Sample records for system regulates ultraviolet

  1. Advanced, Compact, Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for Planetary Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced, Compact, Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for Planetary Systems will advance the capabilities of ultraviolet imaging spectrometers by improving the...

  2. Sauchinone, a lignan from Saururus chinensis, protects human skin keratinocytes against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging by regulating the oxidative defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hyo-Geun; Sim, Yeomoon; Sung, Sang-Hyun


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, which are responsible for collagenous extracellular matrix proteins breakdown in skin, causing photoaging. Sauchinone is reported to have various bioactivity such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sauchinone against UVB (50 mJ/cm 2 )-induced photoaging in HaCaT human epidermal keratinocytes. Sauchinone, at 5-40 μM, significantly protected keratinocytes against UVB-induced damage as assessed by cell viability and toxicity assay. Additionally, sauchinone, at 20-40 μM, prevented the upregulation of MMP-1 proteins and reduction of type 1 collagen induced by UVB. Other assays revealed that, in keratinocytes, sauchinone decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased glutathione levels and heme oxygenase-1. Sauchinone also inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results demonstrated that sauchinone protects skin keratinocytes through inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK signaling via upregulation of oxidative defense enzymes. (author)

  3. Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.


    This extensive review discusses the topic under the following headings: ultraviolet climatology, molecular and cellular ultraviolet photobiology (absorption, photoproducts, repair), effects of solar UVR on aquatic life (phyto and zooplankton), plants and humans. The section on human effects includes tanning, photo-aging, non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers and the effects of solar UVR on the eye. (UK)

  4. Fiber-Based Ultraviolet Laser System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser system for use in space-based uv-Raman instruments. The basis for this system...

  5. Use of germicidal ultraviolet radiations in air conditionning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrecht, J.; Kohler, N.


    Hygienical risks appear in air conditionning plants in humid parts, at the interface between clean and unclean zones and in heat recovery systems. Ultraviolet radiations with a wavelength of 254 etam disactivate germs in a purely physical way. They can be successfully used in air conditionning systems: in air ducts, over doors and in transition spaces, in humidifiers and cooling towers and as direct irradiation in clean rooms. The efficiency can be proven by calculations or experimentally.

  6. Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez, M


    UV radiation is an important part in the electromagnetic spectrum since the energy of the photons is great enough to produce important chemical reactions in the atmospheres of planets and satellites of our Solar System, thereby affecting the transmission of this radiation to the ground and its physical properties. Scientists have used different techniques (balloons and rockets) to access to the information contained in this radiation, but the pioneering of this new frontier has not been free of dangers. The Sun is our main source of UV radiation and its description occupies the first two chapters of the book. The Earth is the only known location where life exists in a planetary system and therefore where the interaction of living organism with UV radiation can be tested through different epochs and on distinct species. The development of the human technology has affected the natural shield of ozone that protects complex lifeforms against damaging UV irradiation. The formation of the ozone hole and its consequ...

  7. Analysis and design of the ultraviolet warning optical system based on interference imaging (United States)

    Wang, Wen-cong; Hu, Hui-jun; Jin, Dong-dong; Chu, Xin-bo; Shi, Yu-feng; Song, Juan; Liu, Jin-sheng; Xiao, Ting; Shao, Si-pei


    Ultraviolet warning technology is one of the important methods for missile warning. It provides a very effective way to detect the target for missile approaching alarm. With the development of modern technology, especially the development of information technology at high speed, the ultraviolet early warning system plays an increasingly important role. Compared to infrared warning, the ultraviolet warning has high efficiency and low false alarm rate. In the modern warfare, how to detect the threats earlier, prevent and reduce the attack of precision-guided missile has become a new challenge of missile warning technology. Because the ultraviolet warning technology has high environmental adaptability, the low false alarm rate, small volume and other advantages, in the military field applications it has been developed rapidly. For the ultraviolet warning system, the optimal working waveband is 250 nm 280 nm (Solar Blind UV) due to the strong absorption of ozone layer. According to current application demands for solar blind ultraviolet detection and warning, this paper proposes ultraviolet warning optical system based on interference imaging, which covers solar blind ultraviolet (250nm-280nm) and dual field. This structure includes a primary optical system, an ultraviolet reflector array, an ultraviolet imaging system and an ultraviolet interference imaging system. It makes use of an ultraviolet beam-splitter to achieve the separation of two optical systems. According to the detector and the corresponding application needs of two visual field of the optical system, the calculation and optical system design were completed. After the design, the MTF of the two optical system is more than 0.8@39lp/mm.A single pixel energy concentration is greater than 80%.

  8. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system (United States)

    Cohen, Simon J; Jeong, Hwan J; Shafer, David R


    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  9. Ultraviolet-A1 irradiation therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    McGrath, H


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus, SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which bind to antigens and are deposited within tissues to fix complement, resulting in widespread systemic inflammation. The studies presented herein are consistent with hyperpolarized, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-deficient mitochondria being central to the disease process. These hyperpolarized mitochondria resist the depolarization required for activation-induced apoptosis. The mitochondrial ATP deficits add to this resistance to apoptosis and also reduce the macrophage energy that is needed to clear apoptotic bodies. In both cases, necrosis, the alternative pathway of cell death, results. Intracellular constituents spill into the blood and tissues, eliciting inflammatory responses directed at their removal. What results is "autoimmunity." Ultraviolet (UV)-A1 photons have the capacity to remediate this aberrancy. Exogenous exposure to low-dose, full-body, UV-A1 radiation generates singlet oxygen. Singlet oxygen has two major palliative actions in patients with lupus and the UV-A1 photons themselves have several more. Singlet oxygen depolarizes the hyperpolarized mitochondrion, triggering non-ATP-dependent apoptosis that deters necrosis. Next, singlet oxygen activates the gene encoding heme oxygenase (HO-1), a major governor of systemic homeostasis. HO-1 catalyzes the degradation of the oxidant heme into biliverdin (converted to bilirubin), Fe, and carbon monoxide (CO), the first three of these exerting powerful antioxidant effects, and in conjunction with a fourth, CO, protecting against injury to the coronary arteries, the central nervous system, and the lungs. The UV-A1 photons themselves directly attenuate disease in lupus by reducing B cell activity, preventing the suppression of cell-mediated immunity, slowing an epigenetic progression toward SLE, and ameliorating discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus. Finally, a combination of these

  10. Can pulsed xenon ultraviolet light systems disinfect aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection? (United States)

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Villamaria, Frank C; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Brown, Donna S; Liao, I-Chia; Stock, Eileen M; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E


    Whereas pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light no-touch disinfection systems are being increasingly used for room disinfection after patient discharge with manual cleaning, their effectiveness in the absence of manual disinfection has not been previously evaluated. Our study indicates that pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light systems effectively reduce aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection. These data are important for hospitals planning to adopt this technology as adjunct to routine manual disinfection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. System performance modeling of extreme ultraviolet lithographic thermal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, P. A.; Gianoulakis, S. E.; Moen, C. D.; Kanouff, M. P.; Fisher, A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.


    Numerical simulation is used in the development of an extreme ultraviolet lithography Engineering Test Stand. Extensive modeling was applied to predict the impact of thermal loads on key lithographic parameters such as image placement error, focal shift, and loss of CD control. We show that thermal issues can be effectively managed to ensure that their impact on lithographic performance is maintained within design error budgets. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  12. Ultraviolet B radiation up-regulates the expression of IL-15 in human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadzadeh, M.; Takashima, Akira; Dougherty, I. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others


    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is a potent modulator of skin-related immune responses, particularly those involving the synthesis and the secretion of cytokines. The discovery of a new T cell mitogen, IL-15, prompted us to investigate its expression in skin and to examine the effects of UVB radiation on such expression. RNA from unirradiated and UVB-irradiated epidermal and dermal sheets derived from human foreskin as well as from unirradiated and UVB-irradiated skin cell populations were assayed for IL-15 expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Constitutive levels of IL-15 mRNA were detected in dermal sheets, but not in epidermal sheets. Following UVB treatment, IL-15 mRNA was induced in epidermal sheets and enhanced in dermal sheets. UVB-inducible epidermal expression of IL-15 mRNA was traced to HLA-DR{sup -} cells (presumably keratinocytes) and not to HLA-DR{sup +} cells (Langerhans cells). Cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts displayed basal levels of IL-15 mRNA that were also up-regulated following UVB exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed secretion of IL-15 protein by keratinocytes that enhanced following UVB treatment. These results constitute the first report of IL-15 mRNA expression and protein production in human skin. In addition to expanding the known influence of UVB radiation on the capacity of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts to express immunomodulatory cytokines, these findings suggest a new mechanism by which UVB can promote Ag-independent T cell responses via elaboration of IL-15. 51 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Ultraviolet sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenck, G.O.


    Artificial ultraviolet radiation sources can supply bactericidal energy in such a high dosage that in less than a second a higher degree of disinfection is accomplished than by sun irradiation in hours. Bacteria, viruses, phages, and organic micropollutants can be degraded by photochemical wet combustion down to and below detection limits of organic carbon. There are no known ultraviolet-resistant microorganisms. There are limitations to ultraviolet treatment which can often be overcome by adequate technical measures. Unlike other water purification processes, ultraviolet irradiation only exterminates living organisms. The radiation must be able to penetrate to the objects of the kill; in a dose large enough to kill, and long enough to kill and prevent new growth. Contrary to filters, ultraviolet flow-through reactors do not restrict free flow significantly. In contrast to distillation, ultraviolet irradiation imposes no phase changes to the water. Used as a sequence in ultrapure water systems, maintenance requirements are virtually nonexistent; because of the absence of dissolved and particulate matter in purified water, mechanical cleaning of the photoreactor chambers is not essential. The process is highly economical; energy consumption is low and supervision minimal. 103 refs., 45 figs., 15 tabs

  14. An ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer automation system. Part 1: Functional specifications (United States)

    Roth, G. S.; Teuschler, J. M.; Budde, W. L.


    The project definition, the functional requirements, and the functional design for a proposed computer automation system for scanning spectrophotometers are presented. The system will be implemented on a Data General computer using the BASIC language. The system is a real-time data acquisition system with 'on-line' data reduction, quality assurance, report generation and plotting. It is designed for operation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data General automation system. Analyses included in the system facilitate the determination of chlorophyll concentrations, the evaluation of color in waters, and a general transmittance/absorbance measurement of any given sample. Quality assurance is provided by the analysis of standard filters. Two related publications are titled, 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part II User's Guide' and 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part III Program Documentation.'

  15. Development of Precision Information Measuring System for Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Results of studying the neural network method are presented to reduce the amount of calibration points for the multisensor (MS, in particular for the photodiode. This allows transmitting to the MS individual conversion function and provides the high accuracy of measurement. The structure of synthesized information-measuring system and its measuring channel has created for implementing of the proposed approach. A structural scheme is proposed as well for values transmitting the etalon measures to measuring systems. Its used to determine the errors of photodiodes, as those which are produced for customers. This assures the interchangeability of sensors when using the individual conversion function.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Muravyeva


    Full Text Available The paper looks into the diverse aspects of qualifications system regulation, designed for balancing the supply and demand in the labor and educational service markets. Both the objects and mechanisms of such regulation are described. Special attention is given to institutions, involved in regulation of qualifications, and their jurisdiction. Another emphasis is on the industry-related regulation of qualifications which proved to be effective both on the national and European level. Such structures were first established on the national levels to regulate the qualifications and ensure their comparability and compatibility, given the economic globalization and growing labor and academic mobility. The author points out the role of the ministries of education and labor in maintaining a steady qualifications system, and outlines the positive experience of Great Britain using the industry councils for continuing development of qualifications system.

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet transmission spectroscopic system using a laser-produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaku, Masanori; Yamaura, Takahiro; Kodama, Hidenori; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru [Miyazaki Univ., Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Photon Science Center, Miyazaki (Japan)


    We have developed a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopic system using VUV continua emitting from laser-produced rare gas plasmas. By using this emission source, we have measured VUV transmission spectra of Nd{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} crystal. The crystal has a transmission peak at 172 nm and the absorption coefficient is measured to be 1.4 cm{sup -1} at this wavelength. (author)

  18. Study on high power ultraviolet laser oil detection system (United States)

    Jin, Qi; Cui, Zihao; Bi, Zongjie; Zhang, Yanchao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Fu, Shiyou


    Laser Induce Fluorescence (LIF) is a widely used new telemetry technology. It obtains information about oil spill and oil film thickness by analyzing the characteristics of stimulated fluorescence and has an important application in the field of rapid analysis of water composition. A set of LIF detection system for marine oil pollution is designed in this paper, which uses 355nm high-energy pulsed laser as the excitation light source. A high-sensitivity image intensifier is used in the detector. The upper machine sends a digital signal through a serial port to achieve nanoseconds range-gated width control for image intensifier. The target fluorescence spectrum image is displayed on the image intensifier by adjusting the delay time and the width of the pulse signal. The spectral image is coupled to CCD by lens imaging to achieve spectral display and data analysis function by computer. The system is used to detect the surface of the floating oil film in the distance of 25m to obtain the fluorescence spectra of different oil products respectively. The fluorescence spectra of oil products are obvious. The experimental results show that the system can realize high-precision long-range fluorescence detection and reflect the fluorescence characteristics of the target accurately, with broad application prospects in marine oil pollution identification and oil film thickness detection.

  19. Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray


    We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

  20. Experimental research and comparison of LDPC and RS channel coding in ultraviolet communication systems. (United States)

    Wu, Menglong; Han, Dahai; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Guangxin


    We have implemented a modified Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codec algorithm in ultraviolet (UV) communication system. Simulations are conducted with measured parameters to evaluate the LDPC-based UV system performance. Moreover, LDPC (960, 480) and RS (18, 10) are implemented and experimented via a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UV test bed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulation and suggest that based on the given power and 10(-3)bit error rate (BER), in comparison with an uncoded system, average communication distance increases 32% with RS code, while 78% with LDPC code.

  1. Regulation on control systems tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, J.; Navarro, J.M.


    Requirements under regulation applicable to the testing of control systems and controlled equipments in the case of USA nuclear projects are examined. They are reviewed, in particular, the following standards and criteria: 10 Code of Federal Regulations 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 20 and 21; IEEE Standards 279 and 308; IEEE Standard 338; US Regulatory Guides 1.22 and 1.118.( C.)

  2. Comparative evaluation of an ultraviolet and an orthochromatic rare-earth imaging system for veterinary radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.R.; Wortman, J.A.; Lloyd, J.K.F.; Saunders, H.M.; Biery, D.N.; Rhodes, W.H.; Evans, S.M.; Walker, L.M.; Green, P.; Mendez-Aguillar, R.


    The relative quality and speed of a new ultraviolet-emitting screen, ultraviolet-sensitive film rare-earth system (DuPont Ultra-Vision) was compared to an orthochromatic rare-earth system (Kodak Lanex) in a clinical trial. Seven different sets of radiographs of a human foot phantom, or actual canine anatomical structures (tarsus, pelvis, skull, chest, abdomen) were evaluated independently by radiologists, radiology residents and technicians who were unaware of the screen/film combinations used. The 400-speed, Ultra-Vision Rapid/UVG screen/film combination produced superior image detail compared to blue/green emitting 400 and 200-speed screen/film combinations. The image detail of the Ultra-Vision Rapid/UVG system was nearly equivalent to that produced using a 100-speed, fine-detail blue/green emitting screen/film combination. A 200-speed Ultra-Vision system was also tested and produced thoracic and abdominal radiographs of equivalent to slightly superior quality than those produced using blue/green emitting system

  3. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Zamzow

    Full Text Available High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm and the UVA (315-400-nm portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure.

  4. Ultraviolet-B Wavelengths Regulate Changes in UV Absorption of Cleaner Fish Labroides dimidiatus Mucus (United States)

    Zamzow, Jill P.; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Eckes, Maxi J.; Grutter, Alexandra S.


    High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm) and the UVA (315-400-nm) portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm) affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton’s body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton’s body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton’s body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure. PMID:24143264

  5. 1Mbps NLOS solar-blind ultraviolet communication system based on UV-LED array (United States)

    Sun, Zhaotian; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Ping'an; Qin, Yu; Bai, Tingzhu


    We proposed and demonstrated a high data rate ultraviolet communication system based on a 266nm UV LED array with 50mW luminous power. The emitting source is driven by a three outputs constant-current control circuit, whose driving speed is up to 2Mbps. At the receiving side, in order to achieve the amplification for high-speed signal, a two-stage differential preamplifier is designed to make I-V conversion. The voltage-current gain is up to 140dB and bandwidth is 1.9MHz. An experiment is conducted to test the performance of the UV communication system. The effects of elevation angles and transmission distance are analyzed. It is shown that the ultraviolet communication system has high data rate of up to 921.6kbps and bit error rate of less than 10-7 in 150m, which can beat the best record created by UV-LED communication system in terms of the transmission rate.

  6. Autonomous portable solar ultraviolet spectroradiometer (APSUS) - a new CCD spectrometer system for localized, real-time solar ultraviolet (280-400 nm) radiation measurement. (United States)

    Hooke, Rebecca; Pearson, Andy; O'Hagan, John


    Terrestrial solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has significant implications for human health and increasing levels are a key concern regarding the impact of climate change. Monitoring solar UV radiation at the earth's surface is therefore of increasing importance. A new prototype portable CCD (charge-coupled device) spectrometer-based system has been developed that monitors UV radiation (280-400 nm) levels at the earth's surface. It has the ability to deliver this information to the public in real time. Since the instrument can operate autonomously, it is called the Autonomous Portable Solar Ultraviolet Spectroradiometer (APSUS). This instrument incorporates an Ocean Optics QE65000 spectrometer which is contained within a robust environmental housing. The APSUS system can gather reliable solar UV spectral data from approximately April to October inclusive (depending on ambient temperature) in the UK. In this study the new APSUS unit and APSUS system are presented. Example solar UV spectra and diurnal UV Index values as measured by the APSUS system in London and Weymouth in the UK in summer 2012 are shown. © 2014 Crown copyright. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  7. The Role of Ultraviolet Radiation in the Ocular System of  Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercede Majdi


    Full Text Available With decreasing levels of ozone in the atmosphere, we are being exposed to higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR than ever before. UVR carries higher energy than visible light, and its effects on tissues include DNA damage, gene mutations, immunosuppression, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. In the eye, UVR is strongly associated with the development of basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid, pterygium, photokeratitis, climatic droplet keratopathy, ocular surface squamous neoplasia, cataracts, and uveal melanoma, and is weakly associated with age-related macular degeneration. Despite overwhelming evidence regarding the deleterious effects on UVR, public health measures to encourage UV protection of the eyes is generally lacking. Options for photoprotection include sunglasses, wide brim hats, windshields, plastic films for side windows in cars, UV blocking contact lenses, and following the UV Index report daily. The American National Standards Institute currently has regulations regarding properties of UV blocking sunglasses; however, compliance in the US is not mandatory. On the other hand, UVR does have therapeutic applications in the eye, particularly, riboflavin activated by ultraviolet A light (UVA radiation is used clinically to slow the progression of keratoconus, post-LASIK keratectasia, and bullous keratopathy by crosslinking corneal collagen fibers. Additionally, riboflavin activated by UVA has been shown to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic effects. This is clinically relevant in the treatment of infectious keratitis. Finally, exposure to low levels of light in the UV spectrum has been found to regulate the growth of the eye and lack of adequate exposure may increase the risk of development and progression of myopia.

  8. A Real-Time Ultraviolet Radiation Imaging System Using an Organic Photoconductive Image Sensor† (United States)

    Okino, Toru; Yamahira, Seiji; Yamada, Shota; Hirose, Yutaka; Odagawa, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi


    We have developed a real time ultraviolet (UV) imaging system that can visualize both invisible UV light and a visible (VIS) background scene in an outdoor environment. As a UV/VIS image sensor, an organic photoconductive film (OPF) imager is employed. The OPF has an intrinsically higher sensitivity in the UV wavelength region than those of conventional consumer Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS) or Charge Coupled Devices (CCD). As particular examples, imaging of hydrogen flame and of corona discharge is demonstrated. UV images overlapped on background scenes are simply made by on-board background subtraction. The system is capable of imaging weaker UV signals by four orders of magnitude than that of VIS background. It is applicable not only to future hydrogen supply stations but also to other UV/VIS monitor systems requiring UV sensitivity under strong visible radiation environment such as power supply substations. PMID:29361742

  9. A Real-Time Ultraviolet Radiation Imaging System Using an Organic Photoconductive Image Sensor. (United States)

    Okino, Toru; Yamahira, Seiji; Yamada, Shota; Hirose, Yutaka; Odagawa, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi


    We have developed a real time ultraviolet (UV) imaging system that can visualize both invisible UV light and a visible (VIS) background scene in an outdoor environment. As a UV/VIS image sensor, an organic photoconductive film (OPF) imager is employed. The OPF has an intrinsically higher sensitivity in the UV wavelength region than those of conventional consumer Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS) or Charge Coupled Devices (CCD). As particular examples, imaging of hydrogen flame and of corona discharge is demonstrated. UV images overlapped on background scenes are simply made by on-board background subtraction. The system is capable of imaging weaker UV signals by four orders of magnitude than that of VIS background. It is applicable not only to future hydrogen supply stations but also to other UV/VIS monitor systems requiring UV sensitivity under strong visible radiation environment such as power supply substations.

  10. Endocannabinoid Regulation of Neuroendocrine Systems. (United States)

    Tasker, Jeffrey G; Chen, Chun; Fisher, Marc O; Fu, Xin; Rainville, Jennifer R; Weiss, Grant L


    The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that is critical for sustaining life through its homeostatic control and integrative regulation of the autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine systems. Neuroendocrine function in mammals is mediated mainly through the control of pituitary hormone secretion by diverse neuroendocrine cell groups in the hypothalamus. Cannabinoid receptors are expressed throughout the hypothalamus, and endocannabinoids have been found to exert pronounced regulatory effects on neuroendocrine function via modulation of the outputs of several neuroendocrine systems. Here, we review the physiological regulation of neuroendocrine function by endocannabinoids, focusing on the role of endocannabinoids in the neuroendocrine regulation of the stress response, food intake, fluid homeostasis, and reproductive function. Cannabis sativa (marijuana) has a long history of recreational and/or medicinal use dating back to ancient times. It was used as an analgesic, anesthetic, and antianxiety herb as early as 2600 B.C. The hedonic, anxiolytic, and mood-elevating properties of cannabis have also been cited in ancient records from different cultures. However, it was not until 1964 that the psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, was isolated and its chemical structure determined (Gaoni & Mechoulam, 1964). © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection system to decrease bacterial contamination in operating rooms. (United States)

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ghantoji, Shashank S; Stibich, Mark; Fleming, Jason B; Segal, Cindy; Ware, Kathy M; Chemaly, Roy F


    Environmental cleanliness is one of the contributing factors for surgical site infections in the operating rooms (ORs). To decrease environmental contamination, pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV), an easy and safe no-touch disinfection system, is employed in several hospital environments. The positive effect of this technology on environmental decontamination has been observed in patient rooms and ORs during the end-of-day cleaning but so far, no study explored its feasibility between surgical cases in the OR. In this study, 5 high-touch surfaces in 30 ORs were sampled after manual cleaning and after PX-UV intervention mimicking between-case cleaning to avoid the disruption of the ORs' normal flow. The efficacy of a 1-min, 2-min, and 8-min cycle were tested by measuring the surfaces' contaminants by quantitative cultures using Tryptic Soy Agar contact plates. We showed that combining standard between-case manual cleaning of surfaces with a 2-min cycle of disinfection using a portable xenon pulsed ultraviolet light germicidal device eliminated at least 70% more bacterial load after manual cleaning. This study showed the proof of efficacy of a 2-min cycle of PX-UV in ORs in eliminating bacterial contaminants. This method will allow a short time for room turnover and a potential reduction of pathogen transmission to patients and possibly surgical site infections.

  12. Invisible marking system by extreme ultraviolet radiation: the new frontier for anti-counterfeiting tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, P. Di; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Mezi, L.; Murra, D.; Torre, A.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R.M.; Vincenti, M.A.


    We present a marking technology which uses extreme ultraviolet radiation to write invisible patterns on tags based on alkali fluoride thin films. The shape of the pattern is pre-determined by a mask (in the case of contact lithography) or by a suitable mirror (projection lithography). Tags marked using this method offer a much better protection against fakes than currently available anti-counterfeiting techniques. The complexity and cost of this technology can be tailored to the value of the good to be protected, leaving, on the other hand, the specific reading technique straightforward. So far, we have exploited our invisible marking to tag artworks, identity cards, electrical components, and containers of radioactive wastes. Advantages and limits of this technology are discussed in comparison with the anti-counterfeiting systems available in the market.

  13. Demonstration and evaluation of the pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation gas-treatment system, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.; Wilkey, M.; Peters, R.; Tomczyk, N.; Friedlund, J.; Farber, P.


    Argonne National Laboratory was asked to demonstrate and evaluate a pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation system developed by Purus, Inc., at the Volatile Organic Compounds Non-Arid Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site near aiken, South Carolina. The Purus system consists of four reactor chambers, each containing a xenon flash lamp. During the two weeks of testing, samples were taken and analyzed from the inlet and outlet sides of the Purus system. The contaminants of concern on the inlet were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA); the contaminants of concern on the outlet were PCE, TCE, TCA, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform. The evaluation of the Purus system included an examination of the reduction of both TCE and PCE and a search for any change in the concentrations. (Operating conditions included flow rates, ranging from 25 to 100 standard cubic feet per minute; inlet concentration of PCE, ranging from 360 to 10,700 parts per million volume; and flash lamp rates, ranging from 1 to 30 hertz.) The Purus system was quite efficient at reducing the concentrations of both PCE and TCE. The potential by-products, TCA, CT, and chloroform, showed no significant increases throughout the range of the various operating parameters. Overall, the Purus system appears to be a cost-efficient means of reducing the concentrations of PCE and TCE, while the removal of the initial photo-oxidation products and TCA is slower and needs further evaluation

  14. Ultraviolet radiation is feasible alternative for desinfeting of aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems sewage in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Luis Antonio; Campos, Jose Roberto


    This works shows desinfecting results employing ultraviolet radiation to wastes of sewage treatment station on true scales. Wastes of anaerobic, facultative and maturation pools, septic tank and anaerobic reactor were disinfected. It was found a inactive efficiency to coliforms higher than 99.9%. Safe ultraviolet desinfecting is technically applicable to wastes of sewage treatment station applying aerobic or anaerobic process

  15. Removing organics with the GEODE ultraviolet/ozone system [removal of organic materials from BWR process water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, R.A.; Alexander, J.E.; Lezon, R.J.


    The evaluation of an ultraviolet/ozone oxidation process for removing organic materials from BWR process water systems is described. The process has been found to remove over 90 per cent of organic carbon, at an estimated annual operating cost of around $21 000. (author)

  16. Ursolic Acid-Regulated Energy Metabolism—Reliever or Propeller of Ultraviolet-Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Lee


    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV light is a leading cause of diseases, such as skin cancers and cataracts. A main process mediating UV-induced pathogenesis is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Excessive ROS levels induce the formation of DNA adducts (e.g., pyrimidine dimers and result in stalled DNA replication forks. In addition, ROS promotes phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase-coupled hormone receptors and alters downstream energy metabolism. With respect to the risk of UV-induced photocarcinogenesis and photodamage, the antitumoral and antioxidant functions of natural compounds become important for reducing UV-induced adverse effects. One important question in the field is what determines the differential sensitivity of various types of cells to UV light and how exogenous molecules, such as phytochemicals, protect normal cells from UV-inflicted damage while potentiating tumor cell death, presumably via interaction with intracellular target molecules and signaling pathways. Several endogenous molecules have emerged as possible players mediating UV-triggered DNA damage responses. Specifically, UV activates the PIKK (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase family members, which include DNA-PKcs, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin, whose signaling can be affected by energy metabolism; however, it remains unclear to what extent the activation of hormone receptors regulates PIKKs and whether this crosstalk occurs in all types of cells in response to UV. This review focuses on proteomic descriptions of the relationships between cellular photosensitivity and the phenotypic expression of the insulin/insulin-like growth receptor. It covers the cAMP-dependent pathways, which have recently been shown to regulate the DNA repair machinery through interactions with the PIKK family members. Finally, this review provides a strategic illustration of how UV-induced mitogenic activity is modulated by the insulin

  17. Kansas City plant ultraviolet/ozone/hydrogen peroxide groundwater treatment system overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stites, M.E.; Hughes, R.F.


    The Kansas City Plant (KCP) has committed to the utilization of a groundwater treatment system, for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), that discharges a minimal amount of pollutants to the environment. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) system utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide serves in this capacity. Packed tower aeration and activated carbon filtration are listed as best available technologies (BATs) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the removal of VOCs in water. The disadvantage to these BATs is that they transfer the VOCs from the water medium to the air or carbon media respectively. Operation of the system began in May 1988 at a flow rate of 22.7 liters per minute (lpm) (6 gallons per minute (gpm)). An additional 102.2 lpm (27 gpm) of flow were added in October 1990. Various efforts to optimize and track the treatment unites efficiency have been carried out. A maximum influent reading of 26,590 parts per billion (ppb) of total VOCs has been recorded. Following the addition of flows, removal efficiency has averaged approximately 95%. Both air and water effluents are factored into this calculation. (author)

  18. Developmental effects of additional ultraviolet a radiation, growth regulators and tyrosine in Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cláudia Barboza Silva


    Full Text Available Tissue cultures of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze were treated with different growth regulators (Kinetin and 2,4-D, tyrosine and Ultraviolet A radiation (UV-A; 320 - 400 nm to investigate their effects on development and pigment production. Nodal segments of plantlets grown from seeds were inoculated in all tested media and different light conditions. After eight weeks, this material was used to evaluate biomass, chlorophyll and betacyanin production. The Murashige and Skoog (MS + kinetin medium resulted in development of approximately four shoots/explant. This medium plus white light was the best combination for micropropagation with the highest rooting percentage and betacyanin production. Plantlets grown under UV-A illumination reduced biomass accumulation and worse Chlorophyll a / Chlorophyll b ratio. Addition of 2,4-D resulted in inhibition of pigment production and growth of plantlets.Culturas de tecidos de Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze foram tratadas com diferentes reguladores de crescimento (Cinetina e 2,4-D, tirosina e com ultravioleta longo (UV-A; 320 -400 nm adicional com o intuito de observar seus efeitos no desenvolvimento e produção de pigmentos. Segmentos nodais de plantas crescidas a partir de sementes foram inoculados nos meios de cultura testados e mantidos sob os diferentes tipos de iluminação. Após 8 semanas este material foi utilizado para avaliação da produção de biomassa, clorofilas e betacianinas. O meio de Murashige and Skoog (MS + cinetina proporcionou plântulas com até 4 brotos/explante. Este meio iluminado com luz branca (tipo luz do dia foi a combinação mais adequada para micropropagação, pois apresenta maior porcentagem de enraizamento e maior produção de betacianinas. Plântulas crescidas sob iluminação com ultravioleta adicional tiveram diminuídas tanto a produção de biomassa quanto a relação Clor a/ Clor b. A adição de 2,4-D ao meio de cultura resultou na inibição da produ

  19. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.


    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  20. System for time-discretized vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of spark breakdown in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryberg, D.; Fierro, A.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)


    A system for time-discretized spectroscopic measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from spark discharges in the 60-160 nm range has been developed for the study of early plasma-forming phenomena. The system induces a spark discharge in an environment close to atmospheric conditions created using a high speed puff value, but is otherwise kept at high vacuum to allow for the propagation of VUV light. Using a vertical slit placed 1.5 mm from the discharge the emission from a small cross section of the discharge is allowed to pass into the selection chamber consisting of a spherical grating, with 1200 grooves/mm, and an exit slit set to 100 μm. Following the exit slit is a photomultiplier tube with a sodium salicylate scintillator that is used for the time discretized measurement of the VUV signal with a temporal resolution limit of 10 ns. Results from discharges studied in dry air, Nitrogen, SF{sub 6}, and Argon indicate the emission of light with wavelengths shorter than 120 nm where the photon energy begins to approach the regime of direct photoionization.

  1. Antioxidant activity stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, Gabriela; Ferreira, Gabrielle de Jesus; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Vargas, Marcelo Alves


    Highlights: • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces biological damage, principally oxidative stress. • We analyzed oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) of a crab. • The damage was evaluated using biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry. • We verified the occurrence of apoptosis in the brain of the UV-exposed crabs. • Environmental doses of UV can cause oxidative damage to CNS, including apoptosis. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, principally oxidative stress, by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated biochemical impairments related to the oxidative stress induced by UVA, UVB and UVA + UVB (solar simulator-SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain and eyestalk of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated these regions by sampling on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of UV exposure for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical (ACAP), and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays were performed for anti-activated-caspase 3 in the brains. After the first day of exposure, LPO increased in the eyestalks and brains of the UV-exposed animals; ACAP, and CAT, GPX and GST activities also increased in the brains. On the third day, the LPO values in the eyestalk remained high in the UV-exposed groups, while ACAP decreased in the brain and eyestalk and CAT activity remained high in all irradiated groups in both regions. On the fifth day, LPO decreased in the eyestalk and brain of the UV-exposed groups. These results may have been a consequence of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) activity, since CAT activity was high in both regions, ACAP was high in the eyestalks of the SIM group, and GPX activity remained high in the eyestalks of the UVA and UVB groups. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting

  2. Antioxidant activity stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, Gabriela, E-mail: [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Ferreira, Gabrielle de Jesus, E-mail: [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Geihs, Márcio Alberto, E-mail: [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas-Fisiologia Animal Comparada. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); Vargas, Marcelo Alves, E-mail: [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas-Fisiologia Animal Comparada. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); and others


    Highlights: • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces biological damage, principally oxidative stress. • We analyzed oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) of a crab. • The damage was evaluated using biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry. • We verified the occurrence of apoptosis in the brain of the UV-exposed crabs. • Environmental doses of UV can cause oxidative damage to CNS, including apoptosis. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, principally oxidative stress, by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated biochemical impairments related to the oxidative stress induced by UVA, UVB and UVA + UVB (solar simulator-SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain and eyestalk of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated these regions by sampling on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of UV exposure for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical (ACAP), and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays were performed for anti-activated-caspase 3 in the brains. After the first day of exposure, LPO increased in the eyestalks and brains of the UV-exposed animals; ACAP, and CAT, GPX and GST activities also increased in the brains. On the third day, the LPO values in the eyestalk remained high in the UV-exposed groups, while ACAP decreased in the brain and eyestalk and CAT activity remained high in all irradiated groups in both regions. On the fifth day, LPO decreased in the eyestalk and brain of the UV-exposed groups. These results may have been a consequence of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) activity, since CAT activity was high in both regions, ACAP was high in the eyestalks of the SIM group, and GPX activity remained high in the eyestalks of the UVA and UVB groups. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting

  3. Development of novel solvent extraction system by utilizing the metal ions excitation with ultraviolet pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Morihisa; Sasaki, Yuji; Yokoyama, Atsushi


    Novel liquid-liquid extraction technique was developed using ultraviolet pulse laser. The liquid-liquid system was composed of pure water and the 1-octanol solution of EuCl 3 and TODGA (TODGA = N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide). The Eu 3+ ion, which was formed to be the Eu 3+ (TODGA) n complex in 1-octanol, was reduced to Eu 2+ by irradiation of fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). The Eu 2+ ion was stabilized by addition of 15-Crown-5 (15C5). The observation by in-situ emission spectroscopy showed that the Eu 2+ ion reduced by the 266 nm-laser irradiation resulted in back-extraction of Eu from the 1-octanol solution to the water. The emission spectrum observed in 1-octanol suggested the change from the Eu 3+ (TODGA) n to the Eu 2+ (15C5) m complex after the reduction by the 266 nm laser. Time dependence of the concentration of Eu 2+ (15C5) m was investigated at the aqueous phase, the organic one and their interface. The results suggest that (1) rapid formation of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol after the irradiation of the 266 nm laser, (2) slow diffusion of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol, and (3) existence of time-lag between the formation of Eu 2+ (15C5) m in 1-octanol and its back-extraction to the water. (author)

  4. Optical fluence modelling for ultraviolet light emitting diode-based water treatment systems. (United States)

    Simons, R; Gabbai, U E; Moram, M A


    This work presents a validated optical fluence rate model optimised for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), which allow a very wide range of emission wavelengths and source geometries to be used in water treatment units. The model is based on a Monte Carlo approach, in which an incremental ray-tracing algorithm is used to calculate the local volumetric rate of energy absorption and subsequently convert it to the local fluence rate distribution for an UV-LED water treatment chamber of arbitrary design. The model includes contributions from optical reflections and scattering by treatment chamber walls and from scattering due to particulates and/or microorganisms. The model successfully predicts optical fluence rates in point-of-use water treatment units, as verified using biodosimetry with MS-2 bacteriophage at a UV-LED emission wavelength of 254 nm. The effects of chamber geometry are also modelled effectively and are consistent with the inactivation data for E. coli at 254 nm. The data indicate that this model is suitable for application in the design and optimisation of UV-LED-based water treatment systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in the regulation by poly(ADP-ribose) of repair of DNA damage from alkylating agents and ultraviolet light according to cell type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Bodell, W.J.; Morgan, W.F.; Zelle, B.


    Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by 3-aminobenzamide in various human and hamster cells influenced the responses to DNA damage from methyl methanesulfonate, but not from ultraviolet light. After exposure to methyl methanesulfonate, 3-aminobenzamide increased the strand break frequency in all cell types studied, but only stimulated repair replication in lymphoid and HeLa cells, suggesting these are independent effects. 3-Aminobenzamide also inhibited the pathway for de novo synthesis of DNA purines, suggesting that some of its effects may be due to disturbance of precursor pathways and irrelevant to the role of poly(ADP-ribose) in repair. Previous claims that 3-aminobenzamide stimulates repair synthesis after exposure to UV light are probably artifacts, because the stimulations are only observed in lymphocytes in the presence of a high concentration of hydroxyurea that itself inhibits repair. The initial inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis and the excision of the major alkylation products and pyrimidine dimers were unaffected by 3-aminobenzamide. In general poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis appears to be uniquely involved in regulating the ligation stage of repair of alkylation damage but not ultraviolet damage. By regulating the ligation efficiency, poly(ADP-ribosylation) modulates the dynamic balance between incision and ligation, so as to minimize the frequency of DNA breaks. The ligation stage of repair of UV damage appears different and is not regulated by poly(ADP-ribosylation).

  6. Ultraviolet disinfection of potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.L.


    Because of upcoming surface and groundwater regulations regarding the control of microbiological and chemical contaminants, there is a need to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for primary disinfection of potable water supplies. Data is presented on microbicidal wavelengths of UV and distribution of energy output for low and medium-pressure arc lamps. Both systems were found to perform equally well for inactivating microorganisms, but each had distinct advantages in different applications. Approximate dosages for 90% inactivation of selected microorganisms by UV is presented in a table. Cost analysis for disinfection is presented in two tables as well as the advantages and disadvantages of UV disinfection

  7. Effectiveness of an ultraviolet-C disinfection system for reduction of healthcare-associated pathogens. (United States)

    Yang, Jui-Hsuan; Wu, Un-In; Tai, Huei-Min; Sheng, Wang-Huei


    Healthcare-associated infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens are significantly associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Environmental cleaning can reduce transmission of these pathogens but is often inadequate. Adjunctive methods are warranted to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection particularly in hospital settings where healthcare-associated infections are of major concern. We conducted a study to examine the effectiveness of a mobile, automatic device, Hyper Light Disinfection Robot (model: Hyper Light P3), which utilized ultraviolet-C (UV-C) to kill MDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MDR- Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), Mycobacterium abscessus and Aspergillus fumigatus. The performance of this device in disinfecting hospital rooms previously admitted by patients harboring MRSA and VRE was also assessed. Except for VRE and M. abscessus, more than 3 log 10 reduction of vegetative bacteria colonies was observed after UV-C irradiation of 5 min at a distance of 3 m from the device. At the distance of 1 m, substantial and comparable reduction of colonies was observed across all tested microorganisms regardless of exposure time. The killing effect was less pronounced for A. fumigatus particularly at the distance of 2-3 m. In uncleaned hospital rooms, there was significant reduction in the number of bacteria colonies sampled from different surfaces after UV-C irradiation for 15 min. UV-C disinfection system was effective in killing MDR pathogens. Further study is warranted to confirm its effectiveness as an adjunctive method in disinfecting hospital environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sterilization efficacy of ultraviolet irradiation on microbial aerosols under dynamic airflow by experimental air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroshi


    In order to know the sterilization efficacy of ultraviolet irradiation on microbial aerosols, the size and the weight of the aerosol particles were evaluated, and these were irradiated under dynamic air flow created by an experimental air conditioning system. The experimental apparatus consisted of a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, an aerosol generator, spiral UV lamps placed around a quart glass tube, an Andersen air sampler and a vacuum pump. They were connected serially by stainless steel ducts (85 mm in diameter, 8 m in length). Six types of microbial aerosols generated from an ultrasonic nebulizer were irradiated by UV rays (wavelength 254 nm, mean density 9400 μW/cm 2 ). Their irradiation time ranged from 1.0 to 0.0625 seconds. The microbial aerosols were collected onto the trypticase soy agar (TSA) medium in the Andersen air sampler. After incubation, the number of colony forming units (CFU) were counted, and converted to particle counts. The diameter of microbial aerosol particles calculated by their log normal distribution were found to match the diameter of a single bacteria cell measured by a microscope. The sterilization efficacy of UV in standard airflow conditions (0.5 sec. irradiation) were found to be over 99.5 % in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis (vegetative cell) and Bacillus subtilis (spore) and 67 % in Aspergillus niger (conidium). In A. niger, which was the most resistant microbe to UV irradiation, the efficacy rose up to 79 % when irradiated for 1.0 sec., and it was observed that the growth speed of the colonies was slower than that of the controls. It was thought that UV rays caused some damage to the proliferation of A. niger cells. (author)

  9. Can the circadian system of a diurnal and a nocturnal rodent entrain to ultraviolet light?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, RA; Scheper, A; Daan, S


    Spectral measurements of sunlight throughout the day show close correspondence between the timing of above ground activity of the European ground squirrel and the presence of ultraviolet light in the solar spectrum. However, in a standard entrainment experiment ground squirrels show no entrainment

  10. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.


    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  11. The Role of Ultraviolet Radiation in the Ocular System of  Mammals


    Mercede Majdi; Behrad Y. Milani; Asadolah Movahedan; Lisa Wasielewski; Ali R. Djalilian


    With decreasing levels of ozone in the atmosphere, we are being exposed to higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than ever before. UVR carries higher energy than visible light, and its effects on tissues include DNA damage, gene mutations, immunosuppression, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. In the eye, UVR is strongly associated with the development of basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid, pterygium, photokeratitis, climatic droplet keratopathy, ocular surface sq...

  12. Time-Resolved Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of The M-Dwarf GJ 876 Exoplanetary System (United States)

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Tian, Feng; Froning, Cynthia S.; Roberge, Aki


    Extrasolar planets orbiting M-stars may represent our best chance to discover habitable worlds in the coming decade. The ultraviolet spectrum incident upon both Earth-like and Jovian planets is critically important for proper modeling of their atmospheric heating and chemistry. In order to provide more realistic inputs for atmospheric models of planets orbiting low-mass stars, we present new near- and far-ultraviolet (NUV and FUV) spectroscopy of the M-dwarf exoplanet host GJ 876 (M4V). Using the COS and STIS spectrographs on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured the 1150-3140 A spectrum of GJ 876. We have reconstructed the stellar H1 Ly alpha emission line profile, and find that the integrated Ly alpha flux is roughly equal to the rest of the integrated flux (1150-1210 A + 1220-3140 A) in the entire ultraviolet bandpass (F(Ly alpha)/F(FUV+NUV) equals approximately 0.7). This ratio is approximately 2500x greater than the solar value. We describe the ultraviolet line spectrum and report surprisingly strong fluorescent emission from hot H2 (T(H2) greater than 2000 K). We show the light curve of a chromospheric + transition region flare observed in several far-UV emission lines, with flare/quiescent flux ratios greater than or equal to 10. The strong FUV radiation field of an M-star (and specifically Ly alpha) is important for determining the abundance of O2--and the formation of biomarkers-in the lower atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of low-mass stars.

  13. Regulation of gene expression by low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation in Pisum sativum: Isolation of novel genes by suppression subtractive hybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sävenstrand, H.; Brosché, M.; Strid, A.


    Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate genes differentially regulated by low levels (UV-B BE,300 0.13 W m -2 ) of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 290–320 nm) in Pisum sativum. Six genes were regulated, two of which were novel. The mRNA levels for these two (PsTSDC and PsUOS1) were increased and depressed by UV-B treatment, respectively. Domains in the PsTSDC translation product was similar to TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor-similar) domains and a NB-ARC domain (nucleotide-binding domain in APAF-1, R gene products and CED-4). The PsUOS1 translation product was similar to an open reading frame in Arabidopsis. Genes encoding embryo-abundant protein (PsEMB) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthase (PsSAMS) were induced by UV-B, whereas the transcript levels for genes encoding sucrose transport protein (PsSUT) or ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (PsR5P3E) were decreased. These regulation patterns are novel, and the PsEMB and PsR5P3E sequences are reported for the first time. The stress-specificity of regulation of these genes were tested by ozone fumigation (100 ppb O 3 ). Qualitatively, the similarity of expression after both UV-B and ozone exposure suggests that, for these genes, similar stress-response pathways are in action. (author)

  14. Ultraviolet fire detector (United States)

    Turnage, J. E.; Linford, R. M. F.; Cornish, S. D.


    System is capable of detecting ultraviolet light emitted by match size flame at distance of 10 ft. System is not affected by high energy or particulate radiation and is therefore particularly suited for applications around nuclear plants and X-ray equipment.

  15. Photoreceptor System for Melatonin Regulation and Phototherapy (United States)

    Brainard, George (Inventor); Glickman, Gena (Inventor)


    The present invention involves a light system for stimulating or regulating neuroendocrine, circadian, and photoneural systems in mammals based upon the discovery of peak sensitivity ranging from 425-505 nm; a light meter system for quantifying light which stimulates or regulates mammalian circadian, photoneural, and neuroendocrine systems. The present invention also relates to translucent and transparent materials, and lamps or other light sources with or without filters capable of stimulating or regulating neuroendocrine, circadian, and photoneural systems in mammals. Additionally, the present invention involves treatment of mammals with a wide variety of disorders or deficits, including light responsive disorders, eating disorders, menstrual cycle disorders, non-specific alerting and performance deficits, hormone-sensitive cancers, and cardiovascular disorders.

  16. Skylab ultraviolet stellar spectra - Emission lines from the Beta Lyrae system (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Parsons, S. B.; Wray, J. D.; Benedict, G. F.; Henize, K. G.; Mccluskey, G. E.


    Observations of Beta Lyr with the Skylab S-019 ultraviolet objective-prism spectrograph show numerous emission lines in the region from 1400 to 2300 A. Some variations in line strength between phases 0.25 and 0.50 are seen, which probably explain the shallowness of the OAO-2 light curve at 1910 A. Many of the emission lines are probably due to intercombination transitions, thus confirming the concept that the emission is produced by collisional excitation in low-density clouds of hot gas.

  17. Institutions and Regulations in Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    Institutions (including regulations) are constitutive elements of innovation systems, and therefore cornerstones of innovation policy. Focusing on (soft and hard) regulation, the paper identifies the most salient regulatory areas from the perspective of the innovation system. When asking about...... for the innovativeness of the society at large; and the extent to which regulation is adapting to new (social, economic and technological) contexts and is socially legitimate and accepted. These are potentially the three problems that innovation policy needs to address in this area. This provides guidance for the design...... and re-design of innovation policy, so that policy makers may analyse empirically the social dynamics actually generated by regulation rather than simply assuming deductively their effects....

  18. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G M


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a complete carcinogen. The effects of UV radiation are mediated via direct damage to cellular DNA in the skin and suppression of image surveillance mechanisms. In the context of organ transplantation, addiction of drugs which suppress the immune system add greatly to the carcinogenicity of UV radiation. This review considers the mechanisms of such effects.

  19. Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system (United States)

    Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro


    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites ( Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species ( T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition.

  20. Utilization of ultraviolet radiation in effluent disinfestation of domestic waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, P.R.R.; Andrade e Silva, L.G. de


    Ultraviolet radiation disinfection of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Biodigestor (UASB) and UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluents is possible to be reached utilizing a single low pressure mercury lamp arc (15 W nominal power) in a shell tube flow through reactor (1.2 L useful volume). Fecal coliforms, total coliforms and colifages were used as microbiological parameters. For fecal coliforms, about 3 logarithmic units (log. un.) was removed from UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluent and 4 log. un. from UASB effluent with 7 and 30 seconds of hydraulic retention time, respectively. Good empirical correlations were obtained between microbiological parameters and hydraulic retention times. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  1. An ultraviolet investigation of the unusual eclipsing binary system FF AQR (United States)

    Dorren, J. D.; Guinan, E. F.; Sion, E. M.


    A series of seven low dispersion IUE exposures in ultraviolet and wavelength regions obtained on December 6, 1981 during the eclipse of the subdwarf, during egress, and out of eclipse is analyzed. These observations and the binary phase at which they were made are shown on a schematic representation of the V-band light curve obtained in 1975. The depth in V is 0.15 mag. The circles are IUE V magnitudes from FES measures obtained during the observing run. They indicate an eclipse depth some 0.05 mag lower than expected, possibly due to difficulties with the color term in the FES calibration. The eclipse depths of Dworetsky in U, B and V were assumed in the calculations.

  2. Role of Osmolytes in Regulating Immune System. (United States)

    Kumar, Tarun; Yadav, Manisha; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar


    The immune system has evolved to protect the host organism from diverse range of pathogenic microbes that are themselves constantly evolving. It is a complex network of cells, humoral factors, chemokines and cytokines. Dysregulation of immune system results in various kinds of immunological disorders. There are several external agents which govern the regulation of immune system. Recent studies have indicated the role of osmolytes in regulation of various immunological processes such as Ag-Ab interaction, Ig assembly, Ag presentation etc. In this present review, we have systematically discussed the role of osmolytes involved in regulation of several key immunological processes. Osmolytes are involved in the regulation of several key immunological processes such as immunoglobulin assembly and folding, immune cells proliferation, regulation of immune cells function, Ag-Ab interaction, antigen presentation, inflammatory response and protection against photo-immunosuppression. Hence, osmolytes and their transporters might be used as potential drug and drug targets respectively. This review is therefore designed to help clinicians in development of osmolyte based therapeutic strategies in the treatment of various immunological disorders. Appropriate future perspectives have also been included.

  3. An Autonomous System for Experimental Evolution of Microbial Cultures: Test Results Using Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Escherichia Coli. (United States)

    Ouandji, Cynthia; Wang, Jonathan; Arismendi, Dillon; Lee, Alonzo; Blaich, Justin; Gentry, Diana


    At its core, the field of microbial experimental evolution seeks to elucidate the natural laws governing the history of microbial life by understanding its underlying driving mechanisms. However, observing evolution in nature is complex, as environmental conditions are difficult to control. Laboratory-based experiments for observing population evolution provide more control, but manually culturing and studying multiple generations of microorganisms can be time consuming, labor intensive, and prone to inconsistency. We have constructed a prototype, closed system device that automates the process of directed evolution experiments in microorganisms. It is compatible with any liquid microbial culture, including polycultures and field samples, provides flow control and adjustable agitation, continuously monitors optical density (OD), and can dynamically control environmental pressures such as ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation and temperature. Here, the results of the prototype are compared to iterative exposure and survival assays conducted using a traditional hood, UV-C lamp, and shutter system.

  4. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics (United States)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  5. Intraocular pressure reduction and regulation system (United States)

    Baehr, E. F.; Burnett, J. E.; Felder, S. F.; Mcgannon, W. J.


    An intraocular pressure reduction and regulation system is described and data are presented covering performance in: (1) reducing intraocular pressure to a preselected value, (2) maintaining a set minimum intraocular pressure, and (3) reducing the dynamic increases in intraocular pressure resulting from external loads applied to the eye.

  6. Shigella Iron Acquisition Systems and their Regulation. (United States)

    Wei, Yahan; Murphy, Erin R


    Survival of Shigella within the host is strictly dependent on the ability of the pathogen to acquire essential nutrients, such as iron. As an innate immune defense against invading pathogens, the level of bio-available iron within the human host is maintained at exceeding low levels, by sequestration of the element within heme and other host iron-binding compounds. In response to sequestration mediated iron limitation, Shigella produce multiple iron-uptake systems that each function to facilitate the utilization of a specific host-associated source of nutrient iron. As a mechanism to balance the essential need for iron and the toxicity of the element when in excess, the production of bacterial iron acquisition systems is tightly regulated by a variety of molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the iron-uptake systems produced by Shigella species, their distribution within the genus, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their production.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Trokhymenko


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes specific features of establishment of new regulatory standards of systemically important banks as one of the most priority directions of post-crisis improvement of supranational financial regulation. The essense of active and prearranged initiatives to secure constant activity of global and domestic powerful super-big banking institutions is investigated as well as some approaches as to recovery measures implementation without involvement of taxpayers' funds in case of their financial failure are considered. In particular, the main points are focused on introduction of additional requirements to the sufficiency of capital of global systemically important banks, development of the regulatory mechanisms of domestic systemically important banks by domestic authorities taking into account the specific peculiarities of certain national economies, structural reforms as to separation of traditional banking from the securities transactions for the depositors protection (Volcker rule, USA; Vickers rule, UK, establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism for the Eurozone banks, and declaration of necessity to form the Single mechanism for bank bankruptcy resolution etc. Some proposals concerning transformation of domestic system of financial regulation and supervision in Ukraine, like strengthening control of systemically important banks activity and introduction of mega-regulator model are characterized.

  8. Multiple Roles for UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 in Regulating Gene Expression and Metabolite Accumulation in Arabidopsis under Solar Ultraviolet Radiation1[W][OA (United States)

    Morales, Luis O.; Brosché, Mikael; Vainonen, Julia; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Wargent, Jason J.; Sipari, Nina; Strid, Åke; Lindfors, Anders V.; Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J.


    Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280–315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315–400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films. Gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PDX1) accumulation, and leaf metabolite signatures were analyzed. The results show that UVR8 is required for transcript accumulation of genes involved in UV protection, oxidative stress, hormone signal transduction, and defense against herbivores under solar UV. Under natural UV-A irradiance, UVR8 is likely to interact with UV-A/blue light signaling pathways to moderate UV-B-driven transcript and PDX1 accumulation. UVR8 both positively and negatively affects UV-A-regulated gene expression and metabolite accumulation but is required for the UV-B induction of phenolics. Moreover, UVR8-dependent UV-B acclimation during the early stages of plant development may enhance normal growth under long-term exposure to solar UV. PMID:23250626

  9. Spatial Structures and Regulation in Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Pernille

    , and the other is the spatial regulation of biological systems, here related to different aspects of the inflammatory response. All systems are studied using computational modelling and mathematical analysis. The first part of the thesis explores different protein aggregation scenarios. In Chapter 1, we consider...... a previously studied and very general aggregation model describing frangible linear filaments. This model is especially relevant for the growth of amyloid fibres, that have been related to a number of serious human diseases, and which are known to grow in an accelerated self-enhanced manner.We derive...... model of the tissue and show how coupled cells are able to function as an excitable medium and propagate waves of high cytokine concentration through the tissue. If the internal regulation in the cells is over-productive, the model predicts a continuous amplification of cytokines, which spans the entire...

  10. Compatibility of the ultraviolet light-ozone system for laundry waste water treatment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshiaki; Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Izumida, Tatsuo


    As an alternative treatment system for laundry waste water in nuclear power plants, a system was chosen in which such organic compounds as surfactant would be oxidized by ultraviolet (UV) light and ozone. The system compatibility, UV light source, and dissolved ozone concentration were examined through experiments. First, ozone gas was absorbed in the waste water. After the dissolved ozone concentration equilibrated at the desired value, the waste water was irradiated by a mercury lamp. Then, the time dependence of the concentrations of the organic compounds, the dissolved ozone, and the hydrogen peroxide were measured to estimate the treatment rate of the system. The mercury lamp with a 10 5 -Pa vapor pressure achieved large UV radiation and a treatment rate increase, leading to a compatible system without secondary waste generation. The effect of the dissolved ozone concentration on the treatment rate was saturated when concentration was >3.3 x 10 -4 mol/10 -3 m 3 at the time UV radiation was started. Numerical results indicated the saturation was due to hydrogen peroxide generation, which prevents hydroxyl radical generation

  11. Drinking water treatment with ultraviolet light for travelers -- Evaluation of a mobile lightweight system. (United States)

    Timmermann, Lisa F; Ritter, Klaus; Hillebrandt, David; Küpper, Thomas


    The SteriPEN(®) is a handheld device for disinfecting water with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The manufacturer claims a reduction of at least 99.9% of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The present study intends to verify the general effectiveness of the device. Furthermore, the influence of bottle geometry and water movement is examined and the issue of user safety with regard to UV-C radiation is addressed. The device was applied on water containing a known number of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and the spore of Geobacillusstearothermophilus) and the survival rate was examined. Three different types of bottles commonly used among travelers served as test containers. All tests were conducted with and without agitating the water during irradiation. Furthermore, a spectral analysis was performed on the light of the device. The SteriPEN(®) reached a mean reduction of more than 99.99% of bacteria and 99.57% of the spores when applied correctly. However, the results of the trials without agitating the water only yielded a 94.98% germ reduction. The device's maximal radiation intensity lies at 254 nm which is the wavelength most efficient in inactivating bacteria. The UV-C fraction is filtered out completely by common bottle materials. However, when applied in larger containers a portion of the UV-C rays exits the water surface. If applied according to the instructions the device manages a satisfactory inactivation of bacteria. However, it bears the danger of user errors relevant to health. Therefore, education on the risks of incorrect application should be included in the travel medical consultation. Also there are still aspects that need to be subject to further independent research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultraviolet-B radiation and water deficit interact to alter flavonol and anthocyanin profiles in grapevine berries through transcriptomic regulation. (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Delrot, Serge; Aguirreolea, Jone; Pascual, Inmaculada; Gomès, Eric


    UV-B radiation and water deficit may trigger flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant tissues. In addition, previous research has showed strong qualitative effects on grape berry skin flavonol and anthocyanin profiles in response to UV-B and water deficit. The aim of this study is to identify the mechanisms leading to quantitative and qualitative changes in flavonol and anthocyanin profiles, in response to separate and combined UV-B and water deficit. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) were exposed to three levels of UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and subjected to two water regimes. A strong effect of UV-B on flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis was found, resulting in an increased anthocyanin concentration and a change in their profile. Concomitantly, two key biosynthetic genes (FLS1 and UFGT) were up-regulated by UV-B, leading to increased flavonol and anthocyanin skin concentration. Changes in flavonol and anthocyanin composition were explained to a large extend by transcript levels of F3'H, F3'5'H and OMT2. A significant interaction between UV-B and water deficit was found in the relative abundance of 3'4' and 3'4'5' substituted flavonols, but not in their anthocyanin homologues. The ratio between 3'4'5' and 3'4' substituted flavonols was linearly related to the ratios of F3'5'H and FLS1 transcription, two steps up-regulated independently by water deficit and UV-B radiation, respectively. Our results indicate that changes in flavonol profiles in response to environmental conditions are not only a consequence of changes in the expression of flavonoid hydroxylases; but also the result of the competition of FLS, F3'5'H and F3'H enzymes for the same flavonol substrates. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  13. Autophagy mediates cell cycle response by regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport of PAX6 in limbal stem cells under ultraviolet-A stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laggner

    Full Text Available Limbal stem cells (LSC account for homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Solar ultraviolet A (UVA is the major source causing oxidative damage in the ocular surface. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation mechanism, is essential for physiologic function and stress defense of stem cells. PAX6, a master transcription factor governing corneal homeostasis by regulating cell cycle and cell fate of LSC, responds to oxidative stress by nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Impaired autophagy and deregulated PAX6 have been reported in oxidative stress-related ocular surface disorders. We hypothesize a functional role for autophagy and PAX6 in LSC's stress response to UVA. Therefore, human LSC colonies were irradiated with a sub-lethal dose of UVA and autophagic activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured by CYTO-ID assay and CM-H2DCFDA live staining, respectively. Following UVA irradiation, the percentage of autophagic cells significantly increased in LSC colonies while intracellular ROS levels remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD of ATG7 abolished UVA-induced autophagy and led to an excessive accumulation of ROS. Upon UVA exposure, LSCs displayed nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of PAX6, while ATG7KD or antioxidant pretreatment largely attenuated the intracellular trafficking event. Immunofluorescence showing downregulation of proliferative marker PCNA and induction of cell cycle regulator p21 indicates cell cycle arrest in UVA-irradiated LSC. Abolishing autophagy, adenoviral-assisted restoration of nuclear PAX6 or antioxidant pretreatment abrogated the UVA-induced cell cycle arrest. Adenoviral expression of an ectopic PAX gene, PAX7, did not affect UVA cell cycle response. Furthermore, knocking down PAX6 attenuated the cell cycle progression of irradiated ATG7KD LSC by de-repressing p21 expression. Collectively, our data suggest a crosstalk between autophagy and PAX6 in regulating cell cycle response of

  14. Sequential release of salidroside and paeonol from a nanosphere-hydrogel system inhibits ultraviolet B-induced melanogenesis in guinea pig skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LH


    Full Text Available Li-Hua Peng,1 Shen-Yao Xu,1 Ying-Hui Shan,1 Wei Wei,1 Shuai Liu,1 Chen-Zhen Zhang,1 Jia-He Wu,1 Wen-Quan Liang,1 Jian-Qing Gao1,2 1Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2Novel Transdermal Research Center of Jiangsu Province, Changzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Melanin is the one of most important pigments for skin color in mammals. Excessive biosynthesis of melanin induces various pigment disorders. Much effort has been made to develop regulators to minimize skin pigmentation abnormalities. However, only a few of them are used, primarily because of safety concerns and low efficiency. In this study, we aimed to construct a novel nanosphere-gel for sequential delivery of salidroside and paeonol, to investigate the synergistic effects of these drugs in anti-melanogenesis, and to decrease their potential for toxicity in high dosage. Nanospheres were prepared and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and morphological properties. The optimized nanospheres were incorporated in carbomer hydrogel with both paeonol and salidroside entrapped to form a dual drug-releasing nanosphere-gel. With this nanosphere-gel, rapid release of salidroside from the hydrogel followed by sustained release of paeonol from the nanosphere was achieved. Using a classical model of the melanogenesis response to ultraviolet exposure, it was shown that the anti-melanogenesis effects of the dual drug-releasing system, in which the doses of the individual drugs were decreased by half, was obviously enhanced when compared with the effects of the single drug preparations. Mechanistically, the burst release of salidroside from the hydrogel may enable prompt suppression of melanocyte proliferation on exposure to ultraviolet B radiation, while the paeonol released in a sustained manner can provide continuous inhibition of tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. Combined delivery of

  15. An Ultraviolet-Visible (UV Photometry System Based on the PDMS-based Microfluidic Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Changhua


    Full Text Available In order to avoid a problem remains with the low accuracy and poor portability of the photometry system, the system based on the photometry method and microfluidic chip technology was built. As the characteristics of cheap, solid and good transmission, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS was chosen as the material of the designed chip in the paper. To the designed UV photometry system, the light-emitting diode with wavelength of 580m is chosen as the light source. The experimental result indicates that there is no significant deviation between the designed UV photometry system and the conventional immuneturbidimetric assay, the correlation coefficient is 0.95 obtained by adopting the linear regression analysis. The linearity of the designed UV photometry system based on the PDMS-based microfluidic chip has increased by 17.3% in comparison with the system based on the silicon-based microfluidic chip.


    The prostate is an androgen-dependent tissue that is an important site of disease in human males as well as an important indicator of androgen status in animals. The rat prostate is used for studying antiandrogenic drugs as well as for evaluation of endocrine disruption (e.g., Hershberger Assay). Pubertal changes in the prostate have been observed to be as sensitive to environmental antiandrogens as in utero effects. The goal of this research is to model the biology of prostate androgen function on a systems level to determine the factors responsible for the dose-response observable with androgens and antiandrogens in the male rat. This includes investigation of the roles of positive and negative feedback loops in prostatic response following castration and dosing with testosterone and/or antiandrogens. A biologically-based, systems-level model will be developed describing the regulation of the prostate by androgens. The model will extend an existing model for the male rat central axis, which describes feedback between luteinizing hormone and testosterone production in the testes, to include the prostate and conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The prostate model will describe binding of androgens to the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase catalyzed production of DHT, and gene regulation affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, and prostatic fluid production. The model will combine pharmacokinetic models for endogenous hormones (i.e., testost

  17. Regulation of cessation of respiration and killing by cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate and its receptor protein after far-ultraviolet irradiation of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, P.A.; Schenley, R.L.; Joshi, J.G.


    When Escherichia coli B/r cultures are irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV) (254 nm), those cells that are killed stop respiring by 60 min after irradiation. Post-UV treatment with cyclic adenosine 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) causes more cells to stop respiring and to die. We have studied these effects at a UV fluence of 52 I/m 2 in a a wild-type E. coli K 12 strain and in mutants defective in cAMP metabolism. Strain CA 8,000 has crp + and cya + genes for the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) (required for transcription of operons regulated by cAMP) and for adenylate cyclase, respectively; CA 7901 is crp - ; and CA 8306 is a cya deletion (Δ). The wild-type culture showed a small transient cessation of respiration, and addition of cAMP caused cessation to be nearly complete. The crp - culture showed no evidence of cessation of respiration, and cAMP had no effect. The Δ cya mutant also showed no cessation of respiration, but cAMP (5 mM) caused as complete inhibition as in the wild type. cAMP caused a 10-fold loss in viability of UV-irradiated wild-type and Δ cya liquid cultures but had no effect on the cpr - culture. Respiration and viability changes were also studied in a double mutant, CA8404 Δ cya crp*, which has an altered CRP that is, with respect to the lac operon, independent of cAMP. The respiration response to UV was similar to that of the wild-type culture, and both respiration and viability of cells in liquid culture were sensitive to cAMP. The survival data, obtained by plating immediately after irradiation, show the wild type, Δ cya strains, and Δ cya crp* to be equally sensitive and the crp - strain to be more resistant. We conclude that cessation of respiration and cell killing after UV irradiation are regulated by cAMP and the CRP. (orig.) [de

  18. Photovoltaic powered regulated cathodic protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anis, W.R.; Alfons, H.A. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))


    The cathodic protection (CP) system objective is to protect metallic structures against corrosion caused by chemical reaction between metallic structures and surrounding mediums, such as soil or water. To overcome such a problem, a sacrificing anode is connected to the protected structure (which acts as a cathode) through a DC power supply. As a result, a current passes from the sacrificing anode to the protected cathode. This leads to anode corrosion rather than causing the cathode (protected structure) corrosion. To stop the corrosion, the protected structure requires a constant current determined by structure metal, area, and the surrounding medium. The major difficulty in achieving this condition is the variation of surrounding medium resistivity due to climatic condition changes. For example, rains as well as humidity decrease soil resistivity, and as a result the DC current increases and a harmful overprotection may take place. Both corrosion and overprotection are harmful for the metallic structure. Conventional CP systems resolve this problem by manual adjustment of DC voltage periodically to obtain a constant current. Such adjustment depends on the personal experience of the technician and the accuracy of the measuring equipment used. Accordingly, the adjustment is subject to personal and measuring equipment errors. Moreover, if the internal between two successive adjustment is relatively long, structure corrosion becomes significant, which may have drastic consequences. To overcome the aforementioned difficulties associated with the conventional CP system, an automatically regulated CP system is discussed in this article. The proposed system senses the variations of the surrounding medium resistivity and adjusts the DC voltage of the system automatically so that the DC current is kept constant at the required level. The design of a solar photovoltaic system to supply the CP system by the required DC power is also discussed.

  19. Photocatalytic pretreatment of oily wastewater from the restaurant by a vacuum ultraviolet/TiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Jianxiong; Lu Lu; Zhan Wei; Li Bo; Li Daosheng; Ren Yongzheng; Liu Dongqi


    The present study aims at investigating the performance of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 185 nm) and TiO 2 oxidation system for the pretreatment of oily wastewater from restaurant. The influence of irradiation time, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the dosage of TiO 2 and the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration on COD removal efficiency was ascertained and optimum process conditions for stable and effective operation were determined. Under the optimum conditions of irradiation 10 min, initial COD 3981 mg/L, TiO 2 150 mg/L, pH 7.0 and flow rate of air 40 L/h, the process of VUV and TiO 2 /VUV achieved removal efficiencies of COD, BOD 5 and oil as 50 ± 3%, 37 ± 2%, 86 ± 3%, and 63 ± 3%, 43 ± 2%, 70 ± 3%, respectively. The biodegradability factor f B of the wastewater was determined as 1.56 which indicated that the VUV/TiO 2 process improved the biodegradability of the oily wastewater significantly. Results clearly indicate that VUV/TiO 2 photolysis tends to destruct parts of COD, BOD 5 , and ammonia, as well as enhances the biodegradability of the oily wastewater simultaneously. Thus, this technique could be used as a pretreatment step for conventional biological treatment of oily wastewater.

  20. Characterization and standardization of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system to ultraviolet and laser radiation using CaSO4:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Fabio Henrique


    The photo transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) was used to characterize a dosimetric system to the laser and ultraviolet radiation. Dysprosium activated calcium sulphate samples (CaSO 4 :Dy) used are produced at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) and have proved been an excellent dosimetric material for non ionizing radiation. PTTL signal was studied for UV radiation detection in the 220 to 450 nm range and for laser radiation in the 193 to 1.160 nm range. The samples presented more sensibility to the 193, 250, 310 and 337 nm wavelengths and no sensibility to infrared region. The samples presented linear PTTL in function of radiant exposure, excitation gamma dose in the range between 5 and 100 Gy and laser beam diameter between 2 and 6 nm. Another parameters studied were the angular dependence, UV lower exposure limit and PTTL signal optical fading. Spread laser radiation analysis was performed in the Ophthalmologic Department of Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) surgical center, showing that samples positioned as far as 4 m from laser source are sensitized to the laser radiation, as well as evaluating the laser exposure received by workers of medical area. A method to send the samples by mail was developed to the studies performed in the UNIFESP. (author)

  1. Field efficacy evaluation and post-treatment contamination risk assessment of an ultraviolet disinfection and safe storage system. (United States)

    Reygadas, Fermin; Gruber, Joshua S; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L


    Inconsistent use of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems reduces their potential health benefits. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is more convenient than some existing HWTS systems, but it does not provide post-treatment residual disinfectant, which could leave drinking water vulnerable to recontamination. In this paper, using as-treated analyses, we report on the field efficacy of a UV disinfection system at improving household drinking water quality in rural Mexico. We further assess the risk of post-treatment contamination from the UV system, and develop a process-based model to better understand household risk factors for recontamination. This study was part of a larger cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial, and the results complement previously published population-level results of the intervention on diarrheal prevalence and water quality. Based on the presence of Escherichia coli (proportion of households with ≥ 1 E. coli/100 mL), we estimated a risk difference of -28.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33.9%, -22.1%) when comparing intervention to control households; -38.6% (CI: -48.9%, -28.2%) when comparing post- and pre-intervention results; and -37.1% (CI: -45.2%, -28.9%) when comparing UV disinfected water to alternatives within the household. We found substantial increases in post-treatment E. coli contamination when comparing samples from the UV system effluent (5.0%) to samples taken from the storage container (21.1%) and drinking glasses (26.0%). We found that improved household infrastructure, additional extractions from the storage container, additional time from when the storage container was filled, and increased experience of the UV system operator were associated with reductions in post-treatment contamination. Our results suggest that the UV system is efficacious at improving household water quality when used as intended. Promoting safe storage habits is essential for an effective UV system dissemination. The drinking

  2. Design Considerations for a Water Treatment System Utilizing Ultra-Violet Light Emitting Diodes (United States)


    fragile. Liquid silicone sealant was used for the rest of the experiments. Unfortunately, it required curing time. Ideally, a robust gasket sheet should...shaker............................................................. 30 Figure 14. Flow through reactor system with silicone hose connecting to a UV... silicone laboratory corks to seal the pipe adapters to the vessel. The corks allowed the hose adapters to be switched out as necessary. Future

  3. Signal-regulated systems and networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, TL


    Full Text Available (t)) (1) The function fi may be stochastic in nature as is often the case in self-organising systems. Further it is noted that one of the K regulatory signals may be si itself. A set R of J equations of the form given by equation (1) model a... discrete SRS: R = 8 >>>>< >>>>: s1 (t +1) = f1 s11 (t) ;s12 (t) ; : : : ;s1k (t) s2 (t +1) = f2 s21 (t) ;s22 (t) ; : : : ;s2k (t) ... sJ (t +1) = fJ (sJ1 (t) ;sJ2 (t) ; : : : ;sJk (t)) (2) Different signal regulation machines may have...

  4. Cytogenetic effects of near ultraviolet radiation in normal and systemic lupus erythematosus lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporossi, D.; Sebastiani, G.; Nicoletti, B.; Masala, C.


    The authors conducted a study on the spontaneous and UV-A induced frequency of chromosomal breaks and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in purified lymphocytes from normal donors and from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who were in clinical remission at the time of the study. Our results show that although SLE lymphocytes exhibit a higher frequency of spontaneous SCEs than controls, the rate of chromosomal breakage is comparable in the 2-groups. In both controls and patients, irradiation with UV-A (320-400 nm) increases the SCE values but does not significantly affect the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. (author). 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  5. Pulsed Blue and Ultraviolet Laser System for Fluorescence Diagnostics based on Nonlinear Frequency Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay

    , which translates into a 79% temporal overlap when compared to the zero-delay scenario. The minimum timing jitter between the two pulses was 9 ns, which is one-standard deviation of the delay measurements. This is comparable to previously published results for an actively synchronized system if either...... a four-sigma or six-sigma definition was used. Detailed investigation into the relative timing jitter between the two synchronized pulses was also carried out, where it was found that the lower limit on the relative jitter, determined by pump power fluctuations and amplified spontaneous emission, was 6...

  6. Comparative evaluation of dimensional stability of impression materials from developing countries and developed countries after disinfection with different immersion disinfectant systems and ultraviolet chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupandeep Kaur Samra


    Full Text Available Objectives: It was to analyse and compare the effect of different disinfectant systems on the dimensional stability of commonly used irreversible hydrocolloid and addition silicone impression materials from developing countries as compared to materials from developed countries. Material and methods: Disinfectant systems used were glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet chamber. The stability after disinfection of commonly used alginate and addition silicone of native origin (Algin-Gum & Ad-Sil was compared with similar impression materials from developed countries (Vignette and Aquasil and results compared. A CAD/CAM manufactured stainless steel die simulating maxilla with four metal studs at canine and molar region was used. Impressions were made and disinfected after rinsing and drying and casts poured. The cross arch distance, interabutment distance and the occluso-gingival length of the studs was measured under traveling microscope and observations were recorded and compared. ANOVA test and Bonferroni test was applied. Results: An increase in the interabutment and cross arch distance and decrease in occluso-gingival height was seen in the casts obtained. Glutaraldehyde immersion showed variation in the interabutment and cross arch distance for all materials studied. Ultraviolet chamber and sodium hypochlorite produced best results. Dimensional stability of impression materials like Vignette, Algin-Gum & Aquasil was found to within clinically acceptable limits after disinfection while maximum deviation was seen with Algin-Gum. Conclusion: Evaluated materials can be safely disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet chamber. Addition silicone of native origin is at par with impression materials from developed countries but same cannot be said about alginate. Keywords: Dimensional stability, Immersion systems, Ultraviolet chamber, Addition silicone, Alginate, Sodium hypochlorite, Glutaraldehyde

  7. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System by Histamine. (United States)

    Hattori, Yuichi; Hattori, Kohshi; Matsuda, Naoyuki


    Histamine mediates a wide range of cellular responses, including allergic and inflammatory reactions, gastric acid secretion, and neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Histamine also exerts a series of actions upon the cardiovascular system but may not normally play a significant role in regulating cardiovascular function. During tissue injury, inflammation, and allergic responses, mast cells (or non-mast cells) within the tissues can release large amounts of histamine that leads to noticeable cardiovascular effects. Owing to intensive research during several decades, the distribution, function, and pathophysiological role of cardiovascular H 1 - and H 2 -receptors has become recognized adequately. Besides the recognized H 1 - and H 2 -receptor-mediated cardiovascular responses, novel roles of H 3 - and H 4 -receptors in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology have been identified over the last decade. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of cardiovascular function and dysfunction mediated by histamine receptors, including H 3 - and H 4 -receptors, their potential mechanisms of action, and their pathological significance.

  8. Proteostasis regulation by the ubiquitin system. (United States)

    Bett, John S


    Cells have developed an evolutionary obligation to survey and maintain proteome fidelity and avoid the possible toxic consequences of protein misfolding and aggregation. Disturbances to protein homoeostasis (proteostasis) can result in severe cellular phenotypes and are closely linked with the accumulation of microscopically visible deposits of aggregated proteins. These include inclusion bodies found in AD (Alzheimer's disease), HD (Huntington's disease) and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) patient neurons. Protein aggregation is intimately linked with the ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like post-translational modifier system, which manages cellular protein folding stress and promotes the restoration of proteostasis. This is achieved in large part through the action of the UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system), which is responsible for directing the proteasomal destruction of misfolded and damaged proteins tagged with ubiquitin chains. There are other less well understood ways in which ubiquitin family members can help to maintain proteostasis that complement, but are independent of, the UPS. This article discusses our current understanding of how the ubiquitin family regulates the protein misfolding pathways that threaten proteome fidelity, and how this is achieved by the key players in this process. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haswell, C. A.; Fossati, L.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U. C.; Busuttil, R.; Carter, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ayres, T.; France, K.; Froning, C. S. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Street, R. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Hebb, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cameron, A. Collier; Enoch, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Burwitz, V. [Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rodriguez, J. [Observatori Astronomic de Mallorca, Cami de l' Observatori, E-07144 Costitx, Mallorca (Spain); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    Extended gas clouds have been previously detected surrounding the brightest known close-in transiting hot Jupiter exoplanets, HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b; we observed the distant but more extreme close-in hot Jupiter system, WASP-12, with Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Near-UV (NUV) transits up to three times deeper than the optical transit of WASP-12 b reveal extensive diffuse gas, extending well beyond the Roche lobe. The distribution of absorbing gas varies between visits. The deepest NUV transits are at wavelength ranges with strong stellar photospheric absorption, implying that the absorbing gas may have temperature and composition similar to those of the stellar photosphere. Our spectra reveal significantly enhanced absorption (greater than 3{sigma} below the median) at {approx}200 individual wavelengths on each of two HST visits; 65 of these wavelengths are consistent between the two visits, using a strict criterion for velocity matching that excludes matches with velocity shifts exceeding {approx}20 km s{sup -1}. Excess transit depths are robustly detected throughout the inner wings of the Mg II resonance lines independently on both HST visits. We detected absorption in Fe II {lambda}2586, the heaviest species yet detected in an exoplanet transit. The Mg II line cores have zero flux, emission cores exhibited by every other observed star of similar age and spectral type are conspicuously absent. WASP-12 probably produces normal Mg II profiles, but the inner portions of these strong resonance lines are likely affected by extrinsic absorption. The required Mg{sup +} column is an order of magnitude greater than expected from the interstellar medium, though we cannot completely dismiss that possibility. A more plausible source of absorption is gas lost by WASP-12 b. We show that planetary mass loss can produce the required column. Our Visit 2 NUV light curves show evidence for a stellar flare. We show that some of the possible transit detections in resonance

  10. Information Processing in Auto-regulated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Javorszky


    Full Text Available Abstract: We present a model of information processing which is based on two concurrent ways of describing the world, where a description in one of the languages limits the possibilities for realisations in the other language. The two describing dimensions appear in our common sense as dichotomies of perspectives: subjective - objective; diversity - similarity; individual - collective. We abstract from the subjective connotations and treat the test theoretical case of an interval on which several concurrent categories can be introduced. We investigate multidimensional partitions as potential carriers of information and compare their efficiency to that of sequenced carriers. We regard the same assembly once as a contemporary collection, once as a longitudinal sequence and find promising inroads towards understanding information processing by auto-regulated systems. Information is understood to point out that what is the case from among alternatives, which could be the case. We have translated these ideas into logical operations on the set of natural numbers and have found two equivalence points on N where matches between sequential and commutative ways of presenting a state of the world can agree in a stable fashion: a flip-flop mechanism is envisioned. By following this new approach, a mathematical treatment of some poignant biomathematical problems is allowed. Also, the concepts presented in this treatise may well have relevance and applications within the information processing and the theory of language fields.

  11. The theorization of nuclear safety regulation and legal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.


    Nuclear safety regulation, which restricts the freedoms and rights of people, should be carried out under the principle of regulation by acts. Therefore, it should be starting point of understanding of nuclear safety regulation to understand theoretical system of administrative regulation such as legal system · sorts · effect of governmental regulatory administration. This report analysed, from a legal aspect, the concept of nuclear safety regulation and the spirit of the Framework Act on Administrative Regulation. Therefore, this report examined closely all kinds of regulatory actions sorted by its contents, discretion, added condition (Nebenbestimmungen). In addition to it, this report analysed the hierarchy of nuclear legislation in the form of act, presidential decree, enforcement regulation, notice of Minister of Science and Technology and regulatory guide of regulatory body. Finally, this report reviewed the principles for good regulation such as recommended by the NRC to grope for desirable attitude for staffs of nuclear safety regulation body

  12. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: An ultraviolet spectrophotometric system was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lornoxicam in solid dosage forms. Methods: Lornoxicam was dissolved in 0.01M NaOH and analysed using ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Various analytical parameters such as linearity, precision, ...

  13. A General Water Resources Regulation Software System in China (United States)

    LEI, X.


    To avoid iterative development of core modules in water resource normal regulation and emergency regulation and improve the capability of maintenance and optimization upgrading of regulation models and business logics, a general water resources regulation software framework was developed based on the collection and analysis of common demands for water resources regulation and emergency management. It can provide a customizable, secondary developed and extensible software framework for the three-level platform "MWR-Basin-Province". Meanwhile, this general software system can realize business collaboration and information sharing of water resources regulation schemes among the three-level platforms, so as to improve the decision-making ability of national water resources regulation. There are four main modules involved in the general software system: 1) A complete set of general water resources regulation modules allows secondary developer to custom-develop water resources regulation decision-making systems; 2) A complete set of model base and model computing software released in the form of Cloud services; 3) A complete set of tools to build the concept map and model system of basin water resources regulation, as well as a model management system to calibrate and configure model parameters; 4) A database which satisfies business functions and functional requirements of general water resources regulation software can finally provide technical support for building basin or regional water resources regulation models.

  14. Increased p53 and decreased p21 accompany apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, Gabriela, E-mail: [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Linden, Rafael, E-mail: [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Giangrande, Angela, E-mail: [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire-IGBMC, INSERM, Strasbourg (France); Allodi, Silvana, E-mail: [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil)


    Highlights: • The paper characterizes molecular pathways of cell responses to environmental doses of UV in brain tissue of a crab species. • The UV radiation changes levels of proteins which trigger apoptotic or cell cycle arrest pathways and also it changes neurotrophins which lead to apoptosis of neural cell in the central nervous system (CNS) of the crab Ucides cordatus. • The UVB wavelengths in the solar simulator damaged the DNA, either directly or indirectly, by increasing ROS, and induced the increase of p53 and AKT, which blocked p21 and increased the expression of activated caspase-3, triggering apoptosis. The signs of death increased the expression of neurotrophins (BDNF and GDNF), which continued to stimulate the apoptosis signaling mediated by caspase-3. • In the brain of the crab U. cordatus, p53/p21 relationship in response to UV radiation is different from that of most mammals. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, leading the cell to apoptosis by the p53 pathway. This study evaluated some molecular markers of the apoptosis pathway induced by UVA, UVB and UVA+ UVB (Solar Simulator, SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) by immunoblotting the content of proteins p53, p21, phosphorylated AKT, BDNF, GDNF, activated caspase-3 (C3) and phosphohistone H3 (PH3); and by immunohistochemical tests of the cells labeled for PH3 and C3. After the fifth day of exposure, UVB radiation and SIM increased the protein content of p53, increasing the content of AKT and, somehow, blocking p21, increasing the content of activated caspase-3, which led the cells to apoptosis. The signs of death affected the increase in neurotrophins, such as BDNF and GDNF, stimulating the apoptotic cascade of events. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting showed that apoptosis was present in the brains of all UV groups, while

  15. Ultraviolet light and cutaneous lupus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, Marc; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.


    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors known to trigger cutaneous disease activity in (systemic) lupus erythematosus patients. UV light, UVB in particular, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Currently, disturbed clearance of apoptotic cells is one of the concepts explaining

  16. Challenge and perspective: the relevance of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases. (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas


    During evolution, the ability of many organisms to synthesize vitamin D photochemically represented, and still represents, a major driving factor for the development of life on earth. In humans because not more than 10-20% of the requirement of vitamin D can be satisfied by the diet (under most living conditions in the US and Europe), the remaining 80-90% need to be photochemically synthesized in the skin through the action of solar or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The skin is a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), representing both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites. Human keratinocytes contain the enzymatic machinery (CYP27B1) for the synthesis of the biologically most active natural vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), representing an autonomous vitamin D 3 pathway. Cutaneous production of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 may mediate intracrine, autocrine and paracrine effects on keratinocytes and on neighboring cells. Many skin cells (including keratinocytes, sebocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, macrophages and other skin immune cells) express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an absolute pre-requisite for exerting genomic effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and analogs. The VDR is a member of the superfamily of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors, which also contains the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors as well as the retinoid-X receptors (RXR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR). A large body of evidence, including cDNA microarray analyses of mRNAs, indicates that as many as 500-1000 genes may be controlled by VDR ligands that regulate a broad variety of cellular functions including growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clinical and laboratory investigations, including the observation that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is very effective in inducing the terminal differentiation and in inhibiting the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes have resulted

  17. Use of a Reflective Ultraviolet Imaging System (RUVIS) on Two-Dimensional Dust Impressions Created with Footwear on Multiple Substrates (United States)

    Engelson, Brian Aaron

    Footwear impression evidence in dust is often difficult to locate in ambient light and is a fragile medium that both collection and enhancement techniques can destroy or distort. The collection of footwear impression evidence always begins with non-destructive photographic techniques; however, current methods are limited to oblique lighting of the impression followed by an attempt to photograph in situ. For the vast majority of footwear impressions, an interactive collection method, and thus a potentially destructive procedure, is subsequently carried out to gather the evidence. Therefore, alternative non-destructive means for the preservation and enhancement of footwear impressions in dust merits further attention. Previous research performed with reflected ultraviolet (UV) photography and reflected ultraviolet imaging systems (RUVIS) has shown that there are additional non-destructive methodologies that can be applied to the search for and documentation of footwear impressions in dust. Unfortunately, these prior studies did not include robust comparisons to traditional oblique white light, instead choosing to focus on different UV wavelengths. This study, however, seeks to evaluate the use of a RUVIS device paired with a 254 nanometer (nm) UV light source to locate 2-D footwear impressions in dust on multiple substrates against standard oblique white light techniques and assess the visibility of the impression and amount of background interference present. The optimal angle of incident UV light for each substrate was also investigated. Finally, this study applied an image enhancement technique in order to evaluate its usefulness when looking at the visibility of a footwear impression and the amount of background interference present for enhanced white light and RUVIS pictures of footwear impressions in dust. A collection of eight different substrate types was gathered for investigation, including vinyl composition tile (VCT), ceramic tile, marble tile, magazine

  18. Experimental study of an optimized PSP-OSTBC scheme with m-PPM in ultraviolet scattering channel for optical MIMO system. (United States)

    Han, Dahai; Gu, Yanjie; Zhang, Min


    An optimized scheme of pulse symmetrical position-orthogonal space-time block codes (PSP-OSTBC) is proposed and applied with m-pulse positions modulation (m-PPM) without the use of a complex decoding algorithm in an optical multi-input multi-output (MIMO) ultraviolet (UV) communication system. The proposed scheme breaks through the limitation of the traditional Alamouti code and is suitable for high-order m-PPM in a UV scattering channel, verified by both simulation experiments and field tests with specific parameters. The performances of 1×1, 2×1, and 2×2 PSP-OSTBC systems with 4-PPM are compared experimentally as the optimal tradeoff between modification and coding in practical application. Meanwhile, the feasibility of the proposed scheme for 8-PPM is examined by a simulation experiment as well. The results suggest that the proposed scheme makes the system insensitive to the influence of path loss with a larger channel capacity, and a higher diversity gain and coding gain with a simple decoding algorithm will be achieved by employing the orthogonality of m-PPM in an optical-MIMO-based ultraviolet scattering channel.

  19. System and method for controlling depth of imaging in tissues using fluorescence microscopy under ultraviolet excitation following staining with fluorescing agents (United States)

    Demos, Stavros; Levenson, Richard


    The present disclosure relates to a method for analyzing tissue specimens. In one implementation the method involves obtaining a tissue sample and exposing the sample to one or more fluorophores as contrast agents to enhance contrast of subcellular compartments of the tissue sample. The tissue sample is illuminated by an ultraviolet (UV) light having a wavelength between about 200 nm to about 400 nm, with the wavelength being selected to result in penetration to only a specified depth below a surface of the tissue sample. Inter-image operations between images acquired under different imaging parameters allow for improvement of the image quality via removal of unwanted image components. A microscope may be used to image the tissue sample and provide the image to an image acquisition system that makes use of a camera. The image acquisition system may create a corresponding image that is transmitted to a display system for processing and display.

  20. Experimental measurement of link gain and correlation in a single-input multiple-output ultraviolet communication system with diversity reception (United States)

    Han, Dahai; Zhang, Min; Li, Qing


    The experiment is designed and taken to measure the link gain in a single-input multiple-output ultraviolet (UV) communication system with diversity reception, and the correlation of multichannel is also taken into account. Theoretical and experimental research on the multireceiver UV communication system suggests that diversity reception is an effective way to gain high BER performance even if the link gain correlation is non-negligible (with normal level correlation coefficient). The link gain of diversity reception is compared particularly with the gain from expanding the detecting area to find its boundary for performance improvement and the distance limit between receivers. The experimental results provide more reliable guidelines for receiver design in UVC systems and other scattering wireless optical communication channels with diversity reception applied such as multiple-input multiple-output.

  1. Estimation of regulated term of technical systems further operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikov, V.P.


    The technique of estimating the regulated term of technical systems further operation on the basis of data on failures during operation and use of probabilistic-physical model of failures (DN-distribution) is proposed

  2. Development of a safety and regulation systems simulation program II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report describes the development of a safety and regulation systems simulation program under contract to the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. A systems logic interaction simulation (SLISIM) program was developed for the AECB's HP-1000 computer which operates in the interactive simulation (INSIM) program environment. The SLISIM program simulates the spatial neutron dynamics, the regulation of the reactor power and in this version the CANDU-PHW 600 MW(e) computerized shutdown systems' trip parameters. The modular concept and interactive capability of the INSIM environment provides the user with considerable flexibility of the setup and control of the simulation

  3. Voltage regulator placement in radial distribution system using plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    distribution systems and these results are compared with Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization method. Keywords: Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA), Radial Distribution Systems (RDS), Voltage Regulator (VR), Load. Flow, Power Loss Indicies, Tap Position. 1. Introduction. One of the utility's core responsibilities is ...

  4. Two-component systems and toxinogenesis regulation in Clostridium botulinum. (United States)

    Connan, Chloé; Popoff, Michel R


    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins ever known. They are mostly produced by Clostridium botulinum but also by other clostridia. BoNTs associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs) to form complexes of various sizes. Toxin production is highly regulated through complex networks of regulatory systems involving an alternative sigma factor, BotR, and at least 6 recently described two-component systems (TCSs). TCSs allow bacteria to sense environmental changes and to respond to various stimuli by regulating the expression of specific genes at a transcriptional level. Several environmental stimuli have been identified to positively or negatively regulate toxin synthesis; however, the link between environmental stimuli and TCSs is still elusive. This review aims to highlight the role of TCSs as a central point in the regulation of toxin production in C. botulinum. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced helium regulator for a fluorine propellant system (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Yankura, G.


    The space storable propulsion module is an advanced high performance (375 seconds Isp minimum) planetary spacecraft propulsion system with a mission life of 5-10 years. The propellants used are liquid fluorine and amine fuel. This application requires high pressure regulator accuracy to optimize propellant depletion characteristics. An advanced regulator concept was prepared which is compatible with both fuel and oxidizer and which features design concepts such as redundant bellows, all-metallic/ceramic construction, friction-free guidance of moving parts and gas damping. Computer simulation of the propulsion module performance over two mission profiles indicated satisfactory minimization of those propellant residual requirements imposed by regulator performance variables.

  6. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation. (United States)

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco


    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals' capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects.

  7. Cooperative Control for Uncertain Multiagent Systems via Distributed Output Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu


    Full Text Available The distributed robust output regulation problem for multiagent systems is considered. For heterogeneous uncertain linear systems and a linear exosystem, the controlling aim is to stabilize the closed-loop system and meanwhile let the regulated outputs converge to the origin asymptotically, by the help of local interaction. The communication topology considered is directed acyclic graphs, which means directed graphs without loops. With distributed dynamic state feedback controller and output feedback controller, respectively, the solvability of the problem and the algorithm of controller design are both investigated. The solvability conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. It is shown that, for polytopic uncertainties, the distributed controllers constructed by solving LMIs can satisfy the requirements of output regulation property.

  8. Regulation of vitamin D homeostasis: implications for the immune system. (United States)

    van Etten, Evelyne; Stoffels, Katinka; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal; Overbergh, Lut


    Vitamin D homeostasis in the immune system is the focus of this review. The production of both the activating (25- and 1alpha-hydroxylase) and the metabolizing (24-hydroxylase) enzymes by cells of the immune system itself, indicates that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can be produced locally in immune reaction sites. Moreover, the strict regulation of these enzymes by immune signals is highly suggestive for an autocrine/paracrine role in the immune system, and opens new treatment possibilities.

  9. Liquid hydrogen transfer pipes and level regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.; Roubeau, P.


    Describes: 1) Transfer pipes - Plunging rods in liquid hydrogen Dewars; transfer pipes: knee-joint system for quick and accurate positioning of plunging Dewar rods; system's rods: combined valve and rod; valves are activated either by a bulb pressure or by a solenoid automatically or hand controlled. The latter allows intermittent filling. 2) Level regulating systems: Level bulbs: accurate to 1 or 4 m; maximum and minimum level bulbs: automatic control of the liquid hydrogen valve. (author) [fr

  10. Application of the correction's system of bottom by deuterium's lamp of a spectrophotometer of atomic absorption to the obtaining of ultraviolet spectrums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Chaves, Alberto Enrique


    The correction system of bottom by lamp of deuterium's arch of a spectrophotometer of atomic absorption has been utilized with sweep's capacity of wavelength to get spectrums of ultraviolet absorption of samples in gaseous phase, whether in presence as in absence of flame, in the region between 200 nm and 365 nm. The spectral information was obtained after of a process of electronic subtraction of the source's signal, except for the source's signal plus the sample and its subsequent analysis by a programmed data's processor to give a report in terms of wavelength. The spectrums obtained in absence of flame were practiced in samples contained in a gas's sell for infrared spectroscopy with polyethylene's windows, it is located of the burner and directly in front to the radiation's beam, comparable spectrums with the reported in the literature were obtained and with a bigger resolution than the measure with an conventional ultraviolet absorption's spectrophotometer utilized like reference. The spectrums in presence of flame have been of flame have been obtained from dissolved samples and directly suctioned, it achieves to obtain spectral information that is normally not detected conveniently when it performs qualitative analysis by emission of flame in elements such like zinc, lead, cobalt, mercury and nickel among other. The information obtained on this way has been utilized like an alternative method to the elemental analysis by humid way with a view to increase the reliability of the results that have been utilized like basis in the determination of the tariff classification of imported or exported products. (Author) [es

  11. Kinetic and photochemical studies and alteration of ultraviolet sensitivity of Escherichia coli thymidine kinase of halogenated allosteric regulators and substrate analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.S.; Prusoff, W.H.


    The effect of various halogenated and nonhalogenated allosteric effectors on the sensitivity of Escherichia coli thymidine kinase to ultraviolet radiations (uv,253.7 nm) was investigated. All naturally occurring dNTPs convert the monomeric form of the enzyme into the dimeric form which is less sensitive to uv inactivation. Whereas 5-iodo-2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate (IdCTP) and 5-iodo-2' deoxyuridine triphosphate (IdUTP) enhance the uv inactivation of the enzyme, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate and 5-bromo-2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate exert a protective effect similar to that produced by the corresponding naturally occurring effectors, dTTP and dCTP. The enhanced uv inactivation by IdUTP is prevented totally by dTTP, but only partially by dCTP or dThd, whereas the enhanced sensitization by IdCTP is prevented almost totally by dCTP, partially by dTTP, and not at all by dThd. The uv sensitization of thymidine kinase by IdCTP appears to be at the regulatory site since a maximum saturation effect is observed, and the concentration required to exert a 50% maximal uv sensitization is similar to its K/sub m/ for enhancement of catalytic activity. When the enzyme was irradiated in the presence of either [2- 14 C]IdUTP or [2- 14 C]IdUrd, zone sedimentation analysis in sucrose density gradients showed the sedimentation coefficient of the radioactive labeled proteins to be the same, 3.8 S. Hence uv irradiation of the effector-induced dimer resulted in not only dissociation to the monomer, but also complete loss of catalytic activity. The substitution of an azido group for the 5'-OH group of 5-iodo-, 5-bromo-, 5-chloro-, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine greatly decreased their affinity for thymidine kinase, and in addition the kinetics of inhibition changed from a competitive to a noncompetitive pattern. The presence of the azido moiety in the 5' position of the halogenated nucleosides did not enhance the rate of uv inactivation of the enzyme

  12. Motor Control and Regulation for a Flywheel Energy Storage System (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara; Lyons, Valerie


    This talk will focus on the motor control algorithms used to regulate the flywheel system at the NASA Glenn Research Center. First a discussion of the inner loop torque control technique will be given. It is based on the principle of field orientation and is implemented without a position or speed sensor (sensorless control). Then the outer loop charge and discharge algorithm will be presented. This algorithm controls the acceleration of the flywheel during charging and the deceleration while discharging. The algorithm also allows the flywheel system to regulate the DC bus voltage during the discharge cycle.

  13. Pressure regulation system for modern gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.


    A gas pressure and flow regulation system has been designed and constructed to service a wide variety of gas-filled detectors which operate at pressures of ∼2 to 1000 Torr and flow rate of ∼5 to 200 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm). Pressure regulation is done at the detector input by a pressure transducer linked to a solenoid leak valve via an electronic control system. Gas flow is controlled via a mechanical leak valve at the detector output. Interchangeable transducers, flowmeters, and leak valves allow for different pressure and flow ranges. The differential pressure transducer and control system provide automatic let-up of vacuum chambers to atmospheric pressure while maintaining a controlled overpressure in the detector. The gas system is constructed on a standard 19'' rack-mounted panel from commercially available parts. Five of these systems have been built and are routinely used for both ionization chambers and position-sensitive avalanche detectors

  14. Current state and trend of radiation regulation system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Hidenori


    Japanese regulation system for safety against radiation essentially started from 'Atomic Energy Basic Law' enacted in 1955 and 'Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc' enacted in 1957, has been regarded as a central rule for radiation protection and safety. Related laws and regulations have been enacted together with their revision. Radiation Council, established in the Science and Technology Agency in 1962 and now belonging to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, has deliberated basically on International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) statements for legal revision and has set up working groups for current problems. Activities of the groups have concerned ICRP Publication 60 (1990) and later related publications for incorporating the principle into laws as to concepts of dose limits, effective dose, and then of exemption and exclusion. International status of the Japanese regulation, problems and tasks in the regulation are also commented. (N.I.)

  15. Ultraviolet laser technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, David L


    Ultraviolet Laser Technology and Applications is a hands-on reference text that identifies the main areas of UV laser technology; describes how each is applied; offers clearly illustrated examples of UV opticalsystems applications; and includes technical data on optics, lasers, materials, and systems. This book is unique for its comprehensive, in-depth coverage. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the subject, beginning with UV light itself; moving through the optics, sources, and systems; and concluding with detailed descriptions of applications in various fields.The text enables pr

  16. Approaches Mediating Oxytocin Regulation of the Immune System. (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Ping; Wang, Stephani C; Wang, Yu-Feng


    The hypothalamic neuroendocrine system is mainly composed of the neural structures regulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland and has been considered as the higher regulatory center of the immune system. Recently, the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) emerged as an important component of neuroendocrine-immune network, wherein the oxytocin (OT)-secreting system (OSS) plays an essential role. The OSS, consisting of OT neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, their several accessory nuclei and associated structures, can integrate neural, endocrine, metabolic, and immune information and plays a pivotal role in the development and functions of the immune system. The OSS can promote the development of thymus and bone marrow, perform immune surveillance, strengthen immune defense, and maintain immune homeostasis. Correspondingly, OT can inhibit inflammation, exert antibiotic-like effect, promote wound healing and regeneration, and suppress stress-associated immune disorders. In this process, the OSS can release OT to act on immune system directly by activating OT receptors or through modulating activities of other hypothalamic-pituitary-immune axes and autonomic nervous system indirectly. However, our understandings of the role of the OSS in neuroendocrine regulation of immune system are largely incomplete, particularly its relationship with other hypothalamic-pituitary-immune axes and the vasopressin-secreting system that coexists with the OSS in the HNS. In addition, it remains unclear about the relationship between the OSS and peripherally produced OT in immune regulation, particularly intrathymic OT that is known to elicit central immunological self-tolerance of T-cells to hypophysial hormones. In this work, we provide a brief review of current knowledge of the features of OSS regulation of the immune system and of potential approaches that mediate OSS coordination of the activities of entire neuroendocrine-immune network.

  17. Far-ultraviolet spectral changes of titanium dioxide with gold nanoparticles by ultraviolet and visible light (United States)

    Tanabe, Ichiro; Kurawaki, Yuji


    Attenuated total reflectance spectra including the far-ultraviolet (FUV, ≤ 200 nm) region of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with and without gold (Au) nanoparticles were measured. A newly developed external light-irradiation system enabled to observe spectral changes of TiO2 with Au nanoparticles upon light irradiations. Absorption in the FUV region decreased and increased by the irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light, respectively. These spectral changes may reflect photo-induced electron transfer from TiO2 to Au nanoparticles under ultraviolet light and from Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under visible light, respectively.

  18. Feedback regulation of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 via ATM/Chk2 pathway contributes to the resistance of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to cisplatin. (United States)

    Lv, Juan; Qian, Ying; Ni, Xiaoyan; Xu, Xiuping; Dong, Xuejun


    The methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 protein is a structure-specific nuclease that plays important roles in DNA replication and repair. Knockdown of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 has been found to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. We found that methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 was upregulated and the ATM/Chk2 pathway was activated at the same time when MCF-7 cells were treated with cisplatin. By using lentivirus targeting methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 gene, we showed that knockdown of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 enhanced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells under cisplatin treatment. Abrogation of ATM/Chk2 pathway inhibited cell viability in MCF-7 cells in response to cisplatin. Importantly, we revealed that ATM/Chk2 was required for the upregulation of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81, and knockdown of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 resulted in inactivation of ATM/Chk2 pathway in response to cisplatin. Meanwhile, knockdown of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 activated the p53/Bcl-2 pathway in response to cisplatin. These data suggest that the ATM/Chk2 may promote the repair of DNA damage caused by cisplatin by sustaining methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81, and the double-strand breaks generated by methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 may activate the ATM/Chk2 pathway in turn, which provide a novel mechanism of how methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 modulates DNA damage response and repair.

  19. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang


    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO2 laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  20. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries


    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an

  1. Emotion regulation and conflict transformation in multi-team systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Meeus, M.T.H.


    Purpose The aim of this paper is to test the moderating role of emotion regulation in the transformation of both task and process conflict into relationship conflict. Design/methodology/approach A field study of multi-teams systems, in which (94) respondents are engaged in interpersonal and

  2. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...... a factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown...

  3. In search of a human self-regulation system. (United States)

    Kelley, William M; Wagner, Dylan D; Heatherton, Todd F


    The capacity for self-regulation allows people to control their thoughts, behaviors, emotions, and desires. In spite of this impressive ability, failures of self-regulation are common and contribute to numerous societal problems, from obesity to drug addiction. Such failures frequently occur following exposure to highly tempting cues, during negative moods, or after self-regulatory resources have been depleted. Here we review the available neuroscientific evidence regarding self-regulation and its failures. At its core, self-regulation involves a critical balance between the strength of an impulse and an individual's ability to inhibit the desired behavior. Although neuroimaging and patient studies provide consistent evidence regarding the reward aspects of impulses and desires, the neural mechanisms that underlie the capacity for control have eluded consensus, with various executive control regions implicated in different studies. We outline the necessary properties for a self-regulation control system and suggest that the use of resting-state functional connectivity analyses may be useful for understanding how people regulate their behavior and why they sometimes fail in their attempts.

  4. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system. (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D


    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve

  5. 75 FR 391 - Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product... (United States)


    ... Cycle; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop...), is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum... information about FDA's Medical Device Quality Systems Regulation (QSR) to the regulated industry...

  6. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans; Linusson, Per; Eland, John H. D.; Baker, Neville


    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of ∼8 to ∼120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  7. Modeling and simulation of CANDU reactor and its regulating system (United States)

    Javidnia, Hooman

    Analytical computer codes are indispensable tools in design, optimization, and control of nuclear power plants. Numerous codes have been developed to perform different types of analyses related to the nuclear power plants. A large number of these codes are designed to perform safety analyses. In the context of safety analyses, the control system is often neglected. Although there are good reasons for such a decision, that does not mean that the study of control systems in the nuclear power plants should be neglected altogether. In this thesis, a proof of concept code is developed as a tool that can be used in the design. optimization. and operation stages of the control system. The main objective in the design of this computer code is providing a tool that is easy to use by its target audience and is capable of producing high fidelity results that can be trusted to design the control system and optimize its performance. Since the overall plant control system covers a very wide range of processes, in this thesis the focus has been on one particular module of the the overall plant control system, namely, the reactor regulating system. The center of the reactor regulating system is the CANDU reactor. A nodal model for the reactor is used to represent the spatial neutronic kinetics of the core. The nodal model produces better results compared to the point kinetics model which is often used in the design and analysis of control system for nuclear reactors. The model can capture the spatial effects to some extent. although it is not as detailed as the finite difference methods. The criteria for choosing a nodal model of the core are: (1) the model should provide more detail than point kinetics and capture spatial effects, (2) it should not be too complex or overly detailed to slow down the simulation and provide details that are extraneous or unnecessary for a control engineer. Other than the reactor itself, there are auxiliary models that describe dynamics of different

  8. Ultraviolet phase conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkine, M.; Bigio, I.J.; Fisher, R.A.; Maloney, M.L.; Busse, J.R.; Tercovich, R.G.; Feldman, B.J.


    Diffraction-limited phase conjugate reflection of an injection-locked high-power (approx. 1 MW) ultraviolet excimer laser beam has been demonstrated via stimulated Brillouin scattering. Reflectivities higher than 70% were attained. Limitations as well as coherence and power requirements for image retention are discussed

  9. Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, E.M.; Nall, L.


    Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs

  10. Gene Regulation System of Vasopressin and Corticotoropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yoshida


    Full Text Available The neurohypophyseal hormones, arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, play a crucial role in the physiological and behavioral response to various kinds of stresses. Both neuropeptides activate the hypophysialpituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is a central mediator of the stress response in the body. Conversely, they receive the negative regulation by glucocorticoid, which is an end product of the HPA axis. Vasopressin and CRH are closely linked to immune response; they also interact with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, as for vasopressin, it has another important role, which is the regulation of water balance through its potent antidiuretic effect. Hence, it is conceivable that vasopressin and CRH mediate the homeostatic responses for survival and protect organisms from the external world. A tight and elaborate regulation system of the vasopressin and CRH gene is required for the rapid and flexible response to the alteration of the surrounding environments. Several important regulatory elements have been identified in the proximal promoter region in the vasopressin and CRH gene. Many transcription factors and intracellular signaling cascades are involved in the complicated gene regulation system. This review focuses on the current status of the basic research of vasopressin and CRH. In addition to the numerous known facts about their divergent physiological roles, the recent topics of promoter analyses will be discussed.

  11. Gene regulation in the immune system by long noncoding RNAs. (United States)

    Chen, Y Grace; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Chang, Howard Y


    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of gene expression in the immune system. Studies have shown that lncRNAs are expressed in a highly lineage-specific manner and control the differentiation and function of innate and adaptive cell types. In this Review, we focus on mechanisms used by lncRNAs to regulate genes encoding products involved in the immune response, including direct interactions with chromatin, RNA and proteins. In addition, we address new areas of lncRNA biology, such as the functions of enhancer RNAs, circular RNAs and chemical modifications to RNA in cellular processes. We emphasize critical gaps in knowledge and future prospects for the roles of lncRNAs in the immune system and autoimmune disease.

  12. Global Transient Stability and Voltage Regulation for Multimachine Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark; Hill, David J.


    This paper addresses simultaneously the major fundamental and difficult issues of nonlinearity, uncertainty, dimensionality and globality to derive performance enhancing power system stability control. The main focus is on simultaneous enhancement of transient stability and voltage regulation...... of power systems. This problem arises from the practical concern that both frequency and voltage control are important indices of power system control and operation but they are ascribed to different stages of system operation, i.e. the transient and post transient period respectively. The Direct Feedback...... Linearization (DFL) technique together with the robust control theory has been further developed and applied to design nonlinear excitation compensators which selectively eliminate system nonlinearities and deal with plant uncertainties and interconnections between generators. Then the so called global control...

  13. Regulation of bacterial virulence by Csr (Rsm) systems. (United States)

    Vakulskas, Christopher A; Potts, Anastasia H; Babitzke, Paul; Ahmer, Brian M M; Romeo, Tony


    Most bacterial pathogens have the remarkable ability to flourish in the external environment and in specialized host niches. This ability requires their metabolism, physiology, and virulence factors to be responsive to changes in their surroundings. It is no surprise that the underlying genetic circuitry that supports this adaptability is multilayered and exceedingly complex. Studies over the past 2 decades have established that the CsrA/RsmA proteins, global regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression, play important roles in the expression of virulence factors of numerous proteobacterial pathogens. To accomplish these tasks, CsrA binds to the 5' untranslated and/or early coding regions of mRNAs and alters translation, mRNA turnover, and/or transcript elongation. CsrA activity is regulated by noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) that contain multiple CsrA binding sites, which permit them to sequester multiple CsrA homodimers away from mRNA targets. Environmental cues sensed by two-component signal transduction systems and other regulatory factors govern the expression of the CsrA-binding sRNAs and, ultimately, the effects of CsrA on secretion systems, surface molecules and biofilm formation, quorum sensing, motility, pigmentation, siderophore production, and phagocytic avoidance. This review presents the workings of the Csr system, the paradigm shift that it generated for understanding posttranscriptional regulation, and its roles in virulence networks of animal and plant pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Regulation and Roles of Urocortins in the Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Kageyama


    Full Text Available Urocortins (Ucns are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family of peptides. Ucns would have potent effects on the cardiovascular system via the CRF receptor type 2 (CRF2 receptor. Regulation and roles of each Ucn have been determined in the vascular system. Ucns have more potent vasodilatory effects than CRF. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs express Ucns1-3 mRNAs, and the receptor, CRF2a receptor mRNA. Ucns1-3 mRNA levels are differentially regulated in HUVECs. Differential regulation of Ucns may suggest differential roles of those in HUVECs. Ucn1 and Ucn2 have strong effects on interleukin (IL-6 gene expression and secretion in rat aortic smooth muscle A7r5 cells. The increase that we observed in IL-6 levels following Ucn treatment of A7r5 cells suggests that smooth muscle cells may be a source of IL-6 secretion under physiological stress conditions. Ucns are important and unique modulators of vascular smooth muscle cells and act directly or indirectly as autocrine and paracrine factors in the vascular system.

  15. Dynamical systems modeling of early childhood self-regulation. (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M; Bendezú, Jason J; Ram, Nilam; Chow, Sy-Miin


    Self-regulation can be conceptualized in terms of dynamic tension between highly probable reactions (prepotent responses) and use of strategies that can modulate those reactions (executive processes). This study investigated the value of a dynamical systems approach to the study of early childhood self-regulation. Specifically, ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were used to model the interactive influences of 115 36-month-olds' executive processes (strategy use) and prepotent responses to waiting to open a gift (desire for the gift and frustration about waiting to open it). Using a pair of coupled second-order ODEs in a nonlinear mixed effects framework, the study tested predictions for specific within- and between-child patterns of prepotent response-executive process coupling. Dynamic modeling results articulated the limits of 36-month olds' strategic efforts. They engaged executive processes when their prepotent responding levels were high, which delayed the resurgence of prepotent responses, but ultimately did not damp prepotent responding over the course of the wait. There was, however, preliminary evidence that the effectiveness of 36-month-olds' self-regulation depended upon child characteristics. Externalizing behavior problems were associated with more regulatory interference. Temperamental negative affectivity was marginally associated with more regulatory inefficiency. Compared with conventional methods of studying self-regulation, dynamic modeling yielded complementary and unique findings, suggesting its potential. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Ultraviolet Emission from Rocket Motor Plumes (United States)


    blind ultraviolet, SBUV. Ultraviolet environmental effects on biological or physical systems are of:en considered for the ranges LVA, 400 to 315 nm, UVB...and surface destruction of ozore. Ir. remote unpolluted environments there is a lower surface level, about __ -2 aý Gx-op’ 13 ppb for the Amazonian...Climatic Bawline Observatories’ J. Geophys Res 91(D4). 522.-5236 (14󈨤) 14. Hough, A. M. and Denvent, R G. "Changes in the globil concentration of

  17. 78 FR 13546 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System (United States)


    ... Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... the FAR regarding policy and procedures related to the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System... procedures and policies related to the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System (eSRS). There were no...

  18. Axonal Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination: Structure and Function. (United States)

    Klingseisen, Anna; Lyons, David A


    Approximately half of the human brain consists of myelinated axons. Central nervous system (CNS) myelin is made by oligodendrocytes and is essential for nervous system formation, health, and function. Once thought simply as a static insulator that facilitated rapid impulse conduction, myelin is now known to be made and remodeled in to adult life. Oligodendrocytes have a remarkable capacity to differentiate by default, but many aspects of their development can be influenced by axons. However, how axons and oligodendrocytes interact and cooperate to regulate myelination in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of how such interactions generate the complexity of myelination known to exist in vivo. We highlight intriguing results that indicate that the cross-sectional size of an axon alone may regulate myelination to a surprising degree. We also review new studies, which have highlighted diversity in the myelination of axons of different neuronal subtypes and circuits, and structure-function relationships, which suggest that myelinated axons can be exquisitely fine-tuned to mediate precise conduction needs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how neuronal activity regulates CNS myelination, and aim to provide an integrated overview of how axon-oligodendrocyte interactions sculpt neuronal circuit structure and function.

  19. Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Ando


    Full Text Available Pigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes is regulated by tyrosinase, the critical rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is degraded endogenously, at least in part, by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS. Several types of inherited hypopigmentary diseases, such as oculocutaneous albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, involve the aberrant processing and/or trafficking of tyrosinase and its subsequent degradation which can occur due to the quality-control machinery. Studies on carbohydrate modifications have revealed that tyrosinase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is proteolyzed via ER-associated protein degradation and that tyrosinase degradation can also occur following its complete maturation in the Golgi. Among intrinsic factors that regulate the UPS, fatty acids have been shown to modulate tyrosinase degradation in contrasting manners through increased or decreased amounts of ubiquitinated tyrosinase that leads to its accelerated or decelerated degradation by proteasomes.

  20. Hormonal regulation of hepatic drug biotransformation and transport systems. (United States)

    Ruiz, María L; Mottino, Aldo D; Catania, Viviana A; Vore, Mary


    The human body is constantly exposed to many xenobiotics including environmental pollutants, food additives, therapeutic drugs, etc. The liver is considered the primary site for drug metabolism and elimination pathways, consisting in uptake, phase I and II reactions, and efflux processes, usually acting in this same order. Modulation of biotransformation and disposition of drugs of clinical application has important therapeutic and toxicological implications. We here provide a compilation and analysis of relevant, more recent literature reporting hormonal regulation of hepatic drug biotransformation and transport systems. We provide additional information on the effect of hormones that tentatively explain differences between sexes. A brief discussion on discrepancies between experimental models and species, as well as a link between gender-related differences and the hormonal mechanism explaining such differences, is also presented. Finally, we include a comment on the pathophysiological, toxicological, and pharmacological relevance of these regulations.

  1. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF (United States)

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh


    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  2. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover. (United States)

    Sobrado, J M; Martín-Soler, J; Martín-Gago, J A


    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  3. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrado, J. M.; Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.


    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration

  4. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover (United States)

    Sobrado, J. M.; Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.


    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  5. Ultraviolet irradiation induced oxidative stress and response of antioxidant system in an intertidal macroalgae Corallina officinalis L. (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Zhao, Jiqiang; Tang, Xuexi


    The response of the antioxidant defense system of an intertidal macroalgae Corallina officinalis L. to different dosages of UV-B irradiation was investigated. Results showed that superoxide dimutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) increased and then maintained at a relatively stable level when subjected to UV-B irradiation. Catalase (CAT) activity under medium dosage of UV-B irradiation (Muv) and high dosage of UV-B irradiation (Huv) treatments were significantly decreased. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity first remained unaltered and then increased in Huv treatment. In addition, the assay on isozymes was carried out using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The activities of some SOD isoforms were altered by UV-B. Two new bands (POX V and POX VII) appeared upon exposure to all three UV-B dosages. CAT III activity was increased by low dosage of UV-B irradiation (Luv), whereas CAT III and CAT IV disappeared when the alga was exposed to Muv and Huv. Two bands of APX (APX VI and APX VII) were increased and a new band (APX X) was observed under Huv exposure. H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) increased under Muv and Huv treatments. Overall, UV-B protection mechanisms are partly inducible and to a certain extent sufficient to prevent the accumulation of damage in C. officinalis.

  6. In vivo quantification of quantum dot systemic transport in C57BL/6 hairless mice following skin application post-ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Jatana, Samreen; Palmer, Brian C; Phelan, Sarah J; Gelein, Robert; DeLouise, Lisa A


    Previous work has demonstrated size, surface charge and skin barrier dependent penetration of nanoparticles into the viable layers of mouse skin. The goal of this work was to characterize the tissue distribution and mechanism of transport of nanoparticles beyond skin, with and without Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) induced skin barrier disruption. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to examine the effect of UVR dose (180 and 360 mJ/cm 2 UVB) on the skin penetration and systemic distribution of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles topically applied at different time-points post UVR using a hairless C57BL/6 mouse model. Results indicate that QDs can penetrate mouse skin, regardless of UVR exposure, as evidenced by the increased cadmium in the local lymph nodes of all QD treated mice. The average % recovery for all treatment groups was 69.68% with ~66.84% of the applied dose recovered from the skin (both epicutaneous and intracutaneous). An average of 0.024% of the applied dose was recovered from the lymph nodes across various treatment groups. When QDs are applied 4 days post UV irradiation, at the peak of the skin barrier defect and LC migration to the local lymph node, there is an increased cellular presence of QD in the lymph node; however, AAS analysis of local lymph nodes display no difference in cadmium levels due to UVR treatment. Our data suggests that Langerhans cells (LCs) can engulf QDs in skin, but transport to the lymph node may occur by both cellular (dendritic and macrophage) and non-cellular mechanisms. It is interesting that these specific nanoparticles were retained in skin similarly regardless of UVR barrier disruption, but the observed skin immune cell interaction with nanoparticles suggest a potential for immunomodulation, which we are currently examining in a murine model of skin allergy.

  7. Minimal levels of ultraviolet light enhance the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to two representative organisms of aquatic systems (United States)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Jonsson, C. M.; Fraceto, L. F.


    A number of studies have been published concerning the potential ecotoxicological risks of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), but the results still remain inconclusive. The characteristics of the diverse types of nano-TiO2 must be considered in order to establish experimental models to study their toxicity. TiO2 has important photocatalytic properties, and its photoactivation occurs in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to indicators organisms of freshwater and saline aquatic systems, under different illumination conditions (visible light, with or without UV light). Daphnia similis and Artemia salina were co-exposed to a sublethal dose of UV light and different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM). Both products were considered practically non-toxic under visible light to D. similis and A. salina (EC5048h > 100 mg/L). Exposure to nano-TiO2 under visible and UV light enhanced the toxicity of both products. In the case of D. similis, TM was more toxic than TA, showing values of EC5048h = 60.16 and 750.55 mg/L, respectively. A. salina was more sensitive than D. similis, with EC5048h = 4 mg/L for both products. Measurements were made of the growth rates of exposed organisms, together with biomarkers of oxidative stress and metabolism. The results showed that the effects of nano-TiO2 depended on the organism, exposure time, crystal phase, and illumination conditions, and emphasized the need for a full characterization of nanoparticles and their behavior when studying nanotoxicity.

  8. Optimal Scheduling of an Regional Integrated Energy System with Energy Storage Systems for Service Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengrui Ma


    Full Text Available Ancillary services are critical to maintaining the safe and stable operation of power systems that contain a high penetration level of renewable energy resources. As a high-quality regulation resource, the regional integrated energy system (RIES with energy storage system (ESS can effectively adjust the non-negligible frequency offset caused by the renewable energy integration into the power system, and help solve the problem of power system frequency stability. In this paper, the optimization model aiming at regional integrated energy system as a participant in the regulation market based on pay-for-performance is established. Meanwhile YALMIP + CPLEX is used to simulate and analyze the total operating cost under different dispatch modes. This paper uses the actual operation model of the PJM regulation market to guide the optimal allocation of regulation resource in the regional integrated energy system, and provides a balance between the power trading revenue and regulation market revenue in order to achieve the maximum profit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vatlitsov


    Full Text Available The technology evolution creates the prerequisites for the emergence of new informational concept and approaches to the formation of a fundamentally new principles of biological objects understanding. The aim was to study the activators of the programmed cell death in an isolated system model. Cell culture aging parameters were performed on flow cytometer. It had formed the theory that the changes in the concentrations of metal ions and increase their extracellular concentration had formed a negative gradient into the cells.regulation of cell death. It was shown that the metals ions concentrations.

  10. Capability to model reactor regulating system in RFSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, H.C.; Rouben, B.; Younis, M.H.; Jenkins, D.A.; Baudouin, A.; Thompson, P.D.


    The Reactor Regulating System package extracted from SMOKIN-G2 was linked within RFSP to the spatial kinetics calculation. The objective is to use this new capability in safety analysis to model the actions of RRS in hypothetical events such as in-core LOCA or moderator drain scenarios. This paper describes the RRS modelling in RFSP and its coupling to the neutronics calculations, verification of the RRS control routine functions, sample applications and comparisons to SMOKIN-G2 results for the same transient simulations. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  11. Heat Shock Factor 1 Deficiency Affects Systemic Body Temperature Regulation. (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Noichl, Erik; Stahr, Anna; Korf, Horst-Werner; Reinke, Hans; von Gall, Charlotte


    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a ubiquitous heat-sensitive transcription factor that mediates heat shock protein transcription in response to cellular stress, such as increased temperature, in order to protect the organism against misfolded proteins. In this study, we analysed the effect of HSF1 deficiency on core body temperature regulation. Body temperature, locomotor activity, and food consumption of wild-type mice and HSF1-deficient mice were recorded. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in brown adipose tissue was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Hypothalamic HSF1 and its co-localisation with tyrosine hydroxylase was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. HSF1-deficient mice showed an increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia), decreased overall locomotor activity, and decreased levels of prolactin in pituitary and blood plasma reminiscent of cold adaptation. HSF1 could be detected in various hypothalamic regions involved in temperature regulation, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in hypothalamic thermoregulation. Moreover, HSF1 co-localises with tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in the hypothalamic control of prolactin release. In brown adipose tissue, levels of prolactin receptor and uncoupled protein 1 were increased in HSF1-deficient mice, consistent with an up-regulation of heat production. Our data suggest a role of HSF1 in systemic thermoregulation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The international regulation of Informal Value Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ajay Shah


    Full Text Available After the 11th September 2001 attacks on the United States international attention quickly focused on the sources and methods of terrorist financing. Among the methods terrorists and other criminal actors use to transfer funds are Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS which operate either outside the formal financial sector, or through use of the formal financial sector, but without leaving a full record of the transaction. Though the vast majority of funds moved through IVTS are the earnings of migrant workers and immigrant communities, the lack of uniform worldwide regulation of IVTS provides ample opportunity for abuse and misuse. The international community primarily responded to IVTS concerns through the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, which issued a series of recommendations and best practices for states in regulating IVTS operations. While these recommendations are a secure beginning to regulation of IVTS operating within ethnic communities, they fail to address the more modern forms of IVTS that have come about in the post-Cold War globalised world. Comprehensive recommendations governing all types of IVTS, as well as concerted international cooperation and coordination are necessary to address this global phenomenon.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of inducible gene expression in the immune system. (United States)

    Lim, Pek Siew; Li, Jasmine; Holloway, Adele F; Rao, Sudha


    T cells are exquisitely poised to respond rapidly to pathogens and have proved an instructive model for exploring the regulation of inducible genes. Individual genes respond to antigenic stimulation in different ways, and it has become clear that the interplay between transcription factors and the chromatin platform of individual genes governs these responses. Our understanding of the complexity of the chromatin platform and the epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to transcriptional control has expanded dramatically in recent years. These mechanisms include the presence/absence of histone modification marks, which form an epigenetic signature to mark active or inactive genes. These signatures are dynamically added or removed by epigenetic enzymes, comprising an array of histone-modifying enzymes, including the more recently recognized chromatin-associated signalling kinases. In addition, chromatin-remodelling complexes physically alter the chromatin structure to regulate chromatin accessibility to transcriptional regulatory factors. The advent of genome-wide technologies has enabled characterization of the chromatin landscape of T cells in terms of histone occupancy, histone modification patterns and transcription factor association with specific genomic regulatory regions, generating a picture of the T-cell epigenome. Here, we discuss the multi-layered regulation of inducible gene expression in the immune system, focusing on the interplay between transcription factors, and the T-cell epigenome, including the role played by chromatin remodellers and epigenetic enzymes. We will also use IL2, a key inducible cytokine gene in T cells, as an example of how the different layers of epigenetic mechanisms regulate immune responsive genes during T-cell activation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ultraviolet laser beam monitor using radiation responsive crystals (United States)

    McCann, Michael P.; Chen, Chung H.


    An apparatus and method for monitoring an ultraviolet laser beam includes disposing in the path of an ultraviolet laser beam a substantially transparent crystal that will produce a color pattern in response to ultraviolet radiation. The crystal is exposed to the ultraviolet laser beam and a color pattern is produced within the crystal corresponding to the laser beam intensity distribution therein. The crystal is then exposed to visible light, and the color pattern is observed by means of the visible light to determine the characteristics of the laser beam that passed through crystal. In this manner, a perpendicular cross sectional intensity profile and a longitudinal intensity profile of the ultraviolet laser beam may be determined. The observation of the color pattern may be made with forward or back scattered light and may be made with the naked eye or with optical systems such as microscopes and television cameras.

  15. Effect of long-wave ultraviolet light on the lens. I. Model systems for detecting and measuring effect on the lens in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuck, J.F.R. Jr.


    Rat, mouse, and chick lenses incubated with 3-aminotriazole under long-wave ultraviolet (UV) show reduced accumulation and incorporation of leucine and a loss of glutathione. The effect on leucine incorporation is strikingly enhanced when capsule-epithelium pools are incubated. The procedure may identify photosensitizers or metabolic inhibitors which are cataractogenic when acting in conjunction with UV

  16. Photomorphogenic responses to ultraviolet-B light. (United States)

    Jenkins, Gareth I


    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UV-B) light regulates numerous aspects of plant metabolism, morphology and physiology through the differential expression of hundreds of genes. Photomorphogenic responses to UV-B are mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Considerable progress has been made in understanding UVR8 action: the structural basis of photoreceptor function, how interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 initiates signaling and how REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS proteins negatively regulate UVR8 action. In addition, recent research shows that UVR8 mediates several responses through interaction with other signaling pathways, in particular auxin signaling. Nevertheless, many aspects of UVR8 action remain poorly understood. Most research to date has been undertaken with Arabidopsis, and it is important to explore the functions and regulation of UVR8 in diverse plant species. Furthermore, it is essential to understand how UVR8, and UV-B signaling in general, regulates processes under natural growth conditions. Ultraviolet B regulates the expression of many genes through UVR8-independent pathways, but the activity and importance of these pathways in plants growing in sunlight are poorly understood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Proprioceptive System Regulates Morphologic Restoration of Fractured Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Blecher


    Full Text Available Successful fracture repair requires restoration of bone morphology and mechanical integrity. Recent evidence shows that fractured bones of neonatal mice undergo spontaneous realignment, dubbed “natural reduction.” Here, we show that natural reduction is regulated by the proprioceptive system and improves with age. Comparison among mice of different ages revealed, surprisingly, that 3-month-old mice exhibited more rapid and effective natural reduction than newborns. Fractured bones of null mutants for transcription factor Runx3, lacking functional proprioceptors, failed to realign properly. Blocking Runx3 expression in the peripheral nervous system, but not in limb mesenchyme, recapitulated the null phenotype, as did inactivation of muscles flanking the fracture site. Egr3 knockout mice, which lack muscle spindles but not Golgi tendon organs, displayed a less severe phenotype, suggesting that both receptor types, as well as muscle contraction, are required for this regulatory mechanism. These findings uncover a physiological role for proprioception in non-autonomous regulation of skeletal integrity.

  18. Distributed Cooperative Regulation for Multiagent Systems and Its Applications to Power Systems: A Survey (United States)

    Li, Yaping; Yong, Taiyou; Yu, Jie; Mao, Wenbo


    Cooperative regulation of multiagent systems has become an active research area in the past decade. This paper reviews some recent progress in distributed coordination control for leader-following multiagent systems and its applications in power system and mainly focuses on the cooperative tracking control in terms of consensus tracking control and containment tracking control. Next, methods on how to rank the network nodes are summarized for undirected/directed network, based on which one can determine which follower should be connected to leaders such that partial followers can perceive leaders' information. Furthermore, we present a survey of the most relevant scientific studies investigating the regulation and optimization problems in power systems based on distributed strategies. Finally, some potential applications in the frequency tracking regulation of smart grids are discussed at the end of the paper. PMID:25243199

  19. Distributed cooperative regulation for multiagent systems and its applications to power systems: a survey. (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Li, Yaping; Yong, Taiyou; Cao, Jinde; Yu, Jie; Mao, Wenbo


    Cooperative regulation of multiagent systems has become an active research area in the past decade. This paper reviews some recent progress in distributed coordination control for leader-following multiagent systems and its applications in power system and mainly focuses on the cooperative tracking control in terms of consensus tracking control and containment tracking control. Next, methods on how to rank the network nodes are summarized for undirected/directed network, based on which one can determine which follower should be connected to leaders such that partial followers can perceive leaders' information. Furthermore, we present a survey of the most relevant scientific studies investigating the regulation and optimization problems in power systems based on distributed strategies. Finally, some potential applications in the frequency tracking regulation of smart grids are discussed at the end of the paper.

  20. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells. (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen


    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  1. Management system for regulating transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo


    Full text: The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics and fundamentals of the Nuclear regulatory Authority's (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN) management system applied to the regulation of transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TRM process from now on. ARN's quality management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TRM process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of quality system. Such sub processes were defined taking account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials and are listed below: 1) Development and updating of standards and regulatory guides; 2) Licensing of packages, special radioactive materials and consignments of radioactive materials; 3) Compliance assurance during the transport of radioactive materials, and 4) Training, advising and communications. For each of these sub processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, the clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. It was decided to develop a quality plan to organize and manage activities to meet quality requirements, to optimize the use of limited resources of the organization and to be used as a basis for monitoring and assessing compliance with the requirements, both internal and external. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to implement continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measure the sub processes as a way to show

  2. Compact and efficient ultraviolet laser for astrobiology, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser for use in space-based uv-Raman instruments. The basis for this system will be a...

  3. 75 FR 32635 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... (United States)


    ... Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for Commercial Information Technology... Balance of Payments Program for construction material that is commercial information technology. This... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the exemption from the Balance of...

  4. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Nickel


    Full Text Available The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation. Recent studies have revealed that long-lasting changes of myelination can be induced in these brain regions by experience, such as social isolation, stress, and alcohol abuse, as well as by neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. However, the mechanism and function of these changes remain poorly understood. Myelin regulation represents a new form of neural plasticity. Some progress has been made to provide new mechanistic insights into activity-independent and activity-dependent regulations of myelination in different experimental systems. More extensive investigations are needed in this important but underexplored research field, in order to shed light on how higher brain functions and myelination interplay in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  5. Algorithm of dynamic regulation of a system of duct, for a high accuracy climatic system (United States)

    Arbatskiy, A. A.; Afonina, G. N.; Glazov, V. S.


    Currently, major part of climatic system, are stationary in projected mode only. At the same time, many modern industrial sites, require constant or periodical changes in technological process. That is 80% of the time, the industrial site is not require ventilation system in projected mode and high precision of climatic parameters must maintain. While that not constantly is in use for climatic systems, which use in parallel for different rooms, we will be have a problem for balance of duct system. For this problem, was created the algorithm for quantity regulation, with minimal changes. Dynamic duct system: Developed of parallel control system of air balance, with high precision of climatic parameters. The Algorithm provide a permanent pressure in main duct, in different a flow of air. Therefore, the ending devises air flow have only one parameter for regulation - flaps open area. Precision of regulation increase and the climatic system provide high precision for temperature and humidity (0,5C for temperature, 5% for relative humidity). Result: The research has been made in CFD-system - PHOENICS. Results for velocity of air in duct, for pressure of air in duct for different operation mode, has been obtained. Equation for air valves positions, with different parameters for climate in room’s, has been obtained. Energy saving potential for dynamic duct system, for different types of a rooms, has been calculated.

  6. The infrared-ultraviolet connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.


    Physics below 300 GeV is termed infrared, and physics above 1 TeV is called ultraviolet. Some aspects of the relation between these two regions are discussed. It is argued that the symmetries of the infrared must be symmetries in the ultraviolet. Furthermore, naturalness within the context of the

  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system components positively regulate Klebsiella biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tze Horng


    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of device-related infections (DRIs, which are associated with attachment of bacteria to these devices to form a biofilm. The latter is composed of not only bacteria but also extracellular polymeric substances (EPSes consisting of extracellular DNAs, polysaccharides, and other macromolecules. The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS regulates diverse processes of bacterial physiology. In the genome of K. pneumoniae MGH 78578, we found an uncharacterized enzyme II complex homolog of PTS: KPN00353 (EIIA homolog, KPN00352 (EIIB homolog, and KPN00351 (EIIC homolog. The aim of this study was to characterize the potential physiological role of KPN00353, KPN00352, and KPN00351 in biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae. Methods/Results: We constructed the PTS mutants and recombinant strains carrying the gene(s of PTS. The recombinant K. pneumoniae strain overexpressing KPN00353–KPN00352–KPN00351 produced more extracellular matrix than did the vector control according to transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Judging by quantification of biofilm formation, of extracellular DNA (eDNA, and of capsular polysaccharide, the recombinant strain overexpressing KPN00353-KPN00352-KPN00351 produced more biofilm and capsular polysaccharide after overnight culture and more eDNA in the log phase as compared to the vector control. Conclusion: The genes, KPN00353–KPN00352–KPN00351, encode a putative enzyme II complex in PTS and positively regulate biofilm formation by enhancing production of eDNA and capsular polysaccharide in K. pneumoniae. Five proteins related to chaperones, to the citric acid cycle, and to quorum sensing are upregulated by the KPN00353–KPN00352–KPN00351 system. Keywords: Klebsiella, PTS, Biofilm, eDNA, Polysaccharide

  8. Improved reactor regulating system logical architecture using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Sub Shim


    Full Text Available An improved Reactor Regulating System (RRS logic architecture, which is combined with genetic algorithm (GA, is implemented in this work. It is devised to provide an optimal solution to the current RRS. The current system works desirably and has contributed to safe and stable nuclear power plant operation. However, during the ascent and descent section of the reactor power, the RRS output reveals a relatively high steady-state error, and the output also carries a considerable level of overshoot. In an attempt to consolidate conservatism and minimize the error, this work proposes to apply GA to RRS and suggests reconfiguring the system. Prior to the use of GA, reverse engineering is implemented to build a Simulink-based RRS model. Reengineering is followed to produce a newly configured RRS to generate an output that has a reduced steady-state error and diminished overshoot level. A full-scope APR1400 simulator is used to examine the dynamic behaviors of RRS and to build the RRS Simulink model.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Reactor Regulating System for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yu Lim; Kang, Han Ok; Lee, Seong Wook; Park, Cheon Tae


    The integral reactor technology is one of the Small and Medium sized Reactor (SMR) which has recently come into a spotlight due to its suitability for various fields. SMART (System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a small sized integral type PWR with a rated thermal power of 330MWt is one of the advanced SMR. SMART developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), has a capacity to provide 40,000 m3 per day of potable water and 90 MW of electricity (Chang et al., 2000). Figure 1 shows the SMART which adopts a sensible mixture of new innovative design features and proven technologies aimed at achieving highly enhanced safety and improved economics. Design features contributing to a safety enhancement are basically inherent safety improving features and passive safety features. Fundamental thermal-hydraulic experiments were carried out during the design concepts development to assure the fundamental behavior of major concepts of the SMART systems. A TASS/SMR is a suitable code for accident and performance analyses of SMART. In this paper, we proposed a new power control logic for stable operating outputs of Reactor Regulating System (RRS) of SMART. We analyzed the sensitivity of operating parameter for various operating conditions

  10. 75 FR 25165 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (United States)


    ... Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Reporting system requirements for major defense acquisition programs and major automated information system... summarized as follows: The objective of the rule is to set forth Cost and Software Data Reporting System...

  11. Regulation and input disturbance suppression for port-controlled Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentili, L.; Astolfi, A.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Gordillo, F.


    In this paper the output feedback regulation problem for port-controlled Hamiltonian systems (PCHS) is addressed. Following the nonlinear output regulation theory, the regulator which solves the problem is given by a parallel connection of two subcontrollers: an internal model unit and a regulator

  12. Emerging role of neurotensin in regulation of the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Osadchii, Oleg E


    There is increasing evidence in support of an important role played by neurotensin (NT), a tridecapeptide originally found in bovine hypothalamus, in regulation of cardiovascular system. Elevated systemic levels of NT may contribute to pathogenesis of acute circulatory disoders, and predict the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in population-based studies. Within cardiovascular system, NT-containing neural fibers are found in close contact with atrial and ventricular cardiac myocytes, cardiac conduction system, intracardiac ganglia, as well as coronary vessels in humans and various animal species. The density of NT-immunoreactive innervation is reduced in cardiac disease. NT produces a variety of cardiovascular actions including effects on heart rate, myocardial contractility, systemic blood pressure, coronary vascular tone, venous smooth muscle tone, and regional blood flow in gastrointestinal tract, cutaneous and adipose tissue. NT could trigger cardiovascular reflexes by stimulating primary visceral afferents synaptically connected with preganglionic sympathetic neurons at the spinal cord. Structural determinants of biological activity of NT reside primarily in the C-terminal portion of its molecule which is responsible for receptor activation. NT effects are mediated via activation of NT receptors, or produced indirectly via stimulation of release of various endogenous neuromodulators/neurotransmitters such as histamine, catecholamines and prostaglandins. Three subtypes of NT receptor (NTS1, NTS2 and NTS3) have been shown to be expressed in the myocardium. NTS1, a high-affinity NT binding site coupled to phospholipase C-inositoltrisphosphate transduction pathway, is thought to mediate NT-induced cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The most basic effect of UV radiation on biological systems is damage to DNA. In response to UV radiation organisms have ad...

  14. 41 CFR 101-1.101 - Federal Property Management Regulations System. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Federal Property Management Regulations System. 101-1.101 Section 101-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1...

  15. A decision support system for the maintenance of lights of traffic regulation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn Schouten, F.A. van der; Klusener, A.S.; Vlijmen, S.F.M. van; Vos de Wael, S.L.E.

    From October 1994 to June 1995 the authors executed a project, the so called 'Lampremplace' project, in cooperation with Nederland Haarlem, a Dutch constructor and supplier of traffic regulation systems. 'Lampremplace', as it is called in traffic jargon, is the maintenance of lights of traffic

  16. Neuroendocrine mechanisms for immune system regulation during stress in fish. (United States)

    Nardocci, Gino; Navarro, Cristina; Cortés, Paula P; Imarai, Mónica; Montoya, Margarita; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Jara, Pablo; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Fernández, Ricardo


    In the last years, the aquaculture crops have experienced an explosive and intensive growth, because of the high demand for protein. This growth has increased fish susceptibility to diseases and subsequent death. The constant biotic and abiotic changes experienced by fish species in culture are challenges that induce physiological, endocrine and immunological responses. These changes mitigate stress effects at the cellular level to maintain homeostasis. The effects of stress on the immune system have been studied for many years. While acute stress can have beneficial effects, chronic stress inhibits the immune response in mammals and teleost fish. In response to stress, a signaling cascade is triggered by the activation of neural circuits in the central nervous system because the hypothalamus is the central modulator of stress. This leads to the production of catecholamines, corticosteroid-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoids, which are the essential neuroendocrine mediators for this activation. Because stress situations are energetically demanding, the neuroendocrine signals are involved in metabolic support and will suppress the "less important" immune function. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of the neuroendocrine regulation of immunity in fish will allow the development of new pharmaceutical strategies and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of diseases triggered by stress at all stages of fish cultures for commercial production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms regulating caste differentiation in an aphid social system. (United States)

    Shibao, Harunobu; Kutsukake, Mayako; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Fukatsu, Takema; Shimada, Masakazu


    For evolution and maintenance of the social systems of insect colonies, caste production should be controlled in response to external cues so that caste ratio in the colony is kept at an optimal range. Recent developments using artificial diet rearing techniques have revealed an underlying mechanism for adaptive control of caste production in a social aphid, Tuberaphis styraci, which has a sterile soldier caste in the 2(nd) instar. Aphid density was the proximate cue that acts on 1(st) instar nymphs and embryos to induce soldier differentiation. The final determination of soldier differentiation occurred postnatally, probably at a late 1(st) instar stage. Direct contact stimuli from live non-soldier aphids mediated the density effect. While coexisting non-soldiers facilitated soldier differentiation in 1(st) instar nymphs, coexisting soldiers acted to suppress such differentiation. These results suggest that caste production in aphid colonies is controlled by positive and negative feedback mechanisms consisting of density-dependent induction and suppression of soldier differentiation. Here, we demonstrate the mechanisms that coordinate aphid society, and provide a striking case of clonal superorganism system where simple responses of colony members to local extrinsic stimuli are integrated into a highly organized regulation of the whole colony.

  18. Hox gene regulation in the central nervous system of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar eGummalla


    Full Text Available Hox genes specify the structures that form along the anteroposterior (AP axis of bilateria. Within the genome, they often form clusters where, remarkably enough, their position within the clusters reflects the relative positions of the structures they specify along the AP axis. This correspondence between genomic organization and gene expression pattern has been conserved through evolution and provides a unique opportunity to study how chromosomal context affects gene regulation. In Drosophila, a general rule, often called posterior dominance, states that Hox genes specifying more posterior structures repress the expression of more anterior Hox genes. This rule explains the apparent spatial complementarity of Hox gene expression patterns in Drosophila. Here we review a noticeable exception to this rule where the more-posteriorly expressed Abd-B hox gene fails to repress the more-anterior abd-A gene in cells of the central nervous system (CNS. While Abd-B is required to repress ectopic expression of abd-A in the posterior epidermis, abd-A repression in the posterior CNS is accomplished by a different mechanism that involves a large 92kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA encoded by the intergenic region separating abd-A and Abd-B (the iab8ncRNA. Dissection of this lncRNA revealed that abd-A is repressed by the lncRNA using two redundant mechanisms. The 1st mechanism is mediated by a microRNA (mir-iab-8 encoded by intronic sequence within the large iab8-ncRNA. Meanwhile, the second mechanism seems to involve transcriptional interference by the long iab-8 ncRNA on the abd-A promoter. Recent work demonstrating CNS-specific regulation of genes by ncRNAs in Drosophila, seem to highlight a potential role for the iab-8-ncRNA in the evolution of the Drosophila hox complexes

  19. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten


    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe

  20. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten


    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe.

  1. Preoperative ultraviolet B inflammation in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Dawes, J M; Denk, F


    , we wanted to test whether this effort could be enhanced and complemented by the use of a model system which takes into account the function of not just circulating, but also tissue-resident immune cells: ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of the skin. METHODS: We conducted psychophysical...... in the skin might predict the degree of a patient's neuro-immune response and the extent of their postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty....

  2. The next generation of ultraviolet light technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, K.A.


    According to this article, the next generation of ultraviolet (UV) light technologies into the environmental spotlight. Researchers have long recognized the potential of UV light, nestled between the longer radiation wavelengths of the visible spectrum and the shorter ones in the x-ray region, to effect chemical change. Environmentally, UV light made its debut as a water purification tool. As the technology improved, researchers incorporated UV light in wastewater treatment systems and, later, in remediation techniques

  3. 76 FR 71464 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Transition to the System for Award Management... (United States)


    ... Integrated Acquisition Environment systems to the new System for Award Management architecture. DATES..., Transition to the System for Award Management, is revising the Federal Acquisition Regulation references for... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212 and 252 RIN 0750-AH46 Defense Federal Acquisition...

  4. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser (United States)

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.


    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  5. 3D simulation of CANDU reactor regulating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venescu, B.; Zevedei, D.; Jurian, M.


    Present paper shows the evaluation of the performance of the 3-D modal synthesis based reactor kinetic model in a closed-loop environment in a MATLAB/SIMULINK based Reactor Regulating System (RRS) simulation platform. A notable advantage of the 3-D model is the level of details that it can reveal as compared to the coupled point kinetic model. Using the developed RRS simulation platform, the reactor internal behaviours can be revealed during load-following tests. The test results are also benchmarked against measurements from an existing (CANDU) power plant. It can be concluded that the 3-D reactor model produces more realistic view of the core neutron flux distribution, which is closer to the real plant measurements than that from a coupled point kinetic model. It is also shown that, through a vectorization process, the computational load of the 3-D model is comparable with that of the 14-zone coupled point kinetic model. Furthermore, the developed Graphical User Interface (GUI) software package for RRS implementation represents a user friendly and independent application environment for education training and industrial utilizations. (authors)

  6. Photoperiodic regulation of behavior: Peromyscus as a model system. (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Nelson, Randy J


    Winter and summer present vastly different challenges to animals living outside of the tropics. To survive and reproduce, individuals must anticipate seasonal environmental changes and adjust physiology and behavior accordingly. Photoperiod (day length) offers a relatively 'noise free' environmental signal that non-tropical animals use to tell the time of year, and whether winter is approaching or receding. In some cases, photoperiodic signals may be fine-tuned by other proximate cues such as food availability or temperature. The pineal hormone, melatonin, is a primary physiological transducer of the photoperiodic signal. It tracks night length and provokes changes in physiology and behavior at appropriate times of the year. Because of their wide latitudinal distribution, Peromyscus has been well studied in the context of photoperiodic regulation of physiology and behavior. Here, we discuss how photoperiodic signals are transduced by pineal melatonin, how melatonin acts on target tissues, and subsequent consequences for behavior. Using a life-history paradigm involving trade-offs between the immune and reproductive systems, specific emphasis is placed on aggression, metabolism, and cognition. We discuss future directions including examining the effects of light pollution on photoperiodism, genetic manipulations to test the role of specific genes in the photoperiodic response, and using Peromyscus to test evolutionary theories of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Mucosal Immune System and Its Regulation by Autophagy. (United States)

    Kabat, Agnieszka M; Pott, Johanna; Maloy, Kevin J


    The gastrointestinal tract presents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system, which has to constantly monitor the vast surface for the presence of pathogens, while at the same time maintaining tolerance to beneficial or innocuous antigens. In the intestinal mucosa, specialized innate and adaptive immune components participate in directing appropriate immune responses toward these diverse challenges. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that the process of autophagy influences several aspects of mucosal immune responses. Initially described as a "self-eating" survival pathway that enables nutrient recycling during starvation, autophagy has now been connected to multiple cellular responses, including several aspects of immunity. Initial links between autophagy and host immunity came from the observations that autophagy can target intracellular bacteria for degradation. However, subsequent studies indicated that autophagy plays a much broader role in immune responses, as it can impact antigen processing, thymic selection, lymphocyte homeostasis, and the regulation of immunoglobulin and cytokine secretion. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mucosal immune cells and discuss how autophagy influences many aspects of their physiology and function. We focus on cell type-specific roles of autophagy in the gut, with a particular emphasis on the effects of autophagy on the intestinal T cell compartment. We also provide a perspective on how manipulation of autophagy may potentially be used to treat mucosal inflammatory disorders.

  8. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth


    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  9. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism. (United States)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E; Ackermans, Mariette T; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries


    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an intact sympathetic innervation of the liver is essential to maintain the secretion of triglycerides by the liver. In the current study, we hypothesized that in the postprandial condition the parasympathetic input to the liver inhibits hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. To test our hypothesis, we determined the effect of selective surgical hepatic denervations on triglyceride metabolism after a meal in male Wistar rats. We report that postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly elevated in parasympathetically denervated rats compared with control rats (P = 0.008), and VLDL-TG production tended to be increased (P = 0.066). Sympathetically denervated rats also showed a small rise in postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.045). On the other hand, in rats fed on a six-meals-a-day schedule for several weeks, a parasympathetic denervation resulted in >70% higher plasma triglycerides during the day (P = 0.001), whereas a sympathetic denervation had no effect. Our results show that abolishing the parasympathetic input to the liver results in increased plasma triglyceride levels during postprandial conditions.

  10. Removal of isopropyl alcohol and methanol in ultrapure water production system using a 185 nm ultraviolet and ion exchange system. (United States)

    Choi, Jeongyun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook


    The oxidation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) compounds, including isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and methanol in ultrapure water (UPW) production system was evaluated using the continuously operating 185 nm total organic carbon (TOC) reduction UV and ion exchange system. The initial concentration of compounds was in the range of tens of ppb which was the general feed condition of UV system located after 2 pass reverse osmosis (RO) in the UPW production system. UV irradiation transformed the compounds to less oxidative products that were ultimately converted to CO2. The ion exchange system then removed carboxyl-containing organic acids generated by UV oxidation. It means that the oxidation efficiency of organic compounds by UV irradiation can be accurately measured by the summation of the final product (CO2) and the by-product containing carboxyl functional group. The removal efficiency of LMW compounds decreased when either the initial TOC concentration increased or the UV intensity was reduced. Finally, the insertion of a baffle into the UV oxidation system was found to enhance solution turbulence and improve the oxidation efficiency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu


    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  12. Ultraviolet and environmental stresses involved in the induction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating plant development and genes expression. Ultraviolet takes up 7% of sunlight and it stimulates distinct responses in plant. Both UV-A and low influence of UV-B can induce the accumulation of anthocyanin via induction of the expression of anthocyanin ...

  13. 78 FR 17673 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews (United States)


    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. A notice... Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following methods: Regulations...

  14. Adolescents' Self-Regulation Development via the Sensory Room System (United States)

    Kalimullin, Aydar M.; Kuvaldina, Elana A.; Koinova-Zoellner, Julia


    The urgency of the issue stated in this article is caused by the need for mastering skills and patterns of self-regulation when being an adolescent since this time is sensitive for developing processes of personal understanding and evolution. Thus, mastering skills and patterns of self-regulation as a necessary part of the whole ability of…

  15. Ultraviolet photovoltaics: Share the spectrum (United States)

    Milliron, Delia J.


    Electrically controlled windows require power to switch between transparent and tinted states. Now, an ultraviolet light-harvesting solar cell can power smart windows without compromising their control over heat and light.

  16. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory


    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  17. Solar ultraviolet radiation cataract. (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan


    Despite being a treatable disease, cataract is still the leading cause for blindness in the world. Solar ultraviolet radiation is epidemiologically linked to cataract development, while animal and in vitro studies prove a causal relationship. However, the pathogenetic pathways for the disease are not fully understood and there is still no perfect model for human age related cataract. This non-comprehensive overview focus on recent developments regarding effects of solar UV radiation wavebands on the lens. A smaller number of fundamental papers are also included to provide a backdrop for the overview. Future studies are expected to further clarify the cellular and subcellular mechanisms for UV radiation-induced cataract and especially the isolated or combined temporal and spatial effects of UVA and UVB in the pathogenesis of human cataract. Regardless of the cause for cataract, there is a need for advances in pharmaceutical or other treatment modalities that do not require surgical replacement of the lens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ultraviolet radiation and cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek Kyun; Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Häder, Donat-Peter; Han, Taejun


    Cyanobacteria are the dominant photosynthetic prokaryotes from an ecological, economical, or evolutionary perspective, and depend on solar energy to conduct their normal life processes. However, the marked increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) caused by the continuous depletion of the stratospheric ozone shield has fueled serious concerns about the ecological consequences for all living organisms, including cyanobacteria. UV-B radiation can damage cellular DNA and several physiological and biochemical processes in cyanobacterial cells, either directly, through its interaction with certain biomolecules that absorb in the UV range, or indirectly, with the oxidative stress exerted by reactive oxygen species. However, cyanobacteria have a long history of survival on Earth, and they predate the existence of the present ozone shield. To withstand the detrimental effects of solar UVR, these prokaryotes have evolved several lines of defense and various tolerance mechanisms, including avoidance, antioxidant production, DNA repair, protein resynthesis, programmed cell death, and the synthesis of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. This study critically reviews the current information on the effects of UVR on several physiological and biochemical processes of cyanobacteria and the various tolerance mechanisms they have developed. Genomic insights into the biosynthesis of MAAs and scytonemin and recent advances in our understanding of the roles of exopolysaccharides and heat shock proteins in photoprotection are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao


    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-order curve fitting method. Progressively the linearized Kaplan turbine model, improved ideal Kaplan turbine model, and nonlinear Kaplan turbine model were developed. The nonlinear Kaplan turbine model considered the correction function of the blade angle on the turbine power, thereby improving the model simulation accuracy. The model parameters were calculated or obtained by the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. For the blade control system model, the default blade servomotor time constant given by value of one simplified the modeling and experimental work. Further studies combined with measured test data verified the established model accuracy and laid a foundation for further research into the influence of Kaplan turbine connecting to the grid.

  20. Review of Bruce A reactor regulating system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Each of the four reactor units at the Ontario Hydro Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station is controlled by the Reactor Regulating System (RRS) software running on digital computers. This research report presents an assessment of the quality and reliability of the RRS software based on a review of the RRS design documentation, an analysis of certain significant Event Reports (SERs), and an examination of selected software changes. We found that the RRS software requirements (i.e., what the software should do) were never clearly documented, and that design documents, which should describe how the requirements are implemented, are incomplete and inaccurate. Some RRS-related SERs (i.e., reports on unexpected incidents relating to the reactor control) implied that there were faults in the RRS, or that RRS changes should be made to help prevent certain unexpected events. The follow-up investigations were generally poorly documented, and so it could not usually be determined that problems were properly resolved. The Bruce A software change control procedures require improvement. For the software changes examined, there was insufficient evidence provided by Ontario Hydro that the required procedures regarding change approval, independent review, documentation updates, and testing were followed. Ontario Hydro relies on the expertise of their technical staff to modify the RRS software correctly; they have confidence in the software code itself, even if the documentation is not up-to-date. Ontario Hydro did not produce the documentation required for an independent formal assessment of the reliability of the RRS. (author). 37 refs., 3 figs

  1. The general principles of radiation protection and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.; Cesarini, J.P.; Lecomte, J.F.; Barbier, G.; Crescini, D.; Biau, A.; Blain, A.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gonin, M.; Bergot, D.


    Seven articles constitute this chapter about the radiation protection and the regulation. Radiological risk, reduction of public exposure to ultraviolet radiations, regulation for the radon, evolution of the French legislation against the dangers of ionizing radiations, the medical follow up after the professional life, the information system to reproduce the dosimetric data of workers, proposition of a scale to classify the radiations incidents in function of their seriousness. (N.C.)

  2. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.


    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  3. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photovoltaic Detector. (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Richeng; Ran, Junxue; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ji, Xu; Huang, Feng


    Over the past two decades, solar- and astrophysicists and material scientists have been researching and developing new-generation semiconductor-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detectors with low power consumption and small size for replacing traditional heavy and high-energy-consuming microchannel-detection systems, to study the formation and evolution of stars. However, the most desirable semiconductor-based VUV photovoltaic detector capable of achieving zero power consumption has not yet been achieved. With high-crystallinity multistep epitaxial grown AlN as a VUV-absorbing layer for photogenerated carriers and p-type graphene (with unexpected VUV transmittance >96%) as a transparent electrode to collect excited holes, we constructed a heterojunction device with photovoltaic detection for VUV light. The device exhibits an encouraging VUV photoresponse, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) and extremely fast tempera response (80 ns, 10 4 -10 6 times faster than that of the currently reported VUV photoconductive devices). This work has provided an idea for developing zero power consumption and integrated VUV photovoltaic detectors with ultrafast and high-sensitivity VUV detection capability, which not only allows future spacecraft to operate with longer service time and lower launching cost but also ensures an ultrafast evolution of interstellar objects.

  4. Utilization of ultraviolet radiation in effluent disinfestation of domestic waste treatment systems; Utilizacao da radiacao ultravioleta na desinfeccao de efluentes de sistemas de tratamento de esgotos domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, P.R.R. [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade e Silva, L.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Ultraviolet radiation disinfection of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Biodigestor (UASB) and UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluents is possible to be reached utilizing a single low pressure mercury lamp arc (15 W nominal power) in a shell tube flow through reactor (1.2 L useful volume). Fecal coliforms, total coliforms and colifages were used as microbiological parameters. For fecal coliforms, about 3 logarithmic units (log. un.) was removed from UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluent and 4 log. un. from UASB effluent with 7 and 30 seconds of hydraulic retention time, respectively. Good empirical correlations were obtained between microbiological parameters and hydraulic retention times. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs.

  5. Investigation of the photochemical changes of chlorogenic acids induced by ultraviolet light in model systems and in agricultural practice with Stevia rebaudiana cultivation as an example. (United States)

    Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Deshpande, Sagar; Kuhnert, Nikolai


    Mono- and diacyl chlorogenic acids undergo photochemical trans-cis isomerization under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photochemical equilibrium composition was established for eight selected derivatives. In contrast to all other dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives, cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid) undergoes a [2 + 2] photochemical cycloaddition reaction, constituting a first example of Schmidt's law in a natural product family. The relevance of photochemical isomerization in agricultural practice was investigated using 120 samples of Stevia rebaudiana leave samples grown under defined cultivation conditions. Ratios of cis to trans chlorogenic acids were determined in leaf samples and correlated with climatic and harvesting conditions. The data indicate a clear correlation between the formation of cis-caffeoyl derivatives and sunshine hours prior to harvesting and illustrate the relevance of UV exposure to plant material affecting its phytochemical composition.

  6. Design and Simulation of PID parameters self-tuning based on DC speed regulating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei Jie


    Full Text Available The DC speed regulating system has many difficult issues such as system parameters and PID control parameters are difficult to determine. On the basis of model for a single closed-loop DC speed regulating system, this paper puts forward a method of PID parameters self-tuning based on the step response detection and reduced order equivalent. First, detect system step response and get response parameters. Then equal it to a second order system model, and achieve optimal PID control parameters based on optimal second order system to realize of PID parameters self-tuning. The PID parameters self-tuning process of DC speed regulating system is simulated with the help of MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the method is simple and effective. The system can obtain good dynamic and static performance when the PID parameters are applied to DC speed regulating system.

  7. The Development of Innovation Systems as an Object with the State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Alexander G.


    Full Text Available The article examines the processes of structuring the environment for the development of innovation systems in terms of the formation of a State regulated object. A methodological approach to definition of the State regulation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of structuring the environment of innovation systems has been suggested, based on the premise of the objective nature of the integration of social environment and market mechanisms into the structure of an object with the State regulation for the development of innovation systems. The definition of innovative systems as an object with the State regulation in terms of structural-organizational and functional areas of their expansion has been presented. A model for the progressive extension of the State regulated object by means of the development of innovation systems at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of the structuring of environment in the process of formation of the institutional and technological structures of innovation systems has been proposed.

  8. DC microgrids with energy storage systems and demand response for providing support to frequency regulation of electrical power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, Hrvoje; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandzic, Hrvoje


    Frequency regulation of electric power systems efficiency depends on response time and on power reserves for frequency regulation. As integration of non-dispatchable renewable generation in the power system results with increased need for power reserves from fast responding power units, the idea ...

  9. System and method for regulating EGR cooling using a Rankine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Morris, Dave


    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and method for regulating exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling, and more particularly, to a Rankine cycle WHR system and method, including a recuperator bypass arrangement to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling for engine efficiency improvement and thermal management. This disclosure describes other unique bypass arrangements for increased flexibility in the ability to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling.

  10. Normative Regulation of Anti-Corruption in the System of Local Self-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya F. Kupcha


    Full Text Available In the present work authors attempt to analyze normative acts aimed at regulating relations in the sphere of counteracting corruption at the level of local self-government. In the conclusion authors summarize that despite criticism, in the Russian Federation, a system of regulatory regulation to counteract corruption (including at the local level is formed. Further improvements of this system should be made in the legal regulation at the local level.

  11. Self-regulating control of parasitic loads in a fuel cell power system (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo (Inventor)


    A fuel cell power system comprises an internal or self-regulating control of a system or device requiring a parasitic load. The internal or self-regulating control utilizes certain components and an interconnection scheme to produce a desirable, variable voltage potential (i.e., power) to a system or device requiring parasitic load in response to varying operating conditions or requirements of an external load that is connected to a primary fuel cell stack of the system. Other embodiments comprise a method of designing such a self-regulated control scheme and a method of operating such a fuel cell power system.

  12. Future Directions in Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (United States)

    Sonneborn, George (Editor); Moos, Warren; VanSteenberg, Michael


    The 'Future Directions in Ultraviolet Spectroscopy' conference was inspired by the accomplishments of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission. The FUSE mission was launched in June 1999 and spent over eight years exploring the far-ultraviolet universe, gathering over 64 million seconds of high-resolution spectral data on nearly 3000 astronomical targets. The goal of this conference was not only to celebrate the accomplishments of FUSE, but to look toward the future and understand the major scientific drivers for the ultraviolet capabilities of the next generation fo space observatories. Invited speakers presented discussions based on measurements made by FUSE and other ultraviolet instruments, assessed their connection with measurements made with other techniques and, where appropriate, discussed the implications of low-z measurements for high-z phenomena. In addition to the oral presentations, many participants presented poster papers. The breadth of these presentation made it clear that much good science is still in progress with FUSE data and that these result will continue to have relevance in many scientific areas.

  13. The NAD/NARB System: Advertising Self-Regulation at Work. (United States)

    Hays, Robert

    Self-regulation, as defined by the National Advertising Division/National Advertising Review Board (NAD/NARB), is a process whereby the advertising industry regulates itself and turns to the federal government only if the system fails. The NAD/NARB system involves a two-step process: complaints are initially handled by the NAD and then are either…

  14. Voltage regulator placement in radial distribution system using plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The VR problem consists of two sub problems, that of optimal placement and optimal choice of tap setting. The proposed method deals with initial selection of voltage regulator buses by using power loss indices (PLI). The candidate node identification technique and Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) are used for ...

  15. Insulin Action in Brain Regulates Systemic Metabolism and Brain Function


    Kleinridders, Andr?; Ferris, Heather A.; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C. Ronald


    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in t...

  16. The Kdp-ATPase system and its regulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 15, 2007 ... K+, the dominant intracellular cation, is required for various physiological processes like turgor homeostasis, pH regulation etc. Bacterial cells have evolved many diverse K+ transporters to maintain the desired concentration of internal K+. In E. coli, the KdpATPase (comprising of the KdpFABC complex), ...

  17. MicroRNAs-novel regulators of systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Nan; Liang, Dong; Tang, Yuanjia; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul-Peter


    Dysregulation of gene expression can cause complex disease phenotypes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well known to fine-tune cellular gene expression to control immune cell development and regulate adaptive and innate immune responses. Discoveries over the past decade have indicated that aberrant

  18. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of three LINERs (United States)

    Goodrich, R. W.; Keel, W. C.


    Three galaxies known to be LINERs were observed spectroscopically in the ultraviolet in an attempt to detect the presumed nonthermal continuum source thought to be the source of photoionization in the nuclei. NGC 4501 was found to be too faint for study with the IUE spectrographs, while NGC 5005 had an extended ultraviolet light profile. Comparison with the optical light profile of NGC 5005 indicates that the ultraviolet source is distributed spatially in the same manner as the optical starlight, probably indicating that the ultraviolet excess is due to a component of hot stars in the nucleus. These stars contribute detectable absorption features longward of 2500 A; together with optical data, the IUE spectra suggest a burst of star formation about 1 billion yr ago, with a lower rate continuing to produce a few OB stars. In NGC 4579, a point source contributing most of the ultraviolet excess is found that is much different than the optical light distribution. Furthermore, the ultraviolet to X-ray spectral index in NGC 4579 is 1.4, compatible with the UV to X-ray indices found for samples of Seyfert galaxies. This provides compelling evidence for the detection of the photoionizing continuum in NGC 4579 and draws the research fields of normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei closer together. The emission-line spectrum of NGC 4579 is compared with calculations from a photoionization code, CLOUDY, and several shock models. The photoionization code is found to give superior results, adding to the increasing weight of evidence that the LINER phenomenon is essentially a scaled-down version of the Seyfert phenomenon.

  19. A systems biology model of the regulatory network in Populus leaves reveals interacting regulators and conserved regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hvidsten Torgeir R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green plant leaves have always fascinated biologists as hosts for photosynthesis and providers of basic energy to many food webs. Today, comprehensive databases of gene expression data enable us to apply increasingly more advanced computational methods for reverse-engineering the regulatory network of leaves, and to begin to understand the gene interactions underlying complex emergent properties related to stress-response and development. These new systems biology methods are now also being applied to organisms such as Populus, a woody perennial tree, in order to understand the specific characteristics of these species. Results We present a systems biology model of the regulatory network of Populus leaves. The network is reverse-engineered from promoter information and expression profiles of leaf-specific genes measured over a large set of conditions related to stress and developmental. The network model incorporates interactions between regulators, such as synergistic and competitive relationships, by evaluating increasingly more complex regulatory mechanisms, and is therefore able to identify new regulators of leaf development not found by traditional genomics methods based on pair-wise expression similarity. The approach is shown to explain available gene function information and to provide robust prediction of expression levels in new data. We also use the predictive capability of the model to identify condition-specific regulation as well as conserved regulation between Populus and Arabidopsis. Conclusions We outline a computationally inferred model of the regulatory network of Populus leaves, and show how treating genes as interacting, rather than individual, entities identifies new regulators compared to traditional genomics analysis. Although systems biology models should be used with care considering the complexity of regulatory programs and the limitations of current genomics data, methods describing interactions

  20. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.


    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  1. The Cpx System Regulates Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae (United States)

    Acosta, Nicole; Pukatzki, Stefan


    Bacteria possess signal transduction pathways capable of sensing and responding to a wide variety of signals. The Cpx envelope stress response, composed of the sensor histidine kinase CpxA and the response regulator CpxR, senses and mediates adaptation to insults to the bacterial envelope. The Cpx response has been implicated in the regulation of a number of envelope-localized virulence determinants across bacterial species. Here, we show that activation of the Cpx pathway in Vibrio cholerae El Tor strain C6706 leads to a decrease in expression of the major virulence factors in this organism, cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Our results indicate that this occurs through the repression of production of the ToxT regulator and an additional upstream transcription factor, TcpP. The effect of the Cpx response on CT and TCP expression is mostly abrogated in a cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) mutant, although expression of the crp gene is unaltered. Since TcpP production is controlled by CRP, our data suggest a model whereby the Cpx response affects CRP function, which leads to diminished TcpP, ToxT, CT, and TCP production. PMID:25824837

  2. A two-component system regulates hemin acquisition in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie C Scott

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe associated with infection of the periodontia. The organism has a small number of two-component signal transduction systems, and after comparing genome sequences of strains W83 and ATCC 33277 we discovered that the latter was mutant in histidine kinase (PGN_0752, while the cognate response regulator (PGN_0753 remained intact. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling and ChIP-seq assays were carried out with an ATCC 33277 transconjugant containing the functional histidine kinase from strain W83 (PG0719. The data showed that the regulon of this signal transduction system contained genes that were involved in hemin acquisition, including gingipains, at least three transport systems, as well as being self-regulated. Direct regulation by the response regulator was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition, the system appears to be activated by hemin and the regulator acts as both an activator and repressor.

  3. Behaviour of total surface charge in SiO2-Si system under short-pulsed ultraviolet irradiation cycles characterised by surface photo voltage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ban-Hong; Lee, Wah-Pheng; Yow, Ho-Kwang; Tou, Teck-Yong


    Effects of time-accumulated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and surface treatment on thermally oxidized p-type silicon wafers were investigated by using the surface photo voltage (SPV) technique via the direct measurement of the total surface charge, Q SC . The rise and fall times of Q sc curves, as a function of accumulated UV irradiation, depended on the thermal oxide thickness. A simple model was proposed to explain the time-varying characteristics of Q sc based on the UV-induced bond breaking of SiOH and SiH, and photoemission of bulk electrons to wafer surface where O 2 - charges were formed. While these mechanisms resulted in charge variations and hence in Q sc , these could be removed by rinsing the silicon wafers in de-ionized water followed by spin-dry or blow-dry by an ionizer fan. Empirical parameters were used in the model simulations and curve-fitting of Q SC . The simulated results suggested that initial changes in the characteristic behaviour of Q sc were mainly due to the net changes in the positive and negative charges, but subsequently were dominated by the accumulation of O 2 - during the UV irradiation.

  4. Wavefront measurement of single-mode quantum cascade laser beam for seed application in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet system. (United States)

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru


    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a very attractive seed source for a multikilowatt pulsed CO2 lasers applied for driving extreme ultraviolet emitting plasmas. In this Letter, we investigate output beam properties of a QCL designed to address P18 and P20 lines of 10.6 micron band of CO2 molecule. In particular, output beam quality and stability are investigated for the first time. A well-defined linear polarization and a single-mode operation enabled a use of phase retrieval method for full description of QCL output beam. A direct, multi-image numerical phase retrieval technique was developed and successfully applied to the measured intensity patterns of a QCL beam. Very good agreement between the measured and reconstructed beam profiles was observed at distances ranging from QCL aperture to infinity, proving a good understanding of the beam propagation. The results also confirm a high spatial coherence and high stability of the beam parameters, the features expected from an excellent seed source.

  5. Modelling a man-portable air-defence (MANPAD) system with a rosette scan two-colour infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) seeker (United States)

    Kumar, Devinder; Smith, Leon; Richardson, Mark A.; Ayling, Richard; Barlow, Nick


    The Ultraviolet (UV) band of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum has the potential to be used as the host medium for the operation of guided weapons. Unlike in the Infrared (IR), a target propelled by an air breathing jet engine produces no detectable radiation in the UV band, and is opaque to the background UV produced by the Sun. Successful engineering of spectral airborne IR countermeasures (CM) against existing two colour IR seekers has encouraged missile counter-countermeasure (CCM) designers to utilise the silhouette signature of an aircraft in the UV as a means of distinguishing between a true target and a flare CM. In this paper we describe the modelling process of a dual band IR and UV rosette scan seeker using CounterSim, a missile engagement and countermeasure simulation software package developed by Chemring Countermeasures Ltd. Results are shown from various simulated engagements of the dual band MANPAD with a C-130 Hercules modelled by Chemring Countermeasures. These results have been used to estimate the aircrafts' vulnerability to this MANPAD threat. A discussion on possible future optical countermeasures against dual band IR-UV seekers is given in conclusion to the simulation results.

  6. An advanced regulator for the helium pressurization systems of the Space Shuttle OMS and RCS (United States)

    Wichmann, H.


    The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System and Reaction Control System are pressure-fed rocket propulsion systems utilizing earth storable hypergolic propellants and featuring engines of 6000 lbs and 900 lbs thrust, respectively. The helium pressurization system requirements for these propulsion systems are defined and the current baseline pressurization systems are described. An advanced helium pressure regulator capable of meeting both OMS and RCS helium pressurization system requirements is presented and its operating characteristics and predicted performance characteristics are discussed.

  7. Regulation of TGFβ in the immune system: An emerging role for integrins and dendritic cells


    Worthington, John J.; Fenton, Thomas M.; Czajkowska, Beata I.; Klementowicz, Joanna E.; Travis, Mark A.


    Regulation of an immune response requires complex crosstalk between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, via both cell?cell contact and secretion of cytokines. An important cytokine with a broad regulatory role in the immune system is transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). TGF-? is produced by and has effects on many different cells of the immune system, and plays fundamental roles in the regulation of immune responses during homeostasis, infection and disease. Although many cells ...

  8. An Adaptive Regulator for Space Teleoperation System in Task Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ge


    Full Text Available The problem of the gravity information which can not be obtained in advance for bilateral teleoperation is studied. In outer space exploration, the gravity term changes with the position changing of the slave manipulator. So it is necessary to design an adaptive regulator controller to compensate for the unknown gravity signal. Moreover, to get a more accurate position tracking performance, the controller is designed in the task space instead of the joint space. Additionally, the time delay considered in this paper is not only time varying but also unsymmetrical. Finally, simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Aluminum nanostructures for ultraviolet plasmonics (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Khlopin, Dmitry; Zhang, Feifei; Schuermans, Silvère; Proust, Julien; Maurer, Thomas; Gérard, Davy; Plain, Jérôme


    An electromagnetic field is able to produce a collective oscillation of free electrons at a metal surface. This allows light to be concentrated in volumes smaller than its wavelength. The resulting waves, called surface plasmons can be applied in various technological applications such as ultra-sensitive sensing, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, or metal-enhanced fluorescence, to name a few. For several decades plasmonics has been almost exclusively studied in the visible region by using nanoparticles made of gold or silver as these noble metals support plasmonic resonances in the visible and near-infrared range. Nevertheless, emerging applications will require the extension of nano-plasmonics toward higher energies, in the ultraviolet range. Aluminum is one of the most appealing metal for pushing plasmonics up to ultraviolet energies. The subsequent applications in the field of nano-optics are various. This metal is therefore a highly promising material for commercial applications in the field of ultraviolet nano-optics. As a consequence, aluminum (or ultraviolet, UV) plasmonics has emerged quite recently. Aluminium plasmonics has been demonstrated efficient for numerous potential applications including non-linear optics, enhanced fluorescence, UV-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, optoelectronics, plasmonic assisted solid-state lasing, photocatalysis, structural colors and data storage. In this article, different preparation methods developed in the laboratory to obtain aluminum nanostructures with different geometries are presented. Their optical and morphological characterizations of the nanostructures are given and some proof of principle applications such as fluorescence enhancement are discussed.

  10. Fuzzy Controller for a Voltage-Regulated Solar-Powered MPPT System for Hybrid Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fuzzy-logic-based voltage-regulated solar power maximum power point tracking (MPPT system for applications involving hybrid power systems. The system contains a solar power system and battery as the primary and secondary power sources, respectively. The solar system alone supplies power to the electric motor and maintains the output voltage at a predetermined level when it has sufficient power. When the solar power is insufficient, the solar system is operated at its maximum power point (MPP and the battery is engaged to compensate for the insufficiency. First, a variant of the incremental conductance MPP condition was established. Under the MPP condition, the voltage-regulated MPPT system was formulated as a feedback control system, where the MPP condition and voltage regulation requirements were used as the system inputs. Next, a fuzzy controller was developed to perform the voltage-regulated MPPT function for the hybrid power system. A simulation model based on Matrix laboratory (MATLAB/SIMULINK (a block diagram environment for multi-domain simulation and model-based design and a piecewise linear electric circuit simulation (PLECS tool for controlling the dc motor velocity was developed to verify the voltage-regulated solar power MPPT system.

  11. Engineering automated systems for pharmaceutical manufacturing: quality, regulations and business performance


    Meagher, Diarmuid P.


    The pharmaceutical sector is very heavily regulated Drug safety regulations form one of the pillars of this regulation. The manufacture of pharmaceuticals is carried out in an environment of onerous regulatory requirements, often from several national and international regulatory bodies. The quality systems operated by drug manufacturers and their regulatory practices have an important impact on product quality. The quality and regulatory requirements apply not only to handling of the medicin...

  12. Estrogen: A master regulator of bioenergetic systems in the brain and body


    Rettberg, Jamaica R; Yao, Jia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz


    Estrogen is a fundamental regulator of the metabolic system of the female brain and body. Within the brain, estrogen regulates glucose transport, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial function to generate ATP. In the body, estrogen protects against adiposity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes, and regulates energy intake and expenditure. During menopause, decline in circulating estrogen is coincident with decline in brain bioenergetics and shift towards a metabolically compromised phen...

  13. Safety regulations concerning instrumentation and control systems for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, A.I.


    A brief study on the safety and reliability issues related to instrumentation and control systems in nuclear reactor plants is performed. In response, technical and strategic issues are used to accomplish instrumentation and control systems safety. For technical issues there are ; systems aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software, failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, and human factors and human machine interfaces. The strategic issues are the case-by-case licensing process and the adequacy of the technical infrastructure. The purpose of this work was to review the reliability of the safety systems related to these technical issues for research reactors

  14. Isotopic insights into biological regulation of zinc in contaminated systems (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Wesner, Jeff S.; Walter, W. David; Schmidt, Travis S.; Podda, Francesca; De Giudici, G.; Stricker, Craig A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Wolf, Ruth E.; Cidu, R.


    Aquatic organisms use a variety of biogeochemical reactions to regulate essential and non-essential trace metals. Many of these mechanisms can lead to isotopic fractionation, thus measurement of metal isotopes may yield insights into the processes by which organisms respond to metal exposure. We illustrate these concepts with two case studies, one involving an intra- and the other an extra-cellular mechanism of Zn sequestration. In the first study, the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer was grown in the laboratory, and fed a diet of Zn-doped diatoms at Zn levels exceeding the requirements for normal mayfly life functions. The N. triangulifer larvae consumed the diatoms and retained their Zn isotopic signature. Upon metamorphosis, the subimago life stage lost Zn mass either in the exuvia or by excretion, and the Zn retained was isotopically enriched. Thus, Zn uptake is nonfractionating, but Zn regulation favors the lighter isotope. Thus the Zn remaining in the subimago was isotopically heavier. In the second study, Zn was adsorbed on the cell walls and exopolysaccharide secretions of cyanobacteria, which favored the heavier Zn isotope. Continued adsorption eventually resulted in nucleation and biomineralization of hydrozincite {Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6}. These case studies demonstrate the utility of Zn isotopes to provide insights into how aquatic insects respond to metal exposure.

  15. Prospects for regulated competition in the health care system: what can China learn from Russia's experience? (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei; Sheiman, Igor; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Zhang, Wei


    As China explores new directions to reform its health care system, regulated competition among both insurers and providers of care might be one potential model. The Russian Federation in 1993 implemented legislation intended to stimulate such regulated competition in the health care sector. The subsequent progress and lessons learned over these 17 years can shed light on and inform the future evolution of the Chinese system. In this paper, we list the necessary pre-conditions for reaping the benefits of regulated competition in the health care sector. We indicate to what extent these conditions are being fulfilled in the post-reform Russian and current Chinese health care systems. We draw lessons from the Russian experience for the Chinese health care system, which shares a similar economic and political background with the pre-reform Russian health care system in terms of the starting point of the reform, and analyse the prospects for regulated competition in China.

  16. Woodson by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. S. S. Barros


    Full Text Available For the registration of phytomedicines and their availability to the population, National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA establishes quality, security, and efficacy parameters, stipulating control requirements similar to those applied to synthetic medicines. This work reports the investigation of the bark of Himatanthus lancifolius and its extracts aiming to contribute to the standardization of derivatives of this plant species. The developed quantification method shows high selectivity at 281nm, which confers confidence to the detection of the alkaloids. The method is robust, according to the current regulation, and shows linearity, precision, and accuracy, beside accessibility and simplicity in execute. The pH 10 alkaloid fraction obtained from the aqueous extract of the analyzed sample represents 0.219% in the dried extract. These results contribute for reducing the lack of methods for the quality control of phytomedicines prepared from H. lancifolius.

  17. Robust decentralized output regulation for uncertain heterogeneous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Liu, Hui; Cao, Ming


    We consider the problem in which N heterogeneous uncertain linear systems aim at tracking a reference signal generated by a given exosystem under the restriction that not all the systems are directly connected to the exosystem. To tackle this problem, the reference signal is reconstructed via local

  18. Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Delfos, M.F.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.


    To analyze the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get insight in adaptive dynamical systems. Analysis of dynamical systems usually is performed using mathematical techniques. Such an analysis is not precisely the type of reasoning performed in psychotherapy practice. In this

  19. Financial regulation and financial system architecture in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B

    At the beginning of the transition, advice to Central European countries with respect to how to set up their financial systems was based on models used in western economies. This paper analyzes the experiences to set up a financial system in Central Europe. The experience in the first transition

  20. Uptake of donor lymphocytes treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light by recipient dendritic cells induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells and down-regulates cardiac allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, De-Hua [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China); Dou, Li-Ping [Department of Hematology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, No. 28 Fu-Xing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Wei, Yu-Xiang; Du, Guo-Sheng; Zou, Yi-Ping; Song, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Dong; Cai, Ming; Qian, Ye-Yong [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China); Shi, Bing-Yi, E-mail: [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China)


    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an effective immunomodulatory therapy and has been demonstrated to be beneficial for graft-vs-host disease and solid-organ allograft rejection. ECP involves reinfusion of a patient's autologous peripheral blood leukocytes treated ex vivo with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light radiation (PUVA). Previous studies focused only on ECP treatment of recipient immune cells. Our study is the first to extend the target of ECP treatment to donor immune cells. The results of in vitro co-culture experiments demonstrate uptake of donor PUVA-treated splenic lymphocytes (PUVA-SPs) by recipient immature dendritic cells (DCs). Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SPs does not stimulate phenotype maturation of recipient DCs. In the same co-culture system, donor PUVA-SPs enhanced production of interleukin-10 and interferon-{gamma} by recipient DCs and impaired the subsequent capability of recipient DCs to stimulate recipient naive T cells. Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SP (PUVA-SP DCs) by recipient DCs shifted T-cell responses in favor of T helper 2 cells. Infusion of PUVA-SP DCs inhibited cardiac allograft rejection in an antigen-specific manner and induced CD4{sup +}CD25{sup high}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells. In conclusion, PUVA-SP DCs simultaneously deliver the donor antigen and the regulatory signal to the transplant recipient, and thus can be used to develop a novel DC vaccine for negative immune regulation and immune tolerance induction.

  1. Uptake of donor lymphocytes treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light by recipient dendritic cells induces CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and down-regulates cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, De-Hua; Dou, Li-Ping; Wei, Yu-Xiang; Du, Guo-Sheng; Zou, Yi-Ping; Song, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Dong; Cai, Ming; Qian, Ye-Yong; Shi, Bing-Yi


    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an effective immunomodulatory therapy and has been demonstrated to be beneficial for graft-vs-host disease and solid-organ allograft rejection. ECP involves reinfusion of a patient's autologous peripheral blood leukocytes treated ex vivo with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light radiation (PUVA). Previous studies focused only on ECP treatment of recipient immune cells. Our study is the first to extend the target of ECP treatment to donor immune cells. The results of in vitro co-culture experiments demonstrate uptake of donor PUVA-treated splenic lymphocytes (PUVA-SPs) by recipient immature dendritic cells (DCs). Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SPs does not stimulate phenotype maturation of recipient DCs. In the same co-culture system, donor PUVA-SPs enhanced production of interleukin-10 and interferon-γ by recipient DCs and impaired the subsequent capability of recipient DCs to stimulate recipient naive T cells. Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SP (PUVA-SP DCs) by recipient DCs shifted T-cell responses in favor of T helper 2 cells. Infusion of PUVA-SP DCs inhibited cardiac allograft rejection in an antigen-specific manner and induced CD4 + CD25 high Foxp3 + regulatory T cells. In conclusion, PUVA-SP DCs simultaneously deliver the donor antigen and the regulatory signal to the transplant recipient, and thus can be used to develop a novel DC vaccine for negative immune regulation and immune tolerance induction.

  2. 76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AD92 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... National Park for the 2011-2012 winter season. The rule retains, for one additional year, the regulations...

  3. Implementing a Self-Regulated "WebQuest" Learning System for Chinese Elementary Schools (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Tsai, Chung-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Yu; Lin, Chih-Cheng


    The rapid growth of Internet has resulted in the rise of WebQuest learning recently. Teachers encourage students to participate in the searching for knowledge on different topics. When using WebQuest, students' self-regulation is often the key to successful learning. Therefore, this study establishes a self-regulated learning system to assist…

  4. 77 FR 187 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Transition to the System for Award Management (SAM) (United States)


    ..., 18, 25, 26, and 52 RIN 9000-AM14 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Transition to the System for Award Management (SAM) AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National... final rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to update certain definitions and clauses...

  5. Developing the support business-processes information system for self-regulation institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko Anatoly Vasilevich


    Full Text Available Studying the methods of sructurization, optimization and the automation for modern self-regulation institute business-processes are considered in the article. The aim of the text is to show the strategy of modeling self-regulation information system and the strategy of the membership dues accounting and agency compensation.

  6. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS... (United States)


    ... also asked what allowance is provided for contractors with accounting software that does not... RIN 0750-AG46 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to address DoD Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major...

  7. Calculation method of efforts regulation in statically indeterminate systems of steel constructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Bilskyi


    Full Text Available In the article the results of investigation are presented for new method of stress-deformation state regulation concerning statically indefinite systems. It is proved that the most effective regulation is during design of steel combine structures and carcass reconstruction for buildings and structures.

  8. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (United States)

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.


    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  9. Insulin action in brain regulates systemic metabolism and brain function. (United States)

    Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C Ronald


    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. 75 FR 64148 - General Regulation: National Park System (United States)


    ... elements of great native cultures, far older than European exploration and settlement; present battle sites... lessons they help us remember, the National Park System also includes the Japanese American World War II...

  11. Reverse engineering systems models of regulation: discovery, prediction and mechanisms. (United States)

    Ashworth, Justin; Wurtmann, Elisabeth J; Baliga, Nitin S


    Biological systems can now be understood in comprehensive and quantitative detail using systems biology approaches. Putative genome-scale models can be built rapidly based upon biological inventories and strategic system-wide molecular measurements. Current models combine statistical associations, causative abstractions, and known molecular mechanisms to explain and predict quantitative and complex phenotypes. This top-down 'reverse engineering' approach generates useful organism-scale models despite noise and incompleteness in data and knowledge. Here we review and discuss the reverse engineering of biological systems using top-down data-driven approaches, in order to improve discovery, hypothesis generation, and the inference of biological properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.


    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  13. Management System for Regulating Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Capadona, N.M.; Barenghi, L.G.


    The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN) management system applied to the transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TMR from now on. ARN's management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TMR process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of the system. Such sub processes were defined taking into account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials. For each of this processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to achieve continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measures sub processes as a way to show objective evidence of conformity with objectives. Finally, as conclusions of this paper, they will be showed the main obstacles and troubleshooting found in the design and implementation of management system as well as their solutions and state of advance. (authors)

  14. Direct Torque Control System for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Fuzzy Speed Pi Regulator (United States)

    Nabti, K.; Abed, K.; Benalla, H.


    The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) speed regulation with a conventional PI regulator reduces the speed control precision, increase the torque fluctuation, and consequentially low performances of the whole system. With utilisation of fuzzy logic method, this paper presents the self adaptation of conventional PI regulator parameters Kp and Ki (proportional and integral coefficients respectively), using to regulate the speed in Direct Torque Control strategy (DTC). The ripples of both torque and flux are reduced remarkable, small overshooting and good dynamic of the speed and torque. Simulation results verify the proposed method validity.

  15. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.


    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  16. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    The large grid integration of variable wind power adds to the imbalance of a power system. This necessitates the need for additional reserve power for regulation. In Denmark, the growing wind penetration aims for an expedited change of displacing the traditional generators which are currently...... supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...... simulations is modelled. Further, it is analysed for regulation services using the case of a typical windy day in the West Denmark power system. The power deviations with other control areas in an interconnected system are minimised by the faster up and down regulation characteristics of the EV battery...

  17. Challenges of the banking regulation systems in the climate of the world economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlarević Lazar


    Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century, banking systems of the developed countries have undergone multiple changes, where the basic dimensions of those changes were integration, deregulation and globalisation of activities. The resultant of these factors' actions was the creation of highly risky banking environment, which acted as a catalyst of the world economic crisis effects. These effects brought to the forefront weaknesses of the banking sector and of the banking regulation system, while emphasizing the need for their redefining. Hence this work examines in detail concrete models of the banking regulation systems in the European Union area and in the United States of America. In addition, directions of redefining regulation system were highlighted, and also the relevant differences between banking business regulation in the European Union and in the United States of America.

  18. Report: Wells Band Council Needs to Improve Its Accounting System to Comply With Federal Regulations (United States)

    Report #14-2-0316, July 14, 2014. The Wells Band Council’s accounting system did not comply with federal regulations, which resulted in $390,000 of questioned costs and proposed high-risk designation for the grantee.

  19. Integrated cropping systems : an answer to environmental regulations imposed on nursery stock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Challa, H.


    Government regulations in the Netherlands are increasingly constraining and sometimes even banning conventional cultivation practices in nursery stock cropping systems. As a consequence, growers face problems concerning the use of manure, fertilisers and irrigation. In this study we analysed the

  20. Development Of Linear Quadratic Regulator Design For Small UAV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Zin Myint


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to know the importance role of stability analysis for both unmanned aircraft system and for all control system. The objective of paper is to develop a method for dynamic stability analysis of the design process. These are categorized intoTo design model and stability analysis of UAV based on the forces and moment equations of aircraft dynamic model To choose the suitable controller for desired altitude of a particular UAV model To analyze the stability condition for aircraft using mathematical modeling and MATLAB. In this paper the analytical model of the longitudinal dynamic of flying wing UAV has been developed using aerodynamic data. The stability characteristics of UAV can be achieved from the system transfer function with LQR controller.

  1. 77 FR 51496 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Basic Safeguarding of Contractor Information Systems (United States)


    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Basic Safeguarding of Contractor Information Systems AGENCY: Department of... information systems that contain information provided by or generated for the Government (other than public information) that will be resident on or transiting through contractor information systems. DATES: Interested...

  2. The Multiple Signaling Systems Regulating Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (United States)

    Nadal Jimenez, Pol; Koch, Gudrun; Thompson, Jessica A.; Xavier, Karina B.; Cool, Robbert H.


    Summary: Cell-to-cell communication is a major process that allows bacteria to sense and coordinately react to the fluctuating conditions of the surrounding environment. In several pathogens, this process triggers the production of virulence factors and/or a switch in bacterial lifestyle that is a major determining factor in the outcome and severity of the infection. Understanding how bacteria control these signaling systems is crucial to the development of novel antimicrobial agents capable of reducing virulence while allowing the immune system of the host to clear bacterial infection, an approach likely to reduce the selective pressures for development of resistance. We provide here an up-to-date overview of the molecular basis and physiological implications of cell-to-cell signaling systems in Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the well-studied bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the known cell-to-cell signaling systems in this bacterium are described, from the most-studied systems, i.e., N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), the 4-quinolones, the global activator of antibiotic and cyanide synthesis (GAC), the cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) systems, and the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp), to less-well-studied signaling molecules, including diketopiperazines, fatty acids (diffusible signal factor [DSF]-like factors), pyoverdine, and pyocyanin. This overview clearly illustrates that bacterial communication is far more complex than initially thought and delivers a clear distinction between signals that are quorum sensing dependent and those relying on alternative factors for their production. PMID:22390972

  3. Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis (United States)

    Borodinsky, Laura N.; Belgacem, Yesser Hadj; Swapna, Immani; Sequerra, Eduardo Bouth


    During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. PMID:23270605

  4. Stimuli-Regulated Smart Polymeric Systems for Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansuja Pulickal Mathew


    Full Text Available The physiological condition of the human body is a composite of different environments, each with its own parameters that may differ under normal, as well as diseased conditions. These environmental conditions include factors, such as pH, temperature and enzymes that are specific to a type of cell, tissue or organ or a pathological state, such as inflammation, cancer or infection. These conditions can act as specific triggers or stimuli for the efficient release of therapeutics at their destination by overcoming many physiological and biological barriers. The efficacy of conventional treatment modalities can be enhanced, side effects decreased and patient compliance improved by using stimuli-responsive material that respond to these triggers at the target site. These stimuli or triggers can be physical, chemical or biological and can be internal or external in nature. Many smart/intelligent stimuli-responsive therapeutic gene carriers have been developed that can respond to either internal stimuli, which may be normally present, overexpressed or present in decreased levels, owing to a disease, or to stimuli that are applied externally, such as magnetic fields. This review focuses on the effects of various internal stimuli, such as temperature, pH, redox potential, enzymes, osmotic activity and other biomolecules that are present in the body, on modulating gene expression by using stimuli-regulated smart polymeric carriers.

  5. ARN: Analysis and Visualization System for Adipogenic Regulation Network Information. (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Li; Zan, Lin-Sen


    Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation through which preadipocytes become adipocytes. Lots of research is currently ongoing to identify genes, including their gene products and microRNAs, that correlate with fat cell development. However, information fragmentation hampers the identification of key regulatory genes and pathways. Here, we present a database of literature-curated adipogenesis-related regulatory interactions, designated the Adipogenesis Regulation Network (ARN,, which currently contains 3101 nodes (genes and microRNAs), 1863 regulatory interactions, and 33,969 expression records associated with adipogenesis, based on 1619 papers. A sentence-based text-mining approach was employed for efficient manual curation of regulatory interactions from approximately 37,000 PubMed abstracts. Additionally, we further determined 13,103 possible node relationships by searching miRGate, BioGRID, PAZAR and TRRUST. ARN also has several useful features: i) regulatory map information; ii) tests to examine the impact of a query node on adipogenesis; iii) tests for the interactions and modes of a query node; iv) prediction of interactions of a query node; and v) analysis of experimental data or the construction of hypotheses related to adipogenesis. In summary, ARN can store, retrieve and analyze adipogenesis-related information as well as support ongoing adipogenesis research and contribute to the discovery of key regulatory genes and pathways.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources

  7. Ultraviolet and radio flares from UX Arietis and HR 1099 (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.


    Simultaneous observations of the RS CVn systems UX Ari and HR 1099 with the IUE satellite and the VLA are presented. Flaring activity is observed at ultraviolet wavelengths with the IUE when none is detected at radio wavelengths with the VLA. Radio flares with no detectable ultraviolet activity have also been observed. Thus, flares in the two spectral regions are either uncorrelated or weakly correlated. The flaring emission probably originates in different regions at the two wavelengths. Radio flares from RS CVn stars may originate in sources that are larger than, or comparable to, a star in size. This is in sharp contrast to compact, coherent radio flares from dwarf M stars. The ultraviolet flares from RS CVn stars probably originate in sources that are smaller than a component star.

  8. System for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow within an oil aging test device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available This paper describes a system within an oil aging test device that serves for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow. Following an already realized system that continuously monitors, logs, and regulates transformer oil temperature during the aging process and maintains temperature consistency within strict limits, a model of a flow meter and regulator of air or oxygen through transformer oil samples is developed. A special feature of the implemented system is the measurement of very small gas flows. A short technical description of the realized system is given with a functional block diagram. The basic technical characteristics of the system are specified, and the operating principles and application of the system are described. The paper also gives performance test results in a real exploitation environment.

  9. Regulation and roles of the hyaluronan system in mammalian reproduction. (United States)

    Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Raheem, Kabir A; Marei, Waleed F; Ghafari, Fataneh; Hartshorne, Geraldine M


    Hyaluronan (HA) is a non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan polymer naturally occurring in many tissues and fluids of mammals, including the reproductive system. Its biosynthesis by HA synthase (HAS1-3) and catabolism by hyaluronidases (HYALs) are affected by ovarian steroid hormones. Depending upon its molecular size, HA functions both as a structural component of tissues in the form of high-molecular-weight HA or as a signalling molecule in the form of small HA molecules or HA fragments with effects mediated through interaction with its specific cell-membrane receptors. HA is produced by oocytes and embryos and in various segments of the reproductive system. This review provides information about the expression and function of members of the HA system, including HAS, HYALs and HA receptors. We examine their role in various processes from folliculogenesis through oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development, to pregnancy and cervical dilation, as well as its application in assisted reproduction technologies. Particular emphasis has been placed upon the role of the HA system in pre-implantation embryo development and embryo implantation, for which we propose a hypothetical sequential model. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. Systemic Model for Optimal Regulation in Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei


    Full Text Available The current paper inscribes within those approaching the issue of public services from the interdisciplinary perspective. Public service development and imposing standards of efficiency and effectiveness, as well as for citizens’ satisfaction bring in front line the systemic modelling and establishing optimal policies for organisation and functioning of public services. The issue under discussion imposes an interface with powerful determinations of social nature. Consequently, the most adequate modelling might be that with a probabilistic and statistic nature. The fundamental idea of this paper, that obviously can be broadly developed, starts with assimilating the way of organisation and functioning of a public service with a waiting thread, to which some hypotheses are associated concerning the order of provision, performance measurement through costs or waiting time in the system etc. We emphasise the openness and dynamics of the public service system, as well as modelling by turning into account the statistic knowledge and researches, and we do not make detailed remarks on the cybernetic characteristics of this system. The optimal adjustment is achieved through analysis on the feedback and its comparison with the current standards or good practices.

  11. The Kdp-ATPase system and its regulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 15, 2007 ... The Kdp system is widely dispersed among the different classes of bacteria including the cyanobacteria. The ordering of the kdpA, ... Among the regulatory genes, the kdpD ORF of Anabaena L-31 is truncated when compared to the kdpD of other bacteria, while a kdpE-like gene is absent. The extremely ...

  12. A study in improvement of administrative system in the nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, Dong Il; Kuk, Doe Hyeong; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Jong Sam; Hwang, Sun Ho


    One of the most important tasks to improve nuclear safety regulation system is to separate nuclear regulatory institutes from public agencies which promote the development nuclear power. Moreover, nuclear safety regulation should be not only specialized but optimized to be adapted for new environments such as high-tech information age. Especially, it is necessary to reform the current nuclear safety regulation systems both to be effective under the local self-administration which began to operate in recent years and to be supported by local residents

  13. A study in improvement of administrative system in the nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Kuk, Doe Hyeong; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Jong Sam; Hwang, Sun Ho [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    One of the most important tasks to improve nuclear safety regulation system is to separate nuclear regulatory institutes from public agencies which promote the development nuclear power. Moreover, nuclear safety regulation should be not only specialized but optimized to be adapted for new environments such as high-tech information age. Especially, it is necessary to reform the current nuclear safety regulation systems both to be effective under the local self-administration which began to operate in recent years and to be supported by local residents.

  14. Mathematical Biomarkers for the Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Campos


    Full Text Available Heart rate and blood pressure are the most important vital signs in diagnosing disease. Both heart rate and blood pressure are characterized by a high degree of short term variability from moment to moment, medium term over the normal day and night as well as in the very long term over months to years. The study of new mathematical algorithms to evaluate the variability of these cardiovascular parameters has a high potential in the development of new methods for early detection of cardiovascular disease, to establish differential diagnosis with possible therapeutic consequences. The autonomic nervous system is a major player in the general adaptive reaction to stress and disease. The quantitative prediction of the autonomic interactions in multiple control loops pathways of cardiovascular system is directly applicable to clinical situations. Exploration of new multimodal analytical techniques for the variability of cardiovascular system may detect new approaches for deterministic parameter identification. A multimodal analysis of cardiovascular signals can be studied by evaluating their amplitudes, phases, time domain patterns and sensitivity to imposed stimuli, i.e. drugs blocking the autonomic system. The causal effects, gains and dynamic relationships may be studied through dynamical fuzzy logic models, such as the discrete-time model and discrete-event model. We expect an increase in accuracy of modeling and a better estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure time series, which could be of benefit for intelligent patient monitoring. We foresee that identifying quantitative mathematical biomarkers for autonomic nervous system will allow individual therapy adjustments to aim at the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance.

  15. Multilevel Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression with the Combined STAR and Antisense RNA System. (United States)

    Lee, Young Je; Kim, Soo-Jung; Moon, Tae Seok


    Synthetic small RNA regulators have emerged as a versatile tool to predictably control bacterial gene expression. Owing to their simple design principles, small size, and highly orthogonal behavior, these engineered genetic parts have been incorporated into genetic circuits. However, efforts to achieve more sophisticated cellular functions using RNA regulators have been hindered by our limited ability to integrate different RNA regulators into complex circuits. Here, we present a combined RNA regulatory system in Escherichia coli that uses small transcription activating RNA (STAR) and antisense RNA (asRNA) to activate or deactivate target gene expression in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrated that the activated target output by the STAR system can be deactivated by expressing two different types of asRNAs: one binds to and sequesters the STAR regulator, affecting the transcription process, while the other binds to the target mRNA, affecting the translation process. We improved deactivation efficiencies (up to 96%) by optimizing each type of asRNA and then integrating the two optimized asRNAs into a single circuit. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the combined STAR and asRNA system can control gene expression in a reversible way and can regulate expression of a gene in the genome. Lastly, we constructed and simultaneously tested two A AND NOT B logic gates in the same cell to show sophisticated multigene regulation by the combined system. Our approach establishes a methodology for integrating multiple RNA regulators to rationally control multiple genes.

  16. Regulation Systems of Bacteria such as Escherichia coli in Response to Nutrient Limitation and Environmental Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Shimizu


    Full Text Available An overview was made to understand the regulation system of a bacterial cell such as Escherichia coli in response to nutrient limitation such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur, ion sources, and environmental stresses such as oxidative stress, acid shock, heat shock, and solvent stresses. It is quite important to understand how the cell detects environmental signals, integrate such information, and how the cell system is regulated. As for catabolite regulation, F1,6B P (FDP, PEP, and PYR play important roles in enzyme level regulation together with transcriptional regulation by such transcription factors as Cra, Fis, CsrA, and cAMP-Crp. αKG plays an important role in the coordinated control between carbon (C- and nitrogen (N-limitations, where αKG inhibits enzyme I (EI of phosphotransferase system (PTS, thus regulating the glucose uptake rate in accordance with N level. As such, multiple regulation systems are co-ordinated for the cell synthesis and energy generation against nutrient limitations and environmental stresses. As for oxidative stress, the TCA cycle both generates and scavenges the reactive oxygen species (ROSs, where NADPH produced at ICDH and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathways play an important role in coping with oxidative stress. Solvent resistant mechanism was also considered for the stresses caused by biofuels and biochemicals production in the cell.

  17. Insights into hypoxic systemic responses based on analyses of transcriptional regulation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chiun Hsu

    Full Text Available We have adopted a hypoxic treatment system in which only roots were under hypoxic conditions. Through analyzing global transcriptional changes in both shoots and roots, we found that systemic signals may be transduced from roots to trigger responses in tissues not directly subjected to hypoxia. The molecular mechanisms of such systemic responses under flooding are currently largely unknown. Using ontological categorization for regulated genes, a systemic managing program of carbohydrate metabolism was observed, providing an example of how systemic responses might facilitate the survival of plants under flooding. Moreover, a proportion of gene expressions that regulated in shoots by flooding was affected in an ethylene signaling mutation, ein2-5. Many systemic-responsive genes involved in the systemic carbohydrate managing program, hormone responses and metabolism, ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation were also affected in ein2-5. These results suggested an important role of ethylene in mediation of hypoxic systemic responses. Genes associated with abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis are upregulated in shoots and down regulated in roots. An ABA signaling mutation, abi4-1, affects expression of several systemic responsive genes. These results suggested that regulation of ABA biosynthesis could be required for systemic responses. The implications of these results for the systemic responses of root-flooded Arabidopsis are discussed.

  18. Ultraviolet extensions of particle physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthier, Laure Gaëlle

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model field content. Many questions though remain unanswered by the Standard Model triggering a search for new physics. New physics could manifest itself at the Large Hadron Collider by the discovery of new...... particles. However, the lack of new resonances might suggest that these new particles are still out of reach which leaves us with few options. Two possibilities are explored in this thesis. The first is to study precision measurements which might indicate new physics as small deviations from the Standard...... are expressed as power series with missing higher order terms. We also show how to connect ultraviolet models of new physics to the Standard Model effective field theory and calculate bounds on them using the Standard Model effective field theory fit results. Finally, we study a nonrelativistic ultraviolet...

  19. Food for thought: how nutrients regulate root system architecture. (United States)

    Shahzad, Zaigham; Amtmann, Anna


    The spatial arrangement of the plant root system (root system architecture, RSA) is very sensitive to edaphic and endogenous signals that report on the nutrient status of soil and plant. Signalling pathways underpinning RSA responses to individual nutrients, particularly nitrate and phosphate, have been unravelled. Researchers have now started to investigate interactive effects between two or more nutrients on RSA. Several proteins enabling crosstalk between signalling pathways have recently been identified. RSA is potentially an important trait for sustainable and/or marginal agriculture. It is generally assumed that RSA responses are adaptive and optimise nutrient uptake in a given environment, but hard evidence for this paradigm is still sparse. Here we summarize recent advances made in these areas of research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Drivers and drawbacks: regulation and environmental risk management systems


    Marius Aalders


    In the literature on environmental risk management in firms, it is often proposed that environmental performance and innovation are driven primarily by external forces, such as regulatory or market pressures. But gradually, organisational forces in business itself are also suggested as drivers for the improvement of environmental performance (Andrews et al, 2001). Many companies have adopted systems approaches in their corporate strategy. Organisational strategies include quality, health and ...

  1. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.; Brodersen, P.; Naested, H.


    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) revels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...... of NPR1. PDF1.2 and THI2.1 gene induction by jasmonate was blocked in mpk4 expressing NahG, suggesting that MPK4 is required for jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression....

  2. Ultraviolet-Resistant Bacterial Spores (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Newcombe, David; LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff R.


    A document summarizes a study in which it was found that spores of the SAFR-032 strain of Bacillus pumilus can survive doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radiation, and hydrogen peroxide in proportions much greater than those of other bacteria. The study was part of a continuing effort to understand the survivability of bacteria under harsh conditions and develop means of sterilizing spacecraft to prevent biocontamination of Mars that could interfere with the search for life there.

  3. Modification of reference temperature program in reactor regulating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sung Sik; Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Se Chang; Cheong, Jong Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji In; Doo, Jin Yong [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of)


    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 currently under commercial operation, the cold temperature was very close to the technical specification limit of 298 deg C during initial startup testing, which was caused by the higher-than-expected reactor coolant system flow. Accordingly, the reference temperature (Tref) program needed to be revised to allow more flexibility for plant operations. In this study, the method of a specific test performed at Yonggwang nuclear unit 4 to revise the Tref program was described and the test results were discussed. In addition, the modified Tref program was evaluated on its potential impacts on system performance and safety. The methods of changing the Tref program and the associated pressurizer level setpoint program were also explained. Finally, for Ulchin nuclear unit 3 and 4 currently under initial startup testing, the effects of reactor coolant system flow rate on the coolant temperature were evaluated from the thermal hydraulic standpoint and an optimum Tref program was recommended. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  4. Relationship between ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streilein, J. W.; Taylor, J. R.; Vincek, V.; Kurimoto, I.; Richardson, J.; Tie, C.; Medema, J. P.; Golomb, C.


    The capacity of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation to damage the cutaneous immune system has been extensively documented, and there is good reason to believe that UVB-induced damage is a critical, albeit permissive, factor in the development of sunlight-induced skin cancers. A summary of the evidence

  5. Reliability analysis of an extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.


    A method of reliability analysis of a complex system is reviewed. Key concepts are explained with examples. A reliability analysis of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer flown on February 24, 1979, is carried out using this method. The results of this analysis are presented with their interpretation. (orig.)

  6. Stabilization and regulation of nonlinear systems a robust and adaptive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiyong


    The core of this textbook is a systematic and self-contained treatment of the nonlinear stabilization and output regulation problems. Its coverage embraces both fundamental concepts and advanced research outcomes and includes many numerical and practical examples. Several classes of important uncertain nonlinear systems are discussed. The state-of-the art solution presented uses robust and adaptive control design ideas in an integrated approach which demonstrates connections between global stabilization and global output regulation allowing both to be treated as stabilization problems. Stabilization and Regulation of Nonlinear Systems takes advantage of rich new results to give students up-to-date instruction in the central design problems of nonlinear control, problems which are a driving force behind the furtherance of modern control theory and its application. The diversity of systems in which stabilization and output regulation become significant concerns in the mathematical formulation of practical contr...

  7. Ultraviolet Protection by Fabric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available Background. The increasing emission of greenhouse gases has evoked the human being to save the ozone layer and minimize the risk of ultraviolet radiation (UVR. Various fabric structures have been explored to achieve desired ultraviolet protection factor (UPF in various situations. Objective. In this study, the effect of various filament configurations like twisted, flat, intermingled, and textured in multifilament yarns on fabric in different combinations is assessed in order to engineer a fabric of better ultraviolet protection factor (UPF. Methods. In order to engineer a fabric having optimum UV protection with sufficient comfort level in multifilament woven fabrics, four different yarn configurations, intermingled, textured, twisted, and flat, were used to develop twelve different fabric samples. The most UV absorbing and most demanding fibre polyethylene terephthalate (PET was considered in different filament configuration. Results. The combinations of intermingled warp with flat, intermingled, and textured weft provided excellent UVR protection comparatively at about 22.5 mg/cm2 fabric areal density. The presence of twisted yarn reduced the UV protection due to enhanced openness in fabric structure. Conclusion. The appropriate combination of warp and weft threads of different configuration should be selected judiciously in order to extract maximum UV protection and wear comfort attributes in multifilament woven PET fabrics.

  8. Immune Evasion, Immunopathology and the Regulation of the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Faivre


    Full Text Available Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression of immune effectors among individuals. To explain this apparent paradox, it has been suggested that an over-reactive immune system might be too costly, both in terms of metabolic resources and risks of immune-mediated diseases, setting a limit to the investment into immune defenses. Here, we argue that this view neglects one important aspect of the interaction: the role played by evolving pathogens. We suggest that taking into account the co-evolutionary interactions between the host immune system and the parasitic strategies to overcome the immune response might provide a better picture of the selective pressures that shape the evolution of immune functioning. Integrating parasitic strategies of host exploitation can also contribute to understand the seemingly contradictory results that infection can enhance, but also protect from, autoimmune diseases. In the last decades, the incidence of autoimmune disorders has dramatically increased in wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere with a concomitant decrease of most parasitic infections. Experimental work on model organisms has shown that this pattern may be due to the protective role of certain parasites (i.e., helminths that rely on the immunosuppression of hosts for their persistence. Interestingly, although parasite-induced immunosuppression can protect against autoimmunity, it can obviously favor the spread of other infections. Therefore, we need to think about the evolution of the immune system using a multidimensional trade-off involving immunoprotection, immunopathology and the parasitic strategies to escape the immune response.

  9. Systemic risk in the energy sector—Is there need for financial regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerste, Marco; Gerritsen, Matthijs; Weda, Jarst; Tieben, Bert


    The credit crisis points at serious systemic risks in Over The Counter derivative trading. This has resulted in new financial regulation, covering both the financial sector and non-financial sectors. The actual extent to which non-financial companies trading on OTC markets contribute to systemic risk has hardly been the subject of research. This paper investigates the need for financial regulation in the energy sector, which shows a high use of OTC derivatives, by modeling systemic risk measured by the expected fraction of additional failing firms (EAF). Contagion risk within the energy sector and from the energy sector towards the banking sector is compared with that in other non-financial sectors. This paper adds to existing systemic risk literature by specifically looking at financial interdependence between a non-financial sector showing a high usage of OTC commodity derivatives and the banking sector, while contributing to the discussion on energy sector regulation with technical systemic risk analysis. Results indicate that contagion risk from the energy towards the banking sector is not relatively high compared to other non-financial sectors. Our results provide a first indication to question the need for generalized regulation of OTC derivative transactions, as recently introduced by the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR). - Highlights: • We assess the need for regulating OTC energy commodity derivatives under EMIR. • We present a methodology to model systemic risk in non-financial sectors. • We analyse direct and indirect channels for contagion giving rise to systemic risk. • Contagion risk from the energy towards the banking sector is not relatively high. • New EU regulation for energy OTC trading not supported by analysis of systemic risk

  10. Regulation and quality evaluation system for HIV diagnostics in China. (United States)

    Xu, Sihong; Huang, Weijin; Zhang, Li; An, Juanjuan; Li, Xiuhua; Song, Aijing; Nie, Jianhui; Zhang, Chuntao; Wang, Youchun


    A sophisticated regulatory framework has been constructed for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics in China, which have developed over the past 30 years. China National Institutes for Food and Drug Control acts as the legal institution in this regulatory framework, launching important activities to ensure the quality of HIV diagnostics. These include the analysis of the main problems faced in developing domestic HIV diagnostics, by investigating the quality of HIV diagnostics and their development; exploring the key factors affecting the quality of HIV diagnostics, to determine the criteria for screening national reference samples; the development of new technologies and methods for preparing reference samples; and the establishment of nine types of national reference panels and nine national standards to evaluate the quality of HIV diagnostics. Based on these researches, a quality evaluation system was established, including nine types of national reference panels, nine national standards for HIV diagnostics, and five sample banks (HIV-positive sample bank, HIV-negative sample bank, common international genotype sample bank, seroconversion series sample bank, HIV virus bank) to evaluate the quality of HIV diagnostics in China. The regulatory framework and the quality evaluation system are pivotal in ensuring the quality of the HIV diagnostics licensed in China. Copyright © 2016 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-regulating chemo-mechano-chemical systems (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; He, Ximin; Aizenberg, Michael


    A chemo-mechano-chemical (C.sub.1-M-C.sub.2) system includes a base supporting an actuatable structure, said structure comprising a functionalized portion and being embedded in an environmentally responsive gel capable of volume change in response to an environmental stimulus; a first fluid layer disposed over the base and in contact with the actuatable structure, said first fluid layer comprising the environmentally responsive gel; and a second fluid layer in contact with the actuatable structure, wherein the layers are positioned such that the functionalized portion is in contact with the second layer in a first relaxed state and in contact with the first layer in a second actuated state and wherein the functionalized portion interacts with at least one of the layers to provide a chemical or physical response.

  12. Ultraviolet-B-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana: role of salicylic acid and reactive oxygen species in the regulation of transcripts encoding photosynthetic and acidic pathogenesis-related proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus, S.L.; Jordan, B.R.; Murphy, A.M.; Carr, J.P.; Thomas, B.; Mackerness, S.A.H.


    Supplementary UV-B was shown to lead to a decrease in transcripts encoding the photosynthetic genes Lhcb and psbA and a concomitant increase in transcripts encoding three acid-type pathogenesis-related proteins, PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5, in Arabidopsis thaliana. UV-B radiation has been reported to lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we report that ROS are required for UV-B-induced down-regulation of the photosynthetic genes and up-regulation of PR genes, as the addition of antioxidants before UV-B treatment resulted in a marked reduction in the effect of UV-B on both sets of genes. Rises in ROS are frequently accompanied by increases in salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. UV-B treatment of transgenic NahG Arabidopsis plants, which are unable to accumulate SA, showed that the increase in PR transcripts, but not the decrease in photosynthetic transcripts, was dependent on the increase in SA. In addition, a 3 d exposure to UV-B radiation resulted in a 7-fold increase in SA levels. Oxidant treatment of NahG plants indicated that ROS could not up-regulate PR genes in the absence of SA accumulation; however, the down-regulation of photosynthetic transcripts was unchanged from that in wild-type plants. The results indicate that the effects of UV-B on the two sets of genes are mediated through two distinct signal tranduction pathways. One pathway is ROS-dependent but SA-independent and mediates the down-regulation of photosynthetic genes. The other is SA- and ROS-dependent and mediates the up-regulation of the acidic-type PR genes

  13. Probiotics and the Gut Immune System: Indirect Regulation. (United States)

    La Fata, Giorgio; Weber, Peter; Mohajeri, M Hasan


    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host. Among others, probiotics have immunomodulatory properties that usually act directly by (a) increasing the activity of macrophages or natural killer cells, (b) modulating the secretion of immunoglobulins or cytokines, or indirectly by (c) enhancing the gut epithelial barrier, (d) altering the mucus secretion, and (e) competitive exclusion of other (pathogenic) bacteria. This review focuses on specific bacteria strains with indirect immunomodulatory properties. Particularly, we describe here the mechanisms through which specific probiotics enhance the gut epithelial barrier and modulate mucus production. Moreover, we describe the antimicrobial properties of specific bacteria strains. Recent data suggest that multiple pathologies are associated with an unbalanced gut microflora (dysbiosis). Although the cause-effect relationship between pathology and gut microflora is not yet well established, consumption of specific probiotics may represent a powerful tool to re-establish gut homeostasis and promote gut health.

  14. General organisational principles of the transcriptional regulation system: a tree or a circle? (United States)

    Muskhelishvili, Georgi; Sobetzko, Patrick; Geertz, Marcel; Berger, Michael


    Recent advances of systemic approaches to gene expression and cellular metabolism provide unforeseen opportunities for relating and integrating extensive datasets describing the transcriptional regulation system as a whole. However, due to the multifaceted nature of the phenomenon, these datasets often contain logically distinct types of information determined by underlying approach and adopted methodology of data analysis. Consequently, to integrate the datasets comprising information on the states of chromatin structure, transcriptional regulatory network and cellular metabolism, a novel methodology enabling interconversion of logically distinct types of information is required. Here we provide a holistic conceptual framework for analysis of global transcriptional regulation as a system coordinated by structural coupling between the transcription machinery and DNA topology, acting as interdependent sensors and determinants of metabolic functions. In this operationally closed system any transition in physiological state represents an emergent property determined by shifts in structural coupling, whereas genetic regulation acts as a genuine device converting one logical type of information into the other.

  15. Caffeic acid and ferulic acid inhibit UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 through regulation of antioxidant defense system in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. (United States)

    Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Panich, Uraiwan


    Ultraviolet A (UVA) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of premature skin aging through keratinocyte cytotoxicity and degradation of collagen, a main component of the extracellular matrix providing structural support. Oxidative stress caused by UVA irradiation can mediate induction of matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1), a major enzyme responsible for collagen damage. Protection against UV-mediated disturbance of antioxidant defense system has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which botanical compounds slow down skin aging process. This study therefore aimed to assess inhibitory effects of caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), powerful plant-based phenolic antioxidants, on UVA-induced cytotoxicity and MMP-1 activity and mRNA level through modulation of antioxidant defense mechanism in immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Pretreatment of the cells with CA or FA prior to UVA irradiation inhibited cytotoxicity, induction of MMP-1 activity and mRNA and oxidant formation. Moreover, CA and FA were able to up-regulate glutathione (GSH) content, γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (γ-GCL) mRNA as well as activities and mRNA expression of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in irradiated cells. In conclusion, CA and FA provided protective effects on UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction in HaCaT cells possibly through restoration of antioxidant defense system at the cellular and molecular level. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Coordinated Regulation of Virulence during Systemic Infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyunjin; McDermott, Jason E.; Porwollik, Steffen; Mcclelland, Michael; Heffron, Fred


    Salmonella must respond to a myriad of environmental cues during infection of a mouse and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner to subvert the host defense mechanisms but these regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 84 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella typhimurium virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal (i.p.), and intragastric (i.g.) infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in SvJ129 mice). Overall 36 regulators were identified that were less virulent in at least one assay, and of those, 15 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection in an acute infection model. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint we focused on these 15 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for each of these 15 regulators from strains grown under four different environmental conditions. These results as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 15 regulators control a specific set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that, for these 7 genes, the response regulator SsrB and the marR type regulator SlyA co-regulate in a regulatory cascade by integrating multiple signals.

  17. 78 FR 37713 - General Regulations; National Park System, Demonstrations, Sale or Distribution of Printed Matter (United States)


    ...] RIN 1024-AD91 General Regulations; National Park System, Demonstrations, Sale or Distribution of... printed matter applicable to most units of the National Park System. The rule clarifies provisions regarding permits for demonstrations or distributing printed matter and in management of two or more small...

  18. Structurally stable design of output regulation for a class of nonlinear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villanueva-Novelo, C.; Čelikovský, Sergej; Castillo-Toledo, B.


    Roč. 37, č. 5 (2001), s. 517-561 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1368 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : nonlinear systems * structural stability * output regulation Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2001

  19. 77 FR 56212 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Use of Data Universal Numbering System... (United States)


    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Use of Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) as Primary Contractor... November 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0145, Use of data... ``Information Collection 9000-0145, Use of Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) as Primary Contractor...

  20. Calculational-theoretical studies of the system of local automated regulators and lateral ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksakov, A.N.; Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Nikolaev, E.V.; Panin, V.M.; Podlazov, L.N.; Rogova, V.D.


    Methods of engineering synthesis of the systems for nuclear reactor local automated power regulation and radial-azimuthal energy distribution stabilization operating according to lateral ionization chamber signals are described. Results of calculational-theoretical investigations into the system efficiency and peculiarities of its reaction to some perturbations typical of the RBMK type reactors are considered

  1. The Endocannabinoid System Differentially Regulates Escape Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J. Genewsky


    Full Text Available Among the hardwired behaviors, fear or survival responses certainly belong to the most evolutionary conserved ones. However, higher animals possess the ability to adapt to certain environments (e.g., novel foraging grounds, and, therefore, those responses need to be plastic. Previous studies revealed a cell-type specific role of the endocannabinoid system in novelty fear, conditioned fear and active vs. passive avoidance in a shuttle box paradigm. In this study we aim to investigate, whether knocking-out the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 on cortical glutamatergic (Glu-CB1−/− or GABAergic (GABA-CB1−/− neurons differentially affects the level of behavioral inhibition, which could ultimately lead to differences in escape behavior. In this context, we developed a novel behavioral paradigm, the Moving Wall Box (MWB. Using the MWB task we could show that Glu-CB1−/− mice have higher levels of behavioral inhibition over the course of repeated testing. GABA-CB1−/− mice, in contrast, showed significantly lower levels of behavioral inhibition compared to wild-type controls and more escape behavior. These changes in behavioral inhibition and escape behavior cannot be explained by altered levels of arousal, as repeated startle measurements revealed general habituation irrespective of the line and genotype of the animals. Taken together, we could show that CB1 on cortical glutamatergic terminals is important for the acquisition of active avoidance, as the absence of CB1 on these neurons creates a bias toward inhibitory avoidance. This is the case in situations without punishment such as electric footshocks. On the contrary CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons mediate the acquisition of passive avoidance, as the absence of CB1 on those neurons establishes a strong bias toward escape behavior.

  2. Oxytocin-secreting system: A major part of the neuroendocrine center regulating immunologic activity. (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Yang, Hai-Peng; Tian, Shujun; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Stephani C; Zhang, Fengmin; Wang, Yu-Feng


    Interactions between the nervous system and immune system have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying the neural regulation of immune activity, particularly the neuroendocrine regulation of immunologic functions, remain elusive. In this review, we provide a comprehensive examination of current evidence on interactions between the immune system and hypothalamic oxytocin-secreting system. We highlight the fact that oxytocin may have significant effects in the body, beyond its classical functions in lactation and parturition. Similar to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, the oxytocin-secreting system closely interacts with classical immune system, integrating both neurochemical and immunologic signals in the central nervous system and in turn affects immunologic defense, homeostasis, and surveillance. Lastly, this review explores therapeutic potentials of oxytocin in treating immunologic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Process for regulating the thermal conductivity of the excess power transfer medium of a thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coche, J.-C.


    A description is given of a process to regulate the thermal conductivity of the transfer medium of a thermal system. It is characterized by the fact that the thermal resistance of the space between the hot and cold sources is adapted by installing in this space a transfer medium which associates a solid phase to the gaseous phase of a gas gap in order to regulate the temperature difference between the sources [fr

  4. Starbursts at space ultraviolet wavelengths (United States)

    González Delgado, Rosa M.


    Starbursts are systems with very high star formation rate per unit area. They are the preferred place where massive stars form; the main source of thermal and mechanical heating in the interstellar medium, and the factory where the heavy elements form. Thus, starbursts play an important role in the origin and evolution of galaxies. The similarities between the physical properties of local starbursts and high-z star-forming galaxies, highlight the cosmological relevance of starbursts. On the other hand, nearby starbursts are laboratories where to study violent star formation processes and their interaction with the interstellar and intergalactic media, in detail and deeply. Starbursts are bright at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, as they are in the far-infrared, due to the ‘picket-fence’ interstellar dust distribution. After the pioneering IUE program, high spatial and spectral resolution UV observations of local starburst galaxies, mainly taken with HST and FUSE, have made relevant contributions to the following issues: The determination of the initial mass function (IMF) in violent star forming systems in low and high metallicity environments, and in dense (e.g. in stellar clusters) and diffuse environments: A Salpeter IMF with high-mass stars constrains well the UV properties. The modes of star formation: Starburst clusters are an important mode of star formation. Super-stellar clusters have properties similar to globular clusters. The role of starbursts in AGN: Nuclear starbursts can dominate the UV light in Seyfert 2 galaxies, having bolometric luminosities similar to the estimated bolometric luminosities of the obscured AGN. The interaction between massive stars and the interstellar and intergalactic media: Outflows in cold, warm and coronal phases leave their imprints on the UV interstellar lines. Outflows of a few hundred km s-1 are ubiquitous phenomena in starbursts. These metal-rich outflows and the ionizing radiation can travel to the halo of galaxies

  5. A voltage regulator system with dynamic bandwidth boosting for passive UHF RFID transponders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jinpeng; Wang Xin'an; Liu Shan; Li Shoucheng; Ruan Zhengkun


    This paper presents a voltage regulator system for passive UHF RFID transponders, which contains a rectifier, a limiter, and a regulator. The rectifier achieves power by rectifying the incoming RF energy. Due to the huge variation of the rectified voltage, a limiter at the rectifier output is used to clamp the rectified voltage. In this paper, the design of a limiter circuit is discussed in detail, which can provide a stable limiting voltage with low sensitivity to temperature variation and process dispersion. The key aspect of the voltage regulator system is the dynamic bandwidth boosting in the regulator. By sensing the excess current that is bypassed in the limiter during periods of excess energy, the bias current as well as the bandwidth of the regulator are increased, the output supply voltage can recover quickly from line transients during the periods of no RF energy to a full blast of RF energy. This voltage regulator system is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Basic Indicators of Systemic Risk in the EU Banking Sector. Implications for Banking Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sum Katarzyna


    Full Text Available The issue of systemic risk regulation and management has gained substantial attention following the latest financial crisis. In the case of the EU it became crucial to deal with the systemic risk problem on a supranational level since the banking sectors of the member countries are highly integrated. While substantial measures have been undertaken to mitigate systemic risk in the EU, the discussion of further reforms continues. This study’s goal is to assess basic indicators of systemic risk in the EU banking sector by using three complementary methods: a forward-looking stock market data analysis, an EU-stress test analysis for systemically important banks, and an empirical investigation of the relation between banking regulation and systemic risk as measured by bank balance sheet indicators. The results lead to a recommendation of further necessary regulatory reforms, which appear in the conclusion.

  7. Ultraviolet divergences and supersymmetric theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagnotti, A.


    This article is closely related to the one by Ferrara in these same Proceedings. It deals with what is perhaps the most fascinating property of supersymmetric theories, their improved ultraviolet behavior. My aim here is to present a survey of the state of the art as of August, 1984, and a somewhat more detailed discussion of the breakdown of the superspace power-counting beyond N = 2 superfields. A method is also described for simplifying divergence calculations that uses the locality of subtracted Feynman integrals. 74 references.

  8. The Two-Component Signal Transduction System VxrAB Positively Regulates Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Formation. (United States)

    Teschler, Jennifer K; Cheng, Andrew T; Yildiz, Fitnat H


    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), are the primary mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. The pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae is no exception and harbors 52 RR genes. Using in-frame deletion mutants of each RR gene, we performed a systematic analysis of their role in V. cholerae biofilm formation. We determined that 7 RRs impacted the expression of an essential biofilm gene and found that the recently characterized RR, VxrB, regulates the expression of key structural and regulatory biofilm genes in V. cholerae vxrB is part of a 5-gene operon, which contains the cognate HK vxrA and three genes of unknown function. Strains carrying Δ vxrA and Δ vxrB mutations are deficient in biofilm formation, while the Δ vxrC mutation enhances biofilm formation. The overexpression of VxrB led to a decrease in motility. We also observed a small but reproducible effect of the absence of VxrB on the levels of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Our work reveals a new function for the Vxr TCS as a regulator of biofilm formation and suggests that this regulation may act through key biofilm regulators and the modulation of cellular c-di-GMP levels. IMPORTANCE Biofilms play an important role in the Vibrio cholerae life cycle, providing protection from environmental stresses and contributing to the transmission of V. cholerae to the human host. V. cholerae can utilize two-component systems (TCS), composed of a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), to regulate biofilm formation in response to external cues. We performed a systematic analysis of V. cholerae RRs and identified a new regulator of biofilm formation, VxrB. We demonstrated that the VxrAB TCS is essential for robust biofilm formation and that this system may regulate biofilm formation via its regulation of key biofilm regulators and cyclic di-GMP levels. This research furthers

  9. User Compliance, Field Efficacy, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of an Ultraviolet Water Disinfection System and other Drinking Water Treatment Alternatives for Rural Households in Mexico


    Reygadas Robles Gil, Fermin


    Many households in developing countries rely on contaminated and untreated drinking water sources, contributing to gastrointestinal illness and other health risks. Even piped water quality is often unreliable because of poorly-maintained treatment or distribution systems. Household water treatment (HWT) systems aim to enable users to treat their water at the point of use, making it safe to drink. While some HWT options have been successful in improving health in developing countries, low adop...

  10. Dual PD Control Regulation with Nonlinear Compensation for a Ball and Plate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galvan-Colmenares


    Full Text Available The normal proportional derivative (PD control is modified to a new dual form for the regulation of a ball and plate system. First, to analyze this controller, a novel complete nonlinear model of the ball and plate system is obtained. Second, an asymptotic stable dual PD control with a nonlinear compensation is developed. Finally, the experimental results of ball and plate system are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  11. Asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection of the blood glucose regulation system. (United States)

    Ashley, Brandon; Liu, Weijiu


    Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance. For this, a mathematical model for the glucose disturbance is proposed on the basis of experimental data, and then incorporated into an existing blood glucose regulation model. Because all the eigenvalues of the disturbance model have zero real parts, the center manifold theory is used to establish blood glucose regulator equations. We then use their solutions to synthesize a required feedback and feedforward controller to reject the disturbance and asymptotically track a constant glucose reference of 90  mg/dl. Since the regulator equations are nonlinear partial differential equations and usually impossible to solve analytically, a linear approximation solution is obtained. Our numerical simulations show that, under the linear approximate feedback and feedforward controller, the blood glucose asymptotically tracks its desired level of 90 mg/dl approximately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Personalised Learning Object System Based on Self-Regulated Learning Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alharbi


    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning has become an important construct in education research in the last few years. Selfregulated learning in its simple form is the learner’s ability to monitor and control the learning process. There is increasing research in the literature on how to support students become more self-regulated learners. However, the advancement in the information technology has led to paradigm changes in the design and development of educational content. The concept of learning object instructional technology has emerged as a result of this shift in educational technology paradigms. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the potential educational effectiveness of a pedagogical framework based on the self-regulated learning theories to support the design of learning object systems to help computer science students. A prototype learning object system was developed based on the contemporary research on self-regulated learning. The system was educationally evaluated in a quasi-experimental study over two semesters in a core programming languages concepts course. The evaluation revealed that a learning object system that takes into consideration contemporary research on self-regulated learning can be an effective learning environment to support computer science education.

  13. The ultraviolet spectrum of beta Lyrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, M.; Hutchings, J.B.; Kondo, Y.; McCluskey, G.E.; Plavec, M.; Polidan, R.S.


    Details are presented of low-resolution (0.2--0.4 A) scans of the spectrum of β Lyrae in the region 1000-3000 A, obtained from the Copernicus OAO. The continuous spectrum appears to correspond to type B5 or later, while the line spectrum is largely dominated by very strong emission of lines characteristic of earlier spectral types. Small velocity variations, similar to those of the shell lines in the visible spectrum, are seen. Consideration of the intensity variations and profiles of the lines suggests that the ultraviolet emission lines originate in a large rotating, expanding volume, probably centered on the secondary star. No features can be identified with the secondary star itself. A discussion of models for the system is given, and it is considered that present evidence suggests that the second object is a mass-accreting black hole

  14. Imaging air pollutants in the near ultraviolet (United States)

    Norris, D.; Conley, J.; Seng, S.


    This paper discusses a program for remote sensing of air pollutants called Multispectral Observation of Pollutants System (MOPS). The broad objective of the program is to photograph 'invisible' gaseous pollutants by combining ultraviolet imaging in several spectral bands with portable data processing equipment. Electronic cameras using solid state imaging arrays of large dynamic range will permit very low contrast images to be electronically ratioed and contrast enhanced, thus bringing out pollutant images which are below the contrast threshold of film. Such photographs will allow synoptic coverage of geographic areas providing source, sink, and flow data on pollutants, and will provide reconnaissance and pointing information for other remote sensors. The principle gases to be mapped by MOPS will be ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

  15. Evaluation of Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings that are Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lum, William S; Kidd, Jr., James A


    .... In striving to optimize coating durability and to extend the life cycle of vehicles and weapon systems that use CARC materials, ARL evaluated several CARC topcoats for ultraviolet (UV) resistance...

  16. Post-Transcriptional Regulation by the Csr Global Regulatory System in Escherichia coli


    Suzuki, Kazushi; 鈴木, 一史


    In many species of bacteria, the Csr (carbon storage regulator) global regulatory system coordinates the expression of various genes. In Escherichia coli, the central component of this system, CsrA, is a RNA-binding protein. The CsrA is a homodimer and binds to leader segments of target mRNAs, affecting their translation and stability. CsrA activity is regulated by two small non-coding RNAs, CsrB and CsrC. These RNAs contain multiple CsrA-binding sequences and act by sequestering CsrA. In thi...

  17. Nutritional components regulate the gut immune system and its association with intestinal immune disease development. (United States)

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun


    The gut is equipped with a unique immune system for maintaining immunological homeostasis, and its functional immune disruption can result in the development of immune diseases such as food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that nutritional components play an important role in the regulation of gut immune responses and also in the development of intestinal immune diseases. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of lipids, vitamins, and nucleotides in the regulation of the intestinal immune system and as potential targets for the control of intestinal immune diseases. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. The organisation of work and systems of labour market regulation and social protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke


    The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand.......The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand....

  19. Oxidative stress-responsive microRNA-320 regulates glycolysis in diverse biological systems (United States)

    Tang, Huibin; Lee, Myung; Sharpe, Orr; Salamone, Louis; Noonan, Emily J.; Hoang, Chuong D.; Levine, Sanford; Robinson, William H.; Shrager, Joseph B.


    Glycolysis is the initial step of glucose catabolism and is up-regulated in cancer cells (the Warburg Effect). Such shifts toward a glycolytic phenotype have not been explored widely in other biological systems, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the shifts remain unknown. With proteomics, we observed increased glycolysis in disused human diaphragm muscle. In disused muscle, lung cancer, and H2O2-treated myotubes, we show up-regulation of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme muscle-type phosphofructokinase (PFKm, >2 fold, P150%, Pglycolysis in response to H2O2 treatment. We show that this microRNA-mediated regulation occurs through PFKm's 3′ untranslated region and that Ets proteins are involved in the regulation of PFKm via miR-320a. These findings suggest that oxidative stress-responsive microRNA-320a may regulate glycolysis broadly within nature.—Tang, H., Lee, M., Sharpe, O., Salamone, L., Noonan, E. J., Hoang, C. D., Levine, S., Robinson, W. H., Shrager, J. B. Oxidative stress-responsive microRNA-320 regulates glycolysis in diverse biological systems. PMID:22767230

  20. Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases. (United States)

    Yam, Jason C S; Kwok, Alvin K H


    The objective of this study is to review the association between ultraviolet (UV) light and ocular diseases. The data are sourced from the literature search of Medline up to Nov 2012, and the extracted data from original articles, review papers, and book chapters were reviewed. There is a strong evidence that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is associated with the formation of eyelid malignancies [basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)], photokeratitis, climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), pterygium, and cortical cataract. However, the evidence of the association between UV exposure and development of pinguecula, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), and ocular melanoma remained limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is related to UV exposure. It is now suggested that AMD is probably related to visible radiation especially blue light, rather than UV exposure. From the results, it was concluded that eyelid malignancies (BCC and SCC), photokeratitis, CDK, pterygium, and cortical cataract are strongly associated with UVR exposure. Evidence of the association between UV exposure and development of pinguecula, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, OSSN, and ocular melanoma remained limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether AMD is related to UV exposure. Simple behaviural changes, appropriate clothing, wearing hats, and UV blocking spectacles, sunglasses or contact lens are effective measures for UV protection.

  1. Dose modeling in ultraviolet phototherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, David Robert; Robbins, Chris; O'Hare, Neil John


    Purpose: Ultraviolet phototherapy is widely used in the treatment of numerous skin conditions. This treatment is well established and largely beneficial to patients on both physical and psychological levels; however, overexposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can have detrimental effects, such as erythemal responses and ocular damage in addition to the potentially carcinogenic nature of UVR. For these reasons, it is essential to control and quantify the radiation dose incident upon the patient to ensure that it is both biologically effective and has the minimal possible impact on the surrounding unaffected tissue. Methods: To date, there has been little work on dose modeling, and the output of artificial UVR sources is an area where research has been recommended. This work characterizes these sources by formalizing an approach from first principles and experimentally examining this model. Results: An implementation of a line source model is found to give impressive accuracy and quantifies the output radiation well. Conclusions: This method could potentially serve as a basis for a full computational dose model for quantifying patient dose.

  2. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.


    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  3. The ubiquitin–proteasome system and signal transduction pathways regulating Epithelial Mesenchymal transition of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voutsadakis Ioannis A


    Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT in cancer, a process permitting cancer cells to become mobile and metastatic, has a signaling hardwire forged from development. Multiple signaling pathways that regulate carcinogenesis enabling characteristics in neoplastic cells such as proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and angiogenesis are also the main players in EMT. These pathways, as almost all cellular processes, are in their turn regulated by ubiquitination and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS. Ubiquitination is the covalent link of target proteins with the small protein ubiquitin and serves as a signal to target protein degradation by the proteasome or to other outcomes such as endocytosis, degradation by the lysosome or specification of cellular localization. This paper reviews signal transduction pathways regulating EMT and being regulated by ubiquitination.

  4. Ultraviolet extinction in M-supergiant circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, R.H. Jr.; Snow, T.P. Jr.


    Using International Ultraviolet (IUS) archival low-dispersion spectra, ultraviolet spectral extinctions were derived for the circumstellar envelopes of two M supergiants: HD 60414 and HD 213310. The observed stellar systems belong to a class of widely-separated spectroscopic binaries that are called VV Cephei stars. The total extinction was calculated by dividing the reddened fluxes with unreddened comparison fluxes of similar stars (g B2.5 for HD 213310 and a normalized s+B3 for HD 60414) from the reference atlas. After substracting the interstellar extinctions, which were estimated from the E(B-V) reddening of nearby stars, the resultant circumstellar extinctions were normalized at about 3.5 inverse microns. Not only is the 2175 A extinction bump absent in the circumstellar extinctions, but the far-ultraviolet extinction rise is also absent. The rather flat, ultraviolet extinction curves were interpreted as signatures of a population of noncarbonaceous, oxygen-rich grains with diameters larger than the longest observed wavelength

  5. The melanocortin system regulates body pigmentation and social behaviour in a colour polymorphic cichlid fish. (United States)

    Dijkstra, Peter D; Maguire, Sean M; Harris, Rayna M; Rodriguez, Agosto A; DeAngelis, Ross S; Flores, Stephanie A; Hofmann, Hans A


    The melanocortin system is a neuroendocrine system that regulates a range of physiological and behavioural processes. We examined the extent to which the melanocortin system simultaneously regulates colour and behaviour in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni We found that yellow males are more aggressive than blue males, in line with previous studies. We then found that exogenous α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increases yellowness of the body and dispersal of xanthophore pigments in both morphs. However, α-MSH had a morph-specific effect on aggression, with only blue males showing an increase in the rate of aggression. Exogenous agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), a melanocortin antagonist, did not affect coloration but reduced the rate of aggression in both colour morphs. Blue males had higher cortisol levels than yellow males. Neural gene expression of melanocortin receptors ( mcr ) and ligands was not differentially regulated between colour morphs. In the skin, however, mc1r and pro-opiomelanocortin ( pomc ) β were upregulated in blue males, while asip 1 was upregulated in yellow males. The effects of α-MSH on behaviour and body coloration, combined with morph-specific regulation of the stress response and the melanocortin system, suggest that the melanocortin system contributes to the polymorphism in behaviour and coloration in A. burtoni . © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Herbal Cosmeceuticals for Photoprotection from Ultraviolet B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal Cosmeceuticals for Photoprotection from Ultraviolet B Radiation: A Review. AK Mishra, A Mishra, P Chattopadhyay. Abstract. Ultraviolet B (UVB) rays vary with time and season and are the major cause of sunburns. Sunburned skin is a leading risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Protection ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article investigates the regulations which should be applied in the financial system in order to minimize the losses. The subject is based on the banking policy of “privatisation of profits and nationalisation of losses” and it is debated mainly from trade articles point of view. Even when taxpayers do not agree, governments choose either to bailout influential banks or to cover their losses with a deposit insurance. Banks would take advantage of any opportunity to increase earnings, even in the insolvency stage, and thus certain regulations and limitations must be provided to minimize the moral hazard occurred. The most important problem that deepens financial regressions relates to the losses spillover effect on the worldwide economy, and although a perfect global banking model cannot be implemented, the paper suggests regulations which improve the financial systems.

  8. From early family systems to internalizing symptoms: The role of emotion regulation and peer relations. (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Flykt, Marjo; Tolvanen, Asko; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena


    Research has demonstrated the importance of early family characteristics, such as the quality of caregiving, on children's later mental health. Information is, however, needed about the role of more holistic family systems and specific child-related socioemotional mechanisms. In this study, we conceptualize families as dynamic family system types, consisting of both marital and parenting trajectories over the transition to parenthood. First, we examine how early family system types predict children's anxiety, depression, peer exclusion, and emotion regulation. Second, we test whether couples' infertility history and other family related contextual factors moderate the effects of family system types on child outcomes. Third, we test whether children's emotion regulation and peer exclusion mediate the effects of family system types on anxiety and depression. The participants were 452 families representing cohesive, distant, authoritative, enmeshed, and discrepant family types, identified on the basis of relationship autonomy and intimacy from pregnancy to the child's age of 2 and 12 months. Children's anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, and peer exclusion were assessed at the age of 7-8 years. Structural equation modeling showed that distant, enmeshed, and discrepant families similarly predicted children's heightened anxiety and depression. Infertility history, parental education, and parity moderated the associations between certain family system types and child outcomes. Finally, emotion regulation, but not peer exclusion, was a common mediating mechanism between distant and enmeshed families and children's depression. The results emphasize the importance of early family environments on children's emotion regulation development and internalizing psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps. (United States)

    Sliney, David H; Gilbert, David W; Lyon, Terry


    Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315-400 nm), "black-light," electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV "Black-light" ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products.

  10. Ultraviolet A1 phototherapy: One center's experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Kiran Attili


    Full Text Available Background: Ultraviolet A1(UVA1 phototherapy is increasingly being used in the treatment of morphea, atopic dermatitis, lupus and some other recalcitrant dermatoses. We present a retrospective review of our experience with this modality. Aim: To evaluate the treatment response rates for various dermatoses and adverse effects of UVA1 phototherapy. Methods: We reviewed phototherapy notes along with electronic and/or paper case records for all patients treated with UVA1 phototherapy from October 1996 to December 2008. Results: A total of 269 patients (outcomes available for 247 had 361 treatment courses (treatment data available for 317 courses over this period. We found phototherapy to be beneficial in 28 (53% of 53 patients with atopic dermatitis and 19 (51% of 37 patients with morphea. A beneficial outcome was recorded in all six (100% cases of urticaria and six (85.7% of seven patients treated for a polymorphic light eruption. Benefit was also recorded in systemic lupus erythematosus (8 (44.4% of 18, lichen sclerosus (6 (42.9% of 14, mastocytosis (2 (33.3% of 6, necrobiosis lipoidica (4 (30.8% of 13, granuloma annulare (2 (25% of 8, scleroderma (2 (22.2% of 9 and keloids (1 (7.7% of 13. Overall, treatment was well tolerated with no patients having to stop treatment due to adverse effects. Limitations: This is a retrospective study with no control group. Subjective/recall bias is quite possible as a number of patients were followed up over the phone. Conclusions: Our data suggest that ultraviolet A1 can be considered for the treatment of selected dermatoses. However, long-term malignancy risk is as yet unknown.

  11. Stability Analysis of Pneumatic Cabin Pressure Regulating System with Complex Nonlinear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zheng


    Full Text Available Stability of pneumatic cabin pressure regulating system with complex nonlinear characteristics is considered. The mathematical model of each component is obtained and given in detail. The governing equations of the considered system consist of 8 differential equations. In the circumstance, commonly used methods of nonlinear system analysis are not applicable. Therefore a new method is proposed to construct phase plane trajectories numerically. The calculation steps are given in detail. And convergence region of numerical calculation and limits on step size is defined. The method is applied constructing phase plane trajectories for considered cabin pressure regulating system. Phase plane analysis shows that there exists a limit cycle, which is responsible for pressure pulsating in aircraft cabin. After parameters adjustment, excellent stability characteristics are acquired. And the validity of this method is confirmed by the simulation.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Mediated Regulation of BK Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ye Zhang


    Full Text Available Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels belong to a family of Ca2+-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has profound influences on the expression and bioactivity of BK channels. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of BK channels mediated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its potential as a target for clinical drugs.

  13. Updating of the program for simulation of Darlington shutdown and regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report describes the current status of the developments of a simulation of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station shutdown and regulating systems, DARSIM done under contract to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The DARSIM program simulates the spatial neutron dynamics, the regulation of the reactor power, and shutdown system 1 and shutdown system 2 software. The DARSIM program operates in the interactive simulation program environment. DARSIM was installed on the APOLLO computer at the AECB and a version for an IBM-PC was also provided for the exclusive use of the AECB. Shutdown system software was updated to incorporate the latest revisions in the functional specifications. Additional developments have been provided to assist in the use and interpretation of the DARSIM results

  14. An experimental approach to regulating non-military unmanned aircraft systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Haomiao; Heldeweg, Michiel A.


    This article introduces three modes of regulatory experimentation – derogation, devolution and open-texture – for regulators to respond to the challenges brought by disruptive innovation such as non-military unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This article argues that where there is an urgency of

  15. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance... DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5900 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR... intended as an aid in confirmatory diagnostic testing of individuals with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF...

  16. Energy Management Systems and tertiary regulation in hierarchical control architectures for islanded micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa; Quang, Ninh Nguyen


    In this paper, the structure of the highest level of a hierarchical control architecture for micro-grids is proposed. Such structure includes two sub-levels: the Energy Management System, EMS, and the tertiary regulation. The first devoted to energy resources allocation in each time slot based...

  17. 78 FR 11981 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore... (United States)


    ...-PPMPSPD1Z.YM0000] RIN 1024-AE11 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes... rule designates the Sleeping Bear Heritage Trail currently under construction within Sleeping Bear... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Ulrich, Deputy Superintendent, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

  18. 77 FR 62476 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore... (United States)


    ...-AE11 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore... proposes to designate the Sleeping Bear Heritage Trail currently under construction within Sleeping Bear... submitting comments. Mail or Hand Deliver to: Superintendent's Office, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

  19. Systems analysis of multiple regulator perturbations allows discovery of virulence factors in Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffron Fred


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic bacterial infections are highly regulated and complex processes that are orchestrated by numerous virulence factors. Genes that are coordinately controlled by the set of regulators required for systemic infection are potentially required for pathogenicity. Results In this study we present a systems biology approach in which sample-matched multi-omic measurements of fourteen virulence-essential regulator mutants were coupled with computational network analysis to efficiently identify Salmonella virulence factors. Immunoblot experiments verified network-predicted virulence factors and a subset was determined to be secreted into the host cytoplasm, suggesting that they are virulence factors directly interacting with host cellular components. Two of these, SrfN and PagK2, were required for full mouse virulence and were shown to be translocated independent of either of the type III secretion systems in Salmonella or the type III injectisome-related flagellar mechanism. Conclusions Integrating multi-omic datasets from Salmonella mutants lacking virulence regulators not only identified novel virulence factors but also defined a new class of translocated effectors involved in pathogenesis. The success of this strategy at discovery of known and novel virulence factors suggests that the approach may have applicability for other bacterial pathogens.

  20. Plasmodesmata localizing proteins regulate transport and signaling during systemic acquired immunity in plants (United States)

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants is mediated by the signaling molecules azelaic acid (AzA),glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), and salicylic acid (SA).Here, we show that AzA and G3P transport occurs via the symplastic route, which is regulated by channels known as plasmodesmata (PD). In contrast...

  1. The advancement of regulation fee, budget system, and set-up time management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J. S.; Choi, E. S.; Cho, J. I.; Jung, S. C.; Lee, J. H. [Caleb and Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Analyze the government's charging fee amendment and suggest the national regulation fee system. Suggest the future business portfolio based in the current business analysis. Design the advanced budget code structure, the performance management of the project budget and the survice level agreement between divisions. Develop the time management and the methodology of the standard man-hour calculation.

  2. Capturing the Family Context of Emotion Regulation: A Family Systems Model Comparison Approach (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.


    Several dimensions of family functioning are recognized as formative influences on children's emotion regulation. Historically, they have been studied separately, limiting our ability to understand how they function within the family system. The present investigation tested models including family emotional climate, interparental conflict, and…

  3. How Do Students Regulate their Learning of Complex Systems with Hypermedia?. (United States)

    Azevedo, Roger; Seibert, Diane; Guthrie, John T.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Wang, Huei-yu; Tron, Myriam

    This study examined the role of different goal-setting instructional interventions in facilitating students' shift to more sophisticated mental models of the circulatory system as indicated by both performance and process data. Researchers adopted the information processing model of self-regulated learning of P. Winne and colleagues (1998, 2001)…

  4. 78 FR 67927 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments... (United States)


    ... 0607-AA50 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments... Internet at [email protected] ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nick Orsini, Chief, Foreign Trade Division... used for collecting export trade data, which is used by the Census Bureau for statistical purposes only...

  5. Systems analysis of multiple regulator perturbations allows discovery of virulence factors in Salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; McDermott, Jason E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.


    Background: Systemic bacterial infections are highly regulated and complex processes that are orchestrated by numerous virulence factors. Genes that are coordinately controlled by the set of regulators required for systemic infection are potentially required for pathogenicity. Results: In this study we present a systems biology approach in which sample-matched multi-omic measurements of fourteen virulence-essential regulator mutants were coupled with computational network analysis to efficiently identify Salmonella virulence factors. Immunoblot experiments verified network-predicted virulence factors and a subset was determined to be secreted into the host cytoplasm, suggesting that they are virulence factors directly interacting with host cellular components. Two of these, SrfN and PagK2, were required for full mouse virulence and were shown to be translocated independent of either of the type III secretion systems in Salmonella or the type III injectisome-related flagellar mechanism. Conclusions: Integrating multi-omic datasets from Salmonella mutants lacking virulence regulators not only identified novel virulence factors but also defined a new class of translocated effectors involved in pathogenesis. The success of this strategy at discovery of known and novel virulence factors suggests that the approach may have applicability for other bacterial pathogens.

  6. Self-regulating insulin delivery systems I. Synthesis and characterization of glycosylated insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Seo Young; Kim, Sung Wan; Eenink, Martinus J.D.; Feijen, Jan


    A design for a self-regulating insulin delivery system based on the competitive binding of glucose and glycosylated insulin to the lectin Concanavalin A is proposed. A differnt approach to diabetes therapy is the attempt to effect a permanent cure of the disease by supplementing the patient's

  7. Regulation of the galanin system in the brainstem and hypothalamus by electroconvulsive stimulation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S H


    Induction of seizures by electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is amongst the most efficacious treatments for major depression. However, the working mechanism by which ECS exerts its antidepressant effects remains elusive. The galanin system is regulated by ECS in seizure-prone brain regions and ha...

  8. Road Transport Management System (RTMS): a self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A


    Full Text Available This paper describes the most recent developments of an initiative to introduce meaningful self-regulation in the heavy vehicle transport industry through a Road Transport Management System (RTMS) with the aim of contributing to the road authorities...

  9. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazova, M.; O'Hagan, J.B.


    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of ∼ 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application

  10. The Ultraviolet Albedo of Ganymede (United States)

    McGrath, Melissa; Hendrix, A.


    A large set of ultraviolet images of Ganymede have been acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope over the last 15 years. These images have been used almost exclusively to study Ganymede’s stunning auroral emissions (Feldman et al. 2000; Eviatar et al. 2001; McGrath et al. 2004; Saur et al. 2011; McGrath et al. 2013), and even the most basic information about Ganymede’s UV albedo has yet to be gleaned from these data. We will present a first-cut analysis of both disk-averaged and spatially-resolved UV albedos of Ganymede, with focus on the spatially-resolved Lyman-alpha albedo, which has never been considered previously for this satellite. Ganymede's visibly bright regions are known to be rich in water ice, while the visibly dark regions seem to be more carbonaceous (Carlson et al., 1996). At Lyman-alpha, these two species should also have very different albedo values. References Carlson, R. and 39 co-authors, Near-infrared spectroscopy and spectral mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites: Results from Galileo’s initial orbit, Science, 274, 385-388, 1996. Eviatar, A., D. F. Strobel, B. C. Wolven, P. D. Feldman, M. A. McGrath, and D. J. Williams, Excitation of the Ganymede ultraviolet aurora, Astrophys. J, 555, 1013-1019, 2001. Feldman, P. D., M. A. McGrath, D. F. Strobel, H. W. Moos, K. D. Retherford, and B. C. Wolven, HST/STIS imaging of ultraviolet aurora on Ganymede, Astrophys. J, 535, 1085-1090, 2000. McGrath M. A., Lellouch E., Strobel D. F., Feldman P. D., Johnson R. E., Satellite Atmospheres, Chapter 19 in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. F. Bagenal, T. Dowling, W. McKinnon, Cambridge University Press, 2004. McGrath M. A., Jia, Xianzhe; Retherford, Kurt; Feldman, Paul D.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Saur, Joachim, Aurora on Ganymede, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/jgra.50122, 2013. Saur, J., S. Duling, S., L. Roth, P. D. Feldman, D. F. Strobel, K. D. Retherford, M. A. McGrath, A. Wennmacher, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting

  11. Study of User Acceptance and Satisfaction of a Mandatory Government-Regulated Information System


    Wibowo, Tony


    This paper discusses the user acceptance of a mandatory government-regulated information system. The issue is investigated by using a modified UTAUTframework. From random sample data of 65 respondents, a regression model is established from which the conclusion is drawn. The study concludes that theaspects of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and information system quality affect the user acceptance. The four aspects are equally important.

  12. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems


    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong


    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural a...

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Mediated Regulation of BK Channels


    Zhang, Zhen-Ye; Qian, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ru-Xing


    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) belong to a family of Ca2+-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone...

  14. Feedback loops and reciprocal regulation: recurring motifs in the systems biology of the cell cycle


    Ferrell, James E.


    The study of eukaryotic cell cycle regulation over the last several decades has led to a remarkably detailed understanding of the complex regulatory system that drives this fundamental process. This allows us to now look for recurring motifs in the regulatory system. Among these are negative feedback loops, which underpin checkpoints and generate cell cycle oscillations; positive feedback loops, which promote oscillations and make cell cycle transitions switch-like and unidirectional; and rec...

  15. An automatic regulating control system for a graphite moderated reactor using digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Goncalves Junior, J. de.


    The work propose an automatic regulating control system for a graphite moderated reactor using digital techniques. The system uses a microcomputer to monitor the power and the period, to run the control algorithm, and to generate electronic signals to excite the motor, which moves vertically the control rod banks. A nuclear reactor simulator was developed to test the control system. The simulator consists of a software based on the point kinetic equations and implanted in an analogical computer. The results show that this control system has a good performance and versatility. In addition, the simulator is capable of reproducing with accuracy the behavior of a nuclear reactor. (author)

  16. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef


    there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  17. Operation of Grid -Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef


    there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  18. On designing geometric motion planners to solve regulating and trajectory tracking problems for robotic locomotion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asnafi, Alireza [Hydro-Aeronautical Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71348-13668 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahzoon, Mojtaba, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71348-13668 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Based on a geometric fiber bundle structure, a generalized method to solve both regulation and trajectory tracking problems for locomotion systems is presented. The method is especially applied to two case studies of robotic locomotion systems; a three link articulated fish-like robot as a prototype of locomotion systems with symmetry, and the snakeboard as a prototype of mixed locomotion systems. Our results show that although these motion planners have an open loop structure, due to their generalities, they can steer case studies with negligible errors for almost any complicated path.

  19. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization. (United States)


    ... ultraviolet radiation intended to polymerize (set) resinous dental pit and fissure sealants or restorative... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 Ultraviolet activator for...

  20. Infant autonomic nervous system response and recovery: Associations with maternal risk status and infant emotion regulation. (United States)

    Suurland, Jill; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Smaling, Hanneke J A; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna


    This study examined whether risk status and cumulative risk were associated with autonomic nervous system reactivity and recovery, and emotion regulation in infants. The sample included 121 6-month-old infants. Classification of risk status was based on World Health Organization criteria (e.g., presence of maternal psychopathology, substance use, and social adversity). Heart rate, parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and sympathetic preejection period were examined at baseline and across the still face paradigm. Infant emotion regulation was coded during the still face paradigm. Infants in the high-risk group showed increased heart rate, parasympathetic withdrawal, and sympathetic activation during recovery from the still face episode. Higher levels of cumulative risk were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activation. Moreover, increased heart rate during recovery in the high-risk group was mediated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, indicating mobilization of sympathetic resources when confronted with socioemotional challenge. Distinct indirect pathways were observed from maternal risk to infant emotion regulation during the still face paradigm through parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation. These findings underline the importance of specific measures of parasympathetic and sympathetic response and recovery, and indicate that maternal risk is associated with maladaptive regulation of stress early in life reflecting increased risk for later psychopathology.

  1. Integrated systems approach identifies risk regulatory pathways and key regulators in coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dianming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Dai, Enyu; Liu, Xinyi; Luo, Shanshun; Jiang, Wei


    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CAD remain elusive. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, inferring risk regulatory pathways is an important step toward elucidating the mechanisms underlying CAD. With advances in high-throughput data, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify CAD risk regulatory pathways and key regulators. Firstly, a CAD-related core subnetwork was identified from a curated transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) regulatory network based on a random walk algorithm. Secondly, candidate risk regulatory pathways were extracted from the subnetwork by applying a breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm. Then, risk regulatory pathways were prioritized based on multiple CAD-associated data sources. Finally, we also proposed a new measure to prioritize upstream regulators. We inferred that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) may be a key regulator in the dysregulation of risk regulatory pathways. This study takes a closer step than the identification of disease subnetworks or modules. From the risk regulatory pathways, we could understand the flow of regulatory information in the initiation and progression of the disease. Our approach helps to uncover its potential etiology. We developed an integrated systems approach to identify risk regulatory pathways. We proposed a new measure to prioritize the key regulators in CAD. PTEN may be a key regulator in dysregulation of the risk regulatory pathways.

  2. Distinct brain systems mediate the effects of nociceptive input and self-regulation on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Wan Woo


    Full Text Available Cognitive self-regulation can strongly modulate pain and emotion. However, it is unclear whether self-regulation primarily influences primary nociceptive and affective processes or evaluative ones. In this study, participants engaged in self-regulation to increase or decrease pain while experiencing multiple levels of painful heat during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI imaging. Both heat intensity and self-regulation strongly influenced reported pain, but they did so via two distinct brain pathways. The effects of stimulus intensity were mediated by the neurologic pain signature (NPS, an a priori distributed brain network shown to predict physical pain with over 90% sensitivity and specificity across four studies. Self-regulation did not influence NPS responses; instead, its effects were mediated through functional connections between the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pathway was unresponsive to noxious input, and has been broadly implicated in valuation, emotional appraisal, and functional outcomes in pain and other types of affective processes. These findings provide evidence that pain reports are associated with two dissociable functional systems: nociceptive/affective aspects mediated by the NPS, and evaluative/functional aspects mediated by a fronto-striatal system.

  3. The general principles of radiation protection and regulation; Les principes generaux de la radioprotection et la reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 34 - Montpellier (France); Cesarini, J.P. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, Section Rayonnements non ionisants, 75 - Paris (France); Lecomte, J.F.; Barbier, G.; Crescini, D.; Biau, A. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, 92 (France); Blain, A. [FRAMATOME, Dir. Combustible Nucleaire, Dept. Radioprotection Securite, 69 - Lyon (France); Bailloeuil, C.; Gonin, M. [Electricite de France, EDF-SCAST, 75 - Paris (France); Bergot, D. [Ministere des Affaires Sociales, du Travail et de la Solidarite, Dir. des Relations du Travail, 75 - Paris (France)


    Seven articles constitute this chapter about the radiation protection and the regulation. Radiological risk, reduction of public exposure to ultraviolet radiations, regulation for the radon, evolution of the French legislation against the dangers of ionizing radiations, the medical follow up after the professional life, the information system to reproduce the dosimetric data of workers, proposition of a scale to classify the radiations incidents in function of their seriousness. (N.C.)

  4. Galactic Astronomy in the Ultraviolet (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.


    We propose a number of prospective observational programs for the ultraviolet space observatory WSO-UV, which seem to be of great importance to modern galactic astronomy. The programs include the search for binary Cepheids; the search and detailed photometric study and the analysis of radial distribution of UV-bright stars in globular clusters ("blue stragglers", blue horizontal-branch stars, RR Lyrae variables, white dwarfs, and stars with UV excesses); the investigation of stellar content and kinematics of young open clusters and associations; the study of spectral energy distribution in hot stars, including calculation of the extinction curves in the UV, optical and NIR; and accurate definition of the relations between the UV-colors and effective temperature. The high angular resolution of the observatory allows accurate astrometric measurements of stellar proper motions and their kinematic analysis.

  5. Stomatal closure by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negash, L.; Björn, L.O.


    The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV) (255–325 nm) on stomatal closure was investigated on tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter] in the presence of white light (ca 50 ·mol m −2 s −1 ). The action spectrum showed that UV (ca 2 ·mol m −2 s −1 , half band width about 10 nm) of 285 nm or shorter wavelengths was very efficient in causing stomatal closure. The effectiveness decreased sharply towards longer wavelengths. Radiation of 313 nm or longer wavelengths was practically without effect. Increasing UV intensity increased stomatal resistance. When stronger white light (5 to 9 times stronger than the one used during irradiation) was administered, stomates re-opened rapidly irrespective of whether the UV was on or off, although a subsequent gradual closing tendency was observed when the UV was on. (author)

  6. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  7. Regulated open multi-agent systems (ROMAS) a multi-agent approach for designing normative open systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Emilia; Botti, Vicente


    Addressing the open problem of engineering normative open systems using the multi-agent paradigm, normative open systems are explained as systems in which heterogeneous and autonomous entities and institutions coexist in a complex social and legal framework that can evolve to address the different and often conflicting objectives of the many stakeholders involved. Presenting  a software engineering approach which covers both the analysis and design of these kinds of systems, and which deals with the open issues in the area, ROMAS (Regulated Open Multi-Agent Systems) defines a specific multi-agent architecture, meta-model, methodology and CASE tool. This CASE tool is based on Model-Driven technology and integrates the graphical design with the formal verification of some properties of these systems by means of model checking techniques. Utilizing tables to enhance reader insights into the most important requirements for designing normative open multi-agent systems, the book also provides a detailed and easy t...

  8. Regulation of TGFβ in the immune system: an emerging role for integrins and dendritic cells. (United States)

    Worthington, John J; Fenton, Thomas M; Czajkowska, Beata I; Klementowicz, Joanna E; Travis, Mark A


    Regulation of an immune response requires complex crosstalk between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, via both cell-cell contact and secretion of cytokines. An important cytokine with a broad regulatory role in the immune system is transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). TGF-β is produced by and has effects on many different cells of the immune system, and plays fundamental roles in the regulation of immune responses during homeostasis, infection and disease. Although many cells can produce TGFβ, it is always produced as an inactive complex that must be activated to bind to the TGFβ receptor complex and promote downstream signalling. Thus, regulation of TGFβ activation is a crucial step in controlling TGFβ function. This review will discuss how TGFβ controls diverse immune responses and how TGFβ function is regulated, with a focus on recent work highlighting a critical role for the integrin αvβ8 expressed by dendritic cells in activating TGFβ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of the retinoblastoma-E2F pathway by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. (United States)

    Sengupta, Satyaki; Henry, R William


    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB) and its related family members p107 and p130 regulate cell proliferation through the transcriptional repression of genes involved in cellular G1 to S phase transition. However, RB proteins are functionally versatile, and numerous genetic and biochemical studies point to expansive roles in cellular growth control, pluripotency, and apoptotic response. For the vast majority of genes, RB family members target the E2F family of transcriptional activators as an integral component of its gene regulatory mechanism. These interactions are regulated via reversible phosphorylation by Cyclin/Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes, a major molecular mechanism that regulates transcriptional output of RB/E2F target genes. Recent studies indicate an additional level of regulation involving the ubiquitin-proteasome system that renders pervasive control over each component of the RB pathway. Disruption of the genetic circuitry for proteasome-mediated targeting of the RB pathway has serious consequences on development and cellular transformation, and is associated with several forms of human cancer. In this review, we discuss the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in proteolytic control of RB-E2F pathway components, and recent data that points to surprising non-proteolytic roles for the ubiquitin-proteasome system in novel transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Nandedkar


    Full Text Available The automobile is composed of many systems. One of these is the suspension system. The main functions of the automotive suspension system are to provide vehicle support, stability and directional control during handling manoeuvres and to provide effective isolation from road disturbances. The suspension system has to balance the tradeoff between ride comfort and handling performance. This paper analyses the passive suspension system and active suspension system using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR controller. A linear quarter-car model is used for the analysis and simulation. The performance of the LQR controller is compared with the passive suspension system. The simulation results show that the LQR controller improves vehicle ride comfort.

  11. Correlation between early-life regulation of the immune system by microbiota and allergy development. (United States)

    Gensollen, Thomas; Blumberg, Richard S


    Early postnatal life is a key time for development of the immune system and colonization of the host by microbiota. Recent studies have shown that specific limbs of the immune system can be regulated by microbiota in a time-restricted period during early life. Studies in mouse models have shown that perturbations of the microbiota during early life can cause immune effects that can persist into adulthood and create increased host susceptibility to certain diseases. Here we discuss the role of early-life regulation of the immune system by the microbiota and how it can be related to allergy development. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In defense of a regulated system of compensation for living donation. (United States)

    Matas, Arthur J; Hippen, Benjamin; Satel, Sally


    The organ shortage is the major problem in kidney transplantation today. Despite aggressive organ procurement efforts, the supply of donated kidneys, living and deceased, has not matched the growing demand; as a consequence, more and more qualified candidates are suffering on dialysis and then dying before being transplanted. Herein, we provide justification for a regulated system of compensation for donation. The main argument in favor of compensation is simple-financial incentives will increase donation, so fewer transplant candidates will suffer and die while waiting. In addition, development of a regulated system of compensation is the most effective means of crippling the core economic support for transplant tourism. Because dialysis is so much more expensive than a transplant, compensated donation could be cost-neutral to the healthcare system. Importantly, opinion polls suggest that the public would support compensation. As uncompensated kidney donation is widely accepted, persuasive arguments against compensation must explain why such a system would be morally distinguishable from uncompensated donation. We suggest that the potential advantages of a regulated system of compensation for donation far outweigh any potential disadvantages. It is time to advocate for a change in the law so that trials can be done.

  13. Tachykinin-1 in the central nervous system regulates adiposity in rodents. (United States)

    Trivedi, Chitrang; Shan, Xiaoye; Tung, Yi-Chun Loraine; Kabra, Dhiraj; Holland, Jenna; Amburgy, Sarah; Heppner, Kristy; Kirchner, Henriette; Yeo, Giles S H; Perez-Tilve, Diego


    Ghrelin is a circulating hormone that targets the central nervous system to regulate feeding and adiposity. The best-characterized neural system that mediates the effects of ghrelin on energy balance involves the activation of neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide neurons, expressed exclusively in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. However, ghrelin receptors are expressed in other neuronal populations involved in the control of energy balance. We combined laser capture microdissection of several nuclei of the central nervous system expressing the ghrelin receptor (GH secretagoge receptor) with microarray gene expression analysis to identify additional neuronal systems involved in the control of central nervous system-ghrelin action. We identified tachykinin-1 (Tac1) as a gene negatively regulated by ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we identified neuropeptide k as the TAC1-derived peptide with more prominent activity, inducing negative energy balance when delivered directly into the brain. Conversely, loss of Tac1 expression enhances the effectiveness of ghrelin promoting fat mass gain both in male and in female mice and increases the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in ovariectomized mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a role TAC1 in the control energy balance by regulating the levels of adiposity in response to ghrelin administration and to changes in the status of the gonadal function.

  14. Multiple regulations of Keap1/Nrf2 system by dietary phytochemicals. (United States)

    Qin, Si; Hou, De-Xing


    Keap1/Nrf2 system plays a critical role on cellular protection by regulating many antioxidant and detoxification enzyme genes through the antioxidant response element (ARE). Thus, it must work constantly to prevent the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because excess ROS are associated with many diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular complications, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Dietary phytochemicals widely distributing in fruits and vegetables have been considered to possess cancer chemopreventive potential through the induction of Keap1/Nrf2 system-mediated antioxidant and detoxification enzymes in a variety of manners. The data are extensive and are not well classified on the molecular mechanisms. In this review, we first briefly introduce the current knowledge on Keap1/Nrf2 system regulation including Keap1-dependent and Keap1-independent cascades, and epigenetic pathway. Then, we summarize the molecular targets of Keap1/Nrf2 system by dietary phytochemicals, and finally review the crosstalk between Keap1/Nrf2 system and other cellular signaling pathways to regulate diverse chronic diseases by dietary phytochemicals. These comprehensive data will help us to understand the potential effects of dietary phytochemicals on the prevention of chronic diseases and maintenance of human health. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates the Hypocretin system via mRNA degradation and ubiquitination. (United States)

    Zhan, Shuqin; Cai, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Anni; Wang, Yuping; Jia, Jianping; Fang, Haotian; Yang, Youfeng; Hu, Meng; Ding, Qiang


    Recent studies recognize that Hypocretin system (also known as Orexin) plays a critical role in sleep/wake disorders and feeding behaviors. However, little is known about the regulation of the Hypocretin system. It is also known that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle. Here, we test our hypothesis that the Hypocretin system is regulated by TNF-α. Prepro-Hypocretin and Hypocretin receptor 2 (HcrtR2) can be detected at a very low level in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. In response to TNF-α, Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA and protein levels are down-regulated, and also HcrtR2 protein level is down-regulated in B35 cells. To investigate the mechanism, exogenous rat Prepro-Hypocretin and rat HcrtR2 were overexpressed in B35 cells. In response to TNF-α, protein and mRNA of Prepro-Hypocretin are significantly decreased (by 93% and 94%, respectively), and the half-life of Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA is decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The level of HcrtR2 mRNA level is not affected by TNF-α treatment; however, HcrtR2 protein level is significantly decreased (by 86%) through ubiquitination in B35 cells treated with TNF-α. Downregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 and -2 (cIAP-1 and -2) abrogates the HcrtR2 ubiquitination induced by TNF-α. The control green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is not affected by TNF-α treatment. These studies demonstrate that TNF-α can impair the function of the Hypocretin system by reducing the levels of both Prepro-Hypocretin and HcrtR2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultraviolet - status of knowledge on exposure and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervault, Anne Marie; Secretan, Beatrice; Guinot, Christiane; Bazex, Jacques; Donadieu, Jean; Dore, Jean Francois; Cesarini, Jean Pierre; Aleth Richard, Marie; Leccia, Marie Therese; Autier, Philippe; Cesarini, Jean Pierre; Beani, Jean Claude; Grob, Jean Jacques; Wald, Lucien; Dore, Jean Francois; Casiniere, Alain de la; Dixsaut, Gilles; Guenel, Pascal; Choulika, Sophie; Pirard, Philippe; Bastuji-Garin, S.; Beani, J.C.; Brin, A.J.; Cadet, J.; Corre, M.F.; Frelon, J.H.; Grob, Jean Jacques; Jeanmougin, M.; Martini-Morel, M.C.; Meunier, L.; Marty, J.P.; Revuz, J.; Reynier, J.P.; Roelands, R.; Stoebner, A.; Vian, L.


    After having recalled some physical aspects of ultraviolet radiations (presence in solar radiation, artificial UV radiation, measurement, metrology, UV index, boundary limits), this report describes the biological and health effects of UV radiations (analysis methodology, recall of previous expert reports, biological effects, health effects), addresses human behaviour with respect to UV radiation and exposure to UV radiation, discusses the relationship between cosmetics and UV radiation. It presents the various European and international positions with respect to UV emitting devices (evolution of standards, regulations). Some recommendations are made regarding solar exposure, sun-tanning installations, and other domestic or industrial sources

  17. Madecassoside Inhibits Melanin Synthesis by Blocking Ultraviolet-Induced Inflammation


    Eunsun Jung; Jung-A Lee; Seoungwoo Shin; Kyung-Baeg Roh; Jang-Hyun Kim; Deokhoon Park


    Madecassoside (MA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Centella asitica (L.), is used as a therapeutic agent in wound healing and also as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging agent. However, the involvement of MA in skin-pigmentation has not been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MA on ultraviolet (UV)-induced melanogenesis and mechanisms in a co-culture system of keratinocytes and melanocytes. MA significantly inhibited UVR-induced melanin synthesis and mel...

  18. Quality management system in radiotherapy in the light of regulations applicable in Poland (United States)


    The need to establish conditions for safe irradiation was noted in Poland back in 1986 in the Atomic Law, but for over 16 years no regulations regarding this aspect were passed. The radiological incident in Bialystok (Poland) in 2001 undeniably accelerated the implementation of new legal regulations. Nevertheless, in the absence of national guidelines until 2002, most health care institutions resorted to the quality management system (QMS) model proposed by the ISO norm 9001:2000. Eventually, practice proved the theory and the aforementioned model was also implemented into Polish acts of law defining basic requirements for QMS in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to review current national regulations regarding QMS in radiotherapy, in particular those referring to standard procedures, the establishment of a commission for procedures and performance of external and internal clinical audits in oncological radiotherapy, as well as to present the process of their implementation into the practice of health care institutions. PMID:23788867

  19. Extreme ultraviolet-induced photoionized plasmas (United States)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Fok, Tomasz; Jarocki, Roman; Szczurek, Miroslaw


    In this work photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of He or Ne gases with a focused extreme ultraviolet (EUV) beam from one of two laser-plasma sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems. The first of them was a 10 Hz laser-plasma EUV source, based on a double-stream gas-puff target, irradiated with a 3 ns per 0.8 J laser pulse. EUV radiation in this case was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence ellipsoidal collector. The second source was based on a 10 ns per 10 J per 10 Hz laser system. In this case EUV radiation was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence multifoil collector. Gases were injected into the interaction region, perpendicularly to an optical axis of the irradiation system, using an auxiliary gas puff valve. Spectral measurements in the EUV range were performed. In all cases the most intense emission lines were assigned to singly charged ions. The other emission lines belong to atoms or doubly charged ions.

  20. Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.P.


    This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

  1. Decision support tool to evaluate alternative policies regulating wind integration into autonomous energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, N.; Contaxis, G.C.; Kabouris, J.


    Integration of wind power into autonomous electricity systems strongly depends on the specific technical characteristics of these systems; the regulations applied should take into account physical system constraints. Introduction of market rules makes the issue even more complicated since the interests of the market participants often conflict each other. In this paper, an integrated tool for the comparative assessment of alternative regulatory policies is presented along with a methodology for decision-making, based on alternative scenarios analysis. The social welfare concept is followed instead of the traditional Least Cost Planning

  2. A study on environmental regulation and public inquiry system of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun; Son, Ki Yon; Cho, Young Ho; Yang, Ji Won; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Suk [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Public hearing system for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities are investigated and analyzed. As a result, Korean public hearing system are developed. Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Act and Administrative Procedure Act of Korea are reviewed and appropriate acts, regulations, procedures and mandates of foreign countries including U.S.A are reviewed and analyzed. On the basis of these results the role of device to collect public opinion is identified for nuclear facility of Korea and the elementary principle of the system and recommendations are developed.

  3. A beamline for time-resolved extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectroscopy


    Grilj, Jakob; Sistrunk, Emily; Koch, Markus; Gühr, Markus


    High harmonic generation is a convenient way to obtain extreme ultraviolet light from table-top laser systems and the experimental tools to exploit this simple and powerful light source for time-resolved spectroscopy are being developed by several groups. For these applications, brightness and stability of the high harmonic generation is a key feature. This article focuses on practical aspects in the generation of extreme ultraviolet pulses with ultrafast commercial lasers, namely generation ...

  4. Regulators and effectors of bone morphogenetic protein signalling in the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Luo, Jiang-Yun; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Huang, Yu


    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play key roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in various tissues and organs, including the cardiovascular system. BMPs signal through both Smad-dependent and -independent cascades to exert a wide spectrum of biological activities. Cardiovascular disorders such as abnormal angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy have been linked to aberrant BMP signalling. To correct the dysregulated BMP signalling in cardiovascular pathogenesis, it is essential to get a better understanding of how the regulators and effectors of BMP signalling control cardiovascular function and how the dysregulated BMP signalling contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction. We hence highlight several key regulators of BMP signalling such as extracellular regulators of ligands, mechanical forces, microRNAs and small molecule drugs as well as typical BMP effectors like direct downstream target genes, mitogen-activated protein kinases, reactive oxygen species and microRNAs. The insights into these molecular processes will help target both the regulators and important effectors to reverse BMP-associated cardiovascular pathogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  5. Zebrafish as a Model System for Investigating the Compensatory Regulation of Ionic Balance during Metabolic Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lletta Lewis


    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio have become an important model for integrative physiological research. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-osmotic environment; to maintain ionic and acid-base homeostasis, they must actively take up ions and secrete acid to the water. The gills in the adult and the skin at larval stage are the primary sites of ionic regulation in zebrafish. The uptake of ions in zebrafish is mediated by specific ion transporting cells termed ionocytes. Similarly, in mammals, ion reabsorption and acid excretion occur in specific cell types in the terminal region of the renal tubules (distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Previous studies have suggested that functional regulation of several ion transporters/channels in the zebrafish ionocytes resembles that in the mammalian renal cells. Additionally, several mechanisms involved in regulating the epithelial ion transport during metabolic acidosis are found to be similar between zebrafish and mammals. In this article, we systemically review the similarities and differences in ionic regulation between zebrafish and mammals during metabolic acidosis. We summarize the available information on the regulation of epithelial ion transporters during acidosis, with a focus on epithelial Na+, Cl− and Ca2+ transporters in zebrafish ionocytes and mammalian renal cells. We also discuss the neuroendocrine responses to acid exposure, and their potential role in ionic compensation. Finally, we identify several knowledge gaps that would benefit from further study.

  6. Some aspects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Damany, Nicole; Vodar, Boris


    Some Aspects of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics presents some data on the state of research in vacuum ultraviolet radiation in association with areas of physics. Organized into four parts, this book begins by elucidating the optical properties of solids in the vacuum ultraviolet region (v.u.v.), particularly the specific methods of determination of optical constants in v.u.v., the properties of metals, and those of ionic insulators. Part II deals with molecular spectroscopy, with emphasis on the spectra of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules, paraffins, and condensed phases. Part III

  7. Extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance measurements since 1946 (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.


    In the physics of the upper atmosphere the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation plays a dominant role controlling most of the thermospheric/ionospheric (T/I) processes. Since this part of the solar spectrum is absorbed in the thermosphere, platforms to measure the EUV fluxes became only available with the development of rockets reaching altitude levels exceeding 80 km. With the availability of V2 rockets used in space research, recording of EUV spectra started in 1946 using photographic films. The development of pointing devices to accurately orient the spectrographs toward the sun initiated intense activities in solar-terrestrial research. The application of photoelectric recording technology enabled the scientists placing EUV spectrometers aboard satellites observing qualitatively strong variability of the solar EUV irradiance on short-, medium-, and long-term scales. However, as more measurements were performed more radiometric EUV data diverged due to the inherent degradation of the EUV instruments with time. Also, continuous recording of the EUV energy input to the T/I system was not achieved. It is only at the end of the last century that there was progress made in solving the serious problem of degradation enabling to monitore solar EUV fluxes with sufficient radiometric accuracy. The data sets available allow composing the data available to the first set of EUV data covering a period of 11 years for the first time. Based on the sophisticated instrumentation verified in space, future EUV measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) are promising accuracy levels of about 5% and less. With added low-cost equipment, real-time measurements will allow providing data needed in ionospheric modeling, e.g., for correcting propagation delays of navigation signals from space to earth. Adding EUV airglow and auroral emission monitoring by airglow cameras, the impact of space weather on the terrestrial T/I system can be studied with a spectral terrestrial

  8. Frequency Regulation of a Hybrid Wind–Hydro Power Plant in an Isolated Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Martínez-Lucas


    Full Text Available Currently, some small islands with high wind potential are trying to reduce the environmental and economic impact of fossil fuels by using renewable resources. Nevertheless, the characteristics of these renewable resources negatively affect the quality of the electrical energy, causing frequency disturbances, especially in isolated systems. In this study, the combined contribution to frequency regulation of variable speed wind turbines (VSWT and a pump storage hydropower plant (PSHP is analyzed. Different control strategies, using the kinetic energy stored in the VSWT, are studied: inertial, proportional, and their combination. In general, the gains of the VSWT controller for interconnected systems proposed in the literature are not adequate for isolated systems. Therefore, a methodology to adjust the controllers, based on exhaustive searches, is proposed for each of the control strategies. The control strategies and methodology have been applied to a hybrid wind–hydro power plant on El Hierro Island in the Canary archipelago. At present, in this isolated power system, frequency regulation is only provided by the PSHP and diesel generators. The improvements in the quality of frequency regulation, including the VSWT contribution, have been proven based on simulating different events related to wind speed, or variations in the power demand.

  9. Depository Accounting of Securities in the Ukrainian Stock Market Regulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veriha Hanna V.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the procedures, technologies, prudential regulation of depository accounting of securities in the system of the Ukrainian stock market infrastructure and identify directions of its improvement. The article analyzes the dynamics of the number of licenses issued by types of professional activity in the stock market. The necessity for further improvement of mechanisms of the updated system of depository accounting of securities in Ukraine has been proved. There have been developed the following recommendations: to improve the unified rules of accounting and regulation support of the system of risk management of depository activity; develop tools for prudential regulation of depository activity and strengthen the control over fulfillment of prudential standards by the Central Depository and depository institutions; create the necessary conditions for the practical implementation of legal norms concerning establishment of clearing institutions and increase in the level of competition between depositaries; expand the correspondent relations of the Central Depository in relation to the establishment of international depositary relations for the liberalization of the international movement of securities; use segregated accounts providing the possibility of storage of client funds separately from the funds of the transfer bank to protect the capital of the issuer and investor from risks of any force majeure situations; mediate the movement of funds at implementing dividend payments through participants of the accounting system: issuer-the Central Depository-depository institution-depositor.

  10. Chitinase expression in Listeria monocytogenes is positively regulated by the Agr system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni Katerina Paspaliari

    Full Text Available The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes encodes two chitinases, ChiA and ChiB, which allow the bacterium to hydrolyze chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature. Intriguingly, despite the absence of chitin in human and mammalian hosts, both of the chitinases have been deemed important for infection, through a mechanism that, at least in the case of ChiA, involves modulation of host immune responses. In this study, we show that the expression of the two chitinases is subject to regulation by the listerial agr system, a homologue of the agr quorum-sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus, that has so far been implicated in virulence and biofilm formation. We demonstrate that in addition to these roles, the listerial agr system is required for efficient chitin hydrolysis, as deletion of agrD, encoding the putative precursor of the agr autoinducer, dramatically decreased chitinolytic activity on agar plates. Agr was specifically induced in response to chitin addition in stationary phase and agrD was found to regulate the amount of chiA, but not chiB, transcripts. Although the transcript levels of chiB did not depend on agrD, the extracellular protein levels of both chitinases were reduced in the ΔagrD mutant. The regulatory effect of agr on chiA is potentially mediated through the small RNA LhrA, which we show here to be negatively regulated by agr. LhrA is in turn known to repress chiA translation by binding to the chiA transcript and interfering with ribosome recruitment. Our results highlight a previously unrecognized role of the agr system and suggest that autoinducer-based regulation of chitinolytic systems may be more commonplace than previously thought.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi -


    Full Text Available General understanding of the law indicates that the product areas that are made bythe local government, in no way can be separated from the system perundamginvitationnationally. Local regulations made by independent government units(autonomous and Environment Authority an independent anyway. Therefore, doneagainst higher level legislation should not be solely based on pertingkatan, but ratheron the environment authority. in Indonesia is beside as further the elaboration oflegislation on it which produces district regulation delegasian, as well as the specialconditions in passenger areas that generate self-contained district regulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies confirmed personality traits as being important predictors of criminal behavior. The aim of this research was to determine which constellation of basic personality traits incarcerated individuals and those serving alternative sanctions differ, and which traits make the difference between the criminal and the non-criminal populations. In this research, the model of personality used is a cybernetic model of conative functioning, which assumes that conative regulation systems almost completely describe the structure of personality. Methods: The study sample consisted of 391 male respondents (152 offenders serving prison sentence, 91 convicts sentenced to alternative penalties and 148 non-offenders. Examined variables were: the regulator of activity (Extroversion, the regulator of organic functions (Hysteria, the regulator of defense reactions (Anxiety, the regulator of attack reactions (Aggressiveness, the system for coordination of regulatory functions (Psychoticism and the system for integration of regulatory functions (Integration. Results: There were significant differences in all dimensions of personality between groups, except for the framework of Extraversion. The traits that contribute to the difference between individuals serving prison sentence and offenders sentenced to alternative penalties are Integration and Aggressiveness. The traits that contribute to the difference between non-offenders and offenders serving prison sentence are Psychoticism, Integration, Aggressiveness, and Anxiety. Among offenders sentenced to alternative penalties and the general population no difference in personality traits was found. Conclusion: Our findings may indicate the need for mandatory diagnostic psychological evaluation of persons who have committed minor offenses, to ensure the right decision is made when choosing between prison and an alternative method of punishment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Stepovaya


    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the available data on tumor cell functioning under the conditions of free radical-mediated oxidation, the mechanisms of redox regulation, cell proliferation management and apoptosis avoidance remain understudied.The objective of the study was to identify the role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation under redox status modulation with 1.4-dithioerythritol.Material and methods. The studies were conducted on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, grown in adherent cell culture. Cell redox status was modulated with5 mM N-ethylmaleimide – an SH group and peptide inhibitor and5 mM 1.4-dithioerythritol – a thiol group protector. The cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry, the same technique was used to measure the reactive oxygen species concentration. The levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione and the activity of thioredoxin reductase were identified by spectrophotometry. The intracellular concentrations of thioredoxin, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were determined by Western blot analysis.Results and discussion. The essential role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation was exhibited. S-phase arrest under the effect of N-ethylmaleimide and G0/G1-phase arrest under the effect of 1.4-dithioerythritol are associated with the changes in the activity of redox-sensitive protein complexes (cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that regulate cell proliferation.Conclusion. Redoxdependent modulation of proliferation regulating intracellular protein activity occurs due to the thioredoxin system. This is a promising research area for seeking molecular targets of breast cell malignization. 

  14. SlyA regulates type III secretion system (T3SS) genes in parallel with the T3SS master regulator HrpL in Dickeya dadantii 3937. (United States)

    Zou, Lifang; Zeng, Quan; Lin, Haiping; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Chen, Gongyou; Yang, Ching-Hong


    The hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) genes of Dickeya dadantii 3937 encode a type III secretion system (T3SS) which is essential for its full virulence. Previous studies of the T3SS regulation in D. dadantii 3937 revealed that the expression of the hrp genes is regulated by a master regulator, HrpL, through the HrpX-HrpY-HrpS-HrpL and GacS-GacA-rsmB-RsmA pathways. In this work, we identified a novel regulator of the SlyA/MarR family, SlyA, which regulates hrp genes of the HrpL regulon in parallel with HrpL in D. dadantii. SlyA regulates the T3SS in a two-tier manner. It negatively regulates the expression of hrpL by downregulating hrpS and upregulating rsmA. Interestingly, concomitant with its downregulation of the hrpL, SlyA positively regulates the expression of hrpA and hrpN, two hrp genes located in the HrpL regulon. In contrast to Pectobacterium carotovorum, the expression of slyA is not controlled by ExpR and ExpI in D. dadantii 3937. We further show that SlyA is involved in controlling swimming motility and pellicle formation in D. dadantii 3937.

  15. Liberating and regulating of active effect reserves in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Bjoern H.


    This report is a summary of the work done in the project ''Active reserves and current control of the effect situation'' in the period 1997 - 99. The project is one of the 7 partial projects in the project '' Operational safety planning and control'' in the Norges forskningsraad's (The Research Council of Norway) EFFEKT program. The aim of the project has been to study and test methods for liberating and regulating active reserves in the Norwegian power system. Traditionally Norway has been rich in effect reserves but in the present deregulated system it will no longer obvious that these reserves are available as the micro economy is more focussed upon in an increasingly pressured operational situation. In the recent years the margins between the available generator effects and the systems maximum load have become increasingly smaller. With the various problems discussed in this report in mind, recommendations may be given with respect to specific measures in order to improve the systems operator possibilities for current control of the effect situation as well as recommendations regarding interesting concepts that ought to be continued in new research projects. The systems operators have implemented some of the proposed measures while others are being studied further. The following specific measures are proposed to the systems operators: 1) To implements graphical survey of the production and the reported reserves in the systems operator EMS tool. 2) To implement tools of the type ''gradual load flow'' in order to prepare possible regulations in critical periods. 3) Reserved instantaneous reserves are introduced as a systems service. 4) The systems operator can reserve effect up to the operational time. 5) Introduce incentives in order to activate the end user more strongly in the ''RK'' market. 5) To modify the methodology corresponding to ''Simultaneous load'' for forecasting bottlenecks in future operation weeks. 6) The systems service ''ramping'' is

  16. Legal Challenges Related to the Regulation of a Domain Name System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas


    Full Text Available Purpose—to review and analyse the problematic aspects related to domain name allocation and further usage processes, highlighting legal regulation of a domain name system.Design/methodology/approach—based on the comparison analysis of scientific literature, authors discuss problematic issues related to the legal regulation of domain name allocation and usage processes, analyse practical approaches and collision cases in the context of a domain name system. The authors examine the positive and negative aspects of a domain naming system and conflicting regulatory specifics. This paper describes the development of institutional bodies responsible for DNS management, supervision approaches and inner functionality policies.Findings—the authors examine domain naming system models and dispute resolution mechanisms, their evolution in the context of Internet development and the structural changes of the Internet governance institutions. The authors analyse tendencies related to DNS regulation and the possible effect of new regulation models in practice, while reflecting interests of stakeholders in the subject field.Research limitations/implications—agreements on the registration of domain names are based on self-regulation principles. A number of different interests may collide when speaking about domain name registration or usage and this issue becomes a major challenge to scientists and lawyers who are seeking an optimal domain-naming regulatory mechanism. The article does not address trademark conflicts within domain names in this respect. This should be considered as an object for separate study, which requires deeper analysis.Practical implications—the authors review key aspects of the domain name system and describe tendencies for the regulatory models.Value—the article emphasizes potential domain naming conflicts and disputes concerning the usage of common terms and phrases in order to manipulate information for illicit purposes. The

  17. Legal Challenges Related to the Regulation of a Domain Name System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas


    Full Text Available Purpose—to review and analyse the problematic aspects related to domain name allocation and further usage processes, highlighting legal regulation of a domain name system. Design/methodology/approach—based on the comparison analysis of scientific literature, authors discuss problematic issues related to the legal regulation of domain name allocation and usage processes, analyse practical approaches and collision cases in the context of a domain name system. The authors examine the positive and negative aspects of a domain naming system and conflicting regulatory specifics. This paper describes the development of institutional bodies responsible for DNS management, supervision approaches and inner functionality policies. Findings—the authors examine domain naming system models and dispute resolution mechanisms, their evolution in the context of Internet development and the structural changes of the Internet governance institutions. The authors analyse tendencies related to DNS regulation and the possible effect of new regulation models in practice, while reflecting interests of stakeholders in the subject field. Research limitations/implications—agreements on the registration of domain names are based on self-regulation principles. A number of different interests may collide when speaking about domain name registration or usage and this issue becomes a major challenge to scientists and lawyers who are seeking an optimal domain-naming regulatory mechanism. The article does not address trademark conflicts within domain names in this respect. This should be considered as an object for separate study, which requires deeper analysis. Practical implications—the authors review key aspects of the domain name system and describe tendencies for the regulatory models. Value—the article emphasizes potential domain naming conflicts and disputes concerning the usage of common terms and phrases in order to manipulate information for illicit purposes

  18. The Csr System Regulates Escherichia coli Fitness by Controlling Glycogen Accumulation and Energy Levels. (United States)

    Morin, Manon; Ropers, Delphine; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Portais, Jean-Charles; Enjalbert, Brice; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel


    In the bacterium Escherichia coli , the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation. IMPORTANCE Glycogen is a polysaccharide and the main storage form of glucose from bacteria such as Escherichia coli to yeasts and mammals. Although its function as a sugar reserve in mammals is well documented, the role of glycogen in bacteria is not as clear. By studying the role of posttranscriptional regulation during metabolic adaptation, for the first time, we demonstrate the role of sugar reserve played by glycogen in E. coli Indeed, glycogen not only makes it possible to maintain sufficient energy during metabolic transitions but is also the key component in the capacity of cells to resume growth. Since the essential posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr is a major regulator of glycogen accumulation, this work also sheds light on the central role of posttranscriptional regulation in metabolic adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Morin et al.

  19. Novel and tightly regulated resorcinol and cumate-inducible expression systems for Streptomyces and other actinobacteria. (United States)

    Horbal, Liliya; Fedorenko, Victor; Luzhetskyy, Andriy


    Inducible expression is a versatile genetic tool for controlling gene transcription, determining gene functions and other uses. Herein, we describe our attempts to create several inducible systems based on a cumate or a resorcinol switch, a hammerhead ribozyme, the LacI repressor, and isopropyl β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). We successfully developed a new cumate (p-isopropylbenzoic acid)-inducible gene switch in actinobacteria that is based on the CymR regulator, the operator sequence (cmt) from the Pseudomonas putida cumate degradation operon and P21 synthetic promoter. Resorcinol-inducible expression system is also functional and is composed of the RolR regulator and the PA3 promoter fused with the operator (rolO) from the Corynebacterium glutamicum resorcinol catabolic operon. Using the gusA (β-glucuronidase) gene as a reporter, we showed that the newly generated expression systems are tightly regulated and hyper-inducible. The activity of the uninduced promoters is negligible in both cases. Whereas the induction factor reaches 45 for Streptomyces albus in the case of cumate switch and 33 in the case of resorcinol toggle. The systems are also dose-dependent, which allows the modulation of gene expression even from a single promoter. In addition, the cumate system is versatile, given that it is functional in different actinomycetes. Finally, these systems are nontoxic and inexpensive, as these are characteristics of cumate and resorcinol, and they are easy to use because inducers are water-soluble and easily penetrate cells. Therefore, the P21-cmt-CymR and PA3-rolO-RolR systems are powerful tools for engineering actinobacteria.

  20. MicroRNAs (MiRs) Precisely Regulate Immune System Development and Function in Immunosenescence Process. (United States)

    Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Rezaei, Nima


    Human aging is a complex process with pivotal changes in gene expression of biological pathways. Immune system dysfunction has been recognized as one of the most important abnormalities induced by senescent names immunosenescence. Emerging evidences suggest miR role in immunosenescence. We aimed to systemically review all relevant reports to clearly state miR effects on immunosenescence process. Sensitive electronic searches carried out. Quality assessment has been performed. Since majority of the included studies were laboratory works, and therefore heterogen, we discussed miR effects on immunological aging process nonstatically. Forty-six articles were found in the initial search. After exclusion of 34 articles, 12 studies enrolled to the final stage. We found that miRs have crucial roles in exact function of immune system. MiRs are involved in the regulation of the aging process in the immune system components and target certain genes, promoting or inhibiting immune system reaction to invasion. Also, miRs control life span of the immune system members by regulation of the genes involved in the apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that immunosenescence is controllable by proper manipulation of the various miRs expression. DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been discovered as novel strategies, altering NF-κB binding ability to the miR promoter sites. Effect of miRs on impairment of immune system function due to the aging is emerging. Although it has been accepted that miRs have determinant roles in the regulation of the immunosenescence; however, most of the reports are concluded from animal/laboratory works, suggesting the necessity of more investigations in human.

  1. The Endocannabinoid System and Its Role in Regulating the Intrinsic Neural Circuitry of the Gastrointestinal Tract. (United States)

    Trautmann, Samantha M; Sharkey, Keith A


    Endocannabinoids are important neuromodulators in the central nervous system. They regulate central transmission through pre- and postsynaptic actions on neurons and indirectly through effects on glial cells. Cannabinoids (CBs) also regulate neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The ENS consists of intrinsic primary afferent neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons arranged in two ganglionated plexuses which control all the functions of the gut. Increasing evidence suggests that endocannabinoids are potent neuromodulators in the ENS. In this review, we will highlight key observations on the localization of CB receptors and molecules involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids in the ENS. We will discuss endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms, endocannabinoid tone and concepts of CB receptor metaplasticity in the ENS. We will also touch on some examples of enteric neural signaling in relation neuromuscular, secretomotor, and enteroendocrine transmission in the ENS. Finally, we will briefly discuss some key future directions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary frequency regulation with Li-ion battery energy storage system: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina


    on the results obtained from accelerated lifetime testing. The developed Li­-ion battery lifetime model is later a base for the analyses of the economic profitability of the investment in the Li-ion battery energy storage system (BESS), which delivers the primary frequency regulation service on the Danish...... lifetime, which introduces significant risk into the business model. This paper deals with the investigation of the lifetime of LiFeP04/C battery systems when they are used to provide primary frequency regulation service. A semi-empirical lifetime model for these battery cells was developed based...... electricity market. Moreover, in this paper a possible improvement of the Li-ion BESS energy management strategy is shown, which allows for obtaining the higher NPV....

  3. Regional tourist industry in context of principles of regional socioeconomic systems self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev


    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic principles of self-regulation of tourist complexes as regional socio-economic systems on the example of Sverdlovsk region. These include the principles of goal setting and the necessary diversity of economic entropy: in this case, these are important for the tourism industry and the human and natural resource and ecological potential. Is it shown how a tourist complex influences the socio-economic development of regional economic systems. In particular, tourism influences some of migration processes. Tourism development strategy in the Russian Federation at the tourist center level is analyzed. The need to develop such a strategy is due to the transition to market relations and, as a consequence, complexity of governmental regulation. It is substantiated that Sverdlovsk region is a subject to following strategy and might be successful in various sectors of tourism: business and congress and exhibition, urban entertainment, family and shopping tourism, sports, medical and recreational tourism.

  4. 20 CFR 660.200 - What do the regulations for workforce investment systems under title I of the Workforce... (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What do the regulations for workforce investment systems under title I of the Workforce Investment Act cover? 660.200 Section 660.200 Employees... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT SYSTEMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT § 660.200 What do the regulations...

  5. Tomographic extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs: TESS. (United States)

    Cotton, D M; Stephan, A; Cook, T; Vickers, J; Taylor, V; Chakrabarti, S


    We describe the system of Tomographic Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) SpectrographS (TESS) that are the primary instruments for the Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources (TERRIERS) satellite. The spectrographs were designed to make high-sensitivity {80 counts/s)/Rayleigh [one Rayleigh is equivalent to 10(6) photons/(4pi str cm(2)s)}, line-of-sight measurements of the oi 135.6- and 91.1-nm emissions suitable for tomographic inversion. The system consists of five spectrographs, four identical nightglow instruments (for redundancy and added sensitivity), and one instrument with a smaller aperture to reduce sensitivity and increase spectral resolution for daytime operation. Each instrument has a bandpass of 80-140 nm with approximately 2- and 1-nm resolution for the night and day instruments, respectively. They utilize microchannel-plate-based two-dimensional imaging detectors with wedge-and-strip anode readouts. The instruments were designed, fabricated, and calibrated at Boston University, and the TERRIERS satellite was launched on 18 May 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  6. An experimental approach to regulating non-military unmanned aircraft systems


    Du, Haomiao; Heldeweg, Michiel A.


    This article introduces three modes of regulatory experimentation – derogation, devolution and open-texture – for regulators to respond to the challenges brought by disruptive innovation such as non-military unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This article argues that where there is an urgency of requiring a regulatory response to a new societal challenge, and there is serious empirical uncertainty about expected technological or regulatory events and/or their consequences, experimental regulati...

  7. NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System (United States)


    PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kirill Martemyanov, Ph.D., Associate Professor CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Scripps Research Institute – Florida Jupiter ...NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kirill Martemyanov, Ph.D...ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER The Scripps Research Institute – Florida 130 Scripps Way Jupiter , FL 33458-5284

  8. Features of Autonomic Regulation of Cardiorespiration System in Dynamics of Training Cycle of Year


    Romanchuk, A.P.


    In the given work the analysis of the results of the research of the vegetative regulation of cardiorespiration system with the help of spiroarterio- cardiorythmography is carried out in dynamics of a training cycle of a year. According to the change of the parameters of ratio LF/HF of variability of a cardiac rhythm, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, and also spontaneous respiration, the analysis is carried out for ranking distributions and correlation matrixes which has allowed to d...

  9. On the modelling of linear-assisted DC-DC voltage regulators for photovoltaic solar energy systems (United States)

    Martínez-García, Herminio; García-Vílchez, Encarna


    This paper shows the modelling of linear-assisted or hybrid (linear & switching) DC/DC voltage regulators. In this kind of regulators, an auxiliary linear regulator is used, which objective is to cancel the ripple at the output voltage and provide fast responses for load variations. On the other hand, a switching DC/DC converter, connected in parallel with the linear regulator, allows to supply almost the whole output current demanded by the load. The objective of this topology is to take advantage of the suitable regulation characteristics that series linear voltage regulators have, but almost achieving the high efficiency that switching DC/DC converters provide. Linear-assisted DC/DC regulators are feedback systems with potential instability. Therefore, their modelling is mandatory in order to obtain design guidelines and assure stability of the implemented power supply system.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Vigni, Vincenzo [Palermo U.


    In this thesis, the design of a digitally controlled DC power system for testing conventional and superconducting magnets is proposed. The designed PID controller performances have been tested by the 30kA test stand for superconducting magnets, Vertical Magnet Test Facility (VMTF), which is hosted at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF). The system is implemented on a National Instruments CompactRIO and both real-time and FPGA targets are programmed. A full 24-bit PID algorithm is coded and successfully tested by a manual tuning approach. An automated tuning algorithm is then introduced. As it will be shown by simulation and experimental results, the proposed system meets all design specifications. The current loop stability is up to 14 times better than the existing regulator and a control accuracy less than 4 ppm is achieved. Shorted-bus tests of the PID regulator have been successfully performed on the VMTF power system. In order to test the generalization capability of the designed system towards different types of magnets, the system has been easily adapted to and tested on the 10kA conventional magnet test stand (Stand C at Fermilab). As shown by experimental results, the designed PID controller features really high performancesin terms of steady-state accuracy and effectiveness of the tuning algorithm.

  11. A Simulation-Based Optimization Method for Hybrid Frequency Regulation System Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song


    Full Text Available Frequency regulation is essential for the stability of a power grid with high load fluctuation and integration of new energies. Constrained by the large ramping, a generator alone is not capable of conducting load frequency controls effectively and economically. In this paper, an energy storage system (ESS is introduced to coordinate with generators in automatic generation control (AGC, where ESS and the generator respectively deal with high-frequency load fluctuation and low-portion. We develop a system configuration framework for such a hybrid system, including the operation strategy and capacity optimization. Due to the complexity of the hybrid system, the operation process is captured by a simulation model which considers practical constraints as well as remaining energy management of ESS. Taking advantage of the gradient-based approximation algorithm, we are then able to optimize the capacity of a hybrid system. According to the numerical experiments with real historical AGC data, the hybrid system is shown to perform well in cost reduction and to achieve the regulation tasks.

  12. Construction of a host-independent T7 expression system with small RNA regulation. (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Li, Qiang; Xu, Dikai; Cui, Mingxin; Sun, Xiao; Xu, Yanyan; Wang, Wenya


    It is desirable to build a universal and efficient protein expression system for wild-type prokaryotic strains in biotechnology industry and the outstanding T7 expression system could be a good candidate. However, the current utilization of T7 system depends on the specific DE3 lysogenic hosts, which severely limits its application in wild-type strains. In this study, a host-independent T7 expression system without relying on DE3 lysogenic hosts to provide T7 RNA Polymerase was developed. T7 RNA Polymerase gene (Gene1) and T7 Promoter were successfully integrated into a single plasmid with the regulation of proper antisense RNA to limit T7 RNA Polymerase expression at a non-lethal level. This host-independent T7 expression system realized efficient protein expression in 4 non-DE3 Escherichia coli strains and a wild-type Sinorhizobium strain TH572. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-Term State Forecasting-Based Optimal Voltage Regulation in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen


    A novel short-term state forecasting-based optimal power flow (OPF) approach for distribution system voltage regulation is proposed in this paper. An extreme learning machine (ELM) based state forecaster is developed to accurately predict system states (voltage magnitudes and angles) in the near future. Based on the forecast system states, a dynamically weighted three-phase AC OPF problem is formulated to minimize the voltage violations with higher penalization on buses which are forecast to have higher voltage violations in the near future. By solving the proposed OPF problem, the controllable resources in the system are optimally coordinated to alleviate the potential severe voltage violations and improve the overall voltage profile. The proposed approach has been tested in a 12-bus distribution system and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  14. New pre-heating system for natural gas pressure regulating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zullo, G.; Vertuani, C.; Borghesani, O.; Vignoli, F.


    Costs for running natural gas pressure regulating stations are mainly due to operation and maintenance of a natural gas preheating system, usually equipment with a hot water boiler or an armour-plated electric resistance immersed in a fluid. The article describe a system, considering a natural circulation boiler which uses steam/condensate (at 100 degrees C and 0,5 bar) as a thermal conductor, in thermodynamic balance and in absence of un condensable. This new boiler, already operating with satisfactory results in heating system for industrial buildings, does not require testing, notifications, periodical inspections by the competent authorities, constant monitoring by trained or patented staff. Besides, it allows easier installations procedures and running cost savings. The system, to be considered as static because it has no moving parts, is a good alternative to conventional forced hot water circulation or electric heating system [it

  15. Inactivation of mitochondrial ATPase by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, E.; Cuellar, A.


    The present work describes experiments that show that far-ultraviolet irradiation induce the inhibition of ATPase activity in both membrane-bound and soluble F1. It was also found that ultraviolet light promotes the release of tightly bound adenine nucleotides from F1-ATPase. Experiments carried out with submitochondrial particles indicate that succinate partially protects against these effects of ultraviolet light. Titration of sulfhydryl groups in both irradiated submitochondrial particles and soluble F1-ATPase indicates that a conformational change induced by photochemical modifications of amino acid residues appears involved in the inactivation of the enzyme. Finally, experiments are described which show that the tyrosine residue located in the active site of F1-ATPase is modified by ultraviolet irradiation

  16. Solar ultraviolet radiation : personal exposure and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Gies, H.P.; Elliott, G.


    Overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation ( [1TUVR) can result in serious health effects including skin cancer. Good skin and eye protection against solar UVR is available and the outdoor worker should be educated to use such protection at all times

  17. A far-ultraviolet photometer for planetary surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.C.; Fastie, W.G.; Lucke, R.L.; Hapke, B.W.


    The measurement of local variations in the far-ultraviolet albedo is explored as a means of detecting changes in the refractive index of rocks and dust on the surface of atmosphereless planets and satellites. Far-ultraviolet spectrophotometric measurements of the lunar surface which were obtained on the Apollo 17 orbital mission are presented to demonstrate that significant albedo variations occur in the spectral range 120 to 170 nm. These data also confirm the hypothesis that the albedo variations represent refractive index differences in the surface materials. A three-band photometer is described which, when put in orbit around a solar system object, is capable of providing refractive index maps with a sensitivity of 1 part in the second decimal place and with kilometer resolution. Comparative surface composition and surface history analyses based on such maps are discussed

  18. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Zalani Daud


    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system with battery energy storage (BES. The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC. For the grid side VSC (G-VSC, two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  19. An optimal control strategy for DC bus voltage regulation in photovoltaic system with battery energy storage. (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M A


    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  20. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems. (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong


    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  1. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Nabel


    Full Text Available Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development –the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity- actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins– endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

  2. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system. (United States)

    Sharkey, Keith A; Darmani, Nissar A; Parker, Linda A


    Nausea and vomiting (emesis) are important elements in defensive or protective responses that animals use to avoid ingestion or digestion of potentially harmful substances. However, these neurally-mediated responses are at times manifested as symptoms of disease and they are frequently observed as side-effects of a variety of medications, notably those used to treat cancer. Cannabis has long been known to limit or prevent nausea and vomiting from a variety of causes. This has led to extensive investigations that have revealed an important role for cannabinoids and their receptors in the regulation of nausea and emesis. With the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, novel ways to regulate both nausea and vomiting have been discovered that involve the production of endogenous cannabinoids acting centrally. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, and we discuss the potential to utilize the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of these frequently debilitating conditions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don


    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  4. Repair of ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.; Sil, K.; Das, J.


    Repair of ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in a highly pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, has been examined. All three strains of V. cholerae belonging to two serotypes, Inaba and Ogawa, are very sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation, having inactivation cross-sections ranging from 0.18 to 0.24 m 2 /J. Although these cells are proficient in repairing the DNA damage by a photoreactivation mechanism, they do not possess efficient dark repair systems. The mild toxinogenic strain 154 of classical Vibrios presumably lacks any excision repair mechanism and studies of irradiated cell DNA indicate that the ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers may not be excised. Ultraviolet-irradiated cells after saturation of dark repair can be further photoreactivated. (Auth.)

  5. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of transient species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuw, D.M. de.


    Transient species are studied in the isolation of the gas phase using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). A description of the equipment used and a discussion of some theoretical topics, which play a role in the interpretation of PE spectra, are given. Koopmans' theorem, Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) calculations and the sum rule are discussed. A versatile ultraviolet PE spectrometer, designed specifically for this purpose, has been built and the construction and performance of this instrument are described. (Auth.)

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick


    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  7. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes


    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.


    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin.

  8. Glutamatergic phenotype of hypothalamic neurosecretory systems: a novel aspect of central neuroendocrine regulation. (United States)

    Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt


    While three decades ago, the co-existence of classical neurotransmitters and peptide neuromodulators in a single neuronal cell was considered to be rather exceptional, the phenomenon that neurons have a complex transmitter phenotype now appears to be the general rule. Parvicellular and magnocellular neurosecretory systems consist of neuronal cells which are specialized in secreting peptide neurohormones into the blood-stream to regulate hypophyseal functions. This mini-review, dedicated to the memory of Mariann Fodor, summarizes the current knowledge about the classical neurotransmitter content of different hypothalamic neurosecretory systems, with a special focus on the occurrence and putative functions of glutamate in parvicellular and magnocellular neurosecretory cells.

  9. Monitoring of heavy metals in selected Water Supply Systems in Poland, in relation to current regulations (United States)

    Szuster-Janiaczyk, Agnieszka; Zeuschner, Piotr; Noga, Paweł; Skrzypczak, Marta


    The study presents an analysis of water quality monitoring in terms of the content of heavy metals, which is conducted in three independent water supply systems in Poland. The analysis showed that the monitoring of heavy metals isn't reliable - both the quantity of tested water samples and the location of the monitoring points are the problem. The analysis of changes in water quality from raw water to tap water was possible only for one of the analysed systems and indicate a gradual deterioration of water quality, although still within acceptable limits of legal regulations.

  10. Mathematical simulation of p53-Mdm2 protein biological system regulation. (United States)

    Voropaeva, O F; Shokin, Yu I; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Senchukova, S R


    Digital simulation of disorders in the p53 and Mdm2 protein system, involved in repair of DNA defects and in many vital processes, including tumor formation, neurodegeneration, and aging, was carried out on the base of functional nonlinear octoparametric mathematical model. Stress situations were studied, associated with emergence of imbalance in p53 and Mdm2 generation and degradation rates and with disorders in the mechanism of protein interactions, regulated within the framework of the suggested model via dissociation constants. Variants of the analyzed disorders compensation by repeated stress for the system parameters were studied numerically.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Сущенко


    Full Text Available In the paper the stabilizing system mathematical model by example one channel is considered, the basic assumptions are formulated, the basic  mathematical relationships and the calculating scheme are represented. The comparative analysis of the different type regulators is carried out and their basic characteristics are given. Efficiency of suggested approach is proved by the simulation results. The obtained results may  be applied in area of the wide class information-measuring  devices stabilizing systems

  12. The system of radiation protection: views from the Australian regulator (Arpansa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, S.


    Of those issues identified by the EGRP at previous meetings, there are a number of areas where, from the Australian perspective, the current system of radiological protection could benefit from change. These include stakeholder issues, the environment, inconsistencies in numerical values and risk comparison with more common hazards. Implementing any recommended changes would present some bureaucratic challenges but would also provide an opportunity for increasing national uniformity of regulation. However it is recognised that the current system does not provide an unacceptable level of protection and it is therefore important that any proposed changes are thoroughly tested in practice to ensure a real net benefit. (author)

  13. An integrated modelling framework for regulated river systems in Land Surface Hydrological Models (United States)

    Rehan Anis, Muhammad; razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard


    Many of the large river systems around the world are highly regulated with numerous physical flow control and storage structures as well as a range of water abstraction rules and regulations. Most existing Land Surface Models (LSM) do not represent the modifications to the hydrological regimes introduced by water management (reservoirs, irrigation diversions, etc.). The interactions between natural hydrological processes and changes in water and energy fluxes and storage due to human interventions are important to the understanding of how these systems may respond to climate change amongst other drivers for change as well as to the assessment of their feedbacks to the climate system at regional and global scales. This study presents an integrated modelling approach to include human interventions within natural hydrological systems using a fully coupled modelling platform. The Bow River Basin in Alberta (26,200 km2), one of the most managed Canadian rivers, is used to demonstrate the approach. We have dynamically linked the MESH modelling system, which embeds the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), with the MODSIM-DSS water management modelling tool. MESH models the natural hydrology while MODSIM optimizes the reservoir operation of 4 simulated reservoirs to satisfy demands within the study basin. MESH was calibrated for the catchments upstream the reservoirs and gave good performance (NSE = 0.81) while BIAS was only 2.3% at the catchment outlet. Without coupling with MODSIM (i.e. no regulation), simulated hydrographs at the catchment outlet were in complete disagreement with observations (NSE = 0.28). The coupled model simulated the optimization introduced by the operation of the multi-reservoir system in the Bow river basin and shows excellent agreement between observed and simulated hourly flows (NSE = 0.98). Irrigation demands are fully satisfied during summer, however, there are some shortages in winter demand from industries, which can be rectified by

  14. Determination of organic compounds in water using ultraviolet LED (United States)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ji, Taeksoo; Eom, Joo Beom


    This paper describes a method of detecting organic compounds in water using an ultraviolet LED (280 nm) spectroscopy system and a photodetector. The LED spectroscopy system showed a high correlation between the concentration of the prepared potassium hydrogen phthalate and that calculated by multiple linear regression, indicating an adjusted coefficient of determination ranging from 0.953-0.993. In addition, a comparison between the performance of the spectroscopy system and the total organic carbon analyzer indicated that the difference in concentration was small. Based on the close correlation between the spectroscopy and photodetector absorbance values, organic measurement with a photodetector could be configured for monitoring.

  15. Photovoltaic System Regulation Based on a PID Fuzzy Controller to Ensure a Fixed Settling Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Ortiz-Valencia


    Full Text Available The main objective of the controllers in photovoltaic systems (PV is to ensure the maximum extraction of the available power. Those controllers usually combine the action of a maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT with a voltage regulator, which has the function of rejecting disturbances at the panel terminals. Such controllers are commonly based on PI and PID structures, it requiring linearized models at an operating point. But, due to disturbances generated by the environment and the load, the operating point of the system changes drastically, which hinder to obtain the desired system performance. This paper proposes to regulate the PV system using a Fuzzy PID controller, which adapts to changes in solar irradiance and load oscillations. This characteristic guarantees a constant settling time, which is required to precisely define the period of the MPPT algorithm. In the case of classical linear controllers, the period of the MPPT algorithm is set to the worst case (longest period which generates additional power losses by slowing down the tracking of the optimal operating point. Therefore, the solution proposed in this paper improves the overall system efficiency. Finally, such a solution is validated through simulations in Matlab®.

  16. Independent regulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the kidney. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akira; Kobori, Hiroyuki


    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays important roles in regulating renal hemodynamics and functions, as well as in the pathophysiology of hypertension and renal disease. In the kidney, angiotensin II (Ang II) production is controlled by independent multiple mechanisms. Ang II is compartmentalized in the renal interstitial fluid with much higher concentrations than those existing in the circulation. Inappropriate activation of the intrarenal RAAS is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal injury. It has been revealed that intrarenal Ang II levels are predominantly regulated by angiotensinogen and therefore, urinary angiotensinogen could be a biomarker for intrarenal Ang II generation. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that aldosterone contributes to the progression of renal injury via direct actions on glomerular podocytes, mesangial cells, proximal tubular cells and tubulo-interstitial fibroblasts through the activation of locally expressed mineralocorticoid receptor. Thus, it now appears that intrarenal RAAS is independently regulated and its inappropriate activation contributes to the pathogenesis of the development of hypertension and renal disease. This short review article will focus on the independent regulation of the intrarenal RAAS with an emphasis on the specific role of angiotensinogen.

  17. Regulation of host hemoglobin binding by the Staphylococcus aureus Clp proteolytic system. (United States)

    Farrand, Allison J; Reniere, Michelle L; Ingmer, Hanne; Frees, Dorte; Skaar, Eric P


    Protein turnover is a key process for bacterial survival mediated by intracellular proteases. Proteolytic degradation reduces the levels of unfolded and misfolded peptides that accumulate in the cell during stress conditions. Three intracellular proteases, ClpP, HslV, and FtsH, have been identified in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with their crucial role in protein turnover, ClpP, HslV, and FtsH affect a number of cellular processes, including metabolism, stress responses, and virulence. The ClpP protease is believed to be the principal degradation machinery in S. aureus. This study sought to identify the effect of the Clp protease on the iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system, which extracts heme-iron from host hemoglobin during infection and is critical to S. aureus pathogenesis. Inactivation of components of the Clp protease alters abundance of several Isd proteins, including the hemoglobin receptor IsdB. Furthermore, the observed changes in IsdB abundance are the result of transcriptional regulation, since transcription of isdB is decreased by clpP or clpX inactivation. In contrast, inactivation of clpC enhances isdB transcription and protein abundance. Loss of clpP or clpX impairs host hemoglobin binding and utilization and results in severe virulence defects in a systemic mouse model of infection. These findings suggest that the Clp proteolytic system is important for regulating nutrient iron acquisition in S. aureus. The Clp protease and Isd complex are widely conserved in bacteria; therefore, these data reveal a novel Clp-dependent regulation pathway that may be present in other bacterial pathogens.

  18. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the accumulation of medicinal compounds in plants. (United States)

    Zhang, Wen Jing; Björn, Lars Olof


    A review is given of how the production by plants of compounds useful as medicines or raw materials for manufacture of medicines is influenced by ultraviolet radiation, particularly by UV-B radiation (280-315 nm wavelength). The compounds considered in this review are flavonoids and other phenolics, alkaloids (especially indole terpenoid and purine alkaloids), essential oils and other terpenoids, cannabinoids, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, and compounds having human hormone activity. A short account is also given of ultraviolet signalling in plants. The review concludes with a discussion of the possible evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the evolution of UV-B regulation of secondary metabolite accumulation.

  19. [Mathematical Modeling of the Blood Glucose Regulation System in Diabetes Mellitus Patients]. (United States)

    Karpel'ev, V A; Filippov, Yu I; Tarasov, Yu V; Boyarsky, M D; Mayorov, A Yu; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I


    Interest in the mathematical modeling of the carbohydrate metabolism regulation system increases in recent years. This is associated with a "closed loop" insulin pump development (it controls an insulin infusion depending on the blood glucose level). To create an algorithm for the automatic control of insulin (and other hormones) infusion using an insulin pump it is necessary to accurately predict glycaemia level. So, the primary objective of mathematical modeling is to predict the blood glucose level changes, caused by the wide range of external factors. This review discusses the main mathematical models of blood glucose level control physiological system (simplified insulin-glucose system). The two major classes of models--empirical and theoretical--are described in detail. The ideal mathematical model of carbohydrate metabolism regulatory system is absent. However, the success in the field of blood glucose level control modeling and simulating is essentialfor the further development of diabetes prevention and treatment technologies, and creating an artificial pancreas in particular.

  20. The maintenance and regeneration of the planarian excretory system are regulated by EGFR signaling. (United States)

    Rink, Jochen C; Vu, Hanh Thi-Kim; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro


    The maintenance of organs and their regeneration in case of injury are crucial to the survival of all animals. High rates of tissue turnover and nearly unlimited regenerative capabilities make planarian flatworms an ideal system with which to investigate these important processes, yet little is known about the cell biology and anatomy of their organs. Here we focus on the planarian excretory system, which consists of internal protonephridial tubules. We find that these assemble into complex branching patterns with a stereotyped succession of cell types along their length. Organ regeneration is likely to originate from a precursor structure arising in the blastema, which undergoes extensive branching morphogenesis. In an RNAi screen of signaling molecules, we identified an EGF receptor (Smed-EGFR-5) as a crucial regulator of branching morphogenesis and maintenance. Overall, our characterization of the planarian protonephridial system establishes a new paradigm for regenerative organogenesis and provides a platform for exploring its functional and evolutionary homologies with vertebrate excretory systems.

  1. Systems Genetics as a Tool to Identify Master Genetic Regulators in Complex Disease. (United States)

    Moreno-Moral, Aida; Pesce, Francesco; Behmoaras, Jacques; Petretto, Enrico


    Systems genetics stems from systems biology and similarly employs integrative modeling approaches to describe the perturbations and phenotypic effects observed in a complex system. However, in the case of systems genetics the main source of perturbation is naturally occurring genetic variation, which can be analyzed at the systems-level to explain the observed variation in phenotypic traits. In contrast with conventional single-variant association approaches, the success of systems genetics has been in the identification of gene networks and molecular pathways that underlie complex disease. In addition, systems genetics has proven useful in the discovery of master trans-acting genetic regulators of functional networks and pathways, which in many cases revealed unexpected gene targets for disease. Here we detail the central components of a fully integrated systems genetics approach to complex disease, starting from assessment of genetic and gene expression variation, linking DNA sequence variation to mRNA (expression QTL mapping), gene regulatory network analysis and mapping the genetic control of regulatory networks. By summarizing a few illustrative (and successful) examples, we highlight how different data-modeling strategies can be effectively integrated in a systems genetics study.

  2. Ultraviolet absorption detection of DNA in gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.R.


    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultra-violet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium lamp was used to illuminate regions of an electrophoresis gel. As DNA bands passed through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted was reduced due to DNA absorption. Two detection systems were investigated. In the first system, synthetic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond strip detectors were used to locate regions of DNA in the gels by detecting the transmitted light. CVD diamond has a high indirect band gap of 5.45 eV and is therefore sensitive to UV photons of wavelengths < 224 nm. A number of CVD diamond samples were characterised to investigate their suitability as detectors for this application. The detectors' quantum efficiency, UV response and time response were measured. DNA bands containing as little as 20 ng were detected by the diamond. In a second system, a deuterium lamp was used to illuminate individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA were detected with illumination at 260 nm, using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient of a DNA sample is approximately proportional to its mass, the technique is inherently quantitative. This system had a detection limit of 0.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. Using this detection technique, the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of carcinogenic dyes from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards. (author)

  3. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C. (comp.)


    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  4. Ultraviolet light imaging technology and applications (United States)

    Yokoi, Takane; Suzuki, Kenji; Oba, Koichiro


    Demands on the high-quality imaging in ultraviolet (UV) light region have been increasing recently, especially in fields such as forensic investigations, laser experiments, spent fuel identification, and so on. Important requirements on the UV imaging devices in such applications are high sensitivity, excellent solar blindness, and small image distortion, since the imaging of very weak UV images are usually carried out under natural sunlight or room illuminations and the image data have to be processed to produce useful two-dimensional quantitative data. A new photocathode has been developed to meet these requirements. It is specially made of RbTe on a sapphire window and its quantum efficiency is as high as 20% with the solar blindness of 10,000. The tube is specially designed to meet UV light optics and to minimize image distortion. It has an invertor type image intensifier tube structure and intensifies the incident UV light up to approximately 10,000 times. The distortion of the output image is suppressed less than 1.8%, because of a specially designed electron optic lens system. The device has shown excellent results in the observation of such objects as fingerprints and footprints in forensic investigations, the Cherenkov light produced by the spent fuels stored in a cooling water pool in the nuclear power station, and UV laser beam path in excimer laser experiments. Furthermore, many other applications of the UV light imaging will be expected in various fields such as semiconductors, cosmetics, and electrical power.

  5. System properties, feedback control and effector coordination of human temperature regulation. (United States)

    Werner, Jürgen


    The aim of human temperature regulation is to protect body processes by establishing a relative constancy of deep body temperature (regulated variable), in spite of external and internal influences on it. This is basically achieved by a distributed multi-sensor, multi-processor, multi-effector proportional feedback control system. The paper explains why proportional control implies inherent deviations of the regulated variable from the value in the thermoneutral zone. The concept of feedback of the thermal state of the body, conveniently represented by a high-weighted core temperature (T (c)) and low-weighted peripheral temperatures (T (s)) is equivalent to the control concept of "auxiliary feedback control", using a main (regulated) variable (T (c)), supported by an auxiliary variable (T (s)). This concept implies neither regulation of T (s) nor feedforward control. Steady-states result in the closed control-loop, when the open-loop properties of the (heat transfer) process are compatible with those of the thermoregulatory processors. They are called operating points or balance points and are achieved due to the inherent property of dynamical stability of the thermoregulatory feedback loop. No set-point and no comparison of signals (e.g. actual-set value) are necessary. Metabolic heat production and sweat production, though receiving the same information about the thermal state of the body, are independent effectors with different thresholds and gains. Coordination between one of these effectors and the vasomotor effector is achieved by the fact that changes in the (heat transfer) process evoked by vasomotor control are taken into account by the metabolic/sweat processor.

  6. Reward, addiction, and emotion regulation systems associated with rejection in love. (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L; Aron, Arthur; Strong, Greg; Mashek, Debra


    Romantic rejection causes a profound sense of loss and negative affect. It can induce clinical depression and in extreme cases lead to suicide and/or homicide. To begin to identify the neural systems associated with this natural loss state, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 10 women and 5 men who had recently been rejected by a partner but reported they were still intensely "in love." Participants alternately viewed a photograph of their rejecting beloved and a photograph of a familiar, individual, interspersed with a distraction-attention task. Their responses while looking at their rejecter included love, despair, good, and bad memories, and wondering why this happened. Activation specific to the image of the beloved occurred in areas associated with gains and losses, craving and emotion regulation and included the ventral tegmental area (VTA) bilaterally, ventral striatum, medial and lateral orbitofrontal/prefrontal cortex, and cingulate gyrus. Compared with data from happily-in-love individuals, the regional VTA activation suggests that mesolimbic reward/survival systems are involved in romantic passion regardless of whether one is happily or unhappily in love. Forebrain activations associated with motivational relevance, gain/loss, cocaine craving, addiction, and emotion regulation suggest that higher-order systems subject to experience and learning also may mediate the rejection reaction. The results show activation of reward systems, previously identified by monetary stimuli, in a natural, endogenous, negative emotion state. Activation of areas involved in cocaine addiction may help explain the obsessive behaviors associated with rejection in love.

  7. Golden ratio: A subtle regulator in our body and cardiovascular system? (United States)

    Ozturk, Selcuk; Yalta, Kenan; Yetkin, Ertan


    Golden ratio, which is an irrational number and also named as the Greek letter Phi (φ), is defined as the ratio between two lines of unequal length, where the ratio of the lengths of the shorter to the longer is the same as the ratio between the lengths of the longer and the sum of the lengths. The so-called formula is a mathematical ratio and there exist a variety of examples in natural and man-made structures of great beauty. Moreover, golden ratio is expressed throughout the human body in some ways, including digits, uterus, teeth, and cardiovascular system. Although the association of Fibonacci series or golden ratio with systems and organs of human being has not been assessed in depth yet, the mainstream regulation of cardiovascular system seems to be associated with golden ratio. This raises the idea that there might have been a fine and subtle regulator in our body. In this article, we aimed to elaborate the relationship between the existence of golden ratio and the human body and to discuss the golden ratio and its association with cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The features of cardio-respiratory system and autonomic regulation in parasportsmen with spinal injury]. (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Romanchuk, A P; Sorokin, M Iu; Pankova, N B


    A comprehensive study of the functional state of basketball athletes in wheelchairs with spinal cord injuries in the T6-T10 and paraplegia (n = 9, mean age 26.6 +/- 1.7 years) was held. As a control, we used disability groups with a similar injury, leading an active life (n = 13, mean age 44.5 +/- 2.6 years), athletes ( = 14, mean age 24.6 +/- 1.3 years) and healthy physically active men (n = 15, the average age of 24.9 +/- 0.6 years). In the athletes in wheelchairs it was revealed an increase in the length of the body in a sitting position, the increase in tidal volume and increasing in the effectiveness of the functional respiratory tests. These changes in the state of the musculoskeletal system and autonomic systems to ensure physical activity classified as adaptive and due to sports training. In the state of the cardiovascular system and its autonomic regulation parasportsmen showed a reduction in trauma-induced increase in diastolic blood pressure and increase in the magnitude of arterial baroreflex sensitivity, decreased due to spinal injury. These data indicate availability of compensatory processes aimed at optimizing the cardiovascular system through the mechanisms of baroreflex regulation.

  9. Deployment strategy for battery energy storage system in distribution network based on voltage violation regulation (United States)

    Wu, H.; Zhou, L.; Xu, T.; Fang, W. L.; He, W. G.; Liu, H. M.


    In order to improve the situation of voltage violation caused by the grid-connection of photovoltaic (PV) system in a distribution network, a bi-level programming model is proposed for battery energy storage system (BESS) deployment. The objective function of inner level programming is to minimize voltage violation, with the power of PV and BESS as the variables. The objective function of outer level programming is to minimize the comprehensive function originated from inner layer programming and all the BESS operating parameters, with the capacity and rated power of BESS as the variables. The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to solve the model. Based on distribution network operation scenarios with photovoltaic generation under multiple alternative output modes, the simulation results of IEEE 33-bus system prove that the deployment strategy of BESS proposed in this paper is well adapted to voltage violation regulation invariable distribution network operation scenarios. It contributes to regulating voltage violation in distribution network, as well as to improve the utilization of PV systems.

  10. Elevated serum levels of interferon-regulated chemokines are biomarkers for active human systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bauer


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a serious systemic autoimmune disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is characterized by unpredictable flares of disease. Recent evidence indicates a role for type I interferon (IFN in SLE pathogenesis; however, the downstream effects of IFN pathway activation are not well understood. Here we test the hypothesis that type I IFN-regulated proteins are present in the serum of SLE patients and correlate with disease activity.We performed a comprehensive survey of the serologic proteome in human SLE and identified dysregulated levels of 30 cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and soluble receptors. Particularly striking was the highly coordinated up-regulation of 12 inflammatory and/or homeostatic chemokines, molecules that direct the movement of leukocytes in the body. Most of the identified chemokines were inducible by type I IFN, and their levels correlated strongly with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity.These data suggest that severely disrupted chemokine gradients may contribute to the systemic autoimmunity observed in human SLE. Furthermore, the levels of serum chemokines may serve as convenient biomarkers for disease activity in lupus.

  11. Improved gravitational search algorithm for parameter identification of water turbine regulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhihuan; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tian, Hao; Ji, Bin


    Highlights: • We propose an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA). • IGSA is applied to parameter identification of water turbine regulation system (WTRS). • WTRS is modeled by considering the impact of turbine speed on torque and water flow. • Weighted objective function strategy is applied to parameter identification of WTRS. - Abstract: Parameter identification of water turbine regulation system (WTRS) is crucial in precise modeling hydropower generating unit (HGU) and provides support for the adaptive control and stability analysis of power system. In this paper, an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA) is proposed and applied to solve the identification problem for WTRS system under load and no-load running conditions. This newly algorithm which is based on standard gravitational search algorithm (GSA) accelerates convergence speed with combination of the search strategy of particle swarm optimization and elastic-ball method. Chaotic mutation which is devised to stepping out the local optimal with a certain probability is also added into the algorithm to avoid premature. Furthermore, a new kind of model associated to the engineering practices is built and analyzed in the simulation tests. An illustrative example for parameter identification of WTRS is used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed IGSA, as compared with standard GSA and particle swarm optimization in terms of parameter identification accuracy and convergence speed. The simulation results show that IGSA performs best for all identification indicators

  12. Harnessing CRISPR/Cas systems for programmable transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Mahas, Ahmed


    Genome editing has enabled broad advances and novel approaches in studies of gene function and structure; now, emerging methods aim to precisely engineer post-transcriptional processes. Developing precise, efficient molecular tools to alter the transcriptome holds great promise for biotechnology and synthetic biology applications. Different approaches have been employed for targeted degradation of RNA species in eukaryotes, but they lack programmability and versatility, thereby limiting their utility for diverse applications. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been harnessed for genome editing in many eukaryotic species and, using a catalytically inactive Cas9 variant, the CRISPR/dCas9 system has been repurposed for transcriptional regulation. Recent studies have used other CRISPR/Cas systems for targeted RNA degradation and RNA-based manipulations. For example, Cas13a, a Type VI-A endonuclease, has been identified as an RNA-guided RNA ribonuclease and used for manipulation of RNA. Here, we discuss different modalities for targeted RNA interference with an emphasis on the potential applications of CRISPR/Cas systems as programmable transcriptional regulators for broad uses, including functional biology, biotechnology, and synthetic biology applications.

  13. International regulations in capital standards in insurance companies and banking system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragana


    Full Text Available The emergence and expansion of the recent financial crisis has renewed the question of regulation and supervision of the financial system. Therefore, the question of managing financial risks is becoming increasingly popular and gaining more and more importance. Regulators have in recent years introduced capital standards based on specific sensitivity to risk. Based on defined issues, the starting point is the general hypothesis that the capital adequacy is a key base for measuring the resistance of the banking and insurance sector to market shocks. This paper will present the analytical, synthetic and general scientific methods. The comparative method is used in this paper to highlight the similarities and differences between Solvency II and Basel III and their operational efficiency.

  14. Adoption of the Q Transcriptional System for Regulating Gene Expression in Stem Cells. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Gibbs, Chelsea; Shimpi, Adrian A; Deans, Tara L


    The field of mammalian synthetic biology seeks to engineer enabling technologies to create novel approaches for programming cells to probe, perturb, and regulate gene expression with unprecedented precision. To accomplish this, new genetic parts continue to be identified that can be used to build novel genetic circuits to re-engineer cells to perform specific functions. Here, we establish a new transcription-based genetic circuit that combines genes from the quinic acid sensing metabolism of Neorospora crassa and the bacterial Lac repressor system to create a new orthogonal genetic tool to be used in mammalian cells. This work establishes a novel genetic tool, called LacQ, that functions to regulate gene expression in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells, human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, and in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells.

  15. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego


    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  16. Recent advances and applications of gas chromatography vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy. (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Schug, Kevin A


    The vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometer was developed recently as an alternative to existing gas chromatography detectors. This detector measures the absorption of gas-phase chemical species in the range of 120-240 nm, where all chemical compounds present unique absorption spectra. Therefore, qualitative analysis can be performed and quantification follows standard Beer-Lambert law principles. Different fields of application, such as petrochemical, food, and environmental analysis have been explored. Commonly demonstrated is the capability for facile deconvolution of co-eluting analytes. The concept of additive absorption for co-eluting analytes has also been advanced for classification and speciation of complex mixtures using a data treatment procedure termed time interval deconvolution. Furthermore, pseudo-absolute quantitation can be performed for system diagnosis, as well as potentially calibrationless quantitation. In this manuscript an overview of these features, the vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometer instrumentation, and performance capabilities are given. A discussion of the applications of the vacuum ultraviolet detector is provided by describing and discussing the papers published thus far since 2014. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. UV [ultraviolet] shows promise in controlling zebra mussel scourge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D


    Zebra mussels were introduced into the Great Lakes Basin in 1985-86 and infestations have since dispersed throughout the lower lakes, the St Lawrence River, and other rivers in the central USA. Many industries and municipalities that draw water from those sources are affected by clogging of pipes by mussels and have implemented monitoring programs to determine the extent of infestation and the effectiveness of mussel control methods. Industrial and municipal water users continue to rely heavily on chlorination to control mussels, but pressure is mounting for elimination or minimization of chlorine in water systems and alternatives are being sought. These include oxidants such as ozone, molluscicides, special coatings, centrifugal separators, and electric fields. Ontario Hydro and Hydro-Quebec are conducting extensive full-scale research projects on cathodic protection, elevated levels of which have been shown to significantly decrease mussel infestation of steel surfaces. Good mussel control has been achieved using heat at a power station in New York. Research on ultraviolet light started in 1992 and both medium- and low-pressure ultraviolet lamps have proven to provide good control of mussels. It is presently felt that ultraviolet control could be applied in many low-flow situations. 1 fig.

  18. Ultraviolet analysis on in vitro corneas following tissue removal (United States)

    Lincoln, Victor A. C.; Ventura, Liliane; Faria e Sousa, Sidney J.


    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, even in small quantity, can cause several damages to the human eye. Continuous exposure the ultraviolet rays may cause corneal swelling, lens opacity (cataract), harms to the retina and pterygium. The purpose of this work is the study of the alteration of the corneal tissue and its UV natural protection in different scenarios, using a device previously developed, which provides measurements of corneal transmittance in the UV range. The device consists of ultraviolet source and detector, digital processing and visualization of results in real time. The dual beam system provides tissue UV transmission with accuracy of 0.25%. A protocol has been established for testing the UV protection on the cornea, as well as performing the removal of the corneal tissue, simulating refractive keratotomy. We have observed that it's evident that each corneal layer has influence in the UV absorbance, the results show the influence of the epithelial layer (~50μm depth), the little endothelium influence (~10μm depth), and the stroma layer is responsible for the strongest influence (~350μm depth). Preliminary studies on 42 human corneas lead to demonstrate that as the stromal layer is reduced, there is significant loss of the natural UV protection of the cornea, sometimes presenting a very restricted protection.

  19. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signalling: focus on the cardiovascular system and regulator of G protein signalling proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Michel, Martin C.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many biological processes. Therefore, GPCR function is tightly controlled both at receptor level and at the level of signalling components. Well-known mechanisms by which GPCR function can be regulated comprise desensitization/resensitization

  20. Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.


    Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to ±1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of ±0.2 F for copper components and ±0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design

  1. An Extended System Frequency Response Model Considering Wind Power Participation in Frequency Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang


    Full Text Available With increasing penetration of wind power into the power system, wind power participation in frequency regulation is regarded as a beneficial strategy to improve the dynamic frequency response characteristics of power systems. The traditional power system frequency response (SFR model, which only includes synchronous generators, is no longer suitable for power systems with high penetrated wind power. An extended SFR model, based on the reduced-order model of wind turbine generator (WTG and the traditional SFR model, is presented in this paper. In the extended SFR model, the reduced-order model of WTG with combined frequency control is deduced by employing small signal analysis theory. Afterwards, the stability analysis of a closed-loop control system for the extended SFR model is carried out. Time-domain simulations using a test system are performed to validate the effectiveness of the extended SFR model; this model can provide a simpler, clearer and faster way to analyze the dynamic frequency response characteristic for a high-wind integrated power systems. The impact of additional frequency control parameters and wind speed disturbances on the system dynamic frequency response characteristics are investigated.

  2. Regulation of sleep by neuropeptide Y-like system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia He

    Full Text Available Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY, a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF, is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1 on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies.

  3. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Asteroid(4) Vesta (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Landsman, Wayne; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Mutchler, Max J.; Russell, Christopher T.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Raymond, Carol A.


    We report a comprehensive review of the UV-visible spectrum and rotational lightcurve of Vesta combining new observations by Hubble Space Telescope and Swift with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer observations. The geometric albedos of Vesta from 220 nm to 953 nm arc derived by carefully comparing these observations from various instruments at different times and observing geometries. Vesta has a rotationally averaged geometric albedo of 0.09 at 250 nm, 0.14 at 300 nm, 0.26 at 373 nm, 0.38 at 673 nm, and 0.30 at 950 nm. The linear spectral slope in the ultraviolet displays a sharp minimum ncar sub-Earth longitude of 20deg, and maximum in the eastern hemisphere. This is completely consistent with the distribution of the spectral slope in the visible wavelength. The uncertainty of the measurement in the ultraviolet is approx.20%, and in the visible wavelengths better than 10%. The amplitude of Vesta's rotational lightcurves is approx.10% throughout the range of wavelengths we observed, but is smaller at 950 nm (approx.6%) ncar the 1-micron mafic band center. Contrary to earlier reports, we found no evidence for any difference between the phasing of the ultraviolet and visible/ncar-infrared lightcurves with respect to sub-Earth longitude. Vesta's average spectrum between 220 and 950 nm can well be described by measured reflectance spectra of fine particle howardite-like materials of basaltic achondrite meteorites. Combining this with the in-phase behavior of the ultraviolet, visible. and ncar-infrared lightcurves, and the spectral slopes with respect to the rotational phase, we conclude that there is no global ultraviolet/visible reversal on Vesta. Consequently, this implies lack of global space weathering on Vesta. Keyword,: Asteroid Vesta; Spectrophotometry; Spectroscopy; Ultraviolet observations; Hubble Space Telescope observations

  4. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity (United States)

    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.


    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  5. Regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in the Drosophila nervous system. (United States)

    Southall, T D; Egger, B; Gold, K S; Brand, A H


    Stem cells can divide symmetrically to generate two similar daughter cells and expand the stem cell pool or asymmetrically to self-renew and generate differentiating daughter cells. The proper balance between symmetric and asymmetric division is critical for the generation and subsequent repair of tissues. Furthermore, unregulated stem cell division has been shown to result in tumorous overgrowth. The Drosophila nervous system has proved to be a fruitful model system for studying the biology of neural stem cell division and uncovering the molecular mechanisms that, when disrupted, can lead to tumor formation. We are using the Drosophila embryonic and larval nervous systems as models to study the regulation of symmetric and asymmetric stem cell division.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Felix Barbosa de Oliveira


    Full Text Available We live, today, the growing intervention of the Justice system in different areas through policies that would give further effect to the management of relational conflicts and the protection of individual rights. Considering this scenario, this article sought to analyze such a move life adjustment through three productions of the Brazilian Justice system: the Parents’ Divorce Booklet; the Family Booklet - No to parental alienation; and the class guide Count to 10 in schools. From the analysis of contents of such materials was possible to develop a discussion on the ways of life in the context of Postmodernity, particularly with regard to the so-called crisis of authority figures, especially those more directly linked to education and socialization of children and adolescents. It was concluded that the booklets examined, and the Justice system have contributed to the weakening of those positions of authority and consequently with the regulation of living.

  7. Engineering FKBP-Based Destabilizing Domains to Build Sophisticated Protein Regulation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlin An

    Full Text Available Targeting protein stability with small molecules has emerged as an effective tool to control protein abundance in a fast, scalable and reversible manner. The technique involves tagging a protein of interest (POI with a destabilizing domain (DD specifically controlled by a small molecule. The successful construction of such fusion proteins may, however, be limited by functional interference of the DD epitope with electrostatic interactions required for full biological function of proteins. Another drawback of this approach is the remaining endogenous protein. Here, we combined the Cre-LoxP system with an advanced DD and generated a protein regulation system in which the loss of an endogenous protein, in our case the tumor suppressor PTEN, can be coupled directly with a conditionally fine-tunable DD-PTEN. This new system will consolidate and extend the use of DD-technology to control protein function precisely in living cells and animal models.

  8. [Wastewater treatment based on biofilm regulation by Lux type quorum sensing system-a review]. (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Wenzhao; Xu, Qiyong


    Studies on biofilm regulation based on Lux type quorum sensing system in wastewater treatment have attracted much attention. The intervention of quorum sensing system includes both mechanisms of positive and negative control. The positive invigorating effect improves the efficiency of biofilm wastewater treatment, promotes the production of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP), and increases the yield of biofilm. The negative weakening effect of quorum sensing can decompose the signal molecules needed in the process of biofilm formation, interrupts the gene expression process of biofilm formation, and inhibits the formation of biofilm on MBR membrane surface effectively. The further study of the structure and mechanism of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs), the immobilization technology and application of quorum quenching bacteria, the synergistic effect verification of different biofouling control methods and the application feasibility of quorum sensing system based technology in more wastewater treatment fields are the next important researches to explore.

  9. Royal Military College of Canada SLOWPOKE-2 facility. Integrated regulating and instrumentation system (SIRCIS) upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.P.; Nielsen, K.S.; Kelly, D.G.; Weir, R.D.


    The SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at the Royal Military College of Canada has operated the only digitally controlled SLOWPOKE reactor since 2001 (Version 1.0). The present work describes ongoing project development to provide a robust digital reactor control system that is consistent with Aging Management as summarized in the Facility's Life Cycle Management and Maintenance Plan. The project has transitioned from a post-graduate research activity to a comprehensively managed project supported by a team of RMCC professional and technical staff who have delivered an update of the V1.1 system software and hardware implementation that is consistent with best Canadian nuclear industry practice. The challenges associated with the implementation of Version 2.0 in February 2012, the lessons learned from this implementation, and the applications of these lessons to a redesign and rewrite of the RMCC SLOWPOKE-2 digital instrumentation and regulating system (Version 3) are discussed. (author)

  10. Cylindrical plasmas generated by an annular beam of ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D. M., E-mail: [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Allen, J. E., E-mail: [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); University College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 4BH, United Kingdom and OCIAM, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)


    We investigate a cylindrical plasma system with ionization, by an annular beam of ultraviolet light, taking place only in the cylinder's outer region. In the steady state, both the outer and inner regions contain a plasma, with that in the inner region being uniform and field-free. At the interface between the two regions, there is an infinitesimal jump in ion density, the magnitude approaching zero in the quasi-neutral (λ{sub D} → 0) limit. The system offers the possibility of producing a uniform stationary plasma in the laboratory, hitherto obtained only with thermally produced alkali plasmas.

  11. PrhN, a putative marR family transcriptional regulator, is involved in positive regulation of type III secretion system and full virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang eYong


    Full Text Available The MarR-family of transcriptional regulators are involved in various cellular processes, including resistance to multiple antibiotics and other toxic chemicals, adaptation to different environments and pathogenesis in many plant and animal pathogens. Here, we reported a new MarR regulator PrhN, which was involved in the pathogenesis of Ralstonia solanacearum. prhN mutant exhibited significantly reduced virulence and stem colonization compared to that of wild type in tomato plants. prhN mutant caused identical hypersensitive response (HR on resistant plants to the wild type. Deletion of prhN gene substantially reduced the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS in vitro and in planta (mainly in tomato plants, which is essential for pathogenicity of R. solanacearum, and the complemented PrhN could restore its virulence and T3SS expression to that of wild type. T3SS is directly controlled by AraC-type transcriptional regulator HrpB, and the transcription of hrpB is activated by HrpG and PrhG. HrpG and PrhG are homologues but are regulated by the PhcA positively and negatively respectively. Deletion of prhN gene also abolished the expression of hrpB and prhG, but didn't change the expression of hrpG and phcA. Together, these results indicated that PrhN positively regulates T3SS expression through PrhG and HrpB. PrhN and PhcA should regulate prhG expression in a parallel way. This is the first report on the pathogenesis of MarR regulator in R. solanacearum, and this new finding will improve our understanding on the various biological functions of MarR regulator and the complex regulatory network on hrp regulon in R. solanacearum.

  12. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel


    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation.

  13. The multiple functions of the endocannabinoid system: a focus on the regulation of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibiriça Eduardo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis sativa (also known as marijuana has been cultivated by man for more than 5,000 years. However, there was a rise in its use in the 20th century for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, whose structure was identified in the 1960's, is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists took place only very recently. In fact, the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1 was cloned in 1990, followed 3 years later by the characterization of a second cannabinoid receptor (CB2. Since the 19th century, the use of cannabis has been reported to stimulate appetite and increase the consumption of sweet and tasty food, sometimes resulting in significant weight gain. The recent description of the endocannabinoid system, not only in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues, points to its involvement in the regulation of appetite, food intake and energy metabolism. Consequently, the pharmacological modulation of the over-activity of this system could be useful in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The endocannabinoid system has important physiological functions not only in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues. The activation of central CB1 receptors, particularly in hypothalamic nuclei and in the limbic system, is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, and especially in the control of the intake of palatable food. In the periphery, cannabinoid receptors are present in adipocytes, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract and liver, modulating energy metabolism.

  14. Studies on the System Regulating Proton Movement across the Chloroplast Envelope 1 (United States)

    Peters, Jeanne S.; Berkowitz, Gerald A.


    Studies were undertaken to further characterize the spinach (Spinacea oleracea) chloroplast envelope system, which facilitates H+ movement into and out of the stroma, and, hence, modulates photosynthetic activity by regulating stromal pH. It was demonstrated that high envelope-bound Mg2+ causes stromal acidification and photosynthetic inhibition. High envelope-bound Mg2+ was also found to necessitate the activity of a digitoxinand oligomycin-sensitive ATPase for the maintenance of high stromal pH and photosynthesis in the illuminated chloroplast. In chloroplasts that had high envelope Mg2+ and inhibited envelope ATPase activity, 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide was found to raise stromal pH and stimulate photosynthesis. 2-(Diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide is an amine anesthetic that is known to act as a monovalent cation channel blocker in mammalian systems. We postulate that the system regulating cation and H+ fluxes across the plastid envelope includes a monovalent cation channel in the envelope, some degree of (envelope-bound Mg2+ modulated) H+ flux linked to monovalent cation antiport, and ATPase-dependent H+ efflux. PMID:16668116

  15. Requirements for the reactor regulating systems of CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the first edition of CSA Standard CAN3-N290.4, Requirements for the Reactor Regulating Systems of CANDU Nuclear Power Plants. It is written in SI(metric) units. The development of this Standard was initiated by the Canadian Nuclear Association to help the prospective owner of a nuclear power plant as well as the designer, manufacturer, fabricator, and installer of nuclear power plant components, by compiling the various requirements of regulatory authorities. Although this compilation includes requirements of a regulatory nature, users of the Standard should recognize that it has the force of law only when adopted by a regulatory authority. For this reason users of the Standard who are concerned with its legal aspects should consult the appropriate authority. In this connection the involvement is to be noted of both the Atomic Energy Control Board - for the acceptance of the site and the plant design, and the issuing of licenses for the construction and operation of the nuclear plant - and the relevant provincial government department - for the registration and inspection of the nuclear power plant components. The specific objective of this Standard is to establish the minimum requirements for the design, manufacture and fabrication, qualification and installation of reactor regulating systems in CANDU nuclear power plants, in order to ensure that they will operate as intended. The purpose of this Standard is not to stifle improved system design, but to provide a minimum base against which innovations and new techniques can be compared

  16. Analysing stratified medicine business models and value systems: innovation-regulation interactions. (United States)

    Mittra, James; Tait, Joyce


    Stratified medicine offers both opportunities and challenges to the conventional business models that drive pharmaceutical R&D. Given the increasingly unsustainable blockbuster model of drug development, due in part to maturing product pipelines, alongside increasing demands from regulators, healthcare providers and patients for higher standards of safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of new therapies, stratified medicine promises a range of benefits to pharmaceutical and diagnostic firms as well as healthcare providers and patients. However, the transition from 'blockbusters' to what might now be termed 'niche-busters' will require the adoption of new, innovative business models, the identification of different and perhaps novel types of value along the R&D pathway, and a smarter approach to regulation to facilitate innovation in this area. In this paper we apply the Innogen Centre's interdisciplinary ALSIS methodology, which we have developed for the analysis of life science innovation systems in contexts where the value creation process is lengthy, expensive and highly uncertain, to this emerging field of stratified medicine. In doing so, we consider the complex collaboration, timing, coordination and regulatory interactions that shape business models, value chains and value systems relevant to stratified medicine. More specifically, we explore in some depth two convergence models for co-development of a therapy and diagnostic before market authorisation, highlighting the regulatory requirements and policy initiatives within the broader value system environment that have a key role in determining the probable success and sustainability of these models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bim: guardian of tissue homeostasis and critical regulator of the immune system, tumorigenesis and bone biology. (United States)

    Akiyama, Toru; Tanaka, Sakae


    One of the most important roles of apoptosis is the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Impairment of apoptosis leads to a number of pathological conditions. In response to apoptotic signals, various proteins are activated in a pathway and signal-specific manner. Recently, the pro-apoptotic molecule Bim has attracted increasing attention as a pivotal regulator of tissue homeostasis. The Bim expression level is strictly controlled in both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. This control is dependent on cell, tissue and apoptotic stimuli. The phenotype of Bim-deficient mice is a systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disease with an abnormal accumulation of hematopoietic cells. Bim is thus a critical regulator of hematopoietic cells and immune system. Further studies have revealed the critical roles of Bim in various normal and pathological conditions, including bone homeostasis and tumorigenesis. The current understanding of Bim signaling and roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis is reviewed in this paper, focusing on the immune system, bone biology and tumorigenesis to illustrate the diversified role of Bim.

  18. Re-engineering the two-component systems as light-regulated in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Ma, Siya; Luo, Siwei; Wu, L I; Liang, Zhi; Wu, Jia-Rui


    Bacteria live in environments with dynamic changes. To sense and respond to different external stimuli, bacteria make use of various sensor-response circuits, called two-component systems (TCSs). A TCS comprises a histidine protein kinase (HK) sensing environmental stimuli and a response regulator protein (RR) regulating downstream genes. The two components are coupled via a phosphorylation control mechanism. In a recent study, we adopted an optogenetics approach to re-engineer the sensor HKs in Escherichia coli as a light-sensing fusion protein. We constructed a light-controllable HK by replacing the original signal-specific sensing domain of HK with the light-sensing domain of Cph1 from Cyanobacteria Synechocystis , so that HK can be investigated by red light. Here, we extended the study to other 16 HK-RR TCSs and constructed a library of light-responsible HK-Cph1 chimeras. By taking the NarX-NarL system as an example, we demonstrated the light responsiveness of the constructed chimera and investigated the frequency response of the NarXNarL system. The constructed library serves as a toolkit for future TCS study using optogenetics approach.

  19. Blood pressure regulation III: what happens when one system must serve two masters: temperature and pressure regulation? (United States)

    Kenney, W Larry; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Bruning, Rebecca S; Alexander, Lacy M


    When prolonged intense exercise is performed at high ambient temperatures, cardiac output must meet dual demands for increased blood flow to contracting muscle and to the skin. The literature has commonly painted this scenario as a fierce competition, wherein one circulation preserves perfusion at the expense of the other, with the regulated maintenance of blood pressure as the ultimate goal. This review redefines this scenario as commensalism, an integrated balance of regulatory control where one circulation benefits with little functional effect on the other. In young, healthy subjects, arterial pressure rarely falls to any great extent during either extreme passive heating or prolonged dynamic exercise in the heat, nor does body temperature rise disproportionately due to a compromised skin blood flow. Rather, it often takes the superimposition of additional stressors--e.g., dehydration or simulated hemorrhage--upon heat stress to substantially impact blood pressure regulation.

  20. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China (United States)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong


    management efforts typically fail in China, because the approach is generally narrowly-focused and fragmented. This paper put forward a total-process control framework following the water and pollutants (or nutrients) flows along the dualistic domestic water cycle process. Five key objectives of domestic water cycle system regulation are identified including water use safety, water use equity, water saving, wastewater reduction and nutrient recycling. Comprehensive regulatory framework regarding administrative, economic, technical and social measures is recommended to promote sustainable domestic water usage and demand management. Considering the relatively low affordability in rural area, economic measures should be mainly applied in urban domestic water systems and metropolitan domestic water systems. Engineering or technological measures which are suitable to the three domestic water cycle systems are discussed respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CUHAL


    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF. New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy. The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  2. Modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and the regulation of financial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basistîi Nicolae


    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF.New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy.The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  3. The role of volume-sensitive ion transport systems in regulation of epithelial transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Schettino, T; Marshall, W S


    This review focuses on using the knowledge on volume-sensitive transport systems in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells and NIH-3T3 cells to elucidate osmotic regulation of salt transport in epithelia. Using the intestine of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) (an absorptive epithelium of the type...... described in the renal cortex thick ascending limb (cTAL)) we have focused on the role of swelling-activated K+- and anion-conductive pathways in response to hypotonicity, and on the role of the apical (luminal) Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2) in the response to hypertonicity. The shrinkage...

  4. The role of volume-sensitive ion transport systems in regulation of epithelial transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Schettino, T; Marshall, W S


    This review focuses on using the knowledge on volume-sensitive transport systems in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells and NIH-3T3 cells to elucidate osmotic regulation of salt transport in epithelia. Using the intestine of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) (an absorptive epithelium of the type...... on the apical side and the Na+/K+ ATPase, NKCC1 and a K+ channel on the basolateral side. Osmotic control of Cl- secretion across the operculum epithelium includes: (i) hyperosmotic shrinkage activation of NKCC1 via PKC, MLCK, p38, OSR1 and SPAK; (ii) deactivation of NKCC by hypotonic cell swelling...

  5. Zonulin as prehaptoglobin2 regulates lung permeability and activates the complement system


    Rittirsch, Daniel; Flierl, Michael A.; Nadeau, Brian A.; Day, Danielle E.; Huber-Lang, Markus S.; Grailer, Jamison J.; Zetoune, Firas S.; Andjelkovic, Anuska V.; Fasano, Alessio; Ward, Peter A.


    Zonulin is a protein involved in the regulation of tight junctions (TJ) in epithelial or endothelial cells. Zonulin is known to affect TJ in gut epithelial cells, but little is known about its influences in other organs. Prehaptoglobin2 has been identified as zonulin and is related to serine proteases (MASPs, C1qrs) that activate the complement system. The current study focused on the role of zonulin in development of acute lung injury (ALI) in C57BL/6 male mice following intrapulmonary depos...

  6. A Sliding Mode LCO Regulation Strategy for Dual-Parallel Underactuated UAV Systems Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramos-Pedroza


    careful algebraic manipulation in the regulation error system development, along with innovative design of the sliding surface. A detailed model of the UAV LCO dynamics is utilized, and a rigorous analysis is provided to prove asymptotic regulation of the pitching and plunging displacements. Numerical simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the control law.

  7. The Impact of Transactive Memory System and Interaction Platform in Collaborative Knowledge Construction on Social Presence and Self-Regulation (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ramazan; Karaoglan Yilmaz, Fatma Gizem; Kilic Cakmak, Ebru


    The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of transactive memory system (TMS) and interaction platforms in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) on social presence perceptions and self-regulation skills of learners. Within the scope of the study, social presence perceptions and self-regulation skills of students in…

  8. Performance Evaluation of Antlion Optimizer Based Regulator in Automatic Generation Control of Interconnected Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Gupta


    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of the recently introduced Antlion Optimizer (ALO to find the parameters of primary governor loop of thermal generators for successful Automatic Generation Control (AGC of two-area interconnected power system. Two standard objective functions, Integral Square Error (ISE and Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE, have been employed to carry out this parameter estimation process. The problem is transformed in optimization problem to obtain integral gains, speed regulation, and frequency sensitivity coefficient for both areas. The comparison of the regulator performance obtained from ALO is carried out with Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA based regulators. Different types of perturbations and load changes are incorporated to establish the efficacy of the obtained design. It is observed that ALO outperforms all three optimization methods for this real problem. The optimization performance of ALO is compared with other algorithms on the basis of standard deviations in the values of parameters and objective functions.

  9. A Multi-Scale Model of Hepcidin Promoter Regulation Reveals Factors Controlling Systemic Iron Homeostasis (United States)

    Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Legewie, Stefan


    Systemic iron homeostasis involves a negative feedback circuit in which the expression level of the peptide hormone hepcidin depends on and controls the iron blood levels. Hepcidin expression is regulated by the BMP6/SMAD and IL6/STAT signaling cascades. Deregulation of either pathway causes iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis or anemia of inflammation. We quantitatively analyzed how BMP6 and IL6 control hepcidin expression. Transcription factor (TF) phosphorylation and reporter gene expression were measured under co-stimulation conditions, and the promoter was perturbed by mutagenesis. Using mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed potential mechanisms of cooperative and competitive promoter regulation by the transcription factors, and experimentally validated the model predictions. Our results reveal that hepcidin cross-regulation primarily occurs by combinatorial transcription factor binding to the promoter, whereas signaling crosstalk is insignificant. We find that the presence of two BMP-responsive elements enhances the steepness of the promoter response towards the iron-sensing BMP signaling axis, which promotes iron homeostasis in vivo. IL6 co-stimulation reduces the promoter sensitivity towards the BMP signal, because the SMAD and STAT transcription factors compete for recruiting RNA polymerase to the transcription start site. This may explain why inflammatory signals disturb iron homeostasis in anemia of inflammation. Taken together, our results reveal why the iron homeostasis circuit is sensitive to perturbations implicated in disease. PMID:24391488

  10. Long non-coding RNAs as regulators of the endocrine system. (United States)

    Knoll, Marko; Lodish, Harvey F; Sun, Lei


    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse group of RNAs that are often lineage-specific and that regulate multiple biological functions. Many are nuclear and are essential parts of ribonucleoprotein complexes that modify chromatin segments and establish active or repressive chromatin states; others are cytosolic and regulate the stability of mRNA or act as microRNA sponges. This Review summarizes the current knowledge of lncRNAs as regulators of the endocrine system, with a focus on the identification and mode of action of several endocrine-important lncRNAs. We highlight lncRNAs that have a role in the development and function of pancreatic β cells, white and brown adipose tissue, and other endocrine organs, and discuss the involvement of these molecules in endocrine dysfunction (for example, diabetes mellitus). We also address the associations of lncRNAs with nuclear receptors involved in major hormonal signalling pathways, such as estrogen and androgen receptors, and the relevance of these associations in certain endocrine cancers.

  11. A Phosphorylation Switch on Lon Protease Regulates Bacterial Type III Secretion System in Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhou


    Full Text Available Most pathogenic bacteria deliver virulence factors into host cytosol through type III secretion systems (T3SS to perturb host immune responses. The expression of T3SS is often repressed in rich medium but is specifically induced in the host environment. The molecular mechanisms underlying host-specific induction of T3SS expression is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate in Xanthomonas citri that host-induced phosphorylation of the ATP-dependent protease Lon stabilizes HrpG, the master regulator of T3SS, conferring bacterial virulence. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteome analysis revealed that phosphorylation of Lon at serine 654 occurs in the citrus host. In rich medium, Lon represses T3SS by degradation of HrpG via recognition of its N terminus. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that phosphorylation at serine 654 deactivates Lon proteolytic activity and attenuates HrpG proteolysis. Substitution of alanine for Lon serine 654 resulted in repression of T3SS gene expression in the citrus host through robust degradation of HrpG and reduced bacterial virulence. Our work reveals a novel mechanism for distinct regulation of bacterial T3SS in different environments. Additionally, our data provide new insight into the role of protein posttranslational modification in the regulation of bacterial virulence.

  12. A multi-scale model of hepcidin promoter regulation reveals factors controlling systemic iron homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Casanovas


    Full Text Available Systemic iron homeostasis involves a negative feedback circuit in which the expression level of the peptide hormone hepcidin depends on and controls the iron blood levels. Hepcidin expression is regulated by the BMP6/SMAD and IL6/STAT signaling cascades. Deregulation of either pathway causes iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis or anemia of inflammation. We quantitatively analyzed how BMP6 and IL6 control hepcidin expression. Transcription factor (TF phosphorylation and reporter gene expression were measured under co-stimulation conditions, and the promoter was perturbed by mutagenesis. Using mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed potential mechanisms of cooperative and competitive promoter regulation by the transcription factors, and experimentally validated the model predictions. Our results reveal that hepcidin cross-regulation primarily occurs by combinatorial transcription factor binding to the promoter, whereas signaling crosstalk is insignificant. We find that the presence of two BMP-responsive elements enhances the steepness of the promoter response towards the iron-sensing BMP signaling axis, which promotes iron homeostasis in vivo. IL6 co-stimulation reduces the promoter sensitivity towards the BMP signal, because the SMAD and STAT transcription factors compete for recruiting RNA polymerase to the transcription start site. This may explain why inflammatory signals disturb iron homeostasis in anemia of inflammation. Taken together, our results reveal why the iron homeostasis circuit is sensitive to perturbations implicated in disease.

  13. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein expression in the male excretory duct system during development. (United States)

    Marcorelles, Pascale; Gillet, Danièle; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Ledé, Françoise; Samaison, Laura; Huguen, Geneviève; Ferec, Claude


    Sterility due to bilateral destruction in utero or in early infancy resulting in congenital absence of the vas deferens is the rule in male patients with cystic fibrosis. To understand the developmental pattern of this anomaly, the microscopic morphology of the male excretory system was analyzed during development and the expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was explored by immunohistochemistry. We observed that cystic fibrosis fetuses had no excretory ducts agenesis or obstruction until 22 weeks of gestation. However, a focal inflammatory pattern and mucinous plugs in the oldest cystic fibrosis case suggested a disruptive mechanism. Immunolabeling of cytoplasmic epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was demonstrated in all cystic fibrosis and control cases with a similar pattern of expression of the protein between age-matched controls and cystic fibrosis cases. At midgestation, an apical intensification appeared in both cystic fibrosis and control cases and was stable during the remainder of fetal life. No gradient of intensity could be detected between the different segments of the excretory tract. These findings are different from those reported in adults. The absence of any morphologic anomaly until 22 weeks of gestation, the focal destruction of the epithelial structures during the second trimester, and the chronological pattern of expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator are of interest for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Phosphorylation Switch on Lon Protease Regulates Bacterial Type III Secretion System in Host. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Teper, Doron; Andrade, Maxuel O; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Song, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Nian


    Most pathogenic bacteria deliver virulence factors into host cytosol through type III secretion systems (T3SS) to perturb host immune responses. The expression of T3SS is often repressed in rich medium but is specifically induced in the host environment. The molecular mechanisms underlying host-specific induction of T3SS expression is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate in Xanthomonas citri that host-induced phosphorylation of the ATP-dependent protease Lon stabilizes HrpG, the master regulator of T3SS, conferring bacterial virulence. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteome analysis revealed that phosphorylation of Lon at serine 654 occurs in the citrus host. In rich medium, Lon represses T3SS by degradation of HrpG via recognition of its N terminus. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that phosphorylation at serine 654 deactivates Lon proteolytic activity and attenuates HrpG proteolysis. Substitution of alanine for Lon serine 654 resulted in repression of T3SS gene expression in the citrus host through robust degradation of HrpG and reduced bacterial virulence. Our work reveals a novel mechanism for distinct regulation of bacterial T3SS in different environments. Additionally, our data provide new insight into the role of protein posttranslational modification in the regulation of bacterial virulence. IMPORTANCE Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are an essential virulence trait of many bacterial pathogens because of their indispensable role in the delivery of virulence factors. However, expression of T3SS in the noninfection stage is energy consuming. Here, we established a model to explain the differential regulation of T3SS in host and nonhost environments. When Xanthomonas cells are grown in rich medium, the T3SS regulator HrpG is targeted by Lon protease for proteolysis. The degradation of HrpG leads to downregulated expression of HrpX and the hrp / hrc genes. When Xanthomonas cells infect the host, specific plant stimuli can be perceived and induce Lon

  15. Interaction of the endocrine system with inflammation: a function of energy and volume regulation. (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H


    During acute systemic infectious disease, precisely regulated release of energy-rich substrates (glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids) and auxiliary elements such as calcium/phosphorus from storage sites (fat tissue, muscle, liver, and bone) are highly important because these factors are needed by an energy-consuming immune system in a situation with little or no food/water intake (sickness behavior). This positively selected program for short-lived infectious diseases is similarly applied during chronic inflammatory diseases. This review presents the interaction of hormones and inflammation by focusing on energy storage/expenditure and volume regulation. Energy storage hormones are represented by insulin (glucose/lipid storage and growth-related processes), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (muscle and bone growth), androgens (muscle and bone growth), vitamin D (bone growth), and osteocalcin (bone growth, support of insulin, and testosterone). Energy expenditure hormones are represented by cortisol (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides/muscle protein, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), noradrenaline/adrenaline (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), growth hormone (glucogenic, lipolytic; has also growth-related aspects; water retention), thyroid gland hormones (increase metabolic effects of adrenaline/noradrenaline), and angiotensin II (induce insulin resistance and retain water). In chronic inflammatory diseases, a preponderance of energy expenditure pathways is switched on, leading to typical hormonal changes such as insulin/IGF-1 resistance, hypoandrogenemia, hypovitaminosis D, mild hypercortisolemia, and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Though necessary during acute inflammation in the context of systemic infection or trauma, these long-standing changes contribute to increased mortality in chronic

  16. Regulation of STIM1 and SOCE by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). (United States)

    Keil, Jeffrey M; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Patrick, Gentry N


    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) mediates the majority of protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The UPS has recently emerged as a key degradation pathway involved in synapse development and function. In order to better understand the function of the UPS at synapses we utilized a genetic and proteomic approach to isolate and identify novel candidate UPS substrates from biochemically purified synaptic membrane preparations. Using these methods, we have identified Stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). STIM1 is as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium sensor that has been shown to regulate store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). We have characterized STIM1 in neurons, finding STIM1 is expressed throughout development with stable, high expression in mature neurons. As in non-excitable cells, STIM1 is distributed in a membranous and punctate fashion in hippocampal neurons. In addition, a population of STIM1 was found to exist at synapses. Furthermore, using surface biotinylation and live-cell labeling methods, we detect a subpopulation of STIM1 on the surface of hippocampal neurons. The role of STIM1 as a regulator of SOCE has typically been examined in non-excitable cell types. Therefore, we examined the role of the UPS in STIM1 and SOCE function in HEK293 cells. While we find that STIM1 is ubiquitinated, its stability is not altered by proteasome inhibitors in cells under basal conditions or conditions that activate SOCE. However, we find that surface STIM1 levels and thapsigargin (TG)-induced SOCE are significantly increased in cells treated with proteasome inhibitors. Additionally, we find that the overexpression of POSH (Plenty of SH3's), an E3 ubiquitin ligase recently shown to be involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, leads to decreased STIM1 surface levels. Together, these results provide evidence for previously undescribed roles of the UPS in the regulation of STIM1 and SOCE function.

  17. CRISPR/Cas systems: new players in gene regulation and bacterial physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWeiss


    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems are bacterial defenses against foreign nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages, plasmids or other sources. These systems are targeted in an RNA-dependent, sequence-specific manner, and are also adaptive, providing protection against previously encountered foreign elements. In addition to their canonical function in defense against foreign nucleic acid, their roles in various aspects of bacterial physiology are now being uncovered. We recently revealed a role for a Cas9-based Type II CRISPR-Cas system in the control of endogenous gene expression, a novel form of prokaryotic gene regulation. Cas9 functions in association with two small RNAs to target and alter the stability of an endogenous transcript encoding a bacterial lipoprotein (BLP. Since BLPs are recognized by the host innate immune protein Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2, CRISPR-Cas-mediated repression of BLP expression facilitates evasion of TLR2 by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida, and is essential for its virulence. Here we describe the Cas9 regulatory system in detail, as well as data on its role in controlling virulence traits of Neisseria meningitidis and Campylobacter jejuni. We also discuss potential roles of CRISPR-Cas systems in the response to envelope stress and other aspects of bacterial physiology. Since ~45% of bacteria and ~83% of Archaea encode these machineries, the newly appreciated regulatory functions of CRISPR-Cas systems are likely to play broad roles in controlling the pathogenesis and physiology of diverse prokaryotes.

  18. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  19. Direct ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of betelgeuse (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Stefanik, R. P.


    Direct images of Betelgeuse were obtained over a span of 4 years with the Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. These images reveal the extended ultraviolet continuum emission (~2 times the optical diameter), the varying overall ultraviolet flux levels and a pattern of bright surface continuum features that change in position and appearance over several months or less. Concurrent photometry and radial velocity measures support the model of a pulsating star, first discovered in the ultraviolet from IUE. Spatially resolved HST spectroscopy reveals a larger extention in chromospheric emissions of Mg II as well as the rotation of the supergiant. Changing localized subsonic flows occur in the low chromosphere that can cover a substantial fraction of the stellar disk and may initiate the mass outflow.

  20. Evaluation of the Road Transport Management System, a self-regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A


    Full Text Available This paper describes the recent developments of an initiative to introduce meaningful self-regulation in the South African heavy vehicle transport sector using the Road Transport Management System (RTMS) standards. The RTMS standards require...