WorldWideScience

Sample records for system recalibrated retested

  1. Rocky Flats CAAS System Recalibrated, Retested, and Analyzed to Install in the Criticality Experiments Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S; Heinrichs, D; Biswas, D; Huang, S; Dulik, G; Scorby, J; Boussoufi, M; Liu, B; Wilson, R

    2009-05-27

    Neutron detectors and control panels transferred from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) were recalibrated and retested for redeployment to the CEF. Testing and calibration were successful with no failure to any equipment. Detector sensitivity was tested at a TRIGA reactor, and the response to thermal neutron flux was satisfactory. MCNP calculated minimum fission yield ({approx} 2 x 10{sup 15} fissions) was applied to determine the thermal flux at selected detector positions at the CEF. Thermal flux levels were greater than 6.39 x 10{sup 6} (n/cm{sup 2}-sec), which was about four orders of magnitude greater than the minimum alarm flux. Calculations of detector survivable distances indicate that, to be out of lethal area, a detector needs to be placed greater than 15 ft away from a maximum credible source. MCNP calculated flux/dose results were independently verified by COG. CAAS calibration and the testing confirmed that the RFP CAAS system is performing its functions as expected. New criteria for the CAAS detector placement and 12-rad zone boundaries at the CEF are established. All of the CAAS related documents and hardware have been transferred from LLNL to NSTec for installation at the CEF high bay areas.

  2. Recalibration of the 226Ra emanation analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.; Markun, F.

    1982-01-01

    The 226 Ra emanation system was found to require recalibration. The gain of the various counting systems was established to about +-0.5%. The variance introduced into the analysis by multiple counting systems was low and corresponded to a fractional standard deviation of +-0.5%. The variance introduced into the analysis by both multiple counting systems and multiple counting chambers needs to be redetermined but is less than a fractional standard deviation of +-2%. The newly established calibration factor of 5.66 cpm/pg 226 Ra is about 6% greater than that used previously. The leakage of radon into the greased fittings of the emanation flask which was indicated in an earlier study was not confirmed

  3. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.

  4. Description of the retest instruction for the safety injection system in a German PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a detailed supplement to the report 'Retests for a Safety System in a German Nuclear Power Plant' presented at the CSNI Meeting of the Group of Experts on Human Error Data and Assessment, Paris, Sept. 1979. (orig./RW)

  5. Test-retest reliability of the isernhagen work systems functional capacity evaluation in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Brouwer, S; Meinema, A; Dijkstra, PU; Geertzen, JHB; Groothoff, JW

    2004-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Isernhagen Work System Functional Capacity Evaluation (IWS FCE) in healthy subjects. The IWS FCE consists of 28 tests that reflect work-related activities such as lifting, carrying, bending, etc. A convenience sample of 26 healthy

  6. Test-retest reliability of daily life gait speed as measured by smartphone global positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Shuichi P; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Kawai, Hisashi

    2018-01-30

    Gait speed is useful in predicting adverse health outcomes among older adults. In previous studies, gait speed has typically been measured when subjects walk in laboratory settings, where they are able to intentionally change their gait speed. Thus, it is unclear whether the gait speed captured in a laboratory setting is representative of the subjects' actual walking pace in daily life. This study proposes using the more accurate "daily life gait speed" (DGS), measured as the subject's average gait speed over a week-long period using the global positioning system (GPS) in their smartphone. We examined the test-retest reliability of the DGS measure in the present study. Three daily life gait parameters with 186 volunteers (57 men and 129 women), aged 19 to 84 years, were measured using a smartphone application: DGS, average of daily gait cycle during a week (DCY), and average of daily cadence during a week (DCA). Test-retest reliability of the daily gait parameters between test week (T1) and retest week (T2) was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC (2,1), and systematic biases were observed via Bland-Altman plots. The ICCs between the daily gait parameters at T1 and T2 were 0.902 for DGS, 0.916 for DCY, and 0.917 for DCA. The Bland-Altman plots showed no significant fixed or proportional bias between the measurements at T1 and T2. These results verify that the test-retest reliability of the daily gait parameters in the present study was adequate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Test-retest reliability of hand-held dynamometry and functional tests in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, K A; Wrigley, T V; Mengersen, K A; Kandiah, D A; Paratz, J D; Bennell, K L

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and determine the degree of measurement error of tests of isometric muscle strength and upper and lower limb function in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Twelve women with SLE (age 39.8 ± 10 years) were assessed on two occasions separated by a 7-10-day interval. Strength of six muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer; function was measured by the 30-s sit to stand test and the 30-s 1 kg arm lift. Relative reliability was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), model 2,1 (ICC2,1). Absolute reliability was estimated using standard error measurement and the minimal detectable difference was calculated. All ICCs were greater than 0.87. Muscle strength would need to increase by between 18% and 39% in women with SLE to be 95% confident of detecting real changes. The functional tests demonstrated a systematic bias between trials. This study demonstrates that hand-held dynamometry in SLE can be performed with excellent reliability. Further work needs to be completed to determine the number of trials necessary for both the 30-s sit to stand and 30-s 1 kg arm lift to decrease the systematic bias.

  8. Test-Retest Reliability of an Automated Infrared-Assisted Trunk Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Yau, Cheng-Shiang; Shie, Hung-Hai; Wu, Chu-Ming

    2016-07-23

    The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of an automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system for measuring gait parameters of healthy subjects in a hospital. Thirty-five participants (28 of them females; age range, 23-79 years) performed a 5-m walk twice using an accelerometer-based gait analysis system with infrared assist. Measurements of spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking speed, step length, and cadence) and trunk control (gait symmetry, gait regularity, acceleration root mean square (RMS), and acceleration root mean square ratio (RMSR)) were recorded in two separate walking tests conducted 1 week apart. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC3,1) and smallest detectable difference (SDD), respectively. The test-retest reliability was excellent for walking speed (ICC = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.74-0.93, SDD = 13.4%), step length (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.91, SDD = 12.2%), cadence (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.91, SDD = 10.8%), and trunk control (step and stride regularity in anterior-posterior direction, acceleration RMS and acceleration RMSR in medial-lateral direction, and acceleration RMS and stride regularity in vertical direction). An automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system is a reliable tool for measuring gait parameters in the hospital environment.

  9. Volume of Courses Students Carry among Central Data Warehouse (CDW) Institutions: Implications for Recalibration of the BC Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has undertaken, in the last couple of years, a review of the BC Transfer System. Preliminary findings indicate that the current structure of the BC Transfer Guide (BCTG), which designates institutions as either "sending" institutions or "receiving"…

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of an Automated Infrared-Assisted Trunk Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Hsu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of an automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system for measuring gait parameters of healthy subjects in a hospital. Thirty-five participants (28 of them females; age range, 23–79 years performed a 5-m walk twice using an accelerometer-based gait analysis system with infrared assist. Measurements of spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking speed, step length, and cadence and trunk control (gait symmetry, gait regularity, acceleration root mean square (RMS, and acceleration root mean square ratio (RMSR were recorded in two separate walking tests conducted 1 week apart. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC3,1 and smallest detectable difference (SDD, respectively. The test-retest reliability was excellent for walking speed (ICC = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.74–0.93, SDD = 13.4%, step length (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63–0.91, SDD = 12.2%, cadence (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63–0.91, SDD = 10.8%, and trunk control (step and stride regularity in anterior-posterior direction, acceleration RMS and acceleration RMSR in medial-lateral direction, and acceleration RMS and stride regularity in vertical direction. An automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system is a reliable tool for measuring gait parameters in the hospital environment.

  11. Phonetic category recalibration: What are the categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Wozny, David R.; Mitterer, Holger; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners use lexical or visual context information to recalibrate auditory speech perception. After hearing an ambiguous auditory stimulus between /aba/ and /ada/ coupled with a clear visual stimulus (e.g., lip closure in /aba/), an ambiguous auditory-only stimulus is perceived in line with the previously seen visual stimulus. What remains unclear, however, is what exactly listeners are recalibrating: phonemes, phone sequences, or acoustic cues. To address this question we tested generalization of visually-guided auditory recalibration to 1) the same phoneme contrast cued differently (i.e., /aba/-/ada/ vs. /ibi/-/idi/ where the main cues are formant transitions in the vowels vs. burst and frication of the obstruent), 2) a different phoneme contrast cued identically (/aba/-/ada/ vs. /ama/-/ana/ both cued by formant transitions in the vowels), and 3) the same phoneme contrast with the same cues in a different acoustic context (/aba/-/ada/ vs. (/ubu/-/udu/). Whereas recalibration was robust for all recalibration control trials, no generalization was found in any of the experiments. This suggests that perceptual recalibration may be more specific than previously thought as it appears to be restricted to the phoneme category experienced during exposure as well as to the specific manipulated acoustic cues. We suggest that recalibration affects context-dependent sub-lexical units. PMID:24932053

  12. Methods for recalibration of mass spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-03-03

    Disclosed are methods for recalibrating mass spectrometry data that provide improvement in both mass accuracy and precision by adjusting for experimental variance in parameters that have a substantial impact on mass measurement accuracy. Optimal coefficients are determined using correlated pairs of mass values compiled by matching sets of measured and putative mass values that minimize overall effective mass error and mass error spread. Coefficients are subsequently used to correct mass values for peaks detected in the measured dataset, providing recalibration thereof. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy has been demonstrated on a complex fungal proteome after recalibration, providing improved confidence for peptide identifications.

  13. A cautionary note on global recalibration

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph B. Kadane; Baruch Fischhoff

    2013-01-01

    We report a mathematical result that casts doubt on the possibility of recalibration of probabilities using calibration curves. We then discuss how to interpret this result in the light of behavioral research.

  14. A cautionary note on global recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. Kadane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a mathematical result that casts doubt on the possibility of recalibration of probabilities using calibration curves. We then discuss how to interpret this result in the light of behavioral research.

  15. Concurrent Validity and Test-retest Reliability of the OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System for the Assessment of Spatio-temporal Parameters of the Gait of Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung Mo; Song, Chang Ho; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Jung, Sang Woo; Shin, Doo Chul; Shin, Seung Ho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the recently introduced OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System for the assessment of spatio-temporal parameters of gait. [Subjects] Twenty healthy young adults (mean age = 27.35, SD = 7.4) were asked to walk 3 times on walkway at a comfortable speed. [Methods] Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing data obtained using the OPTOGait and GAITRite systems, and reliability was assessed ...

  16. Concurrent Validity and Test-retest Reliability of the OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System for the Assessment of Spatio-temporal Parameters of the Gait of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Mo; Song, Chang Ho; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Jung, Sang Woo; Shin, Doo Chul; Shin, Seung Ho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the recently introduced OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System for the assessment of spatio-temporal parameters of gait. [Subjects] Twenty healthy young adults (mean age = 27.35, SD = 7.4) were asked to walk 3 times on walkway at a comfortable speed. [Methods] Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing data obtained using the OPTOGait and GAITRite systems, and reliability was assessed by comparing data from the first and third OPTOGait sessions. [Results] Concurrent validity, as identified by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC (2, 1) = 0.929-0.998), coefficients of variation (CVME = 0.32-11.30%), and 95% limits of agreement, showed high levels of correlation. In addition, the test-retest reliability of the OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System was demonstrated as showing a high level of correlation with all spatio-temporal parameters by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC (3, 1) = 0.785-0.952), coefficients of variation (CVME = 1.66-4.06%), 95% limits of agreement, standard error of measurement (SEM = 2.17-5.96%), and minimum detectable change (MDC95% = 6.01-16.52%). [Conclusion] The OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System has strong concurrent validity along with relative and absolute test-retest reliabilities. This portable system with easy-to-use features can be used for clinical assessments or research purposes as an objective means of assessing gait.

  17. Test-retest reliabilities of resting-state FMRI measurements in human brain functional connectomics: a systems neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xi-Nian; Xing, Xiu-Xia

    2014-09-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RFMRI) enables researchers to monitor fluctuations in the spontaneous brain activities of thousands of regions in the human brain simultaneously, representing a popular tool for macro-scale functional connectomics to characterize normal brain function, mind-brain associations, and the various disorders. However, the test-retest reliability of RFMRI remains largely unknown. We review previously published papers on the test-retest reliability of voxel-wise metrics and conduct a meta-summary reliability analysis of seven common brain networks. This analysis revealed that the heteromodal associative (default, control, and attention) networks were mostly reliable across the seven networks. Regarding examined metrics, independent component analysis with dual regression, local functional homogeneity and functional homotopic connectivity were the three mostly reliable RFMRI metrics. These observations can guide the use of reliable metrics and further improvement of test-retest reliability for other metics in functional connectomics. We discuss the main issues with low reliability related to sub-optimal design and the choice of data processing options. Future research should use large-sample test-retest data to rectify both the within-subject and between-subject variability of RFMRI measurements and accelerate the application of functional connectomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid temporal recalibration to visuo-tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Joachim; Kapala, Katharina; Krause, Holger; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2018-02-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation. While rapid recalibration has been demonstrated for audio-visual stimuli, evidence for rapid recalibration of visuo-tactile stimuli is lacking. Here, we investigated rapid recalibration in the visuo-tactile domain. Subjects received visual and tactile stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) and were asked to report whether the visuo-tactile stimuli were presented simultaneously. Our results demonstrate visuo-tactile rapid recalibration by revealing that subjects' simultaneity reports were modulated by the temporal order of stimulation in the preceding trial. This rapid recalibration effect, however, was only significant if the SOA in the preceding trial was smaller than 100 ms, while rapid recalibration could not be demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms. Since rapid recalibration in the audio-visual domain has been demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms, we propose that visuo-tactile recalibration works at shorter SOAs, and thus faster time scales than audio-visual rapid recalibration.

  19. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  20. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Andreou, Pantelis; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID).

  1. Interrater and Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and Subsystems With Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Hsu, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan S

    2017-01-10

    Falls are a common cause of injuries and hospital admissions in older adults. Balance limitation is a potentially modifiable factor contributing to falls. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), a clinical balance measure, categorizes balance into 6 underlying subsystems. Each of the subsystems is scored individually and summed to obtain a total score. The reliability of the BESTest and its individual subsystems has been reported in patients with various neurological disorders and cancer survivors. However, the reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the BESTest with community-dwelling older adults have not been reported. The purposes of our study were to (1) determine the interrater and test-retest reliability of the BESTest total and subsystem scores; and (2) estimate the MDC of the BESTest and its individual subsystem scores with community-dwelling older adults. We used a prospective cohort methodological design. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 70; aged 70-94 years; mean = 85.0 [5.5] years) were recruited from a senior independent living community. Trained testers (N = 3) administered the BESTest. All participants were tested with the BESTest by the same tester initially and then retested 7 to 14 days later. With 32 of the participants, a second tester concurrently scored the retest for interrater reliability. Testers were blinded to each other's scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC(2,1)] were used to determine the interrater and test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was also analyzed using method error and the associated coefficients of variation (CVME). MDC was calculated using standard error of measurement. Interrater reliability (N = 32) of the BESTest total score was ICC(2, 1) = 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.99). The ICCs for the individual subsystem scores ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. Test-retest reliability (N = 70) of the BESTest total score was ICC(2,1) = 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.96). ICCs for the

  2. Recalibration of the HBWR gamma aspectrometer GEM-10175-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.; Blair, P.; Turnbull, T.; Fure, K.

    2005-09-01

    The gas flow system and gamma spectrometer continue to provide valuable fission gas release data. Measurements are made on a wide range of Xe and Kr isotopes and using a more complicated procedure it is possible to measure iodine isotopes directly. Routine measurements are currently made on two gas flow rigs loaded in the Halden reactor; the UO 2 and MOX comparison test IFA-633, and the high burnup disk irradiation test IFA-655. Prior to these rigs fission gas release data was obtained principally from IFA-504 and IFA-558. A gamma spectrometer was installed at the reactor to allow the first FIA-430 gamma spectra to be obtained in January 1980. This spectrometer continued in operation until a new spectrometer was installed towards the end of 1997 and began operation in January 1998. This second spectrometer is still in regular use. Both gamma spectrometers required calibration before the gamma spectra obtained could be analysed. This calibration involves calculating the detector efficiency, i.e. the fraction of emitted gamma rays which are detected, over the range of gamma rays to be measured. The calibration of the original and replacement spectrometer is documented in [1] and [2] respectively. This report documents a more recent recalibration of the current spectrometer. This recalibration was deemed necessary for two reasons; firstly since no recalibrations had been performed since the spectrometer was installed in 1997 another calibration, across the entire energy range, was now overdue and secondly a more accurate value of the spectrometer efficiency in the low energy region was needed to obtain reliable 133 Xe measurements. As explained in more detail in the report reliable 133 Xe data is needed to obtain 133 I data using a fractal scaling method. (Author)

  3. Basic Attributes Test Retest Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carretta, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    ...% of the students exhibited score improvement on retest, regardless of length of retest interval. Those who performed poorly on the first test generally exhibited larger improvements than those who performed well on the first test...

  4. A novel artificial fish swarm algorithm for recalibration of fiber optic gyroscope error parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Guan, Lianwu; Wang, Tingjun; Sun, Yunlong

    2015-05-05

    The artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is one of the state-of-the-art swarm intelligent techniques, which is widely utilized for optimization purposes. Fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) error parameters such as scale factors, biases and misalignment errors are relatively unstable, especially with the environmental disturbances and the aging of fiber coils. These uncalibrated error parameters are the main reasons that the precision of FOG-based strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) degraded. This research is mainly on the application of a novel artificial fish swarm algorithm (NAFSA) on FOG error coefficients recalibration/identification. First, the NAFSA avoided the demerits (e.g., lack of using artificial fishes' pervious experiences, lack of existing balance between exploration and exploitation, and high computational cost) of the standard AFSA during the optimization process. To solve these weak points, functional behaviors and the overall procedures of AFSA have been improved with some parameters eliminated and several supplementary parameters added. Second, a hybrid FOG error coefficients recalibration algorithm has been proposed based on NAFSA and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) approaches. This combination leads to maximum utilization of the involved approaches for FOG error coefficients recalibration. After that, the NAFSA is verified with simulation and experiments and its priorities are compared with that of the conventional calibration method and optimal AFSA. Results demonstrate high efficiency of the NAFSA on FOG error coefficients recalibration.

  5. A Novel Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm for Recalibration of Fiber Optic Gyroscope Error Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Gao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA is one of the state-of-the-art swarm intelligent techniques, which is widely utilized for optimization purposes. Fiber optic gyroscope (FOG error parameters such as scale factors, biases and misalignment errors are relatively unstable, especially with the environmental disturbances and the aging of fiber coils. These uncalibrated error parameters are the main reasons that the precision of FOG-based strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS degraded. This research is mainly on the application of a novel artificial fish swarm algorithm (NAFSA on FOG error coefficients recalibration/identification. First, the NAFSA avoided the demerits (e.g., lack of using artificial fishes’ pervious experiences, lack of existing balance between exploration and exploitation, and high computational cost of the standard AFSA during the optimization process. To solve these weak points, functional behaviors and the overall procedures of AFSA have been improved with some parameters eliminated and several supplementary parameters added. Second, a hybrid FOG error coefficients recalibration algorithm has been proposed based on NAFSA and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS approaches. This combination leads to maximum utilization of the involved approaches for FOG error coefficients recalibration. After that, the NAFSA is verified with simulation and experiments and its priorities are compared with that of the conventional calibration method and optimal AFSA. Results demonstrate high efficiency of the NAFSA on FOG error coefficients recalibration.

  6. A Neural Model for Temporal Order Judgments and Their Active Recalibration: A Common Mechanism for Space and Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mingbo; Stetson, Chess; Eagleman, David M.

    2012-01-01

    When observers experience a constant delay between their motor actions and sensory feedback, their perception of the temporal order between actions and sensations adapt (Stetson et al., 2006). We present here a novel neural model that can explain temporal order judgments (TOJs) and their recalibration. Our model employs three ubiquitous features of neural systems: (1) information pooling, (2) opponent processing, and (3) synaptic scaling. Specifically, the model proposes that different populations of neurons encode different delays between motor-sensory events, the outputs of these populations feed into rivaling neural populations (encoding “before” and “after”), and the activity difference between these populations determines the perceptual judgment. As a consequence of synaptic scaling of input weights, motor acts which are consistently followed by delayed sensory feedback will cause the network to recalibrate its point of subjective simultaneity. The structure of our model raises the possibility that recalibration of TOJs is a temporal analog to the motion aftereffect (MAE). In other words, identical neural mechanisms may be used to make perceptual determinations about both space and time. Our model captures behavioral recalibration results for different numbers of adapting trials and different adapting delays. In line with predictions of the model, we additionally demonstrate that temporal recalibration can last through time, in analogy to storage of the MAE. PMID:23130010

  7. A neural model for temporal order judgments and their active recalibration: a common mechanism for space and time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo eCai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When observers experience a constant delay between their motor actions and sensory feedback, their perception of the temporal order between actions and sensations adapt (Stetson et al., 2006a. We present here a novel neural model that can explain temporal order judgments (TOJs and their recalibration. Our model employs three ubiquitous features of neural systems: 1 information pooling, 2 opponent processing, and 3 synaptic scaling. Specifically, the model proposes that different populations of neurons encode different delays between motor-sensory events, the outputs of these populations feed into rivaling neural populations (encoding before and after, and the activity difference between these populations determines the perceptual judgment. As a consequence of synaptic scaling of input weights, motor acts which are consistently followed by delayed sensory feedback will cause the network to recalibrate its point of subjective simultaneity. The structure of our model raises the possibility that recalibration of TOJs is a temporal analogue to the motion aftereffect. In other words, identical neural mechanisms may be used to make perceptual determinations about both space and time. Our model captures behavioral recalibration results for different numbers of adapting trials and different adapting delays. In line with predictions of the model, we additionally demonstrate that temporal recalibration can last through time, in analogy to storage of the motion aftereffect.

  8. Analysis of image sharpness reproducibility on a novel engineered micro-CT scanner with variable geometry and embedded recalibration software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, D; Belcari, N; Del Guerra, A; Bartolomei, A; Salvadori, P A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the reproducibility of the reconstructed image sharpness, after modifications of the geometry setup, for a variable magnification micro-CT (μCT) scanner. All the measurements were performed on a novel engineered μCT scanner for in vivo imaging of small animals (Xalt), which has been recently built at the Institute of Clinical Physiology of the National Research Council (IFC-CNR, Pisa, Italy), in partnership with the University of Pisa. The Xalt scanner is equipped with an integrated software for on-line geometric recalibration, which will be used throughout the experiments. In order to evaluate the losses of image quality due to modifications of the geometry setup, we have made 22 consecutive acquisitions by changing alternatively the system geometry between two different setups (Large FoV - LF, and High Resolution - HR). For each acquisition, the tomographic images have been reconstructed before and after the on-line geometric recalibration. For each reconstruction, the image sharpness was evaluated using two different figures of merit: (i) the percentage contrast on a small bar pattern of fixed frequency (f = 5.5 lp/mm for the LF setup and f = 10 lp/mm for the HR setup) and (ii) the image entropy. We have found that, due to the small-scale mechanical uncertainty (in the order of the voxel size), a recalibration is necessary for each geometric setup after repositioning of the system's components; the resolution losses due to the lack of recalibration are worse for the HR setup (voxel size = 18.4 μm). The integrated on-line recalibration algorithm of the Xalt scanner allowed to perform the recalibration quickly, by restoring the spatial resolution of the system to the reference resolution obtained after the initial (off-line) calibration. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shear Elastic Modulus on Patellar Tendon Captured from Supersonic Shear Imaging: Correlation with Tangent Traction Modulus Computed from Material Testing System and Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi Jie; Fu, Siu Ngor

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the elastic properties of a tendon could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of tendon injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the shear elastic modulus on the patellar tendon captured from a Supersonic Shear Imaging (SSI) and the tangent traction modulus computed from a Material testing system (MTS) on 8 fresh patellar pig tendons (Experiment I). Test-retest reliability of the shear elastic modulus captured from the SSI was established in Experiment II on 22 patellar tendons of 11 healthy human subjects using the SSI. Spearman Correlation coefficients for the shear elastic modulus and tangent traction modulus ranged from 0.82 to 1.00 (all p<0.05) on the 8 tendons. The intra and inter-operator reliabilities were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93-0.98) respectively. The results from this study demonstrate that the shear elastic modulus of the patellar tendon measured by the SSI is related to the tangent traction modulus quantified by the MTS. The SSI shows good intra and inter-operator repeatability. Therefore, the present study shows that SSI can be used to assess elastic properties of a tendon.

  10. Generalization patterns for reach adaptation and proprioceptive recalibration differ after visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Erin K; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2015-07-01

    Visuomotor learning results in changes in both motor and sensory systems (Cressman EK, Henriques DY. J Neurophysiol 102: 3505-3518, 2009), such that reaches are adapted and sense of felt hand position recalibrated after reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand. Moreover, visuomotor learning has been shown to generalize such that reach adaptation achieved at a trained target location can influence reaches to novel target directions (Krakauer JW, Pine ZM, Ghilardi MF, Ghez C. J Neurosci 20: 8916-8924, 2000). We looked to determine whether proprioceptive recalibration also generalizes to novel locations. Moreover, we looked to establish the relationship between reach adaptation and changes in sense of felt hand position by determining whether proprioceptive recalibration generalizes to novel targets in a similar manner as reach adaptation. On training trials, subjects reached to a single target with aligned or misaligned cursor-hand feedback, in which the cursor was either rotated or scaled in extent relative to hand movement. After reach training, subjects reached to the training target and novel targets (including targets from a second start position) without visual feedback to assess generalization of reach adaptation. Subjects then performed a proprioceptive estimation task, in which they indicated the position of their hand relative to visual reference markers placed at similar locations as the trained and novel reach targets. Results indicated that shifts in hand position generalized across novel locations, independent of reach adaptation. Thus these distinct sensory and motor generalization patterns suggest that reach adaptation and proprioceptive recalibration arise from independent error signals and that changes in one system cannot guide adjustments in the other. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. 'Nuisance Dust' - a Case for Recalibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datson, Hugh; Marker, Brian

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers the case for a review and recalibration of limit values and acceptability criteria for 'nuisance dust', a widely encountered but poorly defined and regulated aspect of particulate matter pollution. Specific dust fractions such as PM10 and asbestiforms are well characterised and have limit values enshrined in legislation. National, and international, limit values for acceptable concentrations of PM10 and other fractions of particulate matter have been defined and agreed. In the United Kingdom (UK), these apply to both public and workplace exposures. By contrast, there is no standard definition or universal criteria against which acceptable levels for 'nuisance dust' can be assessed. This has implications for land-use planning and resource utilisation. Without meaningful limit values, inappropriate development might take place too near to residential dwellings or land containing economically important mineral resources may be effectively sterilised. Furthermore, the expression 'nuisance dust' is unhelpful in that 'nuisance' has a specific meaning in environmental law whilst 'nuisance dust' is often taken to mean 'generally visible particulate matter'. As such, it is associated with the social and broader environmental impacts of particulate matter. PM10 concentrations are usually expressed as a mass concentration over time. These can be determined using a range of techniques. While results from different instruments are generally comparable, data obtained from alternative methods for measuring 'nuisance dust' are rarely interchangeable. In the UK, many of the methods typically used are derived from approaches developed under the HMIP (Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution) regime in the 1960s onwards. Typical methods for 'nuisance dust' sampling focus on measurement of dust mass (from the weight of dust collected in an open container over time) or dust soiling (from loss of reflectance and or obscuration of a surface discoloured by dust over

  12. Non-retinotopic motor-visual recalibration to temporal lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eTsujita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal order judgment between the voluntary motor action and its perceptual feedback is important in distinguishing between a sensory feedback which is caused by observer’s own action and other stimulus, which are irrelevant to that action. Prolonged exposure to fixed temporal lag between motor action and visual feedback recalibrates motor-visual temporal relationship, and consequently shifts the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS. Previous studies on the audio-visual temporal recalibration without voluntary action revealed that both low and high level processing are involved. However, it is not clear how the low and high level processings affect the recalibration to constant temporal lag between voluntary action and visual feedback. This study examined retinotopic specificity of the motor-visual temporal recalibration. During the adaptation phase, observers repeatedly pressed a key, and visual stimulus was presented in left or right visual field with a fixed temporal lag (0 or 200 ms. In the test phase, observers performed a temporal order judgment for observer’s voluntary keypress and test stimulus, which was presented in the same as or opposite to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented in the adaptation phase. We found that the PSS was shifted toward the exposed lag in both visual fields. These results suggest that the low visual processing, which is retinotopically specific, has minor contribution to the multimodal adaptation, and that the adaptation to shift the PSS mainly depends upon the high level processing such as attention to specific properties of the stimulus.

  13. The critical events for motor-sensory temporal recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Henry Arnold

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Determining if we, or another agent, were responsible for a sensory event can require an accurate sense of timing. Our sense of appropriate timing relationships must, however, be malleable as there is a variable delay between the physical timing of an event and when sensory signals concerning that event are encoded in the brain. One dramatic demonstration of such malleability involves having people repeatedly press a button thereby causing a beep. If a delay is inserted between button presses and beeps, when it is subsequently taken away beeps can seem to precede the button presses that caused them. For this to occur it is important that people feel they were responsible for instigating the beeps. In terms of their timing, as yet it is not clear what combination of events is important for motor-sensory temporal recalibration. Here, by introducing ballistic reaches of short or longer extent before a button press, we varied the delay between the intention to act and the sensory consequence of that action. This manipulation failed to modulate recalibration magnitude. By contrast, introducing a similarly lengthened delay between button presses and consequent beeps eliminated recalibration. Thus it would seem that the critical timing relationship for motor-sensory temporal recalibration is between tactile signals relating to the completion of an action and the subsequent auditory percept.

  14. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttke, C.S.; Ekman, M.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Lange, F.P. de

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we

  15. Self-Recalibrating Surface EMG Pattern Recognition for Neuroprosthesis Control Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Zhai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hand movement classification based on surface electromyography (sEMG pattern recognition is a promising approach for upper limb neuroprosthetic control. However, maintaining day-to-day performance is challenged by the non-stationary nature of sEMG in real-life operation. In this study, we propose a self-recalibrating classifier that can be automatically updated to maintain a stable performance over time without the need for user retraining. Our classifier is based on convolutional neural network (CNN using short latency dimension-reduced sEMG spectrograms as inputs. The pretrained classifier is recalibrated routinely using a corrected version of the prediction results from recent testing sessions. Our proposed system was evaluated with the NinaPro database comprising of hand movement data of 40 intact and 11 amputee subjects. Our system was able to achieve ~10.18% (intact, 50 movement types and ~2.99% (amputee, 10 movement types increase in classification accuracy averaged over five testing sessions with respect to the unrecalibrated classifier. When compared with a support vector machine (SVM classifier, our CNN-based system consistently showed higher absolute performance and larger improvement as well as more efficient training. These results suggest that the proposed system can be a useful tool to facilitate long-term adoption of prosthetics for amputees in real-life applications.

  16. Parametric decadal climate forecast recalibration (DeFoReSt 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Alexander; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark A.; Rust, Henning W.; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Near-term climate predictions such as decadal climate forecasts are increasingly being used to guide adaptation measures. For near-term probabilistic predictions to be useful, systematic errors of the forecasting systems have to be corrected. While methods for the calibration of probabilistic forecasts are readily available, these have to be adapted to the specifics of decadal climate forecasts including the long time horizon of decadal climate forecasts, lead-time-dependent systematic errors (drift) and the errors in the representation of long-term changes and variability. These features are compounded by small ensemble sizes to describe forecast uncertainty and a relatively short period for which typically pairs of reforecasts and observations are available to estimate calibration parameters. We introduce the Decadal Climate Forecast Recalibration Strategy (DeFoReSt), a parametric approach to recalibrate decadal ensemble forecasts that takes the above specifics into account. DeFoReSt optimizes forecast quality as measured by the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS). Using a toy model to generate synthetic forecast observation pairs, we demonstrate the positive effect on forecast quality in situations with pronounced and limited predictability. Finally, we apply DeFoReSt to decadal surface temperature forecasts from the MiKlip prototype system and find consistent, and sometimes considerable, improvements in forecast quality compared with a simple calibration of the lead-time-dependent systematic errors.

  17. The Impact of Feedback on the Different Time Courses of Multisensory Temporal Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. De Niear

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to rapidly adjust perceptual representations confers a fundamental advantage when confronted with a constantly changing world. Unexplored is how feedback regarding sensory judgments (top-down factors interacts with sensory statistics (bottom-up factors to drive long- and short-term recalibration of multisensory perceptual representations. Here, we examined the time course of both cumulative and rapid temporal perceptual recalibration for individuals completing an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task in which they were provided with varying degrees of feedback. We find that in the presence of feedback (as opposed to simple sensory exposure temporal recalibration is more robust. Additionally, differential time courses are seen for cumulative and rapid recalibration dependent upon the nature of the feedback provided. Whereas cumulative recalibration effects relied more heavily on feedback that informs (i.e., negative feedback rather than confirms (i.e., positive feedback the judgment, rapid recalibration shows the opposite tendency. Furthermore, differential effects on rapid and cumulative recalibration were seen when the reliability of feedback was altered. Collectively, our findings illustrate that feedback signals promote and sustain audiovisual recalibration over the course of cumulative learning and enhance rapid trial-to-trial learning. Furthermore, given the differential effects seen for cumulative and rapid recalibration, these processes may function via distinct mechanisms.

  18. Recalibration of blood analytes over 25 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study: The impact of recalibration on chronic kidney disease prevalence and incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M.; Grams, Morgan E.; Couper, David; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background Equivalence of laboratory tests over time is important for longitudinal studies. Even a small systematic difference (bias) can result in substantial misclassification. Methods We selected 200 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants attending all 5 study visits over 25 years. Eight analytes were re-measured in 2011–13 from stored blood samples from multiple visits: creatinine, uric acid, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Original values were recalibrated to re-measured values using Deming regression. Differences >10% were considered to reflect substantial bias, and correction equations were applied to affected analytes in the total study population. We examined trends in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pre- and post-recalibration. Results Repeat measures were highly correlated with original values (Pearson’s r>0.85 after removing outliers [median 4.5% of paired measurements]), but 2 of 8 analytes (creatinine and uric acid) had differences >10%. Original values of creatinine and uric acid were recalibrated to current values using correction equations. CKD prevalence differed substantially after recalibration of creatinine (visits 1, 2, 4 and 5 pre-recalibration: 21.7%, 36.1%, 3.5%, 29.4%; post-recalibration: 1.3%, 2.2%, 6.4%, 29.4%). For HDL-cholesterol, the current direct enzymatic method differed substantially from magnesium dextran precipitation used during visits 1–4. Conclusions Analytes re-measured in samples stored for ~25 years were highly correlated with original values, but two of the 8 analytes showed substantial bias at multiple visits. Laboratory recalibration improved reproducibility of test results across visits and resulted in substantial differences in CKD prevalence. We demonstrate the importance of consistent recalibration of laboratory assays in a cohort study. PMID:25952043

  19. Audio-motor but not visuo-motor temporal recalibration speeds up sensory processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugano, Y.; Keetels, M.N.; Vroomen, J.; Mouraux, André

    2017-01-01

    Perception of synchrony between one's own action (a finger tap) and the sensory feedback thereof (a visual flash or an auditory pip) can be recalibrated after exposure to an artificially inserted delay between them (temporal recalibration effect: TRE). TRE might be mediated by a compensatory shift

  20. Test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, Anthony W; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) of normal human subjects. Multifocal electroretinograms were recorded from one eye of 61 healthy adult subjects on two separate days using a Visual Evoked Response Imaging System software version 4.3 (EDI, San Mateo, California). The visual stimulus delivered on a 75-Hz monitor consisted of seven equal-sized hexagons each subtending 12° of visual angle. The m-step exponent was 9, and the m-sequence was slowed to include at least 30 blank frames after each flash. Only the first slice of the first-order kernel was analyzed. The mfPhNR amplitude was measured at a fixed time in the trough from baseline (BT) as well as at the same fixed time in the trough from the preceding b-wave peak (PT). Additionally, we also analyzed BT normalized either to PT (BT/PT) or to the b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave). The relative reliability of test-retest differences for each test location was estimated by the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute test-retest reliability was estimated by Bland-Altman analysis. The test-retest amplitude differences for neither of the two measurement techniques were statistically significant as determined by Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. PT measurements showed greater ICC values than BT amplitude measurements for all test locations. For each measurement technique, the ICC value of the macular response was greater than that of the surrounding locations. The mean test-retest difference was close to zero for both techniques at each of the test locations, and while the coefficient of reliability (COR-1.96 times the standard deviation of the test-retest difference) was comparable for the two techniques at each test location when expressed in nanovolts, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest amplitudes) was superior for PT than BT measurements. The ICC and COR were comparable for the BT/PT and

  1. The Recalibrated Sunspot Number: Impact on Solar Cycle Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clette, F.; Lefevre, L.

    2017-12-01

    Recently and for the first time since their creation, the sunspot number and group number series were entirely revisited and a first fully recalibrated version was officially released in July 2015 by the World Data Center SILSO (Brussels). Those reference long-term series are widely used as input data or as a calibration reference by various solar cycle prediction methods. Therefore, past predictions may now need to be redone using the new sunspot series, and methods already used for predicting cycle 24 will require adaptations before attempting predictions of the next cycles.In order to clarify the nature of the applied changes, we describe the different corrections applied to the sunspot and group number series, which affect extended time periods and can reach up to 40%. While some changes simply involve constant scale factors, other corrections vary with time or follow the solar cycle modulation. Depending on the prediction method and on the selected time interval, this can lead to different responses and biases. Moreover, together with the new series, standard error estimates are also progressively added to the new sunspot numbers, which may help deriving more accurate uncertainties for predicted activity indices. We conclude on the new round of recalibration that is now undertaken in the framework of a broad multi-team collaboration articulated around upcoming ISSI workshops. We outline the future corrections that can still be expected in the future, as part of a permanent upgrading process and quality control. From now on, future sunspot-based predictive models should thus be made more adaptable, and regular updates of predictions should become common practice in order to track periodic upgrades of the sunspot number series, just like it is done when using other modern solar observational series.

  2. To lead and to lag - forward and backward recalibration of perceived visuo-motor simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eRohde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on human recalibration of perceived visuo-motor simultaneity so far have been limited to the study of recalibration to movement-lead temporal discrepancies (visual lags. We studied adaptation to both vision-lead and movement-lead discrepancies, to test for differences between these conditions, as a leading visual stimulus violates the underlying cause-effect structure. To this end, we manipulated the temporal relationship between a motor action (button press and a visual event (flashed disk in a training phase. Participants were tested in a temporal order judgment task and perceived simultaneity (PSS was compared before and after recalibration. A PHANToM© force-feedback device that tracks the finger position in real time was used to display a virtual button. We predicted the timing of full compression of the button from early movement onset in order to time visual stimuli even before the movement event of the full button press. The results show that recalibration of perceived visuo-motor simultaneity is evident in both directions and does not differ in magnitude between the conditions. The strength of recalibration decreases with perceptual accuracy, suggesting the possibility that some participants recalibrate less because they detect the discrepancy. We conclude that the mechanisms of temporal recalibration work in both direction and there is no evidence that they are asymmetrical around the point of actual simultaneity, despite the underlying asymmetry in the cause-effect relation.

  3. The grammar of anger: Mapping the computational architecture of a recalibrational emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Aaron; Sznycer, Daniel; Al-Shawaf, Laith; Lim, Julian; Krauss, Andre; Feldman, Aneta; Rascanu, Ruxandra; Sugiyama, Lawrence; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2017-11-01

    According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i.e. the offender has too low a welfare tradeoff ratio (WTR) toward the angry individual. Twenty-three experiments in six cultures, including a group of foragers in the Ecuadorian Amazon, tested six predictions about the computational structure of anger derived from the recalibrational theory. Subjects judged that anger would intensify when: (i) the cost was large, (ii) the benefit the offender received from imposing the cost was small, or (iii) the offender imposed the cost despite knowing that the angered individual was the person to be harmed. Additionally, anger-based arguments conformed to a conceptual grammar of anger, such that offenders were inclined to argue that they held a high WTR toward the victim, e.g., "the cost I imposed on you was small", "the benefit I gained was large", or "I didn't know it was you I was harming." These results replicated across all six tested cultures: the US, Australia, Turkey, Romania, India, and Shuar hunter-horticulturalists in Ecuador. Results contradict key predictions about anger based on equity theory and social constructivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term music training modulates the recalibration of audiovisual simultaneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicol, Crescent; Proulx, Michael J; Pollick, Frank E; Petrini, Karin

    2018-04-23

    To overcome differences in physical transmission time and neural processing, the brain adaptively recalibrates the point of simultaneity between auditory and visual signals by adapting to audiovisual asynchronies. Here, we examine whether the prolonged recalibration process of passively sensed visual and auditory signals is affected by naturally occurring multisensory training known to enhance audiovisual perceptual accuracy. Hence, we asked a group of drummers, of non-drummer musicians and of non-musicians to judge the audiovisual simultaneity of musical and non-musical audiovisual events, before and after adaptation with two fixed audiovisual asynchronies. We found that the recalibration for the musicians and drummers was in the opposite direction (sound leading vision) to that of non-musicians (vision leading sound), and change together with both increased music training and increased perceptual accuracy (i.e. ability to detect asynchrony). Our findings demonstrate that long-term musical training reshapes the way humans adaptively recalibrate simultaneity between auditory and visual signals.

  5. Effect of uncertainty components such as recalibration on the performance of quality control charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, P; Zhang, Nevin

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty components (recalibration, new reagent lots, etc.) may be the source of random changes in the level of quality control (QC) values, thus causing false alarms. We propose a method for reducing false alarms.......Uncertainty components (recalibration, new reagent lots, etc.) may be the source of random changes in the level of quality control (QC) values, thus causing false alarms. We propose a method for reducing false alarms....

  6. Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

  7. Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of a global positioning system (GPS) and timing gates to assess sprint performance variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin

    2011-12-01

    There has been no previous investigation of the concurrent validity and reliability of the current 5 Hz global positioning system (GPS) to assess sprinting speed or the reliability of integrated GPS-accelerometer technology. In the present study, we wished to determine: (1) the concurrent validity and reliability of a GPS and timing gates to measure sprinting speed or distance, and (2) the reliability of proper accelerations recorded via GPS-accelerometer integration. Nineteen elite youth rugby league players performed two over-ground sprints and were simultaneously assessed using GPS and timing gates. The GPS measurements systematically underestimated both distance and timing gate speed. The GPS measurements were reliable for all variables of distance and speed (coefficient of variation [CV] = 1.62% to 2.3%), particularly peak speed (95% limits of agreement [LOA] = 0.00 ± 0.8 km · h(-1); CV = 0.78%). Timing gates were more reliable (CV = 1% to 1.54%) than equivalent GPS measurements. Accelerometer measurements were least reliable (CV = 4.69% to 5.16%), particularly for the frequency of proper accelerations (95% LOA = 1.00 ± 5.43; CV = 14.12%). Timing gates and GPS were found to reliably assess speed and distance, although the validity of the GPS remains questionable. The error found in accelerometer measurements indicates the limits of this device for detecting changes in performance.

  8. Recalibration of blood analytes over 25 years in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study: impact of recalibration on chronic kidney disease prevalence and incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Grams, Morgan E; Couper, David; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2015-07-01

    Equivalence of laboratory tests over time is important for longitudinal studies. Even a small systematic difference (bias) can result in substantial misclassification. We selected 200 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants attending all 5 study visits over 25 years. Eight analytes were remeasured in 2011-2013 from stored blood samples from multiple visits: creatinine, uric acid, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Original values were recalibrated to remeasured values with Deming regression. Differences >10% were considered to reflect substantial bias, and correction equations were applied to affected analytes in the total study population. We examined trends in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pre- and postrecalibration. Repeat measures were highly correlated with original values [Pearson r > 0.85 after removing outliers (median 4.5% of paired measurements)], but 2 of 8 analytes (creatinine and uric acid) had differences >10%. Original values of creatinine and uric acid were recalibrated to current values with correction equations. CKD prevalence differed substantially after recalibration of creatinine (visits 1, 2, 4, and 5 prerecalibration: 21.7%, 36.1%, 3.5%, and 29.4%, respectively; postrecalibration: 1.3%, 2.2%, 6.4%, and 29.4%). For HDL cholesterol, the current direct enzymatic method differed substantially from magnesium dextran precipitation used during visits 1-4. Analytes remeasured in samples stored for approximately 25 years were highly correlated with original values, but 2 of the 8 analytes showed substantial bias at multiple visits. Laboratory recalibration improved reproducibility of test results across visits and resulted in substantial differences in CKD prevalence. We demonstrate the importance of consistent recalibration of laboratory assays in a cohort study. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  9. ReQON: a Bioconductor package for recalibrating quality scores from next-generation sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabanski Christopher R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have become important tools for genome-wide studies. However, the quality scores that are assigned to each base have been shown to be inaccurate. If the quality scores are used in downstream analyses, these inaccuracies can have a significant impact on the results. Results Here we present ReQON, a tool that recalibrates the base quality scores from an input BAM file of aligned sequencing data using logistic regression. ReQON also generates diagnostic plots showing the effectiveness of the recalibration. We show that ReQON produces quality scores that are both more accurate, in the sense that they more closely correspond to the probability of a sequencing error, and do a better job of discriminating between sequencing errors and non-errors than the original quality scores. We also compare ReQON to other available recalibration tools and show that ReQON is less biased and performs favorably in terms of quality score accuracy. Conclusion ReQON is an open source software package, written in R and available through Bioconductor, for recalibrating base quality scores for next-generation sequencing data. ReQON produces a new BAM file with more accurate quality scores, which can improve the results of downstream analysis, and produces several diagnostic plots showing the effectiveness of the recalibration.

  10. The new Sunspot and Group Numbers: a full recalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clette, Frédéric; Svalgaard, Leif; Cliver, Edward W.; Vaquero, José M.; Lefèvre, Laure

    2015-08-01

    After a 4-year research effort, we present here the first end-to-end revision of the Sunspot Number since the creation of this reference index of solar activity by Rudolf Wolf in 1849 and the simultaneous re-calibration of the Group Number, which leads to the elimination of the past incompatibility between those two independent data sets.Most corrections relied entirely on original sunspot data, using various approaches. Newly recovered historical sunspot records were added and a critical data selection was applied for the 17th and 18th century, confirming the low solar activity during the Maunder Minimum. Over the 19th century, the k scaling coefficients of individual observers were recomputed using new statistical methodologies, like the "backbone" method resting on a chain of long-duration observers. After identifying major changes in the observing methods, two major inhomogeneities were corrected in 1884 in the Group Number (~40% upward drift) and in 1947 in the Sunspot Number (~20% overestimate). Finally, a full re-computation of the group and sunspot numbers was done over the last 50 years, using all original data from the 270 stations archived by the World Data Center - SILSO in Brussels.The new Sunspot Number series definitely exclude a progressive rise in average solar activity between the Maunder Minimum and an exceptional Grand Maximum in the late 20th century. Residual differences between the Group and Sunspot Numbers over the past 250 years confirm that they reflect different properties of the solar cycle and that the average number of spots per group varies over time, as it just happened in the recent unexpected evolution of cycles 23 and 24. We conclude on the implications for solar cycle and Earth climate studies and on important new conventions adopted for the new series: new unit scales (constant "heritage" factors 0.6 and 12.08 dropped for the Sunspot and Group Numbers respectively), new SN and GN symbols and a new version-tracking scheme

  11. Parametric Density Recalibration of a Fundamental Market Model to Forecast Electricity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bello

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to hybrid forecasting methodology, characterized as the statistical recalibration of forecasts from fundamental market price formation models. Such hybrid methods based upon fundamentals are particularly appropriate to medium term forecasting and in this paper the application is to month-ahead, hourly prediction of electricity wholesale prices in Spain. The recalibration methodology is innovative in seeking to perform the recalibration into parametrically defined density functions. The density estimation method selects from a wide diversity of general four-parameter distributions to fit hourly spot prices, in which the first four moments are dynamically estimated as latent functions of the outputs from the fundamental model and several other plausible exogenous drivers. The proposed approach demonstrated its effectiveness against benchmark methods across the full range of percentiles of the price distribution and performed particularly well in the tails.

  12. A Pan-STARRS1-based recalibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Schlafly, E.; Green, G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a recalibration of the SDSS DR9 photometry with new flat fields and zero points derived from Pan-STARRS. Using PSF photometry of 60 million stars with 16 < r < 20, we obtain SDSS flat-field and amplifier gain corrections stable to 3 millimagnitudes (mmag) in g,r,i,z bands and 15 mmag in u band. We also identify transient non-photometric periods in SDSS ("contrails") based on photometric deviations co-temporal in SDSS bands. The recalibrated SDSS and PS1 photometry agree with systematics at the 7 mmag level.

  13. Regional Validation and Recalibration of Clinical Predictive Models for Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Benjamin S; Ruthazer, Robin; Udelson, James E; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Zannad, Faiez; Maggioni, Aldo; Konstam, Marvin A; Kent, David M

    2017-11-18

    Heart failure clinical practice guidelines recommend applying validated clinical predictive models (CPMs) to support decision making. While CPMs are now widely available, the generalizability of heart failure CPMs is largely unknown. We identified CPMs derived in North America that predict mortality for patients with acute heart failure and validated these models in different world regions to assess performance in a contemporary international clinical trial (N=4133) of patients with acute heart failure treated with guideline-directed medical therapy. We performed independent external validations of 3 CPMs predicting in-hospital mortality, 60-day mortality, and 1-year mortality, respectively. CPM discrimination decreased in all regional validation cohorts. The median change in area under the receiver operating curve was -0.09 (range -0.05 to -0.23). Regional calibration was highly variable (90th percentile of absolute difference between smoothed observed and predicted values range 50%). Calibration remained poor after global recalibrations; however, region-specific recalibration procedures significantly improved regional performance (recalibrated 90th percentile of absolute difference range models). Acute heart failure CPM discrimination and calibration vary substantially across different world regions; region-specific (as opposed to global) recalibration techniques are needed to improve CPM calibration. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Audio-Visual Temporal Recalibration Can be Constrained by Content Cues Regardless of Spatial Overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-01-01

    It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this is necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; see Experiment 1) and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; see Experiment 2) we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair alone can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  15. Audio-visual temporal recalibration can be constrained by content cues regardless of spatial overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrick eRoseboom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It has now been well established that the point of subjective synchrony for audio and visual events can be shifted following exposure to asynchronous audio-visual presentations, an effect often referred to as temporal recalibration. Recently it was further demonstrated that it is possible to concurrently maintain two such recalibrated, and opposing, estimates of audio-visual temporal synchrony. However, it remains unclear precisely what defines a given audio-visual pair such that it is possible to maintain a temporal relationship distinct from other pairs. It has been suggested that spatial separation of the different audio-visual pairs is necessary to achieve multiple distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates. Here we investigated if this was necessarily true. Specifically, we examined whether it is possible to obtain two distinct temporal recalibrations for stimuli that differed only in featural content. Using both complex (audio visual speech; Experiment 1 and simple stimuli (high and low pitch audio matched with either vertically or horizontally oriented Gabors; Experiment 2 we found concurrent, and opposite, recalibrations despite there being no spatial difference in presentation location at any point throughout the experiment. This result supports the notion that the content of an audio-visual pair can be used to constrain distinct audio-visual synchrony estimates regardless of spatial overlap.

  16. Visuomotor adaptation does not recalibrate kinesthetic sense of felt hand path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Teser; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2009-02-01

    Motor control relies on multiple sources of information. To estimate the position and motion of the hand, the brain uses both vision and body-position (proprioception and kinesthesia) senses from sensors in the muscles, tendons, joints, and skin. Although performance is better when more than one sensory modality is present, visuomotor adaptation suggests that people tend to rely much more on visual information of the hand to guide their arm movements to targets, even when the visual information and kinesthetic information about the hand motion are in conflict. The aim of this study is to test whether adapting hand movements in response to false visual feedback of the hand will result in the change or recalibration of the kinesthetic sense of hand motion. The advantage of this cross-sensory recalibration would ensure on-line consistency between the senses. To test this, we mapped participants' sensitivity to tilted and curved hand paths and then examined whether adapting their hand movements in response to false visual feedback affected their felt sense of hand path. We found that participants could accurately estimate hand path directions and curvature after adapting to false visual feedback of their hand when reaching to targets. Our results suggest that although vision can override kinesthesia to recalibrate arm motor commands, it does not recalibrate the kinesthetic sense of hand path geometry.

  17. Correcting mass shifts: A lock mass-free recalibration procedure for mass spectrometry imaging data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulkarni, P.; Kaftan, F.; Kynast, P.; Svatoš, Aleš; Böcker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 25 (2015), s. 7603-7613 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mass spectrometry imaging * recalibration * mass shift correction * data processing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  18. Predictive accuracy of original and recalibrated Framingham risk score in the Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rodondi, Nicolas; Bochud, Murielle; Chiolero, Arnaud; Pécoud, Alain; Hayoz, Daniel; Paccaud, Fred; Mooser, Vincent; Firmann, Mathieu; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter

    2009-04-17

    To compare the predictive accuracy of the original and recalibrated Framingham risk function on current morbidity from coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality data from the Swiss population. Data from the CoLaus study, a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted between 2003 and 2006 on 5,773 participants aged 35-74 without CHD were used to recalibrate the Framingham risk function. The predicted number of events from each risk function were compared with those issued from local MONICA incidence rates and official mortality data from Switzerland. With the original risk function, 57.3%, 21.2%, 16.4% and 5.1% of men and 94.9%, 3.8%, 1.2% and 0.1% of women were at very low (20%) risk, respectively. With the recalibrated risk function, the corresponding values were 84.7%, 10.3%, 4.3% and 0.6% in men and 99.5%, 0.4%, 0.0% and 0.1% in women, respectively. The number of CHD events over 10 years predicted by the original Framingham risk function was 2-3 fold higher than predicted by mortality+case fatality or by MONICA incidence rates (men: 191 vs. 92 and 51 events, respectively). The recalibrated risk function provided more reasonable estimates, albeit slightly overestimated (92 events, 5-95th percentile: 26-223 events); sensitivity analyses showed that the magnitude of the overestimation was between 0.4 and 2.2 in men, and 0.7 and 3.3 in women. The recalibrated Framingham risk function provides a reasonable alternative to assess CHD risk in men, but not in women.

  19. ``Retests'': A better method of test corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Physics instructors at all levels employ a variety of techniques to encourage students to reflect on and correct mistakes made on quizzes, unit tests, or exams. A thorough analysis of several methods was recently published in these pages that compared several variations of quiz corrections in college courses. One common method is to have students rewrite the solutions to the questions or problems that they missed, with the goal of earning some part of the missed points. While this method is helpful for some students, it often discourages students with already decent grades to reflect on their work. I use a method called "retesting" with my AP® Physics C students that I learned from my high school geometry teacher, Bill Kramer. I feel his clever method offers significant advantages over more traditional approaches.

  20. Test-retest reliability for aerodynamic measures of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Yingling, Julie R

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrasubject reliability of aerodynamic characteristics of the voice within typical/normal speakers across testing sessions using the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS 6600; KayPENTAX, Montvale, NJ). Participants were 60 healthy young adults (30 males and 30 females) between the ages 18 and 31 years with perceptually typical voice. Participants were tested using the PAS 6600 (Phonatory Aerodynamic System) on two separate days with approximately 1 week between each session at approximately the same time of day. Four PAS protocols were conducted (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, and voicing efficiency) and measures of expiratory volume, maximum phonation time, mean expiratory airflow (during vowel production) and target airflow (obtained via syllable repetition), peak air pressure, aerodynamic power, aerodynamic resistance, and aerodynamic efficiency were obtained during each testing session. Associated acoustic measures of vocal intensity and frequency were also collected. All phonations were elicited at comfortable pitch and loudness. All aerodynamic and associated variables evaluated in this study showed useable test-retest reliability (ie, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ 0.60). A high degree of mean test-retest reliability was found across all subjects for aerodynamic and associated acoustic measurements of vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, glottal resistance, and vocal intensity (all with ICCs > 0.75). Although strong ICCs were observed for measures of glottal power and mean expiratory airflow in males, weaker overall results for these measures (ICC range: 0.60-0.67) were observed in females subjects and sizable coefficients of variation were observed for measures of power, resistance, and efficiency in both men and women. Differences in degree of reliability from measure to measure were revealed in greater detail using methods such as ICCs and

  1. 14 CFR 65.19 - Retesting after failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retesting after failure. 65.19 Section 65.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS General § 65.19 Retesting after failure. An...

  2. Test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Reliability was tested using a test-retest design with a 4 week interval between measurements. Valid data were collected among 97 elderly construction workers aged 40 years and older. We

  3. Reach adaptation and proprioceptive recalibration following terminal visual feedback of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eBarkley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that when subjects reach with continuous, misaligned visual feedback of their hand, their reaches are adapted and proprioceptive sense of hand position is recalibrated to partially match the visual feedback (Salomonczyk et al., 2011. It is unclear if similar changes arise after reaching with visual feedback that is provided only at the end of the reach (i.e., terminal feedback, when there are shorter temporal intervals for subjects to experience concurrent visual and proprioceptive feedback. Subjects reached to targets with an aligned hand-cursor that provided visual feedback at the end of each reach movement across a 99-trial training block, and with a rotated cursor over 3 successive blocks of 99 trials each. After each block, no cursor reaches, to measure aftereffects, and felt hand positions were measured. Felt hand position was determined by having subjects indicate the position of their unseen hand relative to a reference marker. We found that subjects adapted their reaches following training with rotated terminal visual feedback, yet slightly less (i.e., reach aftereffects were smaller, than subjects from a previous study who experienced continuous visual feedback. Nonetheless, current subjects recalibrated their sense of felt hand position in the direction of the altered visual feedback, but this proprioceptive change increased incrementally over the three rotated training blocks. Final proprioceptive recalibration levels were comparable to our previous studies in which subjects performed the same task with continuous visual feedback. Thus, compared to reach training with continuous, but altered visual feedback, subjects who received terminal altered visual feedback of the hand produced significant but smaller reach aftereffects and similar changes in hand proprioception when given extra training. Taken together, results suggest that terminal feedback of the hand is sufficient to drive motor adaptation, and also

  4. Iterative Outlier Removal: A Method for Identifying Outliers in Laboratory Recalibration Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Grams, Morgan E; Sang, Yingying; Couper, David; Wruck, Lisa M; Li, Danni; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-07-01

    Extreme values that arise for any reason, including those through nonlaboratory measurement procedure-related processes (inadequate mixing, evaporation, mislabeling), lead to outliers and inflate errors in recalibration studies. We present an approach termed iterative outlier removal (IOR) for identifying such outliers. We previously identified substantial laboratory drift in uric acid measurements in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study over time. Serum uric acid was originally measured in 1990-1992 on a Coulter DACOS instrument using an uricase-based measurement procedure. To recalibrate previous measured concentrations to a newer enzymatic colorimetric measurement procedure, uric acid was remeasured in 200 participants from stored plasma in 2011-2013 on a Beckman Olympus 480 autoanalyzer. To conduct IOR, we excluded data points >3 SDs from the mean difference. We continued this process using the resulting data until no outliers remained. IOR detected more outliers and yielded greater precision in simulation. The original mean difference (SD) in uric acid was 1.25 (0.62) mg/dL. After 4 iterations, 9 outliers were excluded, and the mean difference (SD) was 1.23 (0.45) mg/dL. Conducting only one round of outlier removal (standard approach) would have excluded 4 outliers [mean difference (SD) = 1.22 (0.51) mg/dL]. Applying the recalibration (derived from Deming regression) from each approach to the original measurements, the prevalence of hyperuricemia (>7 mg/dL) was 28.5% before IOR and 8.5% after IOR. IOR is a useful method for removal of extreme outliers irrelevant to recalibrating laboratory measurements, and identifies more extraneous outliers than the standard approach. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  5. Recalibration of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score in a multiethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mark Y; Shah, Bimal R; Gao, Fei; Sim, Ling Ling; Chua, Terrance; Tan, Huay Cheem; Yeo, Tiong Cheng; Ong, Hean Yee; Foo, David; Goh, Ping Ping; Surrun, Soondal K; Pieper, Karen S; Granger, Christopher B; Koh, Tian Hai; Salim, Agus; Tai, E Shyong

    2011-08-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of mortality in Asia. However, quantitative risk scores to predict mortality after AMI were developed without the participation of Asian countries. We evaluated the performance of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) in-hospital mortality risk score, directly and after recalibration, in a large Singaporean cohort representing 3 major Asian ethnicities. The GRACE cohort included 11,389 patients, predominantly of European descent, hospitalized for AMI or unstable angina from 2002 to 2003. The Singapore cohort included 10,100 Chinese, 3,005 Malay, and 2,046 Indian patients hospitalized for AMI from 2002 to 2005.Using the original GRACE score, predicted in-hospital mortality was 2.4% (Chinese), 2.0% (Malay), and 1.6% (Indian). However, observed in-hospital mortality was much greater at 9.8% (Chinese), 7.6% (Malay), and 6.4% (Indian). The c statistic for Chinese, Malays, and Indians was 0.86, 0.86, and 0.84, respectively, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was 250, 56, and 41, respectively. Recalibration of the GRACE score, using the mean-centered constants derived from the Singapore cohort, did not change the c statistic but substantially improved the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic to 90, 24, and 18, respectively. The recalibrated GRACE score predicted in-hospital mortality as follows: 7.7% (Chinese), 6.0% (Malay), and 5.2% (Indian). In this large cohort of 3 major Asian ethnicities, the original GRACE score, derived from populations outside Asia, underestimated in-hospital mortality after AMI. Recalibration improved risk estimation substantially and may help adapt externally developed risk scores for local practice. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternate Form and Test-Retest Reliability of easyCBM Reading Measures. Technical Report # 0906

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a test-retest and alternate form reliability study of grade 1, 3, 5, and 8 reading measures from the easyCBM assessment system. Approximately 50 students in each grade participated in the study. In Grade 1, we studied the following measures: Phoneme Segmenting, Letter Sounds, Letter Names, Word Reading Fluency, and Passage…

  7. Split-belt walking adaptation recalibrates sensorimotor estimates of leg speed but not position or force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Alejandro; Statton, Matthew A.; Busgang, Stefanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Motor learning during reaching not only recalibrates movement but can also lead to small but consistent changes in the sense of arm position. Studies have suggested that this sensory effect may be the result of recalibration of a forward model that associates motor commands with their sensory consequences. Here we investigated whether similar perceptual changes occur in the lower limbs after learning a new walking pattern on a split-belt treadmill—a task that critically involves proprioception. Specifically, we studied how this motor learning task affects perception of leg speed during walking, perception of leg position during standing or walking, and perception of contact force during stepping. Our results show that split-belt adaptation leads to robust motor aftereffects and alters the perception of leg speed during walking. This is specific to the direction of walking that was trained during adaptation (i.e., backward or forward). The change in leg speed perception accounts for roughly half of the observed motor aftereffect. In contrast, split-belt adaptation does not alter the perception of leg position during standing or walking and does not change the perception of stepping force. Our results demonstrate that there is a recalibration of a sensory percept specific to the domain of the perturbation that was applied during walking (i.e., speed but not position or force). Furthermore, the motor and sensory consequences of locomotor adaptation may be linked, suggesting overlapping mechanisms driving changes in the motor and sensory domains. PMID:26424576

  8. An attempt to recalibrate instrumental criteria for intensity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea SANDI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors contributed during a quite long period of time to the development of comprehensive and flexible system of estimating seismic intensity on the basis of instrumental (accelerographic data on earthquake ground motion. The system makes it possible to determine for a record, according to needs, global intensities, intensities corresponding to definite frequencies, intensities averaged upon a spectral band, continuous or discrete intensity spectra. Moreover, the intensity measures developed may rely, according to choice, on different outcomes of processing of primary instrumental data. A problem to which the paper is devoted is represented by the calibration of an important parameter, namely the logarithm base adopted in view of conversing instrumental information to intensity measures. After the attempts of the past, new sources are used this time to solve the problem. Alternative solutions are examined and discussed in this view.

  9. Recalibration of the Viyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Carr, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) antenna and receiver system provides an indication of the sense of elliptical or circular polarization of radiation that is not correct for all directions of incidence. The true sense could be determined for all directions if accurate calibration data were available. It was not feasible to make the calibration before the Voyagers were launched. Lecacheux & Ortega-Molina (1987), however, were able to derive such calibration data from planetary radio observations made in flight. They expressed their results in terms of the tilt of a plane (the E-plane) that divides the incident ray directions for which the indicated polarization sense is correct from those directions for which the indicated sense is reversed. We demonstrate that there are certain directions for which this calibration is itself in error, and that the surface dividing the two sets of incident rays is more complex than a tilted plane. We are able to make a crude approximation to the true surface from the limited data available.

  10. Atypical rapid audio-visual temporal recalibration in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jean-Paul; De Niear, Matthew A; Stevenson, Ryan; Alais, David; Wallace, Mark T

    2017-01-01

    Changes in sensory and multisensory function are increasingly recognized as a common phenotypic characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Furthermore, much recent evidence suggests that sensory disturbances likely play an important role in contributing to social communication weaknesses-one of the core diagnostic features of ASD. An established sensory disturbance observed in ASD is reduced audiovisual temporal acuity. In the current study, we substantially extend these explorations of multisensory temporal function within the framework that an inability to rapidly recalibrate to changes in audiovisual temporal relations may play an important and under-recognized role in ASD. In the paradigm, we present ASD and typically developing (TD) children and adolescents with asynchronous audiovisual stimuli of varying levels of complexity and ask them to perform a simultaneity judgment (SJ). In the critical analysis, we test audiovisual temporal processing on trial t as a condition of trial t - 1. The results demonstrate that individuals with ASD fail to rapidly recalibrate to audiovisual asynchronies in an equivalent manner to their TD counterparts for simple and non-linguistic stimuli (i.e., flashes and beeps, hand-held tools), but exhibit comparable rapid recalibration for speech stimuli. These results are discussed in terms of prior work showing a speech-specific deficit in audiovisual temporal function in ASD, and in light of current theories of autism focusing on sensory noise and stability of perceptual representations. Autism Res 2017, 10: 121-129. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. On-ground re-calibration of the GOME-2 satellite spectrometer series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Gerard; Dijkhuizen, Niels; Vosteen, Amir; Brinkers, Sanneke; Gür, Bilgehan; Kenter, Pepijn; Sallusti, Marcello; Tomuta, Dana; Veratti, Rubes; Cappani, Annalisa

    2017-11-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2[1] (GOME-2) represents one of the European instruments carried on board the MetOp satellite within the ESA's "Living Planet Program". Consisting of three flight models (FM's) it is intended to provide long-term monitoring of atmospheric ozone and other trace gases over a time frame of 15-20 years, thus contributing valuable input towards climate and atmospheric research and providing near real-time data for use in air quality forecasting. The ambition to achieve highly accurate scientific results requires a thorough calibration and characterization of the instrument prior to launch. These calibration campaigns were performed by TNO in Delft in the Netherlands, in the "Thermal Vacuum Calibration Facility" of the institute. Due to refurbishment and / or storage of the instruments over a period of a few years, several re-calibration campaigns were necessary. These re-calibrations provided the unique opportunity to study the effects of long term storage and build up statistics on the instrument as well as the calibration methods used. During the re-calibration of the second flight model a difference was found in the radiometric calibration output, which was not understood initially. In order to understand the anomalies on the radiometry, a deep investigation was performed using numerous variations of the setup and different sources. The major contributor was identified to be a systematic error in the alignment, for which a correction was applied. Apart from this, it was found that the geometry of the sources influenced the results. Based on the calibration results combined with a theoretical geometrical hypothesis inferred that the on-ground calibration should mimic as close as possible the in-orbit geometry.

  12. Intermanual transfer and proprioceptive recalibration following training with translated visual feedback of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Ahmed A; Salomonczyk, Danielle; Cressman, Erin K; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2014-06-01

    Reaching with visual feedback that is misaligned with respect to the actual hand's location leads to changes in reach trajectories (i.e., visuomotor adaptation). Previous studies have also demonstrated that when training to reach with misaligned visual feedback of the hand, the opposite hand also partially adapts, providing evidence of intermanual transfer. Moreover, our laboratory has shown that visuomotor adaptation to a misaligned hand cursor, either translated or rotated relative to the hand, also leads to changes in felt hand position (what we call proprioceptive recalibration), such that subjects' estimate of felt hand position relative to both visual and non-visual reference markers (e.g., body midline) shifts in the direction of the visuomotor distortion. In the present study, we first determined the extent that motor adaptation to a translated cursor leads to transfer to the opposite hand, and whether this transfer differs across the dominant and non-dominant hands. Second, we looked to establish whether changes in hand proprioception that occur with the trained hand following adaptation also transfer to the untrained hand. We found intermanual motor transfer to the left untrained (non-dominant) hand after subjects trained their right (dominant) hand to reach with translated visual feedback of their hand. Motor transfer from the left trained to the right untrained hand was not observed. Despite finding changes in felt hand position in both trained hands, we did not find similar evidence of proprioceptive recalibration in the right or left untrained hands. Taken together, our results suggest that unlike visuomotor adaptation, proprioceptive recalibration does not transfer between hands and is specific only to the arm exposed to the distortion.

  13. Soil specific re-calibration of water content sensors for a field-scale sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Caley K.; Brown, David J.; Anderson, Todd; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining accurate soil moisture data from a sensor network requires sensor calibration. Soil moisture sensors are factory calibrated, but multiple site specific factors may contribute to sensor inaccuracies. Thus, sensors should be calibrated for the specific soil type and conditions in which they will be installed. Lab calibration of a large number of sensors prior to installation in a heterogeneous setting may not be feasible, and it may not reflect the actual performance of the installed sensor. We investigated a multi-step approach to retroactively re-calibrate sensor water content data from the dielectric permittivity readings obtained by sensors in the field. We used water content data collected since 2009 from a sensor network installed at 42 locations and 5 depths (210 sensors total) within the 37-ha Cook Agronomy Farm with highly variable soils located in the Palouse region of the Northwest United States. First, volumetric water content was calculated from sensor dielectric readings using three equations: (1) a factory calibration using the Topp equation; (2) a custom calibration obtained empirically from an instrumented soil in the field; and (3) a hybrid equation that combines the Topp and custom equations. Second, we used soil physical properties (particle size and bulk density) and pedotransfer functions to estimate water content at saturation, field capacity, and wilting point for each installation location and depth. We also extracted the same reference points from the sensor readings, when available. Using these reference points, we re-scaled the sensor readings, such that water content was restricted to the range of values that we would expect given the physical properties of the soil. The re-calibration accuracy was assessed with volumetric water content measurements obtained from field-sampled cores taken on multiple dates. In general, the re-calibration was most accurate when all three reference points (saturation, field capacity, and wilting

  14. Differential sensory cortical involvement in auditory and visual sensorimotor temporal recalibration: Evidence from transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytemür, Ali; Almeida, Nathalia; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk

    2017-02-01

    Adaptation to delayed sensory feedback following an action produces a subjective time compression between the action and the feedback (temporal recalibration effect, TRE). TRE is important for sensory delay compensation to maintain a relationship between causally related events. It is unclear whether TRE is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon. In 3 experiments employing a sensorimotor synchronization task, we investigated this question using cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). We found that cathodal tDCS over the visual cortex, and to a lesser extent over the auditory cortex, produced decreased visual TRE. However, both auditory and visual cortex tDCS did not produce any measurable effects on auditory TRE. Our study revealed different nature of TRE in auditory and visual domains. Visual-motor TRE, which is more variable than auditory TRE, is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon, modulated by the auditory cortex. The robustness of auditory-motor TRE, unaffected by tDCS, suggests the dominance of the auditory system in temporal processing, by providing a frame of reference in the realignment of sensorimotor timing signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptation to Delayed Speech Feedback Induces Temporal Recalibration between Vocal Sensory and Auditory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. Participants read some sentences with specific delay times of DAF (0, 30, 75, 120 ms during three minutes to induce ‘Lag Adaptation’. After the adaptation, they then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback in producing simple voice but not speech. We found that speech production with lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  16. The Build-Up Course of Visuo-Motor and Audio-Motor Temporal Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimori Sugano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor timing is recalibrated after a brief exposure to a delayed feedback of voluntary actions (temporal recalibration effect: TRE (Heron et al., 2009; Stetson et al., 2006; Sugano et al., 2010. We introduce a new paradigm, namely ‘synchronous tapping’ (ST which allows us to investigate how the TRE builds up during adaptation. In each experimental trial, participants were repeatedly exposed to a constant lag (∼150 ms between their voluntary action (pressing a mouse and a feedback stimulus (a visual flash / an auditory click 10 times. Immediately after that, they performed a ST task with the same stimulus as a pace signal (7 flashes / clicks. A subjective ‘no-delay condition’ (∼50 ms served as control. The TRE manifested itself as a change in the tap-stimulus asynchrony that compensated the exposed lag (eg, after lag adaptation, the tap preceded the stimulus more than in control and built up quickly (∼3–6 trials, ∼23–45 sec in both the visuo- and audio-motor domain. The audio-motor TRE was bigger and built-up faster than the visuo-motor one. To conclude, the TRE is comparable between visuo- and audio-motor domain, though they are slightly different in size and build-up rate.

  17. Test-retest reliability of visual-evoked potential habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschel, Veronika; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Krafczyk, Siegbert; Straube, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Habituation of visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) is typically described as deficient interictally in migraine patients, supposedly indicating altered cortical excitability. Use of this parameter for monitoring changes over time, e.g. under treatment, requires demonstration of test-retest reliability. VEPs were recorded interictally in 41 episodic migraine patients and 40 controls. N75-P100 amplitudes were measured over six consecutive blocks of 75 VEPs each. Amplitude regression slopes and block ratios were used to quantify VEP habituation. Test-retest reliability was assessed over 15 minutes and two to three weeks. Controls showed significantly more negative VEP habituation slopes than migraine patients (-0.21 ± 0.40 vs. 0.04 ± 0.46 µV/block, p test to two- to three-week retest (p test-retest correlations were mostly poor both in migraine patients and controls (intraclass correlation coefficients, 15 minutes: -0.13 to 0.30, two to three weeks: 0.07 to 0.59). Deficient VEP habituation in migraine was confirmed. However, the test-retest reliability of VEP habituation was rather weak. Therefore, we suggest that VEP habituation should be used for evaluation of cortical excitability under treatment only at the group level and only when a control group with sham treatment is included. © International Headache Society 2015.

  18. Acoustic stapedial reflexes in healthy neonates: normative data and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kei, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic stapedial reflex (ASR) test provides useful information about the function of the auditory system. While it is frequently used with adults and children in a clinical setting, its use with young infants is limited. Presently, there are few data for neonates and inadequate research into the test-retest reliability of the ASR test. This study aimed to establish normative data and evaluate the test-retest reliability of the ASR test in healthy neonates. A cross-sectional experimental design was used to establish ASR normative data and assess the test-retest reliability of ASR thresholds obtained from healthy neonates. Sixty-eight full-term neonates with mean chronological age of 2.5 days (SD = 1.8 day), who passed the automated auditory brainstem response, transient evoked otoacoustic emission, and high frequency (1 kHz) tympanometry (HFT) tests. One randomly selected ear from each neonate was tested using TEOAE (transient evoked otoacoustic emission), HFT, and ASR tests using a 1 kHz probe tone. ASR thresholds were elicited by presenting pure tones of 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz and broadband noise (BBN) separately to the test ear in an ipsilateral stimulation mode. The ASR procedure was repeated to acquire retest data within the same testing session. Descriptive statistics, χ2, and analysis of variance with repeated measures tests were used to analyze ASR data. All neonates exhibited ASR when stimulated by tonal stimuli or BBN. The mean ASRTs (acoustic stapedial reflex thresholds) for the 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz tones were 81.6 ± 7.9, 71.3 ± 7.9, and 65.4 ± 8.7 dB HL, respectively. The mean ASRT for the BBN was estimated to be smaller than 57.2 dB HL, given the limitation of the equipment. The 95th percentiles of the ASRT were 95, 85, 80, and 75 dB HL for the 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz and BBN, respectively. The test-retest reliability of the ASR test for all stimuli was high, with no significant difference in mean ASRTs across the test and retest conditions. Test-retest

  19. Investigating long-term retest effects in the GHQ-12

    OpenAIRE

    Pevalin, David J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to examine data from a general population sample for any retest effects in the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A core panel was drawn from the British Household Panel Survey (n=4749) of those who had completed the GHQ-12 seven times from 1991 to 1997. The panel results were compared with cross-sectional data from the Health Surveys for England for the same years. No evidence of retest effects was found. The age composition of the panel and the distribution o...

  20. Visual analogue scales: scale recalibration by patients with dementia and their proxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, Alexander M M; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Adang, Eddy M M

    2013-06-01

    Visual analogue scales (VAS) are often used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, when such scales contain ambiguous anchors like "best imaginable health state," they produce answers that are difficult to interpret, as such anchors are interpreted differently by respondents of different age. This phenomenon that people's interpretation of subjective response scales changes in response to changing circumstances is known as scale recalibration. The current study attempts to investigate whether scale recalibration in a patient sample with cognitive limitations and proxies differs from the general population. The participants in the current study were 151 pairs of community-dwelling patients with dementia and their proxies. They were administered three VASs with different upper anchors; (A) "best imaginable health state," (B) "best imaginable health state for someone your age," and (C) "best imaginable health state for a 25-year-old." From literature, we inferred a conceptual model for the general population that predicts the ordinal relationship of the VASs to be B ≥ A ≥ C. This rank order is tested by repeated measure ANOVA's in the aforementioned populations. VAS scores of patients with dementia were in line with the conceptual model. Proxy VAS scores for assessing patient HRQoL were not in line with the model: A > B > C. In addition, proxy VAS scores for assessing their own health were not in line with the model: A > B > C. Patients with dementia use the VAS in a similar way to the general population. Proxies assessing either patients or themselves differ from the general population.

  1. Recalibrating disease parameters for increasing realism in modeling epidemics in closed settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioglio, Livio; Génois, Mathieu; Vestergaard, Christian L; Poletto, Chiara; Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria

    2016-11-14

    The homogeneous mixing assumption is widely adopted in epidemic modelling for its parsimony and represents the building block of more complex approaches, including very detailed agent-based models. The latter assume homogeneous mixing within schools, workplaces and households, mostly for the lack of detailed information on human contact behaviour within these settings. The recent data availability on high-resolution face-to-face interactions makes it now possible to assess the goodness of this simplified scheme in reproducing relevant aspects of the infection dynamics. We consider empirical contact networks gathered in different contexts, as well as synthetic data obtained through realistic models of contacts in structured populations. We perform stochastic spreading simulations on these contact networks and in populations of the same size under a homogeneous mixing hypothesis. We adjust the epidemiological parameters of the latter in order to fit the prevalence curve of the contact epidemic model. We quantify the agreement by comparing epidemic peak times, peak values, and epidemic sizes. Good approximations of the peak times and peak values are obtained with the homogeneous mixing approach, with a median relative difference smaller than 20 % in all cases investigated. Accuracy in reproducing the peak time depends on the setting under study, while for the peak value it is independent of the setting. Recalibration is found to be linear in the epidemic parameters used in the contact data simulations, showing changes across empirical settings but robustness across groups and population sizes. An adequate rescaling of the epidemiological parameters can yield a good agreement between the epidemic curves obtained with a real contact network and a homogeneous mixing approach in a population of the same size. The use of such recalibrated homogeneous mixing approximations would enhance the accuracy and realism of agent-based simulations and limit the intrinsic biases of

  2. The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (Cast): Test--Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jo; Allison, Carrie; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions in research. Good test accuracy was demonstrated in studies with primary school aged children in mainstream schools. The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the CAST. Parents of…

  3. 14 CFR 61.49 - Retesting after failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retesting after failure. 61.49 Section 61.49 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... failure. (a) An applicant for a knowledge or practical test who fails that test may reapply for the test...

  4. 14 CFR 63.59 - Retesting after failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retesting after failure. 63.59 Section 63.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... failure. (a) An applicant for a flight navigator certificate who fails a written or practical test for...

  5. 14 CFR 63.41 - Retesting after failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retesting after failure. 63.41 Section 63.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... failure. An applicant for a flight engineer certificate who fails a written test or practical test for...

  6. Misinformation increases symptom reporting: a test - retest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, H.; Jelicic, M.; Pieters, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined whether misleading information (i.e. misinformation) may promote symptom reporting in non-clinical participants. DESIGN: A test-retest study in which we collected baseline data about participants' psychological symptoms and then misinformed them that they had rated two target

  7. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....

  8. Test-Retest Stability of Word Retrieval in Aphasic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the test-retest stability of select word-retrieval measures in the discourses of people with aphasia who completed a 5-stimulus discourse task. Method: Discourse samples across 3 sessions from 12 individuals with aphasia were analyzed for the stability of measures of informativeness, efficiency, main concepts, noun and…

  9. Test-Retest Reliability of Subjective Survival Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Jochem

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the test-retest reliability of subjective survival expectations. Using a nationally representative sample from the Netherlands, we compare probabilities reported by the same individuals in two different surveys that were fielded in the same month. We evaluate reliability both at

  10. Executive Function in Preschool Children: Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Danielle M.; Schaefer, Catherine; Pang, Karen; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that executive function (EF) may distinguish between children who are well- or ill-prepared for kindergarten; however, little is known about the test-retest reliability of measures of EF for children. We aimed to establish a battery of EF measures that are sensitive to both development and individual differences across the…

  11. Test-Retest Reliability of Subjective Survival Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Jochem

    This paper analyzes the test-retest reliability of subjective survival expectations. Using a nationally representative sample from the Netherlands, we compare probabilities reported by the same individuals in two different surveys that were fielded in the same month. We evaluate reliability both at

  12. Exploring Test–Retest Variability Using High-Resolution Perimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddess, Ted; Matsumoto, Chota; Okuyama, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Nomoto, Hiroki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Test–retest variability (TRV) of visual field (VF) data seriously degrades our capacity to recognize true VF progression. We conducted repeated high-resolution perimetry with a test interval of 0.5° to investigate the sources of TRV. In particular, we examined whether the spatial variance of the observed sensitivity changes or if their absolute magnitude was of more importance. Methods Sixteen eyes of 16 glaucoma patients were each tested three times at 61 VF locations along the superior-temporal 45° meridian using a modified protocol of the Octopus 900 perimeter. TRV was quantified as the standard deviation of the repeats at each point (retest-SD). We also computed the mean sensitivity at each point (retest-MS) and the running spatial-SD along the tested meridian. Multiple regression models investigated whether any of those variables (and also age, sex, and VF eccentricity) were significant independent determinants of TRV. Results The main independent determinants of TRV were the retest-MS at −0.04 dB TRV/dB loss (P retest-SD at 0.47 dB spatial variance/dB loss (P < 0.0001, t-statistic 12.5). Conclusions The larger effect for the spatial-SD suggested that it was perhaps a stronger determinant of TRV than scotoma depth per se. This might support the hypothesis that interactions between small perimetric stimuli, rapidly varying sensitivity across the field, and normal fixational jitter are strong determinants of TRV. Translational Relevance Our study indicates that methods that might reduce the effects of jagged sensitivity changes, such as increasing stimulus size or better gaze tracking, could reduce TRV. PMID:29046828

  13. Exploring Test-Retest Variability Using High-Resolution Perimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Takuya; Maddess, Ted; Matsumoto, Chota; Okuyama, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Nomoto, Hiroki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-01

    Test-retest variability (TRV) of visual field (VF) data seriously degrades our capacity to recognize true VF progression. We conducted repeated high-resolution perimetry with a test interval of 0.5° to investigate the sources of TRV. In particular, we examined whether the spatial variance of the observed sensitivity changes or if their absolute magnitude was of more importance. Sixteen eyes of 16 glaucoma patients were each tested three times at 61 VF locations along the superior-temporal 45° meridian using a modified protocol of the Octopus 900 perimeter. TRV was quantified as the standard deviation of the repeats at each point (retest-SD). We also computed the mean sensitivity at each point (retest-MS) and the running spatial-SD along the tested meridian. Multiple regression models investigated whether any of those variables (and also age, sex, and VF eccentricity) were significant independent determinants of TRV. The main independent determinants of TRV were the retest-MS at -0.04 dB TRV/dB loss ( P retest-SD at 0.47 dB spatial variance/dB loss ( P < 0.0001, t -statistic 12.5). The larger effect for the spatial-SD suggested that it was perhaps a stronger determinant of TRV than scotoma depth per se. This might support the hypothesis that interactions between small perimetric stimuli, rapidly varying sensitivity across the field, and normal fixational jitter are strong determinants of TRV. Our study indicates that methods that might reduce the effects of jagged sensitivity changes, such as increasing stimulus size or better gaze tracking, could reduce TRV.

  14. Test-retest reliability of the Neuromuscular Recovery Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Andrea L; Velozo, Craig; Suter, Sarah; Lorenz, Doug; Basso, D Michele

    2015-08-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of the Neuromuscular Recovery Scale (NRS), a measure to classify lower extremity and trunk recovery of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to typical preinjury performance of functional tasks without use of external and behavioral compensation. Multicenter observational study. Five outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Physical therapists (N=13), trained and competent in conducting NRS, rated outpatients with SCI (N=69) using the NRS. Testing occurred on 2 days, separated by 24 to 48 hours, on the same patient by the same therapist. Not applicable. Spearman rank correlation coefficients to compare NRS results. The NRS scores of motor performance were based on normal, preinjury function on 11 items: 4 treadmill-based items (standing and stepping), 7 overground/mat items (sitting, sit-up, reverse sit-up, trunk extension, sit to stand, standing, walking). Test-retest reliability was very strong for the NRS items. Ten of the 11 items exhibited Spearman correlation coefficients ≥.92, and lower bounds of the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for these items met or exceeded .83. The exception was stand retraining (ρ=.84; 95% CI, .68-.96). The test-retest reliability of the measurement model-derived summary score was very strong (ρ=.99; 95% CI, .96-.99). The NRS had excellent test-retest reliability when conducted by trained therapists in adults with chronic SCI across all levels of injury severity. All raters had undergone standardized training in use of the NRS. The minimal requirement of training to achieve test-retest reliability has not been established. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of the 20-sec Wingate Test to Assess Anaerobic Power in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Scholtes, Vanessa A. B.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Becher, Jules G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate anaerobic test in children with cerebral palsy. Design: Participants were 22 ambulant children with cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (limitations in advanced

  16. Test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate test to assess anaerobic power in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A.J.; Scholtes, V.A.B.; Brehm, M.A.; Becher, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate anaerobic test in children with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Participants were 22 ambulant children with cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (limitations in advanced

  17. Test-retest, retest, and retest: Growth curve models of repeat testing with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerlender, Arthur C; Masterson, Caitlin J; James, Tiffany D; Beckwith, Jonathan; Brolinson, Per Gunner; Crisco, Joe; Duma, Stefan; Flashman, Laura A; Greenwald, Rick; Rowson, Steven; Wilcox, Beth; McAllister, Tom W

    2016-10-01

    Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test-retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Growth curve modeling showed that the two memory composite scores increased significantly with successive administrations: Change in Verbal Memory was best represented with a quadratic model, while a linear model best fit Visual Memory. Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time composites showed no significant linear or quadratic growth. The results demonstrate the effect of repeated test administrations for memory composite scores, while speed composites were not significantly impacted by repeat testing. Acceptable test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all four composites as well.

  18. Evaluation and Recalibration of Empirical Constant for Estimation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration against the Modified Penman Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasireka, K.; Jagan Mohan Reddy, C.; Charan Reddy, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The major demand in our country is irrigation demand. Looking to the low irrigation potential and small water resources, it is felt necessary to see that water must be used economically and efficiently. This may be achieved by using latest methods of determination of water requirements for crops and applying the proper water management practices. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a basic for calculation of water requirement for crops. The various popular empirical equations for reference crop evapotranspiration (ETr) belong to three categories namely, Temperature, Radiation based methods and Combined methods. The above methods are site specific; hence it is necessary to recalibrate the coefficients for applying them in India. In the present paper, the standard combined method namely FAO modified Penman method was used to recalibrate the constants in temperature based (TB) methods and it can also be used to determine the ETr for the selected station. Four TB evapotranspiration models namely Blaney-Criddle, Romanenko, Kharrufa, and, Thronthwaite methods are recalibrated and the constant in each method are redefined for the data from Lekkur station, Cuddalore district in India. The result shows that, large error existed when ETr has been calculated with original constants. Hence regression equations were developed to minimise these variations in magnitude. It was found that out of four methods the Blaney-Criddle method suits better for the selected region.

  19. Recalibration of the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam instrument with an expanded geochemical database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Lasue, Jeremie; Cousin, Agnes; Payre, Valerie; Boucher, Tommy; Dyar, M. Darby; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Mertzman, Stanley A; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Belgacem, Ines; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Ben C.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald; Gasda, Patrick J.; Gasnault, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-01-01

    The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, reported as oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O), have been re-calibrated using a laboratory LIBS instrument, Mars-like atmospheric conditions, and a much larger set of standards (408) that span a wider compositional range than previously employed. The new calibration uses a combination of partial least squares (PLS1) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms, together with a calibration transfer matrix to minimize differences between the conditions under which the standards were analyzed in the laboratory and the conditions on Mars. While the previous model provided good results in the compositional range near the average Mars surface composition, the new model fits the extreme compositions far better. Examples are given for plagioclase feldspars, where silicon was significantly over-estimated by the previous model, and for calcium-sulfate veins, where silicon compositions near zero were inaccurate. The uncertainties of major element abundances are described as a function of the abundances, and are overall significantly lower than the previous model, enabling important new geochemical interpretations of the data.

  20. Human behavior state profile mapping based on recalibrated speech affective space model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, N; Wahab, A

    2012-01-01

    People typically associate health with only physical health. However, health is also interconnected to mental and emotional health. People who are emotionally healthy are in control of their behaviors and experience better quality of life. Hence, understanding human behavior is very important in ensuring the complete understanding of one's holistic health. In this paper, we attempt to map human behavior state (HBS) profiles onto recalibrated speech affective space model (rSASM). Such an approach is derived from hypotheses that: 1) Behavior is influenced by emotion, 2) Emotion can be quantified through speech, 3) Emotion is dynamic and changes over time and 4) the emotion conveyance is conditioned by culture. Empirical results illustrated that the proposed approach can complement other types of behavior analysis in such a way that it offers more explanatory components from the perspective of emotion primitives (valence and arousal). Four different driving HBS; namely: distracted, laughing, sleepy and normal are profiled onto the rSASM to visualize the correlation between HBS and emotion. This approach can be incorporated in the future behavior analysis to envisage better performance.

  1. The role of reafference in recalibration of limb movement control and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J R; DiZio, P

    1997-01-01

    The reafference model has frequently been used to explain spatial constancy during eye and head movements. We have found that its basic concepts also form part of the information processing necessary for the control and recalibration of reaching movements. Reaching was studied in a novel force environment--a rotating room that creates centripetal forces of the type that could someday substitute for gravity in space flight, and Coriolis forces which are side effects of rotation. We found that inertial, noncontacting Coriolis forces deviate the path and endpoint of reaching movements, a finding that shows the inadequacy of equilibrium position models of movement control. Repeated movements in the rotating room quickly lead to normal movement patterns and to a failure to perceive the perturbing forces. The first movements made after rotation stops, without Coriolis forces present, show mirror-image deviations and evoke perception of a perturbing force even though none is present. These patterns of sensorimotor control and adaptation can largely be explained on the basis of comparisons of efference copy, reafferent muscle spindle, and cutaneous mechanoreceptor signals. We also describe experiments on human locomotion using an apparatus similar to that which Mittelstaedt used to study the optomotor response of the Eristalis fly. These results show that the reafference principle relates as well to the perception of the forces acting on and exerted by the body during voluntary locomotion.

  2. Relative Time Compression for Slow-Motion Stimuli through Rapid Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saya Kashiwakura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of psychophysical studies have shown that moving stimuli appear to last longer than static stimuli. Here, we report that the perceived duration for slow moving stimuli can be shorter than for static stimuli under specific circumstances. Observers were tested using natural movies presented at various speeds (0.0× = static, 0.25× = slow, or 1.9× = fast, relative to original speed and indicated whether test duration was perceived as longer or shorter than comparison movies presented at their original speed. While fast movies were perceived as longer than slow and static movies (in accordance with previous studies, we found that slow movies were perceived as shorter (i.e., time compressed compared to static images. Similar results were obtained for artificial stimuli consisting of drifting gratings. However, time compression for slow stimuli disappeared if comparison stimuli were replaced by a white static disk that removed repetitive exposures to moving stimuli. Results suggest that duration estimation is modulated by contextual effects induced by the specific diet – or distribution – of prior visual stimuli to which observers are exposed. A simple model, which includes a rapid recalibration of human time estimation via adaptation to preceding stimuli, succeeds in reproducing our experimental data.

  3. Test-retest reliability of graph metrics in high-resolution functional connectomics: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai-Xiao; Liao, Xu-Hong; Lin, Qi-Xiang; Li, Gu-Shu; Chi, Yu-Ze; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Hua-Zhong; Wang, Yu; Xia, Ming-Rui

    2015-10-01

    The combination of resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) technique and graph theoretical approaches has emerged as a promising tool for characterizing the topological organization of brain networks, that is, functional connectomics. In particular, the construction and analysis of high-resolution brain connectomics at a voxel scale are important because they do not require prior regional parcellations and provide finer spatial information about brain connectivity. However, the test-retest reliability of voxel-based functional connectomics remains largely unclear. This study tended to investigate both short-term (∼20 min apart) and long-term (6 weeks apart) test-retest (TRT) reliability of graph metrics of voxel-based brain networks. Based on graph theoretical approaches, we analyzed R-fMRI data from 53 young healthy adults who completed two scanning sessions (session 1 included two scans 20 min apart; session 2 included one scan that was performed after an interval of ∼6 weeks). The high-resolution networks exhibited prominent small-world and modular properties and included functional hubs mainly located at the default-mode, salience, and executive control systems. Further analysis revealed that test-retest reliabilities of network metrics were sensitive to the scanning orders and intervals, with fair to excellent long-term reliability between Scan 1 and Scan 3 and lower reliability involving Scan 2. In the long-term case (Scan 1 and Scan 3), most network metrics were generally test-retest reliable, with the highest reliability in global metrics in the clustering coefficient and in the nodal metrics in nodal degree and efficiency. We showed high test-retest reliability for graph properties in the high-resolution functional connectomics, which provides important guidance for choosing reliable network metrics and analysis strategies in future studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. It is all me: the effect of viewpoint on visual-vestibular recalibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Tesch, Joachim; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Participants performed a visual-vestibular motor recalibration task in virtual reality. The task consisted of keeping the extended arm and hand stable in space during a whole-body rotation induced by a robotic wheelchair. Performance was first quantified in a pre-test in which no visual feedback was available during the rotation. During the subsequent adaptation phase, optical flow resulting from body rotation was provided. This visual feedback was manipulated to create the illusion of a smaller rotational movement than actually occurred, hereby altering the visual-vestibular mapping. The effects of the adaptation phase on hand stabilization performance were measured during a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Three different groups of subjects were exposed to different perspectives on the visual scene, i.e., first-person, top view, or mirror view. Sensorimotor adaptation occurred for all three viewpoint conditions, performance in the post-test session showing a marked under-compensation relative to the pre-test performance. In other words, all viewpoints gave rise to a remapping between vestibular input and the motor output required to stabilize the arm. Furthermore, the first-person and mirror view adaptation induced a significant decrease in variability of the stabilization performance. Such variability reduction was not observed for the top view adaptation. These results suggest that even if all three viewpoints can evoke substantial adaptation aftereffects, the more naturalistic first-person view and the richer mirror view should be preferred when reducing motor variability constitutes an important issue.

  5. Motor-Sensory Recalibration Modulates Perceived Simultaneity of Cross-Modal Events at Different Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brent D.; Novich, Scott D.; Eagleman, David M.

    2013-01-01

    A popular model for the representation of time in the brain posits the existence of a single, central-clock. In that framework, temporal distortions in perception are explained by contracting or expanding time over a given interval. We here present evidence for an alternative account, one which proposes multiple independent timelines coexisting within the brain and stresses the importance of motor predictions and causal inferences in constructing our temporal representation of the world. Participants judged the simultaneity of a beep and flash coming from a single source at different distances. The beep was always presented at a constant delay after a motor action, while the flash occurred at a variable delay. Independent shifts in the implied timing of the auditory stimulus toward the motor action (but not the visual stimulus) provided evidence against a central-clock model. Additionally, the hypothesis that the time between action and delayed effect is compressed (known as intentional binding) seems unable to explain our results: firstly, because actions and effects can perceptually reverse, and secondly because the recalibration of simultaneity remains even after the participant’s intentional actions are no longer present. Contrary to previous reports, we also find that participants are unable to use distance cues to compensate for the relatively slower speed of sound when audio-visual events are presented in depth. When a motor act is used to control the distal event, however, adaptation to the delayed auditory signal occurs and subjective cross-sensory synchrony is maintained. These results support the hypothesis that perceptual timing derives from and is calibrated by our motor interactions with the world. PMID:23549660

  6. Motor-sensory recalibration modulates perceived simultaneity of cross-modal events atdifferent distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D Parsons

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A popular model for the representation of time in the brain posits the existence of a single, central clock. In that framework, temporal distortions in perception are explained by contracting or expanding time over a given interval. We here present evidence for an alternative account, one which proposes multiple independent timelines coexisting within the brain and stresses the importance of motor predictions and causal inferences in constructing our temporal representation of the world. Participants judged the simultaneity of a beep and flash coming from a single source at different distances. The beep was always presented at a constant delay after a motor action, while the flash occurred at a variable delay. Independent shifts in the implied timing of the auditory stimulus towards the motor action (but not the visual stimulus provided evidence against a central-clock model. Additionally, the hypothesis that the time between action and delayed effect is compressed (known as intentional binding seems unable to explain our results: firstly, because actions and effects can perceptually reverse, and secondly because the recalibration of simultaneity remains even after the participant’s intentional actions are no longer present. Contrary to previous reports, we also find that participants are unable to use distance cues to compensate for the relatively slower speed of sound when audio-visual events are presented in depth. When a motor act is used to control the distal event, however, adaptation to the delayed auditory signal occurs and subjective cross-sensory synchrony is maintained. These results support the hypothesis that perceptual timing derives from and is calibrated by our motor interactions with the world.

  7. Test-retest reliability of the irrational performance beliefs inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J; Slater, M J; Dixon, J; Miller, A

    2018-02-01

    The irrational performance beliefs inventory (iPBI) was developed to measure irrational beliefs within performance domains such as sport, academia, business, and the military. Past research indicates that the iPBI has good construct, concurrent, and predictive validity, but the test-retest reliability of the iPBI has not yet been examined. Therefore, in the present study the iPBI was administered to university sport and exercise students (n = 160) and academy soccer athletes (n = 75) at three-time points. Time point two occurred 7 days after time point one, and time point three occurred 21 days after time point two. In addition, social desirability was also measured. Repeated-measures MANCOVAs, intra-class coefficients, and Pearson's (r) correlations demonstrate that the iPBI has good test-retest reliability, with iPBI scores remaining stable across the three-time points. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed no relationships between the iPBI and social desirability, indicating that the iPBI is not highly susceptible to response bias. The results are discussed with reference to the continued usage and development of the iPBI, and future research recommendations relating to the investigation of irrational performance beliefs are proposed.

  8. Recalibration and validation of the SCORE risk chart in the Australian population: the AusSCORE chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Tonkin, Andrew M; Moon, Lynelle; Mitchell, Paul; Dobson, Annette; Giles, Graham; Hobbs, Michael; Phillips, Patrick J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon A; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2009-10-01

    Development of a validated risk prediction model for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australians is a high priority for cardiovascular health strategies. Recalibration of the SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation) risk chart based on Australian national mortality data and average major CVD risk factor levels. Australian national mortality data (2003-2005) were used to estimate 10-year cumulative CVD mortality rates for people aged 40-74 years. Average age-specific and sex-specific levels of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and prevalence of current smoking were generated from data obtained in eight Australian large-scale population-based surveys undertaken from the late 1980s. The SCORE risk chart was then recalibrated by applying hazard ratios for 10-year CVD mortality obtained in the SCORE project. Discrimination and calibration of the recalibrated model was evaluated and compared with that of the original SCORE and Framingham equations in the Blue Mountains Eye Study in Australia using Harrell's c and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi statistics, respectively. An Australian risk prediction chart for CVD mortality was derived. Among 1998 Blue Mountains Eye Study participants aged 49-74 years with neither CVD nor diabetes at baseline, the Harrell's c statistics for the Australian risk prediction chart for CVD mortality were 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.84) and 0.71 (confidence interval: 0.62-0.80) in men and women, respectively. The corresponding Hosmer-Lemeshow chi statistics, the measure of calibration, were 2.32 (P = 0.68) and 7.43 (P = 0.11), which were superior to both the SCORE and Framingham equations. This new tool provides a valid and reliable method to predict risk of CVD mortality in the general Australian population.

  9. Rorschach e pedofilia: a fidedignidade no teste-reteste = Rorschach and pedophilia: a reliability at test-retest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scortegagna, Silvana Alba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo buscou investigar as características de personalidade de um indivíduo pedófilo, e evidenciar a fidedignidade do Rorschach no teste-reteste. O participante, com 38 anos de idade, masculino, respondeu a entrevista e ao método de Rorschach, em duas etapas. Os principais achados revelam: a uma tendência à fragmentação na percepção de si e dos outros; b autoimagem negativa e desfavorável em relação ao corpo e suas funções; c problemas nas relações interpessoais, falhas na capacidade de empatia; d déficit no ajustamento perceptivo da realidade; e vulnerabilidade a pressões subjetivas e impulsividade. Esses resultados mantiveram-se estáveis comparando-se as duas aplicações, permitindo ampliar a compreensão dos elementos psicológicos envolvidos na pedofilia, que se mantem, e apoiam a fidedignidade do Rorschach no teste-reteste

  10. SU-F-T-282: Quality Assurance for IMRT/VMAT QA Devices: Issues Affecting the Timing for ArcCHECK Recalibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steers, J [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Fraass, B [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To discuss several factors surrounding the decision on when to recalibrate the ArcCHECK device as well as present a simple and efficient monthly check to evaluate ArcCHECK calibrations. Methods: ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear) calibrations were evaluated monthly by measuring a 25×25cm{sup 2} field with 100 MU. Since ArcCHECK measurements are run on an almost nightly basis, such additional square field measurements are obtained with minimal additional effort. An in-house MATLAB script compares two radial (y-direction) profiles from the top/center of the new measurement relative to a baseline measurement acquired at the last device calibration. The program automatically generates PDF profile and percent difference comparisons for inspection. Recalibration is based on inspection of measurement profile shapes and percent differences from the baseline measurement. Results: The method presented here shows the utility of a simple monthly check for evaluating ArcCHECK calibrations, and in addition shows the importance of recalibrating after Linac beam steering. Our device required recalibration approximately every 8–10 months. However, for ease of scheduling, we propose a bi-annual recalibration interval. Clinics with a lighter/heavier IMRT/VMAT QA case load may require different recalibration intervals, which are easily determined using the single-field method presented. Analysis of additional square fields is also easily incorporated, if desired. We further illustrate the importance of array recalibration given that diode irradiation is not uniform over the entire device, with central diodes receiving more than 900 Gy over the course of 10 months and peripheral diodes receiving as little as 50 Gy (in our experience). Finally, we show that timely device recalibration decreases spread in clinical IMRT/VMAT QA gamma passing rates. Conclusion: Quality assurance for ArcCHECK array calibrations is important to ensure quality IMRT/VMAT QA comparisons. For many clinics

  11. Test-retest reliability and inter-ocular symmetry of multi-focal electroretinography in Stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, Chinatsu; Gorin, Michael B; Nusinowitz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate test-retest reliability and inter-ocular symmetry of multi-focal electroretinography recordings in Stargardt disease and in patients without retinal pathology. Multi-focal electroretinography were recorded with continuous fundus monitoring using the VERIS multifocal recording system using an array of 103 hexagons spanning 50 degrees of central retina. Recordings were made sequentially from one eye (test-retest) followed by recordings from the fellow eye. A departure score, expressed as a percentage difference from the first recording (or from the fellow eye), was calculated for each comparison and parameter. Multi-focal electroretinography response topographies were similar within and between eyes for a particular individual and parameter. However, local response variability within and between eyes was significantly higher in Stargardt disease than in patients without retinal pathology for both amplitude and timing parameters. Amplitude variability in Stargardt disease decreased with more peripheral targets and with larger stimuli but never to the levels achieved with normal observers. Both test-retest reliability and inter-ocular symmetry of multi-focal electroretinography responses were significantly lower in Stargardt disease compared to normal eyes, a finding attributable primarily to unsteady fixation. The greater variability between eyes in Stargardt disease may also reflect pathological differences in the topography of retinal function. This inherent variability must be taken into consideration if the multi-focal electroretinography is to be sufficiently sensitive to reliably detect small differences in retinal function.

  12. Retesting with the TRUE Test in a population-based twin cohort with hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbaek, Anne; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy with retesting of individuals are infrequently performed. Variable degrees of persistence are reported when individuals with contact allergy are retested with years in between. The patch test results of 270 individuals tested in 2005-2006 are presented ...

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  14. Test–retest reliability and validity of self-reported duration of computer use at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, S.; Leijssen, J.N.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the test–retest reliability and the validity of self-reported duration of computer use at work. Test–retest reliability was studied among 81 employees of a research department of a university medical center. The employees filled out a web-based questionnaire twice with an

  15. Tapering Practices of Strongman Athletes: Test-Retest Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winwood, Paul W; Pritchard, Hayden J; Keogh, Justin Wl

    2017-10-31

    Little is currently known about the tapering practices of strongman athletes. We have developed an Internet-based comprehensive self-report questionnaire examining the training and tapering practices of strongman athletes. The objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of questions associated with the Internet-based comprehensive self-report questionnaire on the tapering practices of strongman athletes. The information will provide insight on the reliability and usefulness of the online questionnaire for use with strongman athletes. Invitations to complete an Internet questionnaire were sent via Facebook Messenger to identified strongman athletes. The survey consisted of four main areas of inquiry, including demographics and background information, training practices, tapering, and tapering practices. Of the 454 athletes that completed the survey over the 8-week period, 130 athletes responded on Facebook Messenger indicating that they intended to complete, or had completed, the survey. These participants were asked if they could complete the online questionnaire a second time for a test-retest reliability analysis. Sixty-four athletes (mean age 33.3 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.7; mean height 178.2 cm, SD 11.0; mean body mass 103.7 kg, SD 24.8) accepted this invitation and completed the survey for the second time after a minimum 7-day period from the date of their first completion. Agreement between athlete responses was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and kappa statistics. Confidence intervals (at 95%) were reported for all measures and significance was set at P<.05. Test-retest reliability for demographic and training practices items were significant (P<.001) and showed excellent (ICC range=.84 to .98) and fair to almost perfect agreement (κ range=.37-.85). Moderate to excellent agreements (ICC range=.56-.84; P<.01) were observed for all tapering practice measures except for the number of days athletes

  16. Tapering Practices of Strongman Athletes: Test-Retest Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Hayden J; Keogh, Justin WL

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is currently known about the tapering practices of strongman athletes. We have developed an Internet-based comprehensive self-report questionnaire examining the training and tapering practices of strongman athletes. Objective The objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of questions associated with the Internet-based comprehensive self-report questionnaire on the tapering practices of strongman athletes. The information will provide insight on the reliability and usefulness of the online questionnaire for use with strongman athletes. Methods Invitations to complete an Internet questionnaire were sent via Facebook Messenger to identified strongman athletes. The survey consisted of four main areas of inquiry, including demographics and background information, training practices, tapering, and tapering practices. Of the 454 athletes that completed the survey over the 8-week period, 130 athletes responded on Facebook Messenger indicating that they intended to complete, or had completed, the survey. These participants were asked if they could complete the online questionnaire a second time for a test-retest reliability analysis. Sixty-four athletes (mean age 33.3 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.7; mean height 178.2 cm, SD 11.0; mean body mass 103.7 kg, SD 24.8) accepted this invitation and completed the survey for the second time after a minimum 7-day period from the date of their first completion. Agreement between athlete responses was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and kappa statistics. Confidence intervals (at 95%) were reported for all measures and significance was set at PTest-retest reliability for demographic and training practices items were significant (P<.001) and showed excellent (ICC range=.84 to .98) and fair to almost perfect agreement (κ range=.37-.85). Moderate to excellent agreements (ICC range=.56-.84; P<.01) were observed for all tapering practice measures except for the number

  17. Triagem Auditiva Neonatal: relação entre banho e índice de reteste Newborn Hearing Screening: the relation between bathing and the retesting rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Redeschi Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das metas de um Programa de Triagem Auditiva Neonatal (TAN consiste numa porcentagem baixa de retestes. OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre o índice de retestes e o banho do neonato. Forma de Estudo: Coorte contemporânea com corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Os resultados das Emissões Otoacústicas Evocadas por Estímulo Transiente (EOET foram comparados às informações referentes a auxiliar de enfermagem que ministrou o banho no dia do exame (373 neonatos, bem como ao tempo transcorrido entre a pesquisa das EOET e o último banho (350 neonatos. RESULTADOS: Foram constatadas diferenças significantes estatisticamente entre as porcentagens de encaminhamento para reteste quando o banho foi ministrado por algumas auxiliares de enfermagem. Além disso, a porcentagem de retestes diminuiu significantemente quando o tempo transcorrido entre o último banho e a pesquisa das EOET foi superior a 7 horas e 50 minutos. CONCLUSÃO: A umidade do meato acústico externo, ocasionada por uma proteção inadequada contra a entrada de água no momento do banho e o curto intervalo de tempo entre o banho e a pesquisa das EOET podem ser considerados como possíveis fatores geradores de retestes nos programas de TAN.One of the goals of a Newborn Hearing Screening Program (NHSP is to have a low retesting rate. AIM: To investigate the association between the retesting rate and the bath of newborn babies. Study design: cross-sectional contemporary cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transient otoacoustic emissions (TOE results have been compared to the information received from the nurse's aide who bathed the babies on the day of the test (373 newborns, and the time interval between the TOE study and the last bath (350 newborns. RESULTS: Significant statistical differences were found in relation to the percentage of retesting when babies were bathed by certain nurse's aides. On the other hand, the percentage of retesting decreased significantly when the time

  18. van Eijck and Roth's Utilitarian Science Education: Why the Recalibration of Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge Invokes Multiple Perspectives to Protect Science Education from Being Exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's ("2007") claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a…

  19. Test-retest reliability of portable metabolic monitoring after disabling stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Alyssa D; McCusker, Michael G; Sorkin, John D; Katzel, Leslie I; Shaughnessy, Marianne; Macko, Richard F; Ivey, Frederick M

    2013-01-01

    Impaired economy of gait, prevalent in chronic stroke secondary to residual gait deficits, is associated with intolerance for performing activities of daily living. Gait economy/efficiency is traditionally assessed by determining the rate of oxygen consumption during submaximal treadmill walking. However, the mechanics and energetics of treadmill versus overground walking are very different in stroke survivors with ambulatory deficits. Clearly, overground cardiopulmonary measures are needed to accurately profile movement economy after stroke. An obstacle to obtaining such measures after stroke has been the absence of reliable portable metabolic monitoring equipment. The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of a portable metabolic monitoring device during overground walking in hemiparetic stroke survivors. Twenty-three chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors underwent two 6-minute walk tests while wearing a COSMED K4b(2) portable metabolic measurement system. Intraclass correlations coefficients (ICC) were calculated for both cardiopulmonary parameters and distance covered to determine test-retest reliability. An ICC of ≥ 0.85 was considered reliable. ICCs for relative Vo2 (0.90), absolute Vo2 (0.93), Vco2 (0.93), and minute ventilation (0.95) demonstrated high reliability, but not for heart rate (0.76) or respiratory exchange ratio (0.64). There was no significant difference in the distance each participant walked between the first and second tests, eliminating distance as a potential confounder of our analyses (ICC = 0.99). Our results strongly support the reliability of the K4b(2) for quantifying overground gait efficiency after stroke. Use of this device may enable researchers to study how varying poststroke rehabilitation interventions affect this central measure of health and function.

  20. Test-Retest and Inter-Rater Reliability Study of the Schedule for Oral-Motor Assessment in Persian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Zarei Mahmood Abadi

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: Schedule for oral-motor assessment meets moderate levels of test-retest and inter-rater reliability criteria. Nonetheless, the percentage of decision consistency for inter-rater and test-retest examination turned out to be excellent.

  1. Cerebellar cathodal tDCS interferes with recalibration and spatial realignment during prism adaptation procedure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Francesco; Sagliano, Laura; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the specific role of the cerebellum during prism adaptation procedure (PAP), considering its involvement in early prism exposure (i.e., in the recalibration process) and in post-exposure phase (i.e., in the after-effect, related to spatial realignment). For this purpose we interfered with cerebellar activity by means of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), while young healthy individuals were asked to perform a pointing task on a touch screen before, during and after wearing base-left prism glasses. The distance from the target dot in each trial (in terms of pixels) on horizontal and vertical axes was recorded and served as an index of accuracy. Results on horizontal axis, that was shifted by prism glasses, revealed that participants who received cathodal stimulation showed increased rightward deviation from the actual position of the target while wearing prisms and a larger leftward deviation from the target after prisms removal. Results on vertical axis, in which no shift was induced, revealed a general trend in the two groups to improve accuracy through the different phases of the task, and a trend, more visible in cathodal stimulated participants, to worsen accuracy from the first to the last movements in each phase. Data on horizontal axis allow to confirm that the cerebellum is involved in all stages of PAP, contributing to early strategic recalibration process, as well as to spatial realignment. On vertical axis, the improving performance across the different stages of the task and the worsening accuracy within each task phase can be ascribed, respectively, to a learning process and to the task-related fatigue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the test-retest reliability of the balance computerized adaptive test and a computerized posturography instrument in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Feng; Yu, Wan-Hui; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hao-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2014-08-01

    To compare the test-retest reliabilities of the scores of the Balance Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) and the Biodex Balance System in patients with stroke. A repeated-measures design (at a 1-wk interval) was used to examine the test-retest reliabilities of the scores of the Balance CAT and the Biodex Balance System. One rehabilitation unit in a local hospital. Patients (N=50) with stroke for more than 6 months and undergoing outpatient rehabilitation completed the Balance CAT and the eyes open (EO)/closed (EC) tests, but only 17 patients finished the Limit of Stability (LOS) test because they were unable to reach all the targets. Not applicable. The Balance CAT and 2 computerized tests of the Biodex Balance System, namely the EO/EC test and the LOS, were used to evaluate balance function. The test-retest reliabilities of the scores of the Balance CAT (Pearson r=.92, minimal detectable change [MDC] percent=12.8%) was excellent. Those of the EO/EC and LOS tests were poor to good (Pearson r=.56-.85, MDC%=50.8%-126.9%). The test-retest reliabilities of the scores of the Balance CAT were sufficient for assessing balance function in patients with stroke. Moreover, the test-retest reliabilities of the scores of the Balance CAT, one of the functional balance measures, were superior to those of the Biodex Balance System, 1 type of computerized posturography instrument. Therefore, the Balance CAT may be a more reliable measure for clinicians and researchers to use in assessing the balance function of patients with stroke for more than 6 months. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Test-retest reliability of infant event related potentials evoked by faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, N M; van Ravenswaaij, H; van den Boomen, C; Kemner, C

    2017-04-05

    Reliable measures are required to draw meaningful conclusions regarding developmental changes in longitudinal studies. Little is known, however, about the test-retest reliability of face-sensitive event related potentials (ERPs), a frequently used neural measure in infants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of ERPs typically evoked by faces in 9-10 month-old infants. The infants (N=31) were presented with neutral, fearful and happy faces that contained only the lower or higher spatial frequency information. They were tested twice within two weeks. The present results show that the test-retest reliability of the face-sensitive ERP components is moderate (P400 and Nc) to substantial (N290). However, there is low test-retest reliability for the effects of the specific experimental manipulations (i.e. emotion and spatial frequency) on the face-sensitive ERPs. To conclude, in infants the face-sensitive ERP components (i.e. N290, P400 and Nc) show adequate test-retest reliability, but not the effects of emotion and spatial frequency on these ERP components. We propose that further research focuses on investigating elements that might increase the test-retest reliability, as adequate test-retest reliability is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions on individual developmental trajectories of the face-sensitive ERPs in infants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Intensity response function of the photopic negative response (PhNR): effect of age and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nabin R; Ly, Emma; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of age and test-retest reliability of the intensity response function of the full-field photopic negative response (PhNR) in normal healthy human subjects. Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from one eye of 45 subjects, and 39 of these subjects were tested on two separate days with a Diagnosys Espion System (Lowell, MA, USA). The visual stimuli consisted of brief (test-retest reliability was assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman analysis. Holm's correction was applied to account for multiple comparisons. V max of BT was significantly smaller than that of PT and b-wave, and the V max of PT and b-wave was not significantly different from each other. The slope parameter n was smallest for BT and the largest for b-wave and the difference between the slopes of all three measures were statistically significant. Small differences observed in the mean values of K for the different measures did not reach statistical significance. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated no significant differences between the two test visits for any of the Naka-Rushton parameters for the three ERG measures, and the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between test and retest measurements of the different fit parameters was close to zero and within 6% of the average of the test and retest values of the respective parameters for all three ERG measurements, indicating minimal bias. While the coefficient of reliability (COR, defined as 1.96 times the standard deviation of the test and retest difference) of each fit parameter was more or less comparable across the three ERG measurements, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest measures) was generally larger for BT compared to both PT and b-wave for each fit parameter. The Naka-Rushton fit parameters did not show statistically significant changes with age for any of the ERG measures when corrections were applied for multiple comparisons. However, the V max of

  5. Test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand measures in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    This study investigated test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand (STS) peak power and other STS measures in young and older adults. In addition, test-retest reliability of the sensor method was compared to test-retest reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and

  6. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Test-retest reliability and criterion validity of a new Taekwondo anaerobic intermittent kick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayech, Amel; Mejri, Mohamed A; Chaabene, Helmi; Chaouachi, Mehdi; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative and absolute test-retest reliability and criterion validity of a new Taekwondo anaerobic intermittent kick test (TAIKT). Twenty Tunisian elite Taekwondo athletes participated in this study (15 males and 5 females). Participants performed the TAIKT and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), twice (test and retest), on separate occasions three-week apart. Peak heart rate (HRpeak), blood lactate concentration [La־], and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each session. There was no significant difference between the test and retest of TAIKT and RAST for all performances and physiological variables, except for the absolute mean power (Pmean) of RAST. Test-retest results showed that the TAIKT and RAST were reliable. All TAIKT and RAST parameters had an ICC>0.90, SEMtest for assessing anaerobic power of Taekwondo athletes.

  8. Newborn Hearing Screening in a Public Maternity Ward in Curitiba, Brazil: Determining Factors for Not Retesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz, Idalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Law 12.303/10 requires hearing screening in newborns before hospital discharge to detect possible hearing problems within the first three months after birth. If the newborn fails the test or presents signs of risk for hearing loss, it must undergo a retest and monitoring during the first year of life. In practice, this often does not happen. Objective To identify, in a group of mothers of children with risk factors for hearing loss, the determining reasons for non-compliance with the auditory retest. Method This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, we handed a semi-structured questionnaire to 60 mothers of babies at risk for hearing loss who did not attend the hearing retest after hospital discharge. The questionnaire investigated their age, education, marital status, level of knowledge about the hearing screening, and reasons for non-compliance with the retest. We compared and analyzed data using the Chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05%. Results Our study found that 63% of the respondents were unaware of the hearing screening and most did not receive guidance on testing during prenatal care; 30% of participants stated forgetting as the reason for not attending the retest. There was no significant relationship between age, education, and marital status regarding knowledge about the test and the non-compliance with the retest. Conclusion Identified as the most significant determining factors for non-compliance with the newborn hearing screening retest were the surveyed mothers' forgetting the date, and their ignorance as to the importance of retesting.

  9. Interrater and Test-Retest Reliability of the Beery Visual-Motor Integration in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Leonard-Green, Tina K; Mohan, Kathleen M; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Davis, Amy L; Miller, Joseph M; Twelker, J Daniel; Campus, Irene; Dennis, Leslie K

    2017-05-01

    To assess interrater and test-retest reliability of the 6th Edition Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and test-retest reliability of the VMI Visual Perception Supplemental Test (VMIp) in school-age children. Subjects were 163 Native American third- to eighth-grade students with no significant refractive error (astigmatism tests were scored by two trained scorers, and a subset of 50 tests was also scored by an experienced scorer. Scorers strictly applied objective scoring criteria. Analyses included interrater and test-retest assessments of bias, 95% limits of agreement, and intraclass correlation analysis. Trained scorers had no significant scoring bias compared with the experienced scorer. One of the two trained scorers tended to provide higher scores than the other (mean difference in standardized scores = 1.54). Interrater correlations were strong (0.75 to 0.88). VMI and VMIp test-retest comparisons indicated no significant bias (subjects did not tend to score better on retest). Test-retest correlations were moderate (0.54 to 0.58). The 95% limits of agreement for the VMI were -24.14 to 24.67 (scorer 1) and -26.06 to 26.58 (scorer 2), and the 95% limits of agreement for the VMIp were -27.11 to 27.34. The 95% limit of agreement for test-retest differences will be useful for determining if the VMI and VMIp have sufficient sensitivity for detecting change with treatment in both clinical and research settings. Further research on test-retest reliability reporting 95% limits of agreement for children across different age ranges is recommended, particularly if the test is to be used to detect changes due to intervention or treatment.

  10. Test-retest consistency of speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses in typically-developing children

    OpenAIRE

    Hornickel, Jane; Knowles, Erica; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The click-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) is widely used in clinical settings, partly due to its predictability and high test-retest consistency. More recently, the speech-evoked ABR has been used to evaluate subcortical processing of complex signals, allowing for the objective assessment of biological processes underlying auditory function and auditory processing deficits not revealed by responses to clicks. Test-retest reliability of some components of speech-evoked ABRs has been s...

  11. Test-retest reliability and practice effects for the ANAM General Neuropsychological Screening battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Andrea S; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Fuenzalida, Eugenia; Gilliland, Kirby

    2018-04-01

    As the use of computer-based neurocognitive assessment is rapidly expanding, the need to systematically study and document key psychometric properties of these measures has become increasingly more salient. To meet this aim, this study examined test-retest reliability and practice effects for the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics General Neuropsychological Screening battery (ANAM GNS) in a sample of 94 community dwelling adults. ANAM GNS was administered and then repeated (alternate form) after 30 days. Test-retest reliability, practice effects, and the standard error of measurement were calculated. Using these estimates, reliable change indices were calculated to determine degree of performance change needed to exceed chance and measurement error (with 90% confidence interval). The test-retest reliability for the ANAM composite score was .91. Performance significantly improved upon retest, but the effect size was small consistent with minimal practice effects. The threshold indicating change beyond chance or measurement error with 90% certainty was .9 (z-score). Findings suggest that the ANAM GNS has excellent test-retest reliability upon retest at 30 days. Small practice effects can be expected. Change greater than .9 standard deviations in the ANAM composite score is likely to represent meaningful clinical change. This paper presents initial psychometric data from the ANAM GNS and supports its use as a reliable measure of cognition.

  12. Test-retest reliability of single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, A M; Haag, A; Duddek, C; Balkenhol, K; Bugiel, H; Bauer, S; Mylius, V; Menzler, K; Rosenow, F

    2016-03-15

    To determine the influence of different factors on test-retest reliability of frequently used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters while controlling for potential confounders in healthy subjects. TMS was applied in 93 healthy volunteers (61% male) twice (mean retest interval of 34.0 ± 25.6 (SD) days) between 7 am and 2 pm by four investigators (sessions n investigator A=47, investigator B=95, investigator C=28, investigator D=16). Women were assessed in their follicular phase. Test stimulus (TS), resting motor threshold (RMT), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent period (SCP) were analyzed. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for TS (r=.880) and RMT (r=.826), moderate for visual and automated analyzed CSP durations (resp. r=.466, r=.486), and poor for ICF (r=-.159). Reliable change indexes are reported. Gender (e.g. automated CSP women: r=.538 vs. men: r=.422), re-test interval and method of CSP-analysis did not influence reliabilities. In a large sample of healthy volunteers we found good to moderate test-retest reliabilities in all but one TMS-parameter. Automated analysis of the CSP did not prove to be more reliable than visual determination. This study contains analyses of re-test reliability in TMS considering several confounding factors. For the first time it presents reliable change indices for all frequently used TMS parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Test-retest reliabilitet av en anaerob terskeltest i felt. Undersøke test-retest reliabiliteten mellom ulike dager for en anaerob terskel test i felt.

    OpenAIRE

    Munkebye, Øyvind Bruhn

    2013-01-01

    Hensikten med dette studiet var å teste test-retest reliabilitet på en anaerob terskeltest i felt kun ved hjelp av hjertefrekvens. Resultatet fra undersøkelsen viste meget høy korrelasjon mellom anaerob terskel test 1 og anaerob terskeltest 2.

  14. Recalibration of the limiting antigen avidity EIA to determine mean duration of recent infection in divergent HIV-1 subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen T Duong

    Full Text Available Mean duration of recent infection (MDRI and misclassification of long-term HIV-1 infections, as proportion false recent (PFR, are critical parameters for laboratory-based assays for estimating HIV-1 incidence. Recent review of the data by us and others indicated that MDRI of LAg-Avidity EIA estimated previously required recalibration. We present here results of recalibration efforts using >250 seroconversion panels and multiple statistical methods to ensure accuracy and consensus.A total of 2737 longitudinal specimens collected from 259 seroconverting individuals infected with diverse HIV-1 subtypes were tested with the LAg-Avidity EIA as previously described. Data were analyzed for determination of MDRI at ODn cutoffs of 1.0 to 2.0 using 7 statistical approaches and sub-analyzed by HIV-1 subtypes. In addition, 3740 specimens from individuals with infection >1 year, including 488 from patients with AIDS, were tested for PFR at varying cutoffs.Using different statistical methods, MDRI values ranged from 88-94 days at cutoff ODn = 1.0 to 177-183 days at ODn = 2.0. The MDRI values were similar by different methods suggesting coherence of different approaches. Testing for misclassification among long-term infections indicated that overall PFRs were 0.6% to 2.5% at increasing cutoffs of 1.0 to 2.0, respectively. Balancing the need for a longer MDRI and smaller PFR (<2.0% suggests that a cutoff ODn = 1.5, corresponding to an MDRI of 130 days should be used for cross-sectional application. The MDRI varied among subtypes from 109 days (subtype A&D to 152 days (subtype C.Based on the new data and revised analysis, we recommend an ODn cutoff = 1.5 to classify recent and long-term infections, corresponding to an MDRI of 130 days (118-142. Determination of revised parameters for estimation of HIV-1 incidence should facilitate application of the LAg-Avidity EIA for worldwide use.

  15. Recalibration of the limiting antigen avidity EIA to determine mean duration of recent infection in divergent HIV-1 subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Yen T; Kassanjee, Reshma; Welte, Alex; Morgan, Meade; De, Anindya; Dobbs, Trudy; Rottinghaus, Erin; Nkengasong, John; Curlin, Marcel E; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Raengsakulrach, Boonyos; Martin, Michael; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Jiang, Yan; Qiu, Maofeng; Yu, Haiying; Hao, Yan; Shah, Neha; Le, Linh-Vi; Kim, Andrea A; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Ampofo, William; Parekh, Bharat S

    2015-01-01

    Mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and misclassification of long-term HIV-1 infections, as proportion false recent (PFR), are critical parameters for laboratory-based assays for estimating HIV-1 incidence. Recent review of the data by us and others indicated that MDRI of LAg-Avidity EIA estimated previously required recalibration. We present here results of recalibration efforts using >250 seroconversion panels and multiple statistical methods to ensure accuracy and consensus. A total of 2737 longitudinal specimens collected from 259 seroconverting individuals infected with diverse HIV-1 subtypes were tested with the LAg-Avidity EIA as previously described. Data were analyzed for determination of MDRI at ODn cutoffs of 1.0 to 2.0 using 7 statistical approaches and sub-analyzed by HIV-1 subtypes. In addition, 3740 specimens from individuals with infection >1 year, including 488 from patients with AIDS, were tested for PFR at varying cutoffs. Using different statistical methods, MDRI values ranged from 88-94 days at cutoff ODn = 1.0 to 177-183 days at ODn = 2.0. The MDRI values were similar by different methods suggesting coherence of different approaches. Testing for misclassification among long-term infections indicated that overall PFRs were 0.6% to 2.5% at increasing cutoffs of 1.0 to 2.0, respectively. Balancing the need for a longer MDRI and smaller PFR (<2.0%) suggests that a cutoff ODn = 1.5, corresponding to an MDRI of 130 days should be used for cross-sectional application. The MDRI varied among subtypes from 109 days (subtype A&D) to 152 days (subtype C). Based on the new data and revised analysis, we recommend an ODn cutoff = 1.5 to classify recent and long-term infections, corresponding to an MDRI of 130 days (118-142). Determination of revised parameters for estimation of HIV-1 incidence should facilitate application of the LAg-Avidity EIA for worldwide use.

  16. Test-retest reliability of binaural simultaneous cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Yi, Yeo-Jeen; Park, Hanaro; Kim, Mi Hee; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung-Ha; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the test-retest reliability of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) parameters between monaural sequential (mSEQ) cVEMP and binaural simultaneous (bSIM) cVEMP recordings. Twenty two volunteers aged 22 from 38 years were enrolled. Two different methods of cVEMP measurement were performed in the subjects. The two methods were (1) monaural sequential (mSEQ) measurement and (2) binaural simultaneous (bSIM) measurement. After a mean test-retest interval of 7.1 ± 2.8 days, the second run of the cVEMP measurement was performed in a random order. To compare the test-retest reliability of mSEQ and bSIM cVEMP responses, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Spearman correlation were applied. Both p13 and n23 latencies did not show a statistically significant difference between the two cVEMP recording methods. Also, there were no significant differences in the inter-peak amplitude (IPA) and interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratio between the two methods. The test-retest reliability of inter-peak amplitude (IPA) demonstrated a positive correlation for both mSEQ and bSIM cVEMP methods. The IAD ratio of bSIM cVEMP response demonstrated a statistically significant test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.691, p= 0.015). However, the IAD ratio of mSEQ cVEMP response did not demonstrate a statistically significant test-retest correlation. Results implicate that bSIM cVEMP not only saves time, but it also has an advantage of a more reliable test-retest outcome.

  17. Test-retest reliability of Attention Network Test measures in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Hahn, Constanze; Kuehl, Linn K; Ruehl, Claudia; Neuhaus, Andres H; Dettling, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a well established behavioral measure in neuropsychological research to assess three different facets of selective attention, i.e., alerting, orienting, and conflict processing. Although the ANT has been applied in healthy individuals and various clinical populations, data on retest reliability are scarce in healthy samples and lacking for clinical populations. The objective of the present study was a longitudinal assessment of relevant ANT network measures in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients. Forty-five schizophrenic patients and 55 healthy controls were tested with ANT in a test-retest design with an average interval of 7.4 months between test sessions. Test-retest reliability was analyzed with Pearson and Intra-class correlations. Healthy controls revealed moderate to high test-retest correlations for mean reaction time, mean accuracy, conflict effect, and conflict error rates. In schizophrenic patients, moderate test-retest correlations for mean reaction time, orienting effect, and conflict effect were found. The analysis of error rates in schizophrenic patients revealed very low test-retest correlations. The current study provides converging statistical evidence that the conflict effect and mean reaction time of ANT yield acceptable test-retest reliabilities in healthy controls and, investigated longitudinally for the first time, also in schizophrenia. Obtained differences of alerting and orienting effects in schizophrenia case-control studies should be considered more carefully. The analysis of error rates revealed heterogeneous results and therefore is not recommended for case control studies in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of the Short-Form Survivor Unmet Needs Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Karen; Bulsara, Max; Monterosso, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    Reliable and valid needs assessment measures are important assessment tools in cancer survivorship care. A new 30-item short-form version of the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SF-SUNS) was developed and validated with cancer survivors, including hematology cancer survivors; however, test-retest reliability has not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the SF-SUNS with a cohort of lymphoma survivors ( n = 40). Test-retest reliability of the SF-SUNS was conducted at two time points: baseline (time 1) and 5 days later (time 2). Test-retest data were collected from lymphoma cancer survivors ( n = 40) in a large tertiary cancer center in Western Australia. Intraclass correlation analyses compared data at time 1 (baseline) and time 2 (5 days later). Cronbach's alpha analyses were performed to assess the internal consistency at both time points. The majority (23/30, 77%) of items achieved test-retest reliability scores 0.45-0.74 (fair to good). A high degree of overall internal consistency was demonstrated (time 1 = 0.92, time 2 = 0.95), with scores 0.65-0.94 across subscales for both time points. Mixed test-retest reliability of the SF-SUNS was established. Our results indicate the SF-SUNS is responsive to the changing needs of lymphoma cancer survivors. Routine use of cancer survivorship specific needs-based assessments is required in oncology care today. Nurses are well placed to administer these assessments and provide tailored information and resources. Further assessment of test-retest reliability in hematology and other cancer cohorts is warranted.

  19. Blink frequency and duration during perimetry and their relationship to test-retest threshold variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Toor, Sonia S; Gautam, Ramesh; Henson, David B

    2011-06-28

    To describe different patterns of blinking in patients undergoing a visual field test and to establish whether the blink parameters are related to threshold variability. Thirty-nine patients with diagnosed or suspected glaucoma were recruited to undertake a perimetric task twice. Blinks were detected with a video eye-tracker system that records at a sampling rate of 60 Hz. Blink frequency, duration, and episodes of microsleep (eye closures >500 ms) were analyzed, and correlated with test-retest threshold variability. The timing of blinks with respect to stimulus presentation was analyzed and the percentage of seen stimuli for all presentations (POS(overall)) and those overlapped with blinks (POS(overlapped)) were compared. Blink frequency ranged from 0 to 58 per minute. A significant increase in blink frequency was observed in the second test (P POS(overall) and POS(overlapped) was significant (P POS(overlapped) was observed with the increase of overlap duration. A wide range of blink frequencies was observed during perimetric testing. Although no blink parameters showed significant influence on threshold variability, when the blinks overlapped with a stimulus presentation, the probability of seeing was reduced. For suprathreshold stimuli, blinks often occurred after the presentation, whereas for subthreshold presentations, there was no relationship to presentation time.

  20. 1 year test-retest reliability of ImPACT in professional ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jared; Echemendia, Ruben; Meeuwisse, Willem; Comper, Paul; Sisco, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery is widely used to assess neurocognitive outcomes following sports-related concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine the 1 year test-retest reliability of ImPACT in a multilingual sample of professional hockey players. A total of 305 professional hockey players were tested 1 year apart using ImPACT. Reliable change confidence intervals were calculated and test-retest reliability was measured using Pearson and Intraclass correlation coefficients. Results indicated that the 1-year test-retest reliabilities for the Visual Motor and Reaction Time Composites ranged from low to high (.52 to .81). In contrast, 1-year test-retest reliabilities for the Verbal and Visual Memory Composites were low (.22 to .58). The 1-year test-retest results provided mixed support for the use of Visual Motor and Reaction Time Composites in select samples; in contrast, the Verbal and Visual Memory Composites may not be sensitive to clinical change.

  1. The importance of retesting the hearing screening as an indicator of the real early hearing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Polo Camargo da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of hearing loss minimizes its impact on child development. We studied factors that influence the effectiveness of screening programs.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between gender, weight at birth, gestational age, risk factors for hearing loss, venue for newborn hearing screening and "pass" and "fail" results in the retest.METHODS: Prospective cohort study was carried out in a tertiary referral hospital. The screening was performed in 565 newborns through transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in three admission units before hospital discharge and retest in the outpatient clinic. Gender, weight at birth, gestational age, presence of risk indicators for hearing loss and venue for newborn hearing screening were considered.RESULTS: Full-term infants comprised 86% of the cases, preterm 14%, and risk factors for hearing loss were identified in 11%. Considering the 165 newborns retested, only the venue for screening, Intermediate Care Unit, was related to "fail" result in the retest.CONCLUSIONS: Gender, weight at birth, gestational age and presence of risk factors for hearing loss were not related to "pass" and/or "fail" results in the retest. The screening performed in intermediate care units increases the chance of continued "fail" result in the Transient Otoacoustic Evoked Emissions test.

  2. Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufstadius Christel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9% of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.

  3. Test-retest reliability and predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R; Olson, Kristina R

    2018-02-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many factors simultaneously (lag-time between testing administrations, domain, etc.), it is difficult to discern what factors may explain variability in existing test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates. Across five studies (total N = 519; ages 6- to 11-years-old), we manipulated two factors that have varied in previous developmental research-lag-time and domain. An internal meta-analysis of these studies revealed that, across three different methods of analyzing the data, mean test-retest (rs of .48, .38, and .34) and predictive validity (rs of .46, .20, and .10) effect sizes were significantly greater than zero. While lag-time did not moderate the magnitude of test-retest coefficients, whether we observed domain differences in test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates was contingent on other factors, such as how we scored the IAT or whether we included estimates from a unique sample (i.e., a sample containing gender typical and gender diverse children). Recommendations are made for developmental researchers that utilize the IAT in their research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Test-retest reliability of longitudinal task-based fMRI: Implications for developmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Chen, Zhanghua; Mezher, Adam; Vetter, Nora C

    2017-07-13

    Great advances have been made in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies, including the use of longitudinal design to more accurately identify changes in brain development across childhood and adolescence. While longitudinal fMRI studies are necessary for our understanding of typical and atypical patterns of brain development, the variability observed in fMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal and its test-retest reliability in developing populations remain a concern. Here we review the current state of test-retest reliability for child and adolescent fMRI studies (ages 5-18 years) as indexed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). In addition to highlighting ways to improve fMRI test-retest reliability in developmental cognitive neuroscience research, we hope to open a platform for dialogue regarding longitudinal fMRI study designs, analyses, and reporting of results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. How to Capitalize on the Retest Effect in Future Trials on Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Schramm

    Full Text Available The retest effect-improvement of performance on second exposure to a task-may impede the detection of cognitive decline in clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases. We assessed the impact of the retest effect in Huntington's disease trials, and investigated its possible neutralization. We enrolled 54 patients in the Multicentric Intracerebral Grafting in Huntington's Disease (MIG-HD trial and 39 in the placebo arm of the Riluzole trial in Huntington's Disease (RIL-HD. All were assessed with the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS plus additional cognitive tasks at baseline (A1, shortly after baseline (A2 and one year later (A3. We used paired t-tests to analyze the retest effect between A1 and A2. For each task of the MIG-HD study, we used a stepwise algorithm to design models predictive of patient performance at A3, which we applied to the RIL-HD trial for external validation. We observed a retest effect in most cognitive tasks. A decline in performance at one year was detected in 3 of the 15 cognitive tasks with A1 as the baseline, and 9 of the 15 cognitive tasks with A2 as the baseline. We also included the retest effect in performance modeling and showed that it facilitated performance prediction one year later for 14 of the 15 cognitive tasks. The retest effect may mask cognitive decline in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The dual baseline can improve clinical trial design, and better prediction should homogenize patient groups, resulting in smaller numbers of participants being required.

  6. How to Capitalize on the Retest Effect in Future Trials on Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Catherine; Katsahian, Sandrine; Youssov, Katia; Démonet, Jean-François; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Supiot, Frédéric; Verny, Christophe; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The retest effect-improvement of performance on second exposure to a task-may impede the detection of cognitive decline in clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases. We assessed the impact of the retest effect in Huntington's disease trials, and investigated its possible neutralization. We enrolled 54 patients in the Multicentric Intracerebral Grafting in Huntington's Disease (MIG-HD) trial and 39 in the placebo arm of the Riluzole trial in Huntington's Disease (RIL-HD). All were assessed with the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) plus additional cognitive tasks at baseline (A1), shortly after baseline (A2) and one year later (A3). We used paired t-tests to analyze the retest effect between A1 and A2. For each task of the MIG-HD study, we used a stepwise algorithm to design models predictive of patient performance at A3, which we applied to the RIL-HD trial for external validation. We observed a retest effect in most cognitive tasks. A decline in performance at one year was detected in 3 of the 15 cognitive tasks with A1 as the baseline, and 9 of the 15 cognitive tasks with A2 as the baseline. We also included the retest effect in performance modeling and showed that it facilitated performance prediction one year later for 14 of the 15 cognitive tasks. The retest effect may mask cognitive decline in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The dual baseline can improve clinical trial design, and better prediction should homogenize patient groups, resulting in smaller numbers of participants being required.

  7. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Test-retest repeatability of cardiopulmonary exercise test variables in patients with cardiac or respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Anthony; Dhutia, Niti; Mayet, Jamil; Hughes, Alun D; Francis, Darrel P; Wensel, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The test-retest reliability for multiple cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) variables has not been compared in a single study and the influence of different diseases on test-retest reliability has not been examined. We investigated different measures of test-retest reliability for multiple variables and compared them by category of cardiac or respiratory disease. Patients with chronic obstructive airways disease (n = 24), heart failure (n = 43), or severe mitral valve disease (n = 26) were recruited into a prospective study. Each patient underwent two bicycle ergometer tests; the first, a familiarization test, with a 10 W/min ramp, and the second a personalized ramp based on the results of the familiarization test to elicit maximal effort within 8-10 min. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of variation between the two tests were calculated. Influence of potential modifiers was assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Peak VO2 (ICC 0.95, 95% CI 0.94-0.97), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (ICC 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.95), O2 pulse (ICC 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.97), and the VE/VCO2 ratio at the nadir (ICC 0.92, 95% CI 0.89-0.95) all showed excellent test-retest reliability, with within-subject coefficients of variation test-retest reliability, although inferior to peak VO2. Age, gender, body mass index, disease aetiology, protocol change, and intertest interval did not affect the reliability of most variables. CPX showed high test-retest reliability; certain variables such as peak VO2 and oxygen uptake efficiency slope outperform others. These results identify which variables are most suitable for serial testing of patients with three common disease aetiologies owing to their superior reproducibility.

  9. An assessment of the test-retest reliability of the New Nordic Diet score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the New Nordic Diet (NND) as a potentially health promoting, environmentally friendly, and palatable regional diet. Also, dietary scores are gaining ground as a complementary approach for examining relations between dietary patterns and various health outcomes. A score assessing adherence to the NND has earlier been published, yet not tested for reliability. To assess the test-retest reliability of the NND score in a sample of parents of toddlers, residing in Southern Norway. A questionnaire survey was completed on two occasions, approximately 14 days apart, by 67 parents of toddlers [85% females, mean age 34 years (SD=5.3 years)]. The NND score was constructed from 24 items and comprised 10 subscales that summarize meal pattern and intake of typical Nordic foods. Each subscale was dichotomized by the median and assigned values of '0' or '1'. Adding the subscales yielded a score ranging from 0 to 10, which was further trichotomized. Test-retest reliability of the final NND score and individual subscales was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, respectively. Additionally, cross tabulation and kappa measure of agreement (k) were used to assess the test-retest agreement of classification into the NND score, and the subscales. Test-retest correlations of the NND score and subscales were r=0.80 (Pearson) and r=0.54-0.84 (Spearman), respectively, all ptest-retest correct classification of the trichotomized score and the dichotomized subscales, respectively. The NND score and the 10 subscales appear to have acceptable test-retest reliability when tested in a sample of parents of toddlers.

  10. Water interactions with hydrophobic groups: Assessment and recalibration of semiempirical molecular orbital methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Antoine; Monard, Gérald; Ruiz-López, Manuel F., E-mail: Manuel.Ruiz@univ-lorraine.fr; Ingrosso, Francesca, E-mail: Francesca.Ingrosso@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, SRSMC UMR 7565, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France); CNRS, SRSMC UMR 7565, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France)

    2014-07-21

    In this work, we present a study of the ability of different semiempirical methods to describe intermolecular interactions in water solution. In particular, we focus on methods based on the Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap approximation. Significant improvements of these methods have been reported in the literature in the past years regarding the description of non-covalent interactions. In particular, a broad range of methodologies has been developed to deal with the properties of hydrogen-bonded systems, with varying degrees of success. In contrast, the interactions between water and a molecule containing hydrophobic groups have been little analyzed. Indeed, by considering the potential energy surfaces obtained using different semiempirical Hamiltonians for the intermolecular interactions of model systems, we found that none of the available methods provides an entirely satisfactory description of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in water. In addition, a vibrational analysis carried out in a model system for these interactions, a methane clathrate cluster, showed that some recent methods cannot be used to carry out studies of vibrational properties. Following a procedure established in our group [M. I. Bernal-Uruchurtu, M. T. C. Martins-Costa, C. Millot, and M. F. Ruiz-López, J. Comput. Chem. 21, 572 (2000); W. Harb, M. I. Bernal-Uruchurtu, and M. F. Ruiz-López, Theor. Chem. Acc. 112, 204 (2004)], we developed new parameters for the core-core interaction terms based on fitting potential energy curves obtained at the MP2 level for our model system. We investigated the transferability of the new parameters to describe a system, having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, interacting with water. We found that only by introducing two different sets of parameters for hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydrogen atom types we are able to match the features of the ab initio calculated properties. Once this assumption is made, a good agreement with the

  11. Recalibrating the Gram stain diagnosis of male urethritis in the era of nucleic acid amplification testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Mettenbrink, Christie J

    2012-01-01

    Criteria for diagnosis of male urethritis based on a Gram-stained smear (GSS) of urethral discharge were developed before the era of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) and Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and may be too stringent when considering the higher sensitivity of NAAT. To evaluate Ct and Ng positivity at different strata of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) per high power field (hpf) GSS microscopy. A retrospective analysis of the electronic medical record system of the Denver Metro Health Clinic between March 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010; all men with a GSS test during this period had an NAAT for Ct and Ng and had GSS results recorded at 1 PMN/hpf increments. A total of 13,520 GSS were available for analysis. For Ct, a statistically significant trend was observed along the PMN/hpf incremental spectrum, and a significant increase in positivity was observed between the 1 and 2 PMN/hpf strata (from 6.5% to 16.2%). For men diagnosed with Ng, no such trend was observed, and >95% of GSS results fell in the >10 strata. A subanalysis to control for laboratory technician variance and difference in NAAT technology showed similar results. Our data support lowering the diagnostic criteria of the GSS diagnosis of male urethritis to ≥2 PMN/hpf. At this level, the Ct positivity (16.2%) is similar or higher than positivity in men who receive presumptive chlamydia treatment as a contact to patients diagnosed with gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, or mucopurulent cervicitis.

  12. Construct validation and test-retest reliability of a mealtime satisfaction questionnaire for retirement home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzola, L.; Martos, Z.; Pfisterer, K.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Keller, H.

    2013-01-01

    Mealtime satisfaction is an important component of quality of life (QOL) in residential care, yet there currently is no self-administered tool described in the literature. The purpose of this study is to investigate internal and test–retest reliability, and construct validity of a mealtime

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Potts, Edward; Walter, Barbara Keith; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of a new interviewer-based psychiatric diagnostic measure (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment) for use with parents of preschoolers 2 to 5 years old. Method: A total of 1,073 parents of children attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1 1/2-5. For 18 months,…

  14. Long term test-retest reliability of Oswestry Disability Index in male office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Rafet; Baltaci, Gul; Ergun, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common condition specific outcome measures used in the management of spinal disorders. But there is insufficient study on healthy populations and long term test-retest reliability. This is important because healthy populations are often used for control groups in low back pain interventions, and knowing the reliability of the controls affects the interpretation of the findings of these studies. The purpose of this study is to determine the long term test-retest reliability of ODI in office workers. Participants who have no chronic low back pain history were included in study. Subjects were assessed by the Turkish-ODI 2.0 (e-forms) on 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 15th, 30th days to determine the stability of ODI scores over time. The study began with 58 (12 female, 46 male) participants. 36 (3 female, 33 male) participated for the full 30 days. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Friedman tests were used. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by using nonparametric statistics. All tests were done by using SPSS-11. There was no statistically significant difference among the median scores of each day. (χ= 6.482, p >  0.05). The difference between median score of the days with 1st day was neither statistically nor clinically significant. ODI has long term test re-test reliability in healthy subjects over a 1 month time interval.

  15. Test-retest, inter-assessor and intra-assessor reliability of the modified Touwen examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Kouw, Eva; Hamming, Marjolein; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Interest in the Touwen examination (1979) for the assessment of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) is growing. However, information on psychometric properties of this assessment is scarce. Therefore the present study aimed at assessing the test's test-retest, inter- and intra-assessor reliability.

  16. Test-retest reliability of Eurofit Physical Fitness items for children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of physical fitness items from the European Test of Physical Fitness (Eurofit) for children with visual impairments. A sample of 21 children, ages 6-12 years, that were recruited from a special school for children with visual

  17. Temporal Stability of Strength-Based Assessments: Test-Retest Reliability of Student and Teacher Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Natalie; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on evaluating the temporal stability of self-reported and teacher-reported perceptions of students' social and emotional skills and assets. We used a test-retest reliability procedure over repeated administrations of the child, adolescent, and teacher versions of the "Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales".…

  18. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...

  19. Test-Retest Reproducibility of Two Short-Form Balance Measures Used in Individuals with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the test-retest reproducibility of the seven-item Short-Form Berg Balance Scale (SFBBS) and the five-item Short-Form Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SFPASS) in individuals with chronic stroke. Fifty-two chronic stroke patients from two rehabilitation departments were included in the study. Both…

  20. Test-Retest Reliability of Low-Level Evoked Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Passmore, Amy L.; Culbertson, Deborah S.; Jones, Sherri M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of low-level evoked distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as a function of L[subscript 1], L[subscript 2] level; f[subscript 2] frequency; and test condition. A predictive relationship between these variables and the presence/absence of DPOAE responses was also…

  1. Test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying in a 2-day functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Dijkstra, PU; Westmaas, M; Goeken, LNH; Göeken, L.N.H.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying of a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) on two consecutive days and to verify the need for a 2-day protocol. A cohort of 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) with nonspecific low back pain were evaluated using

  2. A Comprehensive Approach for Assessing Person Fit with Test-Retest Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) models allow model-data fit to be assessed at the individual level by using person-fit indices. This assessment is also feasible when IRT is used to model test-retest data. However, person-fit developments for this type of modeling are virtually nonexistent. This article proposes a general person-fit approach for…

  3. A Combined IRT and SEM Approach for Individual-Level Assessment in Test-Retest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2015-01-01

    The standard two-wave multiple-indicator model (2WMIM) commonly used to analyze test-retest data provides information at both the group and item level. Furthermore, when applied to binary and graded item responses, it is related to well-known item response theory (IRT) models. In this article the IRT-2WMIM relations are used to obtain additional…

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of Common Measures of Eating Disorder Symptoms in Men Versus Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Kelsie T; Hilderbrand, Lindsay A; Bohrer, Brittany K; Chapa, Danielle A N

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 10% to 30% of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) are male, yet because measures often have not been tested among male participants, it is unclear whether the psychometric properties of ED measures are equivalent between sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of common ED measures in men versus women. Participants ( N = 227; 58.1% female) completed self-report measures of body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, disinhibited eating, bulimic symptoms, and desire-for-muscularity at baseline and 2-to-4 weeks later. Intraclass correlations were used to compute retest correlations. Spearman's rho was used to compute retest correlations for skewed and kurtotic variables. We compared 95% confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients to determine whether measures differed in reliability between sexes. Most ED measures had at least acceptable test-retest reliabilities. However, few measures of disinhibited and binge eating demonstrated good reliability in men. Results highlight the utility of several ED measures for assessing symptom change over time, and the need for additional research to identify and correct for sources of gender unreliability among ED self-report measures in men-particularly for assessing constructs that include binge-eating behavior.

  5. Test-Retest Reliability of the Salutogenic Wellness Promotion Scale (SWPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. M.; Moore, J. B.; Hayden, B. M.; Becker, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the temporal stability (i.e. test-retest reliability) of the Salutogenic Wellness Promotion Scale (SWPS) using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Current intraclass results were also compared to previously published interclass correlations to support the use of the intraclass method for test-retest…

  6. Test-Retest Reliability of the Dual-Microphone Voice Range Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Trine; Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Godballe, Christian; Grøntved, Ågot Møller

    2018-01-01

    The voice range profile (VRP) measures vocal intensity and fundamental frequency. Phonosurgical and logopedic treatment outcome studies using the VRP report voice improvements of 3-6 semitones (ST) in ST range and 4-7 decibels (dB) in sound pressure level range after treatment. These small improvements stress the importance of reliable measurements. The aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the dual-microphone computerized VRP on participants with healthy voices. This is a prospective test-retest reliability study. Dual-microphone VRPs were repeated twice on healthy participants (n = 37) with an interval of 6-37 days. Voice frequency and intensity (minimum, maximum, and ranges) were assessed in combination with the area of the VRP. Correlations between VRP parameters were high (r > 0.60). However, in the retest, a statistically significant increase in voice frequency range (1.4 ST [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.8-2.1 ST], P test and retest before the assessment is fully reliable for clinical application. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Test-Retest Analysis of the Vanderbilt Assessment for Leadership in Education in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay; Porter, Andrew C.; Murphy, Joseph; Goldring, Ellen; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2017-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment for Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) is a 360-degree learning-centered behaviors principal evaluation tool that includes ratings from the principal, supervisors, and teachers. The current study assesses the test-retest reliability of the VAL-ED for a sample of seven school districts as part of multiple validity and…

  8. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  9. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strouwen, C.; Molenaar, E.A.; Keus, S.H.; Munks, L.; Bloem, B.R.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains

  10. Test-Retest Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R.; Olson, Kristina R.

    2018-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many…

  11. The role of recalibration response shift in explaining bodily pain in cancer patients undergoing invasive surgery: an empirical investigation of the Sprangers and Schwartz model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Mechteld R M; Oort, Frans J; van Lanschot, J Jan B; van der Velden, Jacobus; Kloek, Jaap J; Gouma, Dirk J; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to explain bodily pain using the Sprangers and Schwartz theoretical model (1999) on quality of life (QL) and response shift in its entirety. Response shift refers to the phenomenon that the meaning of a person's self-evaluation changes over time. In this model, response shift mediates effects of changes in health status (catalysts), stable characteristics of the person (antecedents), and coping mechanisms (mechanisms) on QL. Cancer patients (202) were assessed prior to and 3 months following surgery. Measures were for catalysts: type of operation and possibility of tumor resection; for antecedents: age, duration of pain, optimism, and rigidity; for mechanisms: post-traumatic growth, social comparisons, social support, denial, and acceptance; and for QL: bodily pain; for response shift: the pretest-minus-thentest bodily pain score, further referred to as recalibration response shift. Structural equation modeling and sequential regression analyses were used. The final model reached close fit (RMSEA = 0.03; 90% CI = 0.000-0.071; χ2 (18) = 21.13; p = 0.27). Significant effects were found for catalysts on mechanisms, antecedents on mechanisms, mechanisms on response shift, and response shift on bodily pain. Four extra model effects had to be permitted. Using sequential regression analysis, recalibration response shift added 4.4% to the total amount of 29.8% explained variance of bodily pain. Many effects as hypothesized by the model were found. Recalibration response shift had a unique albeit small contribution to the explanation of bodily pain. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Recalibrating disparities in perceived and actual balance abilities in older adults: a mixed-methods evaluation of a novel exergaming intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmers, Toby J; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis Th; Williams, A Mark; Young, William R

    2018-03-22

    Published reports suggest a disparity between perceived and actual balance abilities, a trait associated with increased fall-risk in older adults. We investigate whether it is possible to 'recalibrate' these disparities using a novel gaming intervention. We recruited 26 older adults for a 4-week intervention in which they participated in 8-sessions using a novel gaming intervention designed to provide explicit, augmented feedback related to postural control. Measures of perceived balance abilities (Falls Efficacy Scale-International) and actual postural control (limits of stability) were assessed pre- and post-intervention. We used focus groups to elicit the opinions of participants about how the game may have influenced balance abilities and confidence. A stronger alignment was observed between postural control and perceived balance capabilities post-intervention (i.e., significant correlations between Falls Efficacy Scale-International scores and limits of stability which were not present pre-intervention). Also, significant improvements in measures of postural control were observed, with these improvements confined to the aspects of postural control for which the exergame provided explicit, augmented feedback. Qualitative data revealed that the intervention made participants more "aware" of their balance abilities. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to recalibrate the perceptions of older adults relating to their balance abilities through a targeted, short-term intervention. We propose that the post-intervention improvements in postural control may have been, in part, the result of this recalibration; with altered perceptions leading to changes in balance performance. Findings support the application of novel interventions aimed at addressing the psychological factors associated with elderly falls.

  13. Test-Retest Reproducibility for the Tau PET Imaging Agent Flortaucipir F 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devous, Michael D; Joshi, Abhinay D; Navitsky, Michael; Southekal, Sudeepti; Pontecorvo, Michael J; Shen, Haiqing; Lu, Ming; Shankle, William R; Seibyl, John P; Marek, Ken; Mintun, Mark A

    2017-12-28

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by beta-amyloid plaques (Aβ) and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). There are several PET imaging biomarkers for Aβ including 11 C-PiB and 18 F florbetapir. Recently, PET tracers for tau NFTs have become available and have shown utility in detection and monitoring of neurofibrillary pathology over time. Flortaucipir F 18 is one such tracer. Initial clinical studies indicated greater tau binding in AD and MCI patients compared to controls in a pattern consistent with tau pathology observed at autopsy. However, little is known about the reproducibility of such findings. This study reports the first data regarding test-retest reproducibility of flortaucipir PET. Methods: Twenty-one subjects who completed the study (5 healthy control, 6 MCI, and 10 AD) received 370 MBq flortaucipir and were imaged for 20 min beginning 80 min after injection and again at 110 min after injection. Follow-up (retest) imaging occurred between 48 hr and 4 weeks after initial imaging. Images were spatially normalized to MNI template space. SUVr values were calculated using AAL VOIs for parietal, temporal, occipital, anterior and posterior hippocampal, parahippocampal and fusiform regions, as well as a posterior neocortical VOI composed of average values from parietal, temporal and occipital areas. Further, a VOI derived by discriminant analysis that maximally separated diagnostic groups (MUBADA) was employed. All VOIs were referenced to a sub-section of cerebellum gray matter (cerebellar crus) as well as a parametrically-derived white-matter based reference region (PERSI). T-tests, correlation analyses and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to explore test-retest performance. Results: Test-retest analyses demonstrated low variability in flortaucipir SUVR. The standard deviation of mean percent change between test and retest using the PERSI reference region was 2.22% for a large posterior neocortical VOI, 1.84% for

  14. Test-Retest Reliability of Isokinetic Knee Strength Measurements in Children Aged 8 to 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Fritzson, Annelie; Drake, Anna Maria

    Isokinetic dynamometry is a useful tool to objectively assess muscle strength of children and adults in athletic and rehabilitative settings. This study examined test-retest reliability of isokinetic knee strength measurements in children aged 8 to 10 years and defined limits for the minimum difference (MD) in strength that indicates a clinically important change. Isokinetic knee strength measurements (using the Biodex System 4) in children will provide reliable results. Descriptive laboratory study. In 22 healthy children, 5 maximal concentric (CON) knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) contractions at 2 angular velocities (60 deg/s and 180 deg/s) and 5 maximal eccentric (ECC) KE/KF contractions at 60 deg/s were assessed 7 days apart. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1 ) was used to examine relative reliability, and the MD was calculated on the basis of standard error of measurement. ICCs for CON KE/KF peak torque measurements were fair to excellent (range, 0.49-0.81). The MD% values for CON KE and KF ranged from 31% to 37% at 60 deg/s and from 34% to 39% at 180 deg/s. ICCs in the ECC mode were good (range, 0.60-0.70), but associated MD% values were high (>50%). There was no systematic error for CON KE/KF and ECC KE strength measurements at 60 deg/s, but systematic error was found for all other measurements. The dynamometer provides a reliable analysis of isokinetic CON knee strength measurements at 60 deg/s in children aged 8 to 10 years. Measurements at 180 deg/s and in the ECC mode were not reliable, indicating a need for more familiarization prior to testing. The MD values may help clinicians to determine whether a change in knee strength is due to error or intervention.

  15. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. 180.519 Section 180.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car...

  16. Construct Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the Climbing Stairs Questionnaire in Lower-Limb Amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Fred A.; Rommers, Gerardus M.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Roorda, Leo D.

    de Laat FA, Rommers GM, Geertzen JH, Roorda LD. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Climbing Stairs Questionnaire in lower-limb amputees. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1396-401. Objective: To investigate the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Climbing Stairs

  17. Assessing long-term test-retest reliability of the CPT-IP in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs version (CPT-IP is a well-established measure of sustained attention, and its more challenging versions are particularly suited to detect subtle processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia. However, while there are few longitudinal samples for the CPT-IP, no study has addressed stability for more than two month in patients with schizophrenia. Assessing long-term test-retest reliability of the CPT-IP would facilitate the ability of clinicians to draw conclusions from studies involving interventions as long term cognitive or pharmacological treatments. The present study assessed 12 month test-retest reliability for the two most challenging versions of CPT-IP (4-digit and shapes in a matched sample of clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and healthy controls. METHODS: Fifty clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and 50 healthy controls were assessed with the CPT-IP for the 4-digit and shape conditions. From these, 40 patients and 47 controls were reassessed with an average interval of 12.3 months between test sessions. Test-retest reliability was analyzed with Pearson correlations and results were compared with previous data involving healthy controls and short-term studies in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Especially d' and hit rate discriminated well between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls for both CPT-IP conditions and at both test sessions. Healthy controls demonstrated sufficient long term test-retest correlations of d', hit rate and reaction time for both the 4-digit and shape conditions. However, in schizophrenia patients, long-term reliability correlations were at best moderate for d' and hit rate only. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides further evidence that d' and hit rate yield consistent cross-sectional discrimination sensitivity. At best moderate long-term test-retest reliability of d' in schizophrenia outpatients may be not

  18. Test-retest reliability of jump execution variables using mechanography: a comparison of jump protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John S; Johnson, LuAnn; Tomkinson, Grant; Stein, Jesse; Roemmich, James N

    2018-05-01

    Mechanography during the vertical jump may enhance screening and determining mechanistic causes underlying physical performance changes. Utility of jump mechanography for evaluation is limited by scant test-retest reliability data on force-time variables. This study examined the test-retest reliability of eight jump execution variables assessed from mechanography. Thirty-two women (mean±SD: age 20.8 ± 1.3 yr) and 16 men (age 22.1 ± 1.9 yr) attended a familiarization session and two testing sessions, all one week apart. Participants performed two variations of the squat jump with squat depth self-selected and controlled using a goniometer to 80º knee flexion. Test-retest reliability was quantified as the systematic error (using effect size between jumps), random error (using coefficients of variation), and test-retest correlations (using intra-class correlation coefficients). Overall, jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, evidenced by small systematic errors (mean±95%CI: 0.2 ± 0.07), moderate random errors (mean±95%CI: 17.8 ± 3.7%), and very strong test-retest correlations (range: 0.73-0.97). Differences in random errors between controlled and self-selected protocols were negligible (mean±95%CI: 1.3 ± 2.3%). Jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, with no meaningful differences between the controlled and self-selected jump protocols. To simplify testing, a self-selected jump protocol can be used to assess force-time variables with negligible impact on measurement error.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Memory Binding Test: Test-Retest Reliability and Convergent Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramunt, Nina; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Buschke, Herman; Lipton, Richard B; Masramon, Xavier; Gispert, Juan D; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Fauria, Karine; Molinuevo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory testing is fundamental for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is widely used for this purpose, it may not be sensitive enough for early detection of subtle decline in preclinical AD. The Memory Binding Test (MBT) intends to overcome this limitation. To analyze the test-retest reliability of the MBT and its convergent validity with the FCRST. 36 cognitively healthy participants of the ALFA Study, aged 45 to 65, were included for the test-retest study and 69 for the convergent analysis. They were visited twice in a period of 6 ± 2 weeks. Test-retest reliability was determined by the calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Score differences were studied by computing the mean percentage of score variation between visits and visualized by Bland-Altman plots. Convergent validity was determined by Pearson's correlations. ICC values in the test-retest reliability analysis of the MBT direct scores ranged from 0.64 to 0.76. Subjects showed consistent practice effects, with mean amounts of score increasing between 10% and 26%. Pearson correlation between MBT and FCSRT direct scores showed r values between 0.40 and 0.53. The FCSRT displayed ceiling effects not observed in the MBT. The MBT shows adequate test-retest reliability and overall moderate convergent validity with the FCSRT. Unlike the FCSRT, the MBT does not have ceiling effects and it may therefore be especially useful in longitudinal studies, facilitating the measurement of subtle memory performance decline and the detection of very early AD.

  20. Test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebro, Niels; Amirian, Ilda; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We wished to determine test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity. Design. Test re-test reliability was examined in a controlled study. Construct validity was tested in a blinded randomized crossover study. Setting. The study was performed...... at a university hospital in Denmark. Participants. A total of 11 subjects for test re-test and 20 subjects for the construct validity study were included. All subjects were healthy volunteers. Intervention. The test re-test trial had two measurements with 2 days pause in between. The interventions...... participants completed the study (test re-test n = 11; construct validity n = 20). The test re-testshowed a strong Pearson product-moment correlation (r = 0.90, n = 11, P validity trial were randomized to the order of the four...

  1. Sunspot number recalibration: The ~1840–1920 anomaly in the observer normalization factors of the group sunspot number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliver Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    is substantiated by a “correction-factor” (CF time series defined as the ratio of annual group counts of the Hoyt & Schatten (1998a, 1998b series to the average raw (unscaled group counts of all observers, as well as by a comparison of the GSN and GSN* time series with a recent reconstruction of solar wind B from 1845 to the present. The ~1840–1920 k′-factor anomaly and its impact on the Hoyt and Schatten GSN are discussed in the context of the ongoing effort to recalibrate the sunspot number time series.

  2. Testing a videogame intervention to recalibrate physician heuristics in trauma triage: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Deepika; Rosengart, Matthew R; Fischhoff, Baruch; Angus, Derek C; Farris, Coreen; Yealy, Donald M; Wallace, David J; Barnato, Amber E

    2016-11-11

    Between 30 and 40 % of patients with severe injuries receive treatment at non-trauma centers (under-triage), largely because of physician decision making. Existing interventions to improve triage by physicians ignore the role that intuition (heuristics) plays in these decisions. One such heuristic is to form an initial impression based on representativeness (how typical does a patient appear of one with severe injuries). We created a video game (Night Shift) to recalibrate physician's representativeness heuristic in trauma triage. We developed Night Shift in collaboration with emergency medicine physicians, trauma surgeons, behavioral scientists, and game designers. Players take on the persona of Andy Jordan, an emergency medicine physician, who accepts a new job in a small town. Through a series of cases that go awry, they gain experience with the contextual cues that distinguish patients with minor and severe injuries (based on the theory of analogical encoding) and receive emotionally-laden feedback on their performance (based on the theory of narrative engagement). The planned study will compare the effect of Night Shift with that of an educational program on physician triage decisions and on physician heuristics. Psychological theory predicts that cognitive load increases reliance on heuristics, thereby increasing the under-triage rate when heuristics are poorly calibrated. We will randomize physicians (n = 366) either to play the game or to review an educational program, and will assess performance using a validated virtual simulation. The validated simulation includes both control and cognitive load conditions. We will compare rates of under-triage after exposure to the two interventions (primary outcome) and will compare the effect of cognitive load on physicians' under-triage rates (secondary outcome). We hypothesize that: a) physicians exposed to Night Shift will have lower rates of under-triage compared to those exposed to the educational program

  3. Retest reliability of measuring hip extensor muscle strength in different testing positions in young people with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In young people with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy weakness of the hip extensor muscles are associated with limitations in activity. It is important that clinicians can reliably measure hip extensor muscle strength to monitor changes over time and the effects of any interventions. Previous research has demonstrated high reliability for measuring strength of all muscles of the lower limb, with the exception of the hip extensors. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the retest reliability of measuring hip extensor strength in young people with cerebral palsy. Methods Using a test-retest reliability research design, 19 participants with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels II and III) (mean 19 y 2 mo [S D 2 y 5 mo]) attended two testing sessions held 12 weeks apart. Three trials with a hand-held dynamometer were taken at each testing session in supine, prone and standing. Retest reliability was calculated with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and with units of measurement (kilograms) converted to a percentage strength change. Results ICC values ranged from .74 to .78 in supine, .75 to .80 in prone, and .73 to .75 in standing. To be 95% confident that real change had occurred, an individual's strength would need to increase 55 to 60% in supine, 86 to 102% in prone, and 102 to 105% in standing. To be 95% confident that real change had occurred across groups, strength would need to increase 4 to 8% in supine, 22 to 31% in prone, and 32% to 34% in standing. Higher ICC values were observed when three trials were used for testing. Conclusions The supine testing position was more reliable than the prone or standing testing positions. It is possible to measure hip extensor strength with sufficient reliability to be able monitor change within groups using the supine position provided three trials are used during testing. However, there is insufficient reliability to monitor changes in hip

  4. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing early after stroke using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: test-retest reliability and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-10-11

    Exercise capacity is seriously reduced after stroke. While cardiopulmonary assessment and intervention strategies have been validated for the mildly and moderately impaired populations post-stroke, there is a lack of effective concepts for stroke survivors suffering from severe motor limitations. This study investigated the test-retest reliability and repeatability of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) in severely motor impaired individuals early after stroke. 20 subjects (age 44-84 years, body weight support system. A manual human-in-the-loop feedback system was used to guide individual work rate levels. Outcome variables focussed on standard cardiopulmonary performance parameters. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Mean difference, limits of agreement, and coefficient of variation (CoV) were estimated to assess repeatability. Peak performance parameters during IET yielded good to excellent relative reliability: absolute peak oxygen uptake (ICC =0.82), relative peak oxygen uptake (ICC =0.72), peak work rate (ICC =0.91), peak heart rate (ICC =0.80), absolute gas exchange threshold (ICC =0.91), relative gas exchange threshold (ICC =0.88), oxygen cost of work (ICC =0.87), oxygen pulse at peak oxygen uptake (ICC =0.92), ventilation rate versus carbon dioxide output slope (ICC =0.78). For these variables, SEM was 4-13%, MDC 12-36%, and CoV 0.10-0.36. CLT revealed high mean differences and insufficient test-retest reliability for all variables studied. This study presents first evidence on reliability and repeatability for CPET in severely motor impaired individuals early after stroke using a feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill. The results demonstrate good to excellent test-retest reliability and appropriate

  5. Restraint: Recalibrating American Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Unfortunately, it remains to be seen how capable America’s partners will be in thwarting terrorism, whether in Pakistan, Yemen, the Philippines or elsewhere...President Obama has relied on spending bor- rowed money to stabilize an economy with 10 percent unemployment. But such pump -priming, while necessary in...far from certain how successful new ‘third-generation’ centrifuges would prove to be in supplying Iran with highly enriched uranium. Despite a

  6. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  7. Test-Retest Reliabilty of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia After Aerobic Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Dørge, Daniel Bandholtz; Schmidt, Kristian Sonne

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Exercise increases pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in exercising and nonexercising muscles, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). No studies have investigated the test-retest reliability of change in PPTs after aerobic exercise. Primary objectives were to compare the effect...... on PPTs after an incremental bicycling exercise compared with quiet rest and to investigate the relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the test stimulus (PPT) and the absolute and relative EIH response in exercising and nonexercising muscles. Setting: Laboratory. Methods: In two sessions, PPTs...... in the quadriceps and trapezius muscles were assessed before and after 15 minutes of quiet rest and 15 minutes of bicycling in 34 healthy subjects. Habitual physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results: Bicycling increased PPTs in exercising and nonexercising...

  8. Test-retest reliability of five frequently used executive tasks in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soveri, Anna; Lehtonen, Minna; Karlsson, Linda C; Lukasik, Karolina; Antfolk, Jan; Laine, Matti

    2018-01-01

    Executive tasks are important instruments for neuropsychological and cognitive research, but only a limited number of studies have investigated the test-retest reliability of these tasks. Such information is needed for optimizing task usage, for example, in longitudinal and intervention studies. In this study with healthy adults, we investigated the temporal stability of five executive tasks: the Simon task, a visuoverbal N-back task, a visuospatial N-back task, a running memory task, and the Number-letter task. These five tasks are frequently used in research, but previously published reliability data is very limited or totally lacking. The results from the present study showed considerable variability with the highest test-retest reliabilities amongst the three working memory tasks. Furthermore, reaction time measures indicated practice effects between the two sessions across the tasks. The present results set constraints to the interpretation of the results of longitudinal and intervention studies using these tasks.

  9. Establishing survey validity and reliability for American Indians through "think aloud" and test-retest methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Cindy Horst; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Jensen, Jamie L; Burgess, Katherine M; Puumala, Susan E; Wilton, Georgiana; Hanson, Jessica D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to determine the validity and reliability of measurements used within an alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program for American Indian women. To develop validity, content experts provided input into the survey measures, and a "think aloud" methodology was conducted with 23 American Indian women. After revising the measurements based on this input, a test-retest was conducted with 79 American Indian women who were randomized to complete either the original measurements or the new, modified measurements. The test-retest revealed that some of the questions performed better for the modified version, whereas others appeared to be more reliable for the original version. The mixed-methods approach was a useful methodology for gathering feedback on survey measurements from American Indian participants and in indicating specific survey questions that needed to be modified for this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Test-retest reliability of a balance testing protocol with external perturbations in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Shawn M; Caplan, Ryan M; Aponte, Daniel I; St-Onge, Nancy

    2017-10-01

    External perturbations are utilized to challenge balance and mimic realistic balance threats in patient populations. The reliability of such protocols has not been established. The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability of balance testing with external perturbations. Healthy adults (n=34; mean age 23 years) underwent balance testing over two visits. Participants completed ten balance conditions in which the following parameters were combined: perturbation or non-perturbation, single or double leg, and eyes open or closed. Three trials were collected for each condition. Data were collected on a force plate and external perturbations were applied by translating the plate. Force plate center of pressure (CoP) data were summarized using 13 different CoP measures. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. CoP measures of total speed and excursion in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions generally had acceptable ICC values for perturbation conditions (ICC=0.46 to 0.87); however, many other CoP measures (e.g. range, area of ellipse) had unacceptable test-retest reliability (ICCCoP measures were present on the second visit indicating a potential learning effect. Non-perturbation conditions generally produced more reliable CoP measures than perturbation conditions during double leg standing, but not single leg standing. Therefore, changes to balance testing protocols that include external perturbations should be made to improve test-retest reliability and diminish learning including more extensive participant training and increasing the number of trials. CoP measures that consider all data points (e.g. total speed) are more reliable than those that only consider a few data points. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Dutch Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI): Factor Analysis, Discriminative Power, and Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregel, Jeroen; Vuijk, Pieter J; Descheemaeker, Filip; Keizer, Doeke; van der Noord, Robert; Nijs, Jo; Cagnie, Barbara; Meeus, Mira; van Wilgen, Paul

    2016-07-01

    A standardized assessment of central sensitization can be performed with the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI), an English questionnaire consisting of 25 items relating to current health symptoms. The aim of this study was to translate the CSI into Dutch, to perform a factor analysis to reveal the underlying structure, examine its discriminative power, and test-retest reliability. The CSI was first translated into Dutch. A factor analysis was conducted on CSI data of a large group of chronic pain patients (n=368). The ability to discriminate between chronic pain patients (n=188) and pain-free controls (n=49) was determined and the test-retest reliability for chronic pain patients (n=36) and controls (n=45) with a time interval of 3 weeks was evaluated. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 4-factor model based on 20 items, representing the domains "General disability and physical symptoms" (Cronbach α=0.80), "Higher central sensitivity"(Cronbach α=0.78), "Urological and dermatological symptoms"(Cronbach α=0.60), and "Emotional distress"(Cronbach α=0.80). Furthermore, a parsimonious second-order factor model was found, where the factor "General central sensitization" was underlying the 4 first-order factors. Chronic pain patients scored significantly worse on all 4 factors. The test-retest reliability was excellent values in both chronic pain patients (ICC=0.88) and controls (ICC=0.91). The original CSI was translated into Dutch and did not reveal any problems during data acquisition. The domains represented by the 4 factors may be useful in setting up specific patient profiles and treatment targets. To conclude, the Dutch CSI revealed 4 distinguishable domains, showed good internal consistency for the total score and 3 out of 4 domains, good discriminative power, and excellent test-retest reliability.

  12. Modeling the Test-Retest Statistics of a Localization Experiment in the Full Horizontal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsnowski, André; Maune, Steffen

    2016-10-01

    Two approaches to model the test-retest statistics of a localization experiment basing on Gaussian distribution and on surrogate data are introduced. Their efficiency is investigated using different measures describing directional hearing ability. A localization experiment in the full horizontal plane is a challenging task for hearing impaired patients. In clinical routine, we use this experiment to evaluate the progress of our cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Listening and time effort limit the reproducibility. The localization experiment consists of a 12 loudspeaker circle, placed in an anechoic room, a "camera silens". In darkness, HSM sentences are presented at 65 dB pseudo-erratically from all 12 directions with five repetitions. This experiment is modeled by a set of Gaussian distributions with different standard deviations added to a perfect estimator, as well as by surrogate data. Five repetitions per direction are used to produce surrogate data distributions for the sensation directions. To investigate the statistics, we retrospectively use the data of 33 CI patients with 92 pairs of test-retest-measurements from the same day. The first model does not take inversions into account, (i.e., permutations of the direction from back to front and vice versa are not considered), although they are common for hearing impaired persons particularly in the rear hemisphere. The second model considers these inversions but does not work with all measures. The introduced models successfully describe test-retest statistics of directional hearing. However, since their applications on the investigated measures perform differently no general recommendation can be provided. The presented test-retest statistics enable pair test comparisons for localization experiments.

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of a Computerized Concussion Test: CNS Vital Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Ashley C; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive testing is an important concussion evaluation tool, but for neurocognitive tests to be useful, their psychometric properties must be well established. Test-retest reliability of computerized neurocognitive tests can influence their clinical utility. The reliability for a commonly used computerized neurocognitive test, CNS Vital Signs, is not well established. The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability and reliable change indices for CNS Vital Signs in a healthy, physically active college population. CNS Vital Signs yields acceptable test-retest reliability, with greater reliability between the second and third test administration compared with between the first and second administration. Cohort study. Level 3. Forty healthy, active volunteers (16 men, 24 women; mean age, 21.05 ± 2.17 years) reported to a clinical laboratory for 3 sessions, 1 week apart. At each session, participants were administered CNS Vital Signs. Outcomes included standard scores for the following CNS Vital Signs domains: verbal memory, visual memory, psychomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, complex attention, processing speed, reaction time, executive functioning, and reasoning. Participants performed significantly better on the second session and/or third session than they did on the first testing session on 6 of 9 neurocognitive domains. Pearson r test-retest correlations between sessions ranged from 0.11 to 0.87. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.10 to 0.86. Clinicians should consider using reliable change indices to account for practice effects, identify meaningful score changes due to pathology, and inform clinical decisions. This study highlights the importance of clinicians understanding the psychometric properties of computerized neurocognitive tests when using them in the management of sport-related concussion. If CNS Vital Signs is administered twice within a small time frame (such as 1 week), athletes should be expected to

  14. Test-retest reliability and validity of a frustration paradigm and irritability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Moroney, Elizabeth; Machlin, Laura; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Hettema, John M; Carney, Dever; Stoddard, Joel; Towbin, Kenneth A; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A

    2017-04-01

    Data on the reliability and validity of assessments for irritability, particularly behavioral paradigms, are limited. This study examined the test-retest reliability and validity of a frustration paradigm (the Affective Posner 2 task) and two irritability measures [the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) irritability]. Participants were 109 youth from a general population sample of twins (aged 9-14 years). Participants completed two visits that were 2-4 weeks apart. At both visits, participants completed the Affective Posner 2 task and self-reported their irritability using the ARI. Parents reported their child's irritability using the ARI and completed the CBCL. The Affective Posner 2 task demonstrated good test-retest reliability, with intraclass correlations (ICCs) ranging from .44 to .78. The task effectively evoked negative affect (frustration and unhappiness) at both test and retest, demonstrating its construct validity. Moreover, self-rated frustration and unhappiness during the frustration components of the task correlated positively with self-reported but not parent-reported irritability, providing modest support for convergent validity. Parent- and child-reports of the ARI and parent-reports of the CBCL irritability measure showed excellent test-retest reliability, with ICCs ranging from .88 to .90. The sample consists of mostly twins aged 9-14 years from the communities. Thus, results may not generalize to non-twin samples or clinical samples outside of this age range. The Affective Posner 2 paradigm and the ARI and CBCL irritability scales may be useful tools for longitudinal or treatment research on irritability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Re-test reliability of gustatory testing and introduction of the sensitive Taste-Drop-Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaeldstad, A; Niklassen, A; Fernandes, H

    2018-01-01

    . Testing gustatory function can be important for diagnostics and assessment of treatment effects. However, the gustatory tests applied are required to be both sensitive and reliable.In this study, we investigate the re-test validity of popular Taste Strips gustatory test for gustatory screening....... Furthermore, we introduce a new sensitive Taste-Drop-Test, which was found to be superior for detecting a more accurate measure of tastant sensitivity....

  16. Test-retest and inter- and intrareliability of the quality of the upper-extremity skills test in preschool-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haga, Nienke; van der Heijden-Maessen, Helene C.; van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Boonstra, Antje; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the test-retest, inter-, and intraobserver reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: For test-retest reliability, a test-retest design was used; for the intra- and interobserver reliability, the

  17. The Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ: Development and Test-Retest Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorus W. M. Gevers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The narrow focus of existing food parenting instruments led us to develop a food parenting practices instrument measuring the full range of food practices constructs with a focus on snacking behavior. We present the development of the questionnaire and our research on the test-retest reliability. The developed Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ covers 21 constructs. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating intra class correlation coefficients and percentage agreement after two administrations of the CSPQ among a sample of 66 Dutch parents. Test-retest reliability analysis revealed acceptable intra class correlation coefficients (≥0.41 or agreement scores (≥0.60 for all items. These results, together with earlier work, suggest sufficient psychometric characteristics. The comprehensive, but brief CSPQ opens up chances for highly essential but unstudied research questions to understand and predict children’s snack intake. Example applications include studying the interactional nature of food parenting practices or interactions of food parenting with general parenting or child characteristics.

  18. Test-retest consistency of speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses in typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornickel, Jane; Knowles, Erica; Kraus, Nina

    2012-02-01

    The click-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) is widely used in clinical settings, partly due to its predictability and high test-retest consistency. More recently, the speech-evoked ABR has been used to evaluate subcortical processing of complex signals, allowing for the objective assessment of biological processes underlying auditory function and auditory processing deficits not revealed by responses to clicks. Test-retest reliability of some components of speech-evoked ABRs has been shown for adults and children over the course of months. However, a systematic study of the consistency of the speech-evoked brainstem response in school-age children has not been conducted. In the present study, speech-evoked ABRs were collected from 26 typically-developing children (ages 8-13) at two time points separated by one year. ABRs were collected for /da/ presented in quiet and in a 6-talker babble background noise. Test-retest consistency of response timing, spectral encoding, and signal-to-noise ratio was assessed. Response timing and spectral encoding were highly replicable over the course of one year. The consistency of response timing and spectral encoding found for the speech-evoked ABRs of typically-developing children suggests that the speech-evoked ABR may be a unique tool for research and clinical assessment of auditory function, particularly with respect to auditory-based communication skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Test-retest reliability of the Xhosa version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisher, A J; Sorsdahl, K R; Lund, C

    2012-03-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) is a widely used structured psychiatric diagnostic instrument for children that is designed to be administered by non-clinicians. Although reliability data on several versions of the DISC are available, none have assessed the Xhosa version for use in the South African context. The objective of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the Xhosa version of the DISC-IV. Test-retest reliabilities were documented for a sample of 105 parent/care giver and youth pairs. The research assistants worked in pairs, one interviewed the parent and the other interviewed the youth. The same researchers returned after approximately 2 weeks to conduct the second interviews. The DISC-IV was reliable across informants for many psychiatric disorders. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.448 (any anxiety disorder) to 0.662 (major depressive disorder) for parent reports and from 0.145 (anxiety) to 0.661 (major depressive disorder) for child reports. The results of this study suggest that the test-retest reliability of the Xhosa version of the DISC-IV is similar to the reliability reported in other translated versions of the instrument. The satisfactory reliability and straightforward application make this instrument suitable for use in South Africa. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Long-term test-retest reliability of the California Verbal Learning Test - second edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioto, Andrea G; Kramer, Joel H; Borish, Sarah; Neuhaus, John; Saloner, Rowan; Wynn, Matthew; Foley, Jessica M

    2017-11-01

    Aging is often associated with declines in episodic memory. Reliable tracking of memory requires assessment instruments that are stable over time to better understand changes potentially attributable to neurodegenerative disease. While prior studies support the test-retest reliability of memory instruments over brief intervals, follow-up testing in clinical settings typically occurs at least one-year later. The present study evaluated the long-term test-retest reliability of the California Verbal Learning Test - second edition (CVLT-2), a widely used measure of episodic learning and memory. One hundred and fifty seven healthy older adults (mean age = 68.47 years; education = 17.28 years) underwent repeat assessment at an average of 1.30 years apart. Participants underwent repeat assessment using either parallel or alternate forms at follow-up. We utilized a standardized regression-based (SRB) approach to determine statistically significant changes in test scores over time. This study revealed modest 1-year test-retest correlation coefficients for the primary CVLT-2 measures (range = .57-.69) Results of SRB formulae are provided to assist clinicians with defining clinically relevant cognitive change on the CVLT-2 while controlling for confounding factors. Findings from this study support repeat test administration of the CVLT-2 over longer periods, and may enhance its applicability in determining longitudinal change in memory performance.

  1. Test-retest measurements of dopamine D1-type receptors using simultaneous PET/MRI imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaller, Simon; Patt, Marianne; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Meyer, Philipp M.; Werner, Peter; Barthel, Henryk; Bresch, Anke; Sabri, Osama; Rullmann, Michael; Girbardt, Johanna; Fritz, Thomas H.; Hesse, Swen

    2017-01-01

    The role of dopamine D 1 -type receptor (D 1 R)-expressing neurons in the regulation of motivated behavior and reward prediction has not yet been fully established. As a prerequisite for future research assessing D 1 -mediated neuronal network regulation using simultaneous PET/MRI and D 1 R-selective [ 11 C]SCH23390, this study investigated the stability of central D 1 R measurements between two independent PET/MRI sessions under baseline conditions. Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 female, age 33 ± 13 yrs) underwent 90-min emission scans, each after 90-s bolus injection of 486 ± 16 MBq [ 11 C]SCH23390, on two separate days within 2-4 weeks using a PET/MRI system. Parametric images of D 1 R distribution volume ratio (DVR) and binding potential (BP ND ) were generated by a multi-linear reference tissue model with two parameters and the cerebellar cortex as receptor-free reference region. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was performed with manual VOIs drawn on consecutive transverse MRI slices for brain regions with high and low D 1 R density. The DVR varied from 2.5 ± 0.3 to 2.9 ± 0.5 in regions with high D 1 R density (e.g. the head of the caudate) and from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.2 in regions with low D 1 R density (e.g. the prefrontal cortex). The absolute variability of the DVR ranged from 2.4% ± 1.3% to 5.1% ± 5.3%, while Bland-Altman analyses revealed very low differences in mean DVR (e.g. 0.013 ± 0.17 for the nucleus accumbens). Intraclass correlation (one-way, random) indicated very high agreement (0.93 in average) for both DVR and BP ND values. Accordingly, the absolute variability of BP ND ranged from 7.0% ± 4.7% to 12.5% ± 10.6%; however, there were regions with very low D 1 R content, such as the occipital cortex, with higher mean variability. The test-retest reliability of D 1 R measurements in this study was very high. This was the case not only for D 1 R-rich brain areas, but also for regions with low D 1 R density. These results will provide a

  2. Test–retest reliability of contrast visual acuities in a clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Y. Sukha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, contrast visual acuities (VA have been evaluated as a potential screening, diagnostic and predictive tool in cases where standard visual acuity remains intact. Issues around contrast acuity sometimes make it difficult for clinicians to make appropriate clinical decisions and thus such tests have to be standardised and reliable. Aim: To investigate test–retest reliability of contrast VA in healthy adults in a clinical setting. Methods: Best compensated contrast VA at 100%, 10%, 5% and 2.5% of 155 patients (mean age 39.7 ± 12.2 years were measured using the computerised Thomson Test Chart 2000 Expert. For all participants and at each contrast level, two measurements per right eye were determined. Test–retest reliability for the four contrast levels were assessed using reliability coefficients and Bland–Altman plots. Participants were also divided into three age groups of young (18–39 years, n = 72, middle-age (40–49 years, n = 45 and elderly (50–67 years, n = 38 and reliability was assessed within and between age and gender groups. Results: For the whole-sample test and retest, measurements within each contrast level were not statistically different (p ≥ 0.05. Thus, test and retest measurements per participant were averaged and whole-sample mean-contrast VA and standard deviations for 100%, 10%, 5% and 2.5% were -0.146 ± 0.060, 0.050 ± 0.071, 0.135 ± 0.079 and 0.405 ± 0.115 logMAR, respectively. Significant differences were found between all pairs of contrast levels compared (p ≤ 0.0125. Mean-contrast VA within each age group were also significantly different across all contrast levels (p 0.05 but were statistically different between the young and elderly groups (p < 0.01. Only mean-contrast VA 10% was significantly different between the middle-age and elderly groups (p < 0.001. Also, mean-contrast VA for the four contrast levels within gender were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 but not between

  3. The test-retest reliability of anatomical co-ordinate axes definition for the quantification of lower extremity kinematics during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul John; Greenhalgh, Andrew; Edmundson, Christopher James; Brooks, Darrell; Hobbs, Sarah Jane

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) kinematic analyses are used widely in both sport and clinical examinations. However, this procedure depends on reliable palpation of anatomical landmarks and mal-positioning of markers between sessions may result in improperly defined segment co-ordinate system axes which will produce in-consistent joint rotations. This had led some to question the efficacy of this technique. The aim of the current investigation was to assess the reliability of the anatomical frame definition when quantifying 3-D kinematics of the lower extremities during running. Ten participants completed five successful running trials at 4.0 m·s(-1) ± 5%. 3-D angular joint kinematics parameters from the hip, knee and ankle were collected using an eight camera motion analysis system. Two static calibration trials were captured. The first (test) was conducted prior to the running trials following which anatomical landmarks were removed. The second was obtained following completion of the running trials where anatomical landmarks were re-positioned (retest). Paired samples t-tests were used to compare 3-D kinematic parameters quantified using the two static trials, and intraclass correlations were employed to examine the similarities between the sagittal, coronal and transverse plane waveforms. The results indicate that no significant (p>0.05) differences were found between test and retest 3-D kinematic parameters and strong (R(2)≥0.87) correlations were observed between test and retest waveforms. Based on the results obtained from this investigation, it appears that the anatomical co-ordinate axes of the lower extremities can be defined reliably thus confirming the efficacy of studies using this technique.

  4. Test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand measures in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand (STS) peak power and other STS measures in young and older adults. In addition, test-retest reliability of the sensor method was compared to test-retest reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSST) in older adults. Ten healthy young female adults (20-23 years) and 31 older adults (21 females; 73-94 years) participated in two assessment sessions separated by 3-8 days. Vertical peak power was assessed during three (young adults) and five (older adults) normal and fast STS trials with a hybrid motion sensor worn on the hip. Older adults also performed the FTSST and TUGT. The average sensor-based STS peak power of the normal STS trials and the average sensor-based STS peak power of the fast STS trials showed excellent test-retest reliability in young adults (intra-class correlation (ICC)≥0.90; zero in 95% confidence interval of mean difference between test and retest (95%CI of D); standard error of measurement (SEM)≤6.7% of mean peak power) and older adults (ICC≥0.91; zero in 95%CI of D; SEM≤9.9%). Test-retest reliability of sensor-based STS peak power and TUGT (ICC=0.98; zero in 95%CI of D; SEM=8.5%) was comparable in older adults, test-retest reliability of the FTSST was lower (ICC=0.73; zero outside 95%CI of D; SEM=14.4%). Sensor-based STS peak power demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability and may therefore be useful for clinical assessment of functional status and fall risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Test-retest reliability and four-week changes in cardiopulmonary fitness in stroke patients: evaluation using a robotics-assisted tilt table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, Jittima; Berger, Lucia; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Nef, Tobias; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-09-06

    Exercise testing devices for evaluating cardiopulmonary fitness in patients with severe disability after stroke are lacking, but we have adapted a robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT) for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Using the RATT in a sample of patients after stroke, this study aimed to investigate test-retest reliability and repeatability of CPET and to prospectively investigate changes in cardiopulmonary outcomes over a period of four weeks. Stroke patients with all degrees of disability underwent 3 separate CPET sessions: 2 tests at baseline (TB1 and TB2) and 1 test at follow up (TF). TB1 and TB2 were at least 24 h apart. TB2 and TF were 4 weeks apart. A RATT equipped with force sensors in the thigh cuffs, a work rate estimation algorithm and a real-time visual feedback system was used to guide the patients' exercise work rate during CPET. Test-retest reliability and repeatability of CPET variables were analysed using paired t-tests, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the coefficient of variation (CoV), and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Changes in cardiopulmonary fitness during four weeks were analysed using paired t-tests. Seventeen sub-acute and chronic stroke patients (age 62.7 ± 10.4 years [mean ± SD]; 8 females) completed the test sessions. The median time post stroke was 350 days. There were 4 severely disabled, 1 moderately disabled and 12 mildly disabled patients. For test-retest, there were no statistically significant differences between TB1 and TB2 for most CPET variables. Peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate, peak work rate and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC 0.65-0.94). For all CPET variables, CoV was 4.1-14.5 %. The mean difference was close to zero in most of the CPET variables. There were no significant changes in most cardiopulmonary performance parameters during the 4-week period

  6. Test-retest and interobserver reliability of quantitative sensory testing according to the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Klein, Thomas; Azad, Shahnaz; Birklein, Frank; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Nitzsche, Dorothee; Stengel, Maike; Valet, Michael; Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Tölle, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is an instrument to assess positive and negative sensory signs, helping to identify mechanisms underlying pathologic pain conditions. In this study, we evaluated the test-retest reliability (TR-R) and the interobserver reliability (IO-R) of QST in patients with sensory disturbances of different etiologies. In 4 centres, 60 patients (37 male and 23 female, 56.4±1.9years) with lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system were included. QST comprised 13 parameters including detection and pain thresholds for thermal and mechanical stimuli. QST was performed in the clinically most affected test area and a less or unaffected control area in a morning and an afternoon session on 2 consecutive days by examiner pairs (4 QSTs/patient). For both, TR-R and IO-R, there were high correlations (r=0.80-0.93) at the affected test area, except for wind-up ratio (TR-R: r=0.67; IO-R: r=0.56) and paradoxical heat sensations (TR-R: r=0.35; IO-R: r=0.44). Mean IO-R (r=0.83, 31% unexplained variance) was slightly lower than TR-R (r=0.86, 26% unexplained variance, Ptest area (TR-R: r=0.86; IO-R: r=0.83) than in the control area (TR-R: r=0.79; IO-R: r=0.71, each Ptest-retest and interobserver reliability within 2days. With standardized training, observer bias is much lower than random variance. Quantitative sensory testing performed by trained examiners is a valuable diagnostic instrument with good interobserver and test-retest reliability for use in patients with sensory disturbances of different etiologies to help identify mechanisms of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Test-retest reliability of freesurfer measurements within and between sites: Effects of visual approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Zafer; Jin, Tony B; Kendrick, Alexandria; Szeglin, Bryan; Lu, Hanzhang; Trivedi, Madhukar; Fava, Maurizio; McGrath, Patrick J; Weissman, Myrna; Kurian, Benji T; Adams, Phillip; Weyandt, Sarah; Toups, Marisa; Carmody, Thomas; McInnis, Melvin; Cusin, Cristina; Cooper, Crystal; Oquendo, Maria A; Parsey, Ramin V; DeLorenzo, Christine

    2015-09-01

    In the last decade, many studies have used automated processes to analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data such as cortical thickness, which is one indicator of neuronal health. Due to the convenience of image processing software (e.g., FreeSurfer), standard practice is to rely on automated results without performing visual inspection of intermediate processing. In this work, structural MRIs of 40 healthy controls who were scanned twice were used to determine the test-retest reliability of FreeSurfer-derived cortical measures in four groups of subjects-those 25 that passed visual inspection (approved), those 15 that failed visual inspection (disapproved), a combined group, and a subset of 10 subjects (Travel) whose test and retest scans occurred at different sites. Test-retest correlation (TRC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and percent difference (PD) were used to measure the reliability in the Destrieux and Desikan-Killiany (DK) atlases. In the approved subjects, reliability of cortical thickness/surface area/volume (DK atlas only) were: TRC (0.82/0.88/0.88), ICC (0.81/0.87/0.88), PD (0.86/1.19/1.39), which represent a significant improvement over these measures when disapproved subjects are included. Travel subjects' results show that cortical thickness reliability is more sensitive to site differences than the cortical surface area and volume. To determine the effect of visual inspection on sample size required for studies of MRI-derived cortical thickness, the number of subjects required to show group differences was calculated. Significant differences observed across imaging sites, between visually approved/disapproved subjects, and across regions with different sizes suggest that these measures should be used with caution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Test-retest reliability of the Swedish version of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Gustav; Holmefur, Marie; Hermansson, Liselotte M N

    2014-02-01

    The Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey consists of five modules to assess outcomes of orthotic and prosthetic interventions: lower extremity functional status, upper extremity functional status, client satisfaction with device, client satisfaction with services and health-related quality of life. To investigate the test-retest reliability and calculate the smallest detectable difference for all modules of the Swedish Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey. Test-retest reliability study design. A total of 69 patients at a Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics completed Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey on two occasions separated by a 2-week interval, giving 18 answers on lower extremity functional status, 41 on upper extremity functional status, 53 on client satisfaction with device, 12 on client satisfaction with services and 67 answers on health-related quality of life. Raw scores were converted into Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey units on a 0-100 scale. Intra-class correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, common person linking plots and t-tests of person mean measures were used to investigate the reliability. The 95% confidence level smallest detectable differences were calculated. The intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.77 to 0.96 for the modules, and no systematic differences were detected between the response occasions. The smallest detectable differences ranged from 7.4 to 16.6 units. The test-retest reliability was satisfactory for all Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey modules. The smallest detectable difference was large on all modules except the health-related quality of life module. The Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey modules are reliable and, thus, can be recommended for repeated measurements of patients over time. Relatively large changes are needed to achieve statistical significance when assessing individual patients.

  9. Test-retest reliability of barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate test-retest reliability statistics for peak barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise for loads corresponding to 10-90% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Twenty-one healthy, resistance-trained men (mean ± SD age = 23.5 ± 2.7 years; body mass = 90.5 ± 14.6 kg; 1RM bench press = 125.4 ± 18.4 kg) volunteered for this study. A minimum of 48 hours after a maximal strength testing and familiarization session, the subjects performed single repetitions of the free-weight bench-press exercise at each tenth percentile (10-90%) of the 1RM on 2 separate occasions. For each repetition, the subjects were instructed to press the barbell as rapidly as possible, and peak barbell velocity was measured with a Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (model 2,1) and corresponding standard errors of measurement (expressed as percentages of the mean barbell velocity values) were 0.717 (4.2%), 0.572 (5.0%), 0.805 (3.1%), 0.669 (4.7%), 0.790 (4.6%), 0.785 (4.8%), 0.811 (5.8%), 0.714 (10.3%), and 0.594 (12.6%) for the weights corresponding to 10-90% 1RM. There were no mean differences between the barbell velocity values from trials 1 and 2. These results indicated moderate to high test-retest reliability for barbell velocity from 10 to 70% 1RM but decreased consistency at 80 and 90% 1RM. When examining barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise, greater measurement error must be overcome at 80 and 90% 1RM to be confident that an observed change is meaningful.

  10. Development, test-retest reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan CL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (i To develop the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ using emerging themes generated from interviews. (ii To establish reliability and validity of questionnaire instrument. Methods: Using an extended Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model, face-to-face interviews generated salient beliefs of pharmacy value-added services. The PVASQ was constructed initially in English incorporating important themes and later translated into the Malay language with forward and backward translation. Intention (INT to adopt pharmacy value-added services is predicted by attitudes (ATT, subjective norms (SN, perceived behavioral control (PBC, knowledge and expectations. Using a 7-point Likert-type scale and a dichotomous scale, test-retest reliability (N=25 was assessed by administrating the questionnaire instrument twice at an interval of one week apart. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha and construct validity between two administrations was assessed using the kappa statistic and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CFA (N=410 was conducted to assess construct validity of the PVASQ. Results: The kappa coefficients indicate a moderate to almost perfect strength of agreement between test and retest. The ICC for all scales tested for intra-rater (test-retest reliability was good. The overall Cronbach’ s alpha (N=25 is 0.912 and 0.908 for the two time points. The result of CFA (N=410 showed most items loaded strongly and correctly into corresponding factors. Only one item was eliminated. Conclusions: This study is the first to develop and establish the reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire instrument using the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model. The translated Malay language version of PVASQ is reliable and valid to predict Malaysian patients’ intention to adopt pharmacy value-added services to collect partial

  11. Development, test-retest reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine L; Hassali, Mohamed A; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul A; Aljadhey, Hisham; Gan, Vincent B

    2015-01-01

    (i) To develop the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ) using emerging themes generated from interviews. (ii) To establish reliability and validity of questionnaire instrument. Using an extended Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model, face-to-face interviews generated salient beliefs of pharmacy value-added services. The PVASQ was constructed initially in English incorporating important themes and later translated into the Malay language with forward and backward translation. Intention (INT) to adopt pharmacy value-added services is predicted by attitudes (ATT), subjective norms (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), knowledge and expectations. Using a 7-point Likert-type scale and a dichotomous scale, test-retest reliability (N=25) was assessed by administrating the questionnaire instrument twice at an interval of one week apart. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach's alpha and construct validity between two administrations was assessed using the kappa statistic and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CFA (N=410) was conducted to assess construct validity of the PVASQ. The kappa coefficients indicate a moderate to almost perfect strength of agreement between test and retest. The ICC for all scales tested for intra-rater (test-retest) reliability was good. The overall Cronbach' s alpha (N=25) is 0.912 and 0.908 for the two time points. The result of CFA (N=410) showed most items loaded strongly and correctly into corresponding factors. Only one item was eliminated. This study is the first to develop and establish the reliability and validity of the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire instrument using the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical model. The translated Malay language version of PVASQ is reliable and valid to predict Malaysian patients' intention to adopt pharmacy value-added services to collect partial medicine supply.

  12. Test-retest reliability of lower limb isokinetic endurance in COPD: A comparison of angular velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernanda; Lépine, Pierre-Alexis; Garceau-Bolduc, Corine; Coats, Valérie; Allard, Étienne; Maltais, François; Saey, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the test-retest reliability of quadriceps isokinetic endurance testing at two knee angular velocities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After one familiarization session, 14 patients with moderate to severe COPD (mean age 65±4 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 55%±18% predicted) performed two quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests on two separate occasions within a 5-7-day interval. Quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests consisted of 30 maximal knee extensions at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second, performed in random order. Test-retest reliability was assessed for peak torque, muscle endurance, work slope, work fatigue index, and changes in FEV1 for dyspnea and leg fatigue from rest to the end of the test. The intraclass correlation coefficient, minimal detectable change, and limits of agreement were calculated. High test-retest reliability was identified for peak torque and muscle total work at both velocities. Work fatigue index was considered reliable at 90° per second but not at 180° per second. A lower reliability was identified for dyspnea and leg fatigue scores at both angular velocities. Despite a limited sample size, our findings support the use of a 30-maximal repetition isokinetic muscle testing procedure at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Endurance measurement (total isokinetic work) at 90° per second was highly reliable, with a minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level of 10%. Peak torque and fatigue index could also be assessed reliably at 90° per second. Evaluation of dyspnea and leg fatigue using the modified Borg scale of perceived exertion was poorly reliable and its clinical usefulness is questionable. These results should be useful in the design and interpretation of future interventions aimed at improving muscle endurance in COPD.

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test in Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Régis; Doukkali, Anis; Barateau, Lucie; Evangelista, Elisa; Chenini, Sofiene; Jaussent, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2017-12-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the polysomnography-multiple sleep latency test (PSG-MSLT) diagnostic classification and measures and to study the determinants of its variability in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) or with noncataplectic central disorders of hypersomnolence (NCHS): type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), and unspecified hypersomnolence (unspecified excessive daytime sleepiness [UnsEDS]). PSG-MSLT in drug-free conditions was administered twice (median interval of 1.9 years) in 22 patients with NT1 (10 males, median age 31.2 years) and 75 patients with NCHS (32 males, median age 25.7 years). At the first PSG-MSLT, patients with NCHS were classified as having NT2 (22.7%), IH (26.7%), or UnsEDS (50.6%). A positive PSG-MSLT was confirmed in 72.7% of NT1. The classification consistency at retesting was significantly lower for the NT2 (47.1%), IH (25.0%), and UnsEDS (42.1%) categories than NT1 (81.3%). The between-test mean sleep latency (MSL) variability was significantly different in NT1 and NCHS, with higher changes in NT2 and lower in NT1. A longer test-retest interval was associated with improved MSL and MSLT normalization. Between-test variations in SOREMP number were associated with changes in nocturnal REM sleep parameters and MSL. No association was found with the clinical decision to repeat the evaluation or the disease clinical course. The PSG-MSLT measures and classification are not stable in patients with NCHS, with frequent diagnostic changes, particularly for NT2 and IH, compared with NT1. MSLT needs to be repeated at regular intervals to confirm a stable hypersomnia and provide an accurate diagnosis of NT2 and IH.

  14. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Tong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003. Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management.In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016. In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset.Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations.Materials and methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at eight-hour intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED.Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M=81 years, SD=7 participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values between 0.5 and 0

  15. Interna konzistencija i retest pouzdanost hrvatske inačice PAQ-C upitnika

    OpenAIRE

    Podnar, Hrvoje; Kunješić, Mateja; Radman, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine internal consistency and retest reliability of the Croatian version of PAQ-C on a sample of 6-10 years old children and to report physical activity levels of elementary school pupils. The same set of questions was administered to the pupils on two different occasions, three weeks apart. Both testing rounds for 8-10 years old pupils were conducted at school in the presence of an experienced researcher. In contrast, the 6-8 years old pupils took the questio...

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years ( M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r -values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent

  17. Morpho-Functional 1H-MRI of the Lung in COPD: Short-Term Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram J Jobst

    Full Text Available Non-invasive end-points for interventional trials and tailored treatment regimes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD for monitoring regionally different manifestations of lung disease instead of global assessment of lung function with spirometry would be valuable. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRI allows for a radiation-free assessment of regional structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term reproducibility of a comprehensive morpho-functional lung MRI protocol in COPD.20 prospectively enrolled COPD patients (GOLD I-IV underwent 1H-MRI of the lung at 1.5T on two consecutive days, including sequences for morphology, 4D contrast-enhanced perfusion, and respiratory mechanics. Image quality and COPD-related morphological and functional changes were evaluated in consensus by three chest radiologists using a dedicated MRI-based visual scoring system. Test-retest reliability was calculated per each individual lung lobe for the extent of large airway (bronchiectasis, wall thickening, mucus plugging and small airway abnormalities (tree in bud, peripheral bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, consolidations, nodules, parenchymal defects and perfusion defects. The presence of tracheal narrowing, dystelectasis, pleural effusion, pulmonary trunk ectasia, right ventricular enlargement and, finally, motion patterns of diaphragma and chest wall were addressed.Median global scores [10(Q1:8.00;Q3:16.00 vs.11(Q1:6.00;Q3:15.00] as well as category subscores were similar between both timepoints, and kappa statistics indicated "almost perfect" global agreement (ĸ = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.81-0.91. Most subscores showed at least "substantial" agreement of MRI1 and MRI2 (ĸ = 0.64-1.00, whereas the agreement for the diagnosis of dystelectasis/effusion (ĸ = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.00-0.93 was "moderate" and of tracheal abnormalities (ĸ = 0.21, 95%CI = 0.00-0.75 "fair". Most MRI acquisitions showed at least diagnostic quality at

  18. Adjusting the Danish industrial relations system after Laval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    labour market (for detailed descriptions of the Laval case and the ’Laval-quartet’ see Ahlberg et al., 2006; Bücker and Warneck, 2010). The Laval ruling in particular, but also the Viking, Rüffert and Luxembourg rulings have made scholars question the durability of the Nordic industrial relations model...... relations system has been re-calibrated, rather than eroded, to absorb the new conditions following the Laval-quartet. This re-calibration has happened through judicial and political adjustments, much of which has had an explicit neo-corporatist nature, where the position of the labour market organisations...

  19. Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sniffin' TOM odor memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Zehner, Cora; Larsson, Maria; Zucco, Gesualdo M; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy participants (18-92 years) and an additional 19 older people with mild cognitive impairment were tested (73-82 years). Participants were presented with 8 common odors with intentional encoding instructions that were followed by a yes-no recognition test. After recognition completion, participants were asked to identify all odors by means of free or cued identification. A retest of the odor memory test (Sniffin' TOM = test of odor memory) took place 17 days later. The results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.70) of odor recognition memory. Both recognition and identification performance were negatively affected by age and more pronounced among the cognitively impaired. In conclusion, the present work presents a reliable, valid, and simple test of episodic odor recognition memory that may be used in clinical groups where both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss are prevalent preclinically such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Test-retest reliability of trunk motor variability measured by large-array surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Loranger, Michel; Descarreaux, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the trunk muscle activity distribution in asymptomatic participants during muscle fatigue using large-array surface electromyography (EMG). Trunk muscle activity distribution was evaluated twice, with 3 to 4 days between them, in 27 asymptomatic volunteers using large-array surface EMG. Motor variability, assessed with 2 different variables (the centroid coordinates of the root mean square map and the dispersion variable), was evaluated during a low back muscle fatigue task. Test-retest reliability of muscle activity distribution was obtained using Pearson correlation coefficients. A shift in the distribution of EMG amplitude toward the lateral-caudal region of the lumbar erector spinae induced by muscle fatigue was observed. Moderate to very strong correlations were found between both sessions in the last 3 phases of the fatigue task for both motor variability variables, whereas weak to moderate correlations were found in the first phases of the fatigue task only for the dispersion variable. These findings show that, in asymptomatic participants, patterns of EMG activity are less reliable in initial stages of muscle fatigue, whereas later stages are characterized by highly reliable patterns of EMG activity. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Test-retest reliability of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Margareta; Blomberg, Karin; Holmefur, Marie

    2015-07-01

    The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) scale evaluates the student nurses' perception of the learning environment and supervision within the clinical placement. It has never been tested in a replication study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the CLES + T scale. The CLES + T scale was administered twice to a group of 42 student nurses, with a one-week interval. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculations of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and weighted Kappa coefficients. Standard Error of Measurements (SEM) and Smallest Detectable Difference (SDD) determined the precision of individual scores. Bland-Altman plots were created for analyses of systematic differences between the test occasions. The results of the study showed that the stability over time was good to excellent (ICC 0.88-0.96) in the sub-dimensions "Supervisory relationship", "Pedagogical atmosphere on the ward" and "Role of the nurse teacher". Measurements of "Premises of nursing on the ward" and "Leadership style of the manager" had lower but still acceptable stability (ICC 0.70-0.75). No systematic differences occurred between the test occasions. This study supports the usefulness of the CLES + T scale as a reliable measure of the student nurses' perception of the learning environment within the clinical placement at a hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Retesting of liquefaction and nonliquefaction case histories from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R.E.S.; Kayen, R.E.; Tong, L.-Y.; Liu, S.-Y.; Cai, G.-J.; Wu, J.

    2011-01-01

    A field investigation was performed to retest liquefaction and nonliquefaction sites from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China. These sites were carefully investigated in 1978 and 1979 by using standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT) equipment; however, the CPT measurements are obsolete because of the now nonstandard cone that was used at the time. In 2007, a modern cone was mobilized to retest 18 selected sites that are particularly important because of the intense ground shaking they sustained despite their high fines content and/or because the site did not liquefy. Of the sites reinvestigated and carefully reprocessed, 13 were considered accurate representative case histories. Two of the sites that were originally investigated for liquefaction have been reinvestigated for cyclic failure of fine-grained soil and removed from consideration for liquefaction triggering. The most important outcome of these field investigations was the collection of more accurate data for three nonliquefaction sites that experienced intense ground shaking. Data for these three case histories is now included in an area of the liquefaction triggering database that was poorly populated and will help constrain the upper bound of future liquefaction triggering curves. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  3. Test-retest reliability of smile tasks using three-dimensional facial topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Chihiro; Takada, Kenji

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of three types of facial expression tasks using three-dimensional (3D) facial topography. Twelve adult volunteers were enrolled in this study. They were instructed to perform three different facial expression tasks: rest posture, posed smile, and maximum effort smile. Each task was recorded using a 3D image-capturing device on two separate occasions with an interval of 1 week between sessions. The images of two sessions were superimposed based on the forehead. For each participant and for each facial expression, a wire mesh fitting was conducted. This method generated 6,017 points on the wire mesh. Intraindividual reliability between sessions for each task was statistically tested by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the 95% confidence interval minimal detectable change (MDC 95 ). The MDC 95 for the repeated measures of the rest posture, posed smile, and maximum effort smile exhibited means of 0.8, 1.5, and 1.3 mm, respectively, on the z-axis. The ICCs ranged from substantial to almost perfect agreement for repeated measures for the rest posture and maximum effort smile (0.60 < ICC ≤ 1.00). The right corner of the mouth in the posed smile showed moderate agreement (0.40 < ICC ≤ 0.60). The overall test-retest reliability of the maximum effort smile and rest posture showed substantial to almost perfect agreement, and this was clinically acceptable.

  4. Test-retest reliability of the proposed DSM-5 eating disorder diagnostic criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Roberto, Christina A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The proposed DSM-5 classification scheme for eating disorders includes both major and minor changes to the existing DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. It is not known what effect these modifications will have on the ability to make reliable diagnoses. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the short-term test-retest reliability of the proposed DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and feeding and eating conditions not elsewhere classified. Participants completed two independent telephone interviews with research assessors (n=70 Study 1; n=55 Study 2). Fair to substantial agreements (κ= 0.80 and 0.54) were observed across eating disorder diagnoses in Study 1 and Study 2, respectively. Acceptable rates of agreement were identified for the individual eating disorder diagnoses, including DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (κ’s of 0.81 to 0.97), bulimia nervosa (κ=0.84), binge eating disorder (κ’s of 0.75 and 0.61), and feeding and eating disorders not elsewhere classified (κ’s of 0.70 and 0.46). Further, improved short-term test-retest reliability was noted when using the DSM-5, in comparison to DSM-IV, criteria for binge eating disorder. Thus, these studies found that trained interviewers can reliably diagnose eating disorders using the proposed DSM-5 criteria; however, additional data from general practice settings and community samples are needed. PMID:22401974

  5. Test-retest reliability of the 40 Hz EEG auditory steady-state response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L McFadden

    Full Text Available Auditory evoked steady-state responses are increasingly being used as a marker of brain function and dysfunction in various neuropsychiatric disorders, but research investigating the test-retest reliability of this response is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR across sessions. Furthermore, the current study aimed to investigate how the reliability of the ASSR is impacted by stimulus parameters and analysis method employed. The consistency of this response across two sessions spaced approximately 1 week apart was measured in nineteen healthy adults using electroencephalography (EEG. The ASSR was entrained by both 40 Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli. Correlations between sessions were assessed with two separate analytical techniques: a channel-level analysis across the whole-head array and b signal-space projection from auditory dipoles. Overall, the ASSR was significantly correlated between sessions 1 and 2 (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected, suggesting adequate test-retest reliability of this response. The current study also suggests that measures of inter-trial phase coherence may be more reliable between sessions than measures of evoked power. Results were similar between the two analysis methods, but reliability varied depending on the presented stimulus, with click train stimuli producing more consistent responses than white noise stimuli.

  6. Retinal arteriolar dilation to flicker light is reduced on short-term retesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Jonathan E; Nguyen, Thanh T; Man, Ryan E K; Best, William J; Wang, Jie Jin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2013-11-21

    To investigate the impact of retesting frequency over a short period on flicker light-induced retinal vasodilation. Twenty healthy participants were included. The retinal vascular response to flicker light stimulation was assessed three times (at baseline and after 5 and 30 minutes of rest [tests 1, 2, and 3, respectively]) in each participant using the Dynamic Vessel Analyzer. Relative dilations of selected arteriole and venule segments during flicker stimulation and resting diameters were measured automatically. The mean vessel dilations and resting diameters were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Participants were young (mean [SD] age, 33.1 [5.7] years) and mostly female (70%). The mean (SD) maximum arteriolar dilations during flicker stimulation were 3.23% (2.06%), 2.44% (1.62%), and 3.36% (2.11%) in tests 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean (SD) venular dilations were 4.26% (1.28%), 3.81% (1.61%), and 4.43% (1.73%) in tests 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean arteriolar dilations were significantly different across the three tests (P flicker stimulation is reduced on short-term retesting, without a significant change in baseline vessel diameter, indicating decreased responsiveness to the flicker stimulus. Researchers should allow at least 30 minutes between consecutive tests to minimize suppression of the flicker response.

  7. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Aileen P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.

  8. Test-retest reliability of computerised hand dynamometry in adults with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Hannah L H; Nott, Melissa T; Baguley, Ian J; Heard, Robert; Chapparo, Christine

    2012-08-01

    The ability to objectively and reliably measure hand performance over time is critical to monitor patient performance and evaluate treatment efficacy. Current spasticity measures are subjective in nature and fail to capture the complexity of the multi-faceted upper motor neuron syndrome. This study examined the test-retest reliability of dynamic computerised hand dynamometry for simultaneously measuring multiple aspects of positive and negative features of the upper motor neuron syndrome during an active grasp and release task. Community-living adults with upper motor neuron syndrome following acquired brain injury attending metropolitan spasticity clinics for management of upper limb spasticity (N = 36; mean age 50 years ±15) and control participants (N = 27, mean age 40 years ±12) completed a computerised hand dynamometry protocol across two testing occasions 5 weeks apart. Objective measurement of Isometric Force, Cycle Duration and Isometric Grip Work, Force Velocity, was completed during a repeated grasp and release test protocol with a computerised hand dynamometer to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of hand performance. Kendall Coefficient of Concordance W scores ranged from W = 0.69-0.98 for motor elements of grasp and release, including Isometric Force, Cycle Duration, Isometric Grip Work and Force Velocity. The investigated dynamic computerised hand dynamometry protocol showed fair/good to excellent levels of test-retest reliability in control participants and in subjects with upper motor neuron syndrome following acquired brain injury. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Test–Retest and Between-Site Reliability in a Multicenter fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee; Stern, Hal; Brown, Gregory G.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Turner, Jessica; Glover, Gary H.; Gollub, Randy L.; Lauriello, John; Lim, Kelvin O.; Cannon, Tyrone; Greve, Douglas N.; Bockholt, Henry Jeremy; Belger, Aysenil; Mueller, Bryon; Doty, Michael J.; He, Jianchun; Wells, William; Smyth, Padhraic; Pieper, Steve; Kim, Seyoung; Kubicki, Marek; Vangel, Mark; Potkin, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present report, estimates of test–retest and between-site reliability of fMRI assessments were produced in the context of a multicenter fMRI reliability study (FBIRN Phase 1, www.nbirn.net). Five subjects were scanned on 10 MRI scanners on two occasions. The fMRI task was a simple block design sensorimotor task. The impulse response functions to the stimulation block were derived using an FIR-deconvolution analysis with FMRISTAT. Six functionally-derived ROIs covering the visual, auditory and motor cortices, created from a prior analysis, were used. Two dependent variables were compared: percent signal change and contrast-to-noise-ratio. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients derived from a variance components analysis. Test–retest reliability was high, but initially, between-site reliability was low, indicating a strong contribution from site and site-by-subject variance. However, a number of factors that can markedly improve between-site reliability were uncovered, including increasing the size of the ROIs, adjusting for smoothness differences, and inclusion of additional runs. By employing multiple steps, between-site reliability for 3T scanners was increased by 123%. Dropping one site at a time and assessing reliability can be a useful method of assessing the sensitivity of the results to particular sites. These findings should provide guidance to others on the best practices for future multicenter studies. PMID:17636563

  10. The Case for Using the Repeatability Coefficient When Calculating Test–Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parsons, Richard; Andreou, Pantelis

    2013-01-01

    The use of standardised tools is an essential component of evidence-based practice. Reliance on standardised tools places demands on clinicians to understand their properties, strengths, and weaknesses, in order to interpret results and make clinical decisions. This paper makes a case for clinicians to consider measurement error (ME) indices Coefficient of Repeatability (CR) or the Smallest Real Difference (SRD) over relative reliability coefficients like the Pearson’s (r) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), while selecting tools to measure change and inferring change as true. The authors present statistical methods that are part of the current approach to evaluate test–retest reliability of assessment tools and outcome measurements. Selected examples from a previous test–retest study are used to elucidate the added advantages of knowledge of the ME of an assessment tool in clinical decision making. The CR is computed in the same units as the assessment tool and sets the boundary of the minimal detectable true change that can be measured by the tool. PMID:24040139

  11. Test-retest studies of cerebral glucose metabolism using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose: validation of method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Zukerberg, B.W.; Bairamian, D.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    In studies using [ 18 F]deoxyglucose (FDG), one often wants to compare metabolic rates following stimulation (drug or motor-sensory) with the baseline values. However, because of reproducibility problems with baseline variations of 25% in the same individual not uncommon, the global effect of the stimulation may be difficult to see. One approach to this problem is to perform the two studies sequentially. This means that, with the 110-min half-life of 18 F, one must take into account the residual activity from the first study when calculating metabolic rates for the second. We performed TEST-RETEST baseline studies on four subjects, with a 1-hr interval between injections. These studies were done without stimulation, in order to validate the repeatability of the method. To reduce the amount of residual activity from the first study, the first injection was only 2 mCi in three cases, and only 1 mCi in one case, out of a total injected dose of 5 mCi. A correction for residual activity was included in the RETEST calculation of metabolic rate. The results showed a global metabolic shift between the two studies of 2% to 9%. An error analysis shows that the shift could be further reduced if anatomically comparable scans are done at comparable postinjection times

  12. Test-retest assessment of cortical activation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with brain atlas-guided optical topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fenghua; Kozel, F. Andrew; Yennu, Amarnath; Croarkin, Paul E.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Liu, Hanli

    2012-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a technology that stimulates neurons with rapidly changing magnetic pulses with demonstrated therapeutic applications for various neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a suitable tool to assess rTMS-evoked brain responses without interference from the magnetic or electric fields generated by the TMS coil. We have previously reported a channel-wise study of combined rTMS/fNIRS on the motor and prefrontal cortices, showing a robust decrease of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]) at the sites of 1-Hz rTMS and the contralateral brain regions. However, the reliability of this putative clinical tool is unknown. In this study, we develop a rapid optical topography approach to spatially characterize the rTMS-evoked hemodynamic responses on a standard brain atlas. A hemispherical approximation of the brain is employed to convert the three-dimensional topography on the complex brain surface to a two-dimensional topography in the spherical coordinate system. The test-retest reliability of the combined rTMS/fNIRS is assessed using repeated measurements performed two to three days apart. The results demonstrate that the Δ[HbO2] amplitudes have moderate-to-high reliability at the group level; and the spatial patterns of the topographic images have high reproducibility in size and a moderate degree of overlap at the individual level.

  13. Validity and test-retest reliability of manual goniometers for measuring passive hip range of motion in femoroacetabular impingement patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nussbaumer Silvio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the construct validity (known group, concurrent validity (criterion based and test-retest (intra-rater reliability of manual goniometers to measure passive hip range of motion (ROM in femoroacetabular impingement patients and healthy controls. Methods Passive hip flexion, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation ROMs were simultaneously measured with a conventional goniometer and an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS on two different testing sessions. A total of 15 patients and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Results The goniometer provided greater hip ROM values compared to the ETS (range 2.0-18.9 degrees; P P Conclusions The present study suggests that goniometer-based assessments considerably overestimate hip joint ROM by measuring intersegmental angles (e.g., thigh flexion on trunk for hip flexion rather than true hip ROM. It is likely that uncontrolled pelvic rotation and tilt due to difficulties in placing the goniometer properly and in performing the anatomically correct ROM contribute to the overrating of the arc of these motions. Nevertheless, conventional manual goniometers can be used with confidence for longitudinal assessments in the clinic.

  14. "It feels good to be told that I'm all clear": patients' accounts of retesting following genital chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, H

    2006-08-01

    To examine the meaning that people with genital chlamydial infection attribute to retesting as part of their treatment management. Unstructured interviews with 50 heterosexual patients (40 female and 10 male) who had or had had genital chlamydia infection. Recruitment was via a genitourinary medicine clinic and a contraceptive clinic. The return visit was understood in terms of the retest. The retest occupied a pivotal position in the infection experience and was invested with symbolic significance because it provided a means by which to deal with feelings of bodily pollution. It marked the end of dirtiness that was important for the restoration of identity. It also marked the beginning of cleanness that was important in relation to sexual relationships. The sociocultural construction of sexually transmitted infections shapes the individual experience of having chlamydial infection. This perspective sheds light on the meaning that individuals invest in aspects of infection management. It is important for some people to know rather than assume that their infection has been eliminated, a function that is fulfilled by the retest. When retesting is not available, individuals may use increasingly available opportunistic chlamydia testing for this purpose with consequent cost and resource implications.

  15. Improving the Test-Retest Reliability of Resting State fMRI by Removing the Impact of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic. Here, we characterized the effect of sleep on the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI. Using measures of heart rate variability (HRV derived from simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG recording, we identified portions of fMRI data when subjects were more alert or sleepy, and examined their effects on the test-retest reliability of functional connectivity measures. When volumes of sleep were excluded, the reliability of rs-fMRI is significantly improved, and the improvement appears to be general across brain networks. The amount of improvement is robust with the removal of as much as 60% volumes of sleepiness. Therefore, test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI is affected by sleep and could be improved by excluding volumes of sleepiness as indexed by HRV. Our results suggest a novel and practical method to improve test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures.

  16. Improving the Test-Retest Reliability of Resting State fMRI by Removing the Impact of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahui; Han, Junwei; Nguyen, Vinh T; Guo, Lei; Guo, Christine C

    2017-01-01

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic. Here, we characterized the effect of sleep on the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI. Using measures of heart rate variability (HRV) derived from simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recording, we identified portions of fMRI data when subjects were more alert or sleepy, and examined their effects on the test-retest reliability of functional connectivity measures. When volumes of sleep were excluded, the reliability of rs-fMRI is significantly improved, and the improvement appears to be general across brain networks. The amount of improvement is robust with the removal of as much as 60% volumes of sleepiness. Therefore, test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI is affected by sleep and could be improved by excluding volumes of sleepiness as indexed by HRV. Our results suggest a novel and practical method to improve test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures.

  17. Test-retest reliability of frontal alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) measures in adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegust, Adira K; Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies have shown that the pattern of resting frontal EEG alpha power and asymmetry and heart rate are predictive of individual differences in affective style in children and adults. Although test-retest reliability of frontal electrocortical and autonomic measures has been established in adult and child and some clinical populations, few studies have examined test-retest reliability of these measures in adolescents. Here, we conducted a pilot study to examine the test-retest reliability of frontal EEG alpha power and asymmetry and heart period and heart rate in 10 typically developing adolescent participants (M age = 15.9 years) over a 1 month period. We found acceptable test-retest reliability using Pearson and intra-class correlations in left and right mid-frontal alpha power and asymmetry and heart period and heart rate over 1 month. These results provide initial evidence for acceptable levels of test-retest reliability in central and peripheral psychophysiological measures in adolescents used to index affective style in children and adults. Future studies are needed with a larger sample to ensure the reliability of these results.

  18. Test-retest reliability of the scale of participation in organized activities among adolescents in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosakova, Lucia; Kolarcik, Peter; Bobakova, Daniela; Sulcova, Martina; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2016-04-01

    Participation in organized activities is related with a range of positive outcomes, but the way such participation is measured has not been scrutinized. Test-retest reliability as an important indicator of a scale's reliability has been assessed rarely and for "The scale of participation in organized activities" lacks completely. This test-retest study is based on the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study and is consistent with its methodology. We obtained data from 353 Czech (51.9 % boys) and 227 Slovak (52.9 % boys) primary school pupils, grades five and nine, who participated in this study in 2013. We used Cohen's kappa statistic and single measures of the intraclass correlation coefficient to estimate the test-retest reliability of all selected items in the sample, stratified by gender, age and country. We mostly observed a large correlation between the test and retest in all of the examined variables (κ ranged from 0.46 to 0.68). Test-retest reliability of the sum score of individual items showed substantial agreement (ICC = 0.64). The scale of participation in organized activities has an acceptable level of agreement, indicating good reliability.

  19. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  20. Diagnosis of patients with immediate hypersensitivity to beta-lactams using retest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Núñez, I; Barasona Villarejo, M J; Algaba Mármol, M A; Moreno Aguilar, C; Guerra Pasadas, F

    2012-01-01

    beta-Lactams are the drugs most frequently involved in hypersensitivity reactions mediated by immunoglobulin (Ig) E. To evaluate a population of patients with suspected B-lactam allergy using a validated algorithm that includes specific IgE antibodies, skin testing, and/or a drug provocation test. A total of 1032 patients with symptoms compatible with B-lactam allergy were evaluated by means of their clinical history, specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody determinations (benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), and skin tests with major determinants (penicilloyl-polylysine) and minor determinants (minor determinant mixture) of benzylpenicillin, penicillin G, ampicillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Patients whose skin test results were negative were challenged with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Only immediate hypersensitivity reactions were evaluated. All patients with negative study results and for whom a reaction occurred more than 1 year before were retested using the same protocol. A total of 170 patients (16.4%) were finally confirmed as having immediate allergic reactions to beta-lactams (62.3% by skin testing, 16.5% by specific IgE, and 21.2% by drug provocation test). The mean age of these patients was 43.3 years, and the drug most frequently involved in the reaction was amoxicillin (41.1%), followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (36.4%). In the remaining 22.5%, different beta-lactams were involved or the culprit drug was not known. Only mild reactions were observed after the drug provocation test. A retest was required in 23% of patients in order to confirm their hypersensitivity. These results indicate that a diagnostic protocol based on the combination of skin testing and in vitro determination of specific IgE antibodies plus, if required, drug provocation testing is an appropriate procedure for evaluating immediate hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams. Because the sensitivity of skin testing and in vitro IgE assays is

  1. High test-retest-reliability of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgül, Özüm Simal; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K; Vollert, Jan; Fischer, Marc; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2017-04-24

    Pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) is an established electrophysiological method to evaluate the signal transmission of electrically stimulated A-delta fibres. Although prerequisite for its clinical use, test-retest-reliability and side-to-side differences of bilateral stimulation in healthy subjects have not been examined yet. We performed PREP twice within 3-14days in 33 healthy subjects bilaterally by stimulating the dorsal hand. Detection (DT) and pain thresholds (PT) after electrical stimulation, the corresponding pain ratings, latencies of P0, N1, P1 and N2 components and the corresponding amplitudes were assessed. Impact of electrically induced pain intensity, age, sex, and arm length on PREP was analysed. MANOVA, t-Test, interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Bland-Altmann-Analysis as well as ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis. Measurement from both sides on both days resulted in mean N1-latencies from 142.39±18.12ms to 144.03±16.62ms and in mean N1P1-amplitudes from 39.04±12.26μV to 40.53±12.9μV. Analysis of a side-to-side effect showed for the N1-latency a F-value of 0.038 and for the N1P1-amplitude of 0.004 (p>0.8). We found intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) from 0.88 to 0.93 and a standard error of measurement (SEM)test-retest-reliability for N1-latency and N1P1-amplitude without systematic error and there was no side-to-side effect on PREP. N1-latency (r=0.35, ptest-retest-reliability and negligible side-to-side differences concerning the commonly used parameters N1-latency and N1P1-amplitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Test-retest reliability of IPAQ environmental- module in an African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Adegoke, Babatunde Oa; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Fatudimu, Bukola M

    2008-08-04

    There is overwhelming evidence of the benefits of physical activity and the physical environment is increasingly recognized as a promising determinant of physical activity participation. The influence of the environment on physical activity has not been evaluated among black Africans and no specific measure exists for assessing environmental factors related to physical activity in an African environment. The IPAQ E- module was designed to assess environmental factors for physical activity participation and was considered to be relevant to all countries regardless of the stage of economic development. The objective of this study was to assess the test- retest reliability of IPAQ E- module in an African population. One hundred and three clinical students of a University in Nigeria were invited to participate in the reliability testing of IPAQ E- module. Sixteen of the 17- items on the environmental measure were assessed for test- retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% Confidence interval (CI) overall and by gender. The measure addressed items regarding residential density, access to destinations, neighborhood infrastructures, aesthetic qualities, social environment, street connectivity and neighborhood safety. Of the total respondents, 51.5% were males and 48.5% were females. Overall, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.43 to 0.91. The item regarding many interesting things to look at (aesthetic) produced the overall highest reliability score (ICC = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86 - 0.94), while the item regarding safety from crime during the day (neighborhood safety) produced the lowest overall score (ICC = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26 - 0.57). Reliability of items on neighborhood infrastructures ranged between substantial agreement to almost perfect agreement overall (ICC = 0.66 - 0.88) and by gender (male- ICC = 0.68 - 0.90 and female- ICC = 0.63 - 0.86). The access to destination items (ICC = 0.49 - 0.74), social environment

  3. Content validity and test-retest reliability of a low back pain questionnaire in Zimbabwean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaridzo, Matthew; Chikasha, Tafadzwa Nicole; Naidoo, Nirmala; Dambi, Jermaine Matewu; Tadyanemhandu, Cathrine; Munambah, Nyaradzai; Chizanga, Precious Trish

    2017-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, a recent increase in the volume of research on recurrent non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) has revealed that adolescents are commonly affected. This is alarming to health professionals and parents and calls for serious primary preventative strategies to be developed and implemented forthwith. Early identification initiatives should be prioritised in order to curtail the condition and its progression. In an attempt to be proactive in minimising the prevalence of recurrent NSLBP, this study was conducted to evaluate the content validity and test-retest reliability of a survey questionnaire with the aim of proffering a valid and reliable questionnaire which can be used in non-clinical settings to identify adolescents with recurrent NSLBP in Harare, Zimbabwe and determine the possible factors associated with the condition. The study was conducted in two parts. The first part assessed content validity of the questionnaire using four experts derived from academia and clinical practice. The second part evaluated the reliability of the questionnaire among 125 high school-children aged between 13 and 19 years in a test-retest study. Twenty-six (26) out of thirty questions in the questionnaire had an Item Content Validity index of 1.00, demonstrating complete agreement among content experts. Overall, the Scale Content Validity Index for the questionnaire was 0.97. Item completion for the reliability study was satisfactory. The questionnaire items had kappa values ranging from 0.17 (slight agreement) to 1 (perfect agreement). High levels of reliability were found for the questions on school bag use ( k =0.94), sports participation ( k =0.97), and lifetime prevalence ( k =0.89). Excellent content validity and slight to perfect test-retest reliability was found for the Low Back Pain (LBP) questionnaire. These results are comparable to findings of other studies evaluating the psychometric properties of LBP questionnaires. Cognisant of the limitations of the study

  4. Seasonal prediction for Southern Africa: Maximising the skill from forecast systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available recalibrated and combined at the same time 2. Each model recalibrated, then averaged ToR 1: To facilitate cooperation between the centres within southern Africa that run an operational global scale long-range forecasting (LRF - from 30 days up to 2 years...) system ToR 2: To produce global forecasts from dynamical forecasting systems ToR 3: To establish a web based environment for non commercial product dissemination ToR 4: The consortium will be managed by a committee ToR 5: To compile archived hindcasts...

  5. Test-Retest Variability of Fundus-Tracked Perimetry at the Peripapillary Region in Open Angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhichao; McKendrick, Allison M; Hadoux, Xavier; Gaskin, Jennifer C Fan; Ang, Ghee Soon; Sarossy, Marc G; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association between the measured level and local gradient of visual sensitivity on the magnitude of test-retest variability of its measurements at the peripapillary region using fundus-tracked perimetry in eyes with glaucoma. A total of 30 participants with open angle glaucoma underwent three examinations in one eye on fundus-tracked perimetry using a stimulus pattern that sampled the peripapillary region densely. Factors associated with the magnitude of test-retest variability at each location were examined. There was no significant change in average pointwise sensitivity (PWS) between tests 1 and 2 (P = 0.855), but a significant reduction between tests 2 and 3 (P tests 1 and 2. Multivariate analyses revealed that the magnitude of test-retest variability at a given location was significantly associated with its average sensitivity and gradient of sensitivity relative to the immediately adjacent locations (P ≤ 0.001), meaning that locations with low levels of sensitivity (4-18 dB) with low gradients of sensitivity (test-retest limit of ±5.83 dB, compared to a limit of ±10.65 dB in areas of high gradients of sensitivity (>4 dB/location). On a pointwise basis, the test-retest variability of visual sensitivity in glaucoma is not just related to its measured level, but also its local gradient when using fundus-tracked perimetry. Locations with low sensitivity do not necessarily demonstrate very high test-retest variability, depending on the local uniformity of visual field damage.

  6. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability of a method to measure wrist and finger spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäverth, Johan; Sandgren, Maria; Lindberg, Påvel G; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2013-07-01

    To describe the reliability of an instrument (Neuro- Flexor) designed to be used in the clinic for quantification of the relative contribution of spasticity, elasticity and viscosity to resistance during passive wrist movements. A test-retest and inter-rater reliability study. A convenience sample of 34 adults with chronic stroke with spasticity in the hand, and a reference group of 10 healthy persons. Two raters assessed the participants with the NeuroFlexor. Elastic, viscous and neural components of passive movement resistance were quantified at the wrist. Test-retest and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2.1) were calculated for each component for both raters and two sessions. Degree of measurement error was evaluated using the coefficient of variation and the repeatability coefficient. Reliability was high for the neural component (test-retest: 0.90-0.96; inter-rater: 0.90-0.94), fair to good for the elastic component (test-retest: 0.79-0.88; inter-rater: 0.76-0.76), and fair to high for the viscous component (test-retest: 0.88-0.90; inter-rater: 0.75-0.80). Based on test-retest data, the coefficients of variation for the neural, elastic and viscous components were 25%, 26% and 16%, respectively, and the repeatability coefficients were 1.798, 1.897 and 1.404, respectively. The NeuroFlexor instrument is a reliable measure of spasticity and of muscle elasticity and viscosity in individuals with wrist and finger muscle resistance to passive stretch after stroke.

  7. Test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildebro, Niels; Amirian, Ilda; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We wished to determine test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity. Design. Test re-test reliability was examined in a controlled study. Construct validity was tested in a blinded randomized crossover study. Setting. The study was performed at a university hospital in Denmark. Participants. A total of 11 subjects for test re-test and 20 subjects for the construct validity study were included. All subjects were healthy volunteers. Intervention. The test re-test trial had two measurements with 2 days pause in between. The interventions in the construct validity study included baseline measurement, intervention 1: fatigue, intervention 2: stress, and intervention 3: fatigue and stress. There was a 2 day pause between each intervention. Main outcome measure. An integrated measure of completion time and number of errors was used. Results. All participants completed the study (test re-test n = 11; construct validity n = 20). The test re-testshowed a strong Pearson product-moment correlation (r = 0.90, n = 11, P validity trial were randomized to the order of the four interventions, so that all subjects completed each intervention once. A repeated measures ANOVA determined that mean integrated measure differed between interventions (p = 0.002). Post hoc tests using Bonferroni correction revealed that compared with baseline all interventions had significantly higher integrated scores ranging from 47-59% difference in mean. Conclusion. The star track test of manual dexterity had a strong test re-test reliability, and was able to discriminate between a subject's normal manual dexterity and dexterity after exposure to fatigue and/or stress.

  8. A Test-Retest Reliability Study of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire in Patients With Acute Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability and the Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) in individuals with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). METHODS: We performed a test-retest reliability study. We included...... insurance claimants from Ontario who were at least 18years of age, within 21days of their motor vehicle collision and diagnosed as having acute WAD grades I to III. The WDQ, a 13-item questionnaire scored from 0 (no disability) to 130 (complete disability), was administered to all participants at baseline...

  9. Temporal stability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form: test-retest data over one week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christopher Alan; Cruise, Sharon Mary; McGuckin, Conor

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form. 39 Northern Irish undergraduate students completed the measure on two occasions separated by one week. Stability across the two administrations was high, r = .92, and there was no significant change between Time 1(M = 25.2, SD = 5.4) and Time 2 (M = 25.7, SD = 6.2). These data support the short-term test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form.

  10. Test-retest reliability of the Danish Adult Reading Test in patients with comorbid psychosis and cannabis-use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Vesterager, Lone; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-01-01

    -retest reliability of the Danish adaptation has never been established in any population. Aims: To determine the test-retest reliability of the Danish Adult Reading Test (DART) (adapted from the National Adult Reading Test, NART) for patients dually diagnosed with psychosis and cannabis-use disorder. Methods......: This was a secondary analysis of the CapOpus randomized trial. As part of the trial, 103 patients were randomized, and completed the DART up to three times. Pearson's r and pairwise t-tests were calculated. Results: DART score was independent of randomization, cannabis-use frequency and psychopathology. Scores...

  11. Test-retest Agreement and Reliability of Quantitative Sensory Testing 1 Year After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory dysfunction and nerve damage by examining psychophysical responses to controlled, graded stimuli such as mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds. In the breast cancer population, 4 studies have used QST to examine...... of the present study was to assess test-retest properties of QST after breast cancer surgery. METHODS: A total of 32 patients recruited from a larger ongoing prospective trial were examined with QST 12 months after breast cancer surgery and reexamined a week later. A standardized QST protocol was used, including...... sensory mapping for mechanical, warmth and cold areas of sensory dysfunction, mechanical thresholds using monofilaments and pin-prick, thermal thresholds including warmth and cold detection thresholds and heat pain threshold, with bilateral examination. Agreement and reliability were assessed by Bland...

  12. Retest reliability of individual p3 topography assessed by high density electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Marrufo, Manuel; González-Rosa, Javier J; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio; Borges, Mónica; Peña, Juan Luis Ruiz; Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Some controversy remains about the potential applicability of cognitive potentials for evaluating the cerebral activity associated with cognitive capacity. A fundamental requirement is that these neurophysiological parameters show a high level of stability over time. Previous studies have shown that the reliability of diverse parameters of the P3 component (latency and amplitude) ranges between moderate and high. However, few studies have paid attention to the retest reliability of the P3 topography in groups or individuals. Considering that changes in P3 topography have been related to different pathologies and healthy aging, the main objective of this article was to evaluate in a longitudinal study (two sessions) the reliability of P3 topography in a group and at the individual level. The correlation between sessions for P3 topography in the grand average of groups was high (r = 0.977, ptopography comparisons, the correlation was always lower for comparisons between different subjects than for within-subjects correlations in the first session but not in the second session. The present study shows that P3 topography is highly reliable for group analysis (comprising the same subjects) in different sessions. The results also confirmed that retest reliability for individual P3 maps is suitable for follow-up studies for a particular subject. Moreover, P3 topography appears to be a specific marker considering that the between-subjects correlations were lower than the within-subject correlations. However, P3 topography appears more similar between subjects in the second session, demonstrating that is modulated by experience. Possible clinical applications of all these results are discussed.

  13. Retest reliability of individual p3 topography assessed by high density electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez-Marrufo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some controversy remains about the potential applicability of cognitive potentials for evaluating the cerebral activity associated with cognitive capacity. A fundamental requirement is that these neurophysiological parameters show a high level of stability over time. Previous studies have shown that the reliability of diverse parameters of the P3 component (latency and amplitude ranges between moderate and high. However, few studies have paid attention to the retest reliability of the P3 topography in groups or individuals. Considering that changes in P3 topography have been related to different pathologies and healthy aging, the main objective of this article was to evaluate in a longitudinal study (two sessions the reliability of P3 topography in a group and at the individual level. RESULTS: The correlation between sessions for P3 topography in the grand average of groups was high (r = 0.977, p<0.001. The within-subject correlation values ranged from 0.626 to 0.981 (mean: 0.888. In the between-subjects topography comparisons, the correlation was always lower for comparisons between different subjects than for within-subjects correlations in the first session but not in the second session. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that P3 topography is highly reliable for group analysis (comprising the same subjects in different sessions. The results also confirmed that retest reliability for individual P3 maps is suitable for follow-up studies for a particular subject. Moreover, P3 topography appears to be a specific marker considering that the between-subjects correlations were lower than the within-subject correlations. However, P3 topography appears more similar between subjects in the second session, demonstrating that is modulated by experience. Possible clinical applications of all these results are discussed.

  14. Test-retest reliability of a handheld dynamometer for measurement of isometric cervical muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannebo, Katrine Tranaas; Iversen, Vegard Moe; Fimland, Marius Steiro; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2018-03-02

    There is a lack of test-retest reliability studies of measurements of cervical muscle strength, taking into account gender and possible learning effects. To investigate test-retest reliability of measurement of maximal isometric cervical muscle strength by handheld dynamometry. Thirty women (age 20-58 years) and 28 men (age 20-60 years) participated in the study. Maximal isometric strength (neck flexion, neck extension, and right/left lateral flexion) was measured on three separate days at least five days apart by one evaluator. Intra-rater consistency tended to improve from day 1-2 measurements to day 2-3 measurements in both women and men. In women, the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for day 2 to day 3 measurements were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.95) for neck flexion, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.94) for neck extension, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-0.92) for right lateral flexion, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-0.95) for left lateral flexion. The corresponding ICCs among men were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for neck flexion, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97) for neck extension, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91) for right lateral flexion and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.50-0.87) for left lateral flexion. This study describes a reliable and easy-to-administer test for assessing maximal isometric cervical muscle strength.

  15. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance Tests used Pre- and Post-Spaceflight: Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Amonette, William E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess changes in muscular strength and endurance after microgravity exposure, NASA measures isokinetic strength and endurance across multiple sessions before and after long-duration space flight. Accurate interpretation of pre- and post-flight measures depends upon the reliability of each measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) isokinetic protocol. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 M/12 F, 32.0 +/- 5.6 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic knee, ankle, and trunk flexion and extension strength as well as endurance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer. The first weekly session was considered a familiarization session. Data were collected and analyzed for weeks 2-4. Repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha=0.05) was used to identify weekly differences in isokinetic measures. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1). No significant differences were found between weeks in any of the strength measures and the reliability of the strength measures were all considered excellent (ICC greater than 0.9), except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion (ICC=0.67). Although a significant difference was noted in weekly endurance measures of knee extension (p less than 0.01), the reliability of endurance measure by week were considered excellent for knee flexion (ICC=0.97) and knee extension (ICC=0.96). Except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion, the isokinetic strength and endurance measures are highly reliable when following the NASA ISS protocol. This protocol should allow accurate interpretation isokinetic data even with a small number of crew members.

  16. Test-Retest Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a Single Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis in Older Adults with Normal Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Seonjeong; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Ki Woong

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of spatio-temporal gait parameters measured with a single tri-axial accelerometer (TAA), determined the optimal number of steps required for obtaining acceptable levels of reliability, and compared the validity and reliability of the estimated gait parameters across the three reference axes of the TAA. Methods A total of 82 cognitively normal elderly participants walked around a 40-m long round walkway twice wearing a TAA at their center of body mass. Gait parameters such as cadence, gait velocity, step time, step length, step time variability, and step time asymmetry were estimated from the low pass-filtered signal of the TAA. The test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with the GAITRite® system were evaluated for the estimated gait parameters. Results Gait parameters using signals from the vertical axis showed excellent reliability for all gait parameters; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.79–0.90. A minimum of 26 steps and 14 steps were needed to achieve excellent reliability in step time variability and step time asymmetry, respectively. A strong level of agreement was seen for the basic gait parameters between the TAA and GAITRiteⓇ (ICC = 0.91–0.96). Conclusions The measurement of gait parameters of elderly individuals with normal cognition using a TAA placed on the body’s center of mass was reliable and showed superiority over the GAITRiteⓇ with regard to gait variability and asymmetry. The TAA system was a valid tool for measuring basic gait parameters. Considering its wearability and low price, the TAA system may be a promising alternative to the pressure sensor walkway system for measuring gait parameters. PMID:27427965

  17. Test-Retest Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a Single Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis in Older Adults with Normal Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonjeong Byun

    Full Text Available We investigated the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of spatio-temporal gait parameters measured with a single tri-axial accelerometer (TAA, determined the optimal number of steps required for obtaining acceptable levels of reliability, and compared the validity and reliability of the estimated gait parameters across the three reference axes of the TAA.A total of 82 cognitively normal elderly participants walked around a 40-m long round walkway twice wearing a TAA at their center of body mass. Gait parameters such as cadence, gait velocity, step time, step length, step time variability, and step time asymmetry were estimated from the low pass-filtered signal of the TAA. The test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with the GAITRite® system were evaluated for the estimated gait parameters.Gait parameters using signals from the vertical axis showed excellent reliability for all gait parameters; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.79-0.90. A minimum of 26 steps and 14 steps were needed to achieve excellent reliability in step time variability and step time asymmetry, respectively. A strong level of agreement was seen for the basic gait parameters between the TAA and GAITRiteⓇ (ICC = 0.91-0.96.The measurement of gait parameters of elderly individuals with normal cognition using a TAA placed on the body's center of mass was reliable and showed superiority over the GAITRiteⓇ with regard to gait variability and asymmetry. The TAA system was a valid tool for measuring basic gait parameters. Considering its wearability and low price, the TAA system may be a promising alternative to the pressure sensor walkway system for measuring gait parameters.

  18. Test-Retest Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a Single Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis in Older Adults with Normal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Seonjeong; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Ki Woong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of spatio-temporal gait parameters measured with a single tri-axial accelerometer (TAA), determined the optimal number of steps required for obtaining acceptable levels of reliability, and compared the validity and reliability of the estimated gait parameters across the three reference axes of the TAA. A total of 82 cognitively normal elderly participants walked around a 40-m long round walkway twice wearing a TAA at their center of body mass. Gait parameters such as cadence, gait velocity, step time, step length, step time variability, and step time asymmetry were estimated from the low pass-filtered signal of the TAA. The test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with the GAITRite® system were evaluated for the estimated gait parameters. Gait parameters using signals from the vertical axis showed excellent reliability for all gait parameters; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.79-0.90. A minimum of 26 steps and 14 steps were needed to achieve excellent reliability in step time variability and step time asymmetry, respectively. A strong level of agreement was seen for the basic gait parameters between the TAA and GAITRiteⓇ (ICC = 0.91-0.96). The measurement of gait parameters of elderly individuals with normal cognition using a TAA placed on the body's center of mass was reliable and showed superiority over the GAITRiteⓇ with regard to gait variability and asymmetry. The TAA system was a valid tool for measuring basic gait parameters. Considering its wearability and low price, the TAA system may be a promising alternative to the pressure sensor walkway system for measuring gait parameters.

  19. Interrater and test-retest reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the BESTest and mini-BESTest in people with increased risk of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, Charlotta; Botolfsen, Pernille; Tangen, Gro Gujord; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2017-04-20

    The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) was developed to assess underlying systems for balance control in order to be able to individually tailor rehabilitation interventions to people with balance disorders. A short form, the Mini-BESTest, was developed as a screening test. The study aimed to assess interrater and test-retest reliability of the Norwegian version of the BESTest and the Mini-BESTest in community-dwelling people with increased risk of falling and to assess concurrent validity with the Fall Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), and it was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Forty-two persons with increased risk of falling (elderly over 65 years of age, persons with a history of stroke or Multiple Sclerosis) were assessed twice by two raters. Relative reliability was analysed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and absolute reliability with standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC). Concurrent validity was assessed against the FES-I using Spearman's rho. The BESTest showed very good interrater reliability (ICC = 0.98, SEM = 1.79, SDC 95  = 5.0) and test-retest reliability (rater A/rater B = ICC = 0.89/0.89, SEM = 3.9/4.3, SDC 95  = 10.8/11.8). The Mini-BESTest also showed very good interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, SEM = 1.19, SDC 95  = 3.3) and test-retest reliability (rater A/rater B = ICC = 0.85/0.84, SEM = 1.8/1.9, SDC 95  = 4.9/5.2). The correlations were moderate between the FES-I and both the BESTest and the Mini-BESTest (Spearman's rho -0.51 and-0.50, p reliability when assessed in a heterogeneous sample of people with increased risk of falling. The concurrent validity measured against the FES-I showed moderate correlation. The results are comparable with earlier studies and indicate that the Norwegian versions can be used in daily clinic and in research.

  20. Brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) detection in vivo with the J-editing (1) H MRS technique: a comprehensive methodological evaluation of sensitivity enhancement, macromolecule contamination and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungu, Dikoma C; Mao, Xiangling; Gonzales, Robyn; Soones, Tacara N; Dyke, Jonathan P; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2016-07-01

    Abnormalities in brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. However, in vivo GABA detection by (1) H MRS presents significant challenges arising from the low brain concentration, overlap by much stronger resonances and contamination by mobile macromolecule (MM) signals. This study addresses these impediments to reliable brain GABA detection with the J-editing difference technique on a 3-T MR system in healthy human subjects by: (i) assessing the sensitivity gains attainable with an eight-channel phased-array head coil; (ii) determining the magnitude and anatomic variation of the contamination of GABA by MM; and (iii) estimating the test-retest reliability of the measurement of GABA with this method. Sensitivity gains and test-retest reliability were examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas MM levels were compared across three cortical regions: DLPFC, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the occipital cortex (OCC). A three-fold higher GABA detection sensitivity was attained with the eight-channel head coil compared with the standard single-channel head coil in DLPFC. Despite significant anatomical variation in GABA + MM and MM across the three brain regions (p test-retest reliability of GABA measurement, expressed as either the ratio to voxel tissue water (W) or to total creatine, was found to be very high for both the single-channel coil and the eight-channel phased-array coil. For the eight-channel coil, for example, Pearson's correlation coefficient of test vs. retest for GABA/W was 0.98 (R(2)  = 0.96, p = 0.0007), the percentage coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.25% and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Similar reliability was also found for the co-edited resonance of combined glutamate and glutamine (Glx) for both coils. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Test-Retest Reliability of a Pendant-Worn Sensor Device in Measuring Chair Rise Performance in Older Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei; Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Schaabova, Hana; Baldus, Heribert; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    Chair rise performance is incorporated in clinical assessments to indicate fall risk status in older persons. This study investigated the test-retest reliability of a pendant-sensor-based assessment of chair rise performance. Forty-one older persons (28 females, 13 males, age: 72-94) were assessed

  2. The QUASAR reproducibility study, Part II: Results from a multi-center Arterial Spin Labeling test-retest study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Esben Thade; Mouridsen, Kim; Golay, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative STAR labeling of Arterial Regions or QUASAR), a method providing user independent quantification of CBF in a large test-retest study across sites from around the world, dubbed "The QUASAR reproducibility study". Altogether, 28 sites located in Asia, Europe and North America participated...

  3. Test-retest Reliability and Agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) Instrument in Two Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Anttila, Heidi; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate test–retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs...

  4. Short-term and long-term test-retest reliability of the Nasality Severity Index 2.0.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Meerschman; Anke Luyten; K. Bettens; K. van Lierde; E. D'haeseleer; F. Wuyts

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Nasality Severity Index 2.0 (NSI 2.0) forms a new, multiparametric approach in the assessment of hypernasality. To enable clinical implementation of this index, the short- and long-term test-retest reliability of this index was explored. METHODS: In 40 normal-speaking adults (mean age

  5. Test-retest reliability of an interactive voice response (IVR) version of the EORTC QLQ-C30

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundy, J.J.; Coons, S.J.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of an interactive voice response (IVR) version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. Methods: A convenience sample of outpatient cancer clinic patients (n = 127) was asked to

  6. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of three-dimensional gait analysis in chronic low back pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, R.; Armada-da-Silva, P.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.; Moniz-Pereira, V.; Veloso, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) can provide detailed data on gait impairment in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. However, data about reliability and measurement error of 3DGA in this population is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate test-retest

  7. A within-sample investigation of test-retest reliability in choice experiment surveys with real economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the level of agreement between respondents' choices in identical choice sets in a test-retest choice experiment for a market good with real economic incentives, thus investigating whether the incentivised CE method can be reliable and stable over time. Besides...

  8. The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities : test-retest reliability and comparison with an accelerometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Woude, Lucas

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). METHODS: Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects'

  9. Test-retest reliability of Antonovsky's 13-item sense of coherence scale in patients with hand-related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Ørts; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Cederlund, Ragnhild

    2017-01-01

    to be a powerful tool to measure the ICF component personal factors, which could have an impact on patients' rehabilitation outcomes. Implications for rehabilitation Antonovsky's SOC-13 scale showed test-retest reliability for patients with hand-related disorders. The SOC-13 scale could be a suitable tool to help...... measure personal factors....

  10. The eye-complaint questionnaire in a visual display unit work environment: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Ivan A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2009-01-01

    The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of a 10-item eye-complaint questionnaire (ECQ) were examined within a sample of office workers. Repeated within-subjects measures were performed within a single day and over intervals of 1 and 7 d. Questionnaires were completed by 96 workers (70%

  11. Test-retest Reliability and Agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) Instrument in Two Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Anttila, Heidi; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate test–retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs (...

  12. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in women by a self-administered questionnaire: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Sejr, T; Able, I

    1996-01-01

    , sexual function and social activities. Test-retest showed a repeat frequency of 50.0%-91.0% for symptoms and 44.6%-82.1% for trouble. A highly significant positive correlation was found between symptoms and trouble, which was most pronounced for questions concerning pain and incontinence...

  13. Test-retest reliability of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ) for children, adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jantina L.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Vlieg - Boerstra, Berber J.; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Schouten, Jan P.; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Duiverman, Eric J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    The self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF), -Teenager Form (FAQLQ-TF) and -Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) were recently developed within EuroPrevall, a multi-centred study of food allergy in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest

  14. Test-retest reliability of the scale of participation in organized activities among adolescents in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosakova, Lucia; Kolarcik, Peter; Bobakova, Daniela; Sulcova, Martina; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    Objectives Participation in organized activities is related with a range of positive outcomes, but the way such participation is measured has not been scrutinized. Test-retest reliability as an important indicator of a scale's reliability has been assessed rarely and for "The scale of participation

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised and the Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised (PBFQ-R). These self-report parenting behavior assessment measures may be utilized as pre- and post-parent education program measures, with parents as well as…

  16. One-Year Test-Retest Reliability of the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury (ISAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a growing public health problem among adolescents and young adults. The Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS) is a self-report measure designed to assess NSSI behaviors and functions. The current study examines the one-year test-retest reliability of the ISAS in a sample of young adult self-injurers.…

  17. Using personality item characteristics to predict single-item reliability, retest reliability, and self-other agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2016-01-01

    The use of reliability estimates is increasingly scrutinized as scholars become more aware that test–retest stability and self–other agreement provide a better approximation of the theoretical and practical usefulness of an instrument than its internal reliability. In this study, we investigate item

  18. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of three-dimensional gait analysis in chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rita; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies L; Moniz-Pereira, Vera; Veloso, António P

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) can provide detailed data on gait impairment in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. However, data about reliability and measurement error of 3DGA in this population is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of 3DGA in a sample of CLBP patients. A test-retest study was conducted with a sample of 14 CLBP patients that underwent two biomechanical gait assessments with an interval of 7.6 ± 1.8 days. Anthropometric and time-distance parameters, as well as peak values for lower limb and trunk joint angles and moments, were computed. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC3,k) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and limits of agreement (LOA) were also estimated. The obtained ICC values demonstrate high test-retest reliability for most joint angles, with low SEM ( 0.86). The results of this study show high test-retest reliability for lower limb and trunk joint angles, and time-distance parameters during gait in CLBP individuals, together with a low measurement error. These results also support the use of this method in clinical assessments of CLBP patients' gait patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Construct Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the Walking Questionnaire in People With a Lower Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Fred A.; Rommers, Gerardus M.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Roorda, Leo D.

    Objective: To investigate the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Walking Questionnaire, a patient-reported measure of activity limitations in walking in people with a lower limb amputation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Outpatient department of a rehabilitation center.

  20. Adaptation, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale in Nigeria (PANES-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Sallis, James F; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Amin, Mariam M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2013-11-01

    This study adapted the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) to the Nigerian context and assessed the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Nigerian version (PANESN). A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original PANES to reflect the built and social environment of Nigeria. The adapted PANES was subjected to cognitive testing and test retest reliability in a diverse sample of Nigerian adults (N = 132) from different neighborhood types. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability, and construct validity was investigated with Analysis of Covariance for differences in environmental attributes between neighborhoods. Four of the 17 items on the original PANES were significantly modified, 3 were removed and 2 new items were incorporated into the final version of adapted PANES-N. Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect (ICC = 0.62-1.00) for all items on the PANES-N, and residents of neighborhoods in the inner city reported higher residential density, land use mix and safety, but lower pedestrian facilities and aesthetics than did residents of government reserved area/new layout neighborhoods. The PANES-N appears promising for assessing environmental perceptions related to physical activity in Nigeria, but further testing is required to assess its applicability across Africa.

  1. Dual conception of risk in the Iowa Gambling Task: effects of sleep deprivation and test-retest gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Risk in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is often understood in terms of intertemporal choices, i.e., preference for immediate outcomes in favor of delayed outcomes is considered risky decision making. According to behavioral economics, healthy decision makers are expected to refrain from choosing the short-sighted immediate gain because, over time (10 trials of the IGT), the immediate gains result in a long term loss (net loss). Instead decision makers are expected to maximize their gains by choosing options that, over time (10 trials), result in delayed or long term gains (net gain). However, task choices are sometimes made on the basis of the frequency of reward and punishment such that frequent rewards/infrequent punishments are favored over infrequent rewards/frequent punishments. The presence of these two attributes (intertemporality and frequency of reward) in IGT decision making may correspond to the emotion-cognition dichotomy and reflect a dual conception of risk. Decision making on the basis of the two attributes was tested under two conditions: delay in retest and sleep deprivation. An interaction between sleep deprivation and time delay was expected to attenuate the difference between the two attributes. Participants were 40 male university students. Analysis of the effects of IGT attribute type (intertemporal vs. frequency of reinforcement), sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation vs. no sleep deprivation), and test-retest gap (short vs. long delay) showed a significant within-subjects effect of IGT attribute type thus confirming the difference between the two attributes. Sleep deprivation had no effect on the attributes, but test-retest gap and the three-way interaction between attribute type, test-retest gap, and sleep deprivation were significantly different. Post-hoc tests revealed that sleep deprivation and short test-retest gap attenuated the difference between the two attributes. Furthermore, the results showed an expected trend of increase in

  2. Test-retest reliability of [11C]AZ10419369 binding to 5-HT1B receptors in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, Magdalena; Finnema, Sjoerd J.; Schain, Martin; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    [ 11 C]AZ10419369 is a recently developed 5-HT 1B receptor radioligand that is sensitive to changes in endogenous serotonin concentrations in the primate brain. Thus, [ 11 C] AZ10419369 may serve as a useful tool in clinical studies of the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of diseases related to the serotonin system, such as depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of [ 11 C]AZ10419369. Eight men were examined with PET and [ 11 C] AZ10419369 twice on the same day. The binding potentials (BP ND ) of [ 11 C]AZ10419369 in selected serotonergic projection areas and in the raphe nuclei (RN) were determined using the simplified reference tissue model, and for comparison also using a wavelet-aided parametric imaging approach. The BP ND values obtained from the first and second PET scans were compared by means of descriptive statistics, difference, absolute variability and intraclass correlation coefficient. Similar BP ND values were obtained with the two methods. The absolute mean differences in BP ND between PET 1 and PET 2 were less than 3 % in all serotonergic projection regions. Absolute variabilities were low in cortical regions (5 - 7 %), low to moderate (7 - 14 %) in subcortical regions, but higher (20 %) in the RN. The BP ND of [ 11 C]AZ10419369 is highly reproducible in cortical regions and satisfactory in subcortical projection areas. The variability in the RN is higher. Thus larger sample sizes or larger divergences are required to assess a potential difference between subjects or between experimental conditions in this region. (orig.)

  3. High-frequency pure-tone audiometry in children: a test-retest reliability study relative to ototoxic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beahan, Nuala; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie; Charles, Bruce; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2012-01-01

    Good test-retest reliability of high frequency (≥ 8 kHz) pure-tone audiometry (HFPTA) is essential to detect significant changes in hearing threshold caused by ototoxicity. While the test-retest reliability of HFPTA in adults has been extensively studied, such investigations in children are scant. This study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the HFPTA in normal-hearing children with particular reference to the criteria for ototoxicity. Participants were 125 children aged between 4 and 13 yr, with normal hearing in the 0.25 to 4 kHz range and normal tympanometric findings. The participants were divided into three age groups, 4 to 6 yr (16M; 16F); 7 to 9 yr (22M; 30F); and 10 to 13 yr (24M; 17F), for investigating possible age effects in the test-retest reliability of HFPTA. The instrumentation for the HFPTA procedure was an Interacoustics AC40 audiometer with Koss R/80 high-frequency headphones, calibrated to meet Australian standards. Hearing thresholds at 8, 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14, and 16 kHz were measured in a sound-treated chamber using a modified Hughson-Westlake procedure with a 5 dB step size. Testing began with an ear and test frequency selected at random; the subsequent test frequencies were randomly selected. After acquisition of hearing threshold data at all frequencies, the other ear was tested using the same procedure. After the first HFPTA test, the headphones were removed and carefully replaced. A second HFPTA test was performed with the ear order reversed. The order of testing the ear for the next participant was reversed. Good test-retest reliability of HFPTA was achieved with no significant difference in mean HFPTA thresholds across test and retest conditions for all age groups. An age effect in the test-retest reliability of HFPTA was evident with the 4- to 6-yr-old, 7- to 9-yr-old, and 10- to 13-yr-old children demonstrating normal variability of thresholds (within ±10 dB) in 89.9%, 93.0%, and 97% of ears tested, respectively

  4. Test-retest reliability and practice effects of the computerized neuropsychological test battery CNS Vital Signs : Evaluation in a Dutch healthy sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, S.D.; Rijnen, S.J.M.; Emons, W.H.M.; Sitskoorn, M.M.; Gehring, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: CNS Vital Signs (CNS VS) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery that is translated into many languages. Test-retest reliability and potential practice effects of CNS VS were evaluated. Method: Dutch healthy participants were tested with CNS VS (T0), and retested after 3 (T1)

  5. The Effect of Retesting on End-of-Semester Performance in High School Chemistry at Three Levels of Previous Science Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, George E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines whether retesting: (1) affects achievement of students (N=95) grouped according to previous achievement in science; and (2) influences students to delay studying and perform at a low level on initial tests. Also examines whether procrastination of retested students is affected by their achievement level. (DS)

  6. Dual conception of risk in the Iowa Gambling Task: Effects of sleep deprivation and test-retest gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha eSingh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is often understood in terms of intertemporal choices, i.e., preference for immediate outcomes in favor of delayed outcomes is considered risky. According to behavioral economics, decision makers refrain from choosing the short-sighted immediate gain because, over time (10 trials, the immediate gains result in a net loss. Instead decision makers are expected to maximize their gains by choosing options that, over time (10 trials, result in net gain. However, task choices are sometimes made on the basis of the frequency of reward and punishment such that infrequent punishments are favored over frequent punishments. The presence of these two attributes (intertemporality and frequency may correspond to the emotion-cognition dichotomy and reflect a dual conception of risk. Decision making on the basis of the two attributes was tested under two conditions: test-retest gap and sleep deprivation. An interaction between these two was expected to attenuate the difference between the two attributes (n=40 male. Analysis of the effects of IGT attribute type (intertemporal vs. frequency, sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation vs. no sleep deprivation, and test-retest gap (short vs. long showed a significant effect of IGT attribute type thus confirming the difference between the two attributes. Sleep deprivation had no effect on the attributes, but test-retest gap and the three-way interaction between attribute type, test-retest gap, and sleep deprivation were significant. Post-hoc tests showed sleep deprivation and short test-retest gap to attenuate the difference between the two attributes. As expected intertemporal decision making benefited from repeated task exposure. The findings add to understanding of the emotion-cognition dichotomy and show a time-dependent effect of a universally experienced constraint (sleep deprivation.

  7. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the Barthel Index-based Supplementary Scales in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Chen; Yu, Wan-Hui; Hsueh, I-Ping; Chen, Sheng-Shiung; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-10-01

    A lack of evidence on the test-retest reliability and responsiveness limits the utility of the BI-based Supplementary Scales (BI-SS) in both clinical and research settings. To examine the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the BI-based Supplementary Scales (BI-SS) in patients with stroke. A repeated-assessments design (1 week apart) was used to examine the test-retest reliability of the BI-SS. For the responsiveness study, the participants were assessed with the BI-SS and BI (treated as an external criterion) at admission to and discharge from rehabilitation wards. Seven outpatient rehabilitation units and one inpatient rehabilitation unit. Outpatients with chronic stroke. Eighty-four outpatients with chronic stroke participated in the test-retest reliability study. Fifty-seven inpatients completed baseline and follow-up assessments in the responsiveness study. For the test-retest reliability study, the values of the intra-class correlation coefficient and the overall percentage of minimal detectable change for the Ability Scale and Self-perceived Difficulty Scale were 0.97, 12.8%, and 0.78, 35.8%, respectively. For the responsiveness study, the standardized effect size and standardized response mean (representing internal responsiveness) of the Ability Scale and Self-perceived Difficulty Scale were 1.17 and 1.56, and 0.78 and 0.89, respectively. Regarding external responsiveness, the change in score of the Ability Scale had significant and moderate association with that of the BI (r=0.61, Preliability and sufficient responsiveness for patients with stroke. However, the Self-perceived Difficulty Scale of the BI-SS has substantial random measurement error and insufficient external responsiveness, which may affect its utility in clinical settings. The findings of this study provide empirical evidence of psychometric properties of the BI-SS for assessing ability and self-perceived difficulty of ADL in patients with stroke.

  8. Test-retest reliability and smallest detectable change of the Bristol Impact of Hypermobility (BIoH) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, S; Manns, S; Cramp, F; Lewis, R; Clark, E M

    2017-12-01

    The Bristol Impact of Hypermobility (BIoH) questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure developed in conjunction with adults with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS). It has demonstrated strong concurrent validity with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) physical component score but other psychometric properties have yet to be established. This study aimed to determine its test-retest reliability and smallest detectable change (SDC). A test-retest reliability study. Participants were recruited from the Hypermobility Syndromes Association, a patient organisation in the United Kingdom. Recruitment packs were sent to 1080 adults who had given permission to be contacted about research. BIoH and SF-36 questionnaires were administered at baseline and repeated two weeks later. An 11-point global rating of change scale (-5 to +5) was also administered at two weeks. Test-retest analysis and calculation of the SDC was conducted on 'stable' patients (defined as global rating of change -1 to +1). 462 responses were received. 233 patients reported a 'stable' condition and were included in analysis (95% women; mean (SD) age 44.5 (13.9) years; BIoH score 223.6 (54.0)). The BIoH questionnaire demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC 0.923, 95% CI 0.900-0.940). The SDC was 42 points (equivalent to 19% of the mean baseline score). The SF-36 physical and mental component scores demonstrated poorer test-retest reliability and larger SDCs (as a proportion of the mean baseline scores). The results provide further evidence of the potential of the BIoH questionnaire to underpin research and clinical practice for people with JHS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Test-retest reliability of computer-based video analysis of general movements in healthy term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Susanne Collier; Støen, Ragnhild; Sæther, Rannei; Jensenius, Alexander Refsum; Adde, Lars

    2015-10-01

    A computer-based video analysis has recently been presented for quantitative assessment of general movements (GMs). This method's test-retest reliability, however, has not yet been evaluated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of computer-based video analysis of GMs, and to explore the association between computer-based video analysis and the temporal organization of fidgety movements (FMs). Test-retest reliability study. 75 healthy, term-born infants were recorded twice the same day during the FMs period using a standardized video set-up. The computer-based movement variables "quantity of motion mean" (Qmean), "quantity of motion standard deviation" (QSD) and "centroid of motion standard deviation" (CSD) were analyzed, reflecting the amount of motion and the variability of the spatial center of motion of the infant, respectively. In addition, the association between the variable CSD and the temporal organization of FMs was explored. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1.1 and ICC 3.1) were calculated to assess test-retest reliability. The ICC values for the variables CSD, Qmean and QSD were 0.80, 0.80 and 0.86 for ICC (1.1), respectively; and 0.80, 0.86 and 0.90 for ICC (3.1), respectively. There were significantly lower CSD values in the recordings with continual FMs compared to the recordings with intermittent FMs (ptest-retest reliability of computer-based video analysis of GMs, and a significant association between our computer-based video analysis and the temporal organization of FMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of Rating of Perceived Exertion and Agreement With 1-Repetition Maximum in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; DePaul, Samantha M; Terhorst, Lauren; Irrgang, James J; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background It has been suggested that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful alternative to 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to determine proper resistance exercise dosage. However, the test-retest reliability of RPE for resistance exercise has not been determined. Additionally, prior research regarding the relationship between 1RM and RPE is conflicting. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine test-retest reliability of RPE related to resistance exercise and (2) assess agreement between percentages of 1RM and RPE during quadriceps resistance exercise. Methods A sample of participants with and without knee pathology completed a series of knee extension exercises and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale, then repeated the procedure 1 to 2 weeks later for test-retest reliability. To determine agreement between RPE and 1RM, participants completed knee extension exercises at various percentages of their 1RM (10% to 130% of predicted 1RM) and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale. Percent agreement was calculated between the 1RM and RPE at each resistance interval. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated excellent test-retest reliability of RPE for quadriceps resistance exercises (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.895; 95% confidence interval: 0.866, 0.918). Overall percent agreement between RPE and 1RM was 60%, but agreement was poor within the ranges that would typically be used for training (50% 1RM for muscle endurance, 70% 1RM and greater for strength). Conclusion Test-retest reliability of perceived exertion during quadriceps resistance exercise was excellent. However, agreement between the RPE and 1RM was poor, especially in common training zones for knee extensor strengthening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):768-774. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6498.

  11. Test-Retest Reliability of Measures Commonly Used to Measure Striatal Dysfunction across Multiple Testing Sessions: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clare E; Langbehn, Douglas; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Papoutsi, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common amongst many neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) across multiple domains. There are many tasks available to assess different aspects of this dysfunction, however, it is imperative that these show high test-retest reliability if they are to be used to track disease progression or response to treatment in patient populations. Moreover, in order to ensure effects of practice across testing sessions are not misconstrued as clinical improvement in clinical trials, tasks which are particularly vulnerable to practice effects need to be highlighted. In this study we evaluated test-retest reliability in mean performance across three testing sessions of four tasks that are commonly used to measure cognitive dysfunction associated with striatal impairment: a combined Simon Stop-Signal Task; a modified emotion recognition task; a circle tracing task; and the trail making task. Practice effects were seen between sessions 1 and 2 across all tasks for the majority of dependent variables, particularly reaction time variables; some, but not all, diminished in the third session. Good test-retest reliability across all sessions was seen for the emotion recognition, circle tracing, and trail making test. The Simon interference effect and stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) from the combined-Simon-Stop-Signal task showed moderate test-retest reliability, however, the combined SSRT interference effect showed poor test-retest reliability. Our results emphasize the need to use control groups when tracking clinical progression or use pre-baseline training on tasks susceptible to practice effects.

  12. Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the D2 Test of Attention in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Posen; Lu, Wen-Shian; Liu, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-12-08

    The d2 Test of Attention (D2) is a commonly used measure of selective attention for patients with schizophrenia. However, its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) are unknown in patients with schizophrenia, limiting its utility in both clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to examine the test-retest reliability and MDC of the D2 in patients with schizophrenia. A rater administered the D2 on 108 patients with schizophrenia twice at a 1-month interval. Test-retest reliability was determined through the calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We also carried out Bland-Altman analysis, which included a scatter plot of the differences between test and retest against their mean. Systematic biases were evaluated by use of a paired t-test. The ICCs for the D2 ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. The MDCs (MDC%) of the seven subscores were 102.3 (29.7), 19.4 (85.0), 7.2 (94.6), 21.0 (69.0), 104.0 (33.1), 105.0 (35.8), and 7.8 (47.8), which represented limited-to-acceptable random measurement error. Trends in the Bland-Altman plots of the omissions (E1), commissions (E2), and errors (E) were noted, presenting that the data had heteroscedasticity. According to the results, the D2 had good test-retest reliability, especially in the scores of TN, TN-E, and CP. For the further research, finding a way to improve the administration procedure to reduce random measurement error would be important for the E1, E2, E, and FR subscores.

  13. Intra-Rater, Inter-Rater and Test-Retest Reliability of an Instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG Test in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob C van Lummel

    Full Text Available The "Timed Up and Go" (TUG is a widely used measure of physical functioning in older people and in neurological populations, including Parkinson's Disease. When using an inertial sensor measurement system (instrumented TUG [iTUG], the individual components of the iTUG and the trunk kinematics can be measured separately, which may provide relevant additional information.The aim of this study was to determine intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the iTUG in patients with Parkinson's Disease.Twenty eight PD patients, aged 50 years or older, were included. For the iTUG the DynaPort Hybrid (McRoberts, The Hague, The Netherlands was worn at the lower back. The device measured acceleration and angular velocity in three directions at a rate of 100 samples/s. Patients performed the iTUG five times on two consecutive days. Repeated measurements by the same rater on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by different raters on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by the same rater on different days were used to calculate test-retest reliability.Nineteen ICC values (15% were ≥ 0.9 which is considered as excellent reliability. Sixty four ICC values (49% were ≥ 0.70 and < 0.90 which is considered as good reliability. Thirty one ICC values (24% were ≥ 0.50 and < 0.70, indicating moderate reliability. Sixteen ICC values (12% were ≥ 0.30 and < 0.50 indicating poor reliability. Two ICT values (2% were < 0.30 indicating very poor reliability.In conclusion, in patients with Parkinson's disease the intra-rater, inter-rater, and test-retest reliability of the individual components of the instrumented TUG (iTUG was excellent to good for total duration and for turning durations, and good to low for the sub durations and for the kinematics of the SiSt and StSi. The results of this fully automated analysis of instrumented TUG movements

  14. Test-Retest Reliability of “High-Order” Functional Connectivity in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity (FC has become a leading method for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI analysis. However, the majority of the previous studies utilized pairwise, temporal synchronization-based FC. Recently, high-order FC (HOFC methods were proposed with the idea of computing “correlation of correlations” to capture high-level, more complex associations among the brain regions. There are two types of HOFC. The first type is topographical profile similarity-based HOFC (tHOFC and its variant, associated HOFC (aHOFC, for capturing different levels of HOFC. Instead of measuring the similarity of the original rs-fMRI signals with the traditional FC (low-order FC, or LOFC, tHOFC measures the similarity of LOFC profiles (i.e., a set of LOFC values between a region and all other regions between each pair of brain regions. The second type is dynamics-based HOFC (dHOFC which defines the quadruple relationship among every four brain regions by first calculating two pairwise dynamic LOFC “time series” and then measuring their temporal synchronization (i.e., temporal correlation of the LOFC fluctuations, not the BOLD fluctuations. Applications have shown the superiority of HOFC in both disease biomarker detection and individualized diagnosis than LOFC. However, no study has been carried out for the assessment of test-retest reliability of different HOFC metrics. In this paper, we systematically evaluate the reliability of the two types of HOFC methods using test-retest rs-fMRI data from 25 (12 females, age 24.48 ± 2.55 years young healthy adults with seven repeated scans (with interval = 3–8 days. We found that all HOFC metrics have satisfactory reliability, specifically (1 fair-to-good for tHOFC and aHOFC, and (2 fair-to-moderate for dHOFC with relatively strong connectivity strength. We further give an in-depth analysis of the biological meanings of each HOFC metric and highlight their differences compared to the

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of “High-Order” Functional Connectivity in Young Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) has become a leading method for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) analysis. However, the majority of the previous studies utilized pairwise, temporal synchronization-based FC. Recently, high-order FC (HOFC) methods were proposed with the idea of computing “correlation of correlations” to capture high-level, more complex associations among the brain regions. There are two types of HOFC. The first type is topographical profile similarity-based HOFC (tHOFC) and its variant, associated HOFC (aHOFC), for capturing different levels of HOFC. Instead of measuring the similarity of the original rs-fMRI signals with the traditional FC (low-order FC, or LOFC), tHOFC measures the similarity of LOFC profiles (i.e., a set of LOFC values between a region and all other regions) between each pair of brain regions. The second type is dynamics-based HOFC (dHOFC) which defines the quadruple relationship among every four brain regions by first calculating two pairwise dynamic LOFC “time series” and then measuring their temporal synchronization (i.e., temporal correlation of the LOFC fluctuations, not the BOLD fluctuations). Applications have shown the superiority of HOFC in both disease biomarker detection and individualized diagnosis than LOFC. However, no study has been carried out for the assessment of test-retest reliability of different HOFC metrics. In this paper, we systematically evaluate the reliability of the two types of HOFC methods using test-retest rs-fMRI data from 25 (12 females, age 24.48 ± 2.55 years) young healthy adults with seven repeated scans (with interval = 3–8 days). We found that all HOFC metrics have satisfactory reliability, specifically (1) fair-to-good for tHOFC and aHOFC, and (2) fair-to-moderate for dHOFC with relatively strong connectivity strength. We further give an in-depth analysis of the biological meanings of each HOFC metric and highlight their differences compared to the LOFC

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouwen, Carolien; Molenaar, Esther A L M; Keus, Samyra H J; Münks, Liesbeth; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of DT outcome measures in patients with PD. A repeated-measures design was used. Patients with PD ("on" medication, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) performed 2 cognitive tasks (ie, backward digit span task and auditory Stroop task) and 1 functional task (ie, mobile phone task) in combination with walking. Tasks were assessed at 2 time points (same hour) with an interval of 6 weeks. Test-retest reliability was assessed for gait while performing each secondary task (DT gait) for both cognitive tasks while walking (DT cognitive) and for the functional task while walking (DT functional). Sixty-two patients with PD (age=39-89 years, Hoehn and Yahr stages II-III) were included in the study. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) showed excellent reliability for DT gait measures, ranging between .86 and .95 when combined with the digit span task, between .86 and .95 when combined with the auditory Stroop task, and between .72 and .90 when combined with the mobile phone task. The standard error of measurements for DT gait speed varied between 0.06 and 0.08 m/s, leading to minimal detectable changes between 0.16 and 0.22 m/s. With regard to DT cognitive measures, reaction times showed good-to-excellent reliability (digit span task: ICC=.75; auditory Stroop task: ICC=.82). The results cannot be generalized to patients with advanced disease or to other DT measures. In people with PD, DT measures proved to be reliable for use in clinical studies and look promising for use in clinical practice to assess improvements after DT training. Large effects, however, are needed to obtain meaningful effect sizes.

  17. Legacy Phosphorus Effect and Need to Re-calibrate Soil Test P Methods for Organic Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh H.; Schomberg, Harry H.; Cavigelli, Michel A.

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a required nutrient for the normal development and growth of plants and supplemental P is needed in most cultivated soils. Large inputs of cover crop residues and nutrient-rich animal manure are added to supply needed nutrients to promote the optimal production of organic grain crops and forages. The effects of crop rotations and tillage management of the near-surface zone on labile phosphorus (P) forms were studied in soil under conventional and organic crop management systems in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. after 18 years due to the increased interest in these alternative systems. Soil nutrient surpluses likely caused by low grain yields resulted in large pools of exchangeable phosphate-P and equally large pools of enzyme-labile organic P (Po) in soils under organic management. In addition, the difference in the P loading rates between the conventional and organic treatments as guided by routine soil test recommendations suggested that overestimating plant P requirements contributed to soil P surpluses because routine soil testing procedures did not account for the presence and size of the soil enzyme-labile Po pool. The effect of large P additions is long-lasting as they continued to contribute to elevated soil total bioactive P concentrations 12 or more years later. Consequently, accurate estimates of crop P requirements, P turnover in soil, and real-time plant and soil sensing systems are critical considerations to optimally manage manure-derived nutrients in organic crop production.

  18. van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-12-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.

  19. Retesting after initial failure, coaching rumors, and warnings against faking in online personality measures for selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Richard N; Sackett, Paul R; Tuzinski, Kathy A

    2011-01-01

    A large sample (N = 32,311) of applicants for managerial positions at a nationwide retailer completed a personality test online over the course of several years. A new type of faking was observed in their responses: the use of only extreme responses (all 1s and 5s), which is labeled blatant extreme responding (BER). An increase in BER over time was observed for internal but not for external applicants, suggesting the presence of a coaching rumor. A subsample of internal applicants chose to retake the test after initial failure. These individuals showed substantial increases in both test scores and rate of BER, with higher prevalence of faking at retest than the main sample. To reduce faking, an interactive warning was implemented one year after the initial administration. Differing patterns of faking were observed before and after warnings, allowing for an examination of warning effectiveness in the presence of a coaching rumor. Results suggest that faking increases over time as the coaching rumor spreads but that warnings deter this spread. Evidence suggests that faking is indeed a problem in real-world selection settings.

  20. The retest distribution of the visual field summary index mean deviation is close to normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew J; Cheng, Allan C Y; Lau, Samantha; Le-Pham, Anne; Liu, Victor; Rahman, Farahnaz

    2016-09-01

    When modelling optimum strategies for how best to determine visual field progression in glaucoma, it is commonly assumed that the summary index mean deviation (MD) is normally distributed on repeated testing. Here we tested whether this assumption is correct. We obtained 42 reliable 24-2 Humphrey Field Analyzer SITA standard visual fields from one eye of each of five healthy young observers, with the first two fields excluded from analysis. Previous work has shown that although MD variability is higher in glaucoma, the shape of the MD distribution is similar to that found in normal visual fields. A Shapiro-Wilks test determined any deviation from normality. Kurtosis values for the distributions were also calculated. Data from each observer passed the Shapiro-Wilks normality test. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for kurtosis encompassed the value for a normal distribution in four of five observers. When examined with quantile-quantile plots, distributions were close to normal and showed no consistent deviations across observers. The retest distribution of MD is not significantly different from normal in healthy observers, and so is likely also normally distributed - or nearly so - in those with glaucoma. Our results increase our confidence in the results of influential modelling studies where a normal distribution for MD was assumed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Test-retest reliability of a psychological well-being scale in hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Margaret E; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ostir, Glenn V

    2007-10-01

    To examine the reliability of a 6-domain psychological well-being instrument in older patients admitted to an acute care hospital unit. A prospective reliability study was conducted using a convenience sample of 40 hospitalized patients aged 65 or older. The main measure was a 6-domain psychological well-being instrument including self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose of life, and personal growth. The mean age was 76.3 years [standard deviation (SD)=6.1], 72.5% were white and 57.5% were men. The mean length of stay was 4.9 days (SD=3.1). Test-retest (admission and discharge) intraclass correlation (ICC) values for the six domains were self-acceptance (0.79), positive relations with others (0.72), autonomy (0.79), environmental mastery (0.66), purpose in life (0.79), and personal growth (0.78). The 6-domain psychological well-being instrument demonstrated good reliability among a sample of hospitalized older patients. This instrument may be useful in a clinical setting to predict outcomes related to patient health and recovery.

  2. Test–retest reliability of self-reported diabetes diagnosis in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study: A population-based longitudinal study (n =33,919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Self-reported information from questionnaires is frequently used in epidemiological studies, but few of these studies provide information on the reproducibility of individual items contained in the questionnaire. We studied the test–retest reliability of self-reported diabetes among 33,919 participants in Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Methods: The test–retest reliability of self-reported type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnoses was evaluated between three self-administered questionnaires (completed in 1991, 1998, and 2005 by Norwegian Women and Cancer participants by kappa agreement. The time interval between the test–retest studies was ~7 and ~14 years. Sensitivity of the kappa agreement for type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnoses was assessed. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess whether test–retest reliability varies with age, body mass index, physical activity, education, and smoking status. Results: The kappa agreement for both types of self-reported diabetes diagnoses combined was good (⩾0.65 for all three test–retest studies (1991–1998, 1991–2005, and 1998–2005. The kappa agreement for type 1 diabetes was good (⩾0.73 in the 1991–2005 and the 1998–2005 test–retest studies, and very good (0.83 in the 1991–1998 test–retest study. The kappa agreement for type 2 diabetes was moderate (0.57 in the 1991–2005 test–retest study and good (⩾0.66 in the 1991–1998 and 1998–2005 test–retest studies. The overall kappa agreement in the 1991–1998 test–retest study was stronger than in the 1991–2005 test–retest study and the 1998–2005 test–retest study. There was no clear pattern of inconsistency in the kappa agreements within different strata of age, BMI, physical activity, and smoking. The kappa agreement was strongest among the respondents with 17 or more years of education, while generally it was weaker among the least educated group. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability of the

  3. Test-retest reliability of self-reported diabetes diagnosis in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study: A population-based longitudinal study (n =33,919).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Tonje

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported information from questionnaires is frequently used in epidemiological studies, but few of these studies provide information on the reproducibility of individual items contained in the questionnaire. We studied the test-retest reliability of self-reported diabetes among 33,919 participants in Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. The test-retest reliability of self-reported type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnoses was evaluated between three self-administered questionnaires (completed in 1991, 1998, and 2005 by Norwegian Women and Cancer participants) by kappa agreement. The time interval between the test-retest studies was ~7 and ~14 years. Sensitivity of the kappa agreement for type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnoses was assessed. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess whether test-retest reliability varies with age, body mass index, physical activity, education, and smoking status. The kappa agreement for both types of self-reported diabetes diagnoses combined was good (⩾0.65) for all three test-retest studies (1991-1998, 1991-2005, and 1998-2005). The kappa agreement for type 1 diabetes was good (⩾0.73) in the 1991-2005 and the 1998-2005 test-retest studies, and very good (0.83) in the 1991-1998 test-retest study. The kappa agreement for type 2 diabetes was moderate (0.57) in the 1991-2005 test-retest study and good (⩾0.66) in the 1991-1998 and 1998-2005 test-retest studies. The overall kappa agreement in the 1991-1998 test-retest study was stronger than in the 1991-2005 test-retest study and the 1998-2005 test-retest study. There was no clear pattern of inconsistency in the kappa agreements within different strata of age, BMI, physical activity, and smoking. The kappa agreement was strongest among the respondents with 17 or more years of education, while generally it was weaker among the least educated group. The test-retest reliability of the diabetes was acceptable and there was no clear pattern of inconsistency in the kappa agreement stratified

  4. Test–retest reliability of self-reported diabetes diagnosis in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study: A population-based longitudinal study (n =33,919)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Tonje

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Self-reported information from questionnaires is frequently used in epidemiological studies, but few of these studies provide information on the reproducibility of individual items contained in the questionnaire. We studied the test–retest reliability of self-reported diabetes among 33,919 participants in Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Methods: The test–retest reliability of self-reported type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnoses was evaluated between three self-administered questionnaires (completed in 1991, 1998, and 2005 by Norwegian Women and Cancer participants) by kappa agreement. The time interval between the test–retest studies was ~7 and ~14 years. Sensitivity of the kappa agreement for type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnoses was assessed. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess whether test–retest reliability varies with age, body mass index, physical activity, education, and smoking status. Results: The kappa agreement for both types of self-reported diabetes diagnoses combined was good (⩾0.65) for all three test–retest studies (1991–1998, 1991–2005, and 1998–2005). The kappa agreement for type 1 diabetes was good (⩾0.73) in the 1991–2005 and the 1998–2005 test–retest studies, and very good (0.83) in the 1991–1998 test–retest study. The kappa agreement for type 2 diabetes was moderate (0.57) in the 1991–2005 test–retest study and good (⩾0.66) in the 1991–1998 and 1998–2005 test–retest studies. The overall kappa agreement in the 1991–1998 test–retest study was stronger than in the 1991–2005 test–retest study and the 1998–2005 test–retest study. There was no clear pattern of inconsistency in the kappa agreements within different strata of age, BMI, physical activity, and smoking. The kappa agreement was strongest among the respondents with 17 or more years of education, while generally it was weaker among the least educated group. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability of the diabetes was

  5. Test-retest reliability of {sup 11}C-ORM-13070 in PET imaging of α{sub 2C}-adrenoceptors in vivo in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, Jussi; Peltonen, Juha M.; Volanen, Iina; Scheinin, Mika [University of Turku, Clinical Research Services Turku CRST, Turku (Finland); TYKSLAB, Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Turku (Finland); Virta, Jere R. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Turku (Finland); Oikonen, Vesa; Roivainen, Anne; Luoto, Pauliina; Arponen, Eveliina; Helin, Semi; Virtanen, Kirsi [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Hietamaeki, Johanna; Holopainen, Aila; Rouru, Juha; Sallinen, Jukka [Orion Pharma, Turku (Finland); Kailajaervi, Marita [Turku Imanet, GE Healthcare, Turku (Finland); Rinne, Juha O. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Clinical Research Services Turku CRST, Turku (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    α{sub 2C}-Adrenoceptors share inhibitory presynaptic functions with the more abundant α{sub 2A}-adrenoceptor subtype, but they also have widespread postsynaptic modulatory functions in the brain. Research on the noradrenergic system of the human brain has been hampered by the lack of suitable PET tracers targeted to the α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor subtypes. PET imaging with the specific α{sub 2C}-adrenoceptor antagonist tracer [{sup 11}C]ORM-13070 was performed twice in six healthy male subjects to investigate the test-retest reliability of tracer binding. The bound/free ratio of tracer uptake relative to nonspecific uptake into the cerebellum during the time interval of 5 - 30 min was most prominent in the dorsal striatum: 0.77 in the putamen and 0.58 in the caudate nucleus. Absolute test-retest variability in bound/free ratios of tracer ranged from 4.3 % in the putamen to 29 % in the hippocampus. Variability was also <10 % in the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from 0.50 in the hippocampus to 0.89 in the thalamus (ICC >0.70 was also reached in the caudate nucleus, putamen, lateral frontal cortex and parietal cortex). The pattern of [{sup 11}C]ORM-13070 binding, as determined by PET, was in good agreement with receptor density results previously derived from post-mortem autoradiography. PET data analysis results obtained with a compartmental model fit, the simplified reference tissue model and a graphical reference tissue analysis method were convergent with the tissue ratio method. The results of this study support the use of [{sup 11}C]ORM-13070 PET in the quantitative assessment of α{sub 2C}-adrenoceptors in the human brain in vivo. Reliable assessment of specific tracer binding in the dorsal striatum is possible with the help of reference tissue ratios. (orig.)

  6. Comparative assessment of segmentation algorithms for tumor delineation on a test-retest [(11)C]choline dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Giampaolo; Shepherd, Tony; Turkheimer, Federico; Visvikis, Dimitris; Aboagye, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Many methods have been proposed for tumor segmentation from positron emission tomography images. Because of the increasingly important role that [(11)C]choline is playing in oncology and because no study has compared segmentation methods on this tracer, the authors assessed several segmentation algorithms on a [(11)C]choline test-retest dataset. Fixed and adaptive threshold-based methods, fuzzy C-means (FCM), Canny's edge detection method, the watershed transform, and the fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian algorithm (FLAB) were used. Test-retest [(11)C]choline scans of nine patients with breast cancer were considered and the percent test-retest variability %VAR(TEST-RETEST) of tumor volume (TV) was employed to assess the results. The same methods were then applied to two denoised datasets generated by applying either a Gaussian filter or the wavelet transform. The (semi)automated methods FCM, FLAB, and Canny emerged as the best ones in terms of TV reproducibility. For these methods, the %root mean square error %RMSE of %VAR(TEST-RETEST), defined as %RMSE= variance+mean(2), was in the range 10%-21.2%, depending on the dataset and algorithm. Threshold-based methods gave TV estimates which were extremely variable, particularly on the unsmoothed data; their performance improved on the denoised datasets, whereas smoothing did not have a remarkable impact on the (semi)automated methods. TV variability was comparable to that of SUV(MAX) and SUV(MEAN) (range 14.7%-21.9% for %RMSE of %VAR(TEST-RETEST), after the exclusion of one outlier, 40%-43% when the outlier was included). The TV variability obtained with the best methods was similar to the one reported for TV in previous [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT studies and to the one of SUV(MAX)∕SUV(MEAN) on the authors' [(11)C]choline dataset. The good reproducibility of [(11)C]choline TV warrants further studies to test whether TV could predict early response to treatment and survival, as for [(18)F]FDG, to complement

  7. Test-retest reliability of Brazilian version of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for assessing symptoms in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento

  8. Test-retest reliability of neurophysiological tests of hand-arm vibration syndrome in vibration exposed workers and unexposed referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Gillström, Lennart; Hagberg, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to hand-held vibrating tools may cause the hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The aim was to study the test-retest reliability of hand and muscle strength tests, and tests for the determination of thermal and vibration perception thresholds, which are used when investigating signs of neuropathy in vibration exposed workers. In this study, 47 vibration exposed workers who had been investigated at the department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine in Gothenburg were compared with a randomized sample of 18 unexposed subjects from the general population of the city of Gothenburg. All participants passed a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including hand and finger muscle strength tests, determination of vibrotactile (VPT) and thermal perception thresholds (TPT). Two weeks later, 23 workers and referents, selected in a randomized manner, were called back for the same test-procedures for the evaluation of test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability after a two week interval expressed as limits of agreement (LOA; Bland-Altman), intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Pearson correlation coefficients was excellent for tests with the Baseline hand grip, Pinch-grip and 3-Chuck grip among the exposed workers and referents (N = 23: percentage of differences within LOA 91 - 100%; ICC-values ≥0.93; Pearson r ≥0.93). The test-retest reliability was also excellent (percentage of differences within LOA 96-100 %) for the determination of vibration perception thresholds in digits 2 and 5 bilaterally as well as for temperature perception thresholds in digits 2 and 5, bilaterally (percentage of differences within LOA 91 - 96%). For ICC and Pearson r the results for vibration perception thresholds were good for digit 2, left hand and for digit 5, bilaterally (ICC ≥ 0.84; r ≥0.85), and lower (ICC = 0.59; r = 0.59) for digit 2, right hand. For the latter two indices the test-retest

  9. Evaluating test-retest reliability in patient-reported outcome measures for older people: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Sook; Kang, Kyung Ja; Jang, Sun Joo; Lee, Joo Yun; Chang, Sun Ju

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the components of test-retest reliability including time interval, sample size, and statistical methods used in patient-reported outcome measures in older people and to provide suggestions on the methodology for calculating test-retest reliability for patient-reported outcomes in older people. This was a systematic literature review. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from January 1, 2000 to August 10, 2017 by an information specialist. This systematic review was guided by both the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist and the guideline for systematic review published by the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency in Korea. The methodological quality was assessed by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments checklist box B. Ninety-five out of 12,641 studies were selected for the analysis. The median time interval for test-retest reliability was 14days, and the ratio of sample size for test-retest reliability to the number of items in each measure ranged from 1:1 to 1:4. The most frequently used statistical methods for continuous scores was intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Among the 63 studies that used ICCs, 21 studies presented models for ICC calculations and 30 studies reported 95% confidence intervals of the ICCs. Additional analyses using 17 studies that reported a strong ICC (>0.09) showed that the mean time interval was 12.88days and the mean ratio of the number of items to sample size was 1:5.37. When researchers plan to assess the test-retest reliability of patient-reported outcome measures for older people, they need to consider an adequate time interval of approximately 13days and the sample size of about 5 times the number of items. Particularly, statistical methods should not only be selected based on the types of scores of the patient-reported outcome measures, but should also be described clearly in

  10. A reliability generalization meta-analysis of coefficient alpha and test-retest coefficient for the aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2016-12-01

    The aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale is an instrument used to determine the health-related quality of life in adult and elderly men. The purpose of this study was to synthesize internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability for the AMS scale and its three subscales. Of the 123 studies reviewed, 12 provided alpha coefficients which were then used in the meta-analyses of internal consistency. Seven of the 12 included studies provided test-retest coefficients, and these were used in the meta-analyses of test-retest reliability. The AMS scale had excellent internal consistency [α = 0.89 (95% CI 0.88-0.90)]; the mean alpha estimates across the AMS subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.82. The AMS scale also had good test-retest reliability [r = 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.88]; the test-retest reliability coefficients of the AMS subscales ranged from 0.76 to 0.83. There was significant heterogeneity among the included studies. The AMS scale and the three subscales had fairly good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Future psychometric studies of the AMS scale should report important characteristics of the participants, details of item scores, and test-retest reliability.

  11. Universe Clinopyroxene barometer -recalibrations on the results of the orthopyroxene thermobarometry and experimental results and applications to the clinopyroxene geotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    The internal exchange of Jd-Di components on clinopyroxene allow to calibrate the universal clinopyroxene thermobarometer (Ashchepkov, 2001; 2002; 2003) based on experimental data for different systems including peridotitic, eclogitic and igneous which are represented by the augite cumulates as well as salites from the basic granulates from low crust. The equation to the peridotitic system was calibrated on the results of the othopyroxene thermobarometry (Brey. Kohler,1990- McGregor,1974). Modifications allow receiving the better agreement with the orthopyroxene estimates and results of polymineral thermobarometry (Brey, Kohler, 1990) as well as the clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Nimis, Taylor, 2000). The following equation allows working with the peridotite of the mantle lithosphere beneath cratons (30-80) kbar. P(Ash2009)=0.32 (1-0.2*Na/Al+0.012*Fe/Na)*Kd^(3/4)*ToK/(1+Fe)-35*ln(1273/ToK)*(Al+Ti+2.5Na+1.5Fe3+)+(0.9-CaO)*10+Na20/Al2O3*ToK /200 with the second iteration P=(0.0000002* P4 +0.000002+P^3-0.0027*P^2+1.2241*P) Checking of the HP experiments (Brey et al 2008, Walter, 1998; Falloon, Green, 1989; Dasgupta et al., 2007 etc.) it show the precision close to those of the best barometers (McGregor, 1974) ~5-7 but much more wider compositional range including metasomatic associations and The equation for the Al - rich assemblages allow to obtain the pressure estimates fro the megacrystalls and Al - rich peridotitic clinopyroxenes from the mantle xenoliths carried by alkaline basalts: P(Ash2009)=0.035*Kd*ToK(1+2.44Fe)-50.2 ln(1273/ToK) (Al+Ti+Na) Together with the clinopyroxene thermometer (Nimis, Taylor, 2000) it produces the TP estimates very close to those obtained with (Brey, Kohler, 1990) and values of experiments for the melting of basalts. The meagacrystalls show the polybaric origin and their range of estimated pressure corresponds well to determined for mantle peridotites and pyroxenites. The clinopyroxene geotherms for S. Africa (Boyd, Nixon, 1974

  12. [Test-retest reliability of the Implicit Association Test for measuring shyness: Inclusion of malleability of implicit shyness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tsutomu; Sawaumi, Takafumi; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    The Implicit Association Test of Shyness (Shyness IAT: Aikawa & Fujii, 2011) provides an indirect assessment of shyness by measuring associations of self (vs. other) with shyness-related (vs sociability-related) words. In this study we examined the test-retest reliability of the Shyness IAT. Thirty-five participants responded twice to the Shyness IAT with a time lag of one month. The correlation coefficient between the two time points was .54 (p = .001), confirming an adequate level of test-retest reliability. Indeed, changes in explicit and implicit shyness between the two time points were not related to sociable behavior during the one month period. Implications of the results for the assessment of personalities using IATs as well as relevant future directions are discussed.

  13. A Test–Retest Reliability Study of Human Experimental Models of Histaminergic and Non-histaminergic Itch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Sørensen, Anne Kathrine R.; Nielsen, Gebbie A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous exploratory, proof-of-concept and interventional studies have used histaminergic and non-histaminergic human models of itch. However, no reliability studies for such surrogate models have been conducted. This study investigated the test–retest reliability for the response to histamine.......57– 0.77, CVbetween =97%, CVwithin =41%) and histamine: (ICC=0.83–0.93, CVbetween =97%, CVwithin =20%) exhibited moderate-to-excellent intra-individual reliability and moderate inter-individual reliability for the itch intensity. For a test–retest observation period of one week, SPT-delivered histamine......- and cowhage- (5, 15, 25 spiculae) induced itch in healthy volunteers. Cowhage spiculae were individually applied with tweezers and 1% histamine was applied with a skin prick test (SPT) lancet, both on the volar forearm. The intensity of itch was recorded on a visual analogue scale and self-reported area...

  14. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in women by a self-administered questionnaire: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Sejr, T; Able, I

    1996-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire assessing female lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life is described and validated, on 56 females in six participating departments. The patients answered two identical questionnaires on separate occasions before treatment. Test......-retest reliability of the questionnaire, correlation between the symptoms and their troublesomeness, and the reproducibility of this correlation were assessed. The percentage of mistakes in answers to each of the questions varied from 1.8% to 49.1%, mainly owing to missing answers in the item groups: appliances......, sexual function and social activities. Test-retest showed a repeat frequency of 50.0%-91.0% for symptoms and 44.6%-82.1% for trouble. A highly significant positive correlation was found between symptoms and trouble, which was most pronounced for questions concerning pain and incontinence...

  15. Establishing Survey Validity and Reliability for American Indians Through “Think Aloud” and Test–Retest Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Cindy Horst; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Jensen, Jamie L.; Burgess, Katherine M.; Puumala, Susan E.; Wilton, Georgiana; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to determine the validity and reliability of measurements used within an alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program for American Indian women. To develop validity, content experts provided input into the survey measures, and a “think aloud” methodology was conducted with 23 American Indian women. After revising the measurements based on this input, a test–retest was conducted with 79 American Indian women who were randomized to complete either the original measurements or the new, modified measurements. The test–retest revealed that some of the questions performed better for the modified version, whereas others appeared to be more reliable for the original version. The mixed-methods approach was a useful methodology for gathering feedback on survey measurements from American Indian participants and in indicating specific survey questions that needed to be modified for this population. PMID:25888693

  16. 76 FR 68525 - Medicare Program; Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update for Calendar Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... removes two hypertension codes from the HH PPS case-mix system, thereby requiring recalibration of the... to Comments A. Case-Mix Measurement B. Case-Mix Revision to the Case-Mix Weights 1. Hypertension... ``Confined to the Home'' Definition III. Collection of Information Requirements IV. Regulatory Impact...

  17. Questionnaire for measuring organisational attributes in dental-care practices: psychometric properties and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Hasse, Philipp; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Campbell, Stephen M

    2016-04-01

    The consideration of organisational aspects, such as shared goals and clear communication, within the health care team is important to ensure good quality care. In primary health care, the instrument Survey of Organizational Attributes for Primary Care (SOAPC) is available to measure organisational attributes of care. However, there is no instrument available for dental care. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties and test-retest reliability of the version of SOAPC adapted for dental care, namely the Survey of Organizational Attributes in Dental Care (SOADC). The SOADC consists of 21 items in the following four subscales: communication; decision making; stress/chaos; and history of change. Convergent construct validity was measured using the job satisfaction scale. A total of 287 dental-care practices were asked to participate in the validation study. Psychometric properties and test-retest reliability were observed. A total of 43 dental-care practices responded to the survey. At baseline, 178 dental-care staff completed the questionnaire, and 4 weeks later 138 did so. Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.718 or higher in the subscales. The test-retest reliability for each subscale and the overall SOADC score demonstrated good correlations over the 4-week test-retest interval, except for 'history of change'. A strong correlation with the aggregated job-satisfaction scale showed high convergent construct validity of SOADC. The consideration of organisational aspects from the perspective of dental-care teams is important for providing good quality of care. The SOADC is a reliable instrument with good psychometric properties and is suitable for the evaluation of organisational attributes in dental-care practices. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Test-retest reliability of handgrip strength measurement using a hydraulic hand dynamometer in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Christos; Giakas, Giannis; Efstathiou, Michalis; Karagiannis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of handgrip strength measurement using a hydraulic hand dynamometer in patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR). A convenience sample of 19 participants (14 men and 5 women; mean ± SD age, 50.5 ± 12 years) with CR was measured using a Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer by the same rater on 2 different testing sessions with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Data collection procedures followed standardized grip strength testing guidelines established by the American Society of Hand Therapists. During the repeated measures, patients were advised to rest their upper limb in the standardized arm position and encouraged to exert 3 maximum gripping efforts. The mean value of the 3 efforts (measured in kilogram force [Kgf]) was used for data analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient, SEM, and the Bland-Altman plot were used to estimate test-retest reliability and measurement precision. Grip strength measurement in CR demonstrated an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.976, suggesting excellent test-retest reliability. The small SEM in both testing sessions (SEM1, 2.41 Kgf; SEM2, 2.51 Kgf) as well as the narrow width of the 95% limits of agreements (95% limits of agreement, -4.9 to 4.4 Kgf) in the Bland-Altman plot reflected precise measurements of grip strength in both occasions. Excellent test-retest reliability for grip strength measurement was measured in patients with CR, demonstrating that a hydraulic hand dynamometer could be used as an outcome measure for these patients. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Test-Retest Reliability of Handgrip Strength as an Outcome Measure in Patients With Symptoms of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Christos; Mougiaris, Paraskevas; Xadjimichael, Christoforos; Karagiannis, Christos; Efstathiou, Michalis

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of test-retest reliability of grip strength measurement using a hand dynamometer in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. A total of 19 patients (10 women and 9 men; mean ± standard deviation age, 33.2 ± 12.9 years; range 18-59 years) with shoulder impingement syndrome were measured using a hand dynamometer by the same data collector in 2 different testing sessions with a 7-day interval. During each session, patients were encouraged to exert 3 maximal isometric contractions on the affected hand and the mean value of the 3 efforts (measured in kilogram-force [Kgf]) was used for data analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1 ) as well as the standard error of measurement (SEM) and Bland-Altman plot were used to estimate the degree of test-retest reliability and the measurement error, respectively. Grip strength data analysis revealed an ICC 2,1 score of 0.94, which, based on the Shrout classification, is considered as excellent test-retest reliability of grip strength measurement. The small values of SEMs reported in both sessions (SEM 1 , 2.55 Kgf; SEM 2 , 2.39 Kgf) and the small width of the 95% limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot (ranging from -7.39 Kgf to 7.03 Kgf) reflected the measurement precision and the narrow variation of the differences during the 2 testing sessions. Results from this study identified excellent test-retest reliability of grip strength measurement in shoulder impingement syndrome, indicating its potential use as an outcome measure in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Test–retest reliability of Antonovsky’s 13-item sense of coherence scale in patients with handrelated disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Ørts; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Cederlund, Ragnhild

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the distribution and test-retest reliability of Antonovsky’s 13-item Sense of Coherence (SOC-13) Scale in patients with hand-related disorders (HRD). Links between the SOC-13 score and factors such as age, number of days between date of injury and start of rehabilitation, ge...... to be a powerful tool to measure the ICF component personal factors, which could have an impact on patients’ rehabilitation outcomes....

  1. Test-Retest Reliability of fMRI During Nonverbal Semantic Decisions in Moderate-Severe Nonfluent Aphasia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie Kurland

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical reorganization in poststroke aphasia is not well understood. Few studies have investigated neural mechanisms underlying language recovery in severe aphasia patients, who are typically viewed as having a poor prognosis for language recovery. Although test-retest reliability is routinely demonstrated during collection of language data in single-subject aphasia research, this is rarely examined in fMRI studies investigating the underlying neural mechanisms in aphasia recovery.

  2. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the revised Upper Extremity Work Demands (UEWD-R) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalini, Miriam A; Berduszek, Redmar J; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2017-10-01

    The revised Upper Extremity Work Demand (UEWD-R) Scale is a six-item self-report questionnaire to measure the workload of the upper limbs. UEWD-R consists of a force/posture scale and a repetition scale. Psychometric properties are unknown so far. Assess the construct validity and the test-retest reliability of UEWD-R. Participants from different levels of physical work demands (based on the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) categories) were included. Construct validity was determined by testing 11 predefined hypotheses regarding UEWD-R related to other constructs, including a workplace observation using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). Correlations between these measures were calculated using Spearman correlation coefficients. Test-retest reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for agreement. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was calculated. Fifty-four participants participated (63% men, mean age 39.4 years). The four DOT categories were equally represented. Nine out of 11 predefined correlations were confirmed (82%), indicating good construct validity. Strong expected correlations of UEWD-R-total versus RULA-C (r=0.69) and UEWD-R-repetition versus RULA-muscle (r=0.12) were not confirmed. The test-retest reliability was good (ICC agreement=0.79). The SDC was 4.85. Construct validity and the test-retest reliability of UEWD-R were good. UEWD-R can be used to evaluate the workload of the upper extremities. However, further research is advised to assess the validity of the UEWD-R not only by testing associations with RULA,but also with other observational measures. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Normative data and test-retest reliability of the SYNAPSYS video head impulse test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Owen; Mabrey, Heather; Pearson, Amber; Byrd, Stephanie; Akin, Faith

    2014-03-01

    The observation or measurement of eye movement can aid in the detection and localization of vestibular pathology due to the relationship between the function of the vestibular sensory receptors in the inner ear and the eye movements produced by the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The majority of bedside and laboratory tests of vestibular function involve the observation or measurement of horizontal eye movements (i.e., horizontal VOR) produced by stimuli that activate the horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs) and the superior vestibular nerve. The video head impulse test (vHIT) is a new clinical test of dynamic SCC function that uses a high-speed digital video camera to record head and eye movement during and immediately after passive head rotations. The SYNAPSYS Inc. vHIT device measures the "canal deficit" (deviation in gaze) during passive head impulses in the horizontal and diagonal (vertical) planes. There is, however, a paucity of data that has been reported using this device. The purpose of this study was to obtain normative data and assess the test-retest reliability of the SYNAPSYS vHIT (version 2.0). A prospective repeated measures design was utilized. Thirty young adults with normal hearing, normal caloric test results, and a negative history of vestibular disorder, neurological disease, open or closed head injury, or cervical spine injury participated in the study. A single examiner manually rotated each participant's head in the horizontal and diagonal planes in two directions (left and right in the horizontal plane; downward and upward in each diagonal plane) resulting in the stimulation of each of the six SCCs. Each participant returned for repeat testing to assess test-retest reliability. The effects of ear, session, and semicircular canal (horizontal, anterior, posterior) on the magnitude of canal deficit during the vHIT were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The mean canal deficit of the horizontal canals (8.3%) was

  4. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1990-01-01

    in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower at retest. MSSD at stress, but not at rest, was significantly lower at retest. The mental arithmetic stress test as described here produces a sufficient autonomic response to make it viable for laboratory stress research. However, if repeated......A mental arithmetic test (the stressor; 15 min) significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma adrenaline by 11%, 12%, 28% and 152% respectively, with a prompt return to resting values after the test. Plasma noradrenaline and serum cortisol did not increase...... examinations are desired, the lower response at retest should be taken into consideration....

  5. Test–retest reliability and repeatability of renal diffusion tensor MRI in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, Marica; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Clark, Christopher A.; Gordon, Isky

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed test–retest reliability and repeatability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the kidneys. Materials and methods: Seven healthy volunteers (age range, 19–31 years), were imaged three consecutive times on the same day (short-term reliability) and the same imaging protocol was repeated after a month (long-term reliability). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans in the coronal-oblique projection of the kidney were acquired on a 1.5 T scanner using a multi-section echo-planar sequence; six contiguous slices each 5 mm thick, diffusion sensitisation along 20 non-collinear directions, TR = 730 ms, TE = 73 ms and 2 b-values (0 and 400 s mm −2 ). Volunteers were asked to hold their breath throughout each data acquisition (approx. 20 s). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from maps generated using dedicated software MIStar (Apollo Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Australia). Results: Statistical analyses of both short- and long-term repeats were carried out from which the within-subject coefficient of variation (wsCV) was calculated. The wsCV obtained for both the ADC and FA values were less than 10% in all the analyses carried out. In addition, paired (repeated measures) t-test was used to measure the variation between the diffusion parameters collected from the two scanning sessions a month apart. It showed no significant difference and the wsCV obtained after comparing the first and second scans were found to be smaller than 15% for both ADC and FA. Conclusion: Renal DTI produces reliable and repeatable results which make longitudinal investigation of patients viable.

  6. Diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in lung cancers. ADC test-retest repeatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Alex; Papoutsaki, Marianthi Vasiliki; Blackledge, Matthew; DeSouza, Nandita M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Cancer Imaging Centre, Surrey (United Kingdom); Waterton, John C. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas University, Milan (Italy); Stroobants, Sigrid [Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kuijer, Joost [Vrije Universiteit Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Morgan, Veronica [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the test-retest repeatability of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements across institutions and MRI vendors, plus investigate the effect of post-processing methodology on measurement precision. Thirty malignant lung lesions >2 cm in size (23 patients) were scanned on two occasions, using echo-planar-Diffusion-Weighted (DW)-MRI to derive whole-tumour ADC (b = 100, 500 and 800 s/mm{sup -2}). Scanning was performed at 4 institutions (3 MRI vendors). Whole-tumour volumes-of-interest were copied from first visit onto second visit images and from one post-processing platform to an open-source platform, to assess ADC repeatability and cross-platform reproducibility. Whole-tumour ADC values ranged from 0.66-1.94x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (mean = 1.14). Within-patient coefficient-of-variation (wCV) was 7.1% (95% CI 5.7-9.6%), limits-of-agreement (LoA) -18.0 to 21.9%. Lesions >3 cm had improved repeatability: wCV 3.9% (95% CI 2.9-5.9%); and LoA -10.2 to 11.4%. Variability for lesions <3 cm was 2.46 times higher. ADC reproducibility across different post-processing platforms was excellent: Pearson's R{sup 2} = 0.99; CoV 2.8% (95% CI 2.3-3.4%); and LoA -7.4 to 8.0%. A free-breathing DW-MRI protocol for imaging malignant lung tumours achieved satisfactory within-patient repeatability and was robust to changes in post-processing software, justifying its use in multi-centre trials. For response evaluation in individual patients, a change in ADC >21.9% will reflect treatment-related change. (orig.)

  7. Validity and test-retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations ( r ). Test-retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry ( r  = 0.824, p  strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971-0.990), p  strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were -6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density ( p  strength ( p  strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates initial convergent validity in a healthy population; and is associated with bone mass at a clinically important site.

  8. Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Baggott, Matthew J; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (i.e., delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (i.e., the stop signal task, the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the continuous performance task), and inattention (i.e., attention lapses on a simple reaction time task and omission errors on the continuous performance task). Healthy adults (n = 128) performed the battery on two separate occasions. Reliability estimates for the individual tasks ranged from moderate to high, with Pearson correlations within the specific impulsivity domains as follows: impulsive choice (r range: .76-.89, ps < .001); impulsive action (r range: .65-.73, ps < .001); and inattention (r range: .38-.42, ps < .001). Additionally, the influence of day-to-day fluctuations in mood, as measured by the Profile of Mood States, was assessed in relation to variability in performance on each of the behavioral tasks. Change in performance on the delay discounting task was significantly associated with change in positive mood and arousal. No other behavioral measures were significantly associated with mood. In sum, the current analysis demonstrates that behavioral measures of impulsivity are reliable measures and thus can be confidently used to assess various facets of impulsivity as intermediate phenotypes for drug abuse.

  9. Multiple applications of the GHQ-12 in a general population sample: an investigation of long-term retest effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevalin, D J

    2000-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the 60-, 30-, 28- and 12-item versions of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) are liable to retest effects, especially when administered multiple times with short intervals. The aim of this study was to examine data from a large general population sample for evidence of any retest effects over 7 yearly applications. A core panel was drawn from the British Household Panel Survey of those respondents who had completed the GHQ-12 seven times from 1991 to 1997 (n = 4749). The panel results were compared with cross-sectional data from the Health Surveys for England for the same years. The analyses were conducted separately for males and females broken down by age groupings. No evidence of retest effects was found. For males, the panel results did not diverge significantly from the cross-sectional results. For females, the panel results did indicate a divergence from the cross-sectional results, but this was due to the age composition of the panel and differing age trajectories. The GHQ-12 is a consistent and reliable instrument when used in general population samples with relatively long intervals between applications.

  10. Test-retest reliability of expiratory abdominal compression with a handheld dynamometer in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability of expiratory abdominal compression with a handheld dynamometer in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 18 patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation. All patients had impaired consciousness. The mode of the ventilator was synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation. The abdomen above the navel was vertically compressed using a handheld dynamometer in synchronization with expiration. Expiratory abdominal compression was performed two times. We measured the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. There was an interval of 5 minutes between the first and second measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to examine the test-retest reliability of expiratory abdominal compression with a handheld dynamometer. [Results] The test-retest reliability of expiratory abdominal compression was excellent (ICC(1, 1): 0.987). Bland-Altman analysis showed that there was no fixed bias and no proportional bias. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that expiratory abdominal compression with a handheld dynamometer is reliable and useful for patients with respiratory failure and prolonged mechanical ventilation.

  11. Resting-state test-retest reliability of a priori defined canonical networks over different preprocessing steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikuti, Deepthi P; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Genon, Sarah; Schwender, Holger; Reid, Andrew T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-04-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. The measurement of neuronal activity by functional MRI, however, is impeded by various nuisance signals that reduce the stability of functional connectivity. Several methods exist to address this predicament, but little consensus has yet been reached on the most appropriate approach. Given the crucial importance of reliability for the development of clinical applications, we here investigated the effect of various confound removal approaches on the test-retest reliability of functional-connectivity estimates in two previously defined functional brain networks. Our results showed that gray matter masking improved the reliability of connectivity estimates, whereas denoising based on principal components analysis reduced it. We additionally observed that refraining from using any correction for global signals provided the best test-retest reliability, but failed to reproduce anti-correlations between what have been previously described as antagonistic networks. This suggests that improved reliability can come at the expense of potentially poorer biological validity. Consistent with this, we observed that reliability was proportional to the retained variance, which presumably included structured noise, such as reliable nuisance signals (for instance, noise induced by cardiac processes). We conclude that compromises are necessary between maximizing test-retest reliability and removing variance that may be attributable to non-neuronal sources.

  12. Test-retest reliability of a pendant-worn sensor device in measuring chair rise performance in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Regterschot, G Ruben H; Schaabova, Hana; Baldus, Heribert; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-05-16

    Chair rise performance is incorporated in clinical assessments to indicate fall risk status in older persons. This study investigated the test-retest reliability of a pendant-sensor-based assessment of chair rise performance. Forty-one older persons (28 females, 13 males, age: 72-94) were assessed in two sessions with 3 to 8 days in between. Repeated chair rise transfers were measured after different instructions. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability of chair rise measurements in individual tests and average over all tests were evaluated by means of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard error of measurement (SEM) as a percentage of the measurement mean. Systematic bias between the measurements in test and retest was examined with paired t-tests. Heteroscedasticity of the measurements was visually checked with Bland-Altman plots. In the different test conditions, the ICCs ranged between 0.63 and 0.93, and the SEM% ranged between 5.7% and 21.2%. The relative and absolute reliability of the average over all tests were ICC = 0.86 and SEM% = 9.5% for transfer duration, ICC = 0.93 and SEM% = 9.2% for maximum vertical acceleration, and ICC = 0.89 and SEM% = 10.0% for peak power. The results over all tests indicated that a fall risk assessment application based on pendant-worn-sensor measured chair rise performance in daily life might be feasible.

  13. Influences on the Test-Retest Reliability of Functional Connectivity MRI and its Relationship with Behavioral Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Stephanie; Spann, Marisa N; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Constable, R Todd; Scheinost, Dustin

    2017-11-01

    Best practices are currently being developed for the acquisition and processing of resting-state magnetic resonance imaging data used to estimate brain functional organization-or "functional connectivity." Standards have been proposed based on test-retest reliability, but open questions remain. These include how amount of data per subject influences whole-brain reliability, the influence of increasing runs versus sessions, the spatial distribution of reliability, the reliability of multivariate methods, and, crucially, how reliability maps onto prediction of behavior. We collected a dataset of 12 extensively sampled individuals (144 min data each across 2 identically configured scanners) to assess test-retest reliability of whole-brain connectivity within the generalizability theory framework. We used Human Connectome Project data to replicate these analyses and relate reliability to behavioral prediction. Overall, the historical 5-min scan produced poor reliability averaged across connections. Increasing the number of sessions was more beneficial than increasing runs. Reliability was lowest for subcortical connections and highest for within-network cortical connections. Multivariate reliability was greater than univariate. Finally, reliability could not be used to improve prediction; these findings are among the first to underscore this distinction for functional connectivity. A comprehensive understanding of test-retest reliability, including its limitations, supports the development of best practices in the field. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Stability of FDG-PET Radiomics features - An integrated analysis of test-retest and inter-observer variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijenaar, Ralph T. H.; Carvalho, Sara; Rios Velazquez, Emmanuel [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht Univ. Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)] [and others

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Besides basic measurements as maximum standardized uptake value (SUV){sub max} or SUV{sub mean} derived from 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) scans, more advanced quantitative imaging features (i.e. 'Radiomics' features) are increasingly investigated for treatment monitoring, outcome prediction, or as potential biomarkers. With these prospected applications of Radiomics features, it is a requisite that they provide robust and reliable measurements. The aim of our study was therefore to perform an integrated stability analysis of a large number of PET-derived features in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), based on both a test-retest and an inter-observer setup. Methods: Eleven NSCLC patients were included in the test-retest cohort. Patients underwent repeated PET imaging within a one day interval, before any treatment was delivered. Lesions were delineated by applying a threshold of 50 % of the maximum uptake value within the tumor. Twenty-three NSCLC patients were included in the inter-observer cohort. Patients underwent a diagnostic whole body PET-computed tomography (CT). Lesions were manually delineated based on fused PET-CT, using a standardized clinical delineation protocol. Delineation was performed independently by five observers, blinded to each other. Fifteen first order statistics, 39 descriptors of intensity volume histograms, eight geometric features and 44 textural features were extracted. For every feature, test-retest and inter-observer stability was assessed with the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient of variability, normalized to mean and range. Similarity between test-retest and inter-observer stability rankings of features was assessed with Spear man's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Results showed that the majority of assessed features had both a high test-retest (71%) and inter-observer (91%) stability in terms of their ICC. Overall, features more stable in repeated PET

  15. [11C]Harmine Binding to Brain Monoamine Oxidase A: Test-Retest Properties and Noninvasive Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanderigo, Francesca; D'Agostino, Alexandra E; Joshi, Nandita; Schain, Martin; Kumar, Dileep; Parsey, Ramin V; DeLorenzo, Christine; Mann, J John

    2018-02-08

    Inhibition of the isoform A of monoamine oxidase (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters, is useful in treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. [ 11 C]harmine, a MAO-A PET radioligand, has been used to study mood disorders and antidepressant treatment. However, [ 11 C]harmine binding test-retest characteristics have to date only been partially investigated. Furthermore, since MAO-A is ubiquitously expressed, no reference region is available, thus requiring arterial blood sampling during PET scanning. Here, we investigate [ 11 C]harmine binding measurements test-retest properties; assess effects of using a minimally invasive input function estimation on binding quantification and repeatability; and explore binding potentials estimation using a reference region-free approach. Quantification of [ 11 C]harmine distribution volume (V T ) via kinetic models and graphical analyses was compared based on absolute test-retest percent difference (TRPD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and identifiability. The optimal procedure was also used with a simultaneously estimated input function in place of the measured curve. Lastly, an approach for binding potentials quantification in absence of a reference region was evaluated. [ 11 C]harmine V T estimates quantified using arterial blood and kinetic modeling showed average absolute TRPD values of 7.7 to 15.6 %, and ICC values between 0.56 and 0.86, across brain regions. Using simultaneous estimation (SIME) of input function resulted in V T estimates close to those obtained using arterial input function (r = 0.951, slope = 1.073, intercept = - 1.037), with numerically but not statistically higher test-retest difference (range 16.6 to 22.0 %), but with overall poor ICC values, between 0.30 and 0.57. Prospective studies using [ 11 C]harmine are possible given its test-retest repeatability when binding is quantified using arterial blood. Results with SIME of

  16. Test-retest reliability of cardinal plane isokinetic hip torque and EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, Tina L; Timmons, Mark K; Pincivero, Danny M

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish test-retest reliability of isokinetic hip torque and prime mover electromyogram (EMG) through the three cardinal planes of motion. Thirteen healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions, separated by approximately one week. During each session, isokinetic hip torque was evaluated on the Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer at a velocity of 60 deg/s. Subjects performed three maximal-effort concentric and eccentric contractions, separately, for right and left hip abduction/adduction, flexion/extension, and internal/external rotation. Surface EMGs were sampled from the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor, medial and lateral hamstring, and rectus femoris muscles during all contractions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC - 2,1) and standard errors of measurement (SEM) were calculated for peak torque for each movement direction and contraction mode, while ICCs were only computed for the EMG data. Motions that demonstrated high torque reliability included concentric hip abduction (right and left), flexion (right and left), extension (right) and internal rotation (right and left), and eccentric hip abduction (left), adduction (left), flexion (right), and extension (right and left) (ICC range=0.81-0.91). Motions with moderate torque reliability included concentric hip adduction (right), extension (left), internal rotation (left), and external rotation (right), and eccentric hip abduction and adduction (right), flexion (left), internal rotation (right and left), and external rotation (right and left) (ICC range=0.49-0.79). The majority of the EMG sampled muscles (n=12 and n=11 for concentric and eccentric contractions, respectively) demonstrated high reliability (ICC=0.81-0.95). Instances of low, or unacceptable, EMG reliability values occurred for the medial hamstring muscle of the left leg (both contraction modes) and the adductor muscle of the right leg during eccentric internal rotation. The major

  17. Substitution, proration, or a retest? The optimal strategy when standard administration of the WPPSI-IV is infeasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Cayton, Tommie G; Chen, Hsinyi

    2016-11-01

    Administration following a standard procedure is undoubtedly the ultimate goal of assessment. Practitioners face the challenge of unexpected events interrupting a formal evaluation, substitution, proration, or a retest, which may be used as alternative strategies to perform estimations. Such nonstandardized estimation strategies have introduced additional measurement errors because the manual reports only 1 set of norms, which are derived following the standard testing procedure. Thus, mismatching with norms is the root cause of additional errors introduced when applying these alternative strategies. This study examined the additional measurement errors introduced in using normative and clinical samples, as well as a retest sample of the 3 estimation approaches in the Wechsler Primary Preschool Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV). Results revealed that substituting, prorating, or retesting 1 of 6 core subtests for the Full Scale IQ increased the SEM by 0.61 to 1.92 score points (20-64%), generating wider confidence intervals (CIs) by ±1.2 to ±3.8 IQ points and misclassifications as high as 22%. Furthermore, substituting 1 missing subtest for the Verbal Comprehension Index or Processing Speed Index resulted in an additional 4.27 to 5.24 score point increase in SEM (79.7-132.5%), creating wider CIs by ±8.37 to ±10.27 IQ points and misclassifications as high as 35-44%. We remind practitioners to be cautious about the various increases in error rate resulting from such applications and to avoid introducing unnecessary additional errors when possible. Under circumstances when alternative procedures are considered a must, current work provides information for making evidence-based decision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Laterality judgments in people with low back pain--A cross-sectional observational and test-retest reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Martin; Michaelson, Peter; Röijezon, Ulrik

    2016-02-01

    Disruption of cortical representation, or body schema, has been indicated as a factor in the persistence and recurrence of low back pain (LBP). This has been observed through impaired laterality judgment ability and it has been suggested that this ability is affected in a spatial rather than anatomical manner. We compared laterality judgment performance of foot and trunk movements between people with LBP with or without leg pain and healthy controls, and investigated associations between test performance and pain. We also assessed the test-retest reliability of the Recognise Online™ software when used in a clinical and a home setting. Cross-sectional observational and test-retest study. Thirty individuals with LBP and 30 healthy controls performed judgment tests of foot and trunk laterality once supervised in a clinic and twice at home. No statistically significant group differences were found. LBP intensity was negatively related to trunk laterality accuracy (p = 0.019). Intraclass correlation values ranged from 0.51 to 0.91. Reaction time improved significantly between test occasions while accuracy did not. Laterality judgments were not impaired in subjects with LBP compared to controls. Further research may clarify the relationship between pain mechanisms in LBP and laterality judgment ability. Reliability values were mostly acceptable, with wide and low confidence intervals, suggesting test-retest reliability for Recognise Online™ could be questioned in this trial. A significant learning effect was observed which should be considered in clinical and research application of the test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring symptoms and diagnosing mental disorders in the elderly community: the test-retest reliability of the CIDI65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Strehle, Jens; Gerschler, Anja; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Ausìn, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Crawford, Mike; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Munoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Weber, Kerstin; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin; Andreas, Sylke

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence findings for the elderly are artificially low, most likely due to insufficient consideration of age-related cognitive abilities in diagnostic interviews. (1) To describe the rationale for the development of an age-adapted Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI65+) for use in a European project (MentDis_ICF65+). (2) To examine its test-retest reliability. Based on substantive pilot work the CIDI standard questions were shortened, broken down into shorter subsets and combined with sensitization questions and dimensional measures. Test-retest was determined in N = 68 subjects aged 60-79 years via two independent examinations by clinical interviewers using kappa (sensitivity, specificity) for categorical and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients for dimensional measures. Test-retest reliability was good for any mental disorder (κ = 0.63), major depression (κ = 0.55), anxiety (κ = 0.62, range = 0.30-0.78), substance (κ = 0.77, range = 0.71-0.82), obsessive-compulsive disorder (κ = 1.00) and most core symptoms/syndromes (κ range = 0.48-1.00). Agreement for some disorders (i.e. somatoform/pain) attenuated, partly due to time lapse effects. ICC for age of onset, recency, quantity, frequency and duration questions ranged between κ = 0.60-0.90. Dimensional agreement measures were not consistently higher. The age-adapted CIDI65+ is reliable for assessing most mental disorders, distress, impairment and time-related information in the elderly, prompting the need to examine validity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness of a French Canadian upper limb functional index (ULFI-FC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Tokiko; Demers, Louise; Filiatrault, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    The Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) is a self-report questionnaire assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions resulting from an upper limb musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). A French Canadian version of the ULFI (ULFI-FC) has recently demonstrated good internal consistency, and convergent validity, as well as clinical applicability in a rehabilitation context where clinicians have important time constraints. This study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the ULFI-FC. In order to study the ULFI-FC's responsiveness, 60 participants completed the ULFI-FC and a French Canadian version of the DASH (DASH-FC) twice at an interval of two to six weeks, based on the evolution of their upper limb MSD. Half of the sample also completed the ULFI-FC three days after the second assessment for the test-retest reliability analysis. The ULFI-FC demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.92-0.97) and good internal responsiveness (Cohen's d = 0.49-0.62; standardized responsive means = 0.60-0.88). External responsiveness was further supported by moderate correlations of change scores with the DASH-FC (r = 0.42-0.64). Study findings support the use of the ULFI-FC in rehabilitation as an outcome measure to monitor activity limitations and participation restrictions among French-speaking patients presenting with upper limb MSD. The ULFI-FC is a reliable and valid tool with good responsiveness to change for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions in adults presenting with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. This tool can thus be useful in clinical and research settings. By exploring meaningful activities that are affected by patients' upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, the tool's Patient Specific Index is particularly relevant for clinicians adhering to a patient-centered approach.

  1. Health measurement using the ICF: Test-retest reliability study of ICF codes and qualifiers in geriatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Tai

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF was published by the World Health Organization (WHO to standardize descriptions of health and disability. Little is known about the reliability and clinical relevance of measurements using the ICF and its qualifiers. This study examines the test-retest reliability of ICF codes, and the rate of immeasurability in long-term care settings of the elderly to evaluate the clinical applicability of the ICF and its qualifiers, and the ICF checklist. Methods Reliability of 85 body function (BF items and 152 activity and participation (AP items of the ICF was studied using a test-retest procedure with a sample of 742 elderly persons from 59 institutional and at home care service centers. Test-retest reliability was estimated using the weighted kappa statistic. The clinical relevance of the ICF was estimated by calculating immeasurability rate. The effect of the measurement settings and evaluators' experience was analyzed by stratification of these variables. The properties of each item were evaluated using both the kappa statistic and immeasurability rate to assess the clinical applicability of WHO's ICF checklist in the elderly care setting. Results The median of the weighted kappa statistics of 85 BF and 152 AP items were 0.46 and 0.55 respectively. The reproducibility statistics improved when the measurements were performed by experienced evaluators. Some chapters such as genitourinary and reproductive functions in the BF domain and major life area in the AP domain contained more items with lower test-retest reliability measures and rated as immeasurable than in the other chapters. Some items in the ICF checklist were rated as unreliable and immeasurable. Conclusion The reliability of the ICF codes when measured with the current ICF qualifiers is relatively low. The result in increase in reliability according to evaluators' experience suggests proper

  2. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Wisconsin Gait Scale in hemiparetic post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A proper assessment of gait pattern is a significant aspect in planning the process of teaching gait in hemiparetic post-stroke patients. The Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS is an observational tool for assessing post-stroke patients’ gait. The aim of the study was to assess test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the WGS and examine correlations between gait assessment made with the WGS and gait speed, Brunnström scale, Ashworth’s scale and the Barthel Index.

  3. False-Positive Xpert MTB/RIF Results in Retested Patients with Previous Tuberculosis: Frequency, Profile, and Prospective Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Grant; Venter, Rouxjeane; Smith, Liezel; Esmail, Aliasgar; Randall, Philippa; Sood, Vishesh; Oelfese, Suzette; Calligaro, Greg; Warren, Robin; Dheda, Keertan

    2018-03-01

    Globally, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is the most widely used PCR test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Positive results in previously treated patients, which are due to old DNA or active disease, are a diagnostic dilemma. We prospectively retested sputum from 238 patients, irrespective of current symptoms, who were previously diagnosed to be Xpert positive and treated successfully. Patients who retested as Xpert positive and culture negative were exhaustively investigated (repeat culture, chest radiography, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, long-term clinical follow-up). We evaluated whether the duration since previous treatment completion, mycobacterial burden (the Xpert cycle threshold [ C T ] value), and reclassification of Xpert-positive results with a very low semiquantitation level to Xpert-negative results reduced the rate of false positivity. A total of 229/238 (96%) of patients were culture negative. Sixteen of 229 (7%) were Xpert positive a median of 11 months (interquartile range, 5 to 19 months) after treatment completion. The specificity was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89 to 96%). Nine of 15 (40%) Xpert-positive, culture-negative patients reverted to Xpert negative after 2 to 3 months (1 patient declined further participation). Patients with false-positive Xpert results had a lower mycobacterial burden than patients with true-positive Xpert results ( C T , 28.7 [95% CI, 27.2 to 30.4] versus 17.6 [95% CI, 16.9 to 18.2]; P < 0.001), an increased likelihood of a chest radiograph not compatible with active TB (5/15 patients versus 0/5 patients; P = 0.026), and less-viscous sputum (15/16 patients versus 2/5 patients whose sputum was graded as mucoid or less; P = 0.038). All patients who initially retested as Xpert positive and culture negative ("Xpert false positive") were clinically well without treatment after follow-up. The duration since the previous treatment poorly predicted false-positive results (a duration of ≤2 years identified

  4. Methodological and physiological test-retest reliability of (13) C-MRS glycogen measurements in liver and in skeletal muscle of patients with type 1 diabetes and matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Tania; Bally, Lia; Dokumaci, Ayse Sila; Stettler, Christoph; Boesch, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Glycogen is a major substrate in energy metabolism and particularly important to prevent hypoglycemia in pathologies of glucose homeostasis such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). (13) C-MRS is increasingly used to determine glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver non-invasively; however, the low signal-to-noise ratio leads to long acquisition times, particularly when glycogen levels are determined before and after interventions. In order to ease the requirements for the subjects and to avoid systematic effects of the lengthy examination, we evaluated if a standardized preparation period would allow us to shift the baseline (pre-intervention) experiments to a preceding day. Based on natural abundance (13) C-MRS on a clinical 3 T MR system the present study investigated the test-retest reliability of glycogen measurements in patients with T1DM and matched controls (n = 10 each group) in quadriceps muscle and liver. Prior to the MR examination, participants followed a standardized diet and avoided strenuous exercise for two days. The average coefficient of variation (CV) of myocellular glycogen levels was 9.7% in patients with T1DM compared with 6.6% in controls after a 2 week period, while hepatic glycogen variability was 13.3% in patients with T1DM and 14.6% in controls. For comparison, a single-session test-retest variability in four healthy volunteers resulted in 9.5% for skeletal muscle and 14.3% for liver. Glycogen levels in muscle and liver were not statistically different between test and retest, except for hepatic glycogen, which decreased in T1DM patients in the retest examination, but without an increase of the group distribution. Since the CVs of glycogen levels determined in a "single session" versus "within weeks" are comparable, we conclude that the major source of uncertainty is the methodological error and that physiological variations can be minimized by a pre-study standardization. For hepatic glycogen examinations, familiarization sessions

  5. The Phoneme Identification Test for Assessment of Spectral and Temporal Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan

    2018-02-01

    Previous research suggests that a proportion of children experiencing reading and listening difficulties may have an underlying primary deficit in the way that the central auditory nervous system analyses the perceptually important, rapidly varying, formant frequency components of speech. The Phoneme Identification Test (PIT) was developed to investigate the ability of children to use spectro-temporal cues to perceptually categorize speech sounds based on their rapidly changing formant frequencies. The PIT uses an adaptive two-alternative forced-choice procedure whereby the participant identifies a synthesized consonant-vowel (CV) (/ba/ or /da/) syllable. CV syllables differed only in the second formant (F2) frequency along an 11-step continuum (between 0% and 100%-representing an ideal /ba/ and /da/, respectively). The CV syllables were presented in either quiet (PIT Q) or noise at a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (PIT N). Development of the PIT stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Twelve adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 5 mo) and 137 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 76 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions were automatically fit to individual data by the PIT software. Performance was determined by the width of the continuum for which responses were neither clearly /ba/ nor /da/ (referred to as the uncertainty region [UR]). A shallower psychometric function slope reflected greater uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. Z scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the median value of the F2 range

  6. Hearing and loud music exposure in a group of adolescents at the ages of 14-15 and retested at 17-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester C Biassoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds while leisure activities and noise induced hearing loss is diagnosed in increasing number of adolescents. Hearing and music exposure in a group of adolescents of a technical high school was assessed at the ages of: 14-15 (test and 17-18 (retest. The aims of the current study were: (1 To compare the auditory function between test and retest; (2 to compare the musical exposure levels during recreational activities in test and retest; (3 to compare the auditory function with the musical exposure along time in a subgroup of adolescents. The participants in the test were 172 male; in the retest, this number was reduced to 59. At the test and retest the conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs and recreational habits questionnaire were performed. In the test, hearing threshold levels (HTLs were classified as: Normal (Group 1, slightly shifted (Group 2, and significantly shifted (Group 3; the Musical General Exposure (MGE, categorized in: Low, moderate, high, and very high exposure. The results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001 between test and retest in the HTL and global amplitude of TEOAEs in Group 1, showing an increase of the HTL and a decrease TEOAEs amplitude. A subgroup of adolescents, with normal hearing and low exposure to music in the test, showed an increase of the HTL according with the categories of MGE in the retest. To implement educational programs for assessing hearing function, ear vulnerability and to promote hearing health, would be advisable.

  7. Rationale and design of REACT: a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of home-collection to increase chlamydia retesting and detect repeat positive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsty S; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus; Fairley, Christopher K; McNulty, Anna; Read, Phillip; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Wand, Handan; Saville, Marion; Rawlinson, William; Garland, Suzanne M; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca

    2014-04-24

    Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting three months after treatment, retesting rates are low. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of home collection combined with short message service (SMS) reminders on chlamydia retesting and reinfection rates in three risk groups. The REACT (retest after Chlamydia trachomatis) trial involves 600 patients diagnosed with chlamydia: 200 MSM, 200 women and 200 heterosexual men recruited from two Australian sexual health clinics where SMS reminders for retesting are routine practice. Participants will be randomised to the home group (3-month SMS reminder and home-collection) or the clinic group (3-month SMS reminder to return to the clinic). Participants in the home group will be given the choice of attending the clinic if they prefer. The mailed home-collection kit includes a self-collected vaginal swab (women), UriSWAB (Copan) for urine collection (heterosexual men), and UriSWAB plus rectal swab (MSM). The primary outcome is the retest rate at 1-4 months after a chlamydia diagnosis, and the secondary outcomes are: the repeat positive test rate; the reinfection rate; the acceptability of home testing with SMS reminders; and the cost effectiveness of home testing. Sexual behaviour data collected via an online survey at 4-5 months, and genotyping of repeat infections, will be used to discriminate reinfections from treatment failures. The trial will be conducted over two years. An intention to treat analysis will be conducted. This study will provide evidence about the effectiveness of home-collection combined with SMS reminders on chlamydia retesting, repeat infection and reinfection rates in three risk groups. The trial will determine client acceptability and cost effectiveness of this strategy. Australian and New

  8. The test-retest reliability of the latent construct of executive function depends on whether tasks are represented as formative or reflective indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kuhn, Laura J; Blair, Clancy B; Samek, Anya; List, John A

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the test-retest reliability of a battery of executive function (EF) tasks with a specific interest in testing whether the method that is used to create a battery-wide score would result in differences in the apparent test-retest reliability of children's performance. A total of 188 4-year-olds completed a battery of computerized EF tasks twice across a period of approximately two weeks. Two different approaches were used to create a score that indexed children's overall performance on the battery-i.e., (1) the mean score of all completed tasks and (2) a factor score estimate which used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Pearson and intra-class correlations were used to investigate the test-retest reliability of individual EF tasks, as well as an overall battery score. Consistent with previous studies, the test-retest reliability of individual tasks was modest (rs ≈ .60). The test-retest reliability of the overall battery scores differed depending on the scoring approach (r mean  = .72; r factor_ score  = .99). It is concluded that the children's performance on individual EF tasks exhibit modest levels of test-retest reliability. This underscores the importance of administering multiple tasks and aggregating performance across these tasks in order to improve precision of measurement. However, the specific strategy that is used has a large impact on the apparent test-retest reliability of the overall score. These results replicate our earlier findings and provide additional cautionary evidence against the routine use of factor analytic approaches for representing individual performance across a battery of EF tasks.

  9. Development of an Agility Test for Badminton Players and Assessment of Its Validity and Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Luiz de França Bahia; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa

    2016-04-01

    Badminton requires open and fast actions toward the shuttlecock, but there is no specific agility test for badminton players with specific movements. To develop an agility test that simultaneously assesses perception and motor capacity and examine the test's concurrent and construct validity and its test-retest reliability. The Badcamp agility test consists of running as fast as possible to 6 targets placed on the corners and middle points of a rectangular area (5.6 × 4.2 m) from the start position located in the center of it, following visual stimuli presented in a luminous panel. The authors recruited 43 badminton players (17-32 y old) to evaluate concurrent (with shuttle-run agility test--SRAT) and construct validity and test-retest reliability. Results revealed that Badcamp presents concurrent and construct validity, as its performance is strongly related to SRAT (ρ = 0.83, P agility, allowing coaches and athletic trainers to evaluate players' athletic condition and training effectiveness and possibly detect talented individuals in this sport.

  10. Test-retest reliability of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response in healthy children at a low sensation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Jalaei, Bahram

    2017-11-01

    Auditory brainstem responses evoked by complex stimuli such as speech syllables have been studied in normal subjects and subjects with compromised auditory functions. The stability of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (speech-ABR) when tested over time has been reported but the literature is limited. The present study was carried out to determine the test-retest reliability of speech-ABR in healthy children at a low sensation level. Seventeen healthy children (6 boys, 11 girls) aged from 5 to 9 years (mean = 6.8 ± 3.3 years) were tested in two sessions separated by a 3-month period. The stimulus used was a 40-ms syllable /da/ presented at 30 dB sensation level. As revealed by pair t-test and intra-class correlation (ICC) analyses, peak latencies, peak amplitudes and composite onset measures of speech-ABR were found to be highly replicable. Compared to other parameters, higher ICC values were noted for peak latencies of speech-ABR. The present study was the first to report the test-retest reliability of speech-ABR recorded at low stimulation levels in healthy children. Due to its good stability, it can be used as an objective indicator for assessing the effectiveness of auditory rehabilitation in hearing-impaired children in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Test-Retest repeatability of gluteus maximus strength testing using a fixed digital dynamometer in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Mariëtta L; Aitchison, Alison M; Hazlewood, M Elizabeth; Hillman, Susan J; Robb, James E

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the test-retest repeatability of the measurement of the gluteus maximus strength using a fixed digital dynamometer. Test-retest design. The strength of the gluteus maximus was measured in prone position during 2 sessions an average of 6 days apart. Gait analysis laboratory. Eleven children with spastic diplegic (n=10) and hemiplegic (n=1) cerebral palsy (CP), age 6 to 14 years, and 11 aged-matched children. All were able to walk independently, but 2 in the CP group used walking aids. Not applicable. On 2 occasions, gluteus maximus strength was measured 3 times in 2 positions of the hip joint. Repeatability of the measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficients of variation, and the coefficient of repeatability. When normalized to body mass, children with CP had significantly less gluteus maximus strength compared with the controls. The ICCs for the control group ranged from .76 to .85 and from .75 to .83 for the involved leg in the CP group. The reliability of measurement of gluteus maximus strength was good for both control group and the involved leg of the CP group. The normalized values for gluteus maximus strength and measures of reproducibility can be used when measuring gluteus maximus strength in children with CP.

  12. Test-retest reliability and agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument in two Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Terje; Iwarsson, Susanne; Anttila, Heidi; Helle, Tina; Brandt, Ase

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate test-retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs (PWCs) or powered scooters (scooters). Test-retest design, two telephone interviews 7-18 days apart of 40 informants, with mean age of 67.5 (SD 13.09) years in the Danish; and 54 informants with mean age of 55.6 (SD 12.09) years in the Finnish sample. The intra-class correlation coefficient varied between 0.57 and 0.93 for items in the Danish and between 0.41 and 0.93 in the Finnish sample. The percentage agreement varied between 54.2 and 79.5 for items in the Danish and between 69.2 and 81.1 in the Finnish sample, while the Cronbach's alpha values varied between 0.87 and 0.96 in the two samples. A ceiling effect was found in all items of both samples. This study indicates that the SATS may be reliably administered for telephone interviews among adult PWC and scooter users, and give information about aspects of the service delivery process for quality development improvement purposes. Further psychometric testing of the SATS is required.

  13. Measuring muscle strength for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: retest reliability of hand-held dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Simone D; Taylor, Nicholas F; Paratz, Jennifer D

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the retest reliability and quantify the degree of measurement error when measuring isometric muscle strength with a hand-held dynamometer for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Retest reliability of hand-held dynamometry for 4 muscle groups was assessed on 2 occasions separated by a 2-week interval. Community rehabilitation center. Eight men and 4 women (mean age +/- standard deviation, 71.4+/-10.3y) with moderately severe COPD (percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 41.5%+/-17.7%). Not applicable. Muscle strength (in kilograms). Statistical analysis was conducted by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals for both group and individual scores. All reliability coefficients were greater than .79. Muscle strength would need to increase by between 4% and 18% in groups of people with COPD and between 34% and 58% in a person with COPD to be 95% confident of detecting real changes. Hand-held dynamometry is suitable for monitoring change in muscle strength and testing hypotheses for groups of people with COPD. However, hand-held dynamometry is not likely to detect changes in muscle strength for a person with COPD.

  14. Individual Variability and Test-Retest Reliability Revealed by Ten Repeated Resting-State Brain Scans over One Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changle; Wang, Luoyu; Yang, Ning; Wang, Ze; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Weng, Xu-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in mind and behavior are believed to reflect the functional variability of the human brain. Due to the lack of a large-scale longitudinal dataset, the full landscape of variability within and between individual functional connectomes is largely unknown. We collected 300 resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) datasets from 30 healthy participants who were scanned every three days for one month. With these data, both intra- and inter-individual variability of six common rfMRI metrics, as well as their test-retest reliability, were estimated across multiple spatial scales. Global metrics were more dynamic than local regional metrics. Cognitive components involving working memory, inhibition, attention, language and related neural networks exhibited high intra-individual variability. In contrast, inter-individual variability demonstrated a more complex picture across the multiple scales of metrics. Limbic, default, frontoparietal and visual networks and their related cognitive components were more differentiable than somatomotor and attention networks across the participants. Analyzing both intra- and inter-individual variability revealed a set of high-resolution maps on test-retest reliability of the multi-scale connectomic metrics. These findings represent the first collection of individual differences in multi-scale and multi-metric characterization of the human functional connectomes in-vivo, serving as normal references for the field to guide the use of common functional metrics in rfMRI-based applications. PMID:26714192

  15. Test-retest measurements of dopamine D{sub 1}-type receptors using simultaneous PET/MRI imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaller, Simon; Patt, Marianne; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Meyer, Philipp M.; Werner, Peter; Barthel, Henryk; Bresch, Anke; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Rullmann, Michael [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Girbardt, Johanna [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Fritz, Thomas H. [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); University of Gent, Institute for Psychoacoustics and Electronic Music (IPEM), Ghent (Belgium); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Research and Treatment Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    The role of dopamine D{sub 1}-type receptor (D{sub 1}R)-expressing neurons in the regulation of motivated behavior and reward prediction has not yet been fully established. As a prerequisite for future research assessing D{sub 1}-mediated neuronal network regulation using simultaneous PET/MRI and D{sub 1}R-selective [{sup 11}C]SCH23390, this study investigated the stability of central D{sub 1}R measurements between two independent PET/MRI sessions under baseline conditions. Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 female, age 33 ± 13 yrs) underwent 90-min emission scans, each after 90-s bolus injection of 486 ± 16 MBq [{sup 11}C]SCH23390, on two separate days within 2-4 weeks using a PET/MRI system. Parametric images of D{sub 1}R distribution volume ratio (DVR) and binding potential (BP{sub ND}) were generated by a multi-linear reference tissue model with two parameters and the cerebellar cortex as receptor-free reference region. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was performed with manual VOIs drawn on consecutive transverse MRI slices for brain regions with high and low D{sub 1}R density. The DVR varied from 2.5 ± 0.3 to 2.9 ± 0.5 in regions with high D{sub 1}R density (e.g. the head of the caudate) and from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.2 in regions with low D{sub 1}R density (e.g. the prefrontal cortex). The absolute variability of the DVR ranged from 2.4% ± 1.3% to 5.1% ± 5.3%, while Bland-Altman analyses revealed very low differences in mean DVR (e.g. 0.013 ± 0.17 for the nucleus accumbens). Intraclass correlation (one-way, random) indicated very high agreement (0.93 in average) for both DVR and BP{sub ND} values. Accordingly, the absolute variability of BP{sub ND} ranged from 7.0% ± 4.7% to 12.5% ± 10.6%; however, there were regions with very low D{sub 1}R content, such as the occipital cortex, with higher mean variability. The test-retest reliability of D{sub 1}R measurements in this study was very high. This was the case not only for D{sub 1}R-rich brain areas, but

  16. Growth Hormone (GH) Retesting and Final Adult Height in Childhood-Onset GH Deficiency (CO-GHD): Experiences from King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Aroonparkmongkol, Suphab; Sahakitrungrueng, Taninee; Supornsilchai, Vichit

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate GHstatus in CO-GHD subjects after completion of linear growth, and report the auxological outcomes of rhGH treatment. Twenty-four CO-GHD subjects (14 with IGHD and 10 with MPHD), treated with rhGH for a period of 6.6 ± 3.1 years were re-evaluated for their capacity of GH secretion by performing insulin tolerance test (ITT). Ht SDS at final height was compared with Ht SDS at the start of the treatment and MPH SDS. Thirty-eight percent (9 in 24) of CO-GHD subjects had normal GH secretion on retesting. All subjects were diagnosed as isolated GHD during childhood. In contrast, all MPHD subjects during childhood period had GH insufficiency on retesting. GH insufficient subjects had higher total cholesterol level than those with GH sufficiency (214 ± 51 vs. 1 74 ± 36 mg/mL, p = 0.03). rhGH treatment significantly increased Ht SDS of -2.0 ± 1.1 at the start of the treatment to -0.6 ± 1.3 at the end of the treatment (p GH retesting (p GH retesting is recommended in subjects with IGHD during the childhood period. However rhGH treatment can enhance the final height in both GH sufficient and insufficient subjects on retesting.

  17. Short-term test-retest reliability of resting state fMRI metrics in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somandepalli, Krishna; Kelly, Clare; Reiss, Philip T; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Craddock, R C; Yan, Chao-Gan; Petkova, Eva; Castellanos, F X; Milham, Michael P; Di Martino, Adriana

    2015-10-01

    To date, only one study has examined test-retest reliability of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) in children, none in clinical developing groups. Here, we assessed short-term test-retest reliability in a sample of 46 children (11-17.9 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 57 typically developing children (TDC). Our primary test-retest reliability measure was the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), quantified for a range of R-fMRI metrics. We aimed to (1) survey reliability within and across diagnostic groups, and (2) compare voxel-wise ICC between groups. We found moderate-to-high ICC across all children and within groups, with higher-order functional networks showing greater ICC. Nearly all R-fMRI metrics exhibited significantly higher ICC in TDC than in children with ADHD for one or more regions. In particular, posterior cingulate and ventral precuneus exhibited group differences in ICC across multiple measures. In the context of overall moderate-to-high test-retest reliability in children, regional differences in ICC related to diagnostic groups likely reflect the underlying pathophysiology for ADHD. Our currently limited understanding of the factors contributing to inter- and intra-subject variability in ADHD underscores the need for large initiatives aimed at examining their impact on test-retest reliability in both clinical and developing populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Confiabilidade teste-reteste de aspectos da rede social no Estudo Pró-Saúde Test-retest reliability of measures of social network in the "Pró-Saúde" Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Harter Griep

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis de confiabilidade teste-reteste de informações relativas à rede social no Estudo Pró-saúde. MÉTODOS: Foi estimada a confiabilidade pelo estudo teste-reteste por meio de questionário multidimensional aplicado a uma coorte de trabalhadores de uma universidade. O mesmo questionário foi preenchido duas vezes por 192 funcionários não efetivos da universidade, com duas semanas de intervalo entre as aplicações. A concordância foi estimada pela estatística Kappa (variáveis categóricas, estatística Kappa ponderado e modelos log-lineares (variáveis ordinais, e coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (variáveis discretas. RESULTADOS: As medidas de concordância situaram-se acima de 0,70 para a maioria das variáveis. Estratificando-se as informações segundo gênero, idade e escolaridade, observou-se que a confiabilidade não apresentou padrão consistente de variabilidade. A aplicação de modelos log-lineares indicou que, para as variáveis ordinais do estudo, o modelo de melhor ajuste foi o de "concordância diagonal mais associação linear por linear". CONCLUSÕES: Os altos níveis de confiabilidade estimados permitem concluir que o processo de aferição dos itens sobre rede social foi adequado para as características investigadas. Estudos de validação em andamento complementarão a avaliação da qualidade dessas informações.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate test-retest reliability of social network-related information of the" Pró-Saúde" study. METHODS: A test-retest reliability study was conducted using a multidimensional questionnaire applied to a cohort of university employees. The same questionnaire was filled out twice by 192 non-permanent employees with two weeks apart. Agreement was estimated using kappa statistics (categorical variables, weighted kappa statistics, log-linear models (ordinal variables, and intraclass correlation coefficient (discrete variables. RESULTS: Estimates of reliability

  19. Test-retest reliability and agreement of physical fall risk assessment tools in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salb, Johannes; Finlayson, Janet; Almutaseb, Sanaa; Scharfenberg, Bertram; Becker, Clemens; Sieber, Cornel; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    Physical decline and high rates of inactivity lead to an increased risk of falling in the intellectual disability (ID) population. It is important therefore to develop interventions to prevent falls and to develop valid and reliable assessment tools, which are suitable for use with people with ID. Targeting the most important fall risk factors such as strength, balance and gait measurement is important, yet there is a paucity of previous research on testing the feasibility and reliability of strength, balance and gait assessments with people with ID. The aims of this study are (i) to describe the test-retest reliability and agreement [standard error of measurement (SEM)] of slightly adapted fall risk assessments and (ii) to describe the test-retest reliability and SEM of these tests in younger and older age groups and mild/moderate and severe/profound ID-level groups. Residents of a German residential facility for people with ID were asked to take part. The study has a test-retest design, whereby all participants were tested twice, with 7 days in-between the first (T1) and second (T2) testing days. The 'timed up and go', '30-second chair stand', 'handgrip' and 'Romberg balance test' were all performed. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (2,1) values and SEM were calculated for the full sample, two age groups (split at the age of 60 years) and mild/moderate and severe/profound ID-level groups. A total of 37 residents with a mean age of 59.3 years (standard deviation = 17.7) performed the tests on both testing days. Mainly moderate to excellent ICC values were found for all tests for the full sample and in all groups (0.59-0.97). Different SEM values were found for full sample and sub-groups. Strength, balance and gait assessment tools, which are easy to use and understand, were found to be reliable in adults with ID. The SEM is most important for interpreting the real effects of an intervention. Further analyses will be required to gain more information about

  20. Test–retest reliability of multidimensional dyspnea profile recall ratings in the emergency department: a prospective, longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshall Mark B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyspnea is among the most common reasons for emergency department (ED visits by patients with cardiopulmonary disease who are commonly asked to recall the symptoms that prompted them to come to the ED. The reliability of recalled dyspnea has not been systematically investigated in ED patients. Methods Patients with chronic or acute cardiopulmonary conditions who came to the ED with dyspnea (N = 154 completed the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP several times during the visit and in a follow-up visit 4 to 6 weeks later (n = 68. The MDP has 12 items with numerical ratings of intensity, unpleasantness, sensory qualities, and emotions associated with how breathing felt when participants decided to come to the ED (recall MDP or at the time of administration (“now” MDP. The recall MDP was administered twice in the ED and once during the follow-up visit. Principal components analysis (PCA with varimax rotation was used to assess domain structure of the recall MDP. Internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Test–retest reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs for absolute agreement for individual items and domains. Results PCA of the recall MDP was consistent with two domains (Immediate Perception, 7 items, Cronbach’s alpha = .89 to .94; Emotional Response, 5 items; Cronbach’s alpha = .81 to .85. Test–retest ICCs for the recall MDP during the ED visit ranged from .70 to .87 for individual items and were .93 and .94 for the Immediate Perception and Emotional Response domains. ICCs were much lower for the interval between the ED visit and follow-up, both for individual items (.28 to .66 and for the Immediate Perception and Emotional Response domains (.72 and .78, respectively. Conclusions During an ED visit, recall MDP ratings of dyspnea at the time participants decided to seek care in the ED are reliable and sufficiently stable, both for

  1. Validity and test–retest reliability of the Persian version of the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Meisam Sheikhbabaei,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Fatemeh Roham,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Amineh Akhondi,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Hafez Bajoghli,4 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,5 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Hamadan Educational Organization, Ministry of Education, Hamadan, Iran; 3Center for Affective, Stress, and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background and aims: The Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS is an expert’s rating tool to assess the severity and symptoms of depression. The aim of the present two studies was to validate the Persian version of the MADRS and determine its test–retest reliability in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD. Methods: In study 1, the translated MADRS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS were applied to 210 patients diagnosed with MDD and 100 healthy adults. In study 2,200 patients diagnosed with MDD were assessed with the MADRS in face-to-face interviews. Thereafter, 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later, again via face-to-face-interviews, while the other 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later via a telephone interview. Results: Study 1: The MADRS and HDRS scores between patients with MDD and healthy controls differed significantly. Agreement between scoring of the MADRS and HDRS was high (r=0.95. Study 2: The intraclass correlation coefficient (test–retest reliability was r=0.944 for the face-to-face interviews, and r=0.959 for the telephone interviews. Conclusion: The present data suggest that the Persian MADRS has high validity and excellent test–retest reliability over

  2. Computerized Dual-Task Testing of Gait and Visuospatial Cognitive Functions; Test-Retest Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szturm, Tony J; Sakhalkar, Vedant S; Kanitkar, Anuprita; Nankar, Mayur

    2017-01-01

    The common occurrence of age decline in mobility and cognition does cause a decrease in the level of physical activity and an increased falls risk. Consequently, dual -task (DT) assessment that simultaneously addresses both mobility skills and cognitive functions are important because, continued difficulties and fall injuries will have a sizable impact in this population. The first objective of the present study was to assess test-retest reliability of a computerized DT treadmill walking protocol and concurrent outcome measures of gait and visuospatial executive function in a group of healthy older adults. Secondly, discriminative validity was evaluated by examining the effect of DT conditions (single task vs. dual-task) on; (a) spatiotemporal gait measures (average and coefficient of variation) and (b) visuomotor and visuospatial executive performance measures. Twenty-five community-dwelling individuals median age 65 (range 61-67) were recruited from a Fitness Facility. Participants performed a computerized visuomotor tracking task and a visuospatial executive game task in standing and while treadmill walking. Testing was conducted on two occasions, 1 week apart. Moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC values of 0.65-0.88) were observed for spatiotemporal gait variables. No significant differences between the group means were observed between test periods in any gait variable. Moderate test-retest reliability (ICC values of 0.6-0.65) was observed for measures of visuomotor and visuospatial executive performance during treadmill walking. Significant DT effects were observed for both spatiotemporal gait variables and visuospatial executive performance measures. This study demonstrates the reliability and reproducibility of the computer-based assessment tool for dual task treadmill walking. The high to moderate ICC values and the lack of systematic errors in the measures indicate that this tool has the ability to repeatedly record reliable data from community

  3. Test-Retest Reliability and Convergent Validity of Three Manual Dexterity Measures in Persons With Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Elisabeth; Lexell, Jan; Brogårdh, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Decreased manual dexterity is common in persons after stroke. Different measures are used to assess manual dexterity, but a lack of knowledge exists about their reliability and how they are related. To evaluate the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of 3 manual dexterity measures after stroke. A test-retest design. University Hospital. Forty-five persons (mean age 65 years) with mild-to-moderate impairments in the upper extremity at least 6 months after stroke. Manual dexterity was assessed on 2 occasions, 1 week apart using the Box and Block Test (BBT), the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT), and the modified Sollerman Hand Function Test (mSHFT). The reliability of the BBT and NHPT was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient together with systematic and random measurement errors. Reliability of the mSHFT was evaluated with the Kappa coefficient and the Svensson rank-invariant method (percent agreement and systematic and random disagreements). Convergent validity of the total scores was evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation coefficients (rho). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the BBT and the NHPT ranged from 0.83 to 0.99. Significant systematic measurement errors were found for both tests and hands. The Kappa coefficient for the total sum score of the mSHFT was 0.95 for the more affected hand and 0.59 for the less affected hand. One of the 3 items showed systematic disagreements for both hands. The convergent validity (rho) for the more affected hand ranged from 0.41 (BBT versus mSHFT) to -0.68 (NHPT versus mSHFT). The test-retest reliability of the BBT, NHPT and mSHFT was high but all measures showed learning effects. The relationships between the 3 measures indicate that they partly complement one another. The BBT may be preferred for persons with moderate impairments of the upper extremity and the NHPT and the mSHFT for persons with milder impairments. As the mSHFT has the advantage of reflecting activities in daily life it

  4. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the ENERGY-child questionnaire on energy balance-related behaviours and their potential determinants: the ENERGY-project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amika S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insight in children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs and their determinants is important to inform obesity prevention research. Therefore, reliable and valid tools to measure these variables in large-scale population research are needed. Objective To examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the child questionnaire used in the ENERGY-project, measuring EBRBs and their potential determinants among 10-12 year old children. Methods We collected data among 10-12 year old children (n = 730 in the test-retest reliability study; n = 96 in the construct validity study in six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and percentage agreement comparing scores from two measurements, administered one week apart. To assess construct validity, the agreement between questionnaire responses and a subsequent face-to-face interview was assessed using ICC and percentage agreement. Results Of the 150 questionnaire items, 115 (77% showed good to excellent test-retest reliability as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. Test-retest reliability was moderate for 34 items (23% and poor for one item. Construct validity appeared to be good to excellent for 70 (47% of the 150 items, as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. From the other 80 items, construct validity was moderate for 39 (26% and poor for 41 items (27%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the ENERGY-child questionnaire, assessing EBRBs of the child as well as personal, family, and school-environmental determinants related to these EBRBs, has good test-retest reliability and moderate to good construct validity for the large majority of items.

  5. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  6. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1990-01-01

    A mental arithmetic test (the stressor; 15 min) significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma adrenaline by 11%, 12%, 28% and 152% respectively, with a prompt return to resting values after the test. Plasma noradrenaline and serum cortisol did not increase...... in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower at retest. MSSD at stress, but not at rest, was significantly lower at retest. The mental arithmetic stress test as described here produces a sufficient autonomic response to make it viable for laboratory stress research. However, if repeated...

  7. A critical analysis of test-retest reliability in instrument validation studies of cancer patients under palliative care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome validation needs to achieve validity and reliability standards. Among reliability analysis parameters, test-retest reliability is an important psychometric property. Retested patients must be in a clinically stable condition. This is particularly problematic in palliative care (PC) settings because advanced cancer patients are prone to a faster rate of clinical deterioration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods by which multi-symptom and health-related qualities of life (HRQoL) based on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have been validated in oncological PC settings with regards to test-retest reliability. Methods A systematic search of PubMed (1966 to June 2013), EMBASE (1980 to June 2013), PsychInfo (1806 to June 2013), CINAHL (1980 to June 2013), and SCIELO (1998 to June 2013), and specific PRO databases was performed. Studies were included if they described a set of validation studies. Studies were included if they described a set of validation studies for an instrument developed to measure multi-symptom or multidimensional HRQoL in advanced cancer patients under PC. The COSMIN checklist was used to rate the methodological quality of the study designs. Results We identified 89 validation studies from 746 potentially relevant articles. From those 89 articles, 31 measured test-retest reliability and were included in this review. Upon critical analysis of the overall quality of the criteria used to determine the test-retest reliability, 6 (19.4%), 17 (54.8%), and 8 (25.8%) of these articles were rated as good, fair, or poor, respectively, and no article was classified as excellent. Multi-symptom instruments were retested over a shortened interval when compared to the HRQoL instruments (median values 24 hours and 168 hours, respectively; p = 0.001). Validation studies that included objective confirmation of clinical stability in their design yielded better results for the test-retest analysis with regard to both

  8. The Dichotic Digits difference Test (DDdT): Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; Whitfield, Jessica; Seymour, John

    2016-06-01

    The dichotic digits test is one of the most widely used assessment tools for central auditory processing disorder. However, questions remain concerning the impact of cognitive factors on test results. To develop the Dichotic Digits difference Test (DDdT), an assessment tool that could differentiate children with cognitive deficits from children with genuine dichotic deficits based on differential test results. The DDdT consists of four subtests: dichotic free recall (FR), dichotic directed left ear (DLE), dichotic directed right ear (DRE), and diotic. Scores for six conditions are calculated (FR left ear [LE], FR right ear [RE], and FR total, as well as DLE, DRE, and diotic). Scores for four difference measures are also calculated: dichotic advantage, right-ear advantage (REA) FR, REA directed, and attention advantage. Experiment 1 involved development of the DDdT, including error rate analysis. Experiment 2 involved collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Twenty adults (aged 25 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 7 mo, mean 36 yr 4 mo) took part in the development study; 62 normal-hearing, typically developing, primary-school children (aged 7 yr 1 mo to 11 yr 11 mo, mean 9 yr 4 mo) and 10 adults (aged 25 yr 0 mo to 51 yr 6 mo, mean 34 yr 10 mo) took part in the normative and test-retest reliability study. In Experiment 1, error rate analysis was conducted on the 36 digit-pair combinations of the DDdT. Normative data collected in Experiment 2 were arcsine transformed to achieve a distribution that was closer to a normal distribution and z-scores calculated. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to determine the strength of relationships between DDdT conditions. The development study revealed no significant differences in the adult population between test and retest on any DDdT condition. Error rates on 36 digit pairs ranged from 1.5% to 16.7%. The most and the least error-prone digits were removed before commencement of the normative data study, leaving 25

  9. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Neil A. [University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Mailstop 1046, Kansas City, KS (United States); The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian [The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, Donald D. [The University of Iowa, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m{sup 2}; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  10. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Neil A.; Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian; Anderson, Donald D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 ; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  11. Response process and test-retest reliability of the Context Assessment for Community Health tool in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Duong M; Bergström, Anna; Eriksson, Leif; Selling, Katarina; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Wallin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The recently developed Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool aims to measure aspects of the local healthcare context perceived to influence knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. The tool measures eight dimensions (organizational resources, community engagement, monitoring services for action, sources of knowledge, commitment to work, work culture, leadership, and informal payment) through 49 items. The study aimed to explore the understanding and stability of the COACH tool among health providers in Vietnam. To investigate the response process, think-aloud interviews were undertaken with five community health workers, six nurses and midwives, and five physicians. Identified problems were classified according to Conrad and Blair's taxonomy and grouped according to an estimation of the magnitude of the problem's effect on the response data. Further, the stability of the tool was examined using a test-retest survey among 77 respondents. The reliability was analyzed for items (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percent agreement) and dimensions (ICC and Bland-Altman plots). In general, the think-aloud interviews revealed that the COACH tool was perceived as clear, well organized, and easy to answer. Most items were understood as intended. However, seven prominent problems in the items were identified and the content of three dimensions was perceived to be of a sensitive nature. In the test-retest survey, two-thirds of the items and seven of eight dimensions were found to have an ICC agreement ranging from moderate to substantial (0.5-0.7), demonstrating that the instrument has an acceptable level of stability. This study provides evidence that the Vietnamese translation of the COACH tool is generally perceived to be clear and easy to understand and has acceptable stability. There is, however, a need to rephrase and add generic examples to clarify some items and to further review items with low ICC.

  12. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF INDEPENDENT PHONOLOGICAL MEASURES OF 2-YEAR-OLD SPEECH: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Marie WITTLER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Within the field of speech-language pathology, many assume commonly used informal speech sound measures are reliable. However, lack of scientific evidence to support this assumption is problematic. Speech-language pathologists often use informal speech sound analyses for establishing baseline behaviors from which therapeutic progress can be measured. Few researchers have examined the test-retest reliability of informal phonological measures when evaluating the speech productions of young children. Clinically, data regarding these measures are critical for facilitating evidence-based decision making for speech-language assessment and treatment. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence-base regarding temporal reliability of two such informal speech sound measures, phonetic inventory and word shape analysis, with two-year-old children. Methods: The researchers examined analyses conducted from conversational speech samples taken exactly one week apart for three children 29- to 33-months of age. The videotaped 20-minute play-based conversational samples were completed while the children interacted with their mothers. The samples were then transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA and analyzed using the two informal measures noted above. Results: Based on visual inspection of the data, the test-retest reliability of initial consonant and consonant cluster productions was unstable between the two conversational samples. However, phonetic inventories for final consonants and word shape analyses were relatively stable over time. Conclusion: Although more data is needed, the results of this study indicate that academic faculty, clinical educators, and practicing speech-language pathologists should be cautious when interpreting informal speech sound analyses based on play-based communication samples of young children.

  13. Response process and test–retest reliability of the Context Assessment for Community Health tool in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Duong M.; Bergström, Anna; Eriksson, Leif; Selling, Katarina; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Wallin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background The recently developed Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool aims to measure aspects of the local healthcare context perceived to influence knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. The tool measures eight dimensions (organizational resources, community engagement, monitoring services for action, sources of knowledge, commitment to work, work culture, leadership, and informal payment) through 49 items. Objective The study aimed to explore the understanding and stability of the COACH tool among health providers in Vietnam. Designs To investigate the response process, think-aloud interviews were undertaken with five community health workers, six nurses and midwives, and five physicians. Identified problems were classified according to Conrad and Blair's taxonomy and grouped according to an estimation of the magnitude of the problem's effect on the response data. Further, the stability of the tool was examined using a test–retest survey among 77 respondents. The reliability was analyzed for items (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percent agreement) and dimensions (ICC and Bland–Altman plots). Results In general, the think-aloud interviews revealed that the COACH tool was perceived as clear, well organized, and easy to answer. Most items were understood as intended. However, seven prominent problems in the items were identified and the content of three dimensions was perceived to be of a sensitive nature. In the test–retest survey, two-thirds of the items and seven of eight dimensions were found to have an ICC agreement ranging from moderate to substantial (0.5–0.7), demonstrating that the instrument has an acceptable level of stability. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the Vietnamese translation of the COACH tool is generally perceived to be clear and easy to understand and has acceptable stability. There is, however, a need to rephrase and add generic examples to clarify some items and to

  14. Test-retest variability of multifocal electroretinography in normal volunteers and short-term variability in hydroxychloroquine users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning DJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available David J Browning,1 Chong Lee2 1Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, 2University of North Carolina – Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA Purpose: To determine measurement variability of N1P1 amplitudes and the R1/R2 ratio in normal subjects and hydroxychloroquine users without retinopathy. Design: Retrospective, observational study. Subjects: Normal subjects (n=21 and 44 patients taking hydroxychloroquine (n=44 without retinopathy. Methods: Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG was performed twice in one session in the 21 normal subjects and twice within 1 year in the hydroxychloroquine users, during which time no clinical change in macular status occurred. Main outcome measures: N1P1 amplitudes of rings R1–R5, the R1/R2 ratio, and coefficients of repeatability (COR for these measurements. Results: Values for N1P1 amplitudes in hydroxychloroquine users were reduced compared with normal subjects by the known effect of age, but R1/R2 was not affected by age. The COR for R1–R5 ranged from 43% to 52% for normal subjects and from 43% to 59% for hydroxychloroquine users; for R1/R2 the COR was 29% in normal subjects and 45% in hydroxychloroquine users. Conclusion: mfERG measurements show high test-retest variability, limiting the ability of a single mfERG test to influence a decision to stop hydroxychloroquine; corroborative evidence with a different ancillary test is recommended in a suspicious case. Keywords: multifocal electroretinography, hydroxychloroquine, test-retest variability 

  15. Test–Retest Reliability and Concurrent Validity of an fMRI-Compatible Pneumatic Vibrator to Stimulate Muscle Proprioceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Nina; Janssens, Lotte; Pijnenburg, Madelon; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Van Rompuy, Charlotte; Meugens, Paul; Sunaert, Stefan; Brumagne, Simon

    Processing proprioceptive information in the brain is essential for optimal postural control and can be studied with proprioceptive stimulation, provided by muscle vibration, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Classic electromagnetic muscle vibrators, however, cannot be used in the high-strength magnetic field of the fMRI scanner. Pneumatic vibrators offer an fMRI-compatible alternative. However, whether these devices produce reliable and valid proprioceptive stimuli has not been investigated, although this is essential for these devices to be used in longitudinal research. Test–retest reliability and concurrent validity of the postural response to muscle vibration, provided by custom-made fMRI-compatible pneumatic vibrators, were assessed in a repeated-measures design. Mean center of pressure (CoP) displacements during, respectively, ankle muscle and back muscle vibration (45–60 Hz, 0.5 mm) provided by an electromagnetic and a pneumatic vibrator were measured in ten young healthy subjects. The test was repeated on the same day and again within one week. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess (a) intra- and interday reliability of the postural responses to, respectively, pneumatic and electromagnetic vibration, and (b) concurrent validity of the response to pneumatic compared to electromagnetic vibration. Test–retest reliability of mean CoP displacements during pneumatic vibration was good to excellent (ICCs = 0.64–0.90) and resembled that of responses to electromagnetic vibration (ICCs = 0.64–0.94). Concurrent validity of the postural effect of pneumatic vibration was good to excellent (ICCs = 0.63–0.95). In conclusion, the proposed fMRI-compatible pneumatic vibrator can be used with confidence to stimulate muscle spindles during fMRI to study central processing of proprioception.

  16. Response process and test–retest reliability of the Context Assessment for Community Health tool in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong M. Duc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recently developed Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH tool aims to measure aspects of the local healthcare context perceived to influence knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. The tool measures eight dimensions (organizational resources , community engagement, monitoring services for action, sources of knowledge, commitment to work, work culture, leadership, and informal payment through 49 items. Objective: The study aimed to explore the understanding and stability of the COACH tool among health providers in Vietnam. Designs: To investigate the response process, think-aloud interviews were undertaken with five community health workers, six nurses and midwives, and five physicians. Identified problems were classified according to Conrad and Blair's taxonomy and grouped according to an estimation of the magnitude of the problem's effect on the response data. Further, the stability of the tool was examined using a test–retest survey among 77 respondents. The reliability was analyzed for items (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and percent agreement and dimensions (ICC and Bland–Altman plots. Results: In general, the think-aloud interviews revealed that the COACH tool was perceived as clear, well organized, and easy to answer. Most items were understood as intended. However, seven prominent problems in the items were identified and the content of three dimensions was perceived to be of a sensitive nature. In the test–retest survey, two-thirds of the items and seven of eight dimensions were found to have an ICC agreement ranging from moderate to substantial (0.5–0.7, demonstrating that the instrument has an acceptable level of stability. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the Vietnamese translation of the COACH tool is generally perceived to be clear and easy to understand and has acceptable stability. There is, however, a need to rephrase and add generic examples to clarify

  17. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the DOiT ( Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers) questionnaire: measuring energy balance- related behaviours in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.C.; Singh, A.S.; van Nassau, F.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective Adequate assessment of energy balance-related behaviours in adolescents is essential to develop and evaluate effective obesity prevention programmes. The present study examined the test-retest reliability and construct validity of a questionnaire assessing energy balance-related

  18. Estimation of macular pigment optical density in the elderly: test-retest variability and effect of optical blur in pseudophakic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallaher, Kevin T.; Mura, Marco; Todd, Wm Andrew; Harris, Tarsha L.; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tamara; Johnson, Karen C.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Iannaccone, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    The reproducibility of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) estimates in the elderly was assessed in 40 subjects (age: 79.1+/-3.5). Test-retest variability was good (Pearson's r coefficient: 0.734), with an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 18.4% and an intraclass correlation coefficient

  19. Establishing the Test-Retest Reliability & Concurrent Validity for the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST) in Adolescent Male Ice Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Allan; Faught, Brent E.; Przysucha, Eryk; McPherson, Moira; Montelpare, William

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST). This was an on-ice field anaerobic test that measured average peak power and was validated with 3 anaerobic lab tests: (a) vertical jump, (b) the Margaria-Kalamen stair test, and (c) the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The…

  20. Multilevel Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Test-Retest Reliability of the High School Teacher Version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Although school climate has long been recognized as an important factor in the school improvement process, there are few psychometrically supported measures based on teacher perspectives. The current study replicated and extended the factor structure, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability of the teacher version of the Authoritative…

  1. Excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability for Tardieu Scale measurements with inertial sensors in elbow flexors of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulis, Winifred D; Horemans, Herwin L D; Brouwer, Betty S; Stam, Henk J

    2011-02-01

    Spasticity is often clinically assessed with the Tardieu Scale, using goniometry to measure the range of motion and angle of catch. However, the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of these measurements have been questioned. Inertial sensors (IS) have been developed to measure orientation in space and are suggested to be a more appropriate tool than goniometry to measure angles in Tardieu Scale measurements. To compare the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of Tardieu Scale scores measured with IS and goniometry. Two physiotherapists performed Tardieu Scale measurements in two sessions, using both goniometry and IS, to quantify spasticity in elbow flexors of 13 stroke patients. For goniometry, test-retest and inter-rater reliability proved to be excellent (ICC 0.86) and fair to good (ICC 0.66), respectively. For IS, both test-retest (ICC 0.76) and inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.84) were excellent. Inertial sensors are reliable and accurate to use in Tardieu Scale measurements to quantify spasticity in the elbow flexors of hemiplegic stroke patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 1. Technical Report #1216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Park, Jasmine, Bitnara; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest/and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easy CBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due…

  3. Test-retest reliability of the GO-QOL: a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire for patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C. B.; Gerding, M. N.; Dekker, F. W.; Prummel, M. F.; van der Pol, J. P.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of a recently developed disease-specific quality of life questionnaire for evaluative studies in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (the GO-QOL), measuring visual functioning and psychosocial consequences of changed appearance. Ninety-three patients were

  4. Readability and Test-Retest Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Beliefs, Behaviours and Sources of HIV Prevention Information of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…

  5. A Pilot Evaluation of the Test-Retest Score Reliability of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, Deirdre; Peralta, Christopher; Jean, Lindsey; Vo, Sandra; Yep, Linda Ngan; Zabjek, Karl; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Preschool-aged children continually learn new skills and perfect existing ones. "Mastery motivation" is theorized to be a personality trait linked to skill learning. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) quantifies mastery motivation. This pilot study evaluated DMQ test-retest score reliability (preschool-version) and included…

  6. Measuring Participation of Rehabilitation Patients: Test-Retest Reliability and Mode of Administration Concordance of the Participation Measure-3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Hang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability and the concordance between the interviewer-administered version and the self-administered version of a newly developed participation measure, Participation Measure-3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D). Multicenter observational study. Outpatient rehabilitation programs. Rehabilitation outpatients (N=262) participated in the study, including those (n=202) who participated in the test-retest study and those (n=60) who participated in the 2 modes of the administration study. Not applicable. The PM-3D4D includes 19 items measuring participation in productivity, social, and community domains across 4 dimensions: diversity of participation, frequency of participation, desire for change, and difficulty in participation. The test-retest reliability was good across domains and dimensions (intraclass correlation coefficients, .76-.96) as well as in neurological and nonneurological groups. The test-retest reliability was also mostly good at the item level. A high concordance was found between the 2 administration modes (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.96-1.00). The study results lend support to the use of the PM-3D4D to reliably assess participation of rehabilitation patients. The high concordance between the 2 administration modes suggests the potential use of the instrument in population-based research. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-interval test-retest interrater reliability of the Dutch version of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV personality disorders (SCID-II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weertman, A; ArntZ, A; Dreessen, L; van Velzen, C; Vertommen, S

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the short-interval test-retest reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-II: First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995) for DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs). The SCID-II was administered to 69 in- and outpatients on two occasions separated by 1 to 6 weeks. The

  8. Test-retest reliability of selected items of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey questionnaire in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's health and health behaviour are essential for their development and it is important to obtain abundant and accurate information to understand young people's health and health behaviour. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study is among the first large-scale international surveys on adolescent health through self-report questionnaires. So far, more than 40 countries in Europe and North America have been involved in the HBSC study. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of selected items in the Chinese version of the HBSC survey questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Beijing, China. Methods A sample of 95 male and female students aged 11 or 15 years old participated in a test and retest with a three weeks interval. Student Identity numbers of respondents were utilized to permit matching of test-retest questionnaires. 23 items concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep and substance use were evaluated by using the percentage of response shifts and the single measure Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI for all respondents and stratified by gender and age. Items on substance use were only evaluated for school children aged 15 years old. Results The percentage of no response shift between test and retest varied from 32% for the item on computer use at weekends to 92% for the three items on smoking. Of all the 23 items evaluated, 6 items (26% showed a moderate reliability, 12 items (52% displayed a substantial reliability and 4 items (17% indicated almost perfect reliability. No gender and age group difference of the test-retest reliability was found except for a few items on sedentary behaviour. Conclusions The overall findings of this study suggest that most selected indicators in the HBSC survey questionnaire have satisfactory test-retest reliability for the students in Beijing. Further test-retest studies in a large

  9. Evaluating the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the ImPACT post-concussion symptom scale (PCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Victoria C; Bradson, Megan L; Meyer, Jessica E; Arnett, Peter A

    2017-07-20

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a commonly used tool in sports concussion assessment. While test-retest reliabilities have been established for the ImPACT cognitive composites, few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the ImPACT's Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the PCSS. Participants included 38 undergraduate students (50.0% male) who underwent neuropsychological testing as part of their participation in their psychology department's research subject pool. The majority of the participants were Caucasian (94.7%) and had no history of concussion (73.7%). All participants completed the ImPACT at two time points, approximately 6 weeks apart. The PCSS was the main outcome measure, and eight symptom indices were calculated (a total symptom score, three symptom summary indices, and four symptom clusters). Pearson correlations (r) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed as measures of test-retest reliability. Overall, reliabilities ranged from low to high (r = .44 to .80; ICC = .44 to .77). The cognitive symptom cluster exhibited the highest test-retest reliability (r = .80, ICC = .77), followed by the positive symptom total (PST) index, an indicator of the total number of symptoms endorsed (r = .71, ICC = .69). In contrast, the commonly used total symptom score showed lower test-retest reliability (r = .67, ICC = .62). Paired-samples t tests revealed no significant differences between test and retest for any of the symptom variables (all p > .01). Finally, reliable change indices (RCI) were computed to determine whether differences observed between test and retest represented clinically significant change. RCI values were provided for each symptom index at the 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. These results suggest that evaluating additional symptom

  10. Test-retest reliability of [{sup 11}C]AZ10419369 binding to 5-HT{sub 1B} receptors in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord, Magdalena; Finnema, Sjoerd J.; Schain, Martin; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars [Karolinska Institutet, Center for Psychiatric Research, R5:00, Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    [{sup 11}C]AZ10419369 is a recently developed 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor radioligand that is sensitive to changes in endogenous serotonin concentrations in the primate brain. Thus, [{sup 11}C] AZ10419369 may serve as a useful tool in clinical studies of the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of diseases related to the serotonin system, such as depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of [{sup 11}C]AZ10419369. Eight men were examined with PET and [{sup 11}C] AZ10419369 twice on the same day. The binding potentials (BP{sub ND}) of [{sup 11}C]AZ10419369 in selected serotonergic projection areas and in the raphe nuclei (RN) were determined using the simplified reference tissue model, and for comparison also using a wavelet-aided parametric imaging approach. The BP{sub ND} values obtained from the first and second PET scans were compared by means of descriptive statistics, difference, absolute variability and intraclass correlation coefficient. Similar BP{sub ND} values were obtained with the two methods. The absolute mean differences in BP{sub ND} between PET 1 and PET 2 were less than 3 % in all serotonergic projection regions. Absolute variabilities were low in cortical regions (5 - 7 %), low to moderate (7 - 14 %) in subcortical regions, but higher (20 %) in the RN. The BP{sub ND} of [{sup 11}C]AZ10419369 is highly reproducible in cortical regions and satisfactory in subcortical projection areas. The variability in the RN is higher. Thus larger sample sizes or larger divergences are required to assess a potential difference between subjects or between experimental conditions in this region. (orig.)

  11. Test-retest reliability of measurements of abdominal and multifidus muscles using ultrasound imaging in adults aged 50-79 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, W A; Blizzard, L; Callisaya, M L; Hides, J A; Jones, G; Ding, C; Winzenberg, T M

    2017-04-01

    Test-retest reliability of the combined process of ultrasound imaging (USI) and image measurement of thickness of abdominal and upper lumbar multifidus (MF) muscles and MF cross sectional area (CSA) of older adults has not been established. Imaging muscles of older adults can be challenging due to age-related changes in the spine and skeletal muscle so establishing test-retest reliability in this population is important. This study aimed to evaluate test-retest reliability of USI of abdominal and MF muscle thickness and MF CSA for adults aged 50-79 years. One operator took single sets of ultrasound images of abdominal and MF muscles of 23 adults aged 50-79 years participating in a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation for knee osteoarthritis, on two occasions, one week apart. Images were subsequently measured by a single examiner. Test-retest reliability for abdominal muscle thickness and MF CSA was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) > 0.81) and for MF thickness ranged from fair to substantial (ICC 0.55-0.86). The standard error of measurement (SEM) was low (0.02-0.21) in every case. ICCs were low and SEM values were high for percentage thickness change. The substantial test-retest reliability of abdominal and MF (L4-L5) muscle thickness and of MF CSA supports the use of USI as a clinical and research tool to assess abdominal and MF muscle thickness and MF CSA of older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical and laboratory parameters predicting a requirement for the reevaluation of growth hormone status during growth hormone treatment: Retesting early in the course of GH treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuralli, Dogus; Gonc, E Nazli; Ozon, Z Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgun

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to define the predictive criteria, in the form of specific clinical, hormonal and radiological parameters, for children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) who may benefit from the reevaluation of GH status early in the course of growth hormone (GH) treatment. Two hundred sixty-five children with growth hormone deficiency were retested by GH stimulation at the end of the first year of GH treatment. The initial clinical and laboratory characteristics of those with a normal (GH≥10ng/ml) response and those with a subnormal (GHGH status during reassessment. Sixty-nine patients (40.6%) out of the 170 patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) had a peak GH of ≥10ng/ml during the retest. None of the patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) had a peak GH of ≥10ng/ml. Puberty and sex steroid priming in peripubertal cases increased the probability of a normal GH response. Only one patient with IGHD who had an ectopic posterior pituitary without stalk interruption on MRI analysis showed a normal GH response during the retest. Patients with a peak GH between 5 and 10ng/ml, an age at diagnosis of ≥9years or a height gain below 0.61 SDS during the first year of treatment had an increased probability of having a normal GH response at the retest. Early reassessment of GH status during GH treatment is unnecessary in patients who have MPHD with at least 3 hormone deficiencies. Retesting at the end of the first year of therapy is recommended for patients with IGHD who have a height gain of <0.61 SDS in the first year of treatment, especially those with a normal or 'hypoplastic' pituitary on imaging. Priming can increase the likelihood of a normal response in patients in the pubertal age group who do not show overt signs of pubertal development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 'Standard' versus 'nose reference' electrode placement for measuring oVEMPs with air-conducted sound: Test-retest reliability and preliminary patient results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyssens, Laura; Heinze, Barbara; Vinck, Bart; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Vanspauwen, Robby; Wuyts, Floris L; Maes, Leen K

    2017-02-01

    This study compared two electrode placements ('standard' versus 'nose reference' placement) for measuring oVEMPs, elicited by air-conducted 500Hz tone bursts. The test-retest reliability of both positions was evaluated and additionally both electrode placements were applied on a group of vestibular patients. Eighteen healthy volunteers (range of 20-25years) participated in the first part and were retested after one week for evaluation of the test-retest reliability. Eleven patients (range of 41-74years) with a variety of vestibular pathologies were tested once. In the normal group, the nose reference electrode placement resulted in significantly larger peak-to-peak amplitudes (ptest-retest reliability was observed with the nose reference configuration, as shown by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the coefficient of variation of the method error (CV ME ) and the minimal detectable differences (MDD). In the patient group, the same significant amplitude difference was found. Moreover, three patients presented with absent oVEMPs when recorded with the standard placement, whereas the nose reference placement could evoke a detectable oVEMP response. This study demonstrated that a nose reference electrode position results in larger oVEMP amplitudes and achieves a better reliability for the most important clinical parameters (amplitude and IOR). Our patient data substantiate the possible clinical benefit of this position, but further systematic patient verification is required. The nose reference electrode position facilitates the detection of generally very small oVEMP responses and shows a high test-retest reliability, showing promising potential for future use in the vestibular clinic. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of validity criteria on Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test-retest reliability among high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Benjamin L; Solomon, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Research findings to date on the stability of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) Composite scores have been inconsistent, requiring further investigation. The use of test validity criteria across these studies also has been inconsistent. Using multiple measures of stability, we examined test-retest reliability of repeated ImPACT baseline assessments in high school athletes across various validity criteria reported in previous studies. A total of 1146 high school athletes completed baseline cognitive testing using the online ImPACT test battery at two time periods of approximately two-year intervals. No participant sustained a concussion between assessments. Five forms of validity criteria used in previous test-retest studies were applied to the data, and differences in reliability were compared. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged in composite scores from .47 (95% confidence interval, CI [.38, .54]) to .83 (95% CI [.81, .85]) and showed little change across a two-year interval for all five sets of validity criteria. Regression based methods (RBMs) examining the test-retest stability demonstrated a lack of significant change in composite scores across the two-year interval for all forms of validity criteria, with no cases falling outside the expected range of 90% confidence intervals. The application of more stringent validity criteria does not alter test-retest reliability, nor does it account for some of the variation observed across previously performed studies. As such, use of the ImPACT manual validity criteria should be utilized in the determination of test validity and in the individualized approach to concussion management. Potential future efforts to improve test-retest reliability are discussed.

  15. Test-retest reliability of the novel 5-HT1B receptor PET radioligand [11C]P943

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricicek, Aybala; Chen, Jason; Ruf, Barbara; Planeta, Beata; Labaree, David; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Huang, Yiyun; Subramanyam, Kalyani; Maloney, Kathleen; Matuskey, David; Deserno, Lorenz; Neumeister, Alexander; Krystal, John H.; Carson, Richard E.; Bhagwagar, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    [ 11 C]P943 is a novel, highly selective 5-HT 1B PET radioligand. The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of [ 11 C]P943 using two different modeling methods and to perform a power analysis with each quantification technique. Seven healthy volunteers underwent two PET scans on the same day. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the amygdala, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, insula, frontal, anterior cingulate, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and cerebellum. Two multilinear radioligand quantification techniques were used to estimate binding potential: MA1, using arterial input function data, and the second version of the multilinear reference tissue model analysis (MRTM2), using the cerebellum as the reference region. Between-scan percent variability and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess test-retest reliability. We also performed power analyses to determine the method that would allow the least number of subjects using within-subject or between-subject study designs. A voxel-wise ICC analysis for MRTM2 BP ND was performed for the whole brain and all the ROIs studied. Mean percent variability between two scans across regions ranged between 0.4 % and 12.4 % for MA1 BP ND , 0.5 % and 11.5 % for MA1 BP P , 16.7 % and 28.3 % for MA1 BP F , and between 0.2 % and 5.4 % for MRTM2 BP ND . The power analyses showed a greater number of subjects were required using MA1 BP F compared with other outcome measures for both within-subject and between-subject study designs. ICC values were the highest using MRTM2 BP ND and the lowest with MA1 BP F in ten ROIs. Small regions and regions with low binding had lower ICC values than large regions and regions with high binding. Reliable measures of 5-HT 1B receptor binding can be obtained using the novel PET radioligand [ 11 C]P943. Quantification of 5-HT 1B receptor binding with MRTM2 BP ND and with MA1 BP P provided the least variability and optimal power for within-subject and

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Recorded Brainstem versus Cortical Auditory-Evoked Potentials to Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Pousson, Monique; Dugas, Calli; Fehrenbach, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Auditory-evoked potentials have proven useful in the objective evaluation of sound encoding at different stages of the auditory pathway (brainstem and cortex). Yet, their utility for use in clinical assessment and empirical research relies critically on the precision and test-retest repeatability of the measure. To determine how subcortical/cortical classes of auditory neural responses directly compare in terms of their internal consistency and test-retest reliability within and between listeners. A descriptive cohort study describing the dispersion of electrophysiological measures. Eight young, normal-hearing female listeners. We recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs), and cortical (P1-N1-P2) auditory-evoked potentials elicited by speech sounds in the same set of listeners. We reassessed responses within each of four different test sessions over a period of 1 mo, allowing us to detect possible changes in latency/amplitude characteristics with finer detail than in previous studies. Our findings show that brainstem and cortical amplitude/latency measures are remarkably stable; with the exception of slight prolongation of the P1 wave, we found no significant variation in any response measure. Intraclass correlation analysis revealed that the speech-evoked FFR amplitude and latency measures achieved superior repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.85) among the more widely used obligatory brainstem (ABR) and cortical (P1-N1-P2) auditory-evoked potentials. Contrasting these intersubject effects, intrasubject variability (i.e., within-subject coefficient of variation) revealed that while latencies were more stable than amplitudes, brainstem and cortical responses did not differ in their variability at the single subject level. We conclude that (1) the variability of auditory neural responses increases with ascending level along the auditory neuroaxis (cortex > brainstem) between subjects but remains

  17. Three-Month Test-Retest Reliability of Center of Pressure Motion During Standing Balance in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-01-01

    Balance impairment and an increased rate of falls are commonly reported in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Force platform-generated center of pressure (COP) metrics have previously been recommended as an outcome measure to quantify balance deficits and distinguish between fallers and nonfallers in MS. Information is limited regarding the preservation of postural control in individuals with MS over extended time frames in the absence of an intervention. This report examines the test-retest reliability and magnitude of change of COP motion during standing balance over 3 months. Twenty individuals with MS and a history of falling underwent testing on two occasions 3 months apart in the absence of an intervention. On both occasions, participants completed two 30-second trials of three conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, and eyes open with concurrent cognitive challenge (dual task). Measures of COP area, velocity, and temporal structure were calculated and included in the reliability analysis. The COP metrics displayed fair-to-excellent reliability over 3 months without an intervention. Reliability was maintained across the three commonly used balance conditions. These results offer insight into the reliability of COP measures over a 3-month period in MS and can inform the use of COP metrics for future study design (eg, sample size estimates) and balance outcome assessment during randomized controlled trials and fall-prevention studies in individuals with MS.

  18. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for fitness assessment in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Rosa, Rosa M; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Sañudo, Borja; Rogers, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and to determine the minimal detectable change (MDC95 ) scores of the data for the Hand Grip Strength Test, the Chair Sit and Reach Test (CSRT), the Timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test, the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and 30 seconds Sit to Stand Test (30s-STS) test in older adults with type 2 NIDDM. Test-retest reliability. Eighteen subject participated in two sessions (1 week apart), which included the different tests. High ICCs (≥ 0.92) were found for all tests. The MDC₉₅ scores were as follows: 4.0 kg for Hand Grip Strength Tests, 7.5 cm for the right leg-CSRT, 9.0 cm for the left leg-CSRT, 1.0 second for the TUG test, 27 m for the 6MWT, and 3.3 repetitions for the 30s-STS test. All tests evaluated are reliable outcome measures for type 2 NIDDM patients. This study has generated novel MCD₉₅ data, which will assist nursing practitioners in both prescribing the most beneficial exercise and interpreting posttreatment changes after rehabilitation in patients with T2DM. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  19. Improving test-retest variability of visual-evoked responses in multiple sclerosis: implications for trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomae, Eva; Niklas, Alexander; Sebraoui, Hatifa; Baum, Petra; Wagner, Armin; Then Bergh, Florian

    2010-08-01

    Remyelination is an important repair strategy in multiple sclerosis. Latencies of visual-evoked responses are a suitable surrogate for remyelination of the optic nerve. Their test-retest variability has been incompletely evaluated, especially in pathologically delayed potentials. Visual-evoked potential was recorded twice, 2.1 +/- 3.1 (mean +/- SD) days apart, in 39 patients with definite or evaluated for multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis and current steroid treatment were exclusion criteria. Mean and difference of the two recordings were calculated for latencies and amplitude, both before and after verification of cursor positioning by a physician blinded for the sequence of recordings. Before verification, the difference between first and second visual-evoked potential was -2.07 +/- 9.07 milliseconds for N75 latency, -1.18 +/- 8.02 milliseconds for P100 latency, and -0.06 +/- 2.71 muV for N75/P100 amplitude (n = 77 eyes, mean +/- SD). Independent verification judged two eyes as unsuitable for analysis. The differences in the remaining 75 eyes were reduced to -1.22 +/- 6.86 milliseconds (N75), -0.7 +/- 3.85 milliseconds (P100) and -0.04 +/- 2.53 microV (amplitude). These effects do not differ between delayed and nondelayed eyes. Similar to magnetic resonance imaging, use of evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis remyelination trials will require independent verification, ideally by a central evaluating facility. Reproducibility should be verified individually at screening.

  20. Using a Web-Based Approach to Assess Test-Retest Reliability of the "Hypertension Self-Care Profile" Tool in an Asian Population: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Lua, Yi Hui Adela; Hong, Liyue; Bong, Huey Shin Shirley; Yeo, Ling Sui Jocelyn; Tsang, Li Ping Marianne; Ong, Kai Zhi; Wong, Sook Wai Samantha; Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Essential hypertension often requires affected patients to self-manage their condition most of the time. Besides seeking regular medical review of their life-long condition to detect vascular complications, patients have to maintain healthy lifestyles in between physician consultations via diet and physical activity, and to take their medications according to their prescriptions. Their self-management ability is influenced by their self-efficacy capacity, which can be assessed using questionnaire-based tools. The "Hypertension Self-Care Profile" (HTN-SCP) is 1 such questionnaire assessing self-efficacy in the domains of "behavior," "motivation," and "self-efficacy." This study aims to determine the test-retest reliability of HTN-SCP in an English-literate Asian population using a web-based approach. Multiethnic Asian patients, aged 40 years and older, with essential hypertension were recruited from a typical public primary care clinic in Singapore. The investigators guided the patients to fill up the web-based 60-item HTN-SCP in English using a tablet or smartphone on the first visit and refilled the instrument 2 weeks later in the retest. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated using Cronbach's Alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), respectively. The t test was used to determine the relationship between the overall HTN-SCP scores of the patients and their self-reported self-management activities. A total of 160 patients completed the HTN-SCP during the initial test, from which 71 test-retest responses were completed. No floor or ceiling effect was found for the scores for the 3 subscales. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were 0.857, 0.948, and 0.931 for "behavior," "motivation," and "self-efficacy" domains respectively, indicating high internal consistency. The item-total correlation ranges for the 3 scales were from 0.105 to 0.656 for Behavior, 0.401 to 0.808 for Motivation, 0.349 to 0.789 for Self-efficacy. The corresponding

  1. Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences Test (LiSN-S): normative and retest reliability data for adolescents and adults up to 60 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    The Australian version of the Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences Test (LiSN-S) was originally developed to assess auditory stream segregation skills in children aged 6 to 11 yr with suspected central auditory processing disorder. The LiSN-S creates a three-dimensional auditory environment under headphones. A simple repetition-response protocol is used to assess a listener's speech reception threshold (SRT) for target sentences presented in competing speech maskers. Performance is measured as the improvement in SRT in decibels gained when either pitch, spatial, or both pitch and spatial cues are incorporated in the maskers. To collect additional normative data on the Australian LiSN-S for adolescents and adults up to 60 yr of age, to analyze the effects of age on LiSN-S performance, to examine retest reliability in the older population, and to extrapolate findings from the Australian data so that the North American version of the test can also be used clinically with older adults. In a descriptive design, normative and test-retest reliability data were collected from adolescents and adults and combined with previously published data from Australian children aged 6 to 11 yr. One hundred thirty-two participants with normal hearing aged 12 yr, 0 mo, to 60 yr, 7 mo, took part in the normative data study. Fifty-five participants returned between 2 and 4 mo after the initial assessment for retesting. Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of age on LiSN-S performance (p retest ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 dB across the four LiSN-S test conditions (p ranging from .01 to test and retest on the advantage measures (p ranging from .143 to .768). Test-retest differences across all LiSN-S measures were significantly correlated (r ranging from 0.2 to 0.7, p ranging from .023 to <.00000001) and did not differ as a function of age (p ranging from .178 to .980). As there was no significant difference among adults aged 18-60 yr on the LiSN-S talker, spatial, and total

  2. Test-Retest Reliability of Measurements of Hand-Grip Strength Obtained by Dynamometry from Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Research in the PubMed Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review was performed to summarize literature describing the test-retest reliability of grip strength measures obtained from older adults. Relevant literature was identified via a PubMed search. Seventeen articles were deemed appropriate based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The relative test-retest reliability of grip strength measures obtained by dynamometry was good to excellent (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.80) in all but 3 studies, which involved older adults with severe dementia. Absolute reliability, as indicated by summary statistics such as the minimum detectable change (95%), was more variable. As a percentage, that change ranged from 14.5% to 98.5%. Consequently, clinicians can be confident in the relative reliability of grip strength measures obtained from at risk older adults. However, relatively large percentage changes in grip strength may be necessary to conclude with confidence that a real change has occurred over time in some populations.

  3. The North American Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences test (NA LiSN-S): normative data and test-retest reliability studies for adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David K; Cameron, Sharon; Martin, Jeffrey S; Watson, Charlene; Dillon, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences test (LiSN-S; Cameron and Dillon, 2009) was originally developed to assess auditory stream segregation skills in children aged 6 to 11 yr with suspected central auditory processing disorder. The LiSN-S creates a three-dimensional auditory environment under headphones. A simple repetition-response protocol is used to assess a listener's speech reception threshold (SRT) for target sentences presented in competing speech maskers. Performance is measured as the improvement in SRT in dB gained when either pitch, spatial, or both pitch and spatial cues are incorporated in the maskers. A North American-accented version of the LiSN-S (NA LiSN-S) is available for use in the United States and Canada. To develop normative data for adolescents and adults on the NA LiSN-S, to compare these data with those of children aged 6 to 11 yr as documented in Cameron et al (2009), and to consolidate the child, adolescent, and adult normative and retest data to allow the software to be used with a wider population. In a descriptive design, normative data and test-retest reliability data were collected. One hundred and twenty normally hearing participants took part in the normative data study (67 adolescents aged 12 yr, 1 mo, to 17 yr, 10 mo, and 53 adults aged 19 yr, 10 mo, to 30 yr, 30 mo). Forty-nine participants returned between 1 and 4 mo after the initial assessment for retesting. Participants were recruited from sites in Cincinnati, Dallas, and Calgary. When combined with data collected from children aged 6 to 11 yr, a trend of improved performance as a function of increasing age was found across performance measures. ANOVA (analysis of variance) revealed a significant effect of age on performance. Planned contrasts revealed that there were no significant differences between adults and children aged 13 yr and older on the low-cue SRT; 14 yr and older on talker and spatial advantage; 15 yr and older on total advantage; and 16 yr and older

  4. Test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test for the shoulder and hip joints by unskilled examiners using a manual goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test using a manual goniometer by unskilled examiners. [Subjects and Methods] Active range of motion was measured in 30 students attending U university (4 males, 26 females). Range of motion during flexion and extension of the shoulder and hip joints were measured using a manual goniometer. [Results] Flexion and extension of the shoulder joint (ICC=0.906 and ICC=0.808) and (ICC=0.946 and ICC=0. 955) of the hip joint showed excellent reliabilities. [Conclusion] The active range of motion test using a manual goniometer showed very high test-retest reliability in unskilled examiners. When examiners are aware of the method of the test, an objective assessment can be conducted.

  5. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the DOiT (Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers) questionnaire: measuring energy balance-related behaviours in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Evelien H C; Singh, Amika S; van Nassau, Femke; Brug, Johannes; van Mechelen, Willem; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2014-02-01

    Adequate assessment of energy balance-related behaviours in adolescents is essential to develop and evaluate effective obesity prevention programmes. The present study examined the test-retest reliability and construct validity of a questionnaire assessing energy balance-related behaviours in adolescents during the evaluation of the DOiT (Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers) intervention. To assess test-retest reliability, adolescents filled in the questionnaire twice (n 111). To assess construct validity, the results from the first test were compared with data collected in a personal cognitive interview (n 20, independent from the reliability study). For both reliability and validity, intraclass correlation coefficients for continuous data or Cohen's kappa coefficients for categorical data were calculated as well as percentage agreement. Data were collected during school time from February to May 2010. Study participants were Dutch adolescents aged 12-14 years attending pre-vocational secondary schools. In more than three-quarters of the ninety-five questionnaire items the test-retest reliability appeared to be good to excellent. Moderate reliability was found for all other twenty-one items. Fifty-one items (of ninety-five items) showed good to excellent construct validity. Construct validity appeared moderate in twenty-three items and poor in twenty-one items. Most items with poor construct validity concerned consumption of sugar-containing beverages and high-energy snacks/sweets. Our study showed good test-retest reliability and largely moderate to good construct validity for the majority of items of the DOiT questionnaire. Items with poor construct validity (most of them found for items concerning energy intake-related behaviours) should be revised and tested again to improve the questionnaire for future use.

  6. 49 CFR 655.48 - Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. 655.48 Section 655.48 Transportation Other Regulations... Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. If an... alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04, the employer shall...

  7. Test-retest reliability of the Urge-Urinary Distress Inventory and Female Sexual Function Index in women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borello-France, Diane; Dusi, Jodi; O'Leary, Margie; Misplay, Sara; Okonski, Janet; Leng, Wendy; Cannon-Smith, Tracy; Chancellor, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Test-retest reliability of the Urge-Urinary Distress Inventory (U-UDI) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was assessed in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) because it was undetermined whether or not either instrument would yield reliable and valid results in this population. Data from this study suggest that these tools can be reliably used to assess community-dwelling women with mild gait disability and MS-associated symptoms of urinary distress and sexual dysfunction.

  8. Habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting: Measurement test–retest reliability for the LUMOback device and preliminary evidence for slouched posture in individuals with low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: It has been difficult to monitor the pelvic position during actual daily life. However, recent developments in wearable device technologies, such as the LUMOback device, provide the possibility to evaluate habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting during daily life. The current study aimed (1) to investigate test–retest reliability for habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting with the LUMOback in individuals with prolonged low back pain (low back pain group) and without...

  9. Test-Retest Reliability, Convergent Validity, and Internal Consistency of the Persian Version of Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale in Iranian Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Sabet; Akram Azad; Ghorban Taghizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate convergent validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Persian translation of the Fullerton advanced balance (FAB) for use in Iranian community- dwelling older adults and improve the quality of their functional balance assessment. Methods & Materials: The original scale was translated with forward-backward protocol. In the next step, using convenience sampling and inclusion criteria, 88 functionally indep...

  10. Interobserver and test-retest reproducibility of T1ρ and T2 mesurements of lumber intervertebral discs by 3t magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Choon Sik; Eun, Na Lae; Kim, Sung Jin; Chung, Tae Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Moon Jung [GE Health Care, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hanna [Biostatistics Collaboration Lab, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Peter, Robert D. [GE Health Care, Milwaukee (United States); Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin Suck [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the interobserver and test-retest reproducibility of T1ρ and T2 measurements of lumbar intervertebral discs using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study included a total of 51 volunteers (female, 26; male, 25; mean age, 54 ± 16.3 years) who underwent lumbar spine MRI with a 3.0 T scanner. Amongst these subjects, 40 underwent repeat T1ρ and T2 measurement acquisitions with identical image protocol. Two observers independently performed the region of interest measurements in the nuclei pulposi of the discs from L1-2 through L5-S1 levels. Statistical analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with a two-way random model of absolute agreement. Comparison of the ICC values was done after acquisition of ICC values using Z test. Statistical significance was defined as p value < 0.05. The ICCs of interobserver reproducibility were 0.951 and 0.672 for T1ρ and T2 mapping, respectively. The ICCs of test-retest reproducibility (40 subjects) for T1ρ and T2 measurements were 0.922 and 0.617 for observer A and 0.914 and 0.628 for observer B, respectively. In the comparison of the aforementioned ICCs, ICCs of interobserver and test-retest reproducibility for T1ρ mapping were significantly higher than T2 mapping (p < 0.001). The interobserver and test-retest reproducibility of T1ρ mapping were significantly higher than those of T2 mapping for the quantitative assessment of nuclei pulposi of lumbar intervertebral discs.

  11. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 2. Technical Report #1217

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheg-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest an alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from the convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to…

  12. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Passage Reading Fluency Assessments: Grade 4. Technical Report #1219

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  13. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 5. Technical Report #1220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  14. Test-retest reliability and comparability of paper and computer questionnaires for the Finnish version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, P; Aho, S; Kautiainen, H; Pohjolainen, T; Hurri, H

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the internal consistency, test-retest reliability and comparability of paper and computer versions of the Finnish version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-FIN) among patients with chronic pain. In addition, patients' personal experiences of completing both versions of the TSK-FIN and preferences between these two methods of data collection were studied. Test-retest reliability study. Paper and computer versions of the TSK-FIN were completed twice on two consecutive days. The sample comprised 94 consecutive patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain participating in a pain management or individual rehabilitation programme. The group rehabilitation design consisted of physical and functional exercises, evaluation of the social situation, psychological assessment of pain-related stress factors, and personal pain management training in order to regain overall function and mitigate the inconvenience of pain and fear-avoidance behaviour. The mean TSK-FIN score was 37.1 [standard deviation (SD) 8.1] for the computer version and 35.3 (SD 7.9) for the paper version. The mean difference between the two versions was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 2.9). Test-retest reliability was 0.89 for the paper version and 0.88 for the computer version. Internal consistency was considered to be good for both versions. The intraclass correlation coefficient for comparability was 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.85), indicating substantial reliability between the two methods. Both versions of the TSK-FIN demonstrated substantial intertest reliability, good test-retest reliability, good internal consistency and acceptable limits of agreement, suggesting their suitability for clinical use. However, subjects tended to score higher when using the computer version. As such, in an ideal situation, data should be collected in a similar manner throughout the course of rehabilitation or clinical research. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published

  15. The interrater and test-retest reliability of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) in Malaysia: Using raters with a range of professional backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Muhammad Hibatullah; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Tan, Maw Pin; Clemson, Lindy

    2017-06-01

    Falls can be a devastating issue for older people living in the community, including those living in Malaysia. Health professionals and community members have a responsibility to ensure that older people have a safe home environment to reduce the risk of falls. Using a standardised screening tool is beneficial to intervene early with this group. The Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) should be considered for this purpose; however, its use in Malaysia has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interrater and test-retest reliability of the HOME FAST with multiple professionals in the Malaysian context. A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate interrater reliability where the HOME FAST was used simultaneously in the homes of older people by 2 raters and a prospective design was used to evaluate test-retest reliability with a separate group of older people at different times in their homes. Both studies took place in an urban area of Kuala Lumpur. Professionals from 9 professional backgrounds participated as raters in this study, and a group of 51 community older people were recruited for the interrater reliability study and another group of 30 for the test-retest reliability study. The overall agreement was moderate for interrater reliability and good for test-retest reliability. The HOME FAST was consistently rated by different professionals, and no bias was found among the multiple raters. The HOME FAST can be used with confidence by a variety of professionals across different settings. The HOME FAST can become a universal tool to screen for home hazards related to falls. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Zürich Maxi Mental Status Inventory (ZüMAX): Test-Retest Reliability and Discriminant Validity in Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler-Ammann, Bernadette C; de Bruin, Eling D; Brugger, Peter; de Bie, Rob A; Knols, Ruud H

    2016-06-01

    To examine discriminant validity and test-retest reliability of the Zürich maxi mental status inventory (ZüMAX) in patients with stroke. The ZüMAX is a novel domain-specific cognitive assessment tool to screen for disturbances in neuropsychological function. The test can be used in stroke rehabilitation to estimate severity of cognitive impairment. Because evidence for validity and reliability is lacking, the tool's clinical use is limited. We administered the ZüMAX in a test-retest design to 33 community-dwelling stroke survivors, and once to 35 healthy controls matched for age and sex. We found significant group differences in subscores for the cognitive domains of executive functions and language as well as total score (P=0.001 to 0.004); we did not find group differences for the domains of praxia (defined as the ability to perform purposeful actions), visual perception and construction, or learning and memory. Test-retest reliability of the total score was good (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.81), with the individual domain subscores ranging from poor to fair (0.59 to 0.79). The ZüMAX could detect changes in patients with low smallest detectable differences in executive functions, language, and praxia (0.05 to 1.49) and total score (0.09). The ZüMAX has moderate to good test-retest reliability. Furthermore, the tool might discriminate between healthy persons and chronic stroke survivors on three of five subscales. The ZüMAX shows promise in measuring neuropsychological disturbances in stroke survivors; however, further trials are required with larger samples.

  17. The Use of the Cultural Competence Assessment Tool (Ccatool In Community Nurses: The Pilot Study and Test-Retest Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Vasiliou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are responsible and accountable for their nursing practice and there is a need to be culturally and linguistically competent in all of their encounters. To be culturally competent community nurses should have the appropriate transcultural education. It is therefore important to assess the level of cultural competence of the community nurses, within their everyday practice.Aim: The aim of the article was the cultural adaptation of the cultural competence assessment tool based on Papadopoulos,Tilki and Taylor Model in a sample of Cypriot community nurses.Methodology: To explore the psychometric properties of the Cultural Competence Assessment Tool that has been distributed in a sample of 28 community nurses. Also, a pre and post-measurement has been applied as to assess the test-retest reliability of the tool.Results: The analysis has shown that the Cultural Competence Assessment Tool has good psychometric properties and it iseasy to understand by the community healthcare professionals. Results showed that 60.7% disagreed that there is the samelevel of cultural competency with other European countries and 89.3% reported that assessment of their cultural competence is needed. Using the special analysis software for this tool, the pilot study showed that Cypriot community nurses have some degree of cultural awareness.Conclusion: Culturally competent care is both a legal and a moral requirement for health and social care professionals.Valuing diversity in health and social care enhances the delivery and effectiveness of care for all people, whether they are members of a minority or a majority cultural group. Using an appropriate tool for assessing cultural competence is very important and useful for health professionals to be culturally competence.

  18. Determining eye-hand coordination using the sport vision trainer: an evaluation of test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Paul H; Sparks, S Andy; Murphy, Philip N; Carnegie, Evelyn; Marchant, David C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the number of test-retest trials required to familiarize participants in order to provide acceptable reliability for the measurement of an eye-hand coordination task using the Sport Vision Trainer (SVT). Two schedules were conducted (S1 and S2). For S1, 64 participants (male n = 51, age 20.8 ± 4.9 years; female n = 13, age 20.1 ± 2.1 years) attended four sessions each 1 week apart, and undertook four trials using the SVT. For S2, 60 participants (male n = 46, age 20.8 ± 4.9 years; female n = 14, age 20.1 ± 2.1 years) attended one 20-minute schedule consisting of four consecutive trials using the SVT. Limits of agreement (LoA) analyses showed that absolute reliability was increased in both studies. The LoA for S2 indicate that error decreased between trial 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4; ± 0.95 (CI, -1.16, +2.56sec), ± 0.97 (CI, -1.66, +2.14sec), ± 0.69 (CI, -1.08, +1.62sec). It was concluded that reliable measurements of eye-hand coordination can be obtained using the SVT in one session.

  19. The validity and 4-year test-retest reliability of the Brazilian version of the Eating Attitudes Test-26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional study conducted four years ago to assess the validity of the Brazilian version of the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 for the identification of abnormal eating behaviors in a population of young females in Southern Brazil, 56 women presented abnormal eating behavior as indicated by the EAT-26 and the Edinburgh Bulimic Investigation Test. They were each matched for age and neighborhood to two normal controls (N = 112 and were re-assessed four years later with the two screening questionnaires plus the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. The EAT results were then compared to diagnoses originating from the CIDI. To evaluate the temporal stability of the two screening questionnaires, a test-retest design was applied to estimate kappa coefficients for individual items. Given the prevalence of eating disorders of 6.2%, the CIDI psychiatry interview was applied to 161 women. Of these, 0.6% exhibited anorexia nervosa and 5.6%, bulimia nervosa (10 positive cases. The validity coefficients of the EAT were: 40% sensitivity, 84% specificity, and 14% positive predictive value. Cronbach's coefficient was 0.75. For each EAT item, the kappa index was not higher than 0.344 and the correlation coefficient was lower than 0.488. We conclude that the EAT-26 exhibited low validity coefficients for sensitivity and positive predictive value, and showed a poor temporal stability. It is reasonable to assume that these results were not influenced by the low prevalence of eating disorders in the community. Thus, the results cast doubts on the ability of the EAT-26 test to identify cases of abnormal eating behaviors in this population.

  20. Feasibility and test-retest reliability of measuring lower‑limb strength in young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vulpen, L F; De Groot, S; Becher, J G; De Wolf, G S; Dallmeijer, A J

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying leg muscle strength in young children with cerebral palsy (CP) is essential for identifying muscle groups for treatment and for monitoring progress. To study the feasibility, intratester reliability and the optimal test design (number of test occasions and repetitions) of measuring lower-limb strength with handheld dynamometry (HHD) and dynamic ankle plantar flexor strength with the standing heel-rise (SH) test in 3-10 year aged children with CP. Test-retest design. Rehabilitation centre, special needs school for children with disabilities, and university medical centre. Knee extensor, hip abductor and calf muscle strength was assessed in 20 ambulatory children with spastic CP (3-5 years [N.=10] and 6-10 years [N.=10]) on two test occasions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Smallest Detectable Differences (SDD) were calculated to determine the optimal test design for detecting changes in strength. All isometric strength tests had acceptable SDDs (9-30%), when taking the mean values of 2-3 test occasions (separate days) and 2-3 repetitions. The one-leg SH test had large SDDs (40-128% for younger group, 23-48% for older group). Isometric strength (improvements) can only be measured reliably with HHD in young children with CP when the average values over at least 2 test occasions are taken. Reliability of the SH test is not sufficient for measuring individual changes in dynamic muscle strength in the younger children. Results of this study can be used to determine the optimal number of test occasions and repetitions for reliable HHD measurements depending on expected changes, muscle group and age in 3-10 year old children with CP.

  1. Test-Retest Reliability and Concurrent Validity of Athletic Performance Combine Tests in 6-15-year old Male Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia A; McKay, Brianna D; Leutzinger, Todd J; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-02-15

    Athletic performance combine tests are used by high school, collegiate, and professional American football programs to evaluate performance; however, limited evidence is available on performance combine test results in youth athletes. The purposes of this study were to report test-retest reliability statistics and evaluate concurrent validity among combine performance tests in 6-15-year olds male athletes. Sixty-nine young male athletes (mean ± SD; age = 10.9 ± 2.1-years, height = 154.4 ± 13.6cm, body mass = 46.8 ± 16.0kg) were divided into three age groups, 6-9-years (n = 16), 10-11-years (n = 26), and 12-15-years (n = 27). Participants completed 2 attempts of the vertical jump (VJ), broad jump (BJ), pro-agility (PA), L-cone drill (LC), and 10-, 20-, 40-yard dashes. The results indicated that the older age groups performed better on most performance assessments compared to the 6-9-year group (p ≤ 0.05). The combine tests demonstrated consistently adequate reliability for all age groups, except for the 10-yard dash, which was deemed unreliable. Evidence of concurrent validity, and possible measurement redundancy were observed in the VJ vs. BJ, PA vs. LC, and 20 vs. 40yd, but zero- and first-order partial correlations suggested that only the PA and LC were redundant, and the PA may be superior for this age group over the LC. While the VJ and BJ provide independent performance information regarding lower-body power, questions regarding the redundancy of the 20yd vs. 40yd were remain unanswered from a measurement perspective.

  2. Test-Retest Reliability of Word Recognition Score Using Korean Standard Monosyllabic Word Lists for Adults as a Function of the Number of Test Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook; Lee, Junghak; Lee, Kyoung Won; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee; Choi, Chul-Hee; Cho, Soo Jin; Shin, Eun Yeong; Park, Jeonghye

    2015-09-01

    The purpose was to establish the test-retest reliability of word recognition score (WRS) using Korean standard monosyllabic word lists for adults (KS-MWL-A) recently developed based on the international standard for speech audiometry (ISO 8253-3:2012). Subjects consisted of 159 adults aged to 18 to 25 years with normal hearing sensitivity. WRSs were obtained in 2 dB steps from the level of speech recognition thresholds to the level of 86% correct responses or greater. After one or two weeks, retest was performed. Correlation, confidence interval (CI) and prediction interval (PI) were calculated for the reliability. Correlation coefficients were 0.88 for 50 test words, 0.76 for 25 and 0.61 for 10 words. Results also showed that 95% CIs and PIs were narrower for 25 and 50 test words than those for 10 test words. Korean WRS using the KS-MWL-A has high reliability for 25 and 50 test words, but relatively low for 10 words. It suggested that 95% CIs for each test words would be criteria for significant differences in WRS for groups and 95% PIs at each score of WRS could be utilized for a considerable difference for each individual at retest.

  3. Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills-Third Edition in Patients With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, En-Chi; Wu, Wen-Chi; Chou, Chiung-Xia; Yu, Min-Yuan; Hung, Jen-Wen

    2016-11-01

    To examine the test-retest reliability, calculate minimal detectable change (MDC), and report internal consistency of the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills-Third Edition (TVPS-3) in patients with stroke. Repeated-measures design (at an interval of 2wk). Medical center. Patients (N=50) with chronic stroke who completed the TVPS-3. Not applicable. TVPS-3 that contains 7 subscales, namely, visual discrimination, visual memory, spatial relations, form constancy, sequential memory, visual figure-ground, and visual closure. The intraclass correlation coefficient value of the overall scale was .92 and those of the 7 subscales were .53 to .82. The MDC values of the overall scale and the subscales were 18.1 and 5.4 to 7.1, respectively. The MDC% value of the overall scale was 16.2% (30%), indicating substantial random measurement errors. The Cronbach α of the 7 subscales were .71 to .89, indicating good internal consistency. Our results showed that the overall scale of the TVPS-3 had satisfactory test-retest reliability. However, the subscales demonstrated insufficient test-retest reliability. Therefore, the subscales should be used cautiously to explain the test results over repeated assessments in patients with stroke. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reliability of Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory in a test-retest design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Tomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Selinus, Eva Norén; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Lundström, Sebastian

    2014-02-01

    The Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory is used in epidemiological research to assess neurodevelopmental problems and coexisting conditions. Although the A-TAC has been applied in various populations, data on retest reliability are limited. The objective of the present study was to present additional reliability data. The A-TAC was administered by lay assessors and was completed on two occasions by parents of 400 individual twins, with an average interval of 70 days between test sessions. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were analysed with intraclass correlations and Cohen's kappa. A-TAC showed excellent test-retest intraclass correlations for both autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (each at .84). Most modules in the A-TAC had intra- and inter-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients of > or = .60. Cohen's kappa indi- cated acceptable reliability. The current study provides statistical evidence that the A-TAC yields good test-retest reliability in a population-based cohort of children.

  5. Age-related differences in Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests, within-day variability and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Nicole; Jehu, Deborah A; Lajoie, Yves

    2017-04-01

    The Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests are associated with unperceived body rotation and linear displacements in young adults, but performance in older adults on these two tests has yet to be determined. The main purpose was to compare the performance and reliability of the Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests in young and older adults. Fifty older and 50 young adults executed three trials of each test on day 1 (test) and day 2 (retest). Lateral and longitudinal displacements and body rotation relative to the starting position were measured. Means and standard deviations (SD) were compared between the two groups with Mann-Whitney tests. Test-retest reliability was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Foot preference was determined from the score on the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire and correlated with test scores. Lateral and longitudinal displacements were significantly larger in older than young participants on the Fukuda stepping test (p test (p test trials (p test in young (p  .05). Linear displacements, but not body rotation, were different between older and young adults. There was no clear age-related differences in test-retest reliability, but the moderate reliability indicates that performance can vary from day to day in both age groups.

  6. The 10m incremental shuttle walk test is a highly reliable field exercise test for patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation: a retest reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lisa C; Taylor, Nicholas F; McBurney, Helen

    2016-09-01

    To determine the retest reliability of the 10m incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in a mixed cardiac rehabilitation population. Participants completed two 10m ISWTs in a single session in a repeated measures study. Ten participants completed a third 10m ISWT as part of a pilot study. Hospital physiotherapy department. 62 adults aged a mean of 68 years (SD 10) referred to a cardiac rehabilitation program. Retest reliability of the 10m ISWT expressed as relative reliability and measurement error. Relative reliability was expressed in a ratio in the form of an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and measurement error in the form of the standard error of measurement (SEM) and 95% confidence intervals for the group and individual. There was a high level of relative reliability over the two walks with an ICC of .99. The SEMagreement was 17m, and a change of at least 23m for the group and 54m for the individual would be required to be 95% confident of exceeding measurement error. The 10m ISWT demonstrated good retest reliability and is sufficiently reliable to be applied in practice in this population without the use of a practice test. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brazilian version of the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE-BR): Cross-cultural adaptation, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rodrigues, Eula Katucha; de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Marisa; MacDermid, Joy C

    2015-01-01

    Clinical measurements. Perform the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) into a Brazilian version (PRWE-BR), and assess its internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. PRWE-BR was developed using standardized guidelines. Sixty-one patients with different wrist injuries were recruited. They were submitted to two assessments, 2-7 days apart. Reliability was measured by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient). Construct validity was determined via hypothesis testing (Spearman's correlation) of correlations with subscales of SF-36 and DASH. PRWE-BR and its subscales achieved high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.85) and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC ≥ 0.90). Construct validity was established by confirmation of 85.7% of our previously formulated hypotheses. PRWE-BR is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of pain and dysfunction in Brazilian patients with injuries involving the wrist joint. N/A. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Test of cure, retesting and extragenital testing practices for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among general practitioners in different socioeconomic status areas: A retrospective cohort study, 2011-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Liere, Geneviève A. F. S.; Cals, Jochen W. L.; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background For Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), a test of cure (TOC) within 3–5 weeks is not recommended. International guidelines differ in advising a Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) TOC. Retesting CT and NG positives within 3–12 months is recommended in international guidelines. We assessed TOC and retesting practices including extragenital testing in general practitioner (GP) practices located in different socioeconomic status (SES) areas to inform and optimize local test practices. Methods Laboratory data of 48 Dutch GP practices between January 2011 and July 2016 were used. Based on a patient’s first positive CT or NG test, the proportion of TOC (TOC and 24% had a retest at the GP practice. GP practices in low SES areas were more likely to perform a CT TOC (OR:1.8;95%CI:1.1–3.1). Younger patients (TOC (OR:1.6;95%CI:1.0–2.4). For CT (n = 622), 2.4% had a TOC and 6.1% had a retest at another STI care provider. For NG (n = 73), 25% had a TOC and 15% had a retest at the GP practice. For NG (n = 73), 2.7% had a TOC and 12.3% had a retest at another STI care provider. In only 0.3% of the consultations patients were tested on extragenital sites. Conclusion Almost 20% of the patients returned for a CT TOC, especially at GP practices in low SES areas. For NG, 1 out of 4 patients returned for a TOC. Retesting rates were low for both CT (24%) and NG (15%), (re)infections including extragenital infections may be missed. Efforts are required to focus TOC and increase retesting practices of GPs in order to improve CT/NG control. PMID:29538469

  9. Functional brain hubs and their test-retest reliability: a multiband resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xu-Hong; Xia, Ming-Rui; Xu, Ting; Dai, Zheng-Jia; Cao, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Hai-Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng; He, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) has emerged as a promising neuroimaging technique used to identify global hubs of the human brain functional connectome. However, most R-fMRI studies on functional hubs mainly utilize traditional R-fMRI data with relatively low sampling rates (e.g., repetition time [TR]=2 s). R-fMRI data scanned with higher sampling rates are important for the characterization of reliable functional connectomes because they can provide temporally complementary information about functional integration among brain regions and simultaneously reduce the effects of high frequency physiological noise. Here, we employed a publicly available multiband R-fMRI dataset with a sub-second sampling rate (TR=645 ms) to identify global hubs in the human voxel-wise functional networks, and further examined their test-retest (TRT) reliability over scanning time. We showed that the functional hubs of human brain networks were mainly located at the default-mode regions (e.g., medial prefrontal and parietal cortex as well as the lateral parietal and temporal cortex) and the sensorimotor and visual cortex. These hub regions were highly anatomically distance-dependent, where short-range and long-range hubs were primarily located at the primary cortex and the multimodal association cortex, respectively. We found that most functional hubs exhibited fair to good TRT reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients. Interestingly, our analysis suggested that a 6-minute scan duration was able to reliably detect these functional hubs. Further comparison analysis revealed that these results were approximately consistent with those obtained using traditional R-fMRI scans of the same subjects with TR=2500 ms, but several regions (e.g., lateral frontal cortex, paracentral lobule and anterior temporal lobe) exhibited different TRT reliability. Finally, we showed that several regions (including the medial/lateral prefrontal cortex and lateral temporal cortex) were

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot. Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%. Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56 years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%. Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add

  11. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  12. Can health workers reliably assess their own work? A test-retest study of bias among data collectors conducting a Lot Quality Assurance Sampling survey in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckworth, Colin A; Davis, Rosemary H; Faragher, Brian; Valadez, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a classification method that enables local health staff to assess health programmes for which they are responsible. While LQAS has been favourably reviewed by the World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO), questions remain about whether using local health staff as data collectors can lead to biased data. In this test-retest research, Pallisa Health District in Uganda is subdivided into four administrative units called supervision areas (SA). Data collectors from each SA conducted an LQAS survey. A week later, the data collectors were swapped to a different SA, outside their area of responsibility, to repeat the LQAS survey with the same respondents. The two data sets were analysed for agreement using Cohens' kappa coefficient and disagreements were analysed. Kappa values ranged from 0.19 to 0.97. On average, there was a moderate degree of agreement for knowledge indicators and a substantial level for practice indicators. Respondents were found to be systematically more knowledgeable on retest indicating bias favouring the retest, although no evidence of bias was found for practices indicators. In this initial study, using local health care providers to collect data did not bias data collection. The bias observed in the knowledge indicators is most likely due to the 'practice effect', whereby respondents increased their knowledge as a result of completing the first survey, as no corresponding effect was seen in the practices indicators. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  13. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF HAND GRIP STRENGTH MEASUREMENT USING A JAMAR HAND DYNAMOMETER IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejazi G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of Jamar hand held dynamometer for measuring handgrip strength (HGS in patients with acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy and to find out the difference in measurement of the handgrip strength between acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy. Methods: A prospective, observational and non-experimental, the comparative study design was used. A sample of 72 subjects (37 women and 35 men suffering from cervical radiculopathy were divided into two groups i.e., Group A(acute and Group B(chronic, handgrip strength was measured using Jamar hand held dynamometer on two occasions by the same rater with an interval of 7-days. Data collection was based on standard guidelines of American Society of Hand Therapists. Three gripping trials (measured in Kg with patient’s arm in standardized arm position were recorded. The data was analyzed from the mean score obtained from the sample. Result: One-way Analysis of Variance(ANOVA was used to evaluate test-retest reliability and Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparison Test used to find the difference between handgrip strength among acute and chronic Cervical radiculopathy cases. Greater P-value (>0.05 in both testing session, as well as 95% of the confidence interval, shows the reliability of the instrument and lesser p-value (0.05 in female subjects shows no significant difference in handgrip strength between the two groups. Conclusion: Excellent test-retest reliability for hand grip strength measurement was measured in patients with acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy shows that the equipment could be used as an assessment tool for this patient and significant difference exists among male handgrip strength between acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy cases whereas no difference exists among female handgrip strength between acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy cases.

  14. Test–retest repeatability of quantitative cardiac 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine measurements in rats by small animal positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, James T.; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Kordos, Myra; Klein, Ran; Kemp, Robert A. de; Beanlands, Rob S.B.; DaSilva, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The norepinephrine analogue 11 C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has been used to interrogate sympathetic neuronal reuptake in cardiovascular disease. Application for longitudinal studies in small animal models of disease necessitates an understanding of test–retest variability. This study evaluated the repeatability of multiple quantitative cardiac measurements of HED retention and washout and the pharmacological response to reuptake blockade and enhanced norepinephrine levels. Methods: Small animal PET images were acquired over 60 min following HED administration to healthy male Sprague Dawley rats. Paired test and retest scans were undertaken in individual animals over 7 days. Additional HED scans were conducted following administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine or continuous infusion of exogenous norepinephrine. HED retention was quantified by retention index, standardized uptake value (SUV), monoexponential and one-compartment washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Test retest variability was lower for retention index (15% ± 12%) and SUV (19% ± 15%) as compared to monoexponential washout rates (21% ± 13%). Desipramine pretreatment reduced myocardial HED retention index by 69% and SUV by 85%. Chase treatment with desipramine increased monoexponential HED washout by 197% compared to untreated controls. Norepinephrine infusion dose-dependently reduced HED accumulation, reflected by both retention index and SUV, with a corresponding increase in monoexponential washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine levels correlated with HED quantitative measurements. Conclusion: The repeatability of HED retention index, SUV, and monoexponential washout supports its suitability for longitudinal PET studies in rats. Uptake and washout of HED are sensitive to acute increases in norepinephrine concentration

  15. Fiabilidad del test 6 minutos caminando en personas con secuelas de poliomielitis paralítica mediante test-retest de 12 semanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Domínguez-Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la fiabilidad del test de 6 minutos ca- minando en una población de personas con secuelas de poliomielitis paralítica mediante test-retest de 12 semanas no ha sido estudiado. Participaron personas con secuelas de poliomielitis paralítica (n = 18; 48,72 ± 7,69 años; 65,8 ± 11,6 kg. Se les realizó un test-retest de 12 semanas de la prueba de 6 minutos caminando que consistía en que los sujetos anduvieran la mayor distan- cia, sin llegar a la carrera, en un periodo de 6 minutos. La fiabilidad relativa de la prueba fue excelente (CCI = 0,99. En lo que se refiere a la fiabilidad absoluta se obtuvo un error estándar de medida (SEM del 1,7% y un mínimo cambio real (SRD de 4,7%. La fiabilidad del test de 6 minutos caminando usando el método Bland- Altman mostró que el error sistemático (diferencia de medias entre el test-retest fue 2,72 (bias. En conclu- sión, los resultados obtenidos en el test de 6 minutos ca- minando han sido muy fiables y afirmamos que la prue- ba de 6 minutos caminando podrá ser utilizada como prueba de evaluación en una población con secuelas de poliomielitis paralítica, con un intervalo de 12 semanas entre las dos mediciones, para comprobar los cambios que se han producido tras la aplicación de un programa de actividad física.

  16. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T

    2001-08-01

    Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.

  17. Test-retest reliability of the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder in childhood and adolescence - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Sarah; Santelmann, Hanno; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Reliability of schizoaffective disorder (SAD) diagnoses is low in adults but unclear in children and adolescents (CAD). We estimate the test-retest reliability of SAD and its key differential diagnoses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression). Systematic literature search of Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo for studies on test-retest reliability of SAD, in CAD. Cohen's kappa was extracted from studies. We performed meta-analysis for kappa, including subgroup and sensitivity analysis (PROSPERO protocol: CRD42013006713). Out of > 4000 records screened, seven studies were included. We estimated kappa values of 0.27 [95%-CI: 0.07 0.47] for SAD, 0.56 [0.29; 0.83] for schizophrenia, 0.64 [0.55; 0.74] for bipolar disorder, and 0.66 [0.52; 0.81] for unipolar depression. In 5/7 studies kappa of SAD was lower than that of schizophrenia; similar trends emerged for bipolar disorder (4/5) and unipolar depression (2/3). Estimates of positive agreement of SAD diagnoses supported these results. The number of studies and patients included is low. The point-estimate of the test-retest reliability of schizoaffective disorder is only fair, and lower than that of its main differential diagnoses. All kappa values under study were lower in children and adolescents samples than those reported for adults. Clinically, schizoaffective disorder should be diagnosed in strict adherence to the operationalized criteria and ought to be re-evaluated regularly. Should larger studies confirm the insufficient reliability of schizoaffective disorder in children and adolescents, the clinical value of the diagnosis is highly doubtful. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Assessing Minimal Detectable Changes and Test-Retest Reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test and the 2-Minute Walk Test in Patients With Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ertugrul; Kalkan, Serpil; Cekmece, Senol; Unver, Bayram; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2017-02-01

    Two-minute walk test (2MWT) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) are simple, quick, and can be applied in a short time as part of the routine medical examination. They were shown to be reliable and valid tests in many patient groups. The aims of the present study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability of data for the TUG and 2MWT and (2) to determine minimal detectable change (MDC) scores for the TUG and 2MWT in patients with TKA. Forty-eight patients with total knee arthroplasty, operated by the same surgeon, were included in this study. Patients performed trials for TUG and 2MWT twice on the same day. Between the first and second trials, patients waited for an hour on sitting position to prevent fatigue. The TUG and 2MWT showed an excellent test-retest reliability in this study. Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC(2,1)] for TUG and 2MWT were 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. Standard error of measurement and MDC 95 for TUG were 0.82 and 2.27, respectively. Standard error of measurement and MDC 95 for 2MWT were 5.40 and 14.96, respectively. The TUG and 2MWT have an excellent test-retest reliability in patients with TKA. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes in TUG time above 2.27 seconds and changes in 2MWT distances above 14.96 meters, represent a "real" clinical change in an individual patient with TKA. We, therefore, recommend the use of these 2 tests as complementary outcome measures for functional evaluation in patients TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the Dutch Modified Perceived Deficits Questionnaire to Examine Cognitive Symptoms in Women with Chronic Whiplash, Chronic Idiopathic Neck Pain, and Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, D; De Pauw, R; Ickmans, K; Schumacher, C; Timmers, I; Kregel, J; Coppieters, I

    2018-01-30

    Until now, only reliability and validity of the English version of the modified Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (mPDQ) have been investigated. The aim of this study was to translate the mPDQ into Dutch and evaluate its validity and reliability as an assessment tool for self-perceived cognitive problems in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (CWAD), chronic idiopathic neck pain (CINP), and fibromyalgia (FM). A case-control study was performed with a volunteer sample of 13 women with CWAD, 18 with CINP, and 33 with FM, and 33 women who were healthy and free of pain. The mPDQ was first translated into Dutch, and its test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminative power were examined. The intraclass correlation coefficients were higher than 0.74. Cronbach's α values ranged between 0.71 and 0.95. Total mPDQ scores were significantly higher (P tests. Correlations between the mPDQ total score and the cognitive performance tests were evaluated. Significant moderate to high correlations were found in all study samples between total mPDQ score and objective cognitive tests (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.35 to 0.80; P test-retest reliability and high internal consistency, and was able to distinguish CWAD and FM patients from healthy controls. This article presents the validity and test-retest reliability of the Dutch mPDQ. This measure could help clinicians who seek a reliable and user-friendly way to assess cognitive symptoms in chronic pain patients. © 2018 World Institute of Pain.

  20. {sup 11}C-PBR28 imaging in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: test-retest reproducibility and focal visualization of active white matter areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyung; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Planeta, Beata; Lin, Shu-Fei; Lim, Keunpoong; Chen, Ming-Kai; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E. [Yale School of Medicine, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 801 Howard Avenue, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); Delgadillo, Aracely; Liu, Shuang; O' Connor, Kevin C.; Lee, Jae-Yun; Chastre, Anne; Pelletier, Daniel [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, New Haven, CT (United States); Seneca, Nicholas; Leppert, David [Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-04-02

    Activated microglia play a key role in inflammatory demyelinating injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglial activation can be measured in vivo using a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand {sup 11}C-PBR28. We evaluated the test-retest variability (TRV) and lesion detectability of {sup 11}C-PBR28 binding in MS subjects and healthy controls (HCs) with high-resolution PET. Four clinically and radiologically stable relapsing-remitting MS subjects (age 41 ± 7 years, two men/two women) and four HCs (age 42 ± 8 years, 2 two men/two women), matched for translocator protein genotype [two high- and two medium-affinity binders according to DNA polymorphism (rs6971) in each group], were studied for TRV. Another MS subject (age 41 years, male) with clinical and radiological activity was studied for lesion detectability. Dynamic data were acquired over 120 min after injection of 634 ± 101 MBq {sup 11}C-PBR28. For the TRV study, subjects were scanned twice, on average 1.4 weeks apart. Volume of distribution (V{sub T}) derived from multilinear analysis (MA1) modeling (t* = 30 min, using arterial input data) was the main outcome measure. Mean test V{sub T} values (ml cm{sup -3}) were 3.9 ± 1.4 in the whole brain gray matter (GM), 3.6 ± 1.2 in the whole brain white matter (WM) or normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), and 3.3 ± 0.6 in MS WM lesions; mean retest V{sub T} values were 3.7 ± 1.0 in GM, 3.3 ± 0.9 in WM/NAWM, and 3.3 ± 0.7 in MS lesions. Test-retest results showed a mean absolute TRV ranging from 7 to 9 % across GM, WM/NAWM, and MS lesions. High-affinity binders demonstrated 30 % higher V{sub T} than medium-affinity binders in GM. Focal {sup 11}C-PBR28 uptake was detected in two enhancing lesions of the active MS patient. High-resolution {sup 11}C-PBR28 PET can visualize focal areas where microglial activation is known to be present and has good test-retest reproducibility in the human brain. {sup 11}C-PBR28 PET is likely to be valuable for monitoring both

  1. PASSwrite: Recalibrating Student Academic Literacies Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Frances; Goldsmith, Rosalie

    2013-01-01

    Concern about student retention and success remains paramount in universities both in Australia and overseas, especially in the light of the ongoing massification of higher education, yet current strategies are not necessarily dealing successfully with the changing demographics of student populations. This is particularly so in the realm of…

  2. Singapore's Global Schoolhouse Strategy: Retreat or Recalibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 a high-level economic review committee recommended that Singapore position itself as a "global schoolhouse". An ambitious target was set to attract 150,000 international students to Singapore by 2015 and to lift the education sector's contribution to GDP from 1.9% to 5% in the same timeframe. The global schoolhouse was viewed as…

  3. Test-retest variability of high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cortical serotonin (5HT2A) receptors in older, healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Tiffany W; Mamo, David C; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Houle, Sylvain; Smith, Gwenn S; Pollock, Bruce G; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2009-01-01

    Position emission tomography (PET) imaging using [ 18 F]-setoperone to quantify cortical 5-HT 2A receptors has the potential to inform pharmacological treatments for geriatric depression and dementia. Prior reports indicate a significant normal aging effect on serotonin 5HT 2A receptor (5HT 2A R) binding potential. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest variability of [ 18 F]-setoperone PET with a high resolution scanner (HRRT) for measuring 5HT 2A R availability in subjects greater than 60 years old. Methods: Six healthy subjects (age range = 65–78 years) completed two [ 18 F]-setoperone PET scans on two separate occasions 5–16 weeks apart. The average difference in the binding potential (BP ND ) as measured on the two occasions in the frontal and temporal cortical regions ranged between 2 and 12%, with the lowest intraclass correlation coefficient in anterior cingulate regions. We conclude that the test-retest variability of [ 18 F]-setoperone PET in elderly subjects is comparable to that of [ 18 F]-setoperone and other 5HT 2A R radiotracers in younger subject samples

  4. Test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability of the Modified Tardieu Scale and the Modified Ashworth Scale in hemiplegic patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Wu, Y; Li, X

    2014-02-01

    The most commonly used tools for the assessment of spasticity are the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale, but the results on the reliability of both scales keep equivocal. To evaluate the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability of the Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) in hemiplegic patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. Inpatients referred to a rehabilitation hospital. Fifty-one inpatients with hemiplegic stroke. MTS and MAS were collected from the affected elbow flexors and ankle plantar flexors by: 1) two raters who were blinded to the results of the other assessment. 2) one rater one day apart. In the MAS measurement, the inter-rater and intra-rater Kappa values were 0.66 and 0.69 for the elbow flexors, 0.48 and 0.48 for the plantar flexors, respectively. In the angle measurement of the MTS, the inter-rater and intra-rater ICCs were between 0.58-0.89 for the R1 and R2, and between 0.62-0.70 for the R1-R2. The MAS provided moderate to substantial test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability in the spasticity/tone measurement. The agreement of MAS elbow flexors scores was higher than that of plantar flexors scores. The reliability of angle measurement in the MTS was insufficient. Further work should avoid observing error when taking advantage of angle difference on measuring spasticity.

  5. Test-retest repeatability of myocardial blood flow and infarct size using {sup 11}C-acetate micro-PET imaging in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M.; McDonald, Matthew; Klein, Ran; DaSilva, Jean N.; Beanlands, Rob S.B.; DeKemp, Robert A. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, National Cardiac PET Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Global and regional responses of absolute myocardial blood flow index (iMBF) are used as surrogate markers to assess response to therapies in coronary artery disease. In this study, we assessed the test-retest repeatability of iMBF imaging, and the accuracy of infarct sizing in mice using {sup 11}C-acetate PET. {sup 11}C-Acetate cardiac PET images were acquired in healthy controls, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout transgenic mice, and mice after myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate global and regional iMBF, and myocardial infarct size compared to {sup 18}F-FDG PET and ex-vivo histology results. Global test-retest iMBF values had good coefficients of repeatability (CR) in healthy mice, eNOS knockout mice and normally perfused regions in MI mice (CR = 1.6, 2.0 and 1.5 mL/min/g, respectively). Infarct size measured on {sup 11}C-acetate iMBF images was also repeatable (CR = 17 %) and showed a good correlation with the infarct sizes found on {sup 18}F-FDG PET and histopathology (r{sup 2} > 0.77; p < 0.05). {sup 11}C-Acetate micro-PET assessment of iMBF and infarct size is repeatable and suitable for serial investigation of coronary artery disease progression and therapy. (orig.)

  6. Measuring walking speed in COPD: test-retest reliability of the 30-metre walk test and comparison with the 6-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Mikael; Moberg, Linda; Svantesson, Ulla; Sundbom, Ann; Johansson, Henrik; Emtner, Margareta

    2011-12-01

    To examine test-retest reliability of the 30-metre walk test (30mWT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to compare the 30mWT with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Forty-nine subjects with stable COPD were included. The 30mWT consists of walking at different walking intensities over a distance of 30 metres - self-selected speed (ss-30mWT) and maximal speed (ms-30mWT). The test was conducted twice and the time to walk 30 metres was recorded. The 6MWT was performed in duplicate on the same day. Test-retest reliability was high: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC(2.1)) = 0.93 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.97) for maximal walking speed and 0.87 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.93) for self-selected walking speed. Both maximal and self-selected speed had a standard error of measurement (SEM) of 0.07 m/s and SEM% was 4.4 for maximal speed and 5.9 for self-selected speed. The correlation, criterion validity, between ms-30mWT and the 6MWT was r=0.78 (pwalking ability) in patients with COPD. It may be well suited for primary care settings.

  7. Hepatitis C testing and re-testing among people attending sexual health services in Australia, and hepatitis C incidence among people with human immunodeficiency virus: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettiger, David C; Law, Matthew G; Dore, Gregory J; Guy, Rebecca; Callander, Denton; Donovan, Basil; O'Connor, Catherine C; Fairley, Christopher K; Hellard, Margaret; Matthews, Gail

    2017-12-01

    Direct acting antivirals are expected to drastically reduce the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). However, rates of HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection in this group remain uncertain in Australia. We assessed trends in HCV testing, re-testing and incident infection among HIV-positive individuals, and evaluated factors associated with HCV re-testing and incident infection. The study population consisted of HIV-positive individuals who visited a sexual health service involved in the Australian Collaboration for Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) between 2007 and 2015. Poisson regression was used to assess trends and to evaluate factors associated with HCV re-testing and incident HCV infection. There were 9227 HIV-positive individuals included in our testing rate analysis. Of 3799 HIV-positive/HCV-negative people that attended an ACCESS sexual health service more than once, 2079 (54.7%) were re-tested for HCV and were therefore eligible for our incidence analysis. The rate of HCV testing increased from 17.1 to 51.4 tests per 100 patient years between 2007 and 2015 (p for trend Australia will assist strategies to achieve HCV elimination through rapid treatment scale up. Continued monitoring of HCV incidence in this population is essential for guiding both HCV prevention and treatment strategies.

  8. Stability of person ability measures in people with acquired brain injury in the use of everyday technology: the test-retest reliability of the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson-Lund, Maria; Kottorp, Anders

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META) in a sample of people with acquired brain injury (ABI). The META was administered twice within a two-week period to 25 people with ABI. A Rasch measurement model was used to convert the META ordinal raw scores into equal-interval linear measures of each participant's ability to manage everyday technology (ET). Test-retest reliability of the stability of the person ability measures in the META was examined by a standardized difference Z-test and an intra-class correlations analysis (ICC 1). The results showed that the paired person ability measures generated from the META were stable over the test-retest period for 22 of the 25 subjects. The ICC 1 correlation was 0.63, which indicates good overall reliability. The META demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability in a sample of people with ABI. The results illustrate the importance of using sufficiently challenging ETs (relative to a person's abilities) to generate stable META measurements over time. Implications for Rehabilitation The findings add evidence regarding the test-retest reliability of the person ability measures generated from the observation assessment META in a sample of people with ABI. The META might support professionals in the evaluation of interventions that are designed to improve clients' performance of activities including the ability to manage ET.

  9. Preclinical evaluation and test-retest studies of [{sup 18}F]PSS232, a novel radioligand for targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu{sub 5})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milicevic Sephton, Selena; Mueller Herde, Adrienne; Keller, Claudia; Ruedisuehli, Sonja; Schibli, Roger; Kraemer, Stefanie D.; Ametamey, Simon M. [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences of ETH, PSI and USZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Mu, Linjing [University Hospital Zuerich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zuerich (Switzerland); Auberson, Yves [Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    A novel, {sup 18}F-labelled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu{sub 5}) derivative of [{sup 11}C]ABP688 ([{sup 11}C]1), [{sup 18}F]PSS232 ([{sup 18}F]5), was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its potential as a PET agent and was used in test-retest reliability studies The radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]5 was accomplished via a one-step reaction using a mesylate precursor. In vitro stability was determined in PBS and plasma, and with liver microsomal enzymes. Metabolite studies were performed using rat brain extracts, blood and urine. In vitro autoradiography was performed on horizontal slices of rat brain using 1 and 8, antagonists for mGlu{sub 5} and mGlu{sub 1}, respectively. Small-animal PET, biodistribution, and test-retest studies were performed in Wistar rats. In vivo, dose-dependent displacement studies were performed using 6 and blocking studies with 7. [{sup 18}F]5 was obtained in decay-corrected maximal radiochemical yield of 37 % with a specific activity of 80 - 400 GBq/μmol. Treatment with rat and human microsomal enzymes in vitro for 60 min resulted in 20 % and 4 % of hydrophilic radiometabolites, respectively. No hydrophilic decomposition products or radiometabolites were found in PBS or plasma. In vitro autoradiography on rat brain slices showed a heterogeneous distribution consistent with the known distribution of mGlu{sub 5} with high binding to hippocampal and cortical regions, and negligible radioactivity in the cerebellum. Similar distribution of radioactivity was found in PET images. Under displacement conditions with 6, reduced [{sup 18}F]5 binding was found in all brain regions except the cerebellum. 7 reduced binding in the striatum by 84 % on average. Test-retest studies were reproducible with a variability ranging from 6.8 % to 8.2 %. An extended single-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats showed no compound-related adverse effects. The new mGlu{sub 5} radiotracer, [{sup 18}F]5, showed specific and selective in vitro and in vivo

  10. Test-retest reproducibility of [11C]-L-deprenyl-D2binding to MAO-B in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Ryosuke; Stenkrona, Per; Takano, Akihiro; Nag, Sangram; Maior, Rafael S; Halldin, Christer

    2017-12-01

    [ 11 C]-L-deprenyl-D 2 is a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for measurement of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity in vivo brain. The estimation of the test-retest reproducibility is important for accurate interpretation of PET studies. We performed two [ 11 C]-L-deprenyl-D 2 scans for six healthy subjects and evaluated the test-retest variability of this radioligand. MAO-B binding was quantified by two tissue compartment model (2TCM) with three rate constants (K 1 , k 2 , k 3 ) using metabolite-corrected plasma radioactivity. The λk 3 defined as (K 1 /k 2 ) × k 3 was also calculated. The correlation between MAO-B binding and age, and the effect of partial volume effect correction (PVEc) for the reproducibility were also estimated. %difference of k 3 was 2.6% (medial frontal cortex) to 10.3% (hippocampus), and that of λk 3 was 5.0% (thalamus) to 9.2% (cerebellum). Mean %difference of all regions were 5.3 and 7.0% in k 3 and λk 3 , respectively. All regions showed below 10% variabilities except the hippocampus in k 3 (10.3%). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of k 3 was 0.78 (hippocampus) to 0.98 (medial frontal cortex), and that of λk 3 was 0.78 (hippocampus) to 0.95 (thalamus). Mean ICC were 0.94 and 0.89 in k 3 and λk 3 , respectively. The highest positive correlation with age was observed in the hippocampus, as r = 0.75 in k 3 and 0.76 in λk 3 . After PVEc, mean %difference were 5.6 and 7.2% in k 3 and λk 3 , respectively. Mean ICC were 0.92 and 0.90 for k 3 and λk 3 , respectively. These values were almost the same as those before PVEc. The present results indicate that k 3 and λk 3 of [ 11 C]-L-deprenyl-D 2 are reliable parameters for test-retest reproducibility with healthy subjects both before and after PVEc. The studies with patients of larger sample size are required for further clinical applications.

  11. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornøe B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Birte Tornøe,1,2,5,6 Lars L Andersen,3 Jørgen H Skotte,3 Rigmor Jensen,4 Gunvor Gard,1 Liselotte Skov,2 Inger Hallström1 1Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Scania, Sweden; 2Children's Headache Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 6Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark Background: Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children. Methods: Twenty-five healthy children, 9 to 18 years of age, participated in test-retest procedures within a 1-week interval. A computerized padded force transducer was used for testing. The tests included the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force of the dominant shoulder. Pericranial tenderness was recorded by means of standardized manual palpation, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max. The measurements were evaluated in steps, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; changes in the mean between the two test occasions; the levels of agreement, visualized in Bland

  12. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas, 1918, with simulations of hydraulic heads caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Clark, Brian R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, encompassing parts of Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee supplies an average of 5 billion gallons of water per day. However, withdrawals from the aquifer in recent years have caused considerable drawdown in the hydraulic heads in southeastern Arkansas and other areas. The effects of current ground-water withdrawals and potential future withdrawals on water availability are major concerns of water managers and users as well as the general public. A full understanding of the behavior of the aquifer under various water-use scenarios is critical for the development of viable water-management and alternative source plans. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg District, and the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission developed and calibrated a ground-water flow model for the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in southeastern Arkansas to simulate hydraulic heads caused by projected ground-water withdrawals. A previously published ground-water flow model for the alluvial aquifer in southeastern Arkansas was updated and recalibrated to reflect more current pumping stresses with additional stress periods added to bring the model forward from 1982 to 1998. The updated model was developed and calibrated with MODFLOW-2000 finite difference numerical modeling and parameter estimation software. The model was calibrated using hydraulic-head data collected during 1972 and 1982 and hydraulic-head measurements made during spring (February to April) of 1992 and 1998. The residuals for 1992 and 1998 have a mean absolute value of 4.74 and 5.45 feet, respectively, and a root mean square error of 5.9 and 6.72 feet, respectively. The effects of projected ground-water withdrawals were simulated through 2049 in three predictive scenarios by adding five additional stress periods of 10 years each. In the three scenarios

  13. "On the differentiation between trait and state food craving: Half-year retest-reliability of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S)"

    OpenAIRE

    Meule, Adrian; Beck Teran, Carina; Berker, Jasmin; Gründel, Tilman; Mayerhofer, Martina; Platte, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food. The Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs) assess food cravings on a trait and a state level. Method: The current study examined half-year retest-reliability of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) and reports associations with current food deprivation in female students. Results: The FCQ-T-r had higher retest-reliability (rtt = .74) than the...

  14. Health and usage monitoring system for the small aircraft composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Milan; Dvořák, Milan; Schmidová, Nikola; Šašek, Ladislav; Štěpánek, Martin

    2017-07-01

    This paper is focused on the design of the health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) of the composite ultra-light aircrafts. A multichannel measuring system was developed and installed for recording of the long-term operational measurements of the UL airplane. Many fiber Bragg grating sensors were implemented into the composite aircraft structure, mainly in the glue joints. More than ten other analog functions and signals of the aircraft is monitored and can be correlated together. Changing of the FBG sensors responses in monitored places and their correlations, comparing with the calibration and recalibration procedures during a monitored life may indicate damage (eg. in bonded joints) and complements the HUMS system.

  15. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, J H

    2013-01-01

    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of...... of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children.......Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim...

  16. Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the Virtual Peg Insertion Test to quantify upper limb function in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler-Ammann, Bernadette C; de Bruin, Eling D; Fluet, Marie-Christine; Lambercy, Olivier; de Bie, Rob A; Knols, Ruud H

    2016-01-22

    Measuring arm and hand function of the affected side is vital in stroke rehabilitation. Therefore, the Virtual Peg Insertion Test (VPIT), an assessment combining virtual reality and haptic feedback during a goal-oriented task derived from the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT), was developed. This study aimed to evaluate (1) the concurrent validity of key outcome measures of the VPIT, namely the execution time and the number of dropped pegs, with the NHPT and Box and Block Test (BBT), and (2) the test-retest-reliability of these parameters together with the VPIT's additional kinetic and kinematic parameters in patients with chronic stroke. The three tests were administered on 31 chronic patients with stroke in one session (concurrent validity), and the VPIT was retested in a second session 3-7 days later (test-retest reliability). Spearman rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were calculated for assessing concurrent validity, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to determine relative reliability. Bland-Altman plots were drawn and the smallest detectable difference (SDD) was calculated to examine absolute reliability. For the 31 included patients, 11 were able to perform the VPIT solely via use of their affected arm, whereas 20 patients also had to utilize support from their unaffected arm. For n = 31, the VPIT showed low correlations with the NHPT (ρ = 0.31 for time (Tex[s]); ρ = 0.21 for number of dropped pegs (Ndp)) and BBT (ρ = -0.23 for number of transported cubes (Ntc); ρ = -0.12 for number of dropped cubes (Ndc)). The test-retest reliability for the parameters Tex[s], mean grasping force (Fggo[N]), number of zero-crossings (Nzc[1/sgo/return) and mean collision force (Fcmean[N]) were good to high, with ICCs ranging from 0.83 to 0.94. Fair reliability could be found for Fgreturn (ICC = 0.75) and trajectory error (Etrajgo[cm]) (0.70). Poor reliability was measured for Etrajreturn[cm] (0.67) and Ndp (0.58). The SDDs were

  17. MicroPET imaging of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in rat brain: a test-retest [{sup 18}F]MPPF study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznavour, Nicolas [McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, QC (Canada)]|[Laboratory of Neuroenergetics and Cellular Dynamics, EPFL, SV, BMI, Lausanne (Switzerland); Benkelfat, Chawki; Gravel, Paul [McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, QC (Canada)]|[McGill University, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal, QC (Canada); Aliaga, Antonio [McGill University, Department of Small Animal Imaging Laboratory, Montreal, QC (Canada); Rosa-Neto, Pedro [Douglas Hospital, Molecular NeuroImaging Laboratory, Montreal, QC (Canada); Bedell, Barry [McGill University, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal, QC (Canada)]|[McGill University, Department of Small Animal Imaging Laboratory, Montreal, QC (Canada); Zimmer, Luc [CERMEP, ANIMAGE Department, Lyon (France)]|[Universite Lyon 1 and CNRS, Lyon (France); Descarries, Laurent [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Montreal, QC (Canada)]|[Universite de Montreal, Department of Physiology, Montreal, QC (Canada)]|[Universite de Montreal, GRSNC, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Earlier studies have shown that positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the radioligand [{sup 18}F]MPPF allows for measuring the binding potential of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine{sub 1A} (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptors in different regions of animal and human brain, including that of 5-HT{sub 1A} autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. In the present study, we sought to determine if such data could be obtained in rat, with a microPET (R4, Concorde Microsystems). Scans from isoflurane-anaesthetised rats (n = 18, including six test-retest) were co-registered with magnetic resonance imaging data, and binding potential, blood to plasma ratio and radiotracer efflux were estimated according to a simplified reference tissue model. Values of binding potential for hippocampus (1.2), entorhinal cortex (1.1), septum (1.1), medial prefrontal cortex (1.0), amygdala (0.8), raphe nuclei (0.6), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (0.5) and raphe obscurus (0.5) were comparable to those previously measured with PET in cats, non-human primates or humans. Test-retest variability was in the order of 10% in the larger brain regions (hippocampus, medial prefrontal and entorhinal cortex) and less than 20% in small nuclei such as the septum and the paraventricular hypothalamic, basolateral amygdaloid and raphe nuclei. MicroPET brain imaging of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors with [{sup 18}F]MPPF thus represents a promising avenue for investigating 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor function in rat. (orig.)

  18. A New Agility Test for Adults: Its Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change in Untrained Women and Men Aged 28-55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderoos, Sirpa A; Vaara, Mariitta E; Mäki, P Juhani; Mälkiä, Esko A; Aunola, Sirkka K; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa

    2016-08-01

    Manderoos, SA, Vaara, ME, Mäki, PJ, Mälkiä, EA, Aunola, SK, and Karppi, S-L. A new agility test for adults: its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change in untrained women and men aged 28-55. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2226-2234, 2016-The aims of this study were to present a new Agility Test for Adults (ATA), to investigate its test-retest reliability and to quantify minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval (MDC95). Both the relative and absolute reliabilities were evaluated. Altogether 52 healthy untrained volunteers (25 women: age 43.3 ± 6.6 years; 27 men: age 42.8 ± 7.2 years) were recruited into the study. The subjects performed 3 ATA tests repeated after 2 different intervals: the first test session was baseline, session 2 was a week later, and session 3 was half an hour after session 2. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM of the performance time of ATA were 0.91 and 0.27 seconds (same day), 0.94 and 0.20 seconds (1 week) for women, and 0.95, 0.13 seconds, and 0.94, 0.19 seconds for men, respectively. MDC95 was 0.76 seconds (same day) and 0.56 seconds (1 week) for women, and respectively 0.37 and 0.51 seconds for men. The results showed that ATA is stable and reliable when evaluating agility characteristics in untrained adults. The properties of ATA make it appropriate for screening people to find early signs of declined agility and allow possibility to clinicians and physical trainers to monitor true changes in performance time at agility test by applying the knowledge of MDC95 coefficient. Furthermore, ATA can give tips for planning appropriate exercise programes to prevent clumsiness and falls with more serious consequences among aging people.

  19. Habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting: Measurement test-retest reliability for the LUMOback device and preliminary evidence for slouched posture in individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    It has been difficult to monitor the pelvic position during actual daily life. However, recent developments in wearable device technologies, such as the LUMOback device, provide the possibility to evaluate habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting during daily life. The current study aimed (1) to investigate test-retest reliability for habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting with the LUMOback in individuals with prolonged low back pain (low back pain group) and without low back pain (control group), and (2) to preliminarily investigate differences in those measures between groups. Fifteen individuals in each group wore the LUMOback daily for 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated in each group by comparing the mean from the first week with the mean from the second week: (1) for the posture score, which is a proportion of time with neutral posture, and (2) for time spent sitting. The two measures for the first week were compared between the low back pain and control groups. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the posture score were .82 in the low back pain group and .91 in the control group. The intraclass correlation coefficients for time spent sitting were .75 in the low back pain group and .85 in the control group. The posture score in the low back pain group (mean ± SD: 37.5% ± 10.3%) was less than that in the control group (49.6% ± 6.0%; p  .05). The current study found (1) acceptable test-retest reliability for the posture score and time spent sitting evaluated by the LUMOback device, and (2) preliminary evidence of a difference in the posture score, indicating a more slouched lumbopelvic posture in individuals with prolonged low back pain than those without low back pain.

  20. Habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting: Measurement test–retest reliability for the LUMOback device and preliminary evidence for slouched posture in individuals with low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: It has been difficult to monitor the pelvic position during actual daily life. However, recent developments in wearable device technologies, such as the LUMOback device, provide the possibility to evaluate habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting during daily life. The current study aimed (1) to investigate test–retest reliability for habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting with the LUMOback in individuals with prolonged low back pain (low back pain group) and without low back pain (control group), and (2) to preliminarily investigate differences in those measures between groups. Methods: Fifteen individuals in each group wore the LUMOback daily for 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated in each group by comparing the mean from the first week with the mean from the second week: (1) for the posture score, which is a proportion of time with neutral posture, and (2) for time spent sitting. The two measures for the first week were compared between the low back pain and control groups. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients for the posture score were .82 in the low back pain group and .91 in the control group. The intraclass correlation coefficients for time spent sitting were .75 in the low back pain group and .85 in the control group. The posture score in the low back pain group (mean ± SD: 37.5% ± 10.3%) was less than that in the control group (49.6% ± 6.0%; p  .05). Conclusions: The current study found (1) acceptable test–retest reliability for the posture score and time spent sitting evaluated by the LUMOback device, and (2) preliminary evidence of a difference in the posture score, indicating a more slouched lumbopelvic posture in individuals with prolonged low back pain than those without low back pain. PMID:28951781

  1. A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Nelson-Wong, Erika J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals.

  2. Ultrasound measurements on acromio-humeral distance and supraspinatus tendon thickness: test-retest reliability and correlations with shoulder rotational strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Hio-Teng; Tsui, Sammi; Ying, Michael; Leung, Vivian Yee-Fong; Fu, Siu N

    2012-07-01

    To establish the test-retest reliability of ultrasound measurements on acromio-humeral distance (AHD) and supraspinatus tendon thickness; and to explore their relationships with shoulder rotational strengths. Test-retest observational study. Thirty-seven individuals (age: 21.5±1.4 years) participated in this study. Twenty-four were University volleyball players with 15 healthy and 9 players with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). Thirteen participants were healthy untrained individuals. Ultrasound measurements of AHD and supraspinatus tendon thickness were taken, and isokinetic testing of concentric shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) at a speed of 90°/s was performed. The measurement of the AHD and the supraspinatus tendon thickness indicated excellent reliability (ICC=0.922, and ICC=0.933 respectively), and the minimum detectable difference (MDD) were 2.10mm and 0.64 mm respectively. A cut-off AHD distance of 23.9 mm had a sensitivity of 0.67 and specificity of 0.71 (area under curve (AUC): 0.70; p=0.05) in identifying individuals with and without SIS. Hence, individuals with AHD larger than 23.9 mm had greater possibility of having SIS. Positive correlations were found in AHD with supraspinatus tendon thickness (r=0.36, pstrengths (r=0.47-0.62, all pstrengths. Our findings provide a scientific basis for muscle training in overhead athletes such as volleyball players. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Delineating a Retesting Zone Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis on Serial QuantiFERON Tuberculosis Test Results in US Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanassi, Wendy; Noda, Art; Newell, Jeffery; Terpeluk, Paul; Marder, David; Yesavage, Jerome A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To find a statistically significant separation point for the QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube (QFT) interferon gamma release assay that could define an optimal “retesting zone” for use in serially tested low-risk populations who have test “reversions” from initially positive to subsequently negative results. Method. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) to analyze retrospective data collected from 3 major hospitals, we searched for predictors of reversion until statistically significant separation points were revealed. A confirmatory regression analysis was performed on an additional sample. Results. In 575 initially positive US healthcare workers (HCWs), 300 (52.2%) had reversions, while 275 (47.8%) had two sequential positive tests. The most statistically significant (Kappa = 0.48, chi-square = 131.0, P < 0.001) separation point identified by the ROC for predicting reversion was the tuberculosis antigen minus-nil (TBag-nil) value at 1.11 International Units per milliliter (IU/mL). The second separation point was found at TBag-nil at 0.72 IU/mL (Kappa = 0.16, chi-square = 8.2, P < 0.01). The model was validated by the regression analysis of 287 HCWs. Conclusion. Reversion likelihood increases as the TBag-nil approaches the manufacturer's cut-point of 0.35 IU/mL. The most statistically significant separation point between those who test repeatedly positive and those who revert is 1.11 IU/mL. Clinicians should retest low-risk individuals with initial QFT results < 1.11 IU/mL. PMID:23326660

  4. Delineating a Retesting Zone Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis on Serial QuantiFERON Tuberculosis Test Results in US Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Thanassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To find a statistically significant separation point for the QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube (QFT interferon gamma release assay that could define an optimal “retesting zone” for use in serially tested low-risk populations who have test “reversions” from initially positive to subsequently negative results. Method. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC to analyze retrospective data collected from 3 major hospitals, we searched for predictors of reversion until statistically significant separation points were revealed. A confirmatory regression analysis was performed on an additional sample. Results. In 575 initially positive US healthcare workers (HCWs, 300 (52.2% had reversions, while 275 (47.8% had two sequential positive tests. The most statistically significant (Kappa = 0.48, chi-square = 131.0, P<0.001 separation point identified by the ROC for predicting reversion was the tuberculosis antigen minus-nil (TBag-nil value at 1.11 International Units per milliliter (IU/mL. The second separation point was found at TBag-nil at 0.72 IU/mL (Kappa = 0.16, chi-square = 8.2, P<0.01. The model was validated by the regression analysis of 287 HCWs. Conclusion. Reversion likelihood increases as the TBag-nil approaches the manufacturer's cut-point of 0.35 IU/mL. The most statistically significant separation point between those who test repeatedly positive and those who revert is 1.11 IU/mL. Clinicians should retest low-risk individuals with initial QFT results < 1.11 IU/mL.

  5. Test-retest reliability of myelin imaging in the human spinal cord: Measurement errors versus region- and aging-induced variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Simon; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Khatibi, Ali; Mezer, Aviv; Martinu, Kristina; Chen, Jen-I; Stikov, Nikola; Rainville, Pierre; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2018-01-01

    To implement a statistical framework for assessing the precision of several quantitative MRI metrics sensitive to myelin in the human spinal cord: T1, Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR), saturation imposed by an off-resonance pulse (MTsat) and Macromolecular Tissue Volume (MTV). Thirty-three healthy subjects within two age groups (young, elderly) were scanned at 3T. Among them, 16 underwent the protocol twice to assess repeatability. Statistical reliability indexes such as the Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were compared across metrics quantified within different cervical levels and white matter (WM) sub-regions. The differences between pathways and age groups were quantified and interpreted in context of the test-retest repeatability of the measurements. The MDC was respectively 105.7ms, 2.77%, 0.37% and 4.08% for T1, MTR, MTsat and MTV when quantified over all WM, while the standard-deviation across subjects was 70.5ms, 1.34%, 0.20% and 2.44%. Even though particular WM regions did exhibit significant differences, these differences were on the same order as test-retest errors. No significant difference was found between age groups for all metrics. While T1-based metrics (T1 and MTV) exhibited better reliability than MT-based measurements (MTR and MTsat), the observed differences between subjects or WM regions were comparable to (and often smaller than) the MDC. This makes it difficult to determine if observed changes are due to variations in myelin content, or simply due to measurement error. Measurement error remains a challenge in spinal cord myelin imaging, but this study provides statistical guidelines to standardize the field and make it possible to conduct large-scale multi-center studies.

  6. Demonstrating Test-Retest Reliability of Electrophysiological Measures for Healthy Adults in a Multisite Study of Biomarkers of Antidepressant Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen; Pechtel, Pia; Webb, Christian A.; Dillon, Daniel G.; Goer, Franziska; Murray, Laura; Deldin, Patricia; Kurian, Benji T.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Parsey, Ramin; Trivedi, Madhukar; Fava, Maurizio; Weissman, Myrna M.; McInnis, Melvin; Abraham, Karen; Alvarenga, Jorge; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Cooper, Crystal; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Bruder, Gerard E.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that loudness dependency of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) and resting EEG alpha and theta may be biological markers for predicting response to antidepressants. In spite of this promise, little is known about the joint reliability of these markers, and thus their clinical applicability. New, standardized procedures were developed to improve the compatibility of data acquired with different EEG platforms, and used to examine test-retest reliability for the three electrophysiological measures selected for a multisite project—Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response for Clinical Care (EMBARC). Thirty nine healthy controls across four clinical research sites were tested in two sessions separated by about one week. Resting EEG (eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions) was recorded and LDAEP measured using binaural tones (1000 Hz, 40 ms) at five intensities (60–100 dB SPL). Principal components analysis (PCA) of current source density (CSD) waveforms reduced volume conduction and provided reference-free measures of resting EEG alpha and N1 dipole activity to tones from auditory cortex. Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) extracted resting theta current density measures corresponding to rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), which has been implicated in treatment response. There were no significant differences in posterior alpha, N1 dipole or rACC theta across sessions. Test-retest reliability was .84 for alpha, .87 for N1 dipole, and .70 for theta rACC current density. The demonstration of good-to-excellent reliability for these measures provides a template for future EEG/ERP studies from multiple testing sites, and an important step for evaluating them as biomarkers for predicting treatment response. PMID:28000259

  7. Test-retest reliability of myelin imaging in the human spinal cord: Measurement errors versus region- and aging-induced variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Marie-Claude; Khatibi, Ali; Mezer, Aviv; Martinu, Kristina; Chen, Jen-I; Stikov, Nikola; Rainville, Pierre; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To implement a statistical framework for assessing the precision of several quantitative MRI metrics sensitive to myelin in the human spinal cord: T1, Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR), saturation imposed by an off-resonance pulse (MTsat) and Macromolecular Tissue Volume (MTV). Methods Thirty-three healthy subjects within two age groups (young, elderly) were scanned at 3T. Among them, 16 underwent the protocol twice to assess repeatability. Statistical reliability indexes such as the Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were compared across metrics quantified within different cervical levels and white matter (WM) sub-regions. The differences between pathways and age groups were quantified and interpreted in context of the test-retest repeatability of the measurements. Results The MDC was respectively 105.7ms, 2.77%, 0.37% and 4.08% for T1, MTR, MTsat and MTV when quantified over all WM, while the standard-deviation across subjects was 70.5ms, 1.34%, 0.20% and 2.44%. Even though particular WM regions did exhibit significant differences, these differences were on the same order as test-retest errors. No significant difference was found between age groups for all metrics. Conclusion While T1-based metrics (T1 and MTV) exhibited better reliability than MT-based measurements (MTR and MTsat), the observed differences between subjects or WM regions were comparable to (and often smaller than) the MDC. This makes it difficult to determine if observed changes are due to variations in myelin content, or simply due to measurement error. Measurement error remains a challenge in spinal cord myelin imaging, but this study provides statistical guidelines to standardize the field and make it possible to conduct large-scale multi-center studies. PMID:29293550

  8. Research Review: Test-retest reliability of standardized diagnostic interviews to assess child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laura; Comeau, Jinette; Wang, Li; Vitoroulis, Irene; Boyle, Michael H; Bennett, Kathryn

    2018-02-19

    A better understanding of factors contributing to the observed variability in estimates of test-retest reliability in published studies on standardized diagnostic interviews (SDI) is needed. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the pooled test-retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity in reliability. Following a systematic review of the literature, multilevel random effects meta-analyses were used to analyse 202 reliability estimates (Cohen's kappa = ҡ) from 31 eligible studies and 5,369 assessments of 3,344 children and youth. Pooled reliability was moderate at ҡ = .58 (CI 95% 0.53-0.63) and between-study heterogeneity was substantial (Q = 2,063 (df = 201), p reliability varied across informants for specific types of psychiatric disorder (ҡ = .53-.69 for parent vs. ҡ = .39-.68 for youth) with estimates significantly higher for parents on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and the broad groupings of externalizing and any disorder. Reliability was also significantly higher in studies with indicators of poor or fair study methodology quality (sample size reliability of SDIs and the usefulness of these tools in both clinical and research contexts. Potential remedies include the introduction of standardized study and reporting requirements for reliability studies, and exploration of other approaches to assessing and classifying child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test as a measure of the mobility of wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Karen L; Huff, Kara; Wee, Joy

    2017-01-01

    The Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test (AWMT) was developed for use in a repeated measures format to provide comparative effectiveness data on mobility facilitated by different wheelchair types. It has been used in preliminary studies to compare the mobility of wheelchairs designed for low-resource areas and is intended to be simple and flexible enough so as to be used in low-technology settings. However, to reliably compare the impact of different types of wheelchairs on the mobility of users, a measure must first be a reliable and valid measure of mobility. This study investigated the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity for the AWMT 2.0 as a measure of mobility. For reliability testing, participants in a low-resource setting completed the tests twice in their own wheelchairs at least one week apart. For concurrent validity, participants also completed the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q), a related but not identical validated assessment tool. Concurrent validity was indicated by a significant positive correlation with an r value of 0.7 between the WST-Q capacity score and the AWMT 2.0 score. Test-retest reliability was confirmed by an intraclass correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 between the two trials. Results support the preliminary reliability and validity of the AWMT 2.0, supporting its effectiveness in comparing the mobility provided by different wheelchair types. This information can be used to enable effective use of limited funds for wheelchair selection at individual and organisational scales.