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Sample records for system study volume

  1. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division on NASA Contract No. NAS3-25808 (Task Order No. 16) entitled 'Mars Power System Definition Study'. This work was performed for NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). The report is divided into two volumes as follows: Volume 1 - Study Results; and Volume 2 - Appendices. The results of the power system characterization studies, operations studies, and technology evaluations are summarized in Volume 1. The appendices include complete, standalone technology development plans for each candidate power system that was investigated.

  2. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  3. Systems study 'Andere Entsorgung'. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, K.D.; Engelmann, H.J.; Fuerst, W.; Loser, H.; Mehling, O.; Motoi, V.; Papp, R.

    1984-12-01

    In the framework of a comparative assessment study the reference concept of direct Entsorgung was contrasted to Integrated Entsorgung (IE). The comparison was based on the following criteria: radiological safety and safeguards as well as economics and security of supply with uranium. Analyses of radiological and of long-term safety in the geologic repository did not yield a decisive advantage for either one of both fuel cycles. As to safeguarding a geologic repository for spent fuel some questions were left open. From the standpoint of cost, direct disposal will remain superior in the foreseeable future. On the other hand, macro-economic impacts of Entsorgung are not easily quantifiable. If aspects such as preservation of technology and utilization of resources are stressed, fuel reprocessing has to be favored. These results lead to the conclusion that fuel reprocessing should be continued as a matter of priority; simultaneously, the direct disposal technology is to be brought to maturity. Later on, this Entsorgung option ought to complement fuel reprocessing. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Information management system study results. Volume 1: IMS study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The information management system (IMS) special emphasis task was performed as an adjunct to the modular space station study, with the objective of providing extended depth of analysis and design in selected key areas of the information management system. Specific objectives included: (1) in-depth studies of IMS requirements and design approaches; (2) design and fabricate breadboard hardware for demonstration and verification of design concepts; (3) provide a technological base to identify potential design problems and influence long range planning (4) develop hardware and techniques to permit long duration, low cost, manned space operations; (5) support SR&T areas where techniques or equipment are considered inadequate; and (6) permit an overall understanding of the IMS as an integrated component of the space station.

  5. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 1, of a seven volume report is presented. Part 1 encompasses Satellite Power Systems (SPS) systems engineering aspects and is divided into three sections. The first section presents descriptions of the various candidate concepts considered and conclusions and recommendations for a preferred concept. The second section presents a summary of results of the various trade studies and analysis conducted during the course of the study. The third section describes the Photovoltaic Satellite Based Satellite Power System (SPS) Point Design as it was defined through studies performed during the period January 1977 through March 1979.

  6. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  7. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 6: SPS technology requirements and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Volume 6 of the SPS Concept Definition Study is presented and also incorporates results of NASA/MSFC in-house effort. This volume includes a supporting research and technology summary. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are as follows: (1) Executive Summary; (2) SPS System Requirements; (3) SPS Concept Evolution; (4) SPS Point Design Definition; (5) Transportation and Operations Analysis; and Volume 7, SPS Program Plan and Economic Analysis.

  8. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  9. Improving School Leadership. Volume 2: Case Studies on System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David, Ed.; Nusche, Deborah, Ed.; Pont, Beatriz, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores what specialists are saying about system leadership for school improvement. Case studies examine innovative approaches to sharing leadership across schools in Belgium (Flanders), Finland and the United Kingdom (England) and leadership development programmes for system improvement in Australia and Austria. As these are emerging…

  10. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  11. Systems Studies Department FY 78 activity report. Volume 2. Systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, T.S.

    1979-02-01

    The Systems Studies Department at Sandia Laboratories Livermore (SLL) has two primary responsibilities: to provide computational and mathematical services and to perform systems analysis studies. This document (Volume 2) describes the FY Systems Analysis highlights. The description is an unclassified overview of activities and is not complete or exhaustive. The objective of the systems analysis activities is to evaluate the relative value of alternative concepts and systems. SLL systems analysis activities reflect Sandia Laboratory programs and in 1978 consisted of study efforts in three areas: national security: evaluations of strategic, theater, and navy nuclear weapons issues; energy technology: particularly in support of Sandia's solar thermal programs; and nuclear fuel cycle physical security: a special project conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Highlights of these activities are described in the following sections. 7 figures

  12. Vessel Monitoring Systems Study. Volume I - Technical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    In the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 the U.S. Conress directed the Department of Transportation to performa a study on the desirability and feasibility of a shore-station system for monitoring vessels (including fishing vessels)offshore within t...

  13. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume IV. Caribbean Region Air Traffic Services System Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    OASIS) U Final Report This report i.s one of a set of companion documents which includes the following volumes: Volume I Executive Summary and...Northern Coastal Region of 4 the Directorate of Engineering and Systems (Direccion de Ingenieria y Sistemas ), which is responsible for maintenance of the

  14. Virtual Nonlinear Multibody Systems, NATO Advanced Study Institute. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schiehlen, W. O

    2002-01-01

    .... The virtual prototyping and dynamic modeling of such systems are, from an economical point of view, perspective fields of scientific investigations having in mind the huge expenses for their design...

  15. Army Personnel Management System Study (PMS2). Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-06

    demonstrated desirability, some functions would be facilitated, costs need further study, and mobilization capabilities should be emphasized. PMS2 is basis for current reorganization planning within ODCSPER.

  16. Very Low Cost Expendable Harassment System Design Study. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    testing involves placing a pitot tube rake in the plane of the propeller to determine C-22 iJi;.^*.^^^...--^ ;:„.-:■. ■ ■.■■.VI:-I ^v ?sammaa*mmwm i...ii^.Maj!iiiilH||^,J)||IHi|KI^ Henry , George 1975b Personal Interviews. Foreign Technology Divlsion/ETTS, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 15 June - 25...E-Systems, Inc., Melpar Division, Falls Church, VA: 8 July - 15 September 1975. Rose, Henry , Engineer 1975b Telephone Conversation. Sensenich

  17. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  18. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited

  19. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  20. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, Executive Summary, Volume I, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    1988-06-01

    This Executive Summary, Volume I, of the lower Flathead System Fisheries Study Final Report, was prepared to provide a study overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists. The contents provide an introduction to the study and its objectives, a short description of the study area, a discussion of the major findings and conclusions of the study, and the description of fisheries management alternatives available to managers of the lower Flathead system. Technical reports were prepared for those portions of the study dealing with the lower Flathead River and its tributaries, Volume II, and the South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III. The annual hydrographic regime of the Flathead system, consisting of upper rivers, lake and lower river, has been modified by the construction and operation of two major hydroelectric facilities, Hungry Horse Dam on the south fork Flathead River and Kerr Dam at the outlet of Flathead Lake. The modified hydrographic regime has resulted in significant impacts to kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and several species of trout. Kerr Dam, closed in 1938, controls Flathead Lake levels between 878.7 m (2883 ft) and 881.8 m (2893 ft) and discharges into the lower Flathead River. Kerr Dam is a 63.4 m (208 ft) high concrete arch structure located 7.2 km (4.5 miles) downstream from the outlet of Flathead Lake. The facility is used by Montana Power Company primarily for system frequency load control with some use for low level base load. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 1; Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion Systems Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/ Inlet Acoustic Team.

  2. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 7, phase 1: SPS and rectenna systems analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite systems is presented. The design and power distribution of the rectenna system is discussed. The communication subsystem and thermal control characteristics are described and a failure analysis performed on the systems is reported.

  3. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  4. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  5. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  6. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases

  7. Space station/base food system study. Volume 1: Systems design handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    A description is given of the approach used in a study to identify and define engineering data for a spectrum of possible items and equipment comprising potential food systems. In addition, the material presented includes: (1) the study results containing the candidate concepts considered and technical data, performance characteristics, and sketches for each of the concepts by functional area; (2) human factors considerations for crew tasks; (3) shuttle supply interface requirements; (4) special food system study areas; and (5) recommendations and conclusions based on the study results.

  8. Studies on the partial specific volume of a poly(ethylene glycol) derivative in different solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tziatzios, C.; Precup, A.A.; Weidl, C.H.; Schubert, U.S.; Schuck, P.; Durchschlag, H.; Mächtle, W.; Broek, van den J.A.; Schubert, D.

    2002-01-01

    The specific volume of charged supramolecular compounds dissolved in organic solvents varies considerably with the solvent system applied; in addition, it is influenced by the presence of salt. In this study we determined the specific volume of an uncharged molecule from the same molar mass range in

  9. Traffic volume and load data measurement using a portable weigh in motion system: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Faruk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, traffic loading characteristics are collected for pavement design and performance prediction purposes using permanent roadside weigh-in-motion (WIM stations. However, high installation and maintenance costs associated with these permanent WIM stations dictate that their deployment be mostly limited to major highways, such as the interstate network. Quite often however, pavement damage on high volume rural highways with heavy truck proportions is more severe than anticipated, and there is no effective way of quantifying the traffic loading on these highways. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential application of portable WIM systems as a means for bringing the WIM technology to these high volume rural highways. A portable WIM unit was deployed in the Texas overweight corridor in Hidalgo County (Pharr District near the USA-Mexico border on highway FM 1016 for collecting traffic data for a minimum of three weeks in each direction. The collected traffic data were analyzed to generate traffic parameters such as volume, load spectra, and overloading information both in terms of the gross vehicle weight (GVW and axle weight. The computed traffic parameters were successful in partially explaining some of the existing pavement conditions on this highway. Overall, the study findings indicated that the portable WIM unit can be used as a convenient and cost-effective means for collecting reliable traffic information for design, analysis, and monitoring purposes. However, proper in-situ calibration of the portable WIM unit at each site is imperative prior to any real-time traffic data collection. Keywords: Traffic data, Load spectra, Truck overweight, Weigh-in-motion (WIM, Portable WIM, Texas overweight corridor

  10. OEXP exploration studies technical report. Volume 3: Special reports, studies, and indepth systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.B.; Bland, D.

    1988-12-01

    The Office of Exploration (OEXP) at NASA has been tasked with defining and recommending alternatives for an early 1990's national decision on a focused program of manned exploration of the Solar System. The Mission analysis and System Engineering (MASE) group, which is managed by the Exploration Studies Office at the Johnson Space Center, is responsible for coordinating the technical studies necessary for accomplishing such a task. This technical report, produced by the MASE, describes the process used to conduct exploration studies and discusses the mission developed in a case study approach. The four case studies developed in FY88 include: (1) a manned expedition to PHOBOS; (2) a manned expedition to MARS; (3) a lunar surface observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution. The final outcome of this effort is a set of programmatic and technical conclusions and recommendations for the following year's work

  11. Improving estimation of glacier volume change: a GLIMS case study of Bering Glacier System, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Beedle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS project has developed tools and methods that can be employed by analysts to create accurate glacier outlines. To illustrate the importance of accurate glacier outlines and the effectiveness of GLIMS standards we conducted a case study on Bering Glacier System (BGS, Alaska. BGS is a complex glacier system aggregated from multiple drainage basins, numerous tributaries, and many accumulation areas. Published measurements of BGS surface area vary from 1740 to 6200 km2, depending on how the boundaries of this system have been defined. Utilizing GLIMS tools and standards we have completed a new outline (3630 km2 and analysis of the area-altitude distribution (hypsometry of BGS using Landsat images from 2000 and 2001 and a US Geological Survey 15-min digital elevation model. We compared this new hypsometry with three different hypsometries to illustrate the errors that result from the widely varying estimates of BGS extent. The use of different BGS hypsometries results in highly variable measures of volume change and net balance (bn. Applying a simple hypsometry-dependent mass-balance model to different hypsometries results in a bn rate range of −1.0 to −3.1 m a−1 water equivalent (W.E., a volume change range of −3.8 to −6.7 km3 a−1 W.E., and a near doubling in contributions to sea level equivalent, 0.011 mm a−1 to 0.019 mm a−1. Current inaccuracies in glacier outlines hinder our ability to correctly quantify glacier change. Understanding of glacier extents can become comprehensive and accurate. Such accuracy is possible with the increasing volume of satellite imagery of glacierized regions, recent advances in tools and standards, and dedication to this important task.

  12. Space station/base food system study. Volume 2: System assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    The evaluation modeling technique is described which was used to combine the candidate element concepts into systems that meet mission requirements. Results of the assessment are presented in terms of systems performance data and plots of system trade-off data by highest ranking variable.

  13. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  14. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  15. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions

  16. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had five tasks defined for the first year. The tasks were: F-1A Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Upper Stage Use, and CER's for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. The detailed study results, with the data to support the conclusions from various analyses, are being reported as a series of five separate Final Task Reports. Consequently, this volume only reports the required programmatic information concerning Computer Aided Design Documentation, and New Technology Reports. A detailed Executive Summary, covering all the tasks, is also available as Volume 1.

  17. Study of application of adaptive systems to the exploration of the solar system. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence to identify practical applications to unmanned spacecraft used to explore the solar system in the decade of the 80s is examined. If an unmanned spacecraft can be made to adjust or adapt to the environment, to make decisions about what it measures and how it uses and reports the data, it can become a much more powerful tool for the science community in unlocking the secrets of the solar system. Within this definition of an adaptive spacecraft or system, there is a broad range of variability. In terms of sophistication, an adaptive system can be extremely simple or as complex as a chess-playing machine that learns from its mistakes.

  18. Final report of Shield System Trade Study. Volume II. WANL support activities for shielding trade study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-07-01

    Based on the trades made within this study BATH (mixture of B 4 C, aluminum and TiH 1 . 8 ) was selected as the internal shield material. Borated titanium hydride can also meet the criteria with a competitive weight but was rejected because of schedular constraints. A baseline internal shield design was accomplished. This design resulted in a single internal shield weighing about 3300 lb for both manned and unmanned missions. WANL checks on ANSC calculations are generally in agreement, but with some difference in the prediction of the effectiveness of the Boral liner. All of the alternate NSS concepts in the system weight reduction program were rejected. While some did save shield weight, they complicated the NSS design to an unacceptable degree. Studies were made of the feasibility of manual maintenance of NSS components outside of the pressure vessel. The requirements of the NSS components located forward of the internal shield were considered from a thermal and radiation damage standpoint. (auth)

  19. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  20. Information management system study results. Volume 2: IMS study results appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Computer systems program specifications are presented for the modular space station information management system. These are the computer program contract end item, data bus system, data bus breadboard, and display interface adapter specifications. The performance, design, tests, and qualification requirements are established for the implementation of the information management system. For Vol. 1, see N72-19972.

  1. Aircraft Alerting Systems Criteria Study. Volume 1. Collation and Analysis of Aircraft Alerting Systems Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    ott the.747-Vas opi the 7,37 beca’ws the � has foiiy paralkA.hydrauliu syst~et~s,’wfiereas %the 737 has only two patallel systems. is hefalue f wo...8217.. . -" "" - - - - - OLICTRICAL 2 2 13 2 10 1 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 1 1 1 1 - - , PIM PROTECTION 1 3 2 g 2 FLIGHT CONTROLS 2 2F,3 6 2 PLIGHT INITRUMINTATION a 2 a 4 1 1 1

  2. FY 93 thermal loading systems study final report: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saterlie, S.F.; Thomson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to meet the overall performance requirements for the proposed Mined Geology Disposal System at Yucca Mountain, Nevada requires the two major subsystem (natural barriers and engineered barriers) to positively contribute to containment and radionuclide isolation. In addition to the postclosure performance the proposed repository must meet preclosure requirements of safety, retrievability, and operability. Cost and schedule were also considered. The thermal loading strategy chosen may significantly affect both the postclosure and preclosure performance of the proposed repository. Although the current Site Characterization Plan reference case is 57 kilowatts (kW)/acre, other thermal loading strategies (different areal mass loadings) have been proposed which possess both advantages and disadvantages. The objectives of the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study were to (1) place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading regime that is ''too hot'' and the loading regime that is ''too cold'', to (2) ''grade'' or evaluate the performance, as a function of thermal loading, of the repository to contain high level wastes against performance criteria and to (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability. Additionally, the effort was to (4) identify important uncertainties that need to be resolved by tests and/or analyses in order to complete a performance assessment on the effects of thermal loading. The FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study was conducted from December 1, 1992 to December 30, 1993 and this final report provides the findings of the study. Volume 1 contains the Introduction; Performance requirements; Input and assumptions; Near-field thermal analysis; Far-field thermal analysis; Cost analysis; Other considerations; System analysis; Additional thermal analysis; and Conclusions and recommendations. 71 refs., 54 figs

  3. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  4. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F-1A Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results, and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume 1 - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  5. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  6. Volume 1: Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheaffer, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dollinger, Caroline [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sarker, Prateeti [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cresko, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal to reduce the cost of seawater desalination systems to $0.50/ cubic meter (m3) through the development of technology pathways to reduce energy, capital, operating, soft, and system integration costs.1 In support of this goal and to evaluate the technology pathways to lower the energy and carbon intensity of desalination while also reducing the total water cost, DOE is undertaking a comprehensive study of the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for desalination technologies and systems. This study is being undertaken in two phases. Phase 1, Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems, collected the background information that will underpin Phase 2, the Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the results from Phase 1. The results from Phase 2 will be summarized in Volume 2: Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems (Volume 2). The analysis effort for Phase 2 will utilize similar methods as other industry-specific Energy Bandwidth Studies developed by DOE,2 which has provided a framework to evaluate and compare energy savings potentials within and across manufacturing sectors at the macroscale. Volume 2 will assess the current state of desalination energy intensity and reduction potential through the use of advanced and emerging technologies. For the purpose of both phases of study, energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy required per unit of product water output (for example, kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of water produced). These studies will expand the scope of previous sectorial bandwidth studies by also evaluating CO2 intensity and reduction opportunities and informing a techno-economic analysis of desalination systems. Volume 2 is expected to be completed in 2017.

  7. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Top level trade studies are presented, including comparison of solid state and klystron concepts, higher concentration on the solar cells, composite and aluminum structure, and several variations to the reference concept. Detailed trade studies are presented in each of the subsystem areas (solar array, power distribution, structures, thermal control, attitude control and stationkeeping, microwave transmission, and ground receiving station). A description of the selected point design is also presented.

  8. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  9. Unmanned Aviation Systems Models of the Radio Communications Links: Study Results - Appendices Annex 2. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birr, Richard B.; Spencer, Roy; Murray, Jennifer; Lash, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of communications between the Control Station and an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). This work is based on the RTCA SC-203 Operational Services and Environment Description (OSED). The OSED document seeks to characterize the highly different attributes of all UAs navigating the airspace and define their relationship to airspace users, air traffic services, and operating environments of the NAS. One goal of this report is to lead to the development of Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for Control and Communications. This report takes the nine scenarios found in the OSED and analyzes the communication links.

  10. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 2, of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) report is presented. Part 2 covers cost and programmatics and is divided into four sections. The first section gives illustrations of the SPS reference satellite and rectenna concept, and an overall scenario for SPS space transportation involvement. The second section presents SPS program plans for the implementation of PHASE C/D activities. These plans describe SPS program schedules and networks, critical items of systems evolution/technology development, and the natural resources analysis. The fourth section presents summary comments on the methods and rationale followed in arriving at the results documented. Suggestions are also provided in those areas where further analysis or evaluation will enhance SPS cost and programmatic definitions.

  11. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltze, Andrew J; Wong, Terrence S; Harland, Karisa K; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n = 235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes less than or equal to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight. Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (SD, 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (P tidal volume (P = .840). Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation but was not associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development, DR-5. Volume 2: Design options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of Task 2 is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make key design/programmatic decisions. This includes: (1) the establishment of option categories that are most likely to influence Space Station Data System (SSDS) definition; (2) the identification of preferred options in each category; and (3) the characterization of these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, cost and risk. This volume contains the options development for the design category. This category comprises alternative structures, configurations and techniques that can be used to develop designs that are responsive to the SSDS requirements. The specific areas discussed are software, including data base management and distributed operating systems; system architecture, including fault tolerance and system growth/automation/autonomy and system interfaces; time management; and system security/privacy. Also discussed are space communications and local area networking.

  13. OTEC platform configuration and integration study. Volume I. Systems engineering and integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The economic success of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system is highly dependent on a platform which provides adequate support for the power system, accommodates reliably the cold water pipe, and is most cost effective. The results of a study conducted for the Department of Energy to assess six generic types of platforms to determine the most satisfactory platform for severl potential sites are presented. The six platform configurations are ship, circular barge, semi-submersible, Tuned Sphere, submersible, and spar. These represent directional and symmetric types of platforms which operate on the surface, at the interface, and submerged. The five sites for this study were primarily New Orleans, Keahole Point (Hawaii), Brazil, and secondarily Key West and Puerto Rico. Electrical transmission of energy by submarine cable is the planned form of energy transmission for all sites except Brazil, where chemical conversion is to be the method of transmission. This study is devoted to the platform (or ocean systems) of the OTEC plant which is chiefly comprised of the hull and structure, the seawater system, the position control system, and miscellaneous support/assembly systems. The principal elements in the work breakdown structure for the commercial plants are presented. The assessment of the six platform configurations was conducted utilizing a baseline plan (100-MW(e) (Net)) and site (New Orleans) with variations from the baseline to cover the range of interested platforms and sites.

  14. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives

  15. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3. GSFLS technical and financial analysis. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported herein. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives

  16. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriger, A.

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives.

  17. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  18. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The developments in automation and robotics have increased the importance of applications for space based servicing using remotely operated systems. A study on three basic remote operating systems (teleoperation, telepresence and robotics) was performed in two phases. In phase one, requirements development, which consisted of one three-month task, a group of ten missions were selected. These included the servicing of user equipment on the station and the servicing of the station itself. In phase two, concepts development, which consisted of three tasks, overall system concepts were developed for the selected missions. These concepts, which include worksite servicing equipment, a carrier system, and payload handling equipment, were evaluated relative to the configurations of the overall worksite. It is found that the robotic/teleoperator concepts are appropriate for relatively simple structured tasks, while the telepresence/teleoperator concepts are applicable for missions that are complex, unstructured tasks.

  19. Global spent fuel logistics systems study (GSFLS). Volume I. GSFLS summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    An important element in the implementation of international nuclear energy policies is the creation of viable systems for transporting, handling, storing, and disposing of the world's spent nuclear fuel. There is an urgent need to implement selected global spent fuel logistics systems (GSFLS) which can best bridge the interests of countries throughout the world and provide the necessary means for transporting, handling, storing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel. The viability of these systems depends upon their compatibility with governmental policies and nonproliferation concerns; their adequacy in support of projected global nuclear power programs; and their adaptation to realistic technological and institutional constraints. The United States Department of Energy contracted with Boeing Engineering and Construction (BEC), a division of the Boeing Company, and its subcontractors, International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) and the firm of Doub, Purcell, Muntzing and Hansen to conduct a study of issues and options in establishing GSFLS and to develop preliminary GSFLS concepts. BEC conducted the study integration and developed the technological/economic framework; IEAL researched and developed the institutional framework; and the firm of Doub, Purcell, Muntzing and Hansen conducted the legal/regulatory research associated with the study. BEC also consulted with the First Boston Corporation regarding generic financial considerations associated with GSFLS. This report provides a summarization of the GSFLS study findings.

  20. Global spent fuel logistics systems study (GSFLS). Volume I. GSFLS summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    An important element in the implementation of international nuclear energy policies is the creation of viable systems for transporting, handling, storing, and disposing of the world's spent nuclear fuel. There is an urgent need to implement selected global spent fuel logistics systems (GSFLS) which can best bridge the interests of countries throughout the world and provide the necessary means for transporting, handling, storing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel. The viability of these systems depends upon their compatibility with governmental policies and nonproliferation concerns; their adequacy in support of projected global nuclear power programs; and their adaptation to realistic technological and institutional constraints. The United States Department of Energy contracted with Boeing Engineering and Construction (BEC), a division of the Boeing Company, and its subcontractors, International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) and the firm of Doub, Purcell, Muntzing and Hansen to conduct a study of issues and options in establishing GSFLS and to develop preliminary GSFLS concepts. BEC conducted the study integration and developed the technological/economic framework; IEAL researched and developed the institutional framework; and the firm of Doub, Purcell, Muntzing and Hansen conducted the legal/regulatory research associated with the study. BEC also consulted with the First Boston Corporation regarding generic financial considerations associated with GSFLS. This report provides a summarization of the GSFLS study findings

  1. Study of short haul high-density V/STOL transportation systems, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    The relative advantages of STOL aircraft concepts were examined by simulating the operations of a short haul high-density intercity STOL system set in two arenas, the California corridor and the Chicago-Detroit-Cleveland triangle, during the 1980 time period. The study was constrained to the use of three aircraft concepts designated as the deflected slipstream turboprop, externally blown flap, and augmentor wing turbofan configurations. The projected demographic, economic, travel demand, and travel characteristics of the representative arenas were identified. The STOL airline operating scenarios were then formulated and through the use of the aerospace modal split simulation program, the traveler modal choices involving alternative STOL concepts were estimated in the context of the total transportation environment for 1980. System combinations that presented the best potential for economic return and traveler acceptance were then identified for each STOL concept.

  2. Studies on a pulse shaping system for fast coincidence with very large volume HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Chatterjee, M.B.; Sinha, B.K.; Bhattacharya, R.

    1987-01-01

    A variant of the leading edge timing (LET) has been proposed which compensates the ''walk'' due to risetime spread in very large volume (∝100 cm 3 ) HPGe detectors. The method - shape compensated leading edge timing (SCLET) - can be used over a wide dynamic range of energies with 100% efficiency and has been compared with the LET and ARC methods. A time resolution of 10 ns fwhm and 21 ns fwtm has been obtained with 22 Na gamma rays and two HPGe detectors of 96 and 114 cm 3 volume. This circuit is easy to duplicate and use can be a low cost alternative to commercial circuits in experiments requiring a large number of detectors. (orig.)

  3. Screening study for evaluation of the potential for system 80+ to consume excess plutonium - Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the U.S. effort to evaluate technologies offering solutions for the safe disposal or utilization of surplus nuclear materials, the fiscal year 1993 Energy and Water Appropriations legislation provided the Department of Energy (DOE) the necessary funds to conduct multi-phased studies to determine the technical feasibility of using reactor technologies for the triple mission of burning weapons grade plutonium, producing tritium for the existing smaller weapons stockpile, and generating commercial electricity. DOE limited the studies to five advanced reactor designs. Among the technologies selected is the ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) System 80+. The DOE study, currently in Phase ID, is proceeding with a more detailed evaluation of the design's capability for plutonium disposition

  4. Screening study for evaluation of the potential for system 80+ to consume excess plutonium - Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the U.S. effort to evaluate technologies offering solutions for the safe disposal or utilization of surplus nuclear materials, the fiscal year 1993 Energy and Water Appropriations legislation provided the Department of Energy (DOE) the necessary funds to conduct multi-phased studies to determine the technical feasibility of using reactor technologies for the triple mission of burning weapons grade plutonium, producing tritium for the existing smaller weapons stockpile, and generating commercial electricity. DOE limited the studies to five advanced reactor designs. Among the technologies selected is the ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) System 80+. The DOE study, currently in Phase ID, is proceeding with a more detailed evaluation of the design's capability for plutonium disposition

  5. A study of digital holographic filters generation. Phase 2: Digital data communication system, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, F. M.; Mo, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    An empirical study of the performance of the Viterbi decoders in bursty channels was carried out and an improved algebraic decoder for nonsystematic codes was developed. The hybrid algorithm was simulated for the (2,1), k = 7 code on a computer using 20 channels having various error statistics, ranging from pure random error to pure bursty channels. The hybrid system outperformed both the algebraic and the Viterbi decoders in every case, except the 1% random error channel where the Viterbi decoder had one bit less decoding error.

  6. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  7. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The following major conclusions resulted from this study: Parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. Billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit waste payload packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume, resulting in a 20% increase in the number of flights and subsequent increases in both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low launch rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A trade study involving a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This was not a part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. The reference space system offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development for disposal of the reference cermet waste form within specified system safety guidelines

  8. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 1: Study background and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The solid rocket boosters assembly environment is described in terms of the contraints it places upon an automated production control system. The business system generated for the SRB assembly and the computer system which meets the business system requirements are described. The selection software process and modifications required to the recommended software are addressed as well as the hardware and configuration requirements necessary to support the system.

  9. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  10. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein

  11. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein.

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics, appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Appendixes for Volume 2 (Part 2) of a seven volume Satellite (SPS) report are presented. The document contains two appendixes. The first is a SPS work breakdown structure dictionary. The second gives SPS cost estimating relationships and contains the cost analyses and a description of cost elements that comprise the SPS program.

  13. Phase 1 study of metallic cask systems for spent fuel management from reactor to repository. Volume I. Phase 1 study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    It was proposed to perform a systems evaluation of metallic cask systems in order to define and examine the use of various metallic cask concepts or combination of concepts for the overall inventory management of spent fuel starting with its discharge from reactors to its emplacement in geologic repositories. This systems evaluation occurs in three phases. This three phase systems evaluation leads to a definition and recommendation of a sound and practical metallic cask system to accomplish efficient and effective management of spent fuel in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Phase 1 Study objectives: establish system-wide functional criteria and assumptions; perform the systems engineering needed to define the metallic cask concepts and their feasibility; perform a screening evaluation of the technical and economic merits of the concepts; and recommend those to be included for a more detailed systems evaluation in Phase 2. Phase 2 Study objectives: refine the system-wide functional criteria and assumptions; perform the design engineering needed to enhance the validity and workability of those concepts recommended in Phase 1; and perform a more detailed systems evaluation. Phase 3 Study objectives: conclude the systems evaluation and develop an implementation plan. Volume I presents an overview of the detailed systems evaluation presented in Volume II

  14. Space station systems analysis study. Part 2, Volume 2. [technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Specific system options are defined and identified for a cost effective space station capable of orderly growth with regard to both function and orbit location. Selected program options are analyzed and configuration concepts are developed to meet objectives for the satellite power system, earth servicing, space processing, and supporting activities. Transportation systems are analyzed for both LEO and GEO orbits.

  15. Behavioral Inhibition System activity is associated with increased amygdala and hippocampal gray matter volume: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrós-Loscertales, A; Meseguer, V; Sanjuán, A; Belloch, V; Parcet, M A; Torrubia, R; Avila, C

    2006-11-15

    Recent research has examined anxiety and hyperactivity in the amygdala and the anterior hippocampus while processing aversive stimuli. In order to determine whether these functional differences have a structural basis, optimized voxel-based morphometry was used to study the relationship between gray matter concentration in the brain and scores on a Behavioral Inhibition System measure (the Sensitivity to Punishment scale) in a sample of 63 male undergraduates. Results showed a positive correlation between Sensitivity to Punishment scores and gray matter volume in the amygdala and the hippocampal formation, that is, in areas that Gray, J.A., and McNaughton, N.J. (2000). The neuropsychology of anxiety. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications. associated with the Behavioral Inhibition System.

  16. Volume definition system for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakuijala, Jyrki; Pekkarinen, Ari; Puurunen, Harri

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Volume definition is a difficult and time consuming task in 3D treatment planning. We have studied a systems approach for constructing an efficient and reliable set of tools for volume definition. Our intent is to automate body outline, air cavities and bone volume definition and accelerate definition of other anatomical structures. An additional focus is on assisting in definition of CTV and PTV. The primary goals of this work are to cut down the time used in contouring and to improve the accuracy of volume definition. Methods: We used the following tool categories: manual, semi-automatic, automatic, structure management, target volume definition, and visualization tools. The manual tools include mouse contouring tools with contour editing possibilities and painting tools with a scaleable circular brush and an intelligent brush. The intelligent brush adapts its shape to CT value boundaries. The semi-automatic tools consist of edge point chaining, classical 3D region growing of single segment and competitive volume growing of multiple segments. We tuned the volume growing function to take into account both local and global region image values, local volume homogeneity, and distance. Heuristic seeding followed with competitive volume growing finds the body outline, couch and air automatically. The structure management tool stores ICD-O coded structures in a database. The codes have predefined volume growing parameters and thus are able to accommodate the volume growing dissimilarity function for different volume types. The target definition tools include elliptical 3D automargin for CTV to PTV transformation and target volume interpolation and extrapolation by distance transform. Both the CTV and the PTV can overlap with anatomical structures. Visualization tools show the volumes as contours or color wash overlaid on an image and displays voxel rendering or translucent triangle mesh rendering in 3D. Results: The competitive volume growing speeds up the

  17. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Some of the conclusions reached as a result of this study are summarized. Waste form parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. The billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit the packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume. The effect of this packing inefficiency in reducing the net waste form per waste payload can be seen graphically. The cermet waste form mass per unit mass of waste payload is lower than that of the iodine waste form even though the cermet has a higher density (6.5 versus 5.5). This is because the lead iodide is cast achieving almost 100% efficiency in packing. This inefficiency in the packing of the cermet results in a 20% increase in number of flights which increases both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low flight rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A comprehensive trade study would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This study was not conducted as part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. Several candidates look attractive for both single- and dual-launch systems (see sec. 4.4), but due to the relatively small number of missions, a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs including DDT and E would be required to select the best system. The reference system described in sections 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development efforts for disposal of the reference cermet waste form

  18. Analysis of space systems study for the space disposal of nuclear waste study report. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Reasonable space systems concepts were systematically identified and defined and a total system was evaluated for the space disposal of nuclear wastes. Areas studied include space destinations, space transportation options, launch site options payload protection approaches, and payload rescue techniques. Systems level cost and performance trades defined four alternative space systems which deliver payloads to the selected 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit destination at least as economically as the reference system without requiring removal of the protective radiation shield container. No concepts significantly less costly than the reference concept were identified.

  19. Space station system analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 2: Technical report. [structural design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of construction operation is presented as well as power system sizing requirements. Mission hardware requirements are reviewed in detail. Space construction base and design configurations are also examined.

  20. Study of fuel systems for LH2-fueled subsonic transport aircraft, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Davis, G. W.; Versaw, E. F.; Cunnington, G. R., Jr.; Riple, J. C.; Baerst, C. F.; Garmong, G.

    1978-01-01

    Several engine concepts examined to determine a preferred design which most effectively exploits the characteristics of hydrogen fuel in aircraft tanks received major emphasis. Many candidate designs of tank structure and cryogenic insulation systems were evaluated. Designs of all major elements of the aircraft fuel system including pumps, lines, valves, regulators, and heat exchangers received attention. Selected designs of boost pumps to be mounted in the LH2 tanks, and of a high pressure pump to be mounted on the engine were defined. A final design of LH2-fueled transport aircraft was established which incorporates a preferred design of fuel system. That aircraft was then compared with a conventionally fueled counterpart designed to equivalent technology standards.

  1. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  2. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  3. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  4. Army Personnel Management System Study (PMS2). Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-06

    demonstrated desirability, some functions would be facilitated, costs need further study, and mobilization capabilities should be emphasized. PMS2 is basis for current reorganization planning within ODCSPER.

  5. Integrated orbital servicing study follow-on. Volume 2: Technical analysis and system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In-orbit service functional and physical requirements to support both low and high Earth orbit servicing/maintenance operations were defined, an optimum servicing system configuration was developed and mockups and early prototype hardware were fabricated to demonstrate and validate the concepts selected. Significant issues addressed include criteria for concept selection; representative mission equipment and approaches to their design for serviceability; significant serviceable spacecraft design aspects; servicer mechanism operation in one-g; approaches for the demonstration/simulation; and service mechanism structure design approach.

  6. Manned systems utilization analysis (study 2.1). Volume 3: LOVES computer simulations, results, and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    The LOVES computer program was employed to analyze the geosynchronous portion of the NASA's 1973 automated satellite mission model from 1980 to 1990. The objectives of the analyses were: (1) to demonstrate the capability of the LOVES code to provide the depth and accuracy of data required to support the analyses; and (2) to tradeoff the concept of space servicing automated satellites composed of replaceable modules against the concept of replacing expendable satellites upon failure. The computer code proved to be an invaluable tool in analyzing the logistic requirements of the various test cases required in the tradeoff. It is indicated that the concept of space servicing offers the potential for substantial savings in the cost of operating automated satellite systems.

  7. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume I. Study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of tokamak fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. In this first phase, the principal emphasis is on scheduled maintenance whose frequency is determined by the life of the reactor first wall/blanket. Remote operations are baselined. Five conceptual reactor designs have been analyzed. Each concept is characterized by the size of the replaceable first wall/blanket module--large, intermediate, small--and whether access to the module was from the outside of the reactor, the inside of the reactor or a combination of both. The study results are expressed in terms of availability (scheduled maintenance downtime), the costs of maintenance (capital and recurring) and the percent effect of maintenance on the cost of electricity. During this first phase, the study benefitted significantly by the critical review of the feasibility of maintenance functions and the time-to-perform estimates by numerous persons involved in nuclear maintenance and remote operations

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  10. Strategic analysis for safeguards systems: a feasibility study. Volume 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaver, D.A.; Cohen, M.S.; Immerman, W.H.; Crane, F.L.; Goldman, A.J.

    1984-12-01

    Strategic analysis (game theory) is a formal method for modeling adversary situations that, when solved, yields an optimal strategy that maximizes the expected payoff to the player. As such, it appears to be potentially applicable in the nuclear material accounting context in which there is potential for an adversary attempting to divert special nuclear material. The NRC has previously supported research to develop preliminary strategic analysis models which has been considered to be only partially successful. This study reviewed previous efforts and other game theory research and assessed the feasibility of: (1) applying strategic analysis in a regulatory framework; (2) making strategic analysis understandable by licensees; and (3) assuring that strategic analysis can effectively be enforced. This report includes a discussion of the role of strategic analysis in material control and accounting, and of the mechanisms by which the NRC could implement strategic analysis. A set of feasibility criteria are described including both technical feasibility and organizational/implementation feasibility. Alternative strategic analysis model options are evaluated with respect to these criteria, as is the current material accounting practice. The assessment determined that the development of a payoff function that adequately represented the NRC's (and therefore the public's) values with respect to the consequences of diversion and the actions taken to prevent it is the most serious impediment to implementation. Given the limited role of material accounting in safeguards and the uncertainty regarding the development of a payoff function, the NRC should not proceed with full-scale implementation of strategic analysis. It does, however, have sufficient potential to warrant further development, with first priority going to the development of an appropriate payoff function

  11. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  12. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    , and arterial pressure were determined before and during a volume expansion induced by infusion of a hyperosmotic galactose solution. RESULTS: During volume expansion, the central and arterial blood volume increased significantly in patients with class A and controls, whereas no significant change was found...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  13. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 2: Engineering analysis of orbital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Program plans, schedules, and costs are determined for a synchronous orbit-based power generation and relay system. Requirements for the satellite solar power station (SSPS) and the power relay satellite (PRS) are explored. Engineering analysis of large solar arrays, flight mechanics and control, transportation, assembly and maintenance, and microwave transmission are included.

  14. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  15. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume V. North Atlantic, Central East Pacific, and Caribbean Regions Communication Systems Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    system SENEAM Servicies a la Navagacion en el Espacio Aero Mexicano SSB Single side band USB Upper side band VFR Visual flight rules VHF Very-high...working may mitigate many historical problems associated with HF communications. The ambient noise associated with monitoring an HF frequency led to...airports all have their VHF facilities on site. Communications are the responsibility of the Administration de l’Aeroport International Francois

  16. Studying the Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) System and Determining the Root Cause of its Problem in Building 37, Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhafizudin Zainal Anuar; Mohamad Suhaimi Yahaya; Jusnan Hasim; Suhilah Mohd Ali; Mohd Khafidz Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) system is one of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) type in the building. VRV system is a multi-split type air conditioner that uses variable refrigerant flow control to provide customers with the ability to maintain individual zone control in each room and floor of a building. VRV used in Building 37 is made by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries that was completely installed in 2011 with two pipes system format. The objectives of this study are to understand the Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) system and also to study the root cause of its problem in Building 37, Agensi Nuklear Malaysia. The result of the study study suggests poor workmanship during installation process and insufficient electrical grounding are suspected as the causes of on-going and repeating problems occurred. Hence, Bahagian Kejuruteraan (BKJ) has worked out with the service contractor to identify the main problem and leaking area before proceeding with repair and commissioning activities. (author)

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 5: Systems engineering/integration research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and ground rules followed in the development of requirements for the SPS are presented. Development planning objectives are specified in each of these areas, and evolutionary SPS program scenarios are described for the various concepts studied during the past one year contract. Program descriptions are presented as planning packages of technical tasks, and schedule phasing. Each package identifies the ground based technology effort that will facilitate SPS definitions, designs, development, and operations.

  18. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 4: System models and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    In this volume, volume 4 (of five volumes), the discussion is focussed on the system models and related data references and has the following subsections: space shuttle main engine, integrated solid rocket booster, orbiter auxiliary power units/hydraulics, and electrical power system.

  19. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  20. Advanced information processing system: The Army fault tolerant architecture conceptual study. Volume 2: Army fault tolerant architecture design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R. E.; Alger, L. S.; Babikyan, C. A.; Butler, B. P.; Friend, S. A.; Ganska, R. J.; Lala, J. H.; Masotto, T. K.; Meyer, A. J.; Morton, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) hardware architecture and components and the operating system. The architectural and operational theory of the AFTA Fault Tolerant Data Bus is discussed. The test and maintenance strategy developed for use in fielded AFTA installations is presented. An approach to be used in reducing the probability of AFTA failure due to common mode faults is described. Analytical models for AFTA performance, reliability, availability, life cycle cost, weight, power, and volume are developed. An approach is presented for using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) to describe and design AFTA's developmental hardware. A plan is described for verifying and validating key AFTA concepts during the Dem/Val phase. Analytical models and partial mission requirements are used to generate AFTA configurations for the TF/TA/NOE and Ground Vehicle missions.

  1. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The space option for disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geological repositories is studied. A brief overview of the study background, scope, objective, guidelines and assumptions, and contents is presented. The determination of the effects of variations in the waste mix on the space systems concept to allow determination of the space systems effect on total system risk benefits when used as a complement to the DOE reference mined geological repository is studied. The waste payload system, launch site, launch system, and orbit transfer system are all addressed. Rescue mission requirements are studied. The characteristics of waste forms suitable for space disposal are identified. Trajectories and performance requirements are discussed.

  2. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  3. SU-G-JeP3-09: Tumor Location Prediction Using Natural Respiratory Volume for Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT): System Verification Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M; Jung, J; Yoon, D; Shin, H; Kim, S; Suh, T [The catholic university of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gated radiation therapy (RGRT) gives accurate results when a patient’s breathing is stable and regular. Thus, the patient should be fully aware during respiratory pattern training before undergoing the RGRT treatment. In order to bypass the process of respiratory pattern training, we propose a target location prediction system for RGRT that uses only natural respiratory volume, and confirm its application. Methods: In order to verify the proposed target location prediction system, an in-house phantom set was used. This set involves a chest phantom including target, external markers, and motion generator. Natural respiratory volume signals were generated using the random function in MATLAB code. In the chest phantom, the target takes a linear motion based on the respiratory signal. After a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan of the in-house phantom, the motion trajectory was derived as a linear equation. The accuracy of the linear equation was compared with that of the motion algorithm used by the operating motion generator. In addition, we attempted target location prediction using random respiratory volume values. Results: The correspondence rate of the linear equation derived from the 4DCT images with the motion algorithm of the motion generator was 99.41%. In addition, the average error rate of target location prediction was 1.23% for 26 cases. Conclusion: We confirmed the applicability of our proposed target location prediction system for RGRT using natural respiratory volume. If additional clinical studies can be conducted, a more accurate prediction system can be realized without requiring respiratory pattern training.

  4. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  5. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume IV. Career Awareness Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This is the final volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…

  6. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume II. Task Analysis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This is the second volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…

  7. Advanced information processing system: The Army fault tolerant architecture conceptual study. Volume 1: Army fault tolerant architecture overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R. E.; Alger, L. S.; Babikyan, C. A.; Butler, B. P.; Friend, S. A.; Ganska, R. J.; Lala, J. H.; Masotto, T. K.; Meyer, A. J.; Morton, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Digital computing systems needed for Army programs such as the Computer-Aided Low Altitude Helicopter Flight Program and the Armored Systems Modernization (ASM) vehicles may be characterized by high computational throughput and input/output bandwidth, hard real-time response, high reliability and availability, and maintainability, testability, and producibility requirements. In addition, such a system should be affordable to produce, procure, maintain, and upgrade. To address these needs, the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) is being designed and constructed under a three-year program comprised of a conceptual study, detailed design and fabrication, and demonstration and validation phases. Described here are the results of the conceptual study phase of the AFTA development. Given here is an introduction to the AFTA program, its objectives, and key elements of its technical approach. A format is designed for representing mission requirements in a manner suitable for first order AFTA sizing and analysis, followed by a discussion of the current state of mission requirements acquisition for the targeted Army missions. An overview is given of AFTA's architectural theory of operation.

  8. Study of very heavy systems by means of INDRA: First evidence for a volume effect in the nuclear multifragmentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, John David

    1998-01-01

    We present a study of Gd+U collisions at 36 AMeV measured with the INDRA multidetector, permitting almost complete detection (over 80%) of all the reaction products. We show that events exist which correspond to the multifragmentation of a single system comprising the majority of the nucleons for a cross-section of 2.6 mbarn, by isolating reactions for which the emitted fragments have lost all memory of the entrance channel. Such reactions correspond to neither the most central collisions nor the most isotropic events (in the fragments' momentum space), and therefore cannot be correctly distinguished from the dominant binary deeply-inelastic collisions using these criteria. An initial comparison of the selected data with a statistical code indicates that fragments are formed in a dilute, compact system, undergoing a self-similar expansion corresponding to a collective energy of between 1 and 1.5 MeV. Comparison with the same type of events observed in Xe+Sn collisions at 32 AMeV reveals the existence of a scaling law for the multifragmentation of systems of different mass at the same excitation energy per nucleon: fragment Z distributions are identical while their multiplicity increases proportionally to the mass of the multi-fragmenting system. This observation is interpreted as an experimental signal that this multifragmentation originates in a bulk instability of low-density nuclear matter (spinodal region). A complete semi-classical microscopic calculation for the two reactions, including the formation and multifragmentation by spinodal decomposition of very heavy, low-density systems, reproduces very well not only the experimental fragment multiplicities and Z distributions but also their mean kinetic energies, as well as the size distributions of the largest fragments. (author)

  9. Screening study for evaluation of the potential for system 80+ to consume excess plutonium - Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-30

    As part of the U.S. effort to evaluate technologies offering solutions for the safe disposal or utilization of surplus nuclear materials, the fiscal year 1993 Energy and Water Appropriations legislation provided the Department of Energy (DOE) the necessary funds to conduct multi-phased studies to determine the technical feasibility of using reactor technologies for the triple mission of burning weapons grade plutonium, producing tritium for the existing smaller weapons stockpile, and generating commercial electricity. DOE limited the studies to five advanced reactor designs. Among the technologies selected is the ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) System 80+. The DOE study, currently in Phase ID, is proceeding with a more detailed evaluation of the design`s capability for plutonium disposition.

  10. Screening study for evaluation of the potential for system 80+ to consume excess plutonium - Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-30

    As part of the U.S. effort to evaluate technologies offering solutions for the safe disposal or utilization of surplus nuclear materials, the fiscal year 1993 Energy and Water Appropriations legislation provided the Department of Energy (DOE) the necessary funds to conduct multi-phased studies to determine the technical feasibility of using reactor technologies for the triple mission of burning weapons grade plutonium, producing tritium for the existing smaller weapons stockpile, and generating commercial electricity. DOE limited the studies to five advanced reactor designs. Among the technologies selected is the ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) System 80+. The DOE study, currently in Phase ID, is proceeding with a more detailed evaluation of the design`s capability for plutonium disposition.

  11. CAREM-25. Purification and volume control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Chocron, Mauricio; Goya, Hector E.; Ortega, Daniel A.; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The purification and volume control system has the following main functions: water level control inside reactor pressure vessel (RPR) in all the reactor operational modes, pressure control when the reactor operates in solid state, and maintenance of radiological, physical and chemical parameters of primary water. In case of Hot Shutdown operational mode and also after Scram the system is capable of extraction of nuclear decay heat. The design of the system is in accordance with the Requirements of ANSI/ ANS 51.1; 58.11 and 56.2 standards. (author)

  12. Evaluation of stone volume distribution in renal collecting system as a predictor of stone-free rate after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a retrospective single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Hasan Anıl; Canat, Lutfi; Bayraktarlı, Recep; Alkan, Ilter; Can, Osman; Altunrende, Fatih

    2017-06-23

    We analyzed our stone-free rates of PNL with regard to stone burden and its ratio to the renal collecting system volume. Data of 164 patients who underwent PNL were analyzed retrospectively. Volume segmentation of renal collecting system and stones were done using 3D segmentation software with the images obtained from CT data. Analyzed stone volume (ASV) and renal collecting system volume (RCSV) were measured and the ASV-to-RCSV ratio was calculated after the creation of a 3D surface volume rendering of renal stones and the collecting system. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free rates; also we assessed the predictive accuracy of the ASV-to-RCSV ratio using the receiving operating curve (ROC) and AUC. The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 53% (164 procedures).The ASV-to-RCSV ratio and calyx number with stones were the most influential predictors of stone-free status (OR 4.15, 95% CI 2.24-7.24, renal collecting system, which is calculated using the 3D volume segmentation method, is a significant determinant of the stone-free rate before PCNL surgery. It could be used as a single guide variable by the clinician before renal stone surgery to predict extra requirements for stone clearance.

  13. Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Applications Study. Volume II. Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft (NIMS) design definition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The design requirements for the Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft. (NIMS) are discussed in detail. The requirements are a function of mission specifications, payload, control system requirements, electric system specifications, and cost limitations

  14. Computerized 50 liter volume calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proffitt, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A system has been designed for the Savannah River Site that will be used to calibrate product shipping containers. For accountability purposes, it is necessary that these containers be calibrated to a very high precision. The Computerized 50 Liter Volume Calibration System (CVCS), which is based on the Ideal Gas Law (IGL), will use reference volumes with precision of no less ±0.03%, and helium to calibrate the containers to have a total error of no greater than ±0.10%. A statistical interpretation of the system has given a theoretical total calculated error of ±0.08%. Tests with the system will be performed once fabrication is complete to experimentally verify the calculated error. Since the total error was calculated using the worst case scenario, the actual error should be significantly less than the calculated value. The computer controlled, totally automated system is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The design, calibration procedure, and statistical interpretation of the system will be discussed. 1 ref

  15. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 1: Summary report. [cryogenic storage and fuel flow regulation system for space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Design, construction, and quality control tests on a dual screen liner device for the space shuttle orbiter cryogenic fuel tank and feedliner system are summarized. The dual stainless steel mesh of the device encloses eight liquid fuel channels and provides the liquid/vapor interface stability required for low gravity orbits.

  16. Feasibility study of a waste assay system and the possibility of volume reduction at the Puespoekszilagy RWTDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    2001-05-01

    A review of the types and activities of the waste emplaced at the Pupokszilagy Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF) was performed on the basis of the existing operational data. This provided a breakdown of all important parameters of the wastes as well as of the disposal conditions for each disposal unit. Prior to the detailed review, the behaviour of the compacted wastes, simulating those in the repository, was tested with a view to determine the efficiency of a further supercompaction. Based on the evaluation of market data, the cost of purchasing or renting a super-compactor unit and the resulting unit costs were calculated. A detailed review of the free release strategies and the available equipment was prepared. To provide an immediate remedy to the shortage of disposal volume, it is suggested to retrieve the old Institutional wastes and the sealed radioactive sources, and use the existing free space for further waste disposal. As an alternative, the use of residual free space in the vaults for further disposal, without waste recovery, is also reviewed. (author)

  17. Department of Defense Materiel Distribution System Study. Volume 3, Book 5. Appendix D-3. Depot Cost and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    driverless , have been around long enougli Co be fully debugged. Percentage cost change: +1. (3) More Restrictive Safety Requirements. No major...increased emphasis on more involved controls for driverless tractors, and for carts. There are existing systems which interface directly with stacker...still room for improve- ments within the driverless category. Further mechanical develop- ment to accommodate more sophisticated controls and some

  18. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 1, phase 2: Design considerations for a scheduling and resource allocation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, R. A.; Odoherty, R. J.; Ramsey, H. R.; Reynolds, C. C.; Willoughby, J. K.; Working, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Data and analyses related to a variety of algorithms for solving typical large-scale scheduling and resource allocation problems are presented. The capabilities and deficiencies of various alternative problem solving strategies are discussed from the viewpoint of computer system design.

  19. New photosensitive systems for volume phase holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Andrea; Colella, Letizia; Galli, Paola; Zanutta, Alessio; Bertarelli, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    Volume phase holographic elements are becoming attractive thanks to the large efficiency and good optical quality. They are based on photosensitive materials where a modulation of the refractive index is induced. In this paper, we highlight the strategies to obtain a change in the refractive index in a dielectric material, namely a change in the material density and/or in the molecular polarizability. Moreover, we show the results achieved for materials that undergo the photo-Fries reaction as function of the molecular structure and the illumination conditions. We also report the results on a system based on the diazo Meldrum's acid where volatile molecules are produced upon light exposure.

  20. Modular radwaste volume reduction and solidification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes both the modular transportable and the modular mobile liquid radwaste volume reduction and solidification units based on a General Electric Company developed and patented process called AZTECH (a trademark of GE). An AZTECH system removes all water by azeotropic distillation and encapsulates the remaining solids in a polyester compound. The resulting monolith is suitable for either long term above ground storage or shallow land burial. Pilot and demonstration plant testing has confirmed the design parameters. The three processing modules are covered together with data which resulted in Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval on Dec. 30, 1985

  1. Chester River Study. Volume I,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    of the effects of agri- i6 IA -46 cultural activities on the aquatic system. This initial feet (24 meters). The soils of the basin area are suit...to the stocks themselves. The shell crystal struc- ture modification in oysters recalls to mind the eggshell thinning in birds mentioned earlier...with figures provided by Chestertown to the mouth of the River at Love the U.S. Soil Conservation Service as of 1967 (last Point (Table VII). year of

  2. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  3. Free volume and relaxation dynamics of polymeric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, J.; Kristiak, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution use of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS) for the study of free volume and relaxation dynamics of some polymeric systems (1,4-polybutadiene, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, polyisobutylene, trans-1,4-polychloropropene, atactic polypropylene and 1,2-polybutadiene) is discussed

  4. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  5. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives

  6. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  7. Probability of Detection (POD) Analysis for the Advanced Retirement for Cause (RFC)/Engine Structural Integrity Program (ENSIP) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) System-Volume 3: Material Correlation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berens, Alan

    2000-01-01

    .... Volume 1 presents a description of changes made to the probability of detection (POD) analysis program of Mil-STD-1823 and the statistical evaluation of modifications that were made to version 3 of the Eddy Current Inspection System (ECIS v3...

  8. CIRMIS Data system. Volume 2. Program listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required.The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System is a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display. This is the second of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System

  9. Modelling and Simulation of Volume Controlled Mechanical Ventilation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume controlled mechanical ventilation system is a typical time-delay system, which is applied to ventilate patients who cannot breathe adequately on their own. To illustrate the influences of key parameters of the ventilator on the dynamics of the ventilated respiratory system, this paper firstly derived a new mathematical model of the ventilation system; secondly, simulation and experimental results are compared to verify the mathematical model; lastly, the influences of key parameters of ventilator on the dynamics of the ventilated respiratory system are carried out. This study can be helpful in the VCV ventilation treatment and respiratory diagnostics.

  10. Picosecond studies of excitation transport in a finite volume: The clustered transport system octadecyl rhodamine B in triton X-100 micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, M.D.; Domingue, R.P.; Fayer, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed experimental and theoretical examination of electronic excited state transport in the finite volume system, octadecyl rhodamine B molecules in triton X-100 micelles, is presented. Picosecond fluorescence mixing and transient grating techniques were used to examine systems in which the average number of chromophores per micelle ranged from 0.1 to 11. Because of the clustering of chromophores in the small micelles, the energy transport observed is extremely efficient. A statistical mechanical theory, based on a density expansion with a Pade approximant, is developed for donor--donor transport on a spherical surface. This theory accurately accounts for the experimental data with only the micelle radius as an adjustable parameter. The radius obtained from this procedure is in good agreement with determinations by other methods. This demonstrates that quantitative information about the spatial extent of chromophore distributions in small volumes can be obtained when appropriate finite volume energy transport theories are employed. It is shown that theories developed for infinite volumes are not applicable to systems such as the ones considered here. Finally the partitioning of rhodamine B and octadecyl rhodamine B between aqueous and micellar phases is measured, and lifetimes and rotation times are reported

  11. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix A: Active heating system-screening analysis. Appendix B: Reconstituted food heating techniques analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Technical data are presented which were used to evaluate active heating methods to be incorporated into the space shuttle food system design, and also to evaluate the relative merits and penalties associated with various approaches to the heating of rehydrated food during space flight. Equipment heating candidates were subject to a preliminary screening performed by a selection rationale process which considered the following parameters; (1) gravitational effect; (2) safety; (3) operability; (4) system compatibility; (5) serviceability; (6) crew acceptability; (7) crew time; (8) development risk; and (9) operating cost. A hot air oven, electrically heated food tray, and microwave oven were selected for further consideration and analysis. Passive, semi-active, and active food preparation approaches were also studied in an effort to determine the optimum method for heating rehydrated food. Potential complexity, cost, vehicle impact penalties, and palatability were considered in the analysis. A summary of the study results is provided along with cost estimates for each of the potential sytems

  12. Membrane diffusion- and capillary blood volume measurements are not useful as screening tools for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Marieke D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no optimal screening tool for the assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. A decreasing transfer factor of the lung for CO (TLCO is associated with the development of PAH in SSc. TLCO can be partitioned into the diffusion of the alveolar capillary membrane (Dm and the capillary blood volume (Vc. The use of the partitioned diffusion to detect PAH in SSc is not well established yet. This study evaluates whether Dm and Vc could be candidates for further study of the use for screening for PAH in SSc. Methods Eleven SSc patients with PAH (SScPAH+, 13 SSc patients without PAH (SScPAH- and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Pulmonary function testing took place at diagnosis of PAH. TLCO was partitioned according to Roughton and Forster. As pulmonary fibrosis in SSc influences values of the (partitioned TLCO, these were adjusted for fibrosis score as assessed on HRCT. Results TLCO as percentage of predicted (% was lower in SScPAH+ than in SScPAH- (41 ± 7% vs. 63 ± 12%, p vs. 39 ± 12%, p Conclusion SScPAH+ patients have lower Dm% than SScPAH- patients. There are no correlations between Dm% and hemodynamic parameters of PAH in SScPAH+. These findings do not support further study of the role of partitioning TLCO in the diagnostic work- up for PAH in SSc.

  13. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 1: Engineering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H. R.; Smith, K. E.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Dixon, P. G.; Mcmanus, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Composite structures technology is applied in a preliminary design study of advanced technology blades and hubs for the XV-15 tilt rotor research demonstrator aircraft. Significant improvements in XV-15 hover and cruise performance are available using blades designed for compatibility with the existing aircraft, i.e., blade installation would not require modification of the airframe, hub or upper controls. Provision of a low risk nonmechanical control system was also studied, and a development specification is given.

  14. 1000-Case Reader Study of Radiologists' Performance in Interpretation of Automated Breast Volume Scanner Images with a Computer-Aided Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojing; Bao, Lingyun; Tan, Yanjuan; Zhu, Luoxi; Kong, Fanlei; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-28

    The objective of our study was to assess, in a reader study, radiologists' performance in interpretation of automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) images with the aid of a computer-aided detection (CADe) system. Our study is a retrospective observer study with the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of using a CADe system as an aid for radiologists in interpretation of ABVS images. The multiple-reader, multiple-case study was designed to compare the diagnostic performance of radiologists with and without CADe. The study included 1000 cases selected from ABVS examinations in our institution in 2012. Among those cases were 206 malignant, 486 benign and 308 normal cases. The cancer cases were consecutive; the benign and normal cases were randomly selected. All malignant and benign cases were confirmed by biopsy or surgery, and normal cases were confirmed by 2-y follow-up. Reader performance was compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, the reading time per case for each reader was recorded. Nine radiologists from our institution participated in the study. Three had more than 8 y of ultrasound experience and more than 4 y of ABVS experience (group A); 3 had more than 5 y of ultrasound experience (group B), and 3 had more than 1 y of ultrasound experience (group C). Both group B and group C had no ABVS experience. The CADe system used was the QVCAD System (QView Medical, Inc., Los Altos, CA, USA). It is designed to aid radiologists in searching for suspicious areas in ABVS images. CADe results are presented to the reader simultaneously with the ABVS images; that is, the radiologists read the ABVS images concurrently with the CADe results. The cases were randomly assigned for each reader into two equal-size groups, 1 and 2. Initially the readers read their group 1 cases with the aid of CADe and their group 2 cases without CADe. After a 1-mo washout period, they re-read their group 1

  15. Study on the detection of three-dimensional soot temperature and volume fraction fields of a laminar flame by multispectral imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Mingjiang; Zhang, Haidan; Wang, Fei; Xie, Zhengchao; Huang, Qunxing; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multispectral flame images were used to reconstruct the soot temperature and volume fraction. • The proposed multi-wavelength method and the original two-color method were compared. • The effect of signal to noise ratio (SNR) was discussed. • The best number of selected wavelengths was determined to be 6–11. - Abstract: Charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF) were introduced to capture the multispectral flame images for obtaining the line-of-sight radiation intensities. A least square QR decomposition method was applied to solve the reconstruction matrix equation and obtain the multi-wavelength local emission distributions from which temperature and volume fraction profiles can be retrieved. Compared with the original two-color method, the use of a wide range of spectral data was proved to be capable of reducing the reconstruction error. Reconstruction results of the two methods with different signal to noise ratio (SNR) were discussed. The effect of selected wavelength number is analyzed and the best number is determined to be in the range of 6–11. The proposed multispectral imaging system was verified to be feasible for the reconstruction of temperature and soot volume fraction distributions according to the experimental measurement results.

  16. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 9: PEP design, development and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A plan for the production of two PEP flight systems is defined. The task's milestones are described. Provisions for the development and assembly of new ground support equipment required for both testing and launch operations are included.

  17. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  18. Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System : Volume 1. Master Product Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Volume I is part of a four volume set documenting areas of research resulting from the development of the Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System (AMAS) for the DOT/Transportation Systems Center. AMAS was designed to assist in the evaluation of in...

  19. Determination of gas volume trapped in a closed fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W. F.; Jolley, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique involves extracting known volume of fluid and measuring system before and after extraction, volume of entrapped gas is then computed. Formula derived from ideal gas laws is basis of this method. Technique is applicable to thermodynamic cycles and hydraulic systems.

  20. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 7: PEP logistics and training plan requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Recommendations for logistics activities and logistics planning are presented based on the assumption that a system prime contractor will perform logistics functions to support all program hardware and will implement a logistics system to include the planning and provision of products and services to assure cost effective coverage of the following: maintainability; maintenance; spares and supply support; fuels; pressurants and fluids; operations and maintenance documentation training; preservation, packaging and packing; transportation and handling; storage; and logistics management information reporting. The training courses, manpower, materials, and training aids required will be identified and implemented in a training program.

  1. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  2. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  3. SLSF loop handling system. Volume I. Structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.; Cowie, A.; Ma, D.

    1978-10-01

    SLSF loop handling system was analyzed for deadweight and postulated dynamic loading conditions, identified in Chapters II and III in Volume I of this report, using a linear elastic static equivalent method of stress analysis. Stress analysis of the loop handling machine is presented in Volume I of this report. Chapter VII in Volume I of this report is a contribution by EG and G Co., who performed the work under ANL supervision

  4. Research Studies Index. Authors and Subjects. Volume 1 through Volume 43 (1929-1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazan, Joseph, Comp.; Scott, Paula, Comp.

    This volume contains author and subject indexes for volumes 1 through 43 (1929-1975) of "Research Studies," a scholarly, multi-disciplinary quarterly published at Washington State University. Each author index entry includes the title, volume, and inclusive pagination of the article. The subject index is a keyword-out-of-context…

  5. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  6. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  7. Computer Sciences and Data Systems, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: software engineering; university grants; institutes; concurrent processing; sparse distributed memory; distributed operating systems; intelligent data management processes; expert system for image analysis; fault tolerant software; and architecture research.

  8. High-speed volume measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.

    2018-01-30

    Disclosed is a volume sensor having a first axis, a second axis, and a third axis, each axis including a laser source configured to emit a beam; a parallel beam generating assembly configured to receive the beam and split the beam into a first parallel beam and a second parallel beam, a beam-collimating assembly configured to receive the first parallel beam and the second parallel beam and output a first beam sheet and a second beam sheet, the first beam sheet and the second beam sheet being configured to traverse the object aperture; a first collecting lens and a second collecting lens; and a first photodetector and a second photodetector, the first photodetector and the second photodetector configured to output an electrical signal proportional to the object; wherein the first axis, the second axis, and the third axis are arranged at an angular offset with respect to each other.

  9. Individual Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides providing position, navigation, and timing (PNT) to terrestrial users, GPS is currently used to provide for precision orbit determination, precise time synchronization, real-time spacecraft navigation, and three-axis control of Earth orbiting satellites. With additional Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service (GLONASS, Beidou, and Galileo), it will be possible to provide these services by using other GNSS constellations. The paper, "GPS in the Space Service Volume," presented at the ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting in 2006 (Ref. 1), defined the Space Service Volume, and analyzed the performance of GPS out to 70,000 km. This paper will report a similar analysis of the performance of each of the additional GNSS and compare them with GPS alone. The Space Service Volume, defined as the volume between 3,000 km altitude and geosynchronous altitude, as compared with the Terrestrial Service Volume between the surface and 3,000 km. In the Terrestrial Service Volume, GNSS performance will be similar to performance on the Earth's surface. The GPS system has established signal requirements for the Space Service Volume. A separate paper presented at the conference covers the use of multiple GNSS in the Space Service Volume.

  10. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company mobile volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, rapidly increasing costs for the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) have generated the need for utilities to volume-reduce their LLW prior to shipment and burial. Incineration systems have been selected by several utilities to fulfill this need for maximum volume reduction. Until recently, all of the incineration systems selected by utilities were designed to be housed and operated in a facility erected by the utility. Now, however, lack of capital and rising design/erection costs are causing utilities to reevaluate their plans for purchasing incineration systems to process their LLW. The result is a growing demand for incineration services. Once again, Commonwealth Edison Company (Com-Ed) is leading the industry with an ongoing program to utilize incineration services provided by Aerojet Energy Conversion Company (AECC) for the Dresden Quad Cities, LaSalle, and Zion Nuclear Stations. At the stations, combustible dry active waste and contaminated oil will be processed in a Mobile Volume Reduction System (MVRS) designed and fabricated by AECC. The MVRS is a totally self-contained system consisting of a controlled-air incinerator and a liquid offgas cleanup system. No buildings are required to house the system, and the MVRS achieves volume reduction factors similar to systems currently available for permanent in-plant installation. The result is an option for the utility having the benefits of volume reduction without the capital commitment normally required by the utility

  11. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K + and Cl - conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca 2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchange systems

  12. Tritium Systems Test Facility. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.W.; Battleson, K.W.; Bauer, W.

    1976-10-01

    Sandia Laboratories proposes to build and operate a Tritium Systems Test Facility (TSTF) in its newly completed Tritium Research Laboratory at Livermore, California (see frontispiece). The facility will demonstrate at a scale factor of 1:200 the tritium fuel cycle systems for an Experimental Power Reactor (EPR). This scale for each of the TSTF subsystems--torus, pumping system, fuel purifier, isotope separator, and tritium store--will allow confident extrapolation to EPR dimensions. Coolant loop and reactor hall cleanup facilities are also reproduced, but to different scales. It is believed that all critical details of an EPR tritium system will be simulated correctly in the facility. Tritium systems necessary for interim devices such as the Ignition Test Reactor (ITR) or The Next Step (TNS) can also be simulated in TSTF at other scale values. The active tritium system will be completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere glove box which will be connected to the existing Gas Purification System (GPS) of the Tritium Research Laboratory. In effect, the GPS will become the scaled environmental control system which otherwise would have to be built especially for the TSTF

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  15. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alan S.; Haselschwardt, Sally; Bogatko, Alex; Humphrey, Brian; Patel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand-off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. The overhead system consists of two concentric circle tracks that have a movable beam between them. The beam has a hoist carriage that can move back and forth on the beam. Therefore, the entire system acts like a bridge crane curved around to meet itself in a circle. The novelty of the system is in its configuration, and how it interfaces with the volume of the HDU habitat. Similar to how a bridge crane allows coverage for an entire rectangular volume, the RIMS system covers a circular volume. The RIMS system is the first generation of what may be applied to future planetary surface vertical cylinder habitats on the Moon or on Mars.

  16. An approach to the verification of a fault-tolerant, computer-based reactor safety system: A case study using automated reasoning: Volume 1: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.; Kljaich, J.; Smith, B.T.; Wojcik, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to explore the feasibility of automating the verification process for computer systems. The intent is to demonstrate that both the software and hardware that comprise the system meet specified availability and reliability criteria, that is, total design analysis. The approach to automation is based upon the use of Automated Reasoning Software developed at Argonne National Laboratory. This approach is herein referred to as formal analysis and is based on previous work on the formal verification of digital hardware designs. Formal analysis represents a rigorous evaluation which is appropriate for system acceptance in critical applications, such as a Reactor Safety System (RSS). This report describes a formal analysis technique in the context of a case study, that is, demonstrates the feasibility of applying formal analysis via application. The case study described is based on the Reactor Safety System (RSS) for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). This is a system where high reliability and availability are tantamount to safety. The conceptual design for this case study incorporates a Fault-Tolerant Processor (FTP) for the computer environment. An FTP is a computer which has the ability to produce correct results even in the presence of any single fault. This technology was selected as it provides a computer-based equivalent to the traditional analog based RSSs. This provides a more conservative design constraint than that imposed by the IEEE Standard, Criteria For Protection Systems For Nuclear Power Generating Stations (ANSI N42.7-1972)

  17. Study of the multifragmentation in central collisions of the system: 129Xe + natSn between 32 and 50 MeV/A: measurement of collective expansion energy and of freeze-out volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salou, S.

    1997-01-01

    The multifragmentation of the nuclear system formed in the central collisions of the Xe+Sn reaction between 32 and 50 MeV/A has been studied with the INDRA detector. A tensorial analyse is used to select central collisions. An important part of the charge (about 85 %) is isotropically emitted. The charge partitions have the characteristics of a simultaneous multiple fragment emission. The shape of the fragment kinetic energy distributions together with the reduced velocity correlation functions indicate that the fragmentation is a simultaneous process that occurs at low density. A comparison between the experimental data and predictions of the statistical multifragmentation model of Copenhagen (SMM) shows that charge partitions agree with the hypothesis of a thermodynamical equilibrium, whereas, kinetic observables are more constraining to the model and difficult to reproduce. However, fragments correlation functions are used in order to extract the freeze-out volume and the collective radial energy. At 50 MeV/A, the freeze-out volume is estimated to be 2.7 times the normal volume. It decreases with incident energy to be nearly twice the normal volume at 32 MeV/S. The collective energy evolves from 0 to 1.3 MeV/A with the bombarding energy. This expansion is not purely thermal and originates probably from a dynamical compression developed in the early stage of the collision. (author)

  18. The KamLAND full-volume calibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B E [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Busenitz, J; Classen, T; Keefer, G; McKee, D; Piepke, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Decowski, M P; Elor, G; Frank, A; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; Galloway, M; Gray, F; Hsu, L; Ichimura, K; Kadel, R; Lendvai, C; O' Donnell, T [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Dwyer, D A [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Heeger, K M [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  19. The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O' Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

    2009-03-05

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  20. Experimental teaching and training system based on volume holographic storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuqing; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Chan; Cui, Yutong; Wan, Yuhong; Zou, Rufei

    2017-08-01

    The experiment of volume holographic storage for teaching and training the practical ability of senior students in Applied Physics is introduced. The students can learn to use advanced optoelectronic devices and the automatic control means via this experiment, and further understand the theoretical knowledge of optical information processing and photonics disciplines that have been studied in some courses. In the experiment, multiplexing holographic recording and readout is based on Bragg selectivity of volume holographic grating, in which Bragg diffraction angle is dependent on grating-recording angel. By using different interference angle between reference and object beams, the holograms can be recorded into photorefractive crystal, and then the object images can be read out from these holograms via angular addressing by using the original reference beam. In this system, the experimental data acquisition and the control of the optoelectronic devices, such as the shutter on-off, image loaded in SLM and image acquisition of a CCD sensor, are automatically realized by using LabVIEW programming.

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  2. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume I. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  3. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  4. Fast response system for vacuum volume emergency separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubrienko, K.I.; Lastochkin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    A system which allows to separate vacuum systems of the magnetic-optic beam channels connected with the accelerator has been worked out for case of emergency environment break through the extraction ''window''. The system, consisting of two valve - gate devices and a control unit, allows one in the emergency case to separate more than 20 m long volume from the accelerator without any pressure changes in the latter one

  5. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-eight. Oklahoma. Final report of a study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Oklahoma governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities, Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One: An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume I. An Overview of the Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This volume is one of a four-volume final report of a research project developed to identify the jobs and training needs for the area of wastewater land treatment systems and related agricultural occupations. The overall purpose of the project is presented in terms of its six subobjectives: (1) To identify the agricultural occupations related to…

  7. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume III. Student Terminal Performance Objectives and Instructional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This is the third volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…

  8. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  9. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D.

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities

  10. Drug and Alcohol Studies (Volume 5: Interventions)

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, S; Thom, B

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME FIVE: INTERVENTIONS Natural Recovery from Alcohol Problems Harald Klingemann School-Based Programmes to Prevent Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use Gilbert Botvin and Kenneth Griffin Community Prevention of Alcohol Problems Harold Holder Can Screening and Brief Intervention Lead to Population-Level Reductions in Alcohol-Related Harm? Nick Heather Sharpening the Focus of Alcohol Policy from Aggregate Consumption to Harm and Risk Reduction Tim Stockwell et al A Review of the Efficacy and...

  11. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  12. Osmosensory mechanisms in cellular and systemic volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Kapus, András; Hoffmann, Else K

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations of cellular and systemic osmolarity severely challenge the function of all organisms and are consequently regulated very tightly. Here we outline current evidence on how cells sense volume perturbations, with particular focus on mechanisms relevant to the kidneys and to extracellular...

  13. Thermodynamics of small systems two volumes bound as one

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Terrel L

    1994-01-01

    This authoritative summary of the basics of small system, or nonmacroscopic, thermodynamics was written by the field's founder. Originally published in two volumes, the text remains essential reading in an area in which the practical aim is to derive equations that provide interconnections among various thermodynamic functions. Part I introduces the basics of small system thermodynamics, exploring environmental variables, noting throughout the ways in which small thermodynamic systems differ operationally from macroscopic systems. Part II explores binding on macromolecules and aggregation, completes the discussion of environmental variables, and includes brief summaries of certain special topics, including electric and magnetic fields, spherical drops and bubbles, and polydisperse systems.

  14. Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in ICFWI 2011 conference. The 2011 International Conference on Future Wireless Networks and Information Systems (ICFWI 2011) has been held on November 30 ~ December 1, 2011, Macao, China. Topics covered include Wireless Information Networks, Wireless Networking Technologies, Mobile Software and Services, intelligent computing, network management, power engineering, control engineering, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, Control Systems and Applications, The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in Wireless Networks and Information Systems and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on Wireless Networks and Information Systems.

  15. Nuclear Aircraft Feasibility Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Iso Dose 10-12 10.1.4-3 Absorption Cross Section Ratio 10-14 10.1.5-1 Engine Systems Study Diagram 10-15 10.1.8-1 Life Cycle Cost for 60...0 00 ■ 3 15.00 OC z ^ 10.00 X s -i 1 UJ 5 < oc D I 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 1 ’ ISO LBS/SQ FT WING...4.1.6-1. Payload vs Wing Loading 4-17 m I - 27000 | i i ^1 ̂ N GROSS WEIGHT > 1.600,000 LBS 523 FT/SEC P 30.000 FT ONE GAS REACTOR 1

  16. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  17. Effective orbital volume and eyeball position: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni; Papadaki, Efrosini; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have examined factors affecting the position of the eyeball to the orbit. This study examined the role of effective orbital volume (EOV), defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume, as a determinant of eyeball position, using MRI scans. Forty-six patients were recruited from the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete Greece. Patients with a history of orbital disease were excluded. Distances between eyeball poles and orbital landmarks were measured in T1 weighted transverse, sagittal and coronal orbital images. The protrusion of the eyeball in the sagittal and transverse planes was recorded. The volume of the eyeball and bony orbit, the EOV, the volume of the extraocular muscles as well as clinical information (age, gender, Hertel exophthalmometry) were also recorded. EOV was significantly associated with orbital volume but not with eyeball volume. EOV was also significantly associated with transverse and sagittal globe protrusions. Females displayed significantly lower orbital and eyeball volumes as well as EOV than males but higher transverse globe protrusion than males. Variations in EOV are associated with orbital volume rather than with eyeball volume. EOV is associated with globe protrusion and may be taken into account in the planning of various procedures, including orbital decompression, treatment of enophthalmos or the size of orbital implants following enucleation.

  18. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Seiji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Tsujino, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  19. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800...

  20. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  1. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  2. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  3. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  4. Nonlinear Effects in Osmotic Volume Flows of Electrolyte Solutions through Double-Membrane System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slezak, A.; Jasik-Slezak, J.; Grzegorczyn, S.; Slezak-Prochazka, I.

    The results of experimental study of volume osmotic flows in a double-membrane system are presented in this article. The double-membrane system consists of two membranes (M-u, M-d) oriented in horizontal planes and three identical compartments (u, m, d), containing unstirred binary or ternary ionic

  5. Free volume and relaxation dynamics of polymeric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, J.; Kristiak, J.

    1999-01-01

    Free volumes, holes, vacancies and defects in amorphous and crystalline polymers (1,4--poly-butadiene, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, poly-isobutylene, trans-1,4-polychloropropene, atactic polypropylene and 1,2-poly-butadiene) were studied by positronium annihilation spectroscopy (PALS) in temperature interval 15 to 300 K. Theoretical aspects of PALS are discussed

  6. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This volume contain Chapter 18 -- Human Factors Engineering. Topics covered include: design team organization and responsibilities; design goals and design bases; design process and application to human factors engineering; functional task analysis; control room configuration; information presentation and panel layout evaluation; control and monitoring outside the main control room; and verification and validation

  7. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers parts 6 and 7 and appendix 7A for section 7 (Instrumentation and Control) of the ADM Design and Analysis. The topics covered by these are: other systems required for safety; control systems not required by safety; and CMF evaluation of limiting faults. Parts 1--3 of section 8 (Electric Power) of the ADM are also included in this volume. Topics covered by these parts are: introduction; offsite power system; and onsite power system

  8. Combined Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.; Miller, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Besides providing position, velocity, and timing (PVT) for terrestrial users, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is also being used to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. In 2006, F. H. Bauer, et. al., defined the Space Service Volume in the paper GPS in the Space Service Volume , presented at ION s 19th international Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, and looked at GPS coverage for orbiting satellites. With GLONASS already operational, and the first satellites of the Galileo and Beidou/COMPASS constellations already in orbit, it is time to look at the use of the new Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. This presentation extends GPS in the Space Service Volume by examining the coverage capability of combinations of the new constellations with GPS GPS was first explored as a system for refining the position, velocity, and timing of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers in the early eighties. Because of this, a new GPS utility developed beyond the original purpose of providing position, velocity, and timing services for land, maritime, and aerial applications. GPS signals are now received and processed by spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation, including signals that spill over the limb of the earth. Support of GPS space applications is now part of the system plan for GPS, and support of the Space Service Volume by other GNSS providers has been proposed to the UN International Committee on GNSS (ICG). GPS has been demonstrated to provide decimeter level position accuracy in real-time for satellites in low Earth orbit (centimeter level in non-real-time applications). GPS has been proven useful for satellites in geosynchronous orbit, and also for satellites in highly elliptical orbits. Depending on how many satellites are in view, one can keep time locked to the GNSS standard, and through that to Universal Time as long as at least one

  9. Plutonium Protection System (PPS). Volume 2. Hardware description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, D.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Plutonium Protection System (PPS) is an integrated safeguards system developed by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security. The system is designed to demonstrate and test concepts for the improved safeguarding of plutonium. Volume 2 of the PPS final report describes the hardware elements of the system. The major areas containing hardware elements are the vault, where plutonium is stored, the packaging room, where plutonium is packaged into Container Modules, the Security Operations Center, which controls movement of personnel, the Material Accountability Center, which maintains the system data base, and the Material Operations Center, which monitors the operating procedures in the system. References are made to documents in which details of the hardware items can be found

  10. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 2: Project planning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Project planning data for a rotor and control system procurement and testing program for modifications to the XV-15 tilt-rotor research demonstrator aircraft is presented. The design, fabrication, and installation of advanced composite blades compatible with the existing hub, an advanced composite hub, and a nonmechanical control system are required.

  11. Development of a wireless MEMS multifunction sensor system and field demonstration of embedded sensors for monitoring concrete pavements, volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This two-pronged study evaluated the performance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) micro-electromechanical sensors and systems (MEMS) embedded in concrete pavement (Final Report Volume I) and developed a wireless MEMS multifunctional sensor system f...

  12. Virtual Nonlinear Multibody System. NATO Advanced Study Institute Held in Prague, Czech Republic on June 23-July 3, 2002, Volume I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schiehlen, W. O

    2002-01-01

    .... The virtual prototyping and dynamic modeling of such systems are, from an economical point of view, perspective fields of scientific investigations having in mind the huge expenses for their design...

  13. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  14. Nuclear reactor engineering: Reactor systems engineering. Fourth edition, Volume Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasstone, S.; Sesonske, A.

    1994-01-01

    This new edition of this classic reference combines broad yet in-depth coverage of nuclear engineering principles with practical descriptions of their application in the design and operation of nuclear power plants. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes new materials on reactor safety and risk analysis, regulation, fuel management, waste management and operational aspects of nuclear power. This volume contains the following: the systems concept, design decisions, and information tools; energy transport; reactor fuel management and energy cost considerations; environmental effects of nuclear power and waste management; nuclear reactor safety and regulation; power reactor systems; plant operations; and advanced plants and the future

  15. System analysis of shallow land burial. Volume 2: technical background. Technical report, 26 November 1979-23 January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.; Buckley, D.; Donelson, S.; Dura, V.; Hecht, M.

    1981-03-01

    This is volume two of a three volume set detailing the activities and results of the System Analysis of Shallow Land Burial Project. Activities under four project tasks are described: Task 1 - Identify Potential Radionuclide Release Pathways, Task 2 - Systems Model for Shallow Land Burial of Low-Level Waste, Task 3 - Sensitivity and Optimization Study and Task 4 - Reference Facility Dose Assessment

  16. Quantifying normal ankle joint volume: An anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draeger Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic and diagnostic modalities such as intraarticular injections, arthrography and ankle arthroscopy require introduction of fluid into the ankle joint. Little data are currently available in the literature regarding the maximal volume of normal, nonpathologic, human ankle joints. The purpose of this study was to measure the volume of normal human ankle joints. Materials and Methods: A fluoroscopic guided needle was passed into nine cadaveric adult ankle joints. The needle was connected to an intracompartmental pressure measurement device. A radiopaque dye was introduced into the joint in 2 mL boluses, while pressure measurements were recorded. Fluid was injected into the joint until three consecutive pressure measurements were similar, signifying a maximal joint volume. Results: The mean maximum ankle joint volume was 20.9 ± 4.9 mL (range, 16-30 mL. The mean ankle joint pressure at maximum volume was 142.2 ± 13.8 mm Hg (range, 122-166 mm Hg. Two of the nine samples showed evidence of fluid tracking into the synovial sheath of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Conclusion: Maximal normal ankle joint volume was found to vary between 16-30 mL. This study ascertains the communication between the ankle joint and the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Exceeding maximal ankle joint volume suggested by this study during therapeutic injections, arthrography, or arthroscopy could potentially damage the joint.

  17. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains parts 1--10 of section 19 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: methodology; initiating event evaluation; accident sequence determination; data analysis; systems analysis; external events analysis; shutdown risk assessment; accident sequence quantification; and sensitivity analysis. Also included in this volume are Appendix 19.8A Shutdown Risk Assessment and Appendix A to Appendix 19.8A Request for Information

  18. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains 2 technical specifications bases as part of Appendix 16 A Tech Spec Bases. They are TS B3.8 Electrical Power Technical Systems Bases and TS B3.9 Refueling Operations Bases. All 3 parts of section 17 (QA) and all 10 parts of section 18 (Human Factors) of the ADM Design and Analysis are contained in this volume. Topics covered in section 17 are: design phase QA; operations phase QA; and design phase reliability assurance. Topics covered by section 18 are: design team organization; design goals; design process; functional task analysis; control room configuration; information presentation; control and monitoring; verification and validation; and review documents

  19. Volume 2. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Volume II, Probabilistic Analysis of HTGR Application Studies - Supporting Data, gives the detail data, both deterministic and probabilistic, employed in the calculation presented in Volume I. The HTGR plants and the fossil plants considered in the study are listed. GCRA provided the technical experts from which the data were obtained by MAC personnel. The names of the technical experts (interviewee) and the analysts (interviewer) are given for the probabilistic data

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  1. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An active controls technology (ACT) system architecture was selected based on current technology system elements and optimal control theory was evaluated for use in analyzing and synthesizing ACT multiple control laws. The system selected employs three redundant computers to implement all of the ACT functions, four redundant smaller computers to implement the crucial pitch-augmented stability function, and a separate maintenance and display computer. The reliability objective of probability of crucial function failure of less than 1 x 10 to the -9th power per flight of 1 hr can be met with current technology system components, if the software is assumed fault free and coverage approaching 1.0 can be provided. The optimal control theory approach to ACT control law synthesis yielded comparable control law performance much more systematically and directly than the classical s-domain approach. The ACT control law performance, although somewhat degraded by the inclusion of representative nonlinearities, remained quite effective. Certain high-frequency gust-load alleviation functions may require increased surface rate capability.

  2. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains part 16 References and Appendix 19 A Design Alternatives for section 19 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Also covered is section 20 Unresolved Safety Issues of the ADM Design and Analysis. Finally sections 1--6 of the ADM Emergency Operations Guidelines are contained in this volume. Information covered in these sections include: standard post-trip actions; diagnostic actions; reactor trip recovery guideline; LOCA recovery; SG tube rupture recovery

  3. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers the following information of the CDM: (2.8) Steam and power conversion; (2.9) Radioactive waste management; (2.10) Tech Support Center; (2.11) Initial test program; (2.12) Human factors; and sections 3, 4, and 5. Also covered in this volume are parts 1--6 of section 1 (General Plant Description) of the ADM Design and Analysis

  4. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains all five parts of section 12 (Radiation Protection) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: ALARA exposures; radiation sources; radiation protection; dose assessment; and health physics program. All six parts and appendices A and B for section 13 (Conduct of Operations) of the ADM Design and Analysis are also contained in this volume. Topics covered are: organizational structure; training program; emergency planning; review and audit; plant procedures; industrial security; sabotage protection (App 13A); and vital equipment list (App 13B)

  5. Study of the multifragmentation in central collisions of the system: {sup 129}Xe + {sup nat}Sn between 32 and 50 MeV/A: measurement of collective expansion energy and of freeze-out volume; Etude de la multifragmentation dans les collisions centrales pour le systeme {sup 129}Xe + {sup nat}Sn entre 32 et 50 MeV/A: mesure de l`energie collective d`expansion et du volume de freeze-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salou, S

    1997-12-05

    The multifragmentation of the nuclear system formed in the central collisions of the Xe+Sn reaction between 32 and 50 MeV/A has been studied with the INDRA detector. A tensorial analyse is used to select central collisions. An important part of the charge (about 85 %) is isotropically emitted. The charge partitions have the characteristics of a simultaneous multiple fragment emission. The shape of the fragment kinetic energy distributions together with the reduced velocity correlation functions indicate that the fragmentation is a simultaneous process that occurs at low density. A comparison between the experimental data and predictions of the statistical multifragmentation model of Copenhagen (SMM) shows that charge partitions agree with the hypothesis of a thermodynamical equilibrium, whereas, kinetic observables are more constraining to the model and difficult to reproduce. However, fragments correlation functions are used in order to extract the freeze-out volume and the collective radial energy. At 50 MeV/A, the freeze-out volume is estimated to be 2.7 times the normal volume. It decreases with incident energy to be nearly twice the normal volume at 32 MeV/S. The collective energy evolves from 0 to 1.3 MeV/A with the bombarding energy. This expansion is not purely thermal and originates probably from a dynamical compression developed in the early stage of the collision. (author) 88 refs.

  6. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  7. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 10: Liquid-metal MHD systems. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Electric Power Plant costs and efficiencies are presented for two basic liquid-metal cycles corresponding to 922 and 1089 K (1200 and 1500 F) for a commercial applications using direct coal firing. Sixteen plant designs are considered for which major component equipment were sized and costed. The design basis for each major component is discussed. Also described is the overall systems computer model that was developed to analyze the thermodynamics of the various cycle configurations that were considered.

  8. Converting Constant Volume, Multizone Air Handling Systems to Energy Efficient Variable Air Volume Multizone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    TO OTHER ZONE DAMPERS N.O. TEMPERATURE SENSOR CHILLED WATER ZONE 1 STAT SUPPLY FAN COLD DECK COIL TO OTHER ZONE DAMPERS ZONE 1 DAMPER ACTUATOR HOT... water pump usage were considered. Figure 25. Condensing Boiler Combustion Efficiencies 3. Chilled water system losses : Similarly, electrical energy...required to meet cooling demands at the chilled water coil BTU meter is dependent on network losses and chiller energy efficiency ratios. Using

  9. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  10. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs, as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

  11. High volume tidal or current flow harnessing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, A.M.

    1984-08-07

    Apparatus permitting the utilization of large volumes of water in the harnessing and extracting of a portion of the power generated by the rise and fall of ocean tides, ocean currents, or flowing rivers includes the provision of a dam, and a specialized single cavity chamber of limited size as compared with the water head enclosed by the dam, and an extremely high volume gating system in which all or nearly all of the water between the high and low levels on either side of the dam is cyclically gated through the single chamber from one side of the dam to the other so as to alternately provide positive air pressure and a partial vacuum within the single chamber. In one embodiment, the specialized chamber has a barrier at the bottom which divides the bottom of the chamber in half, large ports at the bottom of the chamber to permit inflow and outflow of high volumes of water, and ganged structures having a higher total area than that of corresponding ports, in which the structures form sluice gates to selectively seal off and open different sets of ports. In another embodiment, a single chamber is used without a barrier. In this embodiment, vertical sluice gates are used which may be activated automatically by pressures acting on the sluice gates as a result of ingested and expelled water.

  12. Study on the High Volume Reduction of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Sik, Kang Il; Seok, Hong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Jeon Gil [RADIN Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The solidification of radioactive wastes by the mixing method always increases their volume due to the limitation of incorporation ratio (waste/solidification agent). But if the powdered wastes can be compacted as the high density pellets and also the pellets can be filled up in a waste drum as much as possible while solidifying them with a very sticky solidification agent including a void formed in the filling step of pellets, it might be more desirable to reduce the waste volume as compared with the mixing method. So in this study, we designed and manufactured a high volume reduction machine which has the special size and shape of a pellet pocket, which the pellets can be extracted from easily and filled up in a large amount in drum, a pressurizing device to press 2 rolls, and the uniform feeding device of powder to the roll tyre. Some operational parameters which affect the formation of pellets from a powder were investigated, and then the volume reduction of a powder was evaluated. The briquetting machine, popular in general industry, was modified to apply for the volume reduction of the powered radioactive wastes (dried concentrate, sludge, spent ion-exchange resin, ash, depleted uranium powder, and etc.). In this developed high volume reduction machine, the capacity was 25 ∼ 62.5 kg/h at the optimum conditions, and the estimated volume reduction was about 2.95 (2.74/0.93) on the basis of between a powder (bulk density = 0.93 g/cm{sup 3}) and the pellet (2.74 g/cm{sup 3}). But on the basis of 200L drum, the calculated volume reduction was about 1.34 in consideration of a void volume originated in the filling step of the pellets.

  13. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains the following technical specifications of section 16 (Technical Specifications) of the ADM Design and Analysis: TS 3.3 Instrumentation; TS 3.4 Reactor Coolant System; TS 3.5 Emergency Core Cooling System; TS 3.6 Containment Systems; TS 3.7 Plant Systems; TS 3.8 Electrical Power Systems; TS 3.9 Refueling Operations; TS 4.0 Design Features; TS 5.0 Administrative Controls. Appendix 16 A Tech Spec Bases is also included. It contains the following: TS B2.0 Safety Limits Bases; TS B3.0 LCO Applicability Bases; TS B3.1 Reactivity Control Bases; TS B3.2 Power Distribution Bases

  14. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  15. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  16. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  17. Raft river geoscience case study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, M. R.; Hull, L. C.; Mizell, S. A.; Russell, B. F.; Skiba, P. A.; Strawn, J. A.; Tullis, J. A.; Garber, R.

    1981-11-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Site has been evaluated over the past eight years by the United States Geological Survey and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as a moderate-temperature geothermal resource. The geoscience data gathered in the drilling and testing of seven geothermal wells suggest that the Raft River thermal reservoir is: (1) produced from fractures found at the contact metamorphic zone apparently the base of detached normal faulting from the Bridge and Horse Well Fault zones of the Jim Sage Mountains; (2) anisotropic, with the major axis of hydraulic conductivity coincident to the Bridge Fault Zone; (3) hydraulically connected to the shallow thermal fluid of the Crook and BLM wells based upon both geochemistry and pressure response; (4) controlled by a mixture of diluted meteoric water recharging from the northwest and a saline sodium chloride water entering from the southwest. Although the hydrogeologic environment of the Raft River geothermal area is very complex and unique, it is typical of many Basin and Range systems.

  18. Southern cone energy network coal gasification for SNG production and pipeline system. Feasibility study. Volume 1. Executive summary. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Executive Summary document summarizes the study report on the economic and technical feasibility of gasifying coal to produce a substitute natural gas (SNG) for distribution to the industrial areas of Southern Brazil. The report includes data surveys, technology assessments, process evaluations, and conceptual designs and analyses. The study contributes to the Brazilian Government efforts to investigate feasible crude oil substitution programs that will meet the nation's energy needs by utilizing domestic resources, thereby reducing the severe negative impact of foreign crude oil importation on Brazil's balance of payments

  19. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  20. Increasing the information acquisition volume in iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, D Shane

    2008-09-10

    A significant hurdle for the widespread adoption of iris recognition in security applications is that the typically small imaging volume for eye placement results in systems that are not user friendly. Separable cubic phase plates at the lens pupil have been shown to ameliorate this disadvantage by increasing the depth of field. However, these phase masks have limitations on how efficiently they can capture the information-bearing spatial frequencies in iris images. The performance gains in information acquisition that can be achieved by more general, nonseparable phase masks is demonstrated. A detailed design method is presented, and simulations using representative designs allow for performance comparisons.

  1. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  2. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  3. Reusable Agena study. Volume 2: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. K.; Piper, J. E.; Douglass, D. A.; Waller, E. W.; Hopkins, C. V.; Fitzgerald, E. T.; Sagawa, S. S.; Carter, S. A.; Jensen, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    The application of the existing Agena vehicle as a reusable upper stage for the space shuttle is discussed. The primary objective of the study is to define those changes to the Agena required for it to function in the reusable mode in the 100 percent capture of the NASA-DOD mission model. This 100 percent capture is achieved without use of kick motors or stages by simply increasing the Agena propellant load by using optional strap-on-tanks. The required shuttle support equipment, launch and flight operations techniques, development program, and cost package are also defined.

  4. Validity of automated measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction and volume using the Philips EPIQ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovnanians, Ninel; Win, Theresa; Makkiya, Mohammed; Zheng, Qi; Taub, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    To assess the efficiency and reproducibility of automated measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in comparison to manually traced biplane Simpson's method. This is a single-center prospective study. Apical four- and two-chamber views were acquired in patients in sinus rhythm. Two operators independently measured LV volumes and LVEF using biplane Simpson's method. In addition, the image analysis software a2DQ on the Philips EPIQ system was applied to automatically assess the LV volumes and LVEF. Time spent on each analysis, using both methods, was documented. Concordance of echocardiographic measures was evaluated using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Manual tracing and automated measurement of LV volumes and LVEF were performed in 184 patients with a mean age of 67.3 ± 17.3 years and BMI 28.0 ± 6.8 kg/m 2 . ICC and Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreements between manual and automated methods measuring LVEF, end-systolic, and end-diastolic volumes. The average analysis time was significantly less using the automated method than manual tracing (116 vs 217 seconds/patient, P Automated measurement using the novel image analysis software a2DQ on the Philips EPIQ system produced accurate, efficient, and reproducible assessment of LV volumes and LVEF compared with manual measurement. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) can be stated as follows: (1) Define a small number (approx. 3) of blanket design concepts that should be the focus of the blanket R and D program. A design concept is defined by the selection of all materials (e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and multiplier) and other major characteristics that significantly influence the R and D requirements. (2) Identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts. (3) Provide the technical input necessary to develop a blanket R and D program plan. Guidelines for prioritizing the R and D requirements include: (a) critical feasibility issues for the leading blanket concepts will receive the highest priority, and (b) for equally important feasibility issues, higher R and D priority will be given to those that require minimum cost and short time

  6. Radioactivity studies. Progress report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1981-09-01

    A model was developed to be used to calculate the accumulation of uranium in the organs of the human body for different kinds of exposure. The proposed model divides the human body into compartments: red cell, short-term bone, long-term bone, kidney, and urine. The transfer rate between compartments is governed by 1st order kinetics. Transfer from plasma to the other compartments is instantaneous. Feedback from compartments to plasma is taken into account. The division of blood into plasma and red cell compartment is important to the calculations of uranium transport during the first few days after exposure. It was noted that uranium in bone has two different half-lives depending on the site of deposition, a short-term and a long-term bone component. An analytical solution to the model was proposed for any time-dependent exposure to uranium. This methodology is unique to this model and represents a significant change in analytical solutions. Specific analytical solutions for common cases of uranium exposure were derived. These include: single injection dose to the blood; exposure to background levels of natural uranium by ingestion; exposure through inhalation during working hours for uranium workers; single inhalation dose; constant inhalation exposure during a finite interval of time; and single ingestion dose. For model verification five baboons were injected intravenously with uranium nitrate and the partition of uranium between plasma and red cells was studied. The half-life in short-term bone was derived and the distribution in soft tissues four days after injection was studied: the kidney was the main organ for uranium deposition. The concentration in human skeleton was equal to 0.02 μg U/g ash. For this concentration in skeleton the gastrointestinal absorption factor was calculated as 23% and the daily excretion as 0.24 μg U/day

  7. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains Appendices 6A, 6B, and 6C for section 6 (Engineered Safety Features) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Also, parts 1--5 of section 7 (Instrumentation and Control) of the ADM Design and Analysis are covered. The following information is covered in these parts: introduction; reactor protection system; ESF actuation system; system required for safe shutdown; and safety-related display instrumentation

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 11: Advanced steam systems. [energy conversion efficiency for electric power plants using steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made of three types of advanced steam power plants that use coal in order to have a comparison of the cost of electricity produced by them a wide range of primary performance variables. Increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam above current industry levels resulted in increased energy costs because the cost of capital increased more than the fuel cost decreased. While the three plant types produced comparable energy cost levels, the pressurized fluidized bed boiler plant produced the lowest energy cost by the small margin of 0.69 mills/MJ (2.5 mills/kWh). It is recommended that this plant be designed in greater detail to determine its cost and performance more accurately than was possible in a broad parametric study and to ascertain problem areas which will require development effort. Also considered are pollution control measures such as scrubbers and separates for particulate emissions from stack gases.

  9. A Continuation of Base-Line Studies for Environmentally Monitoring Space Transportation System (STS) at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 1; Terrestrial Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, I. J.

    1979-01-01

    Vegetation and small mammal populations in or around the Merritt Island area were studied. Thirty sites were selected from plant communities which were relatively free of logging, grazing, and clearing operations. The vegetative analysis was designed to yield a quantitative description and ecological explanation of the major types of upland vegetation in order to determine the possible future effects of NASA space activities on them. Changes in the relative abundance of small mammal populations, species diversity, standing crop biomass, reproductive activity, and other demographic features were documented in order to gather sufficient information on these populations so that it would be possible to detect even the smaller nonnatural behavior changes in the mammals which might be attributable to NASA space activities.

  10. Radioactivity studies. Progress report. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1981-09-01

    The metabolism of 243 244 Cm in nine adult female baboons following intravenous injection was studied. Curium-243,244 was administered as a single injection of curium citrate in dosages of 0.053 to 0.220 μCi/kg. The behavior of 243 244 Cm at these low dosages was quantitated by external whole-body and partial-body counting, bioassay of blood, urine and feces samples, liver biopsies, and post-mortem tissues analysis. Curium-243,244 rapidly passed from the blood to other tissues. At 1 and 24 h after injection, the amounts circulating were 10% and 1%, respectively. At 24 h after injection 70% of the 243 244 Cm was located within soft tissues, probably associated with extracellular fluid; the liver alone contained 32% of the injected activity. During the first weeks the content of 243 244 Cm in soft tissues decreased sharply. As time progressed, significant deposition was noted in the liver and the skeleton. Approximately 20% of the injected activity was in the liver at 1 month with a 40 day half-time. The skeleton reached a maximum burden of 57% by 100 days; the half-time observed in bone was 4 to 16 y. During the first 24 h, 10% of the injected activity appeared in the urine decreasing to 0.1%/day at 30 days and 0.01%/day at 200 days. Fecal excretion increased reaching a maximum level at four weeks. The amount of 243 244 Cm excreted in the feces during the initial 4 to 5 months (approx. 20%) and the rate of elimination in the feces after the first month paralleled the retention in the liver indicating an hepatic-biliary-fecal pathway. A model illustrating the interaction of seven internal compartments with respect to the translocation kinetics of 243 244 Cm was derived based upon this data. Solutions of the model were derived for two specific time-related exposures

  11. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  12. Modelling dynamic liquid-gas systems: Extensions to the volume-of-fluid solver

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the extension of the volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam, for improved accuracy and efficiency when modelling dynamic liquid-gas systems. Examples of these include the transportation of liquids, such as in the case of fuel carried...

  13. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers the DCD introduction and contains sections 1 and parts 1--7 of section 2 of the CDM. Parts 1--7 included the following: (2.1) Design of SSC; (2.2) Reactor; (2.3) RCS and connected systems; (2.4) Engineered Safety Features; (2.5) Instrumentation and Control; (2.6) Electric Power; and (2.7) Auxiliary Systems

  14. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains five technical specification bases that are part of Appendix 16 A of the ADM Design and Analysis. They are: TS B3.3 Instrumentation Bases; TS B3.4 RCS Bases; TS B3.5 ECCS Bases; TS B3.6 Containment Systems Bases; and TS B3.7 Plant Systems Bases

  15. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  16. Shared Communications: Volume 2. In-Depth Systems Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, LF

    2004-09-22

    This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.

  17. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

  18. Data collection system. Volume 1, Overview and operators manual; Volume 2, Maintenance manual; Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, R.B.; Bauder, M.E.; Boyer, W.B.; French, R.E.; Isidoro, R.J.; Kaestner, P.C.; Perkins, W.G.

    1993-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Instrumentation Development Department was tasked by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) to record data on Tektronix RTD720 Digitizers on the HUNTERS TROPHY field test conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on September 18, 1992. This report contains a overview and description of the computer hardware and software that was used to acquire, reduce, and display the data. The document is divided into two volumes: an overview and operators manual (Volume 1) and a maintenance manual (Volume 2).

  19. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex spectrum of neurophysiological disorders involving perturbation of the intracranial contents; primarily increased intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and intracranial pressure are observed. CSF dynamics are highly coupled to the cerebral blood flows and pressures as well as the mechanical properties of the brain. Hydrocephalus, as such, is a very complex biological problem. We propose integral control volume analysis as a method of tracking these important interactions using mass and momentum conservation principles. As a first step in applying this methodology in humans, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the intracranial space. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. Within the gel a hollow spherical cavity represents the ventricular system and a cylindrical passage represents the spinal canal. A computer controlled piston pump supplies sinusoidal volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and momentum flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients and normal individuals. Flow and pressure measurements on the flow phantom will be presented through the control volume framework.

  20. Considerations on the calculation of volumes in two planning systems; Consideraciones sobre el calculo de volumenes en dos sistemas de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tenedor Alonso, S.; Rincon Perez, M.; Penedo Cobos, J. M.; Garcia Castejon, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The discrepancies in the calculation of the same volume between different planning systems impact on dose-volume histograms and therefore clinical assessment of dosimetry for patients. The transfer, by a local network, tomographic study (CT) and contours of critical organs of patients, between our two planning systems allows us to evaluate the calculation of identical volumes.

  1. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  2. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains parts 2-7 and appendix 15A for section 15 (Accident Analysis) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered in these parts are: decrease in heat removal; decrease in RCS flow rate; power distribution anomalies; increase in RCS inventory; decrease in RCS inventory; release of radioactive materials. The appendix covers radiological release models. Also contained here are five technical specifications for section 16 (Technical Specifications) of the ADM Design and Analysis. They are: TS 1.0 Use and Applications; TS 2.0 Safety Limits; TS 3.0 LCO Availability; TS 3.1 Reactivity Control; and TS 3.2 Power Distribution

  3. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains sections 7--11 of the ADM Emergency Operations Guidelines. Topics covered are: excess steam demand recovery; loss of all feedwater; loss of offsite power; station blackout recovery; and functional recovery guideline. Appendix A Severe Accident Management Guidelines and Appendix B Lower Mode Operational Guidelines are also included

  4. Laser fusion study. Final report, volume I, study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to devise, evaluate, and conceptually design a complete, end-to-end, alignment system capable of handling 30 to 32 Shiva amplifier chains to specified accuracies in space and time. A secondary goal was to accomplish the primary goal with an acceptably low development and procurement cost and with an acceptably high day-after-day performance reliability. This report presents such a system: it is comprised of sensors, actuating mechanisms, controls, and displays that perform well within the current art-state. (U.S.)

  5. Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume II. Centralized Food Service Systems. Service Management Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

    Volume II of a three-volume study on the future of the food service industry considers the effects that centralized food production will have on the future of food production systems. Based on information from the Fair Acres Project and the Michigan State University Vegetable Processing Center, the authors describe the operations of a centralized…

  6. Surgical volume and conversion rate in laparoscopic hysterectomy: does volume matter? A multicenter retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keurentjes, José H M; Briët, Justine M; de Bock, Geertruida H; Mourits, Marian J E

    2018-02-01

    A multicenter, retrospective, cohort study was conducted in the Netherlands. The aim was to evaluate whether surgical volume of laparoscopic hysterectomies (LHs) performed by proven skilled gynecologists had an impact on the conversion rate from laparoscopy to laparotomy. In 14 hospitals, all LHs performed by 19 proven skilled gynecologists between 2007 and 2010 were included in the analysis. Surgical volume, conversion rate and type of conversion (reactive or strategic) were retrospectively assessed. To estimate the impact of surgical volume on the conversion rate, logistic regressions were performed. These regressions were adjusted for patient's age, Body Mass Index (BMI), ASA classification, previous abdominal surgery and the indication (malignant versus benign) for the LH. During the study period, 19 proven skilled gynecologists performed a total of 1051 LHs. Forty percent of the gynecologists performed over 20 LHs per year (median 17.3, range 5.4-49.5). Conversion to laparotomy occurred in 5.0% of all LHs (53 of 1051); 38 (3.6%) were strategic and 15 (1.4%) were reactive conversions. Performing over 20 LHs per year was significantly associated with a lower overall conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.77), a lower strategic conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65), but not with a lower reactive conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.96, 95% CI 0.33-2.79). A higher annual surgical volume of LHs by proven skilled gynecologists is inversely related to the conversion rate to laparotomy, and results in a lower strategic conversion rate.

  7. Effect of hospital volume on processes of breast cancer care: A National Cancer Data Base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tina W F; Pezzin, Liliana E; Li, Jianing; Sparapani, Rodney; Laud, Purushuttom W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine variations in delivery of several breast cancer processes of care that are correlated with lower mortality and disease recurrence, and to determine the extent to which hospital volume explains this variation. Women who were diagnosed with stage I-III unilateral breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 were identified within the National Cancer Data Base. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to determine whether hospital volume was independently associated with each of 10 individual process of care measures addressing diagnosis and treatment, and 2 composite measures assessing appropriateness of systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy) and locoregional treatment (margin status and radiation therapy). Among 573,571 women treated at 1755 different hospitals, 38%, 51%, and 10% were treated at high-, medium-, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. On multivariate analysis controlling for patient sociodemographic characteristics, treatment year and geographic location, hospital volume was a significant predictor for cancer diagnosis by initial biopsy (medium volume: odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.25; high volume: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14-1.49), negative surgical margins (medium volume: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06-1.24; high volume: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44), and appropriate locoregional treatment (medium volume: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17; high volume: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.24). Diagnosis of breast cancer before initial surgery, negative surgical margins and appropriate use of radiation therapy may partially explain the volume-survival relationship. Dissemination of these processes of care to a broader group of hospitals could potentially improve the overall quality of care and outcomes of breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2017;123:957-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Bibliography. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This volume contains all of the technical references found in Volumes 1-7 concerning the development of guidelines for the verification and validation of expert systems, knowledge-based systems, other AI systems, object-oriented systems, and conventional systems

  9. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Bibliography. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This volume contains all of the technical references found in Volumes 1-7 concerning the development of guidelines for the verification and validation of expert systems, knowledge-based systems, other AI systems, object-oriented systems, and conventional systems.

  10. Flexible manufacturing system handbook. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) represent a relatively new strategy to increase productivity. The technology is especially attractive for manufacturers who produce in the middle ranges of production volumes, neither mass production nor one of a kind. Today's unpredictable market environment demands low-cost solutions that provide quick product start-up, adaptability and responsiveness to changes in demand, and the capacity to easily resurrect out-of-production designs. In many instances, FMSs provide a direct hardware/software solution to this threefold management challenge. The adoption of FMS technology requires that one address many questions beforehand. This handbook provides a methodical approach to answering these questions. But it is not a cookbook; it cannot be. Each application of FMS technology is unique, therefore, the guidelines presented are fairly general.

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2 2010. 53 ... The use of motorcycles for urban passenger transport in Nigeria popularly called okada is a source of ..... Gap in Mexico Washington, DC: The World Bank. Becker, S. G. ...

  13. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume III. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Volume III suppliees supporting information to assist Congress in making a decision on the optimum utilization of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Included are applicable fuel cycle policies; properties of reference fuels; description and evaluation of alternative operational (flue cycle) modes; description and evaluation of safeguards systems and techniques; description and evaluation of spiking technology; waste and waste solidification evaluation; and Department of Energy programs relating to nonproliferation

  14. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  15. Numerical simulation of volume-controlled mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a key therapy for patients who cannot breathe adequately by themselves, and dynamics of mechanical ventilation system is of great significance for life support of patients. Recently, models of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 1 lung are used to simulate the respiratory system of patients. However, humans have 2 lungs. When the respiratory characteristics of 2 lungs are different, a single-lung model cannot reflect real respiratory system. In this paper, to illustrate dynamic characteristics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs, we propose a mathematical model of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs and conduct experiments to verify the model. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs. This research study can be used for improving the efficiency and safety of volume-controlled mechanical ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 3: EVA/Manned Systems/Fluid Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution 16-19 Jan. 1990 in Dallas, Texas. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 3 consists of the technology discipline sections for Extravehicular Activity/Manned Systems and the Fluid Management System. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  17. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  18. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  19. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 2 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework; (3) Assessment of Alternatives; (4) Baseline Conditions in the Project Area; (5) Potential (Unmitigated) Environment, Health and Safety Impacts; (6) Proposed Environmental Prevention and Mitigation; (7) Projected Net Environmental Impacts; (8) Bibliography

  20. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 1 of a 3-volume report, and is divided into the following sections: (1) Task A: Gas Sales; (2) Task B: Initial Economic Screening; (3) Task D: Project Cost Analysis

  1. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 3 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Task C: Technical Feasibility and Preliminary Design; (3) Task F: Project Implementation Strategy

  2. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 2: System Safety Concepts, Guidelines, and Implementation Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Feather, Martin; Rutledge, Peter; Sen, Dev; Youngblood, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes that collectively comprise the NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1 (NASASP-210-580) was prepared for the purpose of presenting the overall framework for System Safety and for providing the general concepts needed to implement the framework. Volume 2 provides guidance for implementing these concepts as an integral part of systems engineering and risk management. This guidance addresses the following functional areas: 1.The development of objectives that collectively define adequate safety for a system, and the safety requirements derived from these objectives that are levied on the system. 2.The conduct of system safety activities, performed to meet the safety requirements, with specific emphasis on the conduct of integrated safety analysis (ISA) as a fundamental means by which systems engineering and risk management decisions are risk-informed. 3.The development of a risk-informed safety case (RISC) at major milestone reviews to argue that the systems safety objectives are satisfied (and therefore that the system is adequately safe). 4.The evaluation of the RISC (including supporting evidence) using a defined set of evaluation criteria, to assess the veracity of the claims made therein in order to support risk acceptance decisions.

  3. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's (RWMC's) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendices. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in heavy cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, L; Lorenzetti, V; de Haan, L; Suo, C; Vingerhoets, Wam; van den Brink, W; Wiers, R W; Meijer, C J; Machielsen, Mwj; Goudriaan, A E; Veltman, D J; Yücel, M; Cousijn, J

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2.4). Cannabis users started smoking around 16 years and smoked on average five days per week. A novel aspect of the current study is that hippocampal volume estimates were obtained from manual tracing the hippocampus on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a previously validated protocol. Compared to controls, cannabis users did not show hippocampal volume alterations at either baseline or follow-up. Hippocampal volumes increased over time in both cannabis users and controls, following similar trajectories of increase. Cannabis dose and age of onset of cannabis use did not affect hippocampal volumes. Continued heavy cannabis use did not affect hippocampal neuroanatomical changes in early adulthood. This contrasts with prior evidence on alterations in this region in samples of older adult cannabis users. In young adults using cannabis at this level, cannabis use may not be heavy enough to affect hippocampal neuroanatomy.

  6. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE VOLUME OF MATERIAL FLOWS IN GRAIN PROCESSING INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Baranovskaya T. P.; Loyko V. I.; Makarevich O. A.; Bogoslavskiy S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article suggests a mathematical model of optimization of the volume of material flows: the model for the ideal conditions; the model for the working conditions; generalized model of determining the optimal input parameters. These models optimize such parameters of inventory management in technology-integrated grain production systems, as the number of cycles supply, the volume of the source material and financial flows. The study was carried out on the example of the integrated system of ...

  7. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong

    1994-02-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoat condensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i.e., compatible trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compatible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variable and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  8. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  9. Design of a micro-irrigation system based on the control volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasseriaux G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A micro-irrigation system design based on control volume method using the back step procedure is presented in this study. The proposed numerical method is simple and consists of delimiting an elementary volume of the lateral equipped with an emitter, called « control volume » on which the conservation equations of the fl uid hydrodynamicʼs are applied. Control volume method is an iterative method to calculate velocity and pressure step by step throughout the micro-irrigation network based on an assumed pressure at the end of the line. A simple microcomputer program was used for the calculation and the convergence was very fast. When the average water requirement of plants was estimated, it is easy to choose the sum of the average emitter discharge as the total average fl ow rate of the network. The design consists of exploring an economical and effi cient network to deliver uniformly the input fl ow rate for all emitters. This program permitted the design of a large complex network of thousands of emitters very quickly. Three subroutine programs calculate velocity and pressure at a lateral pipe and submain pipe. The control volume method has already been tested for lateral design, the results from which were validated by other methods as fi nite element method, so it permits to determine the optimal design for such micro-irrigation network

  10. Taper-based system for estimating stem volumes of upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Hilt

    1980-01-01

    A taper-based system for estimating stem volumes is developed for Central States upland oaks. Inside bark diameters up the stem are predicted as a function of dbhib, total height, and powers and relative height. A Fortran IV computer program, OAKVOL, is used to predict cubic and board-foot volumes to any desired merchantable top dib. Volumes of...

  11. Liquide waste volume reduction by in-drum drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volaric, B.; Zorko, M.

    1998-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is becoming increasingly difficult because of the lack of available volume on site, the rising disposal costs and the lack of ultimate disposal sites. Optimized treatment and volume reduction of concentrates and spent resins prior to interim storage, final disposal, and solidification processes are major step to counteract the situation.(author)

  12. Systems Book for a Student Information System. End of Project Report, 1968-1971, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nevada Regional Education Center, Lovelock.

    The necessary handbooks for use of the Student Information System (SIS), developed and tested by the Western Nevada Regional Education Center under a 1968-71 Title III (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) grant, are presented in this volume. As noted, the purpose of the SIS is to supply data and information to persons or organizations who make…

  13. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  14. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume I. Technical report. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Chan, Y.K.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume I gives a brief overview of the SIMWEST program and describes the two NASA defined simulation studies.

  15. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume is directed primarily towards entry-level operators and the operators of ponds, package plants, or small treatment plants. Ten chapters examine the…

  16. Gender dimorphism of brain reward system volumes in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kayle S; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Barthelemy, Olivier J; Papadimitriou, George M; Harris, Gordon J; Makris, Nikos

    2017-05-30

    The brain's reward network has been reported to be smaller in alcoholic men compared to nonalcoholic men, but little is known about the volumes of reward regions in alcoholic women. Morphometric analyses were performed on magnetic resonance brain scans of 60 long-term chronic alcoholics (ALC; 30 men) and 60 nonalcoholic controls (NC; 29 men). We derived volumes of total brain, and cortical and subcortical reward-related structures including the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), orbitofrontal, and cingulate cortices, and the temporal pole, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens septi (NAc), and ventral diencephalon (VDC). We examined the relationships of the volumetric findings to drinking history. Analyses revealed a significant gender interaction for the association between alcoholism and total reward network volumes, with ALC men having smaller reward volumes than NC men and ALC women having larger reward volumes than NC women. Analyses of a priori subregions revealed a similar pattern of reward volume differences with significant gender interactions for DLPFC and VDC. Overall, the volume of the cerebral ventricles in ALC participants was negatively associated with duration of abstinence, suggesting decline in atrophy with greater length of sobriety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 3: Groundbased lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Robertie, N. F.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 3 of a three volume final report on the design, development and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1 describes the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent payload to measure the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Volume 2 describes the August 1987 flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2. In this volume we describe groundbased lidar development and measurements. A design was developed for installation of the ABLE lidar in the GL rooftop dome. A transportable shed was designed to house the ABLE lidar at the various remote measurement sites. Refurbishment and modification of the ABLE lidar were completed to permit groundbased lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Lidar field measurements were made at Ascension Island during SABLE 89. Lidar field measurements were made at Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. These tasks have been successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis have been made.

  18. Fetal lung volume measurement by MRI with high-speed imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Hisao; Kaku, Kenshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-08-01

    Although ultrasonography is widely used for fetal morphologic observation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained popularity as a new prenatal diagnostic method with recent introduction of high-speed imaging systems. Infants with lung hypoplasia affecting respiratory function require intensive management starting immediately after birth. Therefore, accurate prenatal differential diagnosis and severity evaluation are extremely important for these fetuses. The aim of this study is to measure fetal lung volume using a computer-based, three-dimensional MRI imaging system and to evaluate the possibility of clinical applications of this procedure. A total of 96 fetuses were evaluated, all were morphologically abnormal, and MRI was done for advanced assessment from 24 to 39 weeks gestation. Three-directional views of fetal chest were imaged by Signa Horizon, 1.5 Tesla, version 5.6 (General Electronics) with the following conditions; coil: TORSO coil, sequence: SSFSE (single shot fast spin echo), slice thickness: 5 mm, and imaging speed: 2 seconds/slice. To calculate the lung volume and create three-dimensional image, the lung area in each slice was traced out, then multiplied using computer image processing. Simultaneously, the volumes of all slices were summed to give the volume of each lung. Linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for statistical analyses. In all cases, clear images were obtained, and were adequate for three-dimensional evaluation of the fetal lung. Thirty-five fetuses had poor outcomes, such as intrauterine fetal death, neonatal death, and intensive respiratory care. Regression lines of lung volume versus gestational week were calculated for these fetuses with poor outcome and 61 other fetuses with good outcome. ANCOVA, with gestational week as a covariant, revealed a significant intergroup difference in the lung volume (p<0.001). Similarly, regression lines of lung volume versus fetal body weight estimated by

  19. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-04-01

    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  20. Free volume of cyanate resins studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Oshima, N.; Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ito, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The polymerization process of bisphenol-A dicyanate (BADCy) has been studied using a positron-annihilation lifetime technique (PAL). The polymerization was conducted at 150 deg C, and the process was followed by PAL. Seven kinds of samples with different curing times were also formed at 150 deg C, and the relation between the period of the curing time and the degree of polymerization was studied. It has been shown that the ο-Ps lifetime increases in samples with a higher polymerization than 85%, which is consistent with measurements of the specific volume of BADCy. (author)

  1. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 9: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems.

  2. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 3: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 3, in conjunction with Volume 2, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

  3. Cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Ning, Ruola

    2001-06-01

    X-ray projection mammography, using a film/screen combination or digital techniques, has proven to be the most effective imaging modality for early detection of breast cancer currently available. However, the inherent superimposition of structures makes small carcinoma (a few millimeters in size) difficult to detect in the occultation case or in dense breasts, resulting in a high false positive biopsy rate. The cone-beam x-ray projection based volume imaging using flat panel detectors (FPDs) makes it possible to obtain three-dimensional breast images. This may benefit diagnosis of the structure and pattern of the lesion while eliminating hard compression of the breast. This paper presents a novel cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging protocol based on the above techniques. Through computer simulation, the key issues of the system and imaging techniques, including the x-ray imaging geometry and corresponding reconstruction algorithms, x-ray characteristics of breast tissues, x-ray setting techniques, the absorbed dose estimation and the quantitative effect of x-ray scattering on image quality, are addressed. The preliminary simulation results support the proposed cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging modality in respect to feasibility and practicability for mammography. The absorbed dose level is comparable to that of current two-view mammography and would not be a prominent problem for this imaging protocol. Compared to traditional mammography, the proposed imaging protocol with isotropic spatial resolution will potentially provide significantly better low contrast detectability of breast tumors and more accurate location of breast lesions.

  4. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks

  5. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  6. Low-level waste volume reduction--physicochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    In some cases, volume reduction (VR) equipment may be called upon to reduce noncombustible liquid wastes to essentially dry salts and/or oxides. In other cases, it may be called upon to reduce combustible solids and liquids to ashes and innocuous gases. In brand terms, four kinds of processes are available to further reduce the volume of waste generated at nuclear facilities. These include high-solids evaporation, alternative evaporative designs, extruders/mixers, and calciner/incinerators. This paper discusses the following VR processes for radioactive wastes at nuclear facilities: evaporator/crystallizer; fluid bed dryer/incinerator; fluid bed calciner/incinerator; inert carrier radwaste processor; and molten glass incinerator

  7. Portable waveguide display system with a large field of view by integrating freeform elements and volume holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Liu, Juan; Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-02-09

    A compact waveguide display system integrating freeform elements and volume holograms is presented here for the first time. The use of freeform elements can broaden the field of view, which limits the applications of a holographic waveguide. An optimized system can achieve a diagonal field of view of 45° when the thickness of the waveguide planar is 3mm. Freeform-elements in-coupler and the volume holograms out-coupler were designed in detail in our study, and the influence of grating configurations on diffraction efficiency was analyzed thoroughly. The off-axis aberrations were well compensated by the in-coupler and the diffraction efficiency of the optimized waveguide display system could reach 87.57%. With integrated design, stability and reliability of this monochromatic display system were achieved and the alignment of the system was easily controlled by the record of the volume holograms, which makes mass production possible.

  8. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Bowers, H.I.

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study

  9. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Bowers, H I; Braid, R B; Cantor, R A; Daniels, L; Davis, R M; Delene, J G; Gat, U; Hood, T C

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  10. System Development of Estimated Figures of Volume Production Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnikov, Maksim A.; Khorina, Irina V.; Minina, Yulia I.; Kolyasnikova, Lyudmila V.; Streltsov, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a necessity of improving production efficiency in conditions of innovative development of the economy and implementation of Import Substitution Program. The purpose of the article is development of set of criteria and procedures for the comparative assessment of alternative volume production…

  11. Ocean Thermal Energy Converstion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC test program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part B provides an annotated test list and describes component tests and system tests.

  12. Waste acceptance criteria study: Volume 2, Appendixes: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McLeod, N.B.; McBride, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    These appendices to the report on Waste Acceptance Criteria have been published as a separate volume for the convenience of the reader. They consist of the text of the 10CFR961 Contract for disposal of spent fuel, estimates of the cost (savings) to the DOE system of accepting different forms of spent fuel, estimates of costs of acceptance testing/inspection of spent fuel, illustrative specifications and procedures, and the resolution of comments received on a preliminary draft of the report. These estimates of costs contained herein preliminary and are intended only to demonstrate the trends in costs, the order of magnitude involved, and the methodology used to develop the costs. The illustrative specifications and procedures included herein have been developed for the purpose of providing a starting point for the development of a consensus on such matters between utilities and DOE

  13. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  14. Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

  15. Clinical associations of total kidney volume: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Daniel A; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Chuang, Michael L; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Fox, Caroline S

    2017-08-01

    Total kidney volume (TKV) is an imaging biomarker that may have diagnostic and prognostic utility. The relationships between kidney volume, renal function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been characterized in a large community-dwelling population. This information is needed to advance the clinical application of TKV. We measured TKV in 1852 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 64.1 ± 9.2 years, 53% women) using magnetic resonance imaging. A healthy sample was used to define reference values. The associations between TKV, renal function and CVD risk factors were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Overall, mean TKV was 278 ± 54 cm3 for women and 365 ± 66 cm3 for men. Risk factors for high TKV (>90% healthy referent size) were body surface area (BSA), diabetes, smoking and albuminuria, while age, female and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) kidney damage including albuminuria and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, while high TKV is associated with diabetes and decreased odds of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prospective studies are needed to characterize the natural progression and clinical consequences of TKV. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-le Rest, Catherine; Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  17. Delivery of tidal volume from four anaesthesia ventilators during volume-controlled ventilation: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, G; Bonnet, A; Guérin, C

    2013-06-01

    Tidal volume (V(T)) must be accurately delivered by anaesthesia ventilators in the volume-controlled ventilation mode in order for lung protective ventilation to be effective. However, the impact of fresh gas flow (FGF) and lung mechanics on delivery of V(T) by the newest anaesthesia ventilators has not been reported. We measured delivered V(T) (V(TI)) from four anaesthesia ventilators (Aisys™, Flow-i™, Primus™, and Zeus™) on a pneumatic test lung set with three combinations of lung compliance (C, ml cm H2O(-1)) and resistance (R, cm H2O litre(-1) s(-2)): C60R5, C30R5, C60R20. For each CR, three FGF rates (0.5, 3, 10 litre min(-1)) were investigated at three set V(T)s (300, 500, 800 ml) and two values of PEEP (0 and 10 cm H2O). The volume error = [(V(TI) - V(Tset))/V(Tset)] ×100 was computed in body temperature and pressure-saturated conditions and compared using analysis of variance. For each CR and each set V(T), the absolute value of the volume error significantly declined from Aisys™ to Flow-i™, Zeus™, and Primus™. For C60R5, these values were 12.5% for Aisys™, 5% for Flow-i™ and Zeus™, and 0% for Primus™. With an increase in FGF, absolute values of the volume error increased only for Aisys™ and Zeus™. However, in C30R5, the volume error was minimal at mid-FGF for Aisys™. The results were similar at PEEP 10 cm H2O. Under experimental conditions, the volume error differed significantly between the four new anaesthesia ventilators tested and was influenced by FGF, although this effect may not be clinically relevant.

  18. Study of very heavy systems by means of INDRA: First evidence for a volume effect in the nuclear multifragmentation process; Etude de systemes tres lourds observes avec INDRA: Premiere mise en evidence d`un effet de volume dans le processus de multifragmentation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, John David [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-12-10

    We present a study of Gd+U collisions at 36 AMeV measured with the INDRA multidetector, permitting almost complete detection (over 80%) of all the reaction products. We show that events exist which correspond to the multifragmentation of a single system comprising the majority of the nucleons for a cross-section of 2.6 mbarn, by isolating reactions for which the emitted fragments have lost all memory of the entrance channel. Such reactions correspond to neither the most central collisions nor the most isotropic events (in the fragments` momentum space), and therefore cannot be correctly distinguished from the dominant binary deeply-inelastic collisions using these criteria. An initial comparison of the selected data with a statistical code indicates that fragments are formed in a dilute, compact system, undergoing a self-similar expansion corresponding to a collective energy of between 1 and 1.5 MeV. Comparison with the same type of events observed in Xe+Sn collisions at 32 AMeV reveals the existence of a scaling law for the multifragmentation of systems of different mass at the same excitation energy per nucleon: fragment Z distributions are identical while their multiplicity increases proportionally to the mass of the multi-fragmenting system. This observation is interpreted as an experimental signal that this multifragmentation originates in a bulk instability of low-density nuclear matter (spinodal region). A complete semi-classical microscopic calculation for the two reactions, including the formation and multifragmentation by spinodal decomposition of very heavy, low-density systems, reproduces very well not only the experimental fragment multiplicities and Z distributions but also their mean kinetic energies, as well as the size distributions of the largest fragments. (author) 156 refs., 76 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  20. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  1. 100-N technical manual. Volume 2A: Systems descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-12-31

    This report contains engineering drawings for the control room, reactor monitoring systems, and reactor control systems for the N reactor. Each console in the control room is detailed. Other systems discussed are: stack air monitoring system, charging machine control systems, and heating and ventilation control systems. A N reactor plant glossary is included.

  2. Kilowatt isotope power system, Phase II Plan. Volume IV. Teledyne FSCD vs GDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-15

    This Volume contains Teledyne's input to the Kilowatt Isotope Power System Phase II Plan. Included is a description of the Flight System Heat Generation System, Flight System Radiator, Thermal Insulation Stability, GDS Heat Generation System and GDS Radiator.

  3. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Wistisen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111 plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  4. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  5. Effect of fill volume on solidification characteristics of DI (deionized) water in a spherical capsule – An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, P.; Cheralathan, M.; Velraj, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the solidification characteristics of water, as the PCM (phase change material), due to the effect of fill volume of PCM in a spherical capsule. The experiments were conducted with the spherical capsule, filling it with water of 80, 85, 90, 92 and 95 percentage of its full volume and immersing it in a constant temperature bath maintained at various temperatures. It was observed that the increase in fill volume had a significant influence in reducing the degree of supercooling and it was eliminated with 95% fill volume. Further, the increase in fill volume had a considerable effect in advancing the commencement of solidification. Increasing the temperature potential enhanced the heat flux during the solidification of first 50% of PCM mass and its effect was more pronounced at higher fill volumes. The heat flux was increased several fold particularly at 95% fill volume making it highly suitable for applications that demand large cooling load in a short duration. Hence the proper selection of fill volume and temperature driving potential is essential to achieve overall energy efficiency while designing the CTES (cool thermal energy storage) system. - Highlights: • Supercooling was eliminated with 95% fill volume at all surrounding bath temperature. • The effect of higher fill volume is more pronounced with higher temperature potential. • 50% mass is solidified in 10% of solidification duration with 95% fill volume at −12 °C. • Several fold increase in heat flux is achieved with 95% fill volume at −12 °C. • Combination of fill volume and temperature potential is essential for good design.

  6. The repeatability of left ventricular volume assessment by a new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system during head-up tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Bonpei; Hosaka, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Katsuhiro

    2001-01-01

    The precise measurement of changes in left ventricular volume is important to elucidate the mechanisms of neurally mediated syncope. This study was conducted to determine whether or not a brand-new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system (C-VEST system) can be clinically used to easily and precisely measure left ventricular volume and function in tilt testing. To assess the repeatability of the C-VEST system, 12 healthy volunteers (mean age 24±4 years old) underwent 20 minute head-up tilt testing and we measured the temporal changes in left ventricular volume and ejection fraction twice a day (first and second studies). To investigate the changes in the C-VEST measurements and the detector position in the first and second studies, tilt testing was performed with an 80-degree passive tilt, which is the same as the standard procedure used in diagnosing neurally mediated syncope. The coefficient of repeatability for both the C-VEST and detector position was well within the clinical range (coefficient of repeatability in left ventricular volume ranged from 1.7 to 2.8; coefficient of repeatability in the detector position ranged from 2.3 to 3.1). Precise evaluation of the left ventricular volume can be achieved by an ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system in tilt testing. (author)

  7. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume VII. Cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poteat, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This document, Volume VII EBT-P Cryogenic System Title I Design Report, describes the system that resulted from the Title I Preliminary Design effort. It is a self-contained document that can be read apart from the other Volumes comprising the EBT-P Title I Report. This document is a contract deliverable item and provides the detail necessary to support the Cryogenic System design contained in the EBT-P Baseline Design Data Book

  8. Cone-beam volume CT breast imaging: Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Biao; Ning Ruola

    2002-01-01

    X-ray projection mammography, using a film/screen combination, or digital techniques, has proven to be the most effective imaging modality currently available for early detection of breast cancer. However, the inherent superimposition of structures makes a small carcinoma (a few millimeters in size) difficult to detect when it is occult or in dense breasts, leading to a high false-positive biopsy rate. Cone-beam x-ray-projection-based volume imaging using flat panel detectors (FPDs) may allow obtaining three-dimensional breast images, resulting in more accurate diagnosis of structures and patterns of lesions while eliminating the hard compression of breasts. This article presents a novel cone-beam volume computed tomographic breast imaging (CBVCTBI) technique based on the above techniques. Through a variety of computer simulations, the key issues of the system and imaging techniques were addressed, including the x-ray imaging geometry and corresponding reconstruction algorithms, x-ray characteristics of breast tissue and lesions, x-ray setting techniques, the absorbed dose estimation, and the quantitative effect of x-ray scattering on image quality. The preliminary simulation results support the proposed CVBCTBI modality for breast imaging in respect to its feasibility and practicability. The absorbed dose level is comparable to that of current mammography and will not be a prominent problem for this imaging technique. Compared to conventional mammography, the proposed imaging technique with isotropic spatial resolution will potentially provide significantly better low-contrast detectability of breast tumors and more accurate location of breast lesions

  9. 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Propulsion 21 Project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed tests completed for the shuttle main landing gear door seals.

  10. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 8: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls.

  11. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 11: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 11 discusses Radiation Protection, Conduct of Operations, and the Initial Test Program.

  12. Effect of a clinical decision support system on adherence to a lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eslami, Saeid; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; de Jonge, Evert; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to measure the effect of a computerized decision support system (CDSS) on adherence to tidal volume (V(T)) recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective before-after evaluation study on applied V(T) to examine the impact of a CDSS on

  13. The study of the volume and 1H MRS of the hippocampus in posttraumatic stress disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Zhou Yicheng; Xia Jun; Xia Liming; Wang Chengyuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the hippocampus metabolites and the hippoeampus volume with MRI, and to explore the posibble pathophysiology of the hippocampus injure in posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD). Methods: Seventeen cases of PTSD and 17 age-matched normal subjects (control subjects) were examined on a clinical 1.5 T MRI/MRS system. Proton multi-voxel spectroscopy imaging ( 1 H-MRSI) was obtained from two sides of the hippocampus region. The metabolites included N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). The values of NAA, Cr, and Cho were calculated by integration of their peaks. The volume of the hippocampus of the two sides and the brain volume were measured with volume analysis software, and the resulting data were normalized according to the individual brain volume. Both the value of the metabolites and volume of the hippocampus were compared between the two groups respectively. Results: The volumes of left and right hippocampus were (2130±221 )mm 3 and (2571±190) mm 3 in PTSD cases, and they were (2382±157) mm 3 and (2572±186) mm 3 in the control subjects. The volume of left hippocampus of PTSD was smaller than that of the control subjects (P 0.05). NAA and Cr was significantly reduced in PTSD (Left: NAA= 2.8±0.7, Cr=2.3±0.6; Right: NAA 2.9±0.9, Cr=2.3±0.7) bilaterally when compared with those of control subjects (Left: NAA=3.8±0.8, Cr=2.7±0.5; Right: NAA=3.9±0.8, Cr=2.8±0.5) (P 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study add support to the view that the hippocampus may participate in the pathophysiology of PTSD, and the findings of volume and metabolite changes in the hippocampus has great value in diagnosing PTSD and in exploring the posibble pathophysiology mechanisms of hippocampus injure in PTSD. (authors)

  14. Literacy & Numeracy Studies Volume 15 No 2 Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Literacy and Numeracy Studies takes up two major themes shaping the landscape of research and practice in adult literacy. The first of these is the more recent of the two: the intersections between literacy and professional and workplace practice. The second is perhaps a more sustained and enduring concern in the field with the relationship of literacy to context, place and culture. In this sense, this issue of the journal is an expression of the reach and diversity of concerns with literacy in ‘social participation, the utilisation of social resources and the quality of life’ (Green, Lo Bianco and Wyn, this volume and carries forward critical debates for the field across the span of practice from the workplace, to the classroom to the community.

  15. Volume reduction system by soil classifying. Soil-washing system and problems to be solved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshino, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of ground surfaces, buildings and forests in a broad area was caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The national government and municipalities have still been carrying out the decontamination works for livelihood areas after five years from the accident. The government estimated that the amounts of soils and wastes removed by the decontamination works would be about 28,000,000 cubic meters maximum including 20,000,000 cubic meters maximum of soils. The removed soils will be stored in “Interim Storage Facility” then will be finally disposed outside of Fukushima prefecture within 30 years. On the other hand, shortage of the soils as materials needed for the revitalization in Fukushima prefecture is expected. Technical Advisory Council on Remediation and Waste Management, which consists of about 90 companies, started a working group to investigate solutions to these problems. The working group focused on the investigation of the possibility to recycle the soils by washing and classification to use them as the materials for civil engineering works, and to reduce the volume of the interim storage. In the first part of this report, we have evaluated the applicability of various technologies for purification and volume reduction of the removed soils, and have researched usages, required quantities and specifications of the recycled soils. In the second part, we have made trial calculations of the volume reduction effects and costs using the washing and classification system. The calculated results showed the possibilities of reducing the storage capacity of the interim storage facility, as well as the construction and the operation costs by recycling the removed soils with the washing and classification system inside the interim storage facility. At the end of this report, we proposed problems to be solved in order to adopt the washing and classification system. (author)

  16. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: Concepts for Lightweight & Low Volume EVA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Calle, Carlos; Mantovani, James

    2013-01-01

    This RFI response is targeting Area 5. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: concepts for lightweight and low volume robotic and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) systems, such as space suits, tools, translation aids, stowage containers, and other equipment. The NASA KSC Surface Systems Office, Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab and the Electrostatics & Surface Physics Lab (ESPL) are dedicated to developing technologies for operating in regolith environments on target body surfaces. We have identified two technologies in our current portfolio that are highly relevant and useful for crews that will visit a re-directed asteroid in Cis-Lunar Space. Both technologies are at a high TRL of 5/6 and could be rapidly implemented in time for an ARM mission in this decade.

  17. Management control and status reports documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well organized, easily used standard for management control and status reports used in monitoring and controlling the management, development, and assurance of informations systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes.

  18. Management plan documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the second of five volumes of the Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards. This volume provides a well-organized, easily used standard for management plans used in acquiring, assuring, and developing information systems and software, hardware, and operational procedures components, and related processes.

  19. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Thursday, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference October 23-26, 2017 | Waterford at Springfield | Springfield, VA NDIA.org/systemsengineering...Conference Program SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2 Welcome to the NDIA Systems Engineering Conference On behalf of the National Defense Industrial...Association’s Systems Engineering Division, I would like to extend a very warm welcome to the 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Yes, the 20th Annual

  20. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  1. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  2. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  3. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 3 : use of scanning LiDAR in structural evaluation of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This volume introduces several applications of remote bridge inspection technologies studied in : this Integrated Remote Sensing and Visualization (IRSV) study using ground-based LiDAR : systems. In particular, the application of terrestrial LiDAR fo...

  4. Septic Systems Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  5. Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) : Volume 1. Advanced System Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    A performance specification is provided in this report for an Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) scanner system which features 6% improved readability over existing industry scanner systems. It also includes the analysis and rationale which ...

  6. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  7. Research and development of improved type radioactive waste volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Yamaoka, Katsuaki; Masaki, Tetsuo; Akagawa, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    Development and research had been conducted since 1978 on an improved type radioactive waste volume reduction system incorporating calcining and incinerating fluidized bed type furnaces. This system can dispose of concentrated liquid wastes, combustible solid wastes, spent ion exchange resins and so forth by calcination or incineration to turn them into reduced-volume products. Recently a pilot test facility has constructed and tests has been conducted to demonstrate actual performance. Representative results of pilot tests are reported in this paper. (author)

  8. Theoretical test of Jarzynski's equality for reversible volume-switching processes of an ideal gas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jaeyoung

    2007-07-01

    We present an exact theoretical test of Jarzynski's equality (JE) for reversible volume-switching processes of an ideal gas system. The exact analysis shows that the prediction of JE for the free energy difference is the same as the work done on the gas system during the reversible process that is dependent on the shape of path of the reversible volume-switching process.

  9. Experimental studies for the development of a new method for stroke volume measuring using X-ray videodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odenthal, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative videodensitometry was studied with a view to its possible application as a new, non-invasive method of measuring cardiac stroke volume. To begin with, the accuracy of roentgen volumetric measurements was determined. After this, blood volume variations were measured by densitometry in five animal experiments. The findings were compared with the volumes measured by a flowmeter in the pulmonary artery. The total stroke volume was found to be proportional to the difference between the maximum and mean densitometric volume. A comparison between videodensitometry and other non-invasive methods showed that, in a stable circulatory system, the results of videodensitometry are equally reliable as, or even more reliable than, those of the conventional methods. (orig./MG) [de

  10. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 2, PF systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvin, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    This system development specification covers the Poloidal Field (PF) Magnet System, WBS 14 in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory TPX Program to build a tokamak fusion reactor. This specification establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements of the PF Magnet System

  11. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 2, PF systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-07-28

    This system development specification covers the Poloidal Field (PF) Magnet System, WBS 14 in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory TPX Program to build a tokamak fusion reactor. This specification establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements of the PF Magnet System.

  12. Thermoeconomic analysis of storage systems for solar heating and cooling systems: A comparison between variable-volume and fixed-volume tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; Calise, Francesco; Ferruzzi, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates different control strategies for the thermal storage management in SHC (Solar Heating and Cooling) systems. The SHC system under investigation is based on a field of evacuated solar collectors coupled with a single-stage LiBr–H 2 O absorption chiller; auxiliary thermal energy is supplied by a gas-fired boiler. The SHC is also equipped with a novel thermal storage system, consisting in a variable volume storage tank. It includes three separate tanks and a number of mixers and diverters managed by novel control strategies, based on combinations of series/parallel charging and discharging approaches. The aim of this component is to vary the thermal storage capacity as a function of the combinations of solar radiation availability and user thermal/cooling energy demands. The system allows one to increase the number of active tanks when the time shift between solar energy and user demand is high. Conversely, when this time shift is low, the number of active tanks is automatically reduced. In addition, when the solar energy in excess cannot be stored in such tanks, a heat exchanger is also used in the solar loop for producing DHW (Domestic Hot Water). The analysis is carried out by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed by using the TRNSYS software. In order to assess the operating and capital costs of the systems under analysis, an economic model is also proposed. In addition, in order to determine the set of the synthesis/design variables which maximize the system profitability, a parametric analysis was implemented. The novel variable-volume storage system, in both the proposed configurations, was also compared with a constant-volume storage system from the energy and economic points of view. The results showed that the presented storage system allows one to save up to 20% of the natural gas used by the auxiliary boiler only for very high solar fractions. In all the other cases, marginal savings are achieved by the

  13. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase II report. Volume I: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.; Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Kaletta, G.R.; Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Conlee, J.L.

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, presents the progress achieved toward this objective in this phase and includes a comparison with the results of the first phase study efforts. A series of maintainability design guidelines and an improved maintenance system are defined as initial steps in developing the requirements for a maintainable tokamak fusion power system. The principle comparative studies that are summarized include the determination of the benefits of various vacuum wall arrangements, the effect of unscheduled and scheduled maintenance of the first wall/blanket, some initial investigation of maintenance required for subsystems other than the first wall/blanket, and the impact of maintenance equipment failures

  14. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  15. Chip-Oriented Fluorimeter Design and Detection System Development for DNA Quantification in Nano-Liter Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The chip-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR system has been developed in recent years to achieve DNA quantification. Using a microstructure and miniature chip, the volume consumption for a PCR can be reduced to a nano-liter. With high speed cycling and a low reaction volume, the time consumption of one PCR cycle performed on a chip can be reduced. However, most of the presented prototypes employ commercial fluorimeters which are not optimized for fluorescence detection of such a small quantity sample. This limits the performance of DNA quantification, especially low experiment reproducibility. This study discusses the concept of a chip-oriented fluorimeter design. Using the analytical model, the current study analyzes the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fluorimeter to fit the requirements for detecting fluorescence in nano-liter volumes. Through the optimized processes, a real-time PCR on a chip system with only one nano-liter volume test sample is as sensitive as the commercial real-time PCR machine using the sample with twenty micro-liter volumes. The signal to noise (S/N ratio of a chip system for DNA quantification with hepatitis B virus (HBV plasmid samples is 3 dB higher. DNA quantification by the miniature chip shows higher reproducibility compared to the commercial machine with respect to samples of initial concentrations from 103 to 105 copies per reaction.

  16. Replicating the Ice-Volume Signal of the Early Pleistocene with a Complex Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, C. R.; Poulsen, C. J.; Pollard, D.

    2013-12-01

    Milankovitch theory proposes high-latitude summer insolation intensity paces the ice ages by controlling perennial snow cover amounts (Milankovitch, 1941). According to theory, the ~21 kyr cycle of precession should dominate the ice-volume records since it has the greatest influence on high-latitude summer insolation. Modeling experiments frequently support Milankovitch theory by attributing the majority of Northern Hemisphere high-latitude summer snowmelt to changes in the cycle of precession (e.g. Jackson and Broccoli, 2003). However, ice-volume proxy records, especially those of the Early Pleistocene (2.6-0.8 Ma), display variability with a period of ~41 kyr (Raymo and Lisiecki, 2005), indicative of insolation forcing from obliquity, which has a much smaller influence on summer insolation intensity than precession. Several hypotheses attempt to explain the discrepancies between Milkankovitch theory and the proxy records by invoking phenomena such as insolation gradients (Raymo and Nisancioglu, 2003), hemispheric offset (Raymo et al., 2006; Lee and Poulsen, 2009), and integrated summer energy (Huybers, 2006); however, all of these hypotheses contain caveats (Ruddiman, 2006) and have yet to be supported by modeling studies that use a complex GCM. To explore potential solutions to this '41 kyr problem,' we use an Earth system model composed of the GENESIS GCM and Land Surface model, the BIOME4 vegetation model, and the Pennsylvania State ice-sheet model. Using an asynchronous coupling technique, we run four idealized transient combinations of obliquity and precession, representing the orbital extremes of the Pleistocene (Berger and Loutre, 1991). Each experiment is run through several complete orbital cycles with a dynamic ice domain spanning North America and Greenland, and fixed preindustrial greenhouse-gas concentrations. For all orbital configurations, model results produce greater ice-volume spectral power at the frequency of obliquity despite significantly

  17. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 3. Generator routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, D.R.; Argo, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the third of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System

  18. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 1. Initialization, operation, and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the first of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System

  19. 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Delgado, Irebert

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA's new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA's fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  20. Licensing support system preliminary needs analysis: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Preliminary Needs Analysis, together with the Preliminary Data Scope Analysis (next in this series of reports), is a first effort under the LSS Design and Implementation Contract toward developing a sound requirements foundation for subsequent design work. Further refinements must be made before requirements can be specified in sufficient detail to provide a basis for suitably specific system specifications. This preliminary analysis of the LSS requirements has been divided into a ''needs'' and a ''data scope'' portion only for project management and scheduling reasons. The Preliminary Data Scope Analysis will address all issues concerning the content and size of the LSS data base; providing the requirements basis for data acquisition, cataloging and storage sizing specifications. This report addresses all other requirements for the LSS. The LSS consists of both computer subsystems and non-computer archives. This study addresses only the computer subsystems, focusing on the Access Subsystems. After providing background on previous LSS-related work, this report summarizes the findings from previous examinations of needs and describes a number of other requirements that have an impact on the LSS. The results of interviews conducted for this report are then described and analyzed. The final section of the report brings all of the key findings together and describes how these needs analyses will continue to be refined and utilized in on-going design activities. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices A--E

  2. 2005 8th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 1, Tuesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-27

    systems engineering – Based on ISO 12207 – software engineering – Measure using best practices of CMMI® • Benefits – Facilitates sharing of tools... 12207 Software Life-Cycle Processes IEEE SSC-C Software Engineering Process SECNAV 5000.2C DoD Architecture Framework ISO 9001:2000 Quality Systems GIG...Comparisons and Contrasts Between ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, and MIL-STD-882D and their Suitability for the Systems Engineering Process Mr. Kenneth Dormer

  3. Intelligent systems: A semiotic perspective. Volume I: Theoretical semiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albus, J.; Meystel, A.; Quintero, R.

    1996-12-31

    This report contains the papers from the Proceedings of the 1996 International Multidisciplinary Conference - Theoretical Semiotics. General topics covered are: semiotic in biology: biologically inspired complex systems; intelligence in constructed complex systems; intelligence of learning and evolution; fuzzy logic and the mechanisms of generalization; information representation for decision making; sematic foundations; syntactics of intelligent systems: the kind of logic available; intelligence of recognition: the semiotic tools; and multiresolutional methods.

  4. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 3, Thursday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Program (HPCMP) The DoD HPCMP CREATE Program is a Tri-Service Program launched in 2006 by OSD and the HPCMP to develop and deploy eleven physics -based...best practices, System of Systems guide and capstone marketplace to development of technical leaders. ENTERPRISE HEALTH MANAGEMENT/PROGNOSTICS...DIAGNOSTICS/RELIABILTY Track Chairs: Chris Resig, The Boeing Company The health of the system as a whole – the enterprise – is a critical function of

  5. Development of volume-reduction system for ion exchange resin using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    2002-01-01

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68 MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective. (author)

  6. Volume changes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy resins studied by PALS and PVT experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, A. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina) and CICPBA, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina)]. E-mail: asomoza@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Salgueiro, W. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPMPyMC, Depto. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, J. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain); Mondragon, I. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    A systematic study on changes in the volumes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy systems cured with selected aminic hardeners at different pre-cure temperatures is presented. Free- and macroscopic specific-volumes were measured by PALS and pressure-volume-temperature techniques, respectively. An analysis of the relation existing between macro- and nano-scales of the thermosetting networks developed by the different chemical structures is shown. The result obtained indicates that the structure of the hardeners governs the packing of the molecular chains of the epoxy network.

  7. Mining exploitation of Imouraren.Complementary studies.Report of synthesis - volume G. and H. Organization and professional training -Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The volume G objective is to present a study that defines an organization, a staff policy and recruiting system and professional training in harmony with mine, plant and other services needs by considering available human resources and bearing in mind the Rick possible achievement of nigeriens staff, employee and personal advanced qualification and training.While the volume H describes the divers transportation methods for important equipments and reactive tonnage, during construction and project functioning phase of Imouraren sit. The possible divers way toward the sit are described. And transport methods and retained possible ways as base for the cost estimation are mentioned. In both volumes relative costs are estimated [fr

  8. A continuation of base-line studies for environmentally monitoring Space Transportation Systems (STS) at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 4: Threatened and endangered species of the Kennedy Space Center. Part 1: Marine turtle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The status of marine turtle populations in the KSC area was studied using data from previous results from ground and aerial surveillance conducted from 1976 to April 1979. During ground surveillance, various data were recorded on emergent turtles such as: species, weight, tag number (if previously tagged), time discovered, activity at discovery and the location of discovery. Observations were also made on nesting and reproductive characteristics, population estimates, immigration and emigration and growth rate of the turtles. Mortality studies were additionally made and autopsies performed on dead turtles found in the area. It is concluded that further mortality documentation should be done just prior to and just after a future space launch operation in order to accurately assess the cause and effect relationship of such a launch on the turtle population.

  9. Variable volume combustor with nested fuel manifold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-13

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles, a fuel manifold system in communication with the micro-mixer fuel nozzles to deliver a flow of fuel thereto, and a linear actuator to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles and the fuel manifold system.

  10. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  11. Reactor safeguards system assessment and design. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Daniel, S.L.; Bennett, H.A.; Hulme, B.L.

    1978-06-01

    This report describes the development and application of a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of nuclear power reactor safeguards systems. Analytic techniques are used to identify the sabotage acts which could lead to release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant, to determine the areas of a plant which must be protected to assure that significant release does not occur, to model the physical plant layout, and to evaluate the effectiveness of various safeguards systems. The methodology was used to identify those aspects of reactor safeguards systems which have the greatest effect on overall system performance and which, therefore, should be emphasized in the licensing process. With further refinements, the methodology can be used by the licensing reviewer to aid in assessing proposed or existing safeguards systems

  12. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

  13. Gastrointestinal toxicity of vorinostat: reanalysis of phase 1 study results with emphasis on dose-volume effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratland, Åse; Dueland, Svein; Hollywood, Donal; Flatmark, Kjersti; Ree, Anne H

    2011-01-01

    In early-phase studies with targeted therapeutics and radiotherapy, it may be difficult to decide whether an adverse event should be considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the investigational systemic agent, as acute normal tissue toxicity is frequently encountered with radiation alone. We have reanalyzed the toxicity data from a recently conducted phase 1 study on vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with pelvic palliative radiotherapy, with emphasis on the dose distribution within the irradiated bowel volume to the development of DLT. Of 14 eligible patients, three individuals experienced Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events grade 3 gastrointestinal and related toxicities, representing a toxicity profile vorinostat has in common with radiotherapy to pelvic target volumes. For each study patient, the relative volumes of small bowel receiving radiation doses between 6 Gy and 30 Gy at 6-Gy intervals (V6-V30) were determined from the treatment-planning computed tomography scans. The single patient that experienced a DLT at the second highest dose level of vorinostat, which was determined as the maximum-tolerated dose, had V6-V30 dose-volume estimates that were considerably higher than any other study patient. This patient may have experienced an adverse radiation dose-volume effect rather than a toxic effect of the investigational drug. When reporting early-phase trial results on the tolerability of a systemic targeted therapeutic used as potential radiosensitizing agent, radiation dose-volume effects should be quantified to enable full interpretation of the study toxicity profile.

  14. Are PCI Service Volumes Associated with 30-Day Mortality? A Population-Based Study from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wei, Chung-Jen; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2017-11-09

    The volume-outcome relationship has been discussed for over 30 years; however, the findings are inconsistent. This might be due to the heterogeneity of service volume definitions and categorization methods. This study takes percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as an example to examine whether the service volume was associated with PCI 30-day mortality, given different service volume definitions and categorization methods. A population-based, cross-sectional multilevel study was conducted. Two definitions of physician and hospital volume were used: (1) the cumulative PCI volume in a previous year before each PCI; (2) the cumulative PCI volume within the study period. The volume was further treated in three ways: (1) a categorical variable based on the American Heart Association's recommendation; (2) a semi-data-driven categorical variable based on k-means clustering algorithm; and (3) a data-driven categorical variable based on the Generalized Additive Model. The results showed that, after adjusting the patient-, physician-, and hospital-level covariates, physician volume was associated inversely with PCI 30-day mortality, but hospital volume was not, no matter which definitions and categorization methods of service volume were applied. Physician volume is negatively associated with PCI 30-day mortality, but the results might vary because of definition and categorization method.

  15. Modeled Urea Distribution Volume and Mortality in the HEMO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A.; Levin, Nathan W.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, observed small decreases in achieved equilibrated Kt/Vurea were noncausally associated with markedly increased mortality. Here we examine the association of mortality with modeled volume (Vm), the denominator of equilibrated Kt/Vurea. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Parameters derived from modeled urea kinetics (including Vm) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained monthly in 1846 patients. Case mix–adjusted time-dependent Cox regressions were used to relate the relative mortality hazard at each time point to Vm and to the change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. Mixed effects models were used to relate Vm to changes in intradialytic systolic BP and to other factors at each follow-up visit. Results Mortality was associated with Vm and change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. The association between change in Vm and mortality was independent of vascular access complications. In contrast, mortality was inversely associated with V calculated from anthropometric measurements (Vant). In case mix–adjusted analysis using Vm as a time-dependent covariate, the association of mortality with Vm strengthened after statistical adjustment for Vant. After adjustment for Vant, higher Vm was associated with slightly smaller reductions in intradialytic systolic BP and with risk factors for mortality including recent hospitalization and reductions in serum albumin concentration and body weight. Conclusions An increase in Vm is a marker for illness and mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21511841

  16. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume I, transportation engineers and expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...

  17. Multiagent Systems and Applications Volume 1Practice and Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the book is on completed implementations of agent-based software systems. Here, agent technology is considered broadly, starting from development of agent platforms, all the way through systems actually implemented. The covered topics also include lessons learned during implementation of agent platforms and the reflection on the process of development and application of agent-based systems.   The book includes 10 chapters where interested reader can find discussion of important issues encountered during development of well-known agent platforms such as JADE and Jadex as well as some interesting experiences in developing a new platform that combines software agent and Web Services. Furthermore, the book shows readers several valuable examples of applications based on multi-agent systems including simulations, agents in autonomous negotiations and agents in public administration modelling. We believe that the book will prove useful to the researchers, professors and the practitioners in all discip...

  18. Proceedings: Computer Science and Data Systems Technical Symposium, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form are included for topics in three categories: computer science, data systems and space station applications.

  19. Proceedings: Computer Science and Data Systems Technical Symposium, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ronald L.; Wallgren, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Progress reports and technical updates of programs being performed by NASA centers are covered. Presentations in viewgraph form, along with abstracts, are included for topics in three catagories: computer science, data systems, and space station applications.

  20. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry

  1. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 4: Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The implementation plan which is presented was developed to provide the means for the successful implementation of the automated production control system. There are three factors which the implementation plan encompasses: detailed planning; phased implementation; and user involvement. The plan is detailed to the task level in terms of necessary activities as the system is developed, refined, installed, and tested. These tasks are scheduled, on a preliminary basis, over a two-and-one-half-year time frame.

  2. Variable volume combustor with an air bypass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-02-07

    The present application provides a combustor for use with flow of fuel and a flow of air in a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within a liner and an air bypass system position about the liner. The air bypass system variably allows a bypass portion of the flow of air to bypass the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  3. System Engineering Concept Demonstration, Effort Summary. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    involve only the system software, user frameworks and user tools. U •User Tool....s , Catalyst oExternal 00 Computer Framwork P OSystems • •~ Sysytem...analysis, synthesis, optimization, conceptual design of Catalyst. The paper discusses the definition, design, test, and evaluation; operational concept...This approach will allow system engineering The conceptual requirements for the Process Model practitioners to recognize and tailor the model. This

  4. Genetic variations in the serotoninergic system contribute to amygdala volume in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion processing and psychiatric disorders associated with emotion dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that amygdala structure is modulated by serotonin-related genes. However, there is a gap between the small contributions of single loci (less than 1% and the reported 63-65% heritability of amygdala structure. To understand the missing heritability, we systematically explored the contribution of serotonin genes on amygdala structure at the gene set level. The present study of 417 healthy Chinese volunteers examined 129 representative polymorphisms in genes from multiple biological mechanisms in the regulation of serotonin neurotransmission. A system-level approach using multiple regression analyses identified that nine SNPs collectively accounted for approximately 8% of the variance in amygdala volume. Permutation analyses showed that the probability of obtaining these findings by chance was low (p=0.043, permuted for 1000 times. Findings showed that serotonin genes contribute moderately to individual differences in amygdala volume in a healthy Chinese sample. These results indicate that the system-level approach can help us to understand the genetic basis of a complex trait such as amygdala structure.

  5. Development, field testing and implementation of automated hydraulically controlled, variable volume loading systems for reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, Dwayne A. [ACI Services, Inc., Cambridge, OH (United States); Slupsky, John [Kvaerner Process Systems, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Chrisman, Bruce M.; Hurley, Tom J. [Cooper Energy Services, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Ajax Division

    2003-07-01

    Automated, variable volume unloaders provide the ability to smoothly load/unload reciprocating compressors to maintain ideal operations in ever-changing environments. Potential advantages provided by this load control system include: maximizing unit capacity, optimizing power economy, maintaining low exhaust emissions, and maintaining process suction and discharge pressures. Obstacles foreseen include: reliability, stability, serviceability and automation integration. Results desired include: increased productivity for the compressor and its operators, increased up time, and more stable process control. This presentation covers: system design features with descriptions of how different types of the devices were developed, initial test data, and how they can be effectively operated; three actual-case studies detailing the reasons why automated, hydraulically controlled, variable volume, head-end unloaders were chosen over other types of unloading devices; sophisticated software used in determining the device sizing and predicted performance; mechanical and field considerations; installation, serviceability and operating considerations; device control issues, including PC and PLC considerations; monitoring of actual performance and comparison of such with predicted performance; analysis of mechanical reliability and stability; and preliminary costs versus return on investment analysis. (author)

  6. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  7. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs

  8. Study of V/STOL aircraft implementation. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portenier, W. J.; Webb, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A high density short haul air market which by 1980 is large enough to support the introduction of an independent short haul air transportation system is discussed. This system will complement the existing air transportation system and will provide relief of noise and congestion problems at conventional airports. The study has found that new aircraft, exploiting V/STOL and quiet engine technology, can be available for implementing these new services, and they can operate from existing reliever and general aviation airports. The study has also found that the major funding requirements for implementing new short haul services could be borne by private capital, and that the government funding requirement would be minimal and/or recovered through the airline ticket tax. In addition, a suitable new short haul aircraft would have a market potential for $3.5 billion in foreign sales. The long lead times needed for aircraft and engine technology development will require timely actions by federal agencies.

  9. SP-100 ground engineering system at Hanford. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  10. SP-100 Ground Engineering System at Hanford. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The SP-100 reactor is intended to provide a reliable power source for space applications. The reactor development program includes a ground test of the reactor systems to demonstrate that reliability and safety issues have been resolved. The use of an existing containment structure provides a unique facility with large safety margins and ample space. Preliminary seismic analysis shows that current site earthquake criteria can be met. The building is currently utilized to house engineering personnel, and the containment area is in use as an assembly facility. Only minimal activity is required to activate major support systems. All of the principal support facilities are in close proximity to the proposed test site. The various systems and facilities and their status are identified

  11. Integrated Unmanned Air-Ground Robotics System, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-20

    3) IPT Integrated Product Team IRP Intermediate Power Rating JAUGS TBD JCDL TBD Joint Vision 2020 TBD Km Kilometer lbs. pounds MAE Mechanical and...compatible with emerging JCDL and/or JAUGS . 2.3.2.2. Payload must be “plug and play.” 2.3.3. Communications 2.3.3.1. System communications shall be robust...Power JCDL JAUGS Joint Architecture for Unmanned Ground Systems JP-8 Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 km Kilometer lbs. Pounds LOS Line Of Sight MAE Mechanical

  12. Optical fiber sensors: Systems and applications. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian; Dakin, John

    State-of-the-art fiber-optic (FO) sensors and their applications are described in chapters contributed by leading experts. Consideration is given to interferometers, FO gyros, intensity- and wavelength-based sensors and optical actuators, Si in FO sensors, point-sensor multiplexing principles, and distributed FO sensor systems. Also examined are chemical, biochemical, and medical sensors; physical and chemical sensors for process control; FO-sensor applications in the marine and aerospace industries; FO-sensor monitoring systems for security and safety, structural integrity, NDE, and the electric-power industry; and the market situation for FO-sensor technology. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  13. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 3. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and system generated EMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 3 deals with the following topics: selected fundamentals of electromagnetic theory; EMP induced currents on antennas and cables; the EMP response of electronics; EMP hardening; EMP testing; injection currents; internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP); replacement currents; and system generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) hardening

  14. ORELA data acquisition system hardware. Volume 1: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator Facility (ORELA) has been specifically designed as a facility for neutron cross-section measurements by the time-of-flight technique. ORELA was designed so that a number of cross-section experiments can be performed simultaneously. This goal of simultaneous operation of several experiments, a maximum of six to date, has been achieved by using the multiple flight paths radiating from the target room, the multiple flight stations on each flight path, the laboratory facilities surrounding the central data area, and a shared data acquisition computer system. The flight stations contain the fast electronics for initial processing of the nuclear detector signals on a time scale of nanoseconds. The laboratories, and in some cases the flight stations, contain the equipment to digitize the nanosecond detector signals on a time scale of a few microseconds. At this point, the data passes into the ORELA Data Acquisition portion of the ORELA Data Handling System. An introduction to the ORELA Data Acquisition System is given, and the component parts of the system are briefly reviewed. Each specifically designed piece of hardware is briefly described with a simplified block diagram. Modifications to standard peripheral devices are reviewed. A list of drawings and programming notes are also included

  15. Designing and conducting health system research projects, volume ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These 'green modules'* found their way to Malaysia, where Indra ..... They determine nutritional and hygiene practices, alert children to dangers, provide care in ... money from taxes and donor agencies to finance the health care system. .... The principle of cost-effectiveness is important in the selection of research projects.

  16. Drunk driving warning system (DDWS). Volume 2, Field test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    The Drunk Driving Warning System (DDWS) is a vehicle-mounted device for testing driver impairment and activating alarms. The driver must pass a steering competency test (the Critical Tracking Task or CTT) in order to drive the car in a normal manner....

  17. Gamma, x-ray reduction system. Volume I: gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The starting premises for this data reduction system were (a) the individual researcher needs all the accuracy that can be achieved but he has neither the time nor the inclination to learn how to achieve it, and (b) if the data reduction system is to be centralized the people operating it will want to minimize conversation with the computer. This is a working system. All spectral data are stored on Data General 4234 discs after background normalization and strip. Storage is initiated from magnetic tapes loaded by detached pulse height analyzers or directly from Scorpio pulse height analyzers. The only restrictions placed on the individual researchers are that the pulse height analyzer energy scale be set up consistently, that a recovery standard be run at least once every day of use, and the total acquisition system be calibrated to its range of use. In many instances, and if desirable, the latter is provided as a service. At the time of writing this gamma data reduction system is actively being used to calculate net peak areas, activities with or without time correction, activations analysis results, counting precisions, and dynamic limits of detection for the spectral data output of 17 detached pulse height analyzers. To all modes of data reduction are applied background subtraction, random summing correction, detector recovery factor correction, peak interfernce correction (second-order product interference for activation analysis), geometry function correction, acquisition time decay corrections, external and internal sorber correction. All of this is accomplished and a customer report typed in a readable format after a halfline of noninteractive instruction

  18. Volume comparison of radiofrequency ablation at 3- and 5-cm target volumes for four different radiofrequency generators: MR volumetry in an open 1-T MRI system versus macroscopic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Hendrik; Hamm, Bernd; Guettler, Felix; Lohneis, Philipp; Stroux, Andrea; Suttmeyer, Britta; Jonczyk, Martin; Teichgräber, Ulf; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2015-12-01

    In a patient, it is usually not macroscopically possible to estimate the non-viable volume induced by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) after the procedure. The purpose of this study was to use an ex vivo bovine liver model to perform magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry of the visible tissue signal change induced by RFA and to correlate the MR measurement with the actual macroscopic volume measured in the dissected specimens. Sixty-four liver specimens cut from 16 bovine livers were ablated under constant simulated, close physiological conditions with target volumes set to 14.14 ml (3-cm lesion) and 65.45 ml (5-cm lesion). Four commercially available radiofrequency (RF) systems were tested (n=16 for each system; n=8 for 3 cm and n=8 for 5 cm). A T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence with inversion recovery and a proton-density (PD)-weighted TSE sequence were acquired in a 1.0-T open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. After manual dissection, actual macroscopic ablation diameters were measured and volumes calculated. MR volumetry was performed using a semiautomatic software tool. To validate the correctness and feasibility of the volume formula in macroscopic measurements, MR multiplanar reformation diameter measurements with subsequent volume calculation and semiautomatic MR volumes were correlated. Semiautomatic MR volumetry yielded smaller volumes than manual measurement after dissection, irrespective of RF system used, target lesion size, and MR sequence. For the 3-cm lesion, only 43.3% (T1) and 41.5% (PD) of the entire necrosis are detectable. For the 5-cm lesion, only 40.8% (T1) and 37.2% (PD) are visualized in MRI directly after intervention. The correlation between semiautomatic MR volumes and calculated MR volumes was 0.888 for the T1-weighted sequence and 0.875 for the PD sequence. After correlation of semiautomatic MR volumes and calculated MR volumes, it seems reasonable to use the respective volume formula for macroscopic volume calculation

  19. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 3: Commands specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (3 of 4) contains the specification for the command language for the AMPS system. The volume contains a requirements specification for the operating system and commands and a design specification for the operating system and command. The operating system and commands sits on top of the protocol. The commands are an extension of the present set of AMPS commands in that the commands are more compact, allow multiple sub-commands to be bundled into one command, and have provisions for identifying the sender and the intended receiver. The commands make no change to the actual software that implement the commands.

  20. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  1. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 2, Wednesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Roadmap Key Capability Areas C yber M odeling, Sim ulation, and Experim entation (M SE) Em bedded, M obile, and Tactical System s ( EM T) (MSE & EMT) cross...Space Weapons Missile Bomb Sensors WS Characteristics WS Quality Properties Defining Themes WS Engineering Methods WS Types | 10 | This technical data...aircraft 10 Aircraft depart initial point (IP) 11 JTAC controls CAS aircraft 12 Bombs on target 13 Assessment < 3min < 2 min > 95% Acrcy ASOC/ DASC CAS

  2. Leading Edge. Volume 7, Number 3. Systems Safety Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    foods were not always safe to eat given the sanitary conditions of the day. In 1943, the psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed a five-level... hierarchy of basic human needs, and safety was number two on this list. System safety is a specialized and formalized extension of our in- herent drive for...factors, hazards, mishaps, and ef- fects. The following is an example of each element within the hierarchy : An exposed sharp edge in a relay cabi- net

  3. Annual Systems Engineering Conference (12th). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    This Presentation will discuss : • Modularity: what it is, Pros and Cons , how it is used on LCS • Overview of extended systems – What’s the concern...is Export Approval # ACK219 (assigned IAW PRO -4527, PRO -3439). Marion L. Butterfield, Alaka Shivananda, and Dennis Schwarz (The Boeing Company...Other Tech Maturity Assessment Methods 7. SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Threat, Opportunity) Analysis 8. Conclusions & Recommendations GWU 3 Introduction The

  4. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  5. 9th Annual Systems Engineering Conference: Volume 4 Thursday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-26

    ISO /IEC 27000 series – Information Security Management System (ISMS) – ISO /IEC 17799:2005 – Code of Practice for Information Security Management...October 2006, Track 2 Standards Organizations Supporting Assurance ISO IEC JTC1TC176 SC1 SC22 Terminology Software Engineering Language, OS SC7...Information Assurance IEEE CS ISO IEC IEEE CS NIST FISMA Projects U.S. Gov’t DoD MIL-STDsPolicy Memos OMG Knowledge Discovery Models OMG 259th Annual

  6. Mobile encapsulation and volume reduction system for wet low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of the program entitled ''A Preconceptual Study for a Transportable Vitrification Process''. The objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of a Mobile Encapsulation and Volume Reduction System (MEVS). The report contains design criteria, a preconceptual design of the system, a comparison of disposal costs with other solidification technologies, and an assessment of utility interests in the transportable volume reduction service MEVS can provide. The MEVS design employs the use of a joule-heated glass melter to convert the wet low-level wastes into glass. The process is self-sufficient, requiring no direct facility services or reactor personnel. It is capable of servicing one waste type from a minimum of three reactors. The design was used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. The capital cost for the MEVS is $4,680,000, which includes all labor necessary for design, engineering, inspection, and licensing. The operating cost of the system for servicing a minimum of three reactors is $1,530,000/y for resins or $2,280,000/y for concentrated liquids. The cost estimates compared favorably to the more common solidification process of cementation. Total MEVS operating costs which include processing, transportation and burial, are $191 to $218/ft 3 waste, whereas quoted costs for cementation and disposal from reactor operators range from $155 to $350/ft 3 . The report concludes with the requirements for additional development, which can be accomplished for less than one sixth of the capital costs. The report also presents the results of an assessment conducted with utility representatives to obtain their expressions of interest in a service of this type

  7. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial congeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period was studied. Six current and thirty-one advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance-of-plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on-site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Overall, fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal-derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on-site gasification systems.

  8. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 3: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Detail design information concerning payloads for biomedical research projects conducted during space missions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) equipment modules and equipment item lists, (2) weight and volume breakdown by payload and equipment units, (3) longitudinal floor arrangement configuration, and (4) nonbaseline second generation layouts.

  9. Study on a volume-production H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, S.

    1988-01-01

    H - ions formed by volume-production are extracted from a multicuspion source. By applying a large positive bias to the plasma electrode, the ratio I - /I e becomes 1/20. H - ion current of 0.4mA is extracted from a 0.3cm 2 circular aperture at an arc current of 10A. (author)

  10. Predicting traffic volumes and estimating the effects of shocks in massive transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo; Kang, Soong Moon; Airoldi, Edoardo M

    2015-05-05

    Public transportation systems are an essential component of major cities. The widespread use of smart cards for automated fare collection in these systems offers a unique opportunity to understand passenger behavior at a massive scale. In this study, we use network-wide data obtained from smart cards in the London transport system to predict future traffic volumes, and to estimate the effects of disruptions due to unplanned closures of stations or lines. Disruptions, or shocks, force passengers to make different decisions concerning which stations to enter or exit. We describe how these changes in passenger behavior lead to possible overcrowding and model how stations will be affected by given disruptions. This information can then be used to mitigate the effects of these shocks because transport authorities may prepare in advance alternative solutions such as additional buses near the most affected stations. We describe statistical methods that leverage the large amount of smart-card data collected under the natural state of the system, where no shocks take place, as variables that are indicative of behavior under disruptions. We find that features extracted from the natural regime data can be successfully exploited to describe different disruption regimes, and that our framework can be used as a general tool for any similar complex transportation system.

  11. Energy research information system projects report, volume 5, number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Schillinger, L.

    1980-07-01

    The system (ERIS) provides an inventory of the energy related programs and research activities from 1974 to the present in the states of Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming. Areas of research covered include coal, reclamation, water resources, environmental impacts, socioeconomic impacts, energy conversion, mining methodology, petroleum, natural gas, oilshale, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy conservation and land use. Each project description lists title, investigator(s), research institution, sponsor, funding, time frame, location, a descriptive abstract of the research and title reports and/or publications generated by the research. All projects are indexed by location, personal names, organizations and subject keywords.

  12. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  13. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study

  14. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 8, Number 3, Fall 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Human knowledge and human power meet in one; for where the cause is not known the effect cannot be produced. —Sir Francis Bacon In a 2011 study, the...for Resourcing Readiness Nearly 400 years ago, Sir Frances Bacon challenged other scholars to apply a more rigorous approach to developing theories for...com- plex systems, such as nature. As Jim Manzi notes in his book, Uncon- trolled, Bacon recognized that nature is “extraordinarily complicated as

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  16. Patient Telephone Appointment System for High Volume Primary Care Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worthington, Francine

    2000-01-01

    ... efficient, timely, convenient, and appropriate access to care. This study follows a Continuous Improvement philosophy of customer satisfaction, quality process improvement, and benchmarking, also known as "idealized process redesign...

  17. Densities and Excess Molar Volume for the Ternary Systems (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2012-09-10

    Sep 10, 2012 ... studied as 'green solvents' for organic reactions, combined with a catalyst to ... The physical properties of ILs such as density, viscosity, melting point, polarity and ... wide electrochemical window, high recyclability, good ionic.

  18. Study of volume fractions on biphasic stratified regime using gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandão, Luis E.B., E-mail: william.otero@hotmail.com, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the oil industries, interconnected pipelines are used to carry large quantities of petroleum and its byproducts. This modal has an advantage because they are more economical, eliminate a need for stocks and, in addition, great safety in operation minimizing a possibility of loss or theft when transported another way. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same pipeline is used to carry more than one type of product. They are called poliduct. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of the previous product and this generates contamination. It is therefore important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. In this way, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in a study of the calculation of volume fractions in biphasic systems, submitted to the stratified flow regime. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo Method with the MCNPX code measurement geometry was proposed that presented a higher sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions. The relevant technical data to perform a simulation of the scintillator detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations, and the results show that it is possible to identify volume fractions equivalent to 3%. (author)

  19. Study of volume fractions on biphasic stratified regime using gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandão, Luis E.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the oil industries, interconnected pipelines are used to carry large quantities of petroleum and its byproducts. This modal has an advantage because they are more economical, eliminate a need for stocks and, in addition, great safety in operation minimizing a possibility of loss or theft when transported another way. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same pipeline is used to carry more than one type of product. They are called poliduct. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of the previous product and this generates contamination. It is therefore important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. In this way, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in a study of the calculation of volume fractions in biphasic systems, submitted to the stratified flow regime. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo Method with the MCNPX code measurement geometry was proposed that presented a higher sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions. The relevant technical data to perform a simulation of the scintillator detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations, and the results show that it is possible to identify volume fractions equivalent to 3%. (author)

  20. Disaster warning system: Satellite feasibility and comparison with terrestrial systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, J. H.; Hodge, W. H.; Fluk, M. J.; Bamford, T. F.

    1974-01-01

    The Disaster Warning System (DWS) is a conceptual system which will provide the National Weather Service (NWS) with communication services in the 1980s to help minimize losses caused by natural disasters. The object of this study is a comparative analysis between a terrestrial DWS and a satellite DWS. Baseline systems satisfying the NOAA requirements were synthesized in sufficient detail so that a comparison could be made in terms of performance and cost. The cost of both baseline systems is dominated by the disaster warning and spotter reporting functions. An effort was undertaken to reduce system cost through lower-capacity alternative systems generated by modifying the baseline systems. By reducing the number of required channels and modifying the spotter reporting techniques, alternative satellite systems were synthesized. A terrestrial alternative with the coverage reduced to an estimated 95 percent of the population was considered.

  1. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy.

  2. Nanoimprint system development and status for high volume semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiura, Hiromi; Takabayashi, Yukio; Takashima, Tsuneo; Emoto, Keiji; Choi, Jin; Schumaker, Phil

    2016-10-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography* (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. There are many criteria that determine whether a particular technology is ready for wafer manufacturing. For imprint lithography, recent attention has been given to the areas of overlay, throughput, defectivity, and mask replication. This paper reviews progress in these critical areas. Recent demonstrations have proven that mix and match overlay of less than 5nm can achieved. Further reductions require a higher order correction system. Modeling and experimental data are presented which provide a path towards reducing the overlay errors to less than 3nm. Throughput is mainly impacted by the fill time of the relief images on the mask. Improvement in resist materials provides a solution that allows 15 wafers per hour per station, or a tool throughput of 60 wafers per hour. Defectivity and mask life play a significant role relative to meeting the cost of ownership (CoO) requirements in the production of semiconductor devices. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of inducing a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, the lifetime of both the master mask and the replica mask can be extended. In this work, we report results that demonstrate a path towards achieving mask lifetimes of better than 1000 wafers. Finally, on the mask side, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100NR2 is

  3. Effect of aging on the PWR Chemical and Volume Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, E.J.; Travis, R.J.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    The PWR Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS) is designed to provide both safety and non-safety related functions. During normal plant operation it is used to control reactor coolant chemistry, and letdown and charging flow. In many plants, the charging pumps also provide high pressure injection, emergency boration, and RCP seal injection in emergency situations. This study examines the design, materials, maintenance, operation and actual degradation experiences of the system and main sub-components to assess the potential for age degradation. A detailed review of the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Report (LER) databases for the 1988--1991 time period, together with a review of industry and NRC experience and research, indicate that age-related degradations and failures have occurred. These failures had significant effects on plant operation, including reactivity excursions, and pressurizer level transients. The majority of these component failures resulted in leakage of reactor coolant outside the containment. A representative plant of each PWR design (W, CE, and B and W) was visited to obtain specific information on system inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and inspection practices. The results of these visits indicate that adequate system maintenance and inspection is being performed. In some instances, the frequencies of inspection were increase in response to repeated failure events. A parametric study was performed to assess the effect of system aging on Core Damage Frequency (CDF). This study showed that as motor-operated valve (MOV) operating failures increased, the contribution of the High Pressure Injection to CDF also increased

  4. Active volume studies with depleted and enriched BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Katharina von [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is currently taking data for the search of the 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge. In 2013, 30 newly manufactured Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be deployed which will double the active mass within Gerda. These detectors were fabricated from high-purity germanium enriched in {sup 76}Ge and tested in the HADES underground laboratory, owned by SCK.CEN, in Mol, Belgium. As the BEGes are source and detector at the same time, one crucial parameter is their active volume which directly enters into the evaluation of the half-life. This talk illustrates the dead layer and active volume determination of prototype detectors from depleted germanium as well as the newly produced detectors from enriched material, using gamma spectroscopy methods and comparing experimental results to Monte-Carlo simulations. Recent measurements and their results are presented, and systematic effects are discussed.

  5. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  6. Development of computerized stocktaking system in mine surveying for ore mineral volume calculation in covered storehouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, V. V.; Gridnev, S. O.

    2017-10-01

    The article examines into the vital issues of measuring and calculating the raw stock volumes in covered storehouses at mining and processing plants. The authors bring out two state-of-the-art high-technology solutions: 1 - to use the ground-based laser scanning system (the method is reasonably accurate and dependable, but costly and time consuming; it also requires the stoppage of works in the storehouse); 2 - to use the fundamentally new computerized stocktaking system in mine surveying for the ore mineral volume calculation, based on the profile digital images. These images are obtained via vertical projection of the laser plane onto the surface of the stored raw materials.

  7. VOLUME STUDY WITH HIGH DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON CONTOUR AND CORRELATION IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  8. Grading-System-Dependent Volume Effects for Late Radiation-Induced Rectal Toxicity After Curative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Bergh, Alphons van den; Schilstra, Cornelis; Vlasman, Renske; Meertens, Harm; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 124 patients who received three-dimensional conformal RT for prostate cancer to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. All patients completed questionnaires regarding rectum complaints before RT and during long-term follow-up. Late rectum Grade 2 or worse toxicity, according to RTOG/EORTC, LENT SOMA, and CTCAE v3.0 criteria, was analyzed in relation to rectal dose and volume parameters. Results: Dose-volume thresholds (V40 ≥65%, V50 ≥55%, V65 ≥45%, V70 ≥20%, and a rectum volume ≤140 cm 3 ), significantly discriminated patients with late Grade 0-1 and Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity, particularly using the LENT SOMA and CTCAE v3.0 systems. The rectum volume receiving ≥70 Gy (V70) was most predictive for late Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity with each of the grading systems. The associations were strongest, however, with use of the LENT SOMA system. Conclusions: Volume effects for late radiation-induced rectal toxicity are present, but their clinical significance depends on the grading system used. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of studies reporting on radiation-induced rectal toxicity

  9. BWID System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness

  10. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Code structure, system models, and solution methods. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents, and operational transients, such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling, approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I provides modeling theory and associated numerical schemes

  11. Analysis of Fringe Field Formed Inside LDA Measurement Volume Using Compact Two Hololens Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.; Yadav, H. L.

    2018-03-01

    We have designed and fabricated four LDA optical setups consisting of aberration compensated four different compact two hololens imaging systems. We have experimentally investigated and realized a hololens recording geometry which is interferogram of converging spherical wavefront with mutually coherent planar wavefront. Proposed real time monitoring and actual fringe field analysis techniques allow complete characterizations of fringes formed at measurement volume and permit to evaluate beam quality, alignment and fringe uniformity with greater precision. After experimentally analyzing the fringes formed at measurement volume by all four imaging systems, it is found that fringes obtained using compact two hololens imaging systems get improved both qualitatively and quantitatively compared to that obtained using conventional imaging system. Results indicate qualitative improvement of non-uniformity in fringe thickness and micro intensity variations perpendicular to the fringes, and quantitative improvement of 39.25% in overall average normalized standard deviations of fringe width formed by compact two hololens imaging systems compare to that of conventional imaging system.

  12. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

  13. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

  14. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Department of Abdominal Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care and Anesthesiology: DAR B, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-10-15

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 cm{sup 3} in control subjects and 13.3 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 3} for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  15. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B.; Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S.

    2010-01-01

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 ± 2.0 cm 3 in control subjects and 13.3 ± 4.7 cm 3 for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  16. Factors influencing the recycling rate under the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen

    2018-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has maintained its top-rank status for its municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate among OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member countries. The volume-based waste fee system (VWF) has been considered to be the major factor contributing to the high recycling performance, and extant research has verified the positive relationship between VWF adoption and the MSW recycling rate. Nevertheless, there exists a gap in the literature, as past research has focused more on testing the positive effects of VWF rather than on investigating the determinants of recycling rates after the adoption of VWF. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the various factors that affect recycling rates under the VWF system. More specifically, using data from 16 regions in South Korea over a period of 11 years, this study empirically tests the effects of VWF pricing, the citizen cost burden ratio for the VWF system, and pro-environmental behavior related to VWF on the recycling rate. The findings indicate that economic incentives such as cost savings on VWF plastic bag purchases and reduced burden from paying VWF expenses result in higher recycling rates. The findings also demonstrate that pro-environmental behavior in the VWF context positively affects the recycling rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conceptual design of volume reduction system for ITER low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chon, Je Keun, E-mail: jekeun.chon@iter.org; Beaudoin, Virginie; Pitcher, Charles S.

    2016-11-01

    For ITER Type A (low-level radwaste) radioactive waste process system, the super-compaction of solid wastes is introduced to reduce the waste volume in order to increase the quantity of waste to be enclosed in a final package. A study has been conducted to develop the conceptual design of super-compaction system by exploring the optimum design features of available equipment. The principal finding of the study is that a compactor with a vertical extrusion die that can apply a compressive force of up to 7000 kN will be fit for purpose of ITER Type A waste treatment. The confinement box has been proposed to limit the spread of aerial effluents that might escape from the compacted pellets. In order to increase the packing efficiency of the disposal containers, the height of each pellet will be recorded, enabling the disposal containers to be filled as close as possible to their limit if pellets of an appropriate size are available. The proposed conceptual design of super-compaction system is capable of meeting the objectives and constraints of target waste streams from ITER operation.

  18. Study on magnetic field mapping within cylindrical center volume of general magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    For the magnetic field analysis or design, it is important to know the behavior of the magnetic field in an interesting space. Magnetic field mapping becomes a useful tool for the study of magnetic field. In this paper, a numerical way for mapping the magnetic field within the cylindrical center volume of magnet is presented, based on the solution of the Laplace's equation in the cylindrical coordinate system. The expression of the magnetic field can be obtained by the magnetic flux density, which measured in the mapped volume. According to the form of the expression, the measurement points are arranged with the parallel cylindrical line (PCL) method. As example, the magnetic flux density generated by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) magnet and a quadrupole magnet were mapped using the PCL method, respectively. The mapping results show the PCL arrangement method is feasible and convenience to map the magnetic field within a cylindrical center volume generated by the general magnet.

  19. Thermal loading study for FY 1996. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide recommendations for Mined Geologic Disposal System requirements affected by thermal loading that will provide sufficient definition to facilitate development of design concepts and support life cycle cost determinations. The study reevaluated and/or redefined selected thermal goals used for design and are currently contained in the requirements documents or the Controlled Design Assumption Document. The study provided recommendations as to what, if any, actions (such as edge loading and limiting of the heat variability between waste packages) are needed and must be accommodated in the design. Additionally, the study provided recommendations as to what alternative thermal loads should be maintained for continued flexibility. Section 1 provides the study objective, background, scope, and organization of the report. Section 2 documents the requirements and standards to include quality assurance (QA) requirements, any requirements used or evaluated, and the inputs and assumptions considered. Section 3 provides the analysis and recommendations for the thermal goals reevaluation. Section 4 discusses the evaluation of edge loading and provides conclusions. Section 5 provides the analyses done to establish recommendations as to what requirements need to be implemented to either limit or manage the amount of heat output variability that may occur. Section 6 discusses alternate thermal loadings; Section 7 provides the study conclusions and recommendations; Section 8 provides the references, standards, and regulations; and Section 9 contains the acronym list

  20. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  1. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1: Balloonborne coherent CO2 lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 1 of a three volume final report on the design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 2 describes the flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2, which successfully made atmospheric density backscatter measurements during a flight over White Sands Missile Range. Volume 3 describes groundbased lidar development and measurements, including the design of a telescope dome lidar installation, the design of a transportable lidar shed for remote field sites, and field measurements of atmospheric and cloud backscatter from Ascension Island during SABLE 89 and Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. In this volume, Volume 1, the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent lidar payload are described. The purpose of this payload is to measure, from altitudes greater than 20 km, the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Minor modifications to the lidar would provide for aerosol velocity measurements to be made. The lidar and payload system design was completed, and major components were fabricated and assembled. These tasks have been successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis have been made.

  2. Volume Oscillations Delivered to a Lung Model Using 4 Different Bubble CPAP Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Jonathan A; Richardson, C Peter; DiBlasi, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    High-frequency pressure oscillations created by gas bubbling through an underwater seal during bubble CPAP may enhance ventilation and aid in lung recruitment in premature infants. We hypothesized that there are no differences in the magnitude of oscillations in lung volume (ΔV) in a preterm neonatal lung model when different bubble CPAP systems are used. An anatomically realistic replica of an infant nasal airway model was attached to a Silastic test lung sealed within a calibrated plethysmograph. Nasal prongs were affixed to the simulated neonate and supported using bubble CPAP systems set at 6 cm H2O. ΔV was calculated using pressure measurements obtained from the plethysmograph. The Fisher & Paykel Healthcare bubble CPAP system provided greater ΔV than any of the other devices at all of the respective bias flows (P CPAP systems. The magnitude of ΔV increased at bias flows of > 4 L/min in the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare, Airways Development, and homemade systems, but appeared to decrease as bias flow increased with the Babi.Plus system. The major finding of this study is that bubble CPAP can provide measureable ventilation effects in an infant lung model. We speculate that the differences noted in ΔV between the different devices are a combination of the circuit/nasal prong configuration, bubbler configuration, and frequency of oscillations. Additional testing is needed in spontaneously breathing infants to determine whether a physiologic benefit exists when using the different bubble CPAP systems. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Effect of fluid loading on left ventricular volume and stroke volume variability in patients with end-stage renal disease: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hirotsugu; Hirasaki, Yuji; Iida, Takafumi; Kanao-Kanda, Megumi; Toyama, Yuki; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate fluid loading-induced changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and stroke volume variability (SVV) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and the Vigileo-FloTrac system. Patients and methods After obtaining ethics committee approval and informed consent, 28 patients undergoing peripheral vascular procedures were studied. Fourteen patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD) were assigned to the HD group and 14 patients without ESRD were assigned to the control group. Institutional standardized general anesthesia was provided in both groups. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. Simultaneously, a full-volume three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography dataset was acquired to measure LVEDV, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Measurements were obtained before and after loading 500 mL hydroxyethyl starch over 30 minutes in both groups. Results In the control group, intravenous colloid infusion was associated with a significant decrease in SVV (13.8%±2.6% to 6.5%±2.6%, P<0.001) and a significant increase in LVEDV (83.6±23.4 mL to 96.1±28.8 mL, P<0.001). While SVV significantly decreased after infusion in the HD group (16.2%±6.0% to 6.2%±2.8%, P<0.001), there was no significant change in LVEDV. Conclusion Our preliminary data suggest that fluid responsiveness can be assessed not by LVEDV but also by SVV due to underlying cardiovascular pathophysiology in patients with ESRD. PMID:26527879

  4. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  5. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  6. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  8. Determinants of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cirrhosis with special emphasis on the central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in cirrhosis. Although the activated RAAS may have several determinants, the system is often considered a surrogate marker of effective hypovolaemia. In this study we investigated the activity...... of the RAAS and its potential determinants with special focus on the central and arterial blood volume (CBV). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients (Child class A/B/C: 19/41/29) and 32 controls were included in the study. All were given a haemodynamic examination with measurement of determinants...

  9. ATHENA code manual. Volume 1. Code structure, system models, and solution methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.; Roth, P.A.; Ransom, V.H.

    1986-09-01

    The ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) code has been developed to perform transient simulation of the thermal hydraulic systems which may be found in fusion reactors, space reactors, and other advanced systems. A generic modeling approach is utilized which permits as much of a particular system to be modeled as necessary. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of a complete facility. Several working fluids are available to be used in one or more interacting loops. Different loops may have different fluids with thermal connections between loops. The modeling theory and associated numerical schemes are documented in Volume I in order to acquaint the user with the modeling base and thus aid effective use of the code. The second volume contains detailed instructions for input data preparation

  10. Impact of an electronic health record operating room management system in ophthalmology on documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David S; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Lambert, William E; Choi, Dongseok; Almario, Bella M; Yackel, Thomas R; Brown, Anna S; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential benefits, such as improved safety and quality of care, most ophthalmology practices in the United States have not adopted these systems. Concerns persist regarding potential negative impacts on clinical workflow. In particular, the impact of EHR operating room (OR) management systems on clinical efficiency in the ophthalmic surgery setting is unknown. To determine the impact of an EHR OR management system on intraoperative nursing documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing requirements. For documentation time and circulating nurses per procedure, a prospective cohort design was used between January 10, 2012, and January 10, 2013. For surgical volume and overall staffing requirements, a case series design was used between January 29, 2011, and January 28, 2013. This study involved ophthalmic OR nurses (n = 13) and surgeons (n = 25) at an academic medical center. Electronic health record OR management system implementation. (1) Documentation time (percentage of operating time documenting [POTD], absolute documentation time in minutes), (2) surgical volume (procedures/time), and (3) staffing requirements (full-time equivalents, circulating nurses/procedure). Outcomes were measured during a baseline period when paper documentation was used and during the early (first 3 months) and late (4-12 months) periods after EHR implementation. There was a worsening in total POTD in the early EHR period (83%) vs paper baseline (41%) (P system implementation was associated with worsening of intraoperative nursing documentation time especially in shorter procedures. However, it is possible to implement an EHR OR management system without serious negative impacts on surgical volume and staffing requirements.

  11. Thermal loading study for FY 1996. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide recommendations for Mined Geologic Disposal System requirements affected by thermal loading that will provide sufficient definition to facilitate development of design concepts and support life cycle cost determinations. The study reevaluated and/or redefined selected thermal goals used for design and are currently contained in the requirements documents or the Controlled Design Assumption Document. The study provided recommendations as to what, if any, actions (such as edge loading and limiting of the heat variability between waste packages) are needed and must be accommodated in the design. Additionally, the study provided recommendations as to what alternative thermal loads should be maintained for continued flexibility. This report contains seven appendices: Technical basis for evaluation of thermal goals below the potential nuclear was repository at Yucca Mountain; Thermal-mechanical evaluation of the 200 C drift-wall temperature goal; Evaluation of ground stability and support; Coupled ventilation and hydrothermal evaluations; Heat flow and temperature calculations for continuously ventilated emplacement drifts; Thermal management using aging and/or waste package selection; and Waste stream evaluations

  12. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  13. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of binary systems {trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethysulfonyl)imide + methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol} at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibiya, P.N.; Deenadayalu, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports measurements of densities for the binary systems of an ionic liquid and an alkanol at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The IL is trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [OMA] + [Tf 2 N] - and the alkanols are methanol, or ethanol, or 1-propanol. The speed of sound at T = 298.15 K for the same binary systems was also measured. The excess molar volumes and the isentropic compressibilities for the above systems were then calculated from the experimental densities and the speed of sound, respectively. Redlich-Kister smoothing polynomial equation was used to fit the excess molar volume and the deviation in isentropic compressibility data. The partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. For all the systems studied, the excess molar volumes have both negative and positive values, while the deviations in isentropic compressibility are negative over the entire composition range

  14. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 3. Appendices. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A design study for a central receiver/fossil fuel hybrid power system using molten salts for heat transfer and heat storage is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (A) parametric salt piping data; (B) sample heat exchanger calculations; (C) salt chemistry and salt/materials compatibility evaluation; (D) heliostat field coordinates; (E) data lists; (F) STEAEC program input data; (G) hybrid receiver design drawings; (H) hybrid receiver absorber tube thermal math model; (I) piping stress analysis; (J) 100-MWe 18-hour storage solar central receiver hybrid power system capital cost worksheets; and (K) 500-MWe 18-hour solar central receiver hybrid power system cost breakdown. (WHK)

  15. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental technologies: Plasma systems and applications. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, P.W.; Mulholland, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma technology is an extremely versatile and powerful means of obtaining very high temperatures that can be used in a variety of environmental situations. Since most types of waste products and contaminants can be treated effectively and efficiently, plasma systems have been developed to address the disposal and annihilation domestic of medical, hazardous, radioactive, military, and miscellaneous wastes. Plasma technologies can also be implemented to recycle and recover usable materials from metallic wastes. The International Symposium on Environmental Technologies: Plasma Systems and Applications was held at the Omni Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8--12, 1995 to bring together a large group of technical experts working on the use of plasma for solving environmental problems. The Symposium is a sequel to the 1994 Metatechnies Conference on Stabilization and Volarization of Ultimate Waste by Plasma Processes that was held in September of 1994 at Bordeaux Lac, France. The proceedings to this second international conference contain the written contributions from eleven sessions and are published in two volumes. A total of 65 papers address the use of plasma systems for environmental applications and include topics concerning the development and use of innovative technologies for waste treatment, environmental remediation, recycling, characterization of the plasma and solid residue, off-gas analyses, as well as case studies and regulatory policies

  16. Studies of left ventricular volume estimation from single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Mitsuharu; Joja, Ikuo; Aono, Kaname; Yanagi, Hidekiyo; Indo, Haruaki; Seno, Yoshimasa; Teramoto, Shigeru; Nagaya, Isao.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the comparative accuracy of 99m Tc cardiac blood pool Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for the measurement of left ventricular volume in 20 patients undergoing SPECT and single plane contrast left ventriculography (LVG). Left ventricular volume was calculated based on the total number of voxels in left ventricle. End-diastolic left ventricular volume (EDV) and end-systolic left ventricular volume (ESV) calculated from SPECT were compared with those from LVG. SPECT volume values showed a high degree of correlation with those by LVG (r = 0.923 for EDV, r = 0.903 for ESV). We appreciated the usefulness and accuracy of SPECT in measuring left ventricular volume because of its three-dimensional information. (author)

  17. Superconductivity Program for electric power systems: 1994 annual PEER review. Volume 1, Meeting proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is Volume I of information presented at the Annual Peer Review of the Superconductivity Program For Electric Power Systems. Topics include: Wire development; powder synthesis; characterization of superconducting materials; electric power applications; magnetic refrigerators; and motor cooling issues. Individual reports were processed separately for the database

  18. Technical evaluation of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's topical report on a mobile volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henscheid, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes EG and G Idaho's review of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's (AECC's) topical report on a Mobile Volume Reduction System. The review evaluated compliance with pertinent codes, standards and regulations. The initial review was discussed with AECC by EG and G Idaho and the NRC, and all outstanding issues resolved before this final evaluation was made

  19. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 4, describes the current safety concerns associated with the tank waste and analyzes the potential accidents and associated potential health effects that could occur under the alternatives included in this Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

  20. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 1, Conceptual representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 72 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs

  1. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 1, Conceptual representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 72 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment SystemsVolume IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2016-12-01

    In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume IV, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  3. Beach Profile Analysis Systems (BPAS). Volume VI. BPAS User’s Guide: Analysis Module VOLCTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    the two seawardmost points. Before computing volume changes, common bonds are established relative to the landward and seaward extent of the surveys on...bit word size, the FORTRAN- callable sort routine (interfacing with the NOS or NOSME operating system SORTMRG utility), and the utility subroutines and

  4. NJOY nuclear data processing system. Volume IV. The ERRORR and COVR modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.; MacFarlane, R.E.

    1985-12-01

    The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code package for producing cross sections and related nuclear parameters from ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data. This volume provides detailed descriptions of the NJOY modules ERRORR and COVR, which are concerned with the covariances (uncertainties and correlations) of multigroup cross sections and fission neutron yield (anti nu) values. 17 refs

  5. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  6. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  7. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  8. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  9. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  10. Exploring Dutch surgeons' views on volume-based policies: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Roos; Faber, Marjan J; Westert, Gert P; Berden, Bart

    2018-01-01

    Objective In many countries, the evidence for volume-outcome associations in surgery has been transferred into policy. Despite the large body of research that exists on the topic, qualitative studies aimed at surgeons' views on, and experiences with, these volume-based policies are lacking. We interviewed Dutch surgeons to gain more insight into the implications of volume-outcome policies for daily clinical practice, as input for effective surgical quality improvement. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively selected surgeons from a stratified sample for hospital type and speciality. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent inductive content analysis. Results Two overarching themes were inductively derived from the data: (1) minimum volume standards and (2) implications of volume-based policies. Although surgeons acknowledged the premise 'more is better', they were critical about the validity and underlying evidence for minimum volume standards. Patients often inquire about caseload, which is met with both understanding and discomfort. Surgeons offered many examples of controversies surrounding the process of determining thresholds as well as the ways in which health insurers use volume as a purchasing criterion. Furthermore, being held accountable for caseload may trigger undesired strategic behaviour, such as unwarranted operations. Volume-based policies also have implications for the survival of low-volume providers and affect patient travel times, although the latter is not necessarily problematic in the Dutch context. Conclusions Surgeons in this study acknowledged that more volume leads to better quality. However, validity issues, undesired strategic behaviour and the ways in which minimum volume standards are established and applied have made surgeons critical of current policy practice. These findings suggest that volume remains a controversial quality measure and causes polarization that is not

  11. To the issue of temperature-dependent behavior of standard molar volumes of components in the binary system (water + tetrahydrofuran) at ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeniy V.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The standard molar volume of tetrahydrofuran (THF) in water, V THF ∘ (■), is a close-to-linear function of temperature and becomes increasingly appreciable with rising of the latter. Herewith the molar volume of pure THF, V THF (□), is retained to be larger, as compared to V THF ∘ , over all the temperature range studied. - Highlights: • Densities of aqueous THF at nine temperatures from (278.15 to 318.15) K were measured. • Temperature-dependent standard molar volumes of THF in water were calculated. • The analysis of excess standard molar volumes in the (water + THF) system was made. • The use of Redlich–Kister equation to obtain standard molar volumes is discussed. - Abstract: This report presents a comparative analysis of temperature-dependent data on density of both dilute aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dilute solutions of water in THF, as well as standard molar volumes of water or THF as a solute. For this purpose, new results on studying the volume-related properties of THF in a water-rich region at temperatures from (278.15 to 318.15) K, with a step of 5 K, and at the ambient pressure have been derived densimetrically. In discussion, some comments on previously published investigations, being related to temperature-dependent changes in the solution density and standard molar volumes of components of the system (water + THF), have been made

  12. Whole-lung volume and density in spirometrically-gated inspiratory and expiratory CT in systemic sclerosis: correlation with static volumes at pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiciottoli, G; Diciotti, S; Bartolucci, M; Orlandi, I; Bigazzi, F; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Pistolesi, M; Mascalchi, M

    2013-03-01

    Spiral low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) permits to measure whole-lung volume and density in a single breath-hold. To evaluate the agreement between static lung volumes measured with LDCT and pulmonary function test (PFT) and the correlation between the LDCT volumes and lung density in restrictive lung disease. Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) with (n = 24) and without (n = 16) pulmonary involvement on sequential thin-section CT and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)(n = 29) underwent spirometrically-gated LDCT at 90% and 10% of vital capacity to measure inspiratory and expiratory lung volumes and mean lung attenuation (MLA). Total lung capacity and residual volume were measured the same day of CT. Inspiratory [95% limits of agreement (95% LoA)--43.8% and 39.2%] and expiratory (95% LoA -45.8% and 37.1%) lung volumes measured on LDCT and PFT showed poor agreement in SSc patients with pulmonary involvement, whereas they were in substantial agreement (inspiratory 95% LoA -14.1% and 16.1%; expiratory 95% LoA -13.5% and 23%) in SSc patients without pulmonary involvement and in inspiratory scans only (95% LoA -23.1% and 20.9%) of COPD patients. Inspiratory and expiratory LDCT volumes, MLA and their deltas differentiated both SSc patients with or without pulmonary involvement from COPD patients. LDCT lung volumes and density were not correlated in SSc patients with pulmonary involvement, whereas they did correlate in SSc without pulmonary involvement and in COPD patients. In restrictive lung disease due to SSc there is poor agreement between static lung volumes measured using LDCT and PFT and the relationship between volume and density values on CT is altered.

  13. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis

  14. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)

  15. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  16. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem

  17. Models of cognitive behavior in nuclear power plant personnel. A feasibility study: main report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Hanes, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    This report contains the results of a feasibility study to determine if the current state of models human cognitive activities can serve as the basis for improved techniques for predicting human error in nuclear power plants emergency operations. Based on the answer to this questions, two subsequent phases of research are planned. Phase II is to develop a model of cognitive activities, and Phase III is to test the model. The feasibility study included an analysis of the cognitive activities that occur in emergency operations and an assessment of the modeling concepts/tools available to capture these cognitive activities. The results indicated that a symbolic processing (or artificial intelligence) model of cognitive activities in nuclear power plants is both desirable and feasible. This cognitive model can be built upon the computational framework provided by an existing artificial intelligence system for medical problem solving called Caduceus. The resulting cognitive model will increase the capability to capture the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessments studies. Volume I summarizes the major findings and conclusions of the study. Volume II provides a complete description of the methods and results, including a synthesis of the cognitive activities that occur during emergency operations, and a literature review on cognitive modeling relevant to nuclear power plants. 112 refs., 10 figs

  18. Predictive Software Cost Model Study. Volume I. Final Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    development phase to identify computer resources necessary to support computer programs after transfer of program manangement responsibility and system... classical model development with refinements specifically applicable to avionics systems. The refinements are the result of the Phase I literature search

  19. Cost-volume-profit and net present value analysis of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R A

    1998-08-01

    The adoption of any information system should be justified by an economic analysis demonstrating that its projected benefits outweigh its projected costs. Analysis differ, however, on which methods to employ for such a justification. Accountants prefer cost-volume-profit analysis, and economists prefer net present value analysis. The article explains the strengths and weaknesses of each method and shows how they can be used together so that well-informed investments in information systems can be made.

  20. Volume growth trends in a Douglas-fir levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis

    2006-01-01

    Mean curves of increment and yield in gross total cubic volume and net merchantable cubic volume were derived from seven installations of the regional cooperative Levels-of-Growing-Stock Study (LOGS) in Douglas-fir. The technique used reduces the seven curves for each treatment for each variable of interest to a single set of readily interpretable mean curves. To a top...

  1. Free volume changes in mechanically milled PS and PC studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther-Schade, K.; Castricum, H.L.; Ziegler, H.J.; Bakker, H.; Faupel, F.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on free volume was studied by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) in polystyrene (PS) as a typical brittle polymer and in polycarbonate (PC) as a tough representative. Long-time milling increases the free volume, while a decrease is observed

  2. Some aspects of free volume studies in molecular substances using positron annihilation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Gustov, V.W.; Kevdina, I.B.; Suzuki, T.; Djourelov, N.; Shimazu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is accepted now as a method for the studies of elementary free volumes (free volume holes) in solids, in polymers in particular. The aim of this paper is to discuss some problems, the difficulties on the way of this application and to illustrate them by several examples obtained by the authors. (author)

  3. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  4. Volume fraction calculation in multiphase system such as oil-water-gas using neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Salgado, Cesar Marques; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: robson@ien.gov.br; brandao@ien.gov.br; otero@ien.gov.br; cmnap@ien.gov.br; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mails: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br; ademir@con.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Multi-phase flows are common in diverse industrial sectors and the attainment of the volume fraction of each element that composes the flow system presents difficulties for the engineering process, therefore, to determine them is very important. In this work is presented methodology for determination of volume fractions in annular three-phase flow systems, such as oil-water-gas, based on the use of nuclear techniques and artificial intelligence. Using the principle of the fast-neutron transmission/scattering, come from an isotopic {sup 241}Am-Be source, and two point detectors, is gotten measured that they are influenced by the variations of the volume fractions of each phase present in the flow. An artificial neural network is trained to correlate such measures with the respective volume fractions. In order to get the data for training of the artificial neural network without necessity to carry through experiments, MCNP-X code is used, that simulates computational of the neutrons transport. The methodology is sufficiently advantageous, therefore, allows to develop a measurement system capable to determine the fractions of the phases (oil-water-gas), with proper requirements of each petroliferous installation and with national technology contributing, possibly, with reduction of costs and increase of productivity. (author)

  5. Volume fraction calculation in multiphase system such as oil-water-gas using neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Salgado, Cesar Marques; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da

    2007-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are common in diverse industrial sectors and the attainment of the volume fraction of each element that composes the flow system presents difficulties for the engineering process, therefore, to determine them is very important. In this work is presented methodology for determination of volume fractions in annular three-phase flow systems, such as oil-water-gas, based on the use of nuclear techniques and artificial intelligence. Using the principle of the fast-neutron transmission/scattering, come from an isotopic 241 Am-Be source, and two point detectors, is gotten measured that they are influenced by the variations of the volume fractions of each phase present in the flow. An artificial neural network is trained to correlate such measures with the respective volume fractions. In order to get the data for training of the artificial neural network without necessity to carry through experiments, MCNP-X code is used, that simulates computational of the neutrons transport. The methodology is sufficiently advantageous, therefore, allows to develop a measurement system capable to determine the fractions of the phases (oil-water-gas), with proper requirements of each petroliferous installation and with national technology contributing, possibly, with reduction of costs and increase of productivity. (author)

  6. Prospects of application of artificial neural networks for forecasting of cargo transportation volume in transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yakupov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research – to identify the prospects for the use of neural network approach in relation to the tasks of economic forecasting of logistics performance, in particular of volume freight traffic in the transport system promiscuous regional freight traffic, as well as to substantiate the effectiveness of the use of artificial neural networks (ANN, as compared with the efficiency of traditional extrapolative methods of forecasting. The authors consider the possibility of forecasting to use ANN for these economic indicators not as an alternative to the traditional methods of statistical forecasting, but as one of the available simple means for solving complex problems.Materials and methods. When predicting the ANN, three methods of learning were used: 1 the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm-network training stops when the generalization ceases to improve, which is shown by the increase in the mean square error of the output value; 2 Bayes regularization method - network training is stopped in accordance with the minimization of adaptive weights; 3 the method of scaled conjugate gradients, which is used to find the local extremum of a function on the basis of information about its values and gradient. The Neural Network Toolbox package is used for forecasting. The neural network model consists of a hidden layer of neurons with a sigmoidal activation function and an output neuron with a linear activation function, the input values of the dynamic time series, and the predicted value is removed from the output. For a more objective assessment of the prospects of the ANN application, the results of the forecast are presented in comparison with the results obtained in predicting the method of exponential smoothing.Results. When predicting the volumes of freight transportation by rail, satisfactory indicators of the verification of forecasting by both the method of exponential smoothing and ANN had been obtained, although the neural network

  7. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies: the WHIMS-MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Laura H; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, R Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H; Williamson, Jeff D; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Shumaker, Sally A

    2014-02-04

    To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm(3)/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm(3)/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm(3)/y (p = 0.88). Conjugated equine estrogen-based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings.

  8. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  9. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues

  10. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  11. Parsing partial molar volumes of small molecules: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha; Dubins, David N; Pomès, Régis; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2011-04-28

    We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the Kirkwood-Buff theory to compute the partial molar volumes for a number of small solutes of various chemical natures. We repeated our computations using modified pair potentials, first, in the absence of the Coulombic term and, second, in the absence of the Coulombic and the attractive Lennard-Jones terms. Comparison of our results with experimental data and the volumetric results of Monte Carlo simulation with hard sphere potentials and scaled particle theory-based computations led us to conclude that, for small solutes, the partial molar volume computed with the Lennard-Jones potential in the absence of the Coulombic term nearly coincides with the cavity volume. On the other hand, MD simulations carried out with the pair interaction potentials containing only the repulsive Lennard-Jones term produce unrealistically large partial molar volumes of solutes that are close to their excluded volumes. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the reported schemes for parsing partial molar volume data on small solutes. In particular, our determined interaction volumes() and the thickness of the thermal volume for individual compounds are in good agreement with empirical estimates. This work is the first computational study that supports and lends credence to the practical algorithms of parsing partial molar volume data that are currently in use for molecular interpretations of volumetric data.

  12. Study of the seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Seo, Seok Jin; Lee, Je Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    By analyzing seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Partial breast radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, we try to contribute to the improvement of radiotherapy effect. Enrolled 20 patients who underwent partial breast radiation therapy by ViewRay MRIdian System were subject. After seeking for the size of the removed sample in the patients during surgery and obtained seroma volume changes on a weekly basis. On the Basis of acquired volume, it was compared with age, term from start of the first treatment after surgery, BMI (body mass index) and the extracted sample size during surgery. And using the ViewRay MRIdian RTP System, the figure was analyzed by PTV(=seroma volume + margin) to obtain a specific volume of the Partial breast radiation therapy. The changes of seroma volume from MR simulation to the first treatment (a week) is 0~5% in 8, 5~10% in 3, 10 to 15% in 2, and 20% or more in 5 people. Two patients(A, B patient) among subjects showed the biggest change. The A patient's 100% of the prescribed dose volume is 213.08 cc, PTV is 181.93 cc, seroma volume is 15.3 cc in initial plan. However, while seroma volume decreased 65.36% to 5.3 cc, 100% of the prescribed dose volume was reduced to 3.4% to 102.43 cc and PTV also did 43.6% to 102.54 cc. In the case of the B patient, seroma volume decreased 42.57% from 20.2 cc to 11.6 cc. Because of that, 100% of the prescribed dose volume decreased 8.1% and PTV also did to 40%. As the period between the first therapy and surgery is shorter, the patient is elder and the size of sample is smaller than 100 cc, the change grow bigger. It is desirable to establish an adaptive plan according to each patient's changes of seroma volume through continuous observation. Because partial breast patients is more sensitive than WBRT patients about dose conformity in accordance with the volume change.

  13. Study of the seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Seo, Seok Jin; Lee, Je Hee

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Partial breast radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, we try to contribute to the improvement of radiotherapy effect. Enrolled 20 patients who underwent partial breast radiation therapy by ViewRay MRIdian System were subject. After seeking for the size of the removed sample in the patients during surgery and obtained seroma volume changes on a weekly basis. On the Basis of acquired volume, it was compared with age, term from start of the first treatment after surgery, BMI (body mass index) and the extracted sample size during surgery. And using the ViewRay MRIdian RTP System, the figure was analyzed by PTV(=seroma volume + margin) to obtain a specific volume of the Partial breast radiation therapy. The changes of seroma volume from MR simulation to the first treatment (a week) is 0~5% in 8, 5~10% in 3, 10 to 15% in 2, and 20% or more in 5 people. Two patients(A, B patient) among subjects showed the biggest change. The A patient's 100% of the prescribed dose volume is 213.08 cc, PTV is 181.93 cc, seroma volume is 15.3 cc in initial plan. However, while seroma volume decreased 65.36% to 5.3 cc, 100% of the prescribed dose volume was reduced to 3.4% to 102.43 cc and PTV also did 43.6% to 102.54 cc. In the case of the B patient, seroma volume decreased 42.57% from 20.2 cc to 11.6 cc. Because of that, 100% of the prescribed dose volume decreased 8.1% and PTV also did to 40%. As the period between the first therapy and surgery is shorter, the patient is elder and the size of sample is smaller than 100 cc, the change grow bigger. It is desirable to establish an adaptive plan according to each patient's changes of seroma volume through continuous observation. Because partial breast patients is more sensitive than WBRT patients about dose conformity in accordance with the volume change

  14. Technical specifications manual for the MARK-1 pulsed ionizing radiation detection system. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, R.S.; Harker, Y.D.; Jones, J.L.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The MARK-1 detection system was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation. The completely portable system was designed for the detection and analysis of intense photon emissions from pulsed ionizing radiation sources. This manual presents the technical design specifications for the MARK-1 detection system and was written primarily to assist the support or service technician in the service, calibration, and repair of the system. The manual presents the general detection system theory, the MARK-1 component design specifications, the acquisition and control software, the data processing sequence, and the system calibration procedure. A second manual entitled: Volume 2: Operations Manual for the MARK-1 Pulsed Ionizing Radiation Detection System (USDOE Report WINCO-1108, September 1992) provides a general operational description of the MARK-1 detection system. The Operations Manual was written primarily to assist the field operator in system operations and analysis of the data.

  15. Description and performance of a prototype PET system for small volume imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.; Hogan, M.J.; Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario; Dinsdale, H.B.; Howse, D.C.N.; Kulick, J.; Mak, H.B.; Stewart, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype positron emission tomography (PET) system has been designed for high-resolution imaging of small volumes. The detectors use Pb converter stacks and multiwire proportional counters (MWPC); the data acquisition components and image reconstruction methods are also described briefly. The performance of the system is discussed in terms of sensitivity, count rate capability, spatial resolution, and scattered background. Three examples of metabolic or transport imaging demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the system. These are blood flow to bone, cerebral glucose uptake, and nutrient translocation in plants. The performance of the prototype has been sufficiently promising that an improved system is under development. (orig.)

  16. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation

  17. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  18. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  19. Gastrointestinal toxicity of vorinostat: reanalysis of phase 1 study results with emphasis on dose-volume effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bratland, Ase

    2011-04-08

    Abstract Background In early-phase studies with targeted therapeutics and radiotherapy, it may be difficult to decide whether an adverse event should be considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the investigational systemic agent, as acute normal tissue toxicity is frequently encountered with radiation alone. We have reanalyzed the toxicity data from a recently conducted phase 1 study on vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with pelvic palliative radiotherapy, with emphasis on the dose distribution within the irradiated bowel volume to the development of DLT. Findings Of 14 eligible patients, three individuals experienced Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events grade 3 gastrointestinal and related toxicities, representing a toxicity profile vorinostat has in common with radiotherapy to pelvic target volumes. For each study patient, the relative volumes of small bowel receiving radiation doses between 6 Gy and 30 Gy at 6-Gy intervals (V6-V30) were determined from the treatment-planning computed tomography scans. The single patient that experienced a DLT at the second highest dose level of vorinostat, which was determined as the maximum-tolerated dose, had V6-V30 dose-volume estimates that were considerably higher than any other study patient. This patient may have experienced an adverse radiation dose-volume effect rather than a toxic effect of the investigational drug. Conclusions When reporting early-phase trial results on the tolerability of a systemic targeted therapeutic used as potential radiosensitizing agent, radiation dose-volume effects should be quantified to enable full interpretation of the study toxicity profile. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00455351

  20. RETRAN code analysis of Tsuruga-2 plant chemical volume control system (CVCS) reactor coolant leakage incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    In the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) reactor primary coolant leakage incident, which occurred in Tsuruga-2 (4-loop PWR, 3,423 MWt, 1,160 MWe) on July 12, 1999, it took about 14 hours before the leakage isolation. The delayed leakage isolation and a large amount of leakage have become a social concern. Effective procedure modification was studied. Three betterments were proposed based on a qualitative analysis to reduce the pressure and temperature of the primary loop as fast as possible by the current plant facilities while maintaining enough subcooling of the primary loop. I analyzed the incident with RETRAN code in order to quantitatively evaluate the leakage reduction when these betterments are adopted. This paper is very new because it created a typical analysis method for PWR plant behavior during plant shutdown procedure which conventional RETRAN transient analyses rarely dealt with. Also the event time is very long. To carry out this analysis successfully, I devised new models such as an Residual Heat Removal System (RHR) model etc. and simplified parts of the conventional model. Based on the analysis results, I confirmed that leakage can be reduced by about 30% by adopting these betterments. Then the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) modified the operational procedure for reactor primary coolant leakage events adopting these betterments. (author)

  1. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume III. Program descriptions. [SIMWEST CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume III, the SIMWEST program description contains program descriptions, flow charts and program listings for the SIMWEST Model Generation Program, the Simulation program, the File Maintenance program and the Printer Plotter program. Volume III generally would not be required by SIMWEST user.

  2. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume II. Operation manual. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume II, the SIMWEST operation manual, describes the usage of the SIMWEST program, the design of the library components, and a number of simple example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation. Volume II also contains a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  3. Computer-generated display system guidelines. Volume 2. Developing an evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Volume 1 of this report provides guidance to utilities on the design of displays and the selection and retrofit of a computer-generated display system in the control room of an operating nuclear power plant. Volume 2 provides guidance on planning and managing empirical evaluation of computer-generated display systems, particularly when these displays are primary elements of computer-based operator aids. The guidance provided is in terms of a multilevel evaluation methodology that enables sequential consideration of three primary issues: (1) compatibility; (2) understandability; and (3) effectiveness. The evaluation process approaches these three issues with a top-down review of system objectives, functions, tasks, and information requirements. The process then moves bottom-up from lower-level to higher-level issues, employing different evaluation methods at each level in order to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of the evaluation process

  4. Principles of Considering the Effect of the Limited Volume of a System on Its Thermodynamic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2018-01-01

    The features of a system with a finite volume that affect its thermodynamic state are considered in comparison to describing small bodies in macroscopic phases. Equations for unary and pair distribution functions are obtained using difference derivatives of a discrete statistical sum. The structure of the equation for the free energy of a system consisting of an ensemble of volume-limited regions with different sizes and a full set of equations describing a macroscopic polydisperse system are discussed. It is found that the equations can be applied to molecular adsorption on small faces of microcrystals, to bound and isolated pores of a polydisperse material, and to describe the spinodal decomposition of a fluid in brief periods of time and high supersaturations of the bulk phase when each local region functions the same on average. It is shown that as the size of a system diminishes, corrections must be introduced for the finiteness of the system volume and fluctuations of the unary and pair distribution functions.

  5. Proceedings of the NATO-Advanced Study Institute on Computer Aided Analysis of Rigid and Flexible Mechanical Systems Held in Troia, Portugal on 27 Jun-9 Jul, 1993. Volume 2. Contributed Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-09

    Calculate Oil and solve iteratively equation (18) for q and (l)-(S) forex . 4, Solve the velocity problemn through equation (19) to calculate q and (6)-(10) to...object.oriented models for the database to store the system information f1l. Using OOP on the formalism level is more difficult and a current field of...Multidimensional Physical Systems: Graph-theoretic Modeling, Systems and Cybernetics, vol 21 (1992), 5 .9-71 JV A RELATIONAL DATABASE FOR GENERAL

  6. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal; Meral, Cagla; Mancio, Mauricio; Mehta, P. Kumar; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on clearance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports Nuclear Regulatory Agency on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In uranium processing facilities, simulation sources emitting alpha-rays is used in a validity confirmation examination of the measuring equipment. In this study, these sources were examined by measuring alpha and beta spectra to evaluate the applicability and problem of these sources. In addition, the measuring method detecting gamma-rays was examined. This method can be applied to complicated objects. As a part to develop a manual for unexpected incidents in clearance system, a quick method for measurement of Strontium 90 was examined. In addition, the measuring methods for the judgment of the influence of fallout and for NR (Non-Radioactive) confirmation were examined. (author)

  9. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Miura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports NISA on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In reactor facilities, the bulk measurement technique or the statistical sampling measurement technique may be applied to large scale objects or concrete walls. In this study, the criteria of those techniques were examined. In uranium processing facilities, it is important to confirm surface state of the object in case of detecting alpha rays. The result of the examination about the influence of the surface rust in the uranium clearance measurement by the alpha ray measurement showed that the pollution was distributed in rust layer uniformly. This result will be reflected to the revision of the Ministerial Ordinance on Clearance in 2011FY. To develop a manual for unexpected incidents, the response procedure for an unexpected incident was prepared, including a response system. (author)

  10. Semiautomatic regional segmentation to measure orbital fat volumes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerci, M; Elefante, A; Strianese, D; Senese, R; Bonavolontà, P; Alfano, B; Bonavolontà, B; Brunetti, A

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to validate a novel semi-automated segmentation method to measure regional intra-orbital fat tissue volume in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-four orbits from 12 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 24 orbits from 12 controls, ten orbits from five MRI study simulations and two orbits from a digital model were used. Following manual region of interest definition of the orbital volumes performed by two operators with different levels of expertise, an automated procedure calculated intra-orbital fat tissue volumes (global and regional, with automated definition of four quadrants). In patients with Graves' disease, clinical activity score and degree of exophthalmos were measured and correlated with intra-orbital fat volumes. Operator performance was evaluated and statistical analysis of the measurements was performed. Accurate intra-orbital fat volume measurements were obtained with coefficients of variation below 5%. The mean operator difference in total fat volume measurements was 0.56%. Patients had significantly higher intra-orbital fat volumes than controls (p<0.001 using Student's t test). Fat volumes and clinical score were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The semi-automated method described here can provide accurate, reproducible intra-orbital fat measurements with low inter-operator variation and good correlation with clinical data.

  11. Enhanced FIB-SEM systems for large-volume 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Shan; Hayworth, Kenneth J; Lu, Zhiyuan; Grob, Patricia; Hassan, Ahmed M; García-Cerdán, José G; Niyogi, Krishna K; Nogales, Eva; Weinberg, Richard J; Hess, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here, we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes > 106 µm3. These volumes are large enough for connectomics, where the excellent z resolution can help in tracing of small neuronal processes and accelerate the tedious and time-consuming human proofreading effort. Even higher resolution can be achieved on smaller volumes. We present example data sets from mammalian neural tissue, Drosophila brain, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to illustrate the power of this novel high-resolution technique to address questions in both connectomics and cell biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25916.001 PMID:28500755

  12. Study on water boiling noises in a large volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masagutov, R.F.; Krivtsov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Presented are the results of measurement of the noise spectra during boiling of water in a large volume at the pressure of 1 at. Boiling of the distilled water has been accomplished with the use of the heaters made of the Kh18N10T steel, 50 mm in length, 2 mm in the outside diameter, with the wall thickness of 0.1 mm. The degree of water under heating changed during the experiments from 0 to 80 deg C, and the magnitude of the specific heat flux varied from o to 0.7 - 0.9 qsup(x), where qsup(x) was the specific heat flux of the tube burn-out. The noise spectrum of the boiling water was analyzed at frequencies of 0.5 to 200 kHz. The submerge-type pressure-electric transmitters were used for measurements. At underheating boiling during the experiment the standing waves have formed which determine the structure of the measured spectra. During saturated boiling of water no standing waves were revealed. At underheating over 15 - 20 deg C the water boiling process is accompanied by the noises within the ultrasonic frequency range. The maximum upper boundary of the noise in the experiments amounts to 90 - 100 kHz

  13. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  14. Phantom study of PET/CT guided delineation of radiation therapy volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin; Zheng Rong; Wang Yibin; Geng Jianhua; Wu Ning; Zhao Ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a model-based method for calculating the threshold in GTV determination by 18 F-FDG PET in a phantom study. Methods: A phantom was constructed of a 9 L cylindrical tank.Glass spheres with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 16 ml (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 ml) were suspended within the tank. The six spheres were filled with an identical concentration of FDG (203.5 MBq/L) and suspended within 3 different background baths of FDG (6.179, 16.021, 0 MBq/L) solutions, creating 3 target-to-background ratios of 32.96 : 1, 12.69 : 1 and target to zero background. A linear regressive function was constructed which represented the relationship between the threshold and the average activity concentration of the target. A 40% of maximum intensity threshold and the linear regressive function method were applied to define the spheres filled with 18 F-FDG. The volume differences between the two methods and the true volumes of the spheres were compared with t-test. Results: The linear regressive function model was derived as:threshold =(mean target concentration + 2.6227)/1.9752. The results indicated that a smaller deviation occurred when the function was utilized to estimate the volumes of the phantoms as compared to the 40% of maximum intensity threshold method, but there were no significant differences between them (t=0.306, P>0.05). The effect of the linear regressive function on volume was such that when the phantom sphere volumes were ≥ 1 ml, the average deviation between the defined volumes and the true volumes of phantoms was 1.01%; but when the phantom sphere volume was 0.5 ml, the average deviation was 9.53%. When the 40% of maximum intensity threshold method was applied to define the phantom spheres of volume ≥2 ml, the average deviation between the defined volumes and the true volumes of phantoms was -4.62%; but, the average deviation of that was 19.9% when the volumes of spheres were 0.5 and 1 ml. When the linear regressive function was applied to

  15. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  16. Enabling Logistics With Portable and Wireless Technology Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-06

    Players41 Tag Vendors Reader Vendors Software Players Early Adopters Alien Technology Corporation Intermec Technologies Corp. Descartes Systems...e at pa ion rt s s /st be an co d m ar e ds s rene l availability of interopera le s e demands of EPC isc ot a bro f a er b labl as te is, c...Intermec Technologies Corp. Descartes Systems Boeing Intermec Technologies Corp. Matrics Inc. EXE Technologies CHEP Matrics Inc. Psion Teklogix Inc

  17. Occipital Lobe Gray Matter Volume in Male Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Quantitative MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Toshiaki; McCarley, Robert W.; Kuroki, Noriomi; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Kubicki, Marek; Demeo, Susan S.; Frumin, Melissa; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in cognition as well as visual perception. There have, however, been few magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the occipital lobe as an anatomically defined region of interest in schizophrenia. To examine whether or not patients with chronic schizophrenia show occipital lobe volume abnormalities, we measured gray matter volumes for both the primary visual area (PVA) and the visual association areas (VAA) using MRI based neuroanatomical landmarks and three-dimensional information. PVA and VAA gray matter volumes were measured using high-spatial resolution MRI in 25 male patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 male normal controls. Chronic schizophrenia patients showed reduced bilateral VAA gray matter volume (11%), compared with normal controls, whereas patients showed no group difference in PVA gray matter volume. These results suggest that reduced bilateral VAA may be a neurobiological substrate of some of the deficits observed in early visual processing in schizophrenia. PMID:17350226

  18. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: user's guide. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Mays, G.T.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This system provides a structured format for detailed coding of component, system, and unit effects as well as personnel errors. The database contains all current LERs submitted by nuclear power plant utilities for events occurring since 1981 and is updated on a continual basis. This four volume report documents and describes SCSS in detail. Volume 1 is a User's Guide for searching the SCSS database. This volume contains updated material through February 1985 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 1

  19. Environmental gamma radiation monitoring system with a large volume air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, C.; Witzani, J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved environmental monitoring system has been designed and tested consisting of an ionization chamber with 120 l sensitive volume, operated at atmospheric pressure, and a commercial electrometer amplifier with digital voltmeter. The system is controlled by a desk calculator with printer for automated operation and calculation of dose and doserate. The ionization chamber provides superior dosimetric performance as compared to usual GM-counters and high pressure chambers. The system has been field-tested during the 'European Intercomparison Programme for Environmental Monitoring Instruments' organized by the Commission of the European Communities. (Author)

  20. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume V. Safety, quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Included in this volume are: launch and flight safety considerations; quality assurance techniques and procedures to be followed through system fabrication, assembly and inspection; and the reliability program made up of reliability prediction analysis, failure mode analysis and criticality analysis