This work is aim to hydrological and environmental characterization of Langueyu stream basin, where Tandil city is located. This basin is developed on northern hillside of Tandilia system, in Buenos Aires province, and it drains to NE. There are two different hydrogeological units: crystalline rocks and Cenozoic sediments, which correspond with two hydrolithological characters, fissured and clastic porous, respectively. The population is supplied by groundwater sources. Water exploitation and use were analyzed, according to the growing demands from industrial, agricultural and urban uses. The impacts of intense exploitation were evaluated. High levels of nitrate were corroborated in older wells of the city, which nowadays are in use. The hydrodynamic change in a section of the stream, where it converts to influent, was detected. This disturbance of the natural relation could be a potential source of contamination to the aquifer, due to high charges of industrial and urban effluents which the stream receives. Several population sectors, which have neither a drinking water net nor a sewer system, showed microbiological and chemical water contamination. Other water impact is constituted by several abandoned quarries which have historically received wastes, mainly from foundry industries. In conclusion, water management basin does not aim to sustainable development, due to its lack of integration. It demands the knowledge of hydrological system, according with the goal to avoid water quality degradation and to guarantee its protection. (Author).

  14. An equilibrium profile model for tidal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bernabeu


    Full Text Available During a full tidal cycle, the beach profile is exposed to continuously changing hydrodynamical conditions. Consequently, the profile evolves constantly to adapt to these changes. The equilibrium condition on tidal beaches is defined in terms of the relative occurrence of swash, surf zone and shoaling processes. We have assumed that the tidal beach profile is in equilibrium when the net sediment transport along a tidal cycle is zero. In this model the contribution of swash is considered negligible. A simple and easy-to-apply equilibrium profile formulation is proposed. This model is based on the assumption that surf zone processes dominate the profile morphology wherever wave breaking occurs during the tidal cycle. The obtained equilibrium profile is valid from the high tide level to the breaker point at low tide level. The tidal influence on the profile morphology is the lengthening of the surf profile. The higher the tidal range, the longer the surf profile. The model was tested against field and laboratory data, showing reasonable predictions of measured beach profiles.

  15. Possible astrometric determination of tidal dissipation within Uranus from a future space mission (United States)

    Lainey, Valery


    Tidal dissipation is the main actor of orbit migration among satellite systems. Recent work suggests possibly strong tidal dissipation within icy giant planets (Remus et al. 2013), with important consequences on satellite orbital evolution. Here we focus on the possible determination of tidal dissipation within Uranus using astrometric observations from ground and space. Besides regular observation campaigns from the Earth, simulations of observations from a future space probe around the Uranian system is considered. Constraints on the Uranian tidal ratio k2/Q as a function of astrometric accuracy and time span is assessed. This work is partly supported by EMERGENCE-UPMC grant (contract number: EME0911) and by the EC's 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2008-2017) under grant agreement n. 263466.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    We demonstrate the ability of existing and planned telescopes, on the ground and in space, to directly image tidally heated exomoons orbiting gas-giant exoplanets. Tidally heated exomoons can plausibly be far more luminous than their host exoplanet and as much as 0.1% as bright as the system's stellar primary if it is a low mass star. Because emission from exomoons can be powered by tidal forces, they can shine brightly at arbitrarily large separations from the system's stellar primary with temperatures of several hundreds degrees Kelvin or even higher in extreme cases. Furthermore, these high temperatures can occur in systems that are billions of years old. Tidally heated exomoons may thus be far easier targets for direct imaging studies than giant exoplanets which must be both young and at a large projected separation (typically at least tens of AU) from their primary to be accessible to current generation direct imaging studies. For example, the (warm) Spitzer Space Telescope and the next generation of ground based instruments could detect an exomoon roughly the size of the Earth at a temperature Almost-Equal-To 600 K and a distance Almost-Equal-To 5 pc in the K, L, and M bands at the 5{sigma} confidence level with a one hour exposure; in more favorable but still plausible cases, detection at distances of tens of parsecs is feasible. Future mid-infrared space telescopes, such as James Webb Space Telescope and SPICA, will be capable of directly imaging tidally heated exomoons around the nearest two dozen stars with a brightness temperature {>=}300 K and R {>=} 1 R{sub Circled-Plus} orbiting at {>=}12 AU from the primary star at a 5{sigma} confidence level in a 10{sup 4} s integration. In addition it is possible that some of the exoplanets which have already been directly imaged are actually tidally heated exomoons or blends of such objects with hot young planets. If such exomoons exist and are sufficiently common (i.e., nearby), it may well be far

  17. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops in bronchiolitis in infancy: the effect of albuterol [ISRCTN47364493]. (United States)

    Totapally, Balagangadhar R; Demerci, Cem; Zureikat, George; Nolan, Brian


    To evaluate the effect of nebulized albuterol on tidal breathing flow-volume loops in infants with bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus. A randomized, double-blind, control study. Pediatric unit in a community teaching hospital. Twenty infants younger than 1 year of age (mean age, 5.8 +/- 2.8 months) with a first episode of wheezing due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Chloral hydrate (50 mg/kg) was administered orally for sedation. One dose each of nebulized albuterol (0.15 mg/kg in 3 ml saline) and saline (3 ml) were given at 6 hour intervals in a random order. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops were obtained before and after each aerosol treatment with a Neonatal/Pediatric Pulmonary Testing System (Model 2600; Sensor Medics, Anaheim, CA, USA). At the same time, the fraction of tidal volume exhaled at peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF) to total tidal volume (VPTEF/VE), and the fraction of exhaled time at PTEF to total expiratory time (tPTEF/tE) were measured. The PTEF, the tidal expiratory flows at 10%, 25%, and 50% of the remaining tidal volume (TEF10, TEF25, and TEF50), and the wheeze score were also determined. There were no significant changes in VPTEF/VE and tPTEF/tE after albuterol or saline treatment. PTEF increased significantly both after albuterol and saline treatments but the difference between the two treatments was not significant (P = 0.6). Both TEF10 and the ratio of the tidal expiratory flow at 25% of the remaining tidal volume to PTEF (25/PT) decreased significantly (P bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus did not improve VPTEF/VE and tPTEF/tE but did decrease TEF10 and 25/PT.

  18. Summertime influences of tidal energy advection on the surface energy balance in a mangrove forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Barr


    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are ecosystems susceptible to changing water levels and temperatures due to climate change as well as perturbations resulting from tropical storms. Numerical models can be used to project mangrove forest responses to regional and global environmental changes, and the reliability of these models depends on surface energy balance closure. However, for tidal ecosystems, the surface energy balance is complex because the energy transport associated with tidal activity remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify impacts of tidal flows on energy dynamics within a mangrove ecosystem. To address the research objective, an intensive 10-day study was conducted in a mangrove forest located along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park, FL, USA. Forest–atmosphere turbulent exchanges of energy were quantified with an eddy covariance system installed on a 30-m-tall flux tower. Energy transport associated with tidal activity was calculated based on a coupled mass and energy balance approach. The mass balance included tidal flows and accumulation of water on the forest floor. The energy balance included temporal changes in enthalpy, resulting from tidal flows and temperature changes in the water column. By serving as a net sink or a source of available energy, flood waters reduced the impact of high radiational loads on the mangrove forest. Also, the regression slope of available energy versus sink terms increased from 0.730 to 0.754 and from 0.798 to 0.857, including total enthalpy change in the water column in the surface energy balance for 30-min periods and daily daytime sums, respectively. Results indicated that tidal inundation provides an important mechanism for heat removal and that tidal exchange should be considered in surface energy budgets of coastal ecosystems. Results also demonstrated the importance of including tidal energy advection in mangrove biophysical models that are used for predicting ecosystem

  19. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel (United States)

    Bassett, Christopher

    In coastal environments, when topographic and bathymetric constrictions are combined with large tidal amplitudes, strong currents (> 2 m/s) can occur. Because such environments are relatively rare and difficult to study, until recently, they have received little attention from the scientific community. However, in recent years, interest in developing tidal hydrokinetic power projects in these environments has motivated studies to improve this understanding. In order to support an analysis of the acoustic effects of tidal power generation, a multi-year study was conducted at a proposed project site in Puget Sound (WA) are analyzed at a site where peak currents exceeded 3.5 m/s. From these analyses, three noise sources are shown to dominate the observed variability in ambient noise between 0.02-30 kHz: anthropogenic noise from vessel traffic, sediment-generated noise during periods of strong currents, and flow-noise resulting from turbulence advected over the hydrophones. To assess the contribution of vessel traffic noise, one calendar year of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-traffic data was paired with hydrophone recordings. The study region included inland waters of the Salish Sea within a 20 km radius of the hydrophone deployment site in northern Admiralty Inlet. The variability in spectra and hourly, daily, and monthly ambient noise statistics for unweighted broadband and M-weighted sound pressure levels is driven largely by vessel traffic. Within the one-year study period, at least one AIS transmitting vessel is present in the study area 90% of the time and over 1,363 unique vessels are recorded. A noise budget for vessels equipped with AIS transponders identifies cargo ships, tugs, and passenger vessels as the largest contributors to noise levels. A simple model to predict received levels at the site based on an incoherent summation of noise from different vessel types yields a cumulative probability density function of broadband sound pressure

  20. Tidal power in Norway; Maanekraft fra dypet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The world's first tidal power station is scheduled for stat-up in the spring of 2003. It is located in Kvalsundet, off Hammerfest, Norway. This is a pilot installation of a 300 kW tidal turbine at a depth of 50 metres. When fully developed in 2007, the tidal power plant will deliver 32 GWh per year. Hammerfest Stroem has patented the energy and the company hopes to be able to install similar power stations both in Norway and abroad. The potential worldwide is claimed to be more than 450 TWh per year.

  1. Restoration of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osborne, L. L.; Bayley, P. B.; Higler, L. W. G.


    Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991......Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991...

  2. Tidal energy, a renewable energy within hand reach; Les marees, une energie renouvelable a portee de lune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielo, O.


    Tide energy and oceanic current energy represent a strong potentiality for a few countries in the world including France. In the domain of tidal energy there are 2 strategies. The first one is based on the search for the lowest power production cost in order to contribute efficiently to the country's energy mix. Generally this strategy leads to the construction of tidal dams. The second strategy is based on the search for the lowest environmental impact. This strategy is economically competitive only in places where electrical power is expensive like isolated islands. This strategy is illustrated by the tidal power station of the Alderney island. In fact the amount of energy delivered by a tidal power station depends on the rise of the tide and on the surface of the dam. It appears that tidal dams require less surface that hydroelectric power plants. The energy of oceanic currents like Gulf Stream or the thermal energy of oceans or wave power are very little exploited now but represent a potentiality higher by several orders of magnitude than tidal energy. (A.C.)

  3. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration


    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  4. Exploitation of tidal power in the Bay of Cadiz: ancient tidal mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Alonso del Rosario


    Full Text Available Tidal mills were the main industrial activity in the Bay of Cadiz for centuries. They were the last step in the production of salt and flour made by grinding grains. They were installed along the shallow channels, called “caños”, around the Bay, where the frictional and geometrical effects are very strong. The authors have analyzed the propagation of the semidiurnal tidal waves along the Caño de Sancti Petri and the available tidal power in the area. The ancient tidal mills were located where the available tidal potential energy is highest, which ensured productivity for grinding salt and wheat in ancient times. Some considerations about the possibility of installing tidal power plants in the Bay of Cadiz now are given, which show that it could be a real and renewal alternative source of energy for the area.

  5. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.


    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  6. The phase-space structure of tidally stripped haloes (United States)

    Drakos, Nicole E.; Taylor, James E.; Benson, Andrew J.


    We propose a new method for generating equilibrium models of spherical systems of collisionless particles that are finite in extent, but whose central regions resemble dark matter haloes from cosmological simulations. This method involves iteratively removing unbound particles from a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile truncated sharply at some radius. The resulting models are extremely stable, and thus provide a good starting point for N-body simulations of isolated haloes. We provide a code to generate such models for NFW and a variety of other common density profiles. We then develop an analytic approximation to this truncated distribution function. Our method proceeds by analogy with the King model, truncating and shifting the original distribution function of an infinitely extended NFW profile in energy space. We show that the density profiles of our models closely resemble the tidally truncated density profiles seen previously in studies of satellite evolution. Pursuing this analogy further with a series of simulations of tidal mass-loss, we find that our models provide a good approximation to the full distribution function of tidally stripped systems, thus allowing theoretically motivated phase-space calculations for such systems.

  7. Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter from astrometric observations. (United States)

    Lainey, Valéry; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Karatekin, Ozgür; Van Hoolst, Tim


    Io is the volcanically most active body in the Solar System and has a large surface heat flux. The geological activity is thought to be the result of tides raised by Jupiter, but it is not known whether the current tidal heat production is sufficiently high to generate the observed surface heat flow. Io's tidal heat comes from the orbital energy of the Io-Jupiter system (resulting in orbital acceleration), whereas dissipation of energy in Jupiter causes Io's orbital motion to decelerate. Here we report a determination of the tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter through its effect on the orbital motions of the Galilean moons. Our results show that the rate of internal energy dissipation in Io (k(2)/Q = 0.015 +/- 0.003, where k(2) is the Love number and Q is the quality factor) is in good agreement with the observed surface heat flow, and suggest that Io is close to thermal equilibrium. Dissipation in Jupiter (k(2)/Q = (1.102 +/- 0.203) x 10(-5)) is close to the upper bound of its average value expected from the long-term evolution of the system, and dissipation in extrasolar planets may be higher than presently assumed. The measured secular accelerations indicate that Io is evolving inwards, towards Jupiter, and that the three innermost Galilean moons (Io, Europa and Ganymede) are evolving out of the exact Laplace resonance.

  8. Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipp, N.; et al.


    We perform a search for stellar streams around the Milky Way using the first three years of multi-band optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We use DES data covering $\\sim 5000$ sq. deg. to a depth of $g > 23.5$ with a relative photometric calibration uncertainty of $< 1 \\%$. This data set yields unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern celestial hemisphere, enabling the detection of faint stellar streams to a heliocentric distance of $\\sim 50$ kpc. We search for stellar streams using a matched-filter in color-magnitude space derived from a synthetic isochrone of an old, metal-poor stellar population. Our detection technique recovers four previously known thin stellar streams: Phoenix, ATLAS, Tucana III, and a possible extension of Molonglo. In addition, we report the discovery of eleven new stellar streams. In general, the new streams detected by DES are fainter, more distant, and lower surface brightness than streams detected by similar techniques in previous photometric surveys. As a by-product of our stellar stream search, we find evidence for extra-tidal stellar structure associated with four globular clusters: NGC 288, NGC 1261, NGC 1851, and NGC 1904. The ever-growing sample of stellar streams will provide insight into the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, the Milky Way gravitational potential, as well as the large- and small-scale distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way.

  9. Tides and tidal harmonics at Umbharat, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.

    A part of the data on tides recorded at Machiwada near Umbharat, Gulf of Cambay during April 1978 was subjected to harmonic analysis following the Admiralty procedure. The general tidal characteristics and the value of four major harmonic...

  10. Tidal mixing in Dahej creek waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.

    of effluent discharge has been worked out. The allowable duration of discharge of the hypothetical effluent over a tidal cycle ensuring a specified minimum dilution has also been indicated to help optimise the degree of inplant treatment. The results suggested...

  11. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury in rats is greater after acid instillation than after sepsis-induced acute lung injury, but does not increase systemic inflammation: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiper Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI and resultant systemic inflammatory responses. Methods Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV with either a low tidal volume (Vt of 6 mL/kg and 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; LVt acid, LVt sepsis or with a high Vt of 15 mL/kg and no PEEP (HVt acid, HVt sepsis. Rats sacrificed immediately after acid instillation and non-ventilated septic animals served as controls. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were monitored. After 4 h, lung wet to dry (W/D weight ratios, histological lung injury and plasma mediator concentrations were measured. Results Oxygenation and lung compliance decreased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. Additionally, W/D weight ratios and histological lung injury scores increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. MV increased W/D weight ratio and lung injury score, however this effect was mainly attributable to HVt ventilation after acid instillation. Similarly, effects of HVt on oxygenation were only observed after acid instillation. HVt during sepsis did not further affect oxygenation, compliance, W/D weight ratio or lung injury score. Plasma interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α concentrations were increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis, but plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentration increased during sepsis only. In contrast to lung injury parameters, no additional effects of HVt MV after acid instillation on plasma mediator concentrations were observed. Conclusions During MV more severe lung injury develops after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. HVt causes VILI after acid instillation, but not during sepsis. However, this differential effect was not observed in the systemic release of

  12. A Profit Maximisation Model for Operation of a Tidal Lagoon Power Plant - Determination of Optimal Operational Schedule and Potential Value Added by Integration in a High Intermittent Power System


    Schaffer, Linn Emelie; Næss, Trine Rollefsen


    A stochastic profit maximisation model for operation of a tidal lagoon power plant including production head effects, power market prices and start-up costs is developed. The model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed integer programming problem with bidding decisions in the first stage, and plant operation and real-time sales in the second stage. The Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon project is taken as case study and the analysis is performed including sales in the United Kingdom (UK) day-a...

  13. Tidal Hydrodynamics in the Lower Columbia River Estuary through Depth Averaged Adaptive Hydraulics Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Savant


    Full Text Available The adaptive hydraulics (AdH numerical code was applied to study tidal propagation in the Lower Columbia River (LCR estuary. The results demonstrate the readiness of this AdH model towards the further study of hydrodynamics in the LCR. The AdH model accurately replicated behavior of the tide as it propagated upstream into the LCR system. Results show that the MSf tidal component and the M4 overtidal component are generated in the middle LCR and contain a substantial amount of tidal energy. An analysis was performed to determine the causes of MSf tide amplification, and it was found that approximately 80% of the amplification occurs due to nonlinear interaction between the M2 and the S2 tidal components.

  14. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  15. Tidal Dissipation in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres (United States)

    Johnson, Eric T.


    Short-period extrasolar giant planets (hot Jupiters) experience periods of strong tidal dissipation. It is not well known whether tidal energy is deposited primarily in the deep interior or the surface layers of these planets, or what effect the location of tidal heating has on their evolution and observable properties (e.g. radii, spectra, and rate of mass loss in a planetary wind). I present a study of the local tidal heating rate as a function of latitude and depth in the radiative envelope and atmosphere (between pressure levels of about 1 kilobar and 0.001 microbars). Results are based on a nonadiabatic linear analysis of the tide in this region, which takes the form of an upward-propagating train of inertial-gravity waves excited at the interface between the convective interior and the stably-stratified envelope. Radiative damping dominates the dissipation. Careful attention is paid to the computation of the radiative relaxation timescale, using nongray radiative transfer to transition smoothly from the optically thick to the optically thin regime. The potential exists for conversion from inertial-gravity waves to pure inertial waves in the presence of strong radiative damping. This raises the possibility that a significant tidal energy flux can be transported as high as the base of the thermosphere, where it would contribute to driving atmospheric escape. Results can be used to chart local tidal heating rates over the lifetime of a hot Jupiter as its orbit and rotation rate evolve. Although the potential for high-altitude tidal heating is intriguing, I find that over a wide range of orbital parameters the bulk of the energy flux is dissipated nearer the IR photosphere. Tidal heating at those heights (around 0.1-10 bars) has the greatest potential to affect the emergent spectrum, and is least likely to slow the planet's rate of contraction.

  16. Ammonium transformation in a nitrogen-rich tidal freshwater marsh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribsholt, B.; Andersson, M.; Boschker, H.T.S.


    The fate and transport of watershed-derived ammonium in a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrient rich Scheldt River, Belgium, was quantified in a whole ecosystem 15N labeling experiment. In late summer (September) we added 15N-NH4+ to the flood water entering a 3477 m2 tidal freshwater marsh...... area, and traced the ammonium processing and retention in four subsequent tide cycles. In this paper we present the results for the water-phase components of the marsh system and compare them to a similar experiment conducted in spring/early summer (May). Changes in concentration and isotopic......, but the absolute ammonium transformation rate was 3 times higher in May. While the marsh surface area was crucial for nitrification in May this was less pronounced in September. Denitrification, on the other hand, appeared more important in September compared to May....

  17. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin


    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  18. Spatial patterns of tidal heating

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael


    In a body periodically strained by tides, heating produced by viscous friction is far from homogeneous. I show here that the distribution of the dissipated power within a spherically stratified body is a linear combination of three angular functions. These angular functions depend only on the tidal potential whereas the radial weights are specified by the internal structure of the body. The 3D problem of predicting spatial patterns of dissipation at all radii is thus reduced to the 1D problem of computing weight functions. I compute spatial patterns in various toy models without assuming a specific rheology: a viscoelastic thin shell stratified in conductive and convective layers, an incompressible homogeneous body and a two-layer model of uniform density with a liquid or rigid core. For a body in synchronous rotation undergoing eccentricity tides, dissipation in a mantle surrounding a liquid core is highest at the poles. Within a softer layer (asthenosphere or icy layer), the same tides generate maximum heat...

  19. Cassini Can Constrain Tidal Dissipation in Saturn (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Fuller, Jim; Quataert, Eliot


    Tidal dissipation inside giant planets is important for the orbital evolution of their natural satellites. It is conventionally treated by parameterized equilibrium tidal the- ory, in which the tidal torque declines rapidly with distance, and orbital expansion was faster in the past. However, Lainey et al. (2017) find that some Saturnian satellites are currently migrating outward faster than predicted by equilibrium tidal theory. Reso- nance locking between satellites and internal oscillations of Saturn, proposed by Fuller et al. (2016), naturally matches the observed migration rates. Here, we show that the resonance locking theory predicts dynamical tidal perturbations to Saturn’s gravita- tional field in addition to those produced by equilibrium tidal bulges. We show that these perturbations can likely be detected during Cassini’s proximal orbits if migra- tion of satellites results from resonant gravity modes, but will likely be undetectable if migration results from inertial wave attractors or dissipation of the equilibrium tide. Additionally, we show that the detection of gravity modes would place constraints on the size of the hypothetical stably stratified region in Saturn.

  20. Half Moon Cove Tidal Project. Feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The proposed Half Moon Cove Tidal Power Project would be located in a small cove in the northern part of Cobscook Bay in the vicinity of Eastport, Maine. The project would be the first tidal electric power generating plant in the United States of America. The basin impounded by the barrier when full will approximate 1.2 square miles. The average tidal range at Eastport is 18.2 feet. The maximum spring tidal range will be 26.2 feet and the neap tidal range 12.8 feet. The project will be of the single pool-type single effect in which generation takes place on the ebb tide only. Utilizing an average mean tidal range of 18.2 feet the mode of operation enables generation for approximately ten and one-half (10-1/2) hours per day or slightly in excess of five (5) hours per tide. The installed capacity will be 12 MW utilizing 2 to 6 MW units. An axial flow, or Bulb type of turbine was selected for this study.

  1. Spectral responses of gravel beaches to tidal signals (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.


    Tides have been recognized as a major driving forcing affecting coastal aquifer system, and deterministic modeling has been very effective in elucidating mechanisms caused by tides. However, such modeling does not lend itself to capture embedded information in the signal, and rather focuses on the primary processes. Here, using yearlong data sets measured at beaches in Alaska Prince William Sound, we performed spectral and correlation analyses to identify temporal behavior of pore-water pressure, temperature and salinity. We found that the response of the beach system was characterized by fluctuations of embedded diurnal, semidiurnal, terdiurnal and quarterdiurnal tidal components. Hydrodynamic dispersion of salinity and temperature, and the thermal conductivity greatly affected pore water signals. Spectral analyses revealed a faster dissipation of the semi-diurnal component with respect to the diurnal components. Correlation functions showed that salinity had a relatively short memory of the tidal signal when inland freshwater recharge was large. In contrast, the signature of the tidal signal on pore-water temperature persisted for longer times, up to a week. We also found that heterogeneity greatly affected beach response. The response varied from a simple linear mapping in the frequency domain to complete modulation and masking of the input frequencies.

  2. Longitudinal zonation of macroinvertebrates in an Ecuadorian glacier-fed stream: do tropical glacial systems fit the temperate model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.; Dangles, O.; Andino, P.


    of the equator in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our goal was to study the longitudinal distribution of the fauna in relation to environmental factors and to compare this with the conceptual model based on temperate-arctic glacier-fed streams. 3. Total density of invertebrates differed considerably at the two highest......P>1. The ecology of glacier-fed streams at temperate latitudes has been intensely studied in recent years, leading to the development of a well-validated conceptual model on the longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrate communities downstream of the glacier margin (Freshwater Biology, 2001a...... was numerous at the highest sites but became much less important further downstream. The Orthocladiinae were important both in numbers and species at all sites, while Diamesinae were numerous only in the middle of the reach studied and were completely absent from the upper three sites. The limited importance...

  3. Using macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to infer urban stream system condition: a case study in the central US (United States)

    Nichols, John W.; Hubbart, Jason A.; Poulton, Barry C.


    Characterizing the impacts of hydrologic alterations, pollutants, and habitat degradation on macroinvertebrate species assemblages is of critical value for managers wishing to categorize stream ecosystem condition. A combination of approaches including trait-based metrics and traditional bioassessments provides greater information, particularly in anthropogenic stream ecosystems where traditional approaches can be confounded by variously interacting land use impacts. Macroinvertebrates were collected from two rural and three urban nested study sites in central Missouri, USA during the spring and fall seasons of 2011. Land use responses of conventional taxonomic and trait-based metrics were compared to streamflow indices, physical habitat metrics, and water quality indices. Results show that biotic index was significantly different (p trait-based metrics. The most consistent response to urbanization was observed in size metrics, with significantly (p trait-based metrics and anthropogenic aquatic ecosystem stressors.

  4. Bedload transport measurements with impact plate geophones in two Austrian mountain streams (Fischbach and Ruetz): system calibration, grain size estimation, and environmental signal pick-up (United States)

    Rickenmann, Dieter; Fritschi, Bruno


    The Swiss plate geophone system is a bedload surrogate measuring technique that has been installed in more than 20 streams, primarily in the European Alps. Here we report about calibration measurements performed in two mountain streams in Austria. The Fischbach and Ruetz gravel-bed streams are characterized by important runoff and bedload transport during the snowmelt season. A total of 31 (Fischbach) and 21 (Ruetz) direct bedload samples were obtained during a 6-year period. Using the number of geophone impulses and total transported bedload mass for each measurement to derive a calibration function results in a strong linear relation for the Fischbach, whereas there is only a poor linear calibration relation for the Ruetz measurements. Instead, using geophone impulse rates and bedload transport rates indicates that two power law relations best represent the Fischbach data, depending on transport intensity; for lower transport intensities, the same power law relation is also in reasonable agreement with the Ruetz data. These results are compared with data and findings from other field sites and flume studies. We further show that the observed coarsening of the grain size distribution with increasing bedload flux can be qualitatively reproduced from the geophone signal, when using the impulse counts along with amplitude information. Finally, we discuss implausible geophone impulse counts that were recorded during periods with smaller discharges without any bedload transport, and that are likely caused by vehicle movement very near to the measuring sites.

  5. Cannibalization and rebirth in the NGC 5387 system. I. The stellar stream and star-forming region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Verbiscer, Anne [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Martínez-Delgado, David [Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); D' Onghia, Elena [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zibetti, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Gabany, R. Jay [Black Bird II Observatory, Alder Springs, CA 93602 (United States); Blanton, Michael, E-mail: [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)


    We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC 5387. An optically blue overdensity coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC 5387 disk was also identified in SDSS and in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey contributing 38% of the total far-UV integrated flux from NGC 5387. Deeper optical imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope that confirmed the presence of both features. The stellar stream is red in color, (B – V) = 0.7, has a stellar mass of 6 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}, which implies a 1:50 merger ratio, has a circular radius, R{sub circ} ∼ 11.7 kpc, formed in ∼240 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ∼4 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}. Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC 5387, consists of young stellar populations (∼10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log (O/H) = 8.03), and is forming stars at an enhanced rate (∼1-3 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). The most likely interpretations are that the blue overdensity is (1) a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC 5387 induced by the minor accretion event or (2) the progenitor of the stellar stream experiencing enhanced star formation. Additional exploration of these scenarios is presented in a companion paper.

  6. Cannibalization and Rebirth in the NGC 5387 System. I. The Stellar Stream and Star-forming Region (United States)

    Beaton, Rachael L.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Majewski, Steven R.; D'Onghia, Elena; Zibetti, Stefano; Gabany, R. Jay; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Blanton, Michael; Verbiscer, Anne


    We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC 5387. An optically blue overdensity coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC 5387 disk was also identified in SDSS and in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey contributing 38% of the total far-UV integrated flux from NGC 5387. Deeper optical imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope that confirmed the presence of both features. The stellar stream is red in color, (B - V) = 0.7, has a stellar mass of 6 × 108 M ⊙, which implies a 1:50 merger ratio, has a circular radius, R circ ~ 11.7 kpc, formed in ~240 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ~4 × 1010 M ⊙. Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC 5387, consists of young stellar populations (~10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log (O/H) = 8.03), and is forming stars at an enhanced rate (~1-3 M ⊙ yr-1). The most likely interpretations are that the blue overdensity is (1) a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC 5387 induced by the minor accretion event or (2) the progenitor of the stellar stream experiencing enhanced star formation. Additional exploration of these scenarios is presented in a companion paper. Based on observations with the VATT: the Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  7. High tidal volume ventilation in infant mice. (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Zosky, Graeme R; Hantos, Zoltán; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D


    Infant mice were ventilated with either high tidal volume (V(T)) with zero end-expiratory pressure (HVZ), high V(T) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (HVP), or low V(T) with PEEP. Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically and low-frequency forced oscillations were used to measure the input impedance of the respiratory system. Inflammatory cells, total protein, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured as markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, respectively. Coefficients of tissue damping and tissue elastance increased in all ventilated mice, with the largest rise seen in the HVZ group where TGV rapidly decreased. BALF protein levels increased in the HVP group, whereas serum IL-6 rose in the HVZ group. PEEP keeps the lungs open, but provides high volumes to the entire lungs and induces lung injury. Compared to studies in adult and non-neonatal rodents, infant mice demonstrate a different response to similar ventilation strategies underscoring the need for age-specific animal models.

  8. Landscape ecological security response to land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Runsen; Pu, Lijie; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yan


    As coastal development becomes a national strategy in Eastern China, land use and landscape patterns have been affected by reclamation projects. In this study, taking Rudong County, China as a typical area, we analyzed land use change and its landscape ecological security responses in the tidal flat reclamation zone. The results show that land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone is characterized by the replacement of natural tidal flat with agricultural and construction land, which has also led to a big change in landscape patterns. We built a landscape ecological security evaluation system, which consists of landscape interference degree and landscape fragile degree, and then calculated the landscape ecological security change in the tidal flat reclamation zone from 1990 to 2008 to depict the life cycle in tidal flat reclamation. Landscape ecological security exhibited a W-shaped periodicity, including the juvenile stage, growth stage, and maturation stage. Life-cycle analysis demonstrates that 37 years is required for the land use system to transform from a natural ecosystem to an artificial ecosystem in the tidal flat reclamation zone.

  9. Design and test of 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine (United States)

    Liu, Hong-wei; Zhou, Hong-bin; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Gu, Hai-gang


    Tidal current energy is prominent and renewable. Great progress has been made in the exploitation technology of tidal current energy all over the world in recent years, and the large scale device has become the trend of tidal current turbine (TCT) for its economies. Instead of the similarity to the wind turbine, the tidal turbine has the characteristics of high hydrodynamic efficiency, big thrust, reliable sealing system, tight power transmission structure, etc. In this paper, a 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine has been designed, manufactured and tested before the full scale device design. Firstly, the three-blade horizontal axis rotor was designed based on traditional blade element momentum theory and its hydrodynamic performance was predicted in numerical model. Then the power train system and stand-alone electrical control unit of tidal current turbine, whose performances were accessed through the bench test carried out in workshop, were designed and presented. Finally, offshore tests were carried out and the power performance of the rotor was obtained and compared with the published literatures, and the results showed that the power coefficient was satisfactory, which agrees with the theoretical predictions.

  10. Modelling the impacts of sea level rise on tidal basin ecomorphodynamics and mangrove habitat evolution (United States)

    van Maanen, Barend; Coco, Giovanni; Bryan, Karin


    The evolution of tidal basins and estuaries in tropical and subtropical regions is often influenced by the presence of mangrove forests. These forests are amongst the most productive environments in the world and provide important ecosystem services. However, these intertidal habitats are also extremely vulnerable and are threatened by climate change impacts such as sea level rise. It is therefore of key importance to improve our understanding of how tidal systems occupied by mangrove vegetation respond to rising water levels. An ecomorphodynamic model was developed that simulates morphological change and mangrove forest evolution as a result of mutual feedbacks between physical and biological processes. The model accounts for the effects of mangrove trees on tidal flow patterns and sediment dynamics. Mangrove growth is in turn controlled by hydrodynamic conditions. Under stable water levels, model results indicate that mangrove trees enhance the initiation and branching of tidal channels, partly because the extra flow resistance in mangrove forests favours flow concentration, and thus sediment erosion in between vegetated areas. The landward expansion of the channels, on the other hand, is reduced. Model simulations including sea level rise suggest that mangroves can potentially enhance the ability of the soil surface to maintain an elevation within the upper portion of the intertidal zone. While the sea level is rising, mangroves are migrating landward and the channel network tends to expand landward too. The presence of mangrove trees, however, was found to hinder both the branching and headward erosion of the landward expanding channels. Simulations are performed according to different sea level rise scenarios and with different tidal range conditions to assess which tidal environments are most vulnerable. Changes in the properties of the tidal channel networks are being examined as well. Overall, model results highlight the role of mangroves in driving the

  11. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration


    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  12. Video streaming into the mainstream. (United States)

    Garrison, W


    Changes in Internet technology are making possible the delivery of a richer mixture of media through data streaming. High-quality, dynamic content, such as video and audio, can be incorporated into Websites simply, flexibly and interactively. Technologies such as G3 mobile communication, ADSL, cable and satellites enable new ways of delivering medical services, information and learning. Systems such as Quicktime, Windows Media and Real Video provide reliable data streams as video-on-demand and users can tailor the experience to their own interests. The Learning Development Centre at the University of Portsmouth have used streaming technologies together with e-learning tools such as dynamic HTML, Flash, 3D objects and online assessment successfully to deliver on-line course content in economics and earth science. The Lifesign project--to develop, catalogue and stream health sciences media for teaching--is described and future medical applications are discussed.

  13. Turning the tide : with the help of 3 global partners, Nova Scotia hopes to become a world leader in developing tidal power technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.


    North America's first in-stream tidal technology centre will be built in Nova Scotia in order to harvest the power of the largest tides in the world. Over one hundred billion tons of tidal seawater flows in and out of the Bay of Fundy each day. It has been estimated that at mid-tide, flow in the Fundy's Minas channel equals the combined flow of all the rivers and streams on the planet. Interest in tidal power has increased due to the development of in-stream turbines that convert kinetic energy into electricity. The technology is being developed by the Canadian company Clean Current, who have developed proprietary technologies for ducting and blades. The tidal energy unit has a 5.5 metre hole in its centre to allow for laminar flow-through. The blade tips of the turbine are surrounded by a duct so that no blades are exposed. The units require depths of 40 metres and must be placed 15 metres below the low tide mark so that ships can pass overhead. The project will involve participants from Nova Scotia's privatized power company as well as wave energy developers from Ireland and the United Kingdom. It was concluded that tidal power is expected to provide up to 15 per cent of Nova Scotia's power in the near future. 4 figs.

  14. Anatomy of the Orphan Stream using RR Lyrae Stars (United States)

    Hendel, David; Johnston, Kathryn; Scowcroft, Victoria; SMHASH


    Stellar tidal streams provide an opportunity to study the motion and structure of the disrupting galaxy as well as the gravitational potential of its host. Streams around the Milky Way are especially promising as new datasets make additional phase space dimensions available as constraints. We present observations of 32 stars thought to be RR Lyrae in the Orphan tidal stream as part of the {\\it Spitzer} Merger History and Shape of the Galactic Halo (SMHASH) program. The extremely tight correlation between the periods, luminosities, and metallicities of RR Lyrae variable stars in the {\\it Spitzer} IRAC $3.6\\mu$m band allows the determination of precise distances to individual stars; the median statistical distance uncertainty in this sample is $2.5\\%$. By fitting orbits in an example potential we obtain an upper limit on the mass of the Milky Way interior to 60 kpc of $\\mathrm{3.9_{-0.8}^{+1.2}\\times 10^{11} M_\\odot}$, bringing estimates based on the Orphan stream in line with those using other tracers. The SMHASH data also resolves the stream in line-of-sight depth, allowing unprecedented access its internal structure. Comparing this structure with n-body models we find that Orphan had an initial dark halo mass $\\sim \\mathrm{3 \\times 10^{9} M_\\odot}$, placing the progenitor amongst the classical dwarf spheriodals.

  15. Tidal energy conversion. Renewable energy; 3-3 choseki / choryu hatsuden. II. saisei kano energy ni yoru hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, T. [Tobishima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    There are not much examples applying tidal energy conversion, but tide and tidal current phenomena can be forecasted so correctly regardless of weather that the applying tidal energy is to be expected in the future. The largest tidal power plant is at Reims in France and install 24 Kaplan turbines each of which outlet power is 10,000kW (rotational direction is reversible) on the breakwater (750m is length). Tidal range at this place being 8.5m on an average, during the period of flowing seawater into the reservoir and on the contrary during the period of discharging seawater to the sea generation is both performed. Though there is no actual result of tidal power plant in Japan, in tidal current power system experimental generators have been installed at Kurushima channel and Naruto channel. Nihon University carried out various kinds of experiment using a Darius turbine (1.6m in dia.) at Kurushima channel and got outlet power of 3kW at the maximum (1983-`88). There are few coasts which have sufficient tide range in Japan, but there are so good many applicable coasts in China and Southeast Asia that the tidal power generation is to be expectatively. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, M.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; Roos, P.C.; Möller, M.


    In this paper, a three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in a tidal estuary of arbitrary shape and bathymetry is presented. This model aims at bridging the gap between idealized and complex models. The vertical profiles of the velocities are obtained analytically in terms of the

  17. Seasonal variability of tidal and non-tidal currents off Beypore, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.; AnilKumar, N.

    Analyses of current meter records generated in the coastal waters off Beypore (11 degrees 10 minutes S; 75 degrees 48 minutes E) on the southwest coast of India have been made to understand the tidal and non-tidal variability during premonsoon...

  18. A comparative study of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in tidal and non-tidal riverine wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J. T.A.; Whigham, D.F.; van Logtestijn, R.; O'Neill, J.K.


    This paper describes a study of nutrient dynamics in 12 tidal and non-tidal freshwater riverine wetlands in The Netherlands, Belgium, and Maryland (USA). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between nutrient cycling processes in riverine wetlands that were geographically

  19. Bio-geomorphic effects on tidal channel evolution: impact of vegetation establishment and tidal prism change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbruwaene, W.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.


    The long-term (10–100 years) evolution of tidal channels is generally considered to interact with the bio-geomorphic evolution of the surrounding intertidal platform. Here we studied how the geometric properties of tidal channels (channel drainage density and channel width) change as (1) vegetation

  20. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies: Disc Formation at \\(z\\simeq0\\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lelli


    Full Text Available Collisional debris around interacting and post-interacting galaxies often display condensations of gas and young stars that can potentially form gravitationally bound objects: Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDGs. We summarise recent results on TDGs, which are originally published in Lelli et al. (2015, A&A.We study a sample of six TDGs around three different interacting systems, using high-resolution HI observations from the Very Large Array. We find that the HI emission associated to TDGs can be described by rotating disc models. These discs, however, would have undergone less than one orbit since the time of the TDG formation, raising the question of whether they are in dynamical equilibrium. Assuming that TDGs are in dynamical equilibrium, we find that the ratio of dynamical mass to baryonic mass is consistent with one, implying that TDGs are devoid of dark matter. This is in line with the results of numerical simulations where tidal forces effectively segregate dark matter in the halo from baryonic matter in the disc, which ends up forming tidal tails and TDGs.

  1. The evolutionary process of the geomorphology of tidal embayments in southern Jiaodong Peninsula, China (United States)

    Zhan, Chao; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Qing; Li, Yunzhao; Zhou, Di; Xing, Qinghui; Chu, Xiaojing


    Based on the theory of flood/ebb asymmetry, the evolution of the geomorphology of representative bays along the southern coast of the Jiaodong Peninsula over the last 40 years was investigated using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. The results showed that coastal features such as tidal flats and tidal inlets in the bays changed significantly over time. The studied bays are in a ring-shaped geomorphic spatial pattern characterized by shallow water, and they were concentrically ringed by tidal flats and coastal plains before the early 1980s. Later, however, a number of ponds appeared between the coastal plains and tidal flats. The extent of sediment infill for each bay in the 1980s was greater than that in the 1970s. The conversion of flat-inlets and the erosion/deposition change of tidal inlets in these four bays during study period were not synchronized. Each bay was in a state of flood asymmetry, and both the net fine and net coarse sediment deposition took place in the 1970s. From the late 1960s to the early 1980s, Dingzi Bay was characterized by flood asymmetry, and its tidal asymmetry ratio increased. The Jinghai and the Wuleidao bays were in a state of flood asymmetry, and their tidal asymmetry ratios decreased, while Rushan Bay was in a transition state from flood to ebb asymmetry. However, intensive human activities over the last 30 years, especially the construction of coastal ponds, has greatly changed the hydrology and sedimentation of these bays, causing profound changes in geomorphic features; furthermore, these changes have guided the evolutionary process of the bays. Our results suggest that the intensive human activities were key factors that caused changes in the geomorphic evolution of the studied tidal embayments, especially the sudden change from a state of rising flood asymmetry to ebb asymmetry in Dingzi Bay.

  2. Global characteristics of the lunar tidal modulation of the equatorial electrojet derived from CHAMP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr


    Full Text Available It has been known since many decades that lunar tide has an influence on the strength of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ. There has, however, never been a comprehensive study of the tidal effect on a global scale. Based on the continuous magnetic field measurements by the CHAMP satellite over 10 years it is possible to investigate the various aspects of lunar effects on the EEJ. The EEJ intensity is enhanced around times when the moon is overhead or at the antipode. This effect is particularly strong around noon, shortly after new and full moon. The lunar tide manifests itself as a semi-diurnal wave that precesses through all local times within one lunar month. The largest tidal amplitudes are observed around December solstice and smallest around June solstice. The tidal wave crest lags behind the moon phase. During December this amounts to about 4 days while it is around 2 days during other times of the year. We have not found significant longitudinal variations of the lunar influence on the EEJ. When comparing the average EEJ amplitude at high solar activity with that during periods of solar minimum conditions a solar cycle dependence can be found, but the ratio between tidal amplitude and EEJ intensity stays the same. Actually, tidal signatures standout clearer during times of low solar activity. We suggest that the tidal variations are caused by a current system added to the EEJ rather than by modulating the EEJ. Gravitational forcing of the lower atmosphere by the moon and the sun is assumed to be the driver of an upward propagating tidal wave. The larger tidal amplitudes around December solstice can be related to stratospheric warming events which seem to improve the conditions for upward propagation. The results described here have to large extent been presented as a Julius-Bartels Medal Lecture during the General Assembly 2011 of the European Geosciences Union.

  3. Passive acoustic methods for fine-scale tracking of harbour porpoises in tidal rapids. (United States)

    Macaulay, Jamie; Gordon, Jonathan; Gillespie, Douglas; Malinka, Chloë; Northridge, Simon


    The growing interest in generating electrical power from tidal currents using tidal turbine generators raises a number of environmental concerns, including the risk that marine mammals might be injured or killed through collision with rotating turbine blades. To understand this risk, information on how marine mammals use tidal rapid habitats and in particular, their underwater movements and dive behaviour is required. Porpoises, which are the most abundant small cetacean at most European tidal sites, are difficult animals to tag, and the limited size of tidal habitats means that any telemetered animal would be likely to spend only a small proportion of time within them. Here, an alternative approach is explored, whereby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used to obtain fine scale geo-referenced tracks of harbour porpoises in tidal rapid areas. Large aperture hydrophone arrays are required to obtain accurate locations of animals from PAM data and automated algorithms are necessary to process the large quantities of acoustic data collected on such systems during a typical survey. Methods to automate localisation, including a method to match porpoise detections on different hydrophones and separate different vocalising animals, and an assessment of the localisation accuracy of the large aperture hydrophone array are presented.

  4. River-tide dynamics: Exploration of nonstationary and nonlinear tidal behavior in the Yangtze River estuary (United States)

    Guo, Leicheng; van der Wegen, Mick; Jay, David A.; Matte, Pascal; Wang, Zheng Bing; Roelvink, Dano; He, Qing


    River-tide dynamics remain poorly understood, in part because conventional harmonic analysis (HA) does not cope effectively with nonstationary signals. To explore nonstationary behavior of river tides and the modulation effects of river discharge, this work analyzes tidal signals in the Yangtze River estuary using both HA in a nonstationary mode and continuous wavelet transforms (CWT). The Yangtze is an excellent natural laboratory to analyze river tides because of its high and variable flow, its length, and the fact that there are do dams or reflecting barriers within the tidal part of the system. Analysis of tidal frequencies by CWT and analysis of subtidal water level and tidal ranges reveal a broad range of subtidal variations over fortnightly, monthly, semiannual, and annual frequencies driven by subtidal variations in friction and by variable river discharges. We employ HA in a nonstationary mode (NSHA) by segregating data within defined flow ranges into separate analyses. NSHA quantifies the decay of the principal tides and the modulation of M4 tide with increasing river discharges. M4 amplitudes decrease far upriver (landward portion of the estuary) and conversely increase close to the ocean as river discharge increases. The fortnightly frequencies reach an amplitude maximum upriver of that for over tide frequencies, due to the longer wavelength of the fortnightly constituents. These methods and findings should be applicable to large tidal rivers globally and have broad implications regarding management of navigation channels and ecosystems in tidal rivers.

  5. Tidal evolution and possible formation of Proxima b within the horizontal zones (United States)

    Dong, Yao


    Proxima b is a planet within the habitable zone (HZ) around Proxima Centauri, the Sun’s closest neighbor, which makes this planetary system charming to study. The orbits such as eccentricity and inclination, the interiors, mass limit and formation and so on have been investigated. We know that this earth-like planet is very close to its host star, so it is inevitably affected by the stellar tides. Here, we focus on the dynamical evolution based on the equilibrium tidal model. Results show that the orbital circularization during tidal decay is within 20 Myrs when assumed the modified tidal dissipation parameter Q’=6, and the planetary orbit-spin rotation reaches synchronous in ten thousand years. Various orbital parameters are considered in studying the orbit-spin rotations. We will also discuss the possible timescale when Proxima b has to be out of HZ due to the very long-time stellar tidal evolution. If Proxima b has retained a nonzero eccentricity (for example, planet companion can excite a steady eccentricity before tidal evolution depending on the eccentricity of the companion. Finally, the planet formation via type I migration in the gaseous disk is investigated, as the result that Proxima b can reach the inner disk with a period of 14 days, then experience the tidal evolution reaching the observed place.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokas, Ewa L. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Kazantzidis, Stelios [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Mayer, Lucio [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Carlin, Jeffrey L. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States); Moustakas, Leonidas A., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    We study the shapes of Milky Way satellites in the context of the tidal stirring scenario for the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The standard procedures used to measure shapes involve smoothing and binning of data and thus may not be sufficient to detect structural properties such as bars, which are usually subtle in low surface brightness systems. Taking advantage of the fact that in nearby dwarfs photometry of individual stars is available, we introduce discrete measures of shape based on the two-dimensional inertia tensor and the Fourier bar mode. We apply these measures of shape first to a variety of simulated dwarf galaxies formed via tidal stirring of disks embedded in dark matter halos and orbiting the Milky Way. In addition to strong mass loss and randomization of stellar orbits, the disks undergo morphological transformation that typically involves the formation of a triaxial bar after the first pericenter passage. These tidally induced bars persist for a few Gyr before being shortened toward a more spherical shape if the tidal force is strong enough. We test this prediction by measuring in a similar way the shape of nearby dwarf galaxies, satellites of the Milky Way. We detect inner bars in Ursa Minor, Sagittarius, Large Magellanic Cloud, and possibly Carina. In addition, 6 out of 11 dwarfs that we studied show elongated stellar distributions in the outer parts that may signify transition to tidal tails. We thus find the shapes of Milky Way satellites to be consistent with the predictions of the tidal stirring model.

  7. Stellar Streams in the Dark Energy Survey (United States)

    Shipp, Nora; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Balbinot, Eduardo; DES Collaboration


    We present a search for Galactic stellar streams in the Dark Energy Survey (DES), using three years of optical data taken across 5000 sq. degrees of the southern sky. The wide-field, uniform DES photometry provides unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern hemisphere, allowing for the detection of faint stellar populations. We follow the “Field of Streams” procedure developed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Belokurov et al., 2006) to identify stellar density features such as dwarf galaxies, globular clusters, and the stellar streams resulting from the tidal disruption of these objects. Improved analysis techniques applied to the DES data enable the discovery of new stellar streams, and provide added insight into the origin and stellar populations of previously identified objects. An increased sample size together with detailed characterization of individual stellar streams and their progenitors can inform our understanding of the formation of the Milky Way stellar halo, as well as the large and small scale distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way.

  8. Warps and Streams --- Pushing and lifting material out of the midplane from galactic and circumstellar disks (United States)

    Quillen, Alice C.


    Sub-structures such as warps and streams in the vertical distribution of gas and dust can manifest as spiral shaped structures, twists in the velocity field, vertical streaming motions, X-shapes, and quasiperiodic dips in light curves. I will review and contrast physical mechanisms for lifting material out of the mid-plane in galactic and circumstellar disks including instabilities, resonant mechanisms and tidal excitations.

  9. Temperature, salinity, and oxygen; measured with a Seabird CTD system; The Anatomy of Gulf Stream Meanders; Fall of 1988 and Spring of 1989; Gulf Stream region South of Cape Cod (NODC Accession 9900100) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The object was to probe in greater detail than has been possible in the past, the dynamical balances of Gulf Stream meanders and their change with time....

  10. On the possibility of high-velocity tidal sterams as dynamic barriers to longshore sediment transport: evidence from the continental shelf off the Gulf of Kutch, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Rao, V.P.

    and clay minerals. The distinct differences have resulted because the high-velocity (2 to 2.5 knots) tidal stream at the gulf mouth acts as a dynamic barrier inhibiting sediment transport across the month. Differences in the distribution of sand size...

  11. Tidal Response of Jupiter and Saturn from CMS calculationsTidal Response of Jupiter and Saturn from CMS calculations (United States)

    Wahl, Sean; Hubbard, William B.; Militzer, Burkhard


    The Juno gravity science system promises to provide observational data from Jupiter's gravitational field at an unprecedented precision. Meanwhile, recent ab-initio simulations on mixtures of hydrogen and helium allow for the construction of realistic interior models. The concentric Maclaurin spheroid (CMS) numerical method has been developed for efficient, non-perturbative, self-consistent calculations of shape and gravitational field of a rotating liquid body to this desired precision. Here we present a generalization of the CMS method to three dimensions and included the effect of tides from a satellite. We have identified a number of unexpected features of the static tidal response in the case where a planet's shape is dominated by the rotational bulge. In the general case, there is state mixing of the spherical-harmonic components of the response to the corresponding components of the rotational and tidal excitations. This breaks the degeneracy of the tidal love numbers knm with m, and introduces a dependence of knm on the orbital distance of the satellite. Notably for Jupiter and Saturn, the predicted value of k2 is significantly higher when the planet's high rotation rates are taken into account: k2=0.413 for Saturn and k2=0.590 for Jupiter, accounting for an ~13% and 10% increase over the non-rotating case respectively. We have also done preliminary estimates for the off-resonance dynamic response, which may lead to an additional significant increase in k2. Accurate models of tidal response will be essential for interpreting gravity observations from Juno and future studies, particularly for when filtering for signals from interior dynamics in the observed field. This work was supported by NASA's Juno project. Sean Wahl and Burkhard Militzer acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (astronomy and astrophysics research grant 1412646).

  12. Tidal Evolution and Hydrothermal Activity in IcyWorlds (United States)

    Vance, S.; Hussmann, H.


    The tidal heating that sustains a subsurface ocean in Europa likely varied in intensity through the moons history due to the exchange of orbital angular momentum with the innermost Galilean satellite, Io [1]. Tidal interactions elsewhere in the solar system — e.g. in Neptunes moon Triton, and in Kuiper belt systems such as Pluto-Charon and the 2003 EL61 system (Santa-Rudolph-Blitzen) — highlight the potential for vigorously heated subsurface oceans and thus the existence of hydrothermal systems in icy worlds. Understanding the extent and nature of hydrothermal activity in such systems is important for assessing the availability of essential elements and organic compounds necessary sustain and, possibly, originate life [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. During periods of low tidal heating in such systems, hydrothermalism driven by serpentinization (reaction of water with ultramafic rock) may be extensive, with implications for seafloor production of hydrogen, methane and other potential nutrients, and elements necessary to originate and support life in icy world oceans. For Enceladus, an anomalously dense satellite for its size, radiogenic heating and overburden pressure in the mantle are sufficiently low to permit fracturing of the entirety of the moons rocky interior on long time scales [8]. Estimates of methane production from serpentinization of Enceladus interior, based on measured fluxes from the Lost City Hydrothermal Field [9], are an order of magnitude greater than fluxes observed at Enceladuss south polar plume by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer [10]. For the largest icy worlds in the Solar System — Titan, Ganymede and Callisto—pressures at and below the H2Orock interface are likely too high to permit the formation of microfractures, so an alternative explanation is required if methane is endogenous. Aqueous alteration may be augmented from the above estimates if altered crust is rejuvenated during periods of increased tidal dissipation. Crustal

  13. Do new anesthesia ventilators deliver small tidal volumes accurately during volume-controlled ventilation? (United States)

    Bachiller, Patricia R; McDonough, Joseph M; Feldman, Jeffrey M


    During mechanical ventilation of infants and neonates, small changes in tidal volume may lead to hypo- or hyperventilation, barotrauma, or volutrauma. Partly because breathing circuit compliance and fresh gas flow affect tidal volume delivery by traditional anesthesia ventilators in volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) mode, pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) using a circle breathing system has become a common approach to minimizing the risk of mechanical ventilation for small patients, although delivered tidal volume is not assured during PCV. A new generation of anesthesia machine ventilators addresses the problems of VCV by adjusting for fresh gas flow and for the compliance of the breathing circuit. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of new anesthesia ventilators to deliver small tidal volumes. Four anesthesia ventilator systems were evaluated to determine the accuracy of volume delivery to the airway during VCV at tidal volume settings of 100, 200, and 500 mL under different conditions of breathing circuit compliance (fully extended and fully contracted circuits) and lung compliance. A mechanical test lung (adult and infant) was used to simulate lung compliances ranging from 0.0025 to 0.03 L/cm H(2)O. Volumes and pressures were measured using a calibrated screen pneumotachograph and custom software. We tested the Smartvent 7900, Avance, and Aisys anesthesia ventilator systems (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) and the Apollo anesthesia ventilator (Draeger Medical, Telford, PA). The Smartvent 7900 and Avance ventilators use inspiratory flow sensors to control the volume delivered, whereas the Aisys and Apollo ventilators compensate for the compliance of the circuit. We found that the anesthesia ventilators that use compliance compensation (Aisys and Apollo) accurately delivered both large and small tidal volumes to the airway of the test lung under conditions of normal and low lung compliance during VCV (ranging from 95.5% to 106.2% of the set tidal volume

  14. Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes

    KAUST Repository

    Macreadie, Peter I.


    Australia\\'s tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia\\'s tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha-1 (range 14-963 Mg OC ha-1). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha-1 yr-1. Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites. Australia\\'s 1.4 million hectares of tidal marshes contain an estimated 212 million tonnes of OC in the surface 1 m, with a potential CO2-equivalent value of $USD7.19 billion. Annual sequestration is 0.75 Tg OC yr-1, with a CO2-equivalent value of $USD28.02 million per annum. This study provides the most comprehensive estimates of tidal marsh blue carbon in Australia, and illustrates their importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation, acting as CO2 sinks and buffering the impacts of rising sea level. We outline potential further development of carbon offset schemes to restore the sequestration capacity and other ecosystem services provided by Australia tidal marshes.

  15. On the migration rate of tidal meanders (United States)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Finotello, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Lanzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Rinaldo, A.


    Sinuous channels shaped by periodically reversing tidal flows are a ubiquitous feature of tidal landscapes. Despite their fundamental role on the morphology and sedimentary patterns of these landscapes, tidal meanders have received less attention than their fluvial counterparts, particularly as far as migration processes are concerned. We have analyzed the migration of about 300 meander bends in the Northern Venice Lagoon (Italy), from 1968 to nowadays, through observations and modeling interpretation. Similarities with fluvial meanders occur, although important difference also emerge. Meanders cutting through salt-marshes in the Venice Lagoon follow the relationship between Cartesian length and channel width, typical of meanders developed within different settings. We find a mean migration rate of about 0.20 m/year. However, the potential migration rate can reach values of about 0.20 channel widths per year thus suggesting similarities with fluvial meanders. In addition, tidal channel migration dynamics displays features which qualitatively agree with theories developed for the fluvial setting. We deem our results are valuable for the understanding of the morphological evolution and architecture of tidal landscapes, with implications for restoration strategies, also in the face of changes in environmental conditions.

  16. Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes (United States)

    Macreadie, Peter I.; Ollivier, Q. R.; Kelleway, J. J.; Serrano, O.; Carnell, P. E.; Ewers Lewis, C. J.; Atwood, T. B.; Sanderman, J.; Baldock, J.; Connolly, R. M.; Duarte, C. M.; Lavery, P. S.; Steven, A.; Lovelock, C. E.


    Australia’s tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia’s tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha-1 (range 14-963 Mg OC ha-1). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha-1 yr-1. Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites. Australia’s 1.4 million hectares of tidal marshes contain an estimated 212 million tonnes of OC in the surface 1 m, with a potential CO2-equivalent value of $USD7.19 billion. Annual sequestration is 0.75 Tg OC yr-1, with a CO2-equivalent value of $USD28.02 million per annum. This study provides the most comprehensive estimates of tidal marsh blue carbon in Australia, and illustrates their importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation, acting as CO2 sinks and buffering the impacts of rising sea level. We outline potential further development of carbon offset schemes to restore the sequestration capacity and other ecosystem services provided by Australia tidal marshes.

  17. Water Quality of Emet Stream Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Emet Stream Basin is one of Turkey's most important river systems and one of the two most important branches of Uluabat Lake (Ramsar Area. The system is under an intensive pressure of agricultural and industrial activities and domestic wastes. In this study, water samples were collected seasonally from eight stations (one of them is on the Kınık Stream, one of them is on the Dursunbey Stream and six of them on the Emet Stream on the Emet Stream Basin. Some lymnological parameters (nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, sulfate, orthophosphate, and BOD5 were determined to evaluate the water quality. The data obtained were evaluated statistically and compared with the limit values reported by various national and international organizations. It was determined that, Emet Stream Basin is exposed to a significant organic pollution. 

  18. Using biodiversity of diatoms to identify hydrological connectivity in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream system (United States)

    Wetzel, C. E.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Ector, L.; Hlubikova, D.; Frentress, J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Hoffmann, L.; Pfister, L.


    In recent years, there have been increasingly calls for new eco-hydrological approaches to answer questions on water source and connectivity in the landscape. Diatoms are one of the most common and diverse algal groups, and offer the potential for the identification of reproducible flow patterns and a link to underlying watershed behaviour. Our preliminary investigations on the potential for terrestrial diatoms to detect the onset/cessation of surface runoff suggested that diatoms can contribute to confirm or reject the existence of a surface runoff component in total runoff, thereby helping to constrain assumptions made on a potential surface runoff component in a conventional tracer based hydrograph separation. Our investigations currently focus on the Attert River basin (Luxembourg, Europe) and the HJ Andrews experimental forest (Oregon, USA). Here we show results from the schistose Weierbach experimental catchment (0.45 km2), located in the Attert River basin. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities belonging to the river bed substrate and the riparian zone. Drift samples corresponding to stream water show a mixed composition of diatoms stemming from the river bed substrate and the riparian zone. Ongoing investigations focus on the composition of hillslope communities. In winter, long-lasting low intensity rainfall events generate a two-tailed hydrograph response of the Weierbach, consisting in an immediate reaction to precipitation, followed by a delayed and much more significant rise of the hydrograph. For these events, mixing diagrams (SiO2 & Absorbance) suggest a substantial contribution of the soil water component to total runoff, with groundwater and especially overland flow remaining insignificant. Terrestrial diatom abundance appeared to be very sensitive to incident precipitation (rising to +/- 15% of the total diatom population), suggesting a rapid connectivity between the soil surface and the stream. In summer, short and

  19. Smart Streaming for Online Video Services


    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yipeng; Chiu, Dah Ming


    Bandwidth consumption is a significant concern for online video service providers. Practical video streaming systems usually use some form of HTTP streaming (progressive download) to let users download the video at a faster rate than the video bitrate. Since users may quit before viewing the complete video, however, much of the downloaded video will be "wasted". To the extent that users' departure behavior can be predicted, we develop smart streaming that can be used to improve user QoE with ...

  20. The wave and tidal resource of Scotland (United States)

    Neill, Simon; Vogler, Arne; Lewis, Matt; Goward-Brown, Alice


    As the marine renewable energy industry evolves, in parallel with an increase in the quantity of available data and improvements in validated numerical simulations, it is occasionally appropriate to re-assess the wave and tidal resource of a region. This is particularly true for Scotland - a leading nation that the international community monitors for developments in the marine renewable energy industry, and which has witnessed much progress in the sector over the last decade. With 7 leased wave and 17 leased tidal sites, Scotland is well poised to generate significant levels of electricity from its abundant natural marine resources. In this review of Scotland's wave and tidal resource, I present the theoretical and technical resource, and provide an overview of commercial progress. I also discuss issues that affect future development of the marine energy seascape in Scotland, applicable to other regions of the world, including the potential for developing lower energy sites, and grid connectivity.