WorldWideScience

Sample records for system perspective approach

  1. Systems Approaches: A Global and Historical Perspective on Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of healing systems is a dance of cultural awareness and cultural dominance that has arisen throughout history. With the development of greater communication and interest in whole-systems approaches to healing, the opportunity for the development of a global perspective on healing has emerged with new life force. The birth of integrative holistic healing systems in the West, such as naturopathic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, integral and functional medicine, and others, echoes the ocean of wisdom present in traditional healing systems, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. In working to integrate the lessons from these systems, we see the inextricable link between man and the natural world, we work to understand the root cause of disease, we focus on the whole person to return balance, and we use empiric observation in large populations over time to grasp the interrelationships inherent in the whole-systems view of illness and wellness. PMID:24278794

  2. Systemic Approach to Safety from a Regulatory Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edland, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden and especially in the Swedish oversight of nuclear power plants there has been a strong commitment to the interactions between Man-Technology-Organization (MTO) for many years. Safety issues and the importance of working with these issues have often been highlighted in specific oversight actions. Since 30 years there has been a tradition and a development of experience in Sweden taking a systemic MTO approach to safety. Inspection teams have been created with both psychologists and technical expertise in order to cover the whole MTO perspective during oversight inspections at the nuclear power plants. Safety is based on preventive actions where both technology and human behaviour are taken into account. To do this, it is important to have knowledge about the different factors that influence the performance of individuals, groups and organizations. However, it is also important to remember to not only discuss humans, management and organizations in terms of their limitations, errors and shortcomings but also in terms of their strengths in stopping a chain of events, in learning, inventing and improving. Having an integrated view of safety, focussing on the relations between human, technology and organization (MTO) refers to a systemic perspective on how radiation safety are affected by the relationship between: Human’s abilities and limitations; Technical equipment and the surrounding environment; The organization and the opportunities this provides. The Section of Man-Technology-Organization in the Swedish authority consist today of 12 Human factors specialists with behaviour science education. The section is responsible for the oversight at nuclear power plants in many areas; safety management, leadership and organization, safety culture, competence assurance, fitness for duty, suitability, education and staffing, knowledge management, working conditions, MTO perspective/ergonomics of control room work and plant modification, incident analysis and risk

  3. Extremism from the perspective of a system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extremism is seen as a complex, multilevel, and multicomponent phenomenon. The problems of modern science in understanding extremism are revealed. The following bases of extremism as a system phenomenon are singled out: social factors, latent extremism, and extremist acts. It is demonstrated that a system approach makes it possible to shape a notion of a subject as a system, to identify patterns of the manifestations of the given phenomenon, and to translate them into concrete practices.

  4. Beyond the Systems Approach to Family Therapy: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Paul R.; Griffith, Mariellen

    A brief review of systems theory provides a rationale for an underlying theoretical model within which systems theory can be more completely understood. The essence of the model is that persons are the major unit of study because the available means of satisfying "basic needs" define and shape interaction patterns in the family as in other human…

  5. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Wyss, Kaspar; de Savigny, Don

    2011-12-02

    As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.

  6. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen-Lopez Inez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.

  7. Health care multidisciplinary teams: The sociotechnical approach for an integrated system-wide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilio, Marta; Torbica, Aleksandra; Villa, Stefano

    The current literature on the enabling conditions of multidisciplinary teams focuses on the singular dimensions of the organizations (i.e., human resources, clinical pathways, objects) without shedding light on to the way in which these organizational factors interact and mutually influence one another. Drawing on a system perspective of organizations, the authors analyze the organizational patterns that promote and support multidisciplinary teams and how they interrelate and interact to enforce the organization work system. The authors develop a modified sociotechnical system (STS) model to understand how the two dimensions of technical (devices/tools, layout/organization of space, core process standardization) and social (organizational structure, management of human resources and operations) can facilitate the implementation of multidisciplinary teams in health care. The study conducts an empirical analysis based on a sample of hospital adopters of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the revised STS model. The modified STS model applied to the case studies improves our understanding of the critical implementation factors of a multidisciplinary approach and the importance of coordinating radical changes in the technical and the social subsystems of health care organizations. The analysis informs that the multidisciplinary effort is not a sequential process and that the interplay between the two subsystems needs to be managed efficaciously as an integrated organizational whole to deliver the goals set. Hospital managers must place equal focus on the closely interrelated technical and social dimensions by investing in (a) shared layouts and spaces that cross the boundaries of the specialized health care units, (b) standardization of the core processes through the implementation of local clinical pathways, (c) structured knowledge management mechanisms, (d) the creation of clinical directorates, and (e) the design of a planning and budgeting system that

  8. A Simulation-Based Approach for Teaching the Systems Perspective of Strategic Performance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, Carlos; Lopes, Ana; Mata, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Kaplan and Norton introduced the balanced scorecard (BSC), which is based on a systems perspective of the business strategy and performance measurement. Many organisations around the world use the BSC to define, implement and manage strategy. Nevertheless, there are studies that identify problems and limitations associated with the implementation…

  9. Systems for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs, new approaches and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halahakoon Mudiyanselage Amila Jeewantha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Great perspectives in the field of drug therapy are currently associated with the targeted delivery of drugs to the organ, tissue or cells. Drug delivery systems (DDS play a key role in enhancing the quality of chemotherapy in cancer disease. The intense interest in the topic of chemotherapy is the development of novel methods of drug delivery. The success of anti-tumor chemotherapy significantly dependends on the ability of therapeutic substances to achieve its target as well as minimal accumulation in non-specific sites (healthy organs and tissues. According to that, splendid perspectives in the field of chemotherapy are currently associated with the targeted delivery of drugs to the organs, tissues or cells. The essence of targeted delivery is that the drug itself, but more often a means of delivery systems (the vector, containers, and others. modified by molecules, which can be identified by a unique receptor on cells or target sites. Then they are called “targeted drug delivery systems”. At the same time, the engineering of multifunctional nanocarriers with several useful properties in one carrier (nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, and others. can significantly enhance the efficacy of many therapeutic and diagnostic protocols. In this article, summarize the accumulated information about potential possibilities of DDS, and the practical applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  10. APPROACHING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE SYSTEMIC VIEW ON THE LOCAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru BOTEZAT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available After the first theories of the local development (congestion and scale effects, the contemporary socio–economical sciences have refined the concept and added to the equation of the regional development a more complex variable: the local system seen as a whole. To be more precise, by this method the analysis regards not only the regional variables as factors which determine or influence a certain trajectory of the development (as in the Marshall case, but also the variable becomes the local system itself characterized by unity and its own dynamic. The economics owes this systemic approach to a more general philosophy which emerged within the social sciences. This is why, in order to understand the concept of local system from the economic point of view, we need to situate it in a wider profile of the systemic approach within the social sciences. This paper attempts to connect the arguments proposed by systemic analysis, a fashionable topic in the mainstream of the ’80 years of the previous century with the contemporary strategic approach towards regional development.

  11. Multiple perspectives approach as a framework to analyse social systems in a developing country context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turpin, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available , and needs to be translated into a method. In both cases, methods were tried out to generate Multiple Perspectives on a problem situation, namely technical, organisational, personal, ethical and aesthetic perspectives. In the second case, the use of a group...

  12. Engineering of microorganisms for the production of biofuels and perspectives based on systems metabolic engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Park, Jong Myoung; Choi, Sol; Choi, Yong Jun; Seung, Do Young; Cho, Jung Hee; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-01-01

    The increasing oil price and environmental concerns caused by the use of fossil fuel have renewed our interest in utilizing biomass as a sustainable resource for the production of biofuel. It is however essential to develop high performance microbes that are capable of producing biofuels with very high efficiency in order to compete with the fossil fuel. Recently, the strategies for developing microbial strains by systems metabolic engineering, which can be considered as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology and synthetic biology, have been developed. Systems metabolic engineering allows successful development of microbes that are capable of producing several different biofuels including bioethanol, biobutanol, alkane, and biodiesel, and even hydrogen. In this review, the approaches employed to develop efficient biofuel producers by metabolic engineering and systems metabolic engineering approaches are reviewed with relevant example cases. It is expected that systems metabolic engineering will be employed as an essential strategy for the development of microbial strains for industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspective on Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) - Attempt of a Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meynen, F.

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will raise questions concerning current conceptions and practices related to human and organizational factors and will focus on the need of a more systemic view and approaches in the nuclear industry. In practice, attention is often focused unilaterally on technical aspects, neglecting the interactions and interfaces between the organization, the people and the technology. The work in the different areas takes place with different approaches, based on different technical backgrounds but also on different cultures of the country, the company, the plant, etc. Also within the concept of defence-in-depth the attention normally lies on the technical safety levels, although similar provisions exist in the organizational field. While the technical systems are always evolving and their reliability increases, the question of their implications for the organizations and the people who work with these systems is not always analysed in depth. Also, it should not be focused only on the staff in the control room. Attention must be directed also to the support organizations (maintenance, analysis, monitoring, etc.) and to the manufacturer, which play a significant and sometimes underestimated role in the overall system as well. Further, there is a tendency to reduce the complexity by looking at individual aspects such as “safety culture”, “resilience”, “management systems”, “training”, “organizational structure”, etc., often without going beyond into a systemic approach. This requires the involvement of all different disciplines. Hence, dealing with the issue of HOF also means creating a basis to understand the complexity of the interactions between human, organizational and technical aspects. For this a very good knowledge and solid experience in these different fields are required. The presentation will give some examples from other industries and the three major nuclear accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima as an

  14. Perspective in systemic family therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Burgund, Anita; Hrnčić, Jasna; Nastasić, Petar

    2011-01-01

    The article presents a development of the systemic family approach as theoretical and therapeutic frame that considers client in relations to gender roles. Structural and strategic family therapy, symbolic-experimental and contextual model developed within systemic family approach are discussed in the view of gender perspective, through its theoretical concepts as well as through therapeutic interventions. Feminist ideas had considerable influence on further development of family therapy. Pos...

  15. Nurses' Satisfaction With Using Nursing Information Systems From Technology Acceptance Model and Information Systems Success Model Perspectives: A Reductionist Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Nursing information systems can enhance nursing practice and the efficiency and quality of administrative affairs within the nursing department and thus have been widely considered for implementation. Close alignment of human-computer interaction can advance optimal clinical performance with the use of information systems. However, a lack of introduction of the concept of alignment between users' perceptions and technological functionality has caused dissatisfaction, as shown in the existing literature. This study provides insight into the alignment between nurses' perceptions and how technological functionality affects their satisfaction with Nursing Information System use through a reductionist perspective of alignment. This cross-sectional study collected data from 531 registered nurses in Taiwan. The results indicated that "perceived usefulness in system quality alignment," "perceived usefulness in information quality alignment," "perceived ease of use in system quality alignment," "perceived ease of use in information quality alignment," and "perceived ease of use in service quality alignment" have significantly affected nurses' satisfaction with Nursing Information System use. However, "perceived usefulness in service quality alignment" had no significant effect on nurses' satisfaction. This study also provides some meaningful implications for theoretical and practical aspects of design.

  16. Safety Management Characteristics Reflected in Interviews at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants: A System Perspective Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, Ilkka

    2005-12-01

    ought to be explored further. Future research in the areas of: (a) outsourcing; (b) system theoretical integration of MTO features at a unitary level of abstraction, exemplified in relation to the development of organizational safety indicators; and (c) new approaches to organizational optimization in contrast to traditional restructuring, were suggested and discussed

  17. Mental health research in the criminal justice system: The need for common approaches and international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, R; Ogloff, J R; Eaves, D

    1995-01-01

    There is a need for researchers and policy makers in the area of mental health and law to collaborate and develop common methods of approach to research. Although we have learned a great deal about the prevalence and needs of mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons, there are a number of research questions that remain. If the "second generation" of research is to be fruitful--and useful to policy makers--we need to be sure that the methods we employ are valid and that the findings we obtain are reliable. By collaborating with colleagues in other jurisdictions, we can begin to learn whether some of the existing findings are of a general nature, or dependent upon the system in which they were found. Similarly, while the first-generation research has alerted us to the needs of mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons, second-generation research is needed to help identify factors that may help prevent the "revolving door phenomenon," which results in mentally ill people being volleyed among mental health, criminal justice, and community settings. One area that has received embarrassingly little attention has been the need for considering the relationship between substance abuse and mental disorders. In our own work, we have found an alarmingly high degree of substance abuse among offenders, including mentally ill offenders. We have come to realize the importance of considering the role that substance abuse coupled with other mental disorders may play in the criminal justice system. As a result of this concern, the Surrey Mental Health Project recently hired a full-time drug and alcohol counselor whose job it is to work with inmates with substance abuse disorders while in the jail, and to help arrange continuing treatment resources upon their release. As Wilson et al. (1995) discuss, intensive case management projects may be particularly useful at targeting the unique needs of mentally ill offenders with multiple problems. Much of the research conducted with

  18. Safety Management Characteristics Reflected in Interviews at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants: A System Perspective Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Ilkka (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2005-12-15

    that the area ought to be explored further. Future research in the areas of: (a) outsourcing; (b) system theoretical integration of MTO features at a unitary level of abstraction, exemplified in relation to the development of organizational safety indicators; and (c) new approaches to organizational optimization in contrast to traditional restructuring, were suggested and discussed

  19. Informatics Metrics and Measures for a Smart Public Health Systems Approach: Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jay Carney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health informatics is an evolving domain in which practices constantly change to meet the demands of a highly complex public health and healthcare delivery system. Given the emergence of various concepts, such as learning health systems, smart health systems, and adaptive complex health systems, health informatics professionals would benefit from a common set of measures and capabilities to inform our modeling, measuring, and managing of health system “smartness.” Here, we introduce the concepts of organizational complexity, problem/issue complexity, and situational awareness as three codependent drivers of smart public health systems characteristics. We also propose seven smart public health systems measures and capabilities that are important in a public health informatics professional’s toolkit.

  20. Informatics Metrics and Measures for a Smart Public Health Systems Approach: Information Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Timothy Jay; Shea, Christopher Michael

    2017-01-01

    Public health informatics is an evolving domain in which practices constantly change to meet the demands of a highly complex public health and healthcare delivery system. Given the emergence of various concepts, such as learning health systems, smart health systems, and adaptive complex health systems, health informatics professionals would benefit from a common set of measures and capabilities to inform our modeling, measuring, and managing of health system "smartness." Here, we introduce the concepts of organizational complexity, problem/issue complexity, and situational awareness as three codependent drivers of smart public health systems characteristics. We also propose seven smart public health systems measures and capabilities that are important in a public health informatics professional's toolkit.

  1. Histaminergic system in brain disorders: lessons from the translational approach and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Diego; Gonchoroski, Taylor; Castro, Kamila; Zanatta, Geancarlo; Gottfried, Carmem; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2014-01-01

    Histamine and its receptors were first described as part of immune and gastrointestinal systems, but their presence in the central nervous system and importance in behavior are gaining more attention. The histaminergic system modulates different processes including wakefulness, feeding, and learning and memory consolidation. Histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R) belong to the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors, present constitutive activity, and are subjected to inverse agonist action. The involvement of the histaminergic system in brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, drug dependence, and Parkinson's disease, is largely studied. Data obtained from preclinical studies point antagonists of histamine receptors as promising alternatives to treat brain disorders. Thus, clinical trials are currently ongoing to assess the effects of these drugs on humans. This review summarizes the role of histaminergic system in brain disorders, as well as the effects of different histamine antagonists on animal models and humans.

  2. A multi-perspective approach for the design of product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for building a product configuration system. The procedure includes, at the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes, which are to be supported with product configuration systems. The next phase includes an analysis of the product assortment......, and the set up of a so-called product variant master. Finally, the product configuration system is designed and implemented using object-oriented modeling. The procedure has been tested at a Danish company making electronic switchboards with positive results....

  3. A multi-perspective approach for the design of product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for building a product configuration system. The procedure includes, at the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes, which are to be supported with product configuration systems. The next phase includes an analysis of the product assortmen......, and the set up of a so-called product variant master. Finally, the product configuration system is designed and implemented using object-oriented modeling. The procedure has been tested at a Danish company making electronic switchboards with positive results....

  4. A multi perspective approach for the design of product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    , and the set up of a so-called product variant master. Finally the product configuration system is designed and implemented using object oriented modeling. The procedure has been tested in several companies. This article includes the experiences from the most recent project, which has been carried out at Demex...

  5. Multiple Perspective Approach for the Development of Information Systems Based on Advanced Mathematical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    to observe and analyze the workings of a development project. I have been working as part of the team assembled for the development of the information system based on AMM for a period of three years. My active participation in the development project granted me access to all the actors involved. In my role I...... through negotiation and democratic decision making will it be possible for the team members to have their current weltanschauung represented in decision making. Thirdly, geographical distribution and loose coupling foster individualist rather than group behavior. The more the social tissue is disconnected...... of the technology, the development team was formed by individuals from both universities and the private sector. The organization of the development team was geographically distributed and loosely coupled. The development of information systems has always been a difficult activity and the records show a remarkable...

  6. Consistency from the perspective of an experimental systems approach to the sciences and their epistemic objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Rheinberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the development of the modern sciences is rooted in experiment. Yet for a long time, experimentation did not occupy a prominent role, neither in philosophy nor in history of science. With the 'practical turn' in studying the sciences and their history, this has begun to change. This paper is concerned with systems and cultures of experimentation and the consistencies that are generated within such systems and cultures. The first part of the paper exposes the forms of historical and structural coherence that characterize the experimental exploration of epistemic objects. In the second part, a particular experimental culture in the life sciences is briefly described as an example. A survey will be given of what it means and what it takes to analyze biological functions in the test tube.

  7. Management of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro-Checa, César; Zirkzee, Elisabeth J; Huizinga, Tom W; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a generic definition referring to a series of neurological and psychiatric symptoms directly related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). NPSLE includes heterogeneous and rare neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system. Due to the lack of a gold standard, the attribution of NP symptoms to SLE represents a clinical challenge that obligates the strict exclusion of any other potential cause. In the acute setting, management of these patients does not differ from other non-SLE subjects presenting with the same NP manifestation. Afterwards, an individualized therapeutic strategy, depending on the presenting manifestation and severity of symptoms, must be started. Clinical trials in NPSLE are scarce and most of the data are extracted from case series and case reports. High-dose glucocorticoids and intravenous cyclophosphamide remain the cornerstone for patients with severe symptoms that are thought to reflect inflammation or an underlying autoimmune process. Rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins, or plasmapheresis may be used if response is not achieved. When patients present with mild to moderate NP manifestations, or when maintenance therapy is warranted, azathioprine and mycophenolate may be considered. When symptoms are thought to reflect a thrombotic underlying process, anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of therapy, especially if antiphospholipid antibodies or antiphospholipid syndrome are present. Recent trials on SLE using new biologicals, based on newly understood SLE mechanisms, have shown promising results. Based on what we currently know about its pathogenesis, it is tempting to speculate how these new therapies may affect the management of NPSLE patients. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of NPSLE. We describe the most

  8. The Ubiquitous-Eco-City of Songdo: An Urban Systems Perspective on South Korea's Green City Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Mullins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, within the broader context of studies on smart cities, there has been a growing body of academic research on networked cities and “computable cities” by authors including Manuel Castells (Castells, 1989; Castells & Cardoso, 2005, William Mitchell (1995, Michael Batty (2005, 2013, and Rob Kitchin (2011. Over the last decade, governments in Asia have displayed an appetite and commitment to construct large scale city developments from scratch—one of the most infamous being the smart entrepreneurial city of Songdo, South Korea. Using Songdo as a case study, this paper will examine, from an urban systems perspective, some of the challenges of using a green-city model led by networked technology. More specifically, this study intends to add to the growing body of smart city literature by using an external global event—the global financial crisis in 2008—to reveal what is missing from the smart city narrative in Songdo. The paper will use the definition of an urban system and internal subsystems by Bertuglia et al. (1987 and Bertuglia, Clarke and Wilson (1994 to reveal the sensitivity and resilience of a predetermined smart city narrative. For instance, what happens if the vision moves from the originally intended international-orientated population towards remarketing the city to attract a domestic middle-class population. The lens of the financial crisis in 2008 revealed that the inherent inflexibility of a closed-system approach in Songdo was not sufficiently resilient to external shocks. The shift towards a domestic middle-class population revealed the inequality in accessing the city services in a system designed with formalized and rigid inputs and outputs. By focusing predominantly on technology, the social dimensions of the city were not part of Songdo’s smart city vocabulary. Therefore, in adopting a technologically deterministic approach (Mullins & Shwayri, 2016 to achieving efficiency and combating environmental

  9. A new technology perspective and engineering tools approach for large, complex and distributed mission and safety critical systems components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrio, Miguel A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Rapidly emerging technology and methodologies have out-paced the systems development processes' ability to use them effectively, if at all. At the same time, the tools used to build systems are becoming obsolescent themselves as a consequence of the same technology lag that plagues systems development. The net result is that systems development activities have not been able to take advantage of available technology and have become equally dependent on aging and ineffective computer-aided engineering tools. New methods and tools approaches are essential if the demands of non-stop and Mission and Safety Critical (MASC) components are to be met.

  10. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  11. System approaches to study root hairs as a single cell plant model: current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shakhawat eHossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of plant functional genomics derives primarily from measurements of gene, protein and/or metabolite levels averaged over the whole plant or multicellular tissues. These approaches risk diluting the response of specific cells that might respond strongly to the treatment but whose signal is diluted by the larger proportion of non-responding cells. For example, if a gene is expressed at a low level, does this mean that it is indeed lowly expressed or is it highly expressed, but only in a few cells? In order to avoid these issues, we adopted the soybean root hair cell, derived from a single, differentiated root epidermal cell, as a single-cell model for functional genomics. Root hair cells are intrinsically interesting since they are major conduits for root water and nutrient uptake and are also the preferred site of infection by nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria. Although a variety of other approaches have been used to study single plant cells or single cell types, the root hair system is perhaps unique in allowing application of the full repertoire of functional genomic and biochemical approaches. In this mini review, we summarize our published work and place this within the broader context of root biology, with a significant focus on understanding the initial events in the soybean-rhizobium interaction.

  12. Computer systems a programmer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, Randal E

    2016-01-01

    Computer systems: A Programmer’s Perspective explains the underlying elements common among all computer systems and how they affect general application performance. Written from the programmer’s perspective, this book strives to teach readers how understanding basic elements of computer systems and executing real practice can lead them to create better programs. Spanning across computer science themes such as hardware architecture, the operating system, and systems software, the Third Edition serves as a comprehensive introduction to programming. This book strives to create programmers who understand all elements of computer systems and will be able to engage in any application of the field--from fixing faulty software, to writing more capable programs, to avoiding common flaws. It lays the groundwork for readers to delve into more intensive topics such as computer architecture, embedded systems, and cybersecurity. This book focuses on systems that execute an x86-64 machine code, and recommends th...

  13. Product Service Systems and Non-Market Oriented Approach – Methodological and Ethical Considerations from a Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Jonas, Wolfgang; Munch, Juliane

    2008-01-01

    Macroscopic social and economic changes in the last few years are forcing business companies and public institutions to redefine their approach to social intervention, focusing on local and highly individualised solutions. This change is also calling for a new design approach. The challenge...

  14. Psychometric perspectives on diagnostic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.

    2008-01-01

    The author identifies four conceptualizations of the relation between symptoms and disorders as utilized in diagnostic systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): A constructivist perspective, which holds

  15. A multi-disciplinary approach to assess individual readiness for organisational change in enterprise system implementations : a human perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Susan Valerie

    2017-01-01

    One primary concern identified by researchers in the enterprise system and organisational change literature, involves users' behaviour when engaging with new systems. This behaviour has a flow¬on effect and has been shown to impact on large-scale change, compromising project and business success. The degree of benefit obtained from an implementation of an enterprise system is predicated on how well users accept and use a new system. By studying user behaviour in ERP implementations, the o...

  16. A multi-perspective approach for the design of Product Configuration Systems - an evaluation of industry applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    , a de-marcation and definition of the configuration system to be designed. • Analysis and modelling of the part of the company’s product assortment which is to be included in the con-figuration system. • Selection of configuration software and programming of the configuration system. • Implementation......This article presents a suggested procedure for modelling and implementation of product configuration systems. The procedure has been applied in several industrial companies. The procedure comprises: • Analysis of the business processes to be supported by a product configuration system. Furthermore....... The procedure or certain parts of the procedure have currently been tested and further developed in cooperation with a number of industrial companies including F.L.Smidth, American Power Conversion (APC), Aalborg industries, NEG-Micon, GEA-Niro and IBM-SMS. This paper presents the experiences gained from 4...

  17. Comparative Models of Capitalism in the Areas of Financial System and Corporate Governance – the Diversity of Capitalism Approach Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pisany Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and assesses the methodology and results of a comparative analysis conducted by Bruno Amable in financial systems and corporate governance in the context of current policy and regulatory challenges. The article, which is based on a literature review and game theory examples, first describes and evaluates the methodology and final classification given by Amable. The role of Amable’s core concept; namely, institutional complementarity, is underlined. A game theory applicat...

  18. System level approaches for mainstreaming tobacco control into existing health programs in India: Perspectives from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world, and varieties of both smoked and smokeless tobacco products are widely available. The national program for tobacco control is run like a vertical stand-alone program. There is a lack of understanding of existing opportunities and barriers within the health programs that influence the integration of tobacco control messages into them. The present formative research identifies such opportunities and barriers. Methods: We conducted a multi-step, mixed methodological study of primary care personnel and policy-makers in two Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate health worker and policy-maker perceptions on the integration of tobacco control intervention. We systematically collected data in three steps: In Step I, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions with primary care health personnel, Step II consists of a quantitative survey among health care providers (n = 1457 to test knowledge, attitudes and practices in tobacco control and Step III we conducted 75 IDIs with program heads and policy-makers to evaluate the relative congruence of their views on integration of the tobacco control program. Results: Majority of the health care providers recognized tobacco use as a major health problem. There was a general consensus for the need of training for effective dissemination of information from health care providers to patients. Almost 92% of the respondents opined that integration of tobacco control with other health programs will be highly effective to downscale the tobacco epidemic. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for integration of tobacco control program into existing health programs. Integration of tobacco control strategies into the health care system within primary and secondary care will be more effective and counseling for tobacco cessation should be available for population

  19. Computer Networks A Systems Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Larry L

    2011-01-01

    This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

  20. Haptic teleoperation systems signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae-young

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the signal processing perspective in haptic teleoperation systems. This text covers the topics of prediction, estimation, architecture, data compression, and error correction that can be applied to haptic teleoperation systems. The authors begin with an overview of haptic teleoperation systems, then look at a Bayesian approach to haptic teleoperation systems. They move onto a discussion of haptic data compression, haptic data digitization and forward error correction.   ·         Presents haptic data prediction/estimation methods that compensate for unreliable networks   ·         Discusses haptic data compression that reduces haptic data size over limited network bandwidth and haptic data error correction that compensate for packet loss problem   ·         Provides signal processing techniques used with existing control architectures.

  1. An Automated Approach to Reasoning Under Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBessonet, Cary

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report with emphasis on research during the last term. The context for the research has been the development of an automated reasoning technology for use in SMS (symbolic Manipulation System), a system used to build and query knowledge bases (KBs) using a special knowledge representation language SL (Symbolic Language). SMS interpreters assertive SL input and enters the results as components of its universe. The system operates in two basic models: 1) constructive mode (for building KBs); and 2) query/search mode (for querying KBs). Query satisfaction consists of matching query components with KB components. The system allows "penumbral matches," that is, matches that do not exactly meet the specifications of the query, but which are deemed relevant for the conversational context. If the user wants to know whether SMS has information that holds, say, for "any chow," the scope of relevancy might be set so that the system would respond based on a finding that it has information that holds for "most dogs," although this is not exactly what was called for by the query. The response would be qualified accordingly, as would normally be the case in ordinary human conversation. The general goal of the research was to develop an approach by which assertive content could be interpreted from multiple perspectives so that reasoning operations could be successfully conducted over the results. The interpretation of an SL statement such as, "{person believes [captain (asserted (perhaps)) (astronaut saw (comet (bright)))]}," which in English would amount to asserting something to the effect that, "Some person believes that a captain perhaps asserted that an astronaut saw a bright comet," would require the recognition of multiple perspectives, including some that are: a) epistemically-based (focusing on "believes"); b) assertion-based (focusing on "asserted"); c) perception-based (focusing on "saw"); d) adjectivally-based (focusing on "bight"); and e) modally

  2. Complexions of Iterative Information Systems Development Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    There is an abundance of methodologies and approaches of information Systems Development (ISD) Processes. We use the concept of complexions of development processes and Technology Use Mediation (TUM) from a client perspective to show how an instance of a planned project in the prehospital sector...

  3. Vascular dementia: Pharmacological treatment approaches and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Baskys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrius Baskys1,3, Anthony C Hou21Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; 2Program in Geriatrics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California; 3Memory Disorders Program, VA Health Care System Long Beach, Long Beach, California, USAAbstract: Vascular dementia is a common condition for which there are no effective approved pharmacological treatments available. Absence of effective treatments creates a difficult situation for those suffering from the disease, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. This review will address our current understanding of the mechanisms of nerve cell damage due to ischemia and summarize available clinical trial data on several commonly used compounds including memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDPcholine, folic acid, as well as such nonpharmacological approaches as validation therapy.Keywords: vascular dementia, excitotoxicity, treatment, NMDA, memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDP-choline, folic acid

  4. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  5. Electronics a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Storey, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Electronics plays a central role in our everyday lives. It is at the heart of almost all of today's essential technology, from mobile phones to computers and from cars to power stations. As such, all engineers, scientists and technologists need to have a fundamental understanding of this exciting subject, and for many this will just be the beginning. Now in its sixth edition, Electronics: A Systems Approach provides an outstanding introduction to this fast-moving and important field. Comprehensively revised and updated to cover the latest developments in the world of electronics, the text continues to use Neil Storey's established and well-respected systems approach. It introduces the basic concepts first before progressing to a more advanced analysis, enabling you to contextualise what a system is designed to achieve before tackling the intricacies of designing or analysing its various components with confidence. This book is accompanied by a website which contains over 100 video tutorials to help explain ke...

  6. Multimorbidity: a sociological perspective of systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christine; Peterson, Chris L

    2017-02-01

    There has been a great tradition of looking at health and illness from a systems perspective. For clinicians and people with illnesses a lot can be gained by mapping the interface of different sectors to understand the nature of conditions. This paper aims to use Sturmberg et als. paper as a stepping off point to present a sociological approach to understanding multimorbidities and gain insights into the illness experience of these people in the greater social system of health and illness. Parsons' sick role provides a useful systems concept through which we can understand the role of doctors and the experience of illness as social, beyond the personal. We also use Bourdieu's concept of habitas and of structure and agency to make sense of multimorbidities being social, economic and a broader part of experiencing social systems. We posit that one option for people coping with multiple conditions is to change identity. We also examine the doctor and patient encounter for mutlimorbidities as being problematic as it forces attention on competence and responsibility in that continuing encounter. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The quality systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, D E

    1999-07-01

    Health care as an industry is going through an evolution similar to that experienced by manufacturing and other service sectors of the world economy. When competition threatens, the traditional management approach is slash-and-burn to manage costs. This approach affects people, services, and facilities. When the slash-and-burn method runs out of fuel, organizations start to merge, thinking that bigger is better. Just getting bigger only looks like change, with a new cast of fewer people and organizational structure. The root cause for existing problems has not been fixed. The only real solution, as manufacturing and services learned, is to understand and improve work processes to ensure that the right work is being done in a high-quality manner and at a competitive price. The era of quality systems is just dawning in health care. The focus must remain on quality patient outcomes at a competitive price by improving supporting systems and processes to accomplish these goals.

  8. The frontotemporal (pterional) approach: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Tamer; Couldwell, William T

    2012-08-01

    The frontotemporal, so-called pterional, approach has evolved with the contribution of many neurosurgeons over the past century. It has stood the test of time and has been the most commonly used transcranial approach in neurosurgery. In its current form, drilling the sphenoid wing as far down as the superior orbital fissure with or without the removal of the anterior clinoid, thinning the orbital roof, and opening the Sylvian fissure and basal cisterns are the hallmarks of this approach. Tumoral and vascular lesions involving the sellar/parasellar area, anterior and anterolateral circle of Willis, middle cerebral artery, anterior brainstem, upper basilar artery, insula, basal ganglia, mesial temporal region, anterior cranial fossa, orbit, and optic nerve are within the reach of the frontotemporal approach. In this article, we review the origins, evolution, and modifications of the frontotemporal approach and update the discussion of some of the related derivative procedures.

  9. Perspectives on digital computational systems as aesthetic artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Luísa Ribas

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the study of digital computational systems as aesthetic artifacts seeking to provide instruments for their analysis and critical understanding. What this aim implies is the need to articulate complementary perspectives for considering not only their specificity as digital computational (software-driven) systems, but also the different aesthetic intents that drive the creation of these artifacts, as well as the kinds of experience they propose. This approach entails articu...

  10. The Dutch Healthcare System in International Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkers, Misja

    2016-01-01

    In this address, important aspects of the Dutch system of managed competition are discussed from the economic perspective, highlighting both its merits and the major challenges posed by the development of this system. Reasons for government intervention in healthcare markets are provided, and the

  11. [Systemic biopsychological perspective of basic emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Benoît

    the peripheral nervous system. The latter is divided into two: the sympathetic (norepinephrine) that accelerates the motor response and the parasympathetic (acetylcholine), which slows it down. These two systems work in tandem. As for the second release of information, it is endocrine, thus it will follow the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to cortisol, the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to endorphin and oxytocin and the hypothalamus-pineal axis to melatonin. The different emotional behaviours result from one of these two sources of information or from a combination of these two and are then managed by the limbic system, which is in continuous connection with the neocortex.In short, no specific centre totally controls human behaviour. Control is achieved through a group of brain structures and relays, permitting adaptive behaviour and maintenance of balance by means of permanent exchanges. Anger, for instance, is a survival emotion, which allows protecting one's physical integrity. It is very useful as an immediate response in an emergency situation, but it can also be harmful if it is used extensively in all situations, giving way to conduct disorders. Thus, the other neurohormonal circuits will regulate anger.Emotions are an integral part of human behaviour. They allow the individual to constantly adapt to the physical and social environment. This approach brings a new perspective to understand how each person maintains balance to avoid the onset of clinical disorders. The understanding of neurochemical mechanisms underlying basic emotions opens up the door to several clinical applications.

  12. Approaches to Inquiry Teaching: Elementary teacher's perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Joseph; Watters, James J.; Lunn Brownlee, J.; Lupton, Mandy

    2014-07-01

    Learning science through the process of inquiry is advocated in curriculum documents across many jurisdictions. However, a number of studies suggest that teachers struggle to help students engage in inquiry practices. This is not surprising as many teachers of science have not engaged in scientific inquiry and possibly hold naïve ideas about what constitutes scientific inquiry. This study investigates teachers' self-reported approaches to teaching science through inquiry. Phenomenographic interviews undertaken with 20 elementary teachers revealed teachers identified six approaches to teaching for inquiry, clustered within three categories. These approaches were categorized as Free and Illustrated Inquiries as part of an Experience-centered category, Solution and Method Inquiries as part of a Problem-centered category, and Topic and Chaperoned Inquiries as part of a Question-centered category. This study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how teachers approach Inquiry Teaching and suggests fertile areas of future research into this valued and influential phenomenon broadly known as 'Inquiry Teaching'.

  13. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper ...

  14. A Face Concern Approach to Conflict Management A Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Raduan c. Rose; Waitchalla R. Suppiah; Jegak Uli; Jamilah Othman

    2006-01-01

    This study presents a review of conflict management from a face concern approach. It presents the various definitions on conflict and types of conflict. It further looks at how face negotiation theory explains the use of various conflict management styles in individualist and collectivist cultures. In addition, it provides some insight into conflict management from a Malaysian perspective.

  15. Alcohol advertising and public health: systems perspectives versus narrow perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, M; Shemilt, I; Lorenc, T; Marteau, T M; Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Mara-Eves, A; Stautz, K; Thomas, J

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is influenced by a complex causal system of interconnected psychological, behavioural, social, economic, legal and environmental factors. These factors are shaped by governments (eg, licensing laws and taxation), by consumers (eg, patterns of alcohol consumption drive demand) and by alcohol industry practices, such as advertising. The marketing and advertising of alcoholic products contributes to an 'alcogenic environment' and is a modifiable influence on alcohol consumption and harm. The public health perspective is that there is sufficient evidence that alcohol advertising influences consumption. The alcohol industry disputes this, asserting that advertising only aims to help consumers choose between brands. We review the evidence from recent systematic reviews, including their theoretical and methodological assumptions, to help understand what conclusions can be drawn about the relationships between alcohol advertising, advertising restrictions and alcohol consumption. A wide evidence base needs to be drawn on to provide a system-level overview of the relationship between alcohol advertising, advertising restrictions and consumption. Advertising aims to influence not just consumption, but also to influence awareness, attitudes and social norms; this is because advertising is a system-level intervention with multiple objectives. Given this, assessments of the effects of advertising restrictions which focus only on sales or consumption are insufficient and may be misleading. For this reason, previous systematic reviews, such as the 2014 Cochrane review on advertising restrictions (Siegfried et al ) contribute important, but incomplete representations of 'the evidence' needed to inform the public health case for policy decisions on alcohol advertising. We conclude that an unintended consequence of narrow, linear framings of complex system-level issues is that they can produce misleading answers. Systems problems require systems perspectives

  16. More Than a Potential Hazard—Approaching Risks from a Social-Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Völker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Risks have been classically understood as a probability of damage or a potential hazard resulting in appropriate management strategies. However, research on environmental issues such as pollutants in the aquatic environment or the impacts of climate change have shown that classical management approaches do not sufficiently cover these interactions between society and nature. There have been several attempts to develop interdisciplinary approaches to risk that include natural as well as social science contributions. In this paper, the authors aim at developing a social-ecological perspective on risk by drawing on the concept of societal relations to nature and the model of provisioning systems. This perspective is used to analyze four cases, pharmaceuticals, microplastics, semicentralized water infrastructures and forest management, with regard to risk identification, assessment and management. Finally, the paper aims at developing a perspective on risks which takes into account non-intended side-effects, system interdependencies and uncertainty.

  17. PERSPECTIVES ON WORK ETHIC. AN INTERCULTURAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Chașovschi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades major changes have occurred in most European countries, in the structure of work and in the work environment of the companies. The composition of their workforce has changed (McMurray & Scott, 2013. Workers worldwide have become more mobile and distances and physical space are not anymore an obstacle in workforce mobility. Employees moving freely from a cultural space to another are carrying with them their home-values and the cultural settings that are influencing their way of working and behaving. In the last years researchers from different cultural spaces have analyzed the specificity of this influence upon work ethic. The paper will present a synthesis of these findings and will underline the cross-cultural approach and the influences upon the construction of Work Ethic.

  18. Teacher Professional Development: International Perspectives and Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Bautista; Rosario Ortega-Ruíz

    2015-01-01

    Nations around the world are currently embarked in deep reforms of their education systems. There is widespread agreement among policymakers, scholars, and educators that one of the keys for success during these reforms is promoting the professional development (PD) of in-service teachers. Every year, governments invest astronomical amounts of money on teacher continuous learning. However, the literature shows that much of the PD offered to teachers is inefficient, having small or no effect o...

  19. A Systems Approach to Agricultural Biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Manish

    This article highlights the importance of systems approaches in addressing agricultural biosecurity threats. On the basis of documentary analysis and stakeholder interaction, a brief survey of agricultural biosecurity threats and vulnerabilities from global and Indian perspectives is provided, followed by an exploration of technological and institutional capabilities. Finally, a perspective on the agricultural disease diagnostic networks is provided, drawing instances from global developments. Technical barriers to agroterrorism are lower than those to human-targeted bioterrorism, and the sector is unique as even a very small disease outbreak could prompt international export restrictions. Key vulnerabilities in the agriculture sector stem from, among others, the structure of agricultural production; insufficient monitoring, surveillance, and controls systems at the borders and in the food chain; inefficient systems for reporting unusual occurrences and outbreaks of disease; and lack of sufficiently trained human resources capable of recognizing or treating transboundary pathogens and diseases. An assessment of technology and institutions pertaining to crop and animal protection management suggests certain gaps. Investment in developing new technologies for civilian application in agriculture, as well as for legitimate actions pertaining to defense, detection, protection, and prophylaxis, and in upgrading laboratory facilities can increase the agricultural sector's level of preparedness for outbreaks. To address potential threats and vulnerabilities of agroterrorism effectively requires the development of a comprehensive strategy and a combined, interagency approach, ideally on an international level. It is proposed that a systems-oriented approach for developing knowledge and innovation networks and strengthening skills and capacities would enable a more resilient agricultural biosecurity system.

  20. Specific Cell (Re-)Programming: Approaches and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausburg, Frauke; Jung, Julia Jeannine; David, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Many disorders are manifested by dysfunction of key cell types or their disturbed integration in complex organs. Thereby, adult organ systems often bear restricted self-renewal potential and are incapable of achieving functional regeneration. This underlies the need for novel strategies in the field of cell (re-)programming-based regenerative medicine as well as for drug development in vitro. The regenerative field has been hampered by restricted availability of adult stem cells and the potentially hazardous features of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Moreover, ethical concerns and legal restrictions regarding the generation and use of ESCs still exist. The establishment of direct reprogramming protocols for various therapeutically valuable somatic cell types has overcome some of these limitations. Meanwhile, new perspectives for safe and efficient generation of different specified somatic cell types have emerged from numerous approaches relying on exogenous expression of lineage-specific transcription factors, coding and noncoding RNAs, and chemical compounds.It should be of highest priority to develop protocols for the production of mature and physiologically functional cells with properties ideally matching those of their endogenous counterparts. Their availability can bring together basic research, drug screening, safety testing, and ultimately clinical trials. Here, we highlight the remarkable successes in cellular (re-)programming, which have greatly advanced the field of regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, we review recent progress on the generation of cardiomyocyte subtypes, with a focus on cardiac pacemaker cells. Graphical Abstract.

  1. Decision From Indecision: Conservation of Thangka Significance, Perspectives and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Boon Nee Loh

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Art may be entwined with religion, encompassing a spiritual message beyond artistic form and design. The thangka is one such sacred art in this world. Each thangka is created for a specific purpose and will always be different from other ones. It is for this reason and other values that they are conserved for the present and the future. The thangka poses complex challenges for conservators because of its composite nature and the wealth of values it embodies. It demands a balanced approach that looks into its material and conceptual integrity. Each of us has different aesthetic standards in interpretation of the thangka. This research explores the approaches and perspectives of thangka conservation, in particular embroidered/ appliqué thangkas and the influence of their significance in the decision-making process of their conservation. Through this investigation, the author establishes a framework of decision-making and her perspectives to thangka conservation.

  2. Entrepreneurship in Business Systems Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Allen, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    environment; rather both entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial processes are embedded in a societal or institutional context; thus, the nature of business systems and institutions influence entrepreneurs’ cognition, orientation, capabilities and venture creation. Much work has drawn on BST to analyse......Part of the institutionalist and organization theory literatures, business systems theory (BST) presents a comprehensive framework to understand how institutions shape the strategies of firms and individuals, including entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial activities do not take place in a barren...... multinationals’ strategies, structures and decision making. We focus, instead, on a relatively neglected area: how BST can help to explain entrepreneurship. In particular, how can this framework help us to understand 1)why a particular business model is developed, 2) why entrepreneurs tend to make a particular...

  3. Learning from and with Museum Objects: Design Perspectives, Environment, and Emerging Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Henriikka; Enkenberg, Jorma

    2013-01-01

    Sociocultural approaches emphasize the systemic, context-bound nature of learning, which is mediated by other people, physical and conceptual artifacts, and tools. However, current educational systems tend not to approach learning from the systemic perspective, and mostly situate learning within classroom environments. This design-based research…

  4. Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Higher Education Provision Using Systems Thinking Approach--Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhukaram, Anandhi Vivekanandan; Sgouropoulou, Cleo; Feldman, Gerald; Amini, Ardavan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the complexities involved in higher education provision and how systems thinking and socio-technical systems (STS) thinking approach can be used to understand the education ecosystem. Systems thinking perspective is provided using two case studies: the development of European Learner Mobility (EuroLM)…

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Network Approaches for Tactical Wireless Communications, Validated by Joint Communication Simulation System (JCSS) Simulations: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Mobile Communications System) 3G Third Generation (Mobile Communications System) 4G Fourth Generation (Mobile Communications System) ADSL Asymmetric...Multiplexing (OFDM). Digital video broadcasting and ADSL -modems for Internet-providers are examples of where OFDM already is used. The general idea

  7. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... and arise from complex interactions between genetic makeup and environment, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a collection of sub-phenotypes resulting in high fasting glucose. The underlying gene-environment interactions that produce these classes of T2DM are imperfectly characterized. Based on assessments...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  8. Access to medicines from a health system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Maryam; Jacobs, Bart; Tomson, Goran; Laing, Richard; Ghaffar, Abdul; Dujardin, Bruno; Van Damme, Wim

    2013-10-01

    Most health system strengthening interventions ignore interconnections between systems components. In particular, complex relationships between medicines and health financing, human resources, health information and service delivery are not given sufficient consideration. As a consequence, populations' access to medicines (ATM) is addressed mainly through fragmented, often vertical approaches usually focusing on supply, unrelated to the wider issue of access to health services and interventions. The objective of this article is to embed ATM in a health system perspective. For this purpose, we perform a structured literature review: we examine existing ATM frameworks, review determinants of ATM and define at which level of the health system they are likely to occur; we analyse to which extent existing ATM frameworks take into account access constraints at different levels of the health system. Our findings suggest that ATM barriers are complex and interconnected as they occur at multiple levels of the health system. Existing ATM frameworks only partially address the full range of ATM barriers. We propose three essential paradigm shifts that take into account complex and dynamic relationships between medicines and other components of the health system. A holistic view of demand-side constraints in tandem with consideration of multiple and dynamic relationships between medicines and other health system resources should be applied; it should be recognized that determinants of ATM are rooted in national, regional and international contexts. These are schematized in a new framework proposing a health system perspective on ATM.

  9. SYSTEMS APPROACH FOR CONTEMPORARY COMPLEX TOURISM SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Jere Jakulin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems approach represents thinking outside the box and is connected to the transformation of common linear approach and thinking. Western society followed rules of classical western science, which form many centuries took analysis as mainstream of thinking and researching. One can find perfect and logical explanation for this. In the past, classical science researched matter and reached optimal results with analysis and analytical thinking. Nowadays more and more scientists research intangible world around matter and cooperate with prevailed, fastest growing service industry such as tourism. Following paper presents systems approach in tourism, which defines wideness, co-dependency among tourism system elements, and "big picture" point of view. In a frame of systems methodology, we will show the importance of systems approach in order to understand complexity in the area of tourism. At once an excellent example of the analytical approach will be shown in so called "the tip of the iceberg" theory, where events represent analytical thinking and structure or base of the iceberg represents systems approach. Complexity of the tourism systems will be explained and a model of a common tourism system developed. We claim that the analysis, in the past, caused technological progress; it caused the development of western science, which we now know it. It led to the discoveries but for dealing with contemporary complex challenges is not sufficient. Today a systems approach is suitable enough for dealing with complex question in the area of tourism and of course in global society.

  10. Bounding approaches to system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric

    1996-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  11. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Striuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major trends in academic mobility are identified (the transition from student mobility to mobility programs and educational services providers, the new mobility programs (franchising, double/joint degrees, combinations, nostrification etc. are characterized. The new types of mobility providers are reviewed and attention is focused on virtual universities that are now the basis of virtual mobility of students and activities which are based on the use of new ICT in higher education, especially – the Internet and mobile learning environments.

  12. Two Perspectives on Information System Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette; Svejvig, Per

    Institutional theory has proven to be a central analytical perspective for investigating the role of larger social and historical structures of Information System (IS) adaptation. However, it does not explicitly account for how organizational actors make sense of and enact IS in their local context...... for investigating the phenomenon of IS adaptation. Furthermore, we explore a combination of the two theories with a case study in a health care setting where an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system was introduced and used by a group of doctors. The empirical case provides evidence of how existing institutional...... structures influenced the doctors' sensemaking of the EPR system. Additionally, it illustrates how the doctors made sense of the EPR system in practice. The paper outlines that: 1) institutional theory has its explanatory power at the organizational field and organizational/group level of analysis focusing...

  13. Systems Design Perspective of Healthcare Provision in Humanitarian Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.

  14. A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Fast

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.

  15. Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.

  16. Holistic approach to production systems from the perspective of lean manufacturing and viable systems model; Aproximacion holistica a los sistemas de produccion desde la perspectiva Lean Manufacturing y Modelos de Sistemas Viables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puche Regaliza, J. C.; Costas Gual, J.

    2012-07-01

    The reductionism approach usually adopted by many organizations provokes too often a problem of sustain ability in the market over time in these organizations. To increase this sustain ability, we propose a structural and a behavioral change, in a way that the reductionism is replaced by an holistic approach appropriate to address the dynamic complexity inherent in any organization. With regard to structural change, we propose the use of Organizational Cybernetics and particularly the Viable System Model. With respect to behavior change, we propose the use of Lean Manufacturing paradigm. (Author)

  17. Architecture Approach in System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Burita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical solution of architecture approach in system development. The software application is the system which optimizes the transport service. The first part of the paper defines the enterprise architecture, its parts and frameworks. Next is explained the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF, a tool for command and control systems development in military environment. The NAF is used for architecture design of the system for optimization of the transport service.

  18. A Modelling Approach for Improved Implementation of Information Technology in Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a modelling approach which is based on the multiple view perspective of Soft Systems Methodology and an encapsulation of these perspectives into an object orientated model. The approach provide a structured procedure for putting theoretical abstractions of a new production conc...

  19. Magazine Freelancing as a Business Enterprise: A Market Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Lee

    Conflicting information has made it necessary to examine the key factors involved in submitting magazine nonfiction for publication in order to provide better insight into the mechanics of magazine acceptance. A preliminary study tested the applicability of the market systems approach from the perspective of the magazine editor. Subjects, 28…

  20. Perspectives on digital computational systems as aesthetic artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Ribas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the study of digital computational systems as aesthetic artifacts seeking to provide instruments for their analysis and critical understanding. What this aim implies is the need to articulate complementary perspectives for considering not only their specificity as digital computational (software-driven systems, but also the different aesthetic intents that drive the creation of these artifacts, as well as the kinds of experience they propose. This approach entails articulating the viewpoint of their creation or poetics with the viewpoint of their experience or aesthetics, while tackling into their enacted processes. Accordingly, this paper discusses concepts, models and frameworks that not only argue on the distinctive processual nature of these systems, but also stress the interdependency of views on their principles, mechanics and experience.

  1. Managing schools as complex adaptive systems: A strategic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Fidan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual study examines the analogies between schools and complex adaptive systems and identifies strategies used to manage schools as complex adaptive systems. Complex adaptive systems approach, introduced by the complexity theory, requires school administrators to develop new skills and strategies to realize their agendas in an ever-changing and complexifying environment without any expectations of stability and predictability. The results indicated that in this period administrators need to have basicskills such as (a diagnosing patterns emerging from complexity, (b manipulating the environment by anticipating potential patterns organizations may evolve into, (c choosing organizational structures compatible with an ever-changing and complexifying environment and (d promoting innovation to create and manage organizational changes. Although these skills enable administrators to reduce complexity into a manageable form to some extent, stakeholders’ having a common perspective regarding their schools and environments, and executing their activities in accordance with a shared vision are required to turn these skills into complexity management strategies.

  2. Organizational Climate Assessment: a Systemic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, Piergiorgio; Setti, Ilaria

    A number of studies showed how the set up of an involving and motivating work environment represents a source for organizational competitive advantage: in this view organizational climate (OC) research occupies a preferred position in current I/O psychology. The present study is a review carried out to establish the breadth of the literature on the characteristics of OC assessment considered in a systemic perspective. An organization with a strong climate is a work environment whose members have similar understanding of the norms and practices and share the same expectations. OC should be considered as a sort of emergent entity and, as such, it can be studied only within a systemic perspective because it is linked with some organizational variables, in terms of antecedents (such as the organization's internal structure and its environmental features) and consequences (such as job performance, psychological well-being and withdrawal) of the climate itself. In particular, when employees have a positive view of their organizational environment, consistently with their values and interests, they are more likely to identify their personal goals with those of the organization and, in turn, to invest a greater effort to pursue them: the employees' perception of the organizational environment is positively related to the key outcomes such as job involvement, effort and performance. OC analysis could also be considered as an effective Organizational Development (OD) tool: in particular, the Survey Feedback, that is the return of the OC survey results, could be an effective instrument to assess the efficacy of specific OD programs, such as Team Building, TQM and Gainsharing. The present study is focused on the interest to investigate all possible variables which are potential moderators of the climate - outcome relationship: therefore future researches in the OC field should consider a great variety of organizational variables, considered in terms of antecedents and effects

  3. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  4. Safety system upgrades to a research reactor: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, G.B.; Martin, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The NRU (National Research Universal) reactor, located at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), first achieved criticality November 3, 1957. AECL continues to operate NRU for research to support safety and reliability studies for CANDU reactors and as a major supplier of medical radioisotopes. Following a detailed systematic review and assessment of NRU's design and the condition of its primary systems, AECL formally notified the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) predecessor - the Atomic Energy Control Board - in 1992 of its intention to upgrade NRU's safety systems. AECL proposed seven major upgrades to provide improvements in shutdown capability, heat removal, confinement, and reactor monitoring, particularly during and after a seismic event. From a CNSC perspective, these upgrades were necessary to meet modern safety standards. From the start of the upgrades project, the CNSC provided regulatory oversight aimed at ensuring that AECL maintained a structured approach to the upgrades. The elements of the approach include, but are not limited to, the determination of project milestones and target dates; the formalization of the design process and project quality assurance requirements; the requirements for updated documentation, including safety reports, safety notes and commissioning reports; and the approval and authorization process. This paper details, from a regulatory perspective, the structured approach used in approving the design, construction, commissioning and subsequent operation of safety system upgrades for an existing and operating research reactor, including the many challenges faced when attempting to balance the requirements of the upgrades project with AECL's need to keep NRU operating to meet its important research and production objectives. (author)

  5. Security Management – Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kný

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the contribution is the use of the systems approach to treat security management as a practical field and new scientific discipline. The philosophy of systems approach to the solution of problems generally is an adequate methodological basis even for the theory of management. The path to the real optimization of security situation leads only through the holistic and solid solution. Applications of systems analysis and synthesis back up the fact, that systems approach and systems thinking should not absent in security objects. The truthfulness of the claim, that security management is a well-established discipline, depends on ongoing discussion that represents useful process of development of new scientific discipline. At the same time the rationality of science and systematism works as a counterbalance to irrational fear of the whole society, too. Which questions of security remain open in relation to „our interests“? Current problems of Europe should be solved systematically. It is necessary to define the space of interest (territorially the border of the EU or the Schengen area, to implement the system to the object with respect to the borders of the space, to specify the structure and subjects of decision making and implementation.

  6. A Philosophical Perspective on Evolutionary Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Soyer, Orkun S; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) is an emerging hybrid approach that integrates methods, models, and data from evolutionary and systems biology. Drawing on themes that arose at a cross-disciplinary meeting on ESB in 2013, we discuss in detail some of the explanatory friction that arises in the interaction between evolutionary and systems biology. These tensions appear because of different modeling approaches, diverse explanatory aims and strategies, and divergent views about the scope of the evolutionary synthesis. We locate these discussions in the context of long-running philosophical deliberations on explanation, modeling, and theoretical synthesis. We show how many of the issues central to ESB's progress can be understood as general philosophical problems. The benefits of addressing these philosophical issues feed back into philosophy too, because ESB provides excellent examples of scientific practice for the development of philosophy of science and philosophy of biology.

  7. Institutional Planning: A Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Willie D.

    This four-chapter report explores the possible contributions of a systems approach to institutional planning. After introductory comments, Chapter I reviews the management theory of Henry Fayol, which emphasizes management tasks, such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling, which are "universal" regardless of the level…

  8. 76 FR 52954 - Workshop: Advancing Research on Mixtures; New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Workshop: Advancing Research on Mixtures; New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting... ``Advancing Research on Mixtures: New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse Human Health Effects... Research and Training, NIEHS, P.O. Box 12233, MD K3-04, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (telephone) 919...

  9. A Multifaceted Mathematical Approach for Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, F.; Anitescu, M.; Bell, J.; Brown, D.; Ferris, M.; Luskin, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Moser, B.; Pinar, A.; Tartakovsky, A.; Willcox, K.; Wright, S.; Zavala, V.

    2012-03-07

    Applied mathematics has an important role to play in developing the tools needed for the analysis, simulation, and optimization of complex problems. These efforts require the development of the mathematical foundations for scientific discovery, engineering design, and risk analysis based on a sound integrated approach for the understanding of complex systems. However, maximizing the impact of applied mathematics on these challenges requires a novel perspective on approaching the mathematical enterprise. Previous reports that have surveyed the DOE's research needs in applied mathematics have played a key role in defining research directions with the community. Although these reports have had significant impact, accurately assessing current research needs requires an evaluation of today's challenges against the backdrop of recent advances in applied mathematics and computing. To address these needs, the DOE Applied Mathematics Program sponsored a Workshop for Mathematics for the Analysis, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Systems on September 13-14, 2011. The workshop had approximately 50 participants from both the national labs and academia. The goal of the workshop was to identify new research areas in applied mathematics that will complement and enhance the existing DOE ASCR Applied Mathematics Program efforts that are needed to address problems associated with complex systems. This report describes recommendations from the workshop and subsequent analysis of the workshop findings by the organizing committee.

  10. Approaching Adult Education Literature Using the Donlevy Template of Perspectives: A Focus on the Psychological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1998-01-01

    Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…

  11. Systems approach in energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta-Choudhury, K.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago when the author was working in the chemicals division of a paper company in Instrumentation and Controls, one experience had a lasting impact on his work approach which is systems approach. The maintenance manager told the author that a very important piece of boiler instrument of the power plant had broken down and delivery of the replacement needed to be expedited. The instrument was ordered over the phone in another city. The purchase order was personally delivered at the supplier's office and arrangements were made so the instrument was put on the next flight. A week later the maintenance manager indicated that the particular instrument still had not arrived in the plant and he could not run the power plant. Thus the company incurred substantial losses. Further inquiries showed that the instrument did indeed arrive at the plant stores on time. But, in the absence of any instructions thereon, the instrument was not delivered to the power plant. The sense of urgency was lost in the existing delivery process. In other words, the process or system failed. The whole process from requisitioning to delivery of ordered items was analyzed and corrective procedures were incorporated to prevent future repetitions. This brings up the subject of systems approach in engineering management in general and energy management in particular. This involves defining an objective and designing a system for an effective way of getting there

  12. Perspectives on confinement in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae

    1989-01-01

    A review on recent experimental results and theoretical models on anomalous transport and density limit in toroidal helical devices is presented. Importance of transport problems is discussed. Experiments on Heliotron-E, Wendelstein-VIIA and new devices, i.e., ATF, Wendelstein-VIIAS and CHS, are reviewed and an overview on confinement property is given. From recent experimental results one sees that there are anomalous transport, which increases with temperature, and density limit, and that they limit the energy confinement time as well as the attainable beta value. The confinement characteristics of the scrape off layer plasma and loss cone loss are discussed, and perspectives on the high temperature plasma are given. These anomalous transport and density limit will be difficult obstacles in realizing a reactor grade plasma in helical systems. It is an urgent task to draw a realistic picture of the confinement based on the present data base. The relevant knowledge now would be critically essential for the successful development of the research in 1990's. (author) 102 refs

  13. Executive coaching experiences: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Executive Experiential Learning Coaching model was applied in an information technology organisation. The aim of the research was to analyse and interpret the experiences of seven executives in the form of written essays from the systems psychodynamic perspective. The manifesting themes were, experiential learning facilitates the working through of defences; interdependency facilitates taking responsibility for the self; flight reactions inhibit owning and learning; transcending defences is needed to authorise the self in role; the difficulty of moving from the paranoid-schizoid to the depressive position and valuing all parts of the self; and containment facilitates self-authorisation. Recommendations towards more effective executive coaching are presented. Opsomming Die “Integrated Executive Experiential Learning Coaching model�? is toegepas in ’n inligtings tegnologie organisasie. Die doel van die navorsing was om die ervaring van sewe uitvoerende beamptes in opstel-formaat te analiseer en te interpreteer vanuit die stelsel psigodinamiese benadering. Die manifesterende temas was, ervaringeleer fasiliteer die deurwerk van verdedigingsmeganismes; interafhanklikheid fasiliteer die neem van selfverantwoordelikheid; vlug reaksies inhibeer eienaarskap en leer; die transendering van verdedigings is nodig vir self outorisering; die moeisaamheid van beweeg vanaf die paranoide-skisiode na die depressiewe posisie en waardering van alle gedeeltes van die self; en behouering fasiliteer self-outoriteit. Aanbevelings vir meer effektiewe uitvoerende afrigting is aangebied.

  14. System Approach in RIPRAN Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Lacko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes reasons, principles for design, structure and using of RIPRAN method (Risk Project Analysis for risk project analysis. The RIPRAN method is used to identify, quantify risks, and design proposals that reduce risk in the project to increase the likelihood of successful completion of the project. The method uses a system and process approach to risk analysis and respects international ISO standards that recommend how to perform a high‑quality risk analysis of the project. The method has been incorporated into the national standard of the Czech Republic among the recommended knowledge for certified project managers. The third version of the method is available. The method is included in teaching at many universities in the Czech Republic, trained by a number of training firms and used by firms to analyse the risks of corporate projects or by various risk analysis institutions for projects funded by the EU structural funds. The aim of the article is to inform about the RIPRAN method. At the same time, the paper points out that the method describes the procedure for risk analysis of the project and presents the benefits of RIPRAN application. The description of a system approach application when designing the RIPRAN method serves as an example of a system approach to risk engineering.

  15. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  16. Implementation of enterprise resource planning systems: a user perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, E.; Hilletofth, P.; Mukhtar, U.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate critical success factors (CSFs) for the implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system from a user perspective. Users play a vital role when implementing an ERP system, but their perspective has been neglected in the literature. A better understanding of their perspective promises to contribute to the design of more effective ERP systems, its implementation, and management. In order to identify the user perspective, a survey was conducted within three Pakistani companies that recently have implemented a new ERP system. The questionnaire was developed based on thirteen CSFs deduced from literature. Based on each CSF’s level of importance, they are ranked in order of importance and divided into three groups: most important, important and not important. Findings reveal that users believe that management should prioritize the following four CSFs when implementing an ERP system: education and training, strategic decision-making, communication, and business process alignment.

  17. From Hamiltonian chaos to complex systems a nonlinear physics approach

    CERN Document Server

    Leonetti, Marc

    2013-01-01

    From Hamiltonian Chaos to Complex Systems: A Nonlinear Physics Approach collects contributions on recent developments in non-linear dynamics and statistical physics with an emphasis on complex systems. This book provides a wide range of state-of-the-art research in these fields. The unifying aspect of this book is a demonstration of how similar tools coming from dynamical systems, nonlinear physics, and statistical dynamics can lead to a large panorama of  research in various fields of physics and beyond, most notably with the perspective of application in complex systems. This book also: Illustrates the broad research influence of tools coming from dynamical systems, nonlinear physics, and statistical dynamics Adopts a pedagogic approach to facilitate understanding by non-specialists and students Presents applications in complex systems Includes 150 illustrations From Hamiltonian Chaos to Complex Systems: A Nonlinear Physics Approach is an ideal book for graduate students and researchers working in applied...

  18. Semiclassical approaches to mesoscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.

    2001-01-01

    We review semiclassical methods of determining both average trends and quantum shell effects in the properties of finite fermion systems. I. Extended Thomas-Fermi model (ETF): the average, self-consistent mean field can be determined by density variational calculations using the semiclassical gradient-expanded ETF density functional for the kinetic energy. From this, average ground-state properties such as binding energies, densities, separation energies, etc. can be derived. II. Periodic orbit theory (POT): quantum oscillations in a mean-field system can be obtained from the semiclassical trace formula that expresses the quantum-mechanical density of states in terms of the periodic orbits of the corresponding classical system. Only the shortest periodic orbits with highest degeneracy are important for the coarse-grained level density, i.e., for the gross shell effects. Particular uniform approximations are required to treat systems with mixed classical dynamics due to the effects of symmetry breaking and orbit bifurcations. Ill. Local-current approximation (LCA): the collective dynamics of the fermions can be described in linear-response theory, approximating the particle-hole excitation operators semi-classically by local current distributions. The method is suitable in combination with both the ETF density variational approach or with the Kohn-Sham density functional approach for the ground state, and allows one to describe optic response properties such as static polarizabilities and plasmon resonances. Applications of all methods to metal clusters and various mesoscopic nano-structures are given. (author)

  19. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: "Omic" Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the "Omic" technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. "Omic" technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current "Omic" tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems.

  20. DOE systems approach and integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Six sites are now disposing of most of DOE's currently generated waste. These are: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Within DOE, experience with disposal of solid LLW has been that arid site disposal facilities (first four) appear to have performed well, while humid site disposal facilities (last two) have experienced some waste migration. DOE's intent, of course, is to operate all its waste disposal facilities so that public health and safety are not adversely affected. To ensure that this continues to be the case, activities are underway to increase use of waste form stabilization and engineered barriers where appropriate. For the sake of overall economy, these measures are to be applied as and where needed, through use of the systems approach. In this paper the author discusses two topics: the system approach, which DOE has decided to use for resolving waste disposal problems in the management of DOE's low-level wastes; and DOE's intended integration of activities underway at the waste management systems throughout DOE facilities. 2 figures

  1. A systems perspective on nursing productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Nicola; Hughes, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Recent New Zealand reports have identified the nursing workforce for its potential to make a significant contribution to increased productivity in health services. The purpose of this paper is to review critically the recent and current labour approaches to improve nursing productivity in New Zealand, in a context of international research and experience. An examination of government documents regarding productivity, and a review of New Zealand and international literature and research on nursing productivity and its measurement form the basis of the paper. It is found that productivity improvement strategies are influenced by theories of labour economics and scientific management that conceptualise a nurse as a labour unit and a cost to the organisation. Nursing productivity rose significantly with the health reforms of the 1990s that reduced nursing input costs but impacts on patient safety and nurses were negative. Current approaches to increasing nursing productivity, including the "productive ward" and reconfiguration of nursing teams, also draw on manufacturing innovations. Emerging thinking considers productivity in the context of the work environment and changing professional roles, and proposes reconceptualising the nurse as an intellectual asset to knowledge-intensive health organisations. Strategies that take a systems approach to nursing productivity, that view nursing as a capital asset, that focus on the interface between nurse and working environment and measure patient and nurse outcomes are advocated. The paper shows that reframing nursing productivity brings into focus management strategies to raise productivity while protecting nursing and patient outcomes.

  2. Technological start-ups in the innovation system: an actor-oriented perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, Sikke Ruurd; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2018-01-01

    The functional approach of the Technological Innovation System (TIS) has become important in innovation theory to understand the dynamics of technological innovations. Until now, TIS has mainly been applied top-down from a policy perspective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TIS can

  3. Pedotransfer functions in Earth system science: challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Looy, K.; Minasny, B.; Nemes, A.; Verhoef, A.; Weihermueller, L.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-12-01

    We make a stronghold for a new generation of Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) that is currently developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science, offering strong perspectives for improvement of integrated process-based models, from local to global scale applications. PTFs are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we highlight how PTF development needs to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscaling techniques such that the PTFs correctly capture the spatial heterogeneity of soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration and organic carbon content, root density and vegetation water uptake. We present an outlook and stepwise approach to the development of a comprehensive set of PTFs that can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques and soil information availability provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary in three domains: 1) the determining of unknown relationships and dealing with uncertainty in Earth system modeling; 2) the step of spatially deploying this knowledge with PTF validation at regional to global scales; and 3) the integration and linking of the complex model parameterizations (coupled parameterization). Integration is an achievable goal we will show.

  4. Physical approach to complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but

  5. Perspective : component tracking on the Nova system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, S.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of introducing Component Tracking as a service to natural gas producers, shippers and straddle plant operators was discussed. Approximately 39 companies in the industry were contacted by consultants at Nova Gas Transmission in an effort to assess if introducing this service would add value to individual producers. The numerous implications that may have to be dealt with if Component Tracking is introduced were also described. Component Tracking would provide an equitable approach to the allocation of molecules in the gas stream, and could provide producers with the ability to avoid capital outlay in field plants by alternatively contracting for recovery of the liquids at the straddle plants. Component Tracking is to be voluntary and each shipper would be able to decide whether to utilize the service at each of their receipt points onto the Nova system

  6. Classroom-Oriented Research from a Complex Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Bringing a complex systems perspective to bear on classroom-oriented research challenges researchers to think differently, seeing the classroom ecology as one dynamic system nested in a hierarchy of such systems at different levels of scale, all of which are spatially and temporally situated. This article begins with an introduction to complex…

  7. Assessing risk from intelligent attacks: A perspective on approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, Seth D.; Aven, Terje

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the uncertainties in and severity of the consequences of intelligent attacks are fundamentally different from risk assessment for accidental events and other phenomena with inherently random failures. Intelligent attacks against a system involve adaptation on the part of the adversary. The probabilities of the initiating events depend on the risk management actions taken, and they may be more difficult to assess due to high degrees of epistemic uncertainty about the motivations and future actions of adversaries. Several fundamentally different frameworks have been proposed for assessing risk from intelligent attacks. These include basing risk assessment and management on game theoretic modelling of attacker actions, using a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach based on eliciting probabilities of different initiating events from appropriate experts, assessing uncertainties beyond probabilities and expected values, and ignoring the probabilities of the attacks and choosing to protect highest valued targets. In this paper we discuss and compare the fundamental assumptions that underlie each of these approaches. We then suggest a new framework that makes the fundamental assumptions underlying the approaches clear to decision makers and presents them with a suite of results from conditional risk analysis methods. Each of the conditional methods presents the risk from a specified set of fundamental assumptions, allowing the decision maker to see the impacts of these assumptions on the risk management strategies considered and to weight the different conditional results with their assessments of the relative likelihood of the different sets of assumptions.

  8. Assessment of the integration capability of system architectures from a complex and distributed software systems perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchter, S.; Reinert, F.; Müller, W.

    2014-06-01

    Procurement and design of system architectures capable of network centric operations demand for an assessment scheme in order to compare different alternative realizations. In this contribution an assessment method for system architectures targeted at the C4ISR domain is presented. The method addresses the integration capability of software systems from a complex and distributed software system perspective focusing communication, interfaces and software. The aim is to evaluate the capability to integrate a system or its functions within a system-of-systems network. This method uses approaches from software architecture quality assessment and applies them on the system architecture level. It features a specific goal tree of several dimensions that are relevant for enterprise integration. These dimensions have to be weighed against each other and totalized using methods from the normative decision theory in order to reflect the intention of the particular enterprise integration effort. The indicators and measurements for many of the considered quality features rely on a model based view on systems, networks, and the enterprise. That means it is applicable to System-of-System specifications based on enterprise architectural frameworks relying on defined meta-models or domain ontologies for defining views and viewpoints. In the defense context we use the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF) to ground respective system models. The proposed assessment method allows evaluating and comparing competing system designs regarding their future integration potential. It is a contribution to the system-of-systems engineering methodology.

  9. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part I: Clinical and network analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Felix; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. Part I includes the clinical phenotyping and diagnostic methods, EEG network-analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches. In Part II, experimental and translational approaches will be discussed (Bauer et al., 2017) [1]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  10. An Intelligent Knowledge Management System from a Semantic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Management Systems (KMS are important tools by whichorganizations can better use information and, more importantly, manageknowledge. Unlike other strategies, knowledge management (KM is difficult todefine because it encompasses a range of concepts, management tasks,technologies, and organizational practices, all of which come under the umbrella ofthe information management. Semantic approaches allow easier and more efficienttraining, maintenance, and support knowledge. Current ICT markets are dominatedby relational databases and document-centric information technologies, proceduralalgorithmic programming paradigms, and stack architecture. A key driver of globaleconomic expansion in the coming decade is the build-out of broadbandtelecommunications and the deployment of intelligent services bundling. This paperintroduces the main characteristics of an Intelligent Knowledge ManagementSystem as a multiagent system used in a Learning Control Problem (IKMSLCP,from a semantic perspective. We describe an intelligent KM framework, allowingthe observer (a human agent to learn from experience. This framework makes thesystem dynamic (flexible and adaptable so it evolves, guaranteeing high levels ofstability when performing his domain problem P. To capture by the agent who learnthe control knowledge for solving a task-allocation problem, the control expertsystem uses at any time, an internal fuzzy knowledge model of the (businessprocess based on the last knowledge model.

  11. An Integrated Modeling Approach Combining Multifractal Urban Planning with a Space Syntax Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yamu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Paris agreement of 2015 highlighted the need for urban planning to prevent and contain urban sprawl so as to reduce trip lengths through an efficient distribution of agglomerations and a well-balanced urban pattern distribution, all while considering travel behavior and accessibility to green areas, services, and facilities on different temporal scales. For the Vienna-Bratislava metropolitan region, our integrated modeling approach uses a combination of multifractal spatial modeling along with a space syntax perspective. Multifractal strategies are intrinsically multiscalar and adhere to five planning principles: hierarchical (polycentric urban development to manage urban sprawl; sustainable transit-oriented development; locally well-balanced urban pattern and functions distribution to enhance vital urban systems, local centers, and neighborhoods; penetration of green areas into built-up areas; and the preservation of large interconnected networks of green areas to conserve biodiversity. Adding space syntax modeling to a multifractal strategy integrates how space relates to functional patterns based on centrality, thus applying a socio-spatial perspective. In this paper, we used the following workflow for an integrated modeling approach: (1 Space syntax to identify the urban systems’ hierarchy and so determine a spatial strategy regionally; (2 Fractalopolis to create a multifractal development plan for potential urbanization; and (3 Space syntax to design a strategic urban master plan for locating new housing and facilities vis-à-vis socioeconomic factors.

  12. Dynamical System Approaches to Combinatorial Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Several dynamical system approaches to combinatorial optimization problems are described and compared. These include dynamical systems derived from penalty methods; the approach of Hopfield and Tank; self-organizing maps, that is, Kohonen networks; coupled selection equations; and hybrid methods...

  13. Systems biology of resilience and optimal health: integrating Chinese and Western medicine perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Wietmarschen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Western science has been strong in measuring details of biological systems such as gene expression levels and metabolite concentrations, and has generally followed a bottom up approach with regard to explaining biological phenomena. Chinese medicine in contrast has evolved as a top down approach in which body and mind is seen as a whole, a phenomenological approach based on the organization and dynamics of symptom patterns. Western and Chinese perspectives are developing towards a ‘middle out’ approach. Chinese medicine diagnosis, we will argue, allows bridging the gap between biologists and psychologists and offers new opportunities for the development of health monitoring tools and health promotion strategies.

  14. Writing Samples Viewed from Different Perspectives: An Approach to Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sybil B.

    The objective description and identification of variables that meaningfully distinguish reasoning skills couched in written discourse was studied, comparing scores obtained from different perspectives on the same writing samples. A total of 406 writing samples on 2 topics by 203 students who had taken the Graduate Record Examinations, mostly…

  15. Seeking Children's Perspectives: A Respectful Layered Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, Jane; Fleet, Alma

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses why researchers and educators might choose to seek children's perspectives. It also highlights some of the key considerations when seeing children as having the right to contribute to decisions that affect them. The article draws on findings from a study that used pedagogically oriented methods for researching three- and…

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a systems biology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Alice D'alessandro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC have different etiology and heterogenic genomic alterations lead to high complexity. The molecular features of HCC have largely been studied by gene expression and proteome profiling focusing on the correlations between the expression of specific markers and clinical data. Integration of the increasing amounts of data in databases has facilitated the link of genomic and proteomic profiles of HCC to disease state and clinical outcome. Despite the current knowledge, specific molecular markers remain to be identified and new strategies are required to establish novel targeted therapies. In the last years, mathematical models reconstructing gene and protein networks based on experimental data of HCC have been developed providing powerful tools to predict candidate interactions and potential targets for therapy. Furthermore, the combination of dynamic and logical mathematical models with quantitative data allows detailed mechanistic insights into system properties. To address effects at the organ level, mathematical models reconstructing the three-dimensional organization of liver lobules were developed. In the future, integration of different modeling approaches capturing the effects at the cellular up to the organ level is required to address the complex properties of HCC and to enable the discovery of new targets for HCC prevention or treatment.

  17. The Stewart Approach – One Clinician’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T John

    2009-01-01

    Peter Stewart added controversy to an already troubled subject when he entered the clinical acid-base arena. His approach puts water dissociation at the centre of the acid-base status of body fluids. It is based on six simultaneous equations, incorporating the Laws of Mass Action, Mass Conservation, and Electrical Neutrality. Together with Gibbs-Donnan equilibria, these equations explain the diagnostically important PaCO2/pH relationship, and improve understanding of the physiologic basis of traditional acid-base approaches. Spin-offs have included new scanning tools for unmeasured ions, in particular the ‘strong ion gap’ and ‘net unmeasured ions’. The most controversial feature is the designation of pH and bicarbonate concentrations as dependent variables, answerable exclusively to three independent variables. These are the strong ion difference (SID), the total concentration of non-volatile weak acid (ATOT), and PCO2. Aspects of this assertion conflict with traditional renal physiology, and with current models of membrane H+/base transporters, oxidative phosphorylation, and proton and bicarbonate ionophores. The debate in this area is ongoing. Meanwhile, Stewart-style diagnostic and decision support systems such as the ‘Strong Ion Calculator’ and the web-site www.acidbase.org are now appearing. PMID:19565024

  18. Stimulating the diffusion of photovoltaic systems : A behavioural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, W.

    This paper first discusses consumer motives for adopting photovoltaic systems (PV systems) from a behavioural-theoretical perspective. Different motives are discussed within a framework of underlying needs and the time sensitivity of various outcomes. Next, empirical data are presented concerning

  19. Fusion--fission energy systems, some utility perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, R.A.; Burger, J.M.; Lotker, M.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the issues that are important in assessing fusion-- fission energy systems from a utility perspective are discussed. A number of qualitative systems-oriented observations are given along with some economic quantification of the benefits from fusion--fission hybrids and their allowed capital cost. (U.S.)

  20. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  1. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  2. Executive coaching in diversity from the systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerato Motsoaledi

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe the application of systems psychodynamic role analysis and to determine its trustworthiness in assisting executives to work effectively with conscious and unconscious diversity dynamics in their organisations. Motivation for the study: Executives generally struggle to understand the deeper meaning of diversity behaviour that manifests inside and around them, leading to conflict. Without understanding the unconscious meaning of the behaviour, organisations founder easily. Awareness of below-the-surface behaviour leads to insight and taking responsibility for diversity-related behaviours. Research design, approach and method: The researcher coached six executives in South African state departments over a period of 10 months. The coaching addressed and analysed the executives’ organisational roles. She analysed the data using discourse analysis. Main findings: Themes relating to the diversity dynamics of gender, race, ethnicity, authority, disability, language, age, de-authorisation of diversity work and the coaching process emerged. The coaching assisted the executives to gain insights into below-the-surface diversity dynamics, to address diversity in a sustained manner and to take up their organisational roles more effectively. Practical/managerial implications: Coached executives will have a more objective and dynamic experience of diversity issues that manifest in organisations, between colleagues and within themselves. Contribution/value-add: Executive coaching from a systems psychodynamic perspective displays trustworthiness in improving participants’ diversity awareness, especially with regard to gender, race, ethnicity and authorisation.

  3. Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Davidova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available First-hand experiences in several design projects that were based on media richness and collaboration are described in this article. Although complex design processes are merely considered as socio-technical systems, they are deeply involved with natural systems. My collaborative research in the field of performance-oriented design combines digital and physical conceptual sketches, simulations and prototyping. GIGA-mapping - is applied to organise the data. The design process uses the most suitable tools, for the subtasks at hand, and the use of media is mixed according to particular requirements. These tools include digital and physical GIGA-mapping, parametric computer aided design (CAD, digital simulation of analyses, as well as sampling and 1:1 prototyping. Also discussed in this article are the methodologies used in several design projects to strategize these tools and the developments and trends in the tools employed.  The paper argues that the digital tools tend to produce similar results through given pre-sets that often do not correspond to real needs. Thus, there is a significant need for mixed methods including prototyping in the creative design process. Media mixing and cooperation across disciplines is unavoidable in the holistic approach to contemporary design. This includes the consideration of diverse biotic and abiotic agents. I argue that physical and digital GIGA-mapping is a crucial tool to use in coping with this complexity. Furthermore, I propose the integration of physical and digital outputs in one GIGA-map and the participation and co-design of biotic and abiotic agents into one rich design research space, which is resulting in an ever-evolving research-design process-result time-based design.

  4. (Revolution of Perspectives on Interactivity: from a Media-Centered to a Journalist-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Oblak Črnič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of new media since the late 1990s has launched a new period of revitalising the concept of interactivity but from very different angles and with several empirical research perspectives. The article’s main aim is to show the variety of ways in which researchers have conceptualised, examined and analysed interactivity within media and journalism studies. The paper provides insights into the various readings of the changes within the field and offers a cautious view of the concept’s potential. Based on a selective meta-analysis of different approaches, we propose to distinguish three perspectives on interactivity: communication- and media-centred perspectives, audience- or user-centred perspectives, and production- or journalist-centred perspectives. This distinction enables us to differentiate between what is considered interactive, and who this interaction involves according to several scholars within media and journalism studies.

  5. Knowledge Perspectives of New Product Development A Comparative Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias; Dossani, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) is about the ideation, formulation, and implementation of new and superior solutions in the market. Beyond the obvious need for organizations to innovate in order to compete, embedded in any NPD program are knowledge, technological expertise, and the social networks that convert these capabilities into offerings that create value at every level—for customers, industries, communities, and regions.    This volume provides an array of knowledge perspective in NPD across multiple levels of analysis and geographic regions, including Europe, the United States, China, Japan, and India, to explore the dynamics of NPD in today’s global environment.   Presenting case studies from such industries as ICT services, semiconductors, software development, bio-technology, higher education, and even safety for children’s toys, and drawing from a variety of theoretical perspectives, including technology and knowledge management, sociology, economic geography, and organizational behavior, ...

  6. DESIGNING COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING BALANCE SCORECARD APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Mukti Soleh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to design how to measure company performance by using balance scorecard approach in coal transportation services industry. Depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data determination of strategic objectives, key performance indicators, strategic initiatives, and in charge units for each balanced scorecard perspectives while the quantitative data were obtained from weighting through questionnaires and analyzed using paired comparison to get a perspective what mostly affected the performance of the company. To measure the achievement of corporate performance, each KPI used (1 the scoring system with the methods that higher is better, lower is better and precise is better; (2 traffic light system with the help of green, yellow, red for identification of target achievement. This research result shows that in the balance scorecard perspective, the most influences on the overall performance of the company include the customer's perspective (31%, financial perspective (29%, internal business processes (21%, learning, and growth 19%. Keywords: balance scorecard, paired comparison, coal transportation serviceABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan menggunakan pendekatan balance scorecard di industri jasa pengangkutan batu bara. Data kualitatif diperoleh melalui indepth interview digunakan untuk menentukan sasaran strategik, indikator kinerja utama, inisiatif strategi dan penanggungjawab setiap divisi setiap perspektif balance scorecard, sedangkan data kuantitatif digunakan untuk pembobotan melalui kuesioner dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode paired comparisson untuk mendapatkan perspektif yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kinerja perusahaan. Ukuran pencapaian kinerja perusahaan dari setiap KPI menggunakan; (1 scoring system dengan bantuan metode higher is better, lower is better dan precise is better;(2 traffic light system dengan menggunakan bantuan warna hijau, kuning, merah

  7. Analysis of Students' Conceptions of Basic Magnetism from a Complex Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Miriam; Kriek, Jeanne; Erasmus, Benita

    2018-03-01

    This study established whether 12 South African secondary school physics students had incorrect conceptions of basic magnetism and if they had, to what extent they consistently applied such conceptions. Different scenarios in the form of thought experiments were presented in a clinical interview approach. A complex systems perspective underpinned the study and was firstly used to analyze 12 students' conceptions in terms of intuitive fragments of knowledge elements, structured misconceptions, and theory-like system of knowledge elements. Secondly, coherence in each student's ideas expressed across ten themes using thought experiments was analyzed in an effort to determine variations or coherence in responses. Examples of student explanations and sketches are discussed in the paper to illustrate the conceptual structures they applied. Most of the students in this study used a variety of knowledge elements in accord with a complex systems perspective, but three students seemed to prefer a specific perspective. One student's ideas tended to be mainly fragmented, a second exposed a number of structured misconceptions, while another student's reasoning can be described as a theory-like system of knowledge elements. Accordingly, the emphasis of physics education research should no longer be on the compilation of a list of misconceptions that have to be remedied or replaced, but on the conceptual connections, students make and their associative reasoning patterns (i.e., knowledge systems revealed). It remains for the teacher to use the complex systems perspective as a framework to facilitate students' conceptual development and understanding, proceeding on their existing knowledge systems.

  8. Analysing Live Coding with Ethnographic Approach - A New Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I will analyse live coding technique under the magnifying lens of Ethnography. Using this perspective, I will try to delve into three main aspects: the effect on the audience/performer interaction of the screen projection during performances; the relationship between “hacker’s ethic”, borrowing a Pekka Himanen’s definition, and live coders community; how some researchers are trying to establish contacts between formal and informal music milieu. In my view, an Ethnographical a...

  9. The marine ecosystem services approach in a fisheries management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Anker Pedersen; Hans Lassen; Hans Frost

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the concepts of marine ecosystem services and their economic valuation in a European fisheries management perspective. We find that the concept is at best cumbersome for advising on how best to regulate fisheries even in an ecosystem context.We propose that operational fisheries management must consider three different types of analysis, the yield of and the effect of fishing on the commercial species, the effects of fishing on habitats and non-commercial species and finall...

  10. Two Contrasting Perspectives of Enterprise Systems: Towards Reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2010-01-01

    as transformative technologies with universal logics to be applied exten-sively across organization; and the second perspective is labelled “the social study of enterprise systems,” where scholars have advanced a situated and localist explanations for ES with focus on uniqueness in the structures and practices......This conceptual paper is based on an informal literature review of enterprise systems (ES), and describes two contrasting perspectives of ES: The first is “the managerial or technical understanding of ES” focusing on economic efficiency and improved financial performance where ES are broadly viewed...

  11. Review of retrofit strategies decision system in historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a process. In structuring and developing its phases different actors are implied, who act under different, sometimes opposite, dynamic conditions and within different reference systems. This paper aims to explore the contribution of participatism to disaster mitigation, when this concerns earthquake impact on urban settlements, through the support provided to multi-criteria decision in matters of retrofit. The research broadness in field of decision making on one side and the lack of a specific model for the retrofit of existing buildings on another side led to an extensive review of the state of the art in related models to address the issue. Core idea in the selection of existing models has been the preoccupation for collaborative issues, in other words, the consideration for the different actors implied in the planning process. The historic perspective on participative planning models is made from the view of two generations of citizen implication. The first approaches focus on the participation of the building owner/inhabitant in the planning process of building construction. As current strategies building rehabilitation and selection from alternative retrofit strategies are presented. New developments include innovative models using the internet or spatial databases. The investigated participation approaches show, that participation and communication as a more comprehensive term are an old topic in the field politics-democratisation-urbanism. In all cases it can be talked of 'successful learning processes', of the improvement of the level of the professional debate. More than 30 years history of participation marked a transition in understanding the concept: from participation, based on a central decision process leading to a solution controlled and steered by the political-administrative system, to communication, characterised by simultaneous decision processes taking place outside politics and administration in co

  12. How to Assess Professional Competencies in Education for Sustainability?: An Approach from a Perspective of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Rosa; Junyent, Mercè; Fonolleda, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to contribute to the professional competency approach in Education for Sustainability (ES) from the perspective of complexity and to the assessment of these competencies. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research process was used, which consisted of two main phases--a documentary analysis of the internationally…

  13. The dynamical systems approach to numerical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2018-03-01

    The dynamical systems approach to numerical integration is reviewed and extended. The new method is compared to some alternative methods based on the Lie series approach. The test problem is the motion of the outer planets. The algorithms developed using the dynamical systems approach perform well.

  14. Perspectives on Cybersecurity Information Sharing among Multiple Stakeholders Using a Decision-Theoretic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Devine, Laura; Zhuang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The government, private sectors, and others users of the Internet are increasingly faced with the risk of cyber incidents. Damage to computer systems and theft of sensitive data caused by cyber attacks have the potential to result in lasting harm to entities under attack, or to society as a whole. The effects of cyber attacks are not always obvious, and detecting them is not a simple proposition. As the U.S. federal government believes that information sharing on cybersecurity issues among organizations is essential to safety, security, and resilience, the importance of trusted information exchange has been emphasized to support public and private decision making by encouraging the creation of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC). Through a decision-theoretic approach, this article provides new perspectives on ISAC, and the advent of the new Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations (ISAOs), which are intended to provide similar benefits to organizations that cannot fit easily into the ISAC structure. To help understand the processes of information sharing against cyber threats, this article illustrates 15 representative information sharing structures between ISAC, government, and other participating entities, and provide discussions on the strategic interactions between different stakeholders. This article also identifies the costs of information sharing and information security borne by different parties in this public-private partnership both before and after cyber attacks, as well as the two main benefits. This article provides perspectives on the mechanism of information sharing and some detailed cost-benefit analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. An Overview of Value, Perspective, and Decision Context-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Pauly, Mark V; Willke, Richard J; Neumann, Peter J

    2018-02-01

    The second section of our Special Task Force builds on the discussion of value and perspective in the previous article of the report by 1) defining a health economics approach to the concept of value in health care systems; 2) discussing the relationship of value to perspective and decision context, that is, how recently proposed value frameworks vary by the types of decisions being made and by the stakeholders involved; 3) describing the patient perspective on value because the patient is a key stakeholder, but one also wearing the hat of a health insurance purchaser; and 4) discussing how value is relevant in the market-based US system of mixed private and public insurance, and differs from its use in single-payer systems. The five recent value frameworks that motivated this report vary in the types of decisions they intend to inform, ranging from coverage, access, and pricing decisions to those defining appropriate clinical pathways and to supporting provider-clinician shared decision making. Each of these value frameworks must be evaluated in its own decision context for its own objectives. Existing guidelines for cost-effectiveness analysis emphasize the importance of clearly specifying the perspective from which the analysis is undertaken. Relevant perspectives may include, among others, 1) the health plan enrollee, 2) the patient, 3) the health plan manager, 4) the provider, 5) the technology manufacturer, 6) the specialty society, 7) government regulators, or 8) society as a whole. A valid and informative cost-effectiveness analysis could be conducted from the perspective of any of these stakeholders, depending on the decision context. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same tran...

  17. Standardization for climate change. Approaches and perspectives. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, R.

    1995-01-01

    The results of a project, aimed at support of the environmental quality target for climate policy on a national level (Follow-up Memorandum Climatic Change of the Dutch government) and on an international level (elaboration of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change). In order to generate ideas for standards of the climate policy a workshop was held on Environmental Quality and Climate. During the workshop standards of climatic change were highlighted from different points of view. Those views and perspectives are analyzed and the results are presented in this report. 4 figs., 31 refs

  18. Systems Approach to Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutherland, David W

    2003-01-01

    .... The battles of Aachen, Stalingrad, and Grozny (2000), reflect this rubble approach. However, several factors have driven military thinkers to look for a more efficient and effective manner to defeat an adversary within an urban environment...

  19. Hydroponic systems: hype or new perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, T.; Weel, van P.A.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Buwalda, F.; Os, van E.A.; Giacomelli, G.; Samperio Ruiz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past five to ten years internationally a renewed interest can be observed in systems that require little or no substrate, such as deep flow technique and nutrient film technique - here dubbed hydroponic systems. Interestingly these systems have been around for over 40 years, but have only

  20. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  1. A systemic perspective on cognition and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Forrest, Jeffrey Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of human thought, its systemic structure, and the historical development of mathematics both as a product of thought and as a fascinating case analysis. After demonstrating that systems research constitutes the second dimension of modern science, the monograph discusses the yoyo model, a recent ground-breaking development of systems research, which has brought forward revolutionary applications of systems research in various areas of the traditional disciplines, the first dimension of science. After the systemic structure of thought is factually revealed, math

  2. APPROACH TO ADAPTIVE LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Gaevoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe how to increase the learning management systems effi ciency by using an adaptive approach. In our work we try and summarize the existing systems; the adaptability absence problem is discovered, programming and architectural adaptive learning management system designing approach is offered. 

  3. A Systemic-Constructivist Approach to the Facilitation and Debriefing of Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Willy Christian

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces some basic concepts of a systemic-constructivist perspective. These show that gaming simulation corresponds closely to a systemic-constructivist approach to learning and instruction. Some quality aspects of facilitating and debriefing simulation games are described from a systemic-constructivist point of view. Finally, a…

  4. A Modelling Approach for Improved Implementation of Information Technology in Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a modelling approach which is based on the multiple view perspective of Soft Systems Methodology and an encapsulation of these perspectives into an object orientated model. The approach provide a structured procedure for putting theoretical abstractions of a new production...... concept into practice. The paper demonstrates the use of the approach in a practical case. The case involves modelling of the shop floor activities and control system at the aluminium parts production at a Danish manufacturer of state-of-the-art audio-video equipment and telephones....

  5. A modelling approach for improved implementation of information technology in manufacturing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Langer, Gilad; Kirkby, Lars Phillip

    2000-01-01

    concept into practice. The paper demonstrates the use of the approach in a practical case, which involves modelling of the shop floor activities and control system at the aluminium parts production at a Danish manufacturer of state-of-the-art audio-video equipment and telephones.......The paper presents a modelling approach, which is based on the multiple view perspective of Soft Systems Methodology and an encapsulation of these perspectives into an object orientated model. The approach provides a structured procedure for putting theoretical abstractions of a new production...

  6. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  7. The financial accounting model from a system dynamics' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the foundation of the financial accounting model. We examine the properties of the accounting equation as the principal algorithm for the design and the development of a System Dynamics model. Key to the perspective is the foundational requirement that resolves the temporal

  8. Greening sanitary systems: and end-user perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of the thesis is to contribute to a transition towards sustainable sanitation and wastewater systems and practices in Western society by developing a social science perspective on sanitation and wastewater management. The empirical core of this study comprises a comparative case

  9. A Framework and Classification for Fault Detection Approaches in Wireless Sensor Networks with an Energy Efficiency Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yue; Dragoni, Nicola; Wang, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are more and more considered a key enabling technology for the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT) vision. With the long term goal of designing fault-tolerant IoT systems, this paper proposes a fault detection framework for WSNs with the perspective of energy...... approaches for the comparison of several characteristics, namely, energy efficiency, correlation model, evaluation method, and detection accuracy. The design guidelines given in this paper aim at providing an insight into better design of energy-efficient detection approaches in resource-constraint WSNs....

  10. Critical approaches to the population question. An African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, O

    1980-02-01

    The non-Marxist, or neo-Malthusian, approach to the study of population problems is criticized, with particular reference to the situation in Africa. An alternative Marxist approach is proposed in which the solution to population problems is sought either in revolution or radical improvements in social welfare involving the maximum egalitarian distribution of the benefits of social and economic development.

  11. Complementary system perspectives in ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2016-01-01

    will be included in this effort. Taking an ecological economic understanding of sustainability as the point of departure, and inspired by systems thinking, it is discussed which economic sub-systems should be in focus for sustainability transitions, and whether relevant guides for sustainability can be formulated......, provision and distribution systems. The example concerns investments in sustainability transitions of provision systems and demonstrates the complexities of implementing such transformations during the economic crisis. It also addresses the need for ecological macroeconomics to develop a third position...

  12. Expert systems: A 5-year perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAllister, D.J.; Day, R.; McCormack, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a major integrated oil company's experience with artificial intelligence (AI) over the last 5 years, with an emphasis on expert systems. The authors chronicle the development of an AI group, including details on development tool selection, project selection strategies, potential pitfalls, and descriptions of several completed expert systems. Small expert systems produced by teams of petroleum technology experts and experienced expert system developers that are focused in well-defined technical areas have produced substantial benefits and accelerated petroleum technology transfer

  13. Virginia's Value Added: A Diverse System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Every ecological, educational, or organizational system possesses a defining trait, one that affords competitive advantage. The Virginia system of higher education has consistently leaned on its institutional diversity to produce one of the most well-educated and productive bodies of learners in the nation. Given the national climate, a commitment…

  14. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... and for residential and commercial applications, are provided. Fuel cells, solar thermal, wave generators, and energy storage systems are also briefly presented and illustrated. Challenges and future trends for the technologies in 2025 are summarized in a table for onshore and offshore wind energy; solar power...

  15. IT Project Management from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Pascal; Ponisio, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We proposes a Systems Thinking approach to the study of IT project management and show how this approach helps project managers in controlling their projects. Systems Thinking is a holistic problem solving method in which system behaviour emerges from the interaction of system components.

  16. Approach to a Lump in the Breast: A Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Leung Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation, investigation and treatment of women with breast lumps are greatly influenced by geographical factors. These impact disease patterns and their presentation (e.g. socioeconomic/educational status and cultural/religious beliefs and the availability of specialist health care personnel and facilities. The differential diagnoses of a breast lump include breast cancer, benign solid and cystic lumps and inflammatory conditions. The likelihood of a diagnosis relates more to geographical area, age, ethnic origin, family history of breast cancer, presence of high-risk pathology, endemic infection, smoking, pregnancy and lactation history, puerperal care and health education. Investigations and treatments vary more according to the availability of expertise and facilities (e.g. combined diagnostic clinic staffed by breast surgeon and radiologist; breast radiologist to carry out image-guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This article discusses the clinical assessment and investigation of breast lumps and possible treatments from an Asia Pacific perspective.

  17. The marine ecosystem services approach in a fisheries management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Anker; Lassen, Hans; Frost, Hans Staby

    management must consider three different types of analysis, the yield of and the effect of fishing on the commercial species, the effects of fishing on habitats and non-commercial species and finally an overall analysis of the combined impact of all human activities on the marine ecosystem. We find......This paper reviews the concepts of marine ecosystem services and their economic valuation in a European fisheries management perspective. We find that the concept is at best cumbersome for advising on how best to regulate fisheries even in an ecosystem context. We propose that operational fisheries...... that the concept of marine ecosystem services is not helpful for the two first mentioned types of analysis and that a cost-benefit analysis that is implied by the marine ecosystem services concept is inadequate for the third. We argue that the discussion needs to be divided into two: (1) finding the boundaries...

  18. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    landslides. Along with a large number of small, but costly landslide events and widespread insidious damages, the interplay of these societal trends determines landslide hazard and risk in Germany or elsewhere in Central Europe (e.g., Houlihan, 1994; Klose et al., 2015). The case studies presented here help to better understand human-environment interactions in the hazard context. Although there has been substantial progress in assessing landslide hazards, integrated approaches with an interdisciplinary focus are still exceptional. The scope of historical datasets available for hazard assessments, however, covers the whole range of natural and social systems interacting with hazards, their influences on overall system vulnerability, and the feedbacks, time lags, and couplings among these systems. In combination with methods from the natural and social sciences, systems analysis supports hazard assessments across disciplinary boundaries to take a broader look at landslide hazards as is usually done. References Houlihan, B., 1994. Europe's ageing infrastructure: Politics, finance and the environment. Utilities Policy 4, 243-252. Liu, J., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S.R., Alberti, M., Folke, C., Moran, E., Pell, A.N., Deadman, P., Kratz, T., Lubchenco, J., Ostrom, E., Ouyang, Z., Provencher, W., Redman, C.L., Schneider, S.H., Taylor, W.W., 2007. Complexity of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Science 317, 1513-1516. Klose, M., Damm, B., Maurischat, P., 2015. Landslide impacts in Germany: A historical and socioeconomic perspective. Landslides, doi:10.1007/s10346-015-0643-9.

  19. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......, including PV and concentrating solar power; wave energy; fuel cells; and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in the final section....

  20. Approaches to Energy System Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Jakobsen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    Considerations on selecting the appropriate modeling level when modeling energy systems are presented in this paper. A general three-level model leveling consisting of: "Overall efficiency", "Process" and "System" is suggested. As thermodynamic cycle models are central for modeling of the process...... of many energy systems, identification of so-called cycle specification variables, their physical meaning and their numerical implications are discussed specifically. The example chosen is a Rankine power or cooling cycle. Similarities between modeling of power cycles and cooling cycles are finally summed...... up....

  1. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  2. Capillaroscopy 2016: new perspectives in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pizzorni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by early impairment of the microvascular system. Nailfold microangiopathy and decreased peripheral blood perfusion are typical clinical aspects of SSc. The best method to evaluate vascular injury is nailfold videocapillaroscopy, which detects peripheral capillary morphology, and classifies and scores the abnormalities into different patterns of microangiopathy. Microangiopathy appears to be the best evaluable predictor of the disease development and has been observed to precede the other symptoms by many years. Peripheral blood perfusion is also impaired in SSc, and there are different methods to assess it: laser Doppler and laser speckle techniques, thermography and other emerging techniques.

  3. Probabilistic Approaches to Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    be useful on all levels of the energy systems, ranging from the highest level, where the transmission system operator is concerned with minimizing system failures and is aided by wind power forecasts, to the end user of energy where power price forecasts are useful for users with flexible power demand......Energy generation from wind and sun is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. This presents new challenges on how to integrate this uncertain, intermittent and non-dispatchable energy source. This thesis deals with forecasting and decision making in energy systems with a large proportion...... of renewable energy generation. Particularly we focus on producing forecasting models that can predict renewable energy generation, single user demand, and provide advanced forecast products that are needed for an efficient integration of renewable energy into the power generation mix. Such forecasts can...

  4. Book Review: Organizations: A Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413.......Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413....

  5. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems: a patent perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patent, once seen as a technical matter for legal experts, has today become a central concern for governments, businesses, civil society, scientists and innovators. In a world where the economic growth of nations is driven increasingly by creativity and knowledge of their people, effective intellectual property (IP) systems, ...

  6. Residential instability: a perspective on system imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Lawrence; Desai, Prakash

    1987-10-01

    In an exploration of residential instability and recidivism in chronic mental patients, 215 psychiatric admissions were followed for a year after the initial episode. In addition to an unusually high incidence of residential mobility, a relationship between mobility and number of hospitalizations was evident, as were isolation, disruptive family situations, and homelessness. The needed response of the mental health system is discussed.

  7. Learning and Organizational Effectiveness: A Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for leaders today is to create and develop the capability of their organization. Leaders must perceive and manage their organization as a dynamic, open system where learning is the core competence underlying innovation, growth, and sustainability. Creating a culture of learning is the first work of leadership. This article presents a…

  8. Systemic lupus erythematosus : a behavioural medicine perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daleboudt, Gabriëlle Mathilde Nicoline

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its immunosuppressive treatment have a great impact on the patient’s life. Previous studies on SLE have focused on the optimisation of diagnosis and treatment. Less attention has been given to the impact of diagnosis and treatment on patients’ well-being.

  9. Distributed intelligent systems: a coordination perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bedrouni, Abdellah

    2009-01-01

    ... Computing, Electronic Business, Semantic Web, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology will certainly influence the direction of future agent-oriented research and technologies. Over the next decade, it is thus expected that real-world problems will impose the emergence of truly-open, fully-scalable agent-oriented systems, spanning across di...

  10. Treatment of preeclampsia: current approach and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzan, Ecaterina; Doyle, Ross; Brown, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy, occurring in about 6-8 % of pregnancies. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that occurs after 20 weeks' gestation, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Preeclampsia can also occur superimposed upon chronic hypertension. Eclampsia is the convulsive form of preeclampsia, and affects 0.1 % of all pregnancies. In low-income and middle-income countries, preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with 10-15 % of direct maternal deaths. Women who develop preeclampsia in pregnancy are at greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events even years after their pregnancies. There is significant progress in the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology of preeclampsia, although its therapeutics remains challenging; delivery of the fetus is still the definitive treatment. Different international societies have produced recommendations and guidelines for clinicians treating preeclampsia, with an overall goal of improving maternal and fetal outcomes. In this review, we focus on the level of blood pressure at which to commence treatment and the current clinical management strategies available to treat and possibly prevent preeclampsia. We also briefly outline some newer perspectives on management of the disorder.

  11. GMR biosensor arrays: a system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D A; Gaster, R S; Lin, T; Osterfeld, S J; Han, S; Murmann, B; Wang, S X

    2010-05-15

    Giant magnetoresistive biosensors are becoming more prevalent for sensitive, quantifiable biomolecular detection. However, in order for magnetic biosensing to become competitive with current optical protein microarray technology, there is a need to increase the number of sensors while maintaining the high sensitivity and fast readout time characteristic of smaller arrays (1-8 sensors). In this paper, we present a circuit architecture scalable for larger sensor arrays (64 individually addressable sensors) while maintaining a high readout rate (scanning the entire array in less than 4s). The system utilizes both time domain multiplexing and frequency domain multiplexing in order to achieve this scan rate. For the implementation, we propose a new circuit architecture that does not use a classical Wheatstone bridge to measure the small change in resistance of the sensor. Instead, an architecture designed around a transimpedance amplifier is employed. A detailed analysis of this architecture including the noise, distortion, and potential sources of errors is presented, followed by a global optimization strategy for the entire system comprising the magnetic tags, sensors, and interface electronics. To demonstrate the sensitivity, quantifiable detection of two blindly spiked samples of unknown concentrations has been performed at concentrations below the limit of detection for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lastly, the multiplexing capability and reproducibility of the system was demonstrated by simultaneously monitoring sensors functionalized with three unique proteins at different concentrations in real-time. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Approaching Development Projects from a Human Development and Capability Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Frediani (Alexandre); A. Boni (Alejandro); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses the relevance of the human development and capability approach for development project planning, management and evaluation. With reference to the set of five other studies that it introduces, the paper suggests in which areas insights from human development and

  13. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-23

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  14. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-17

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  15. Urbanism, climate change and health: systems approaches to governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Synnott, Emma S; Holliday, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Effective action on climate change health impacts and vulnerability will require systems approaches and integrated policy and planning responses from a range of government agencies. Similar responses are needed to address other complex problems, such as the obesity epidemic. Local government, with its focus on the governance of place, will have a key role in responding to these convergent agendas. Industry can also be part of the solution - indeed it must be, because it has a lead role in relevant sectors. Understanding the co-benefits for health of climate mitigation actions will strengthen the case for early action. There is a need for improved decision support tools to inform urban governance. These tools should be based on a systems approach and should incorporate a spatial perspective.

  16. A systemic approach in teaching the students social competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontni, Randi Kristine; Jensen, Ellen Bye

    in nursing: 1st order: Qualifications Factual Nursing knowledge as topics 2nd order: Competences Situated Nursing knowledge as practice 3rd order: Creativity Systemic Nursing knowledge as perspectives 4th order: World knowledge Metasystemic Nursing culture as a condition for nursing Model inspired......Our education aims to qualify students to improve health in all strata of the Danish population. A systemic approach in teaching the students social competence has proved itself efficient. In this approach we discuss four orders of knowledge: Knowledge categories: Knowledge Forms: Designation...... and critical sense is needed to secure action competence. Study visits gives them insight about health risks and how focusing at different factors cause different strategies. By selecting institutions they find interesting themselves, the students become engaged. The students reflect, analyse and discuss...

  17. Amphiphiles Self-Assembly: Basic Concepts and Future Perspectives of Supramolecular Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphiles are synthetic or natural molecules with the ability to self-assemble into a wide variety of structures including micelles, vesicles, nanotubes, nanofibers, and lamellae. Self-assembly processes of amphiphiles have been widely used to mimic biological systems, such as assembly of lipids and proteins, while their integrated actions allow the performance of highly specific cellular functions which has paved a way for bottom-up bionanotechnology. While amphiphiles self-assembly has attracted considerable attention for decades due to their extensive applications in material science, drug and gene delivery, recent developments in nanoscience stimulated the combination of the simple approaches of amphiphile assembly with the advanced concept of supramolecular self-assembly for the development of more complex, hierarchical nanostructures. Introduction of stimulus responsive supramolecular amphiphile assembly-disassembly processes provides particularly novel approaches for impacting bionanotechnology applications. Leading examples of these novel self-assembly processes can be found, in fact, in biosystems where assemblies of different amphiphilic macrocomponents and their integrated actions allow the performance of highly specific biological functions. In this perspective, we summarize in this tutorial review the basic concept and recent research on self-assembly of traditional amphiphilic molecules (such as surfactants, amphiphile-like polymers, or lipids and more recent concepts of supramolecular amphiphiles assembly which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology.

  18. Evaluating Complex Healthcare Systems: A Critique of Four Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Boon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to bring clarity to the emerging conceptual and methodological literature that focuses on understanding and evaluating complex or ‘whole’ systems of healthcare. An international working group reviewed literature from interdisciplinary or interprofessional groups describing approaches to the evaluation of complex systems of healthcare. The following four key approaches were identified: a framework from the MRC (UK, whole systems research, whole medical systems research described by NCCAM (USA and a model from NAFKAM (Norway. Main areas of congruence include acknowledgment of the inherent complexity of many healthcare interventions and the need to find new ways to evaluate these; the need to describe and understand the components of complex interventions in context (as they are actually practiced; the necessity of using mixed methods including randomized clinical trials (RCTs (explanatory and pragmatic and qualitative approaches; the perceived benefits of a multidisciplinary team approach to research; and the understanding that methodological developments in this field can be applied to both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM as well as conventional therapies. In contrast, the approaches differ in the following ways: terminology used, the extent to which the approach attempts to be applicable to both CAM and conventional medical interventions; the prioritization of research questions (in order of what should be done first especially with respect to how the ‘definitive’ RCT fits into the process of assessing complex healthcare systems; and the need for a staged approach. There appears to be a growing international understanding of the need for a new perspective on assessing complex healthcare systems.

  19. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  20. Quality Assurance and Its Impact from Higher Education Institutions' Perspectives: Methodological Approaches, Experiences and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Stelian Andrei; Janatuinen, Tero; Jurvelin, Jouni; Klöpping, Susanne; Malinen, Heikki; Minke, Bernhard; Vacareanu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on methodological approaches, experiences and expectations referring to impact analysis of quality assurance from the perspective of three higher education institutions (students, teaching staff, quality managers) from Germany, Finland and Romania. The presentations of the three sample institutions focus on discussing the core…

  1. Traditional and Flipped Classroom Approaches Delivered by Two Different Teachers: The Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limniou, Maria; Schermbrucker, Ian; Lyons, Minna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was for students to express their views on teaching approaches delivered by two teachers under the perspectives of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) development, their preferences on learning material and learning activities. First year psychology students followed both the traditional and a flipped classroom…

  2. Exploring Epistemological Beliefs and Learning Approaches in Context: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research investigation into epistemological beliefs and students' approaches to learning (SAL) from a qualitative perspective has been limited to a few studies. In particular, very research has attempted to explore the origin of personal epistemology and its relation with SAL, taking into account the sociocultural background and …

  3. Approaches to ICT-Enhanced Teaching in Technical and Vocational Education: A Phenomenographic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Shahadat Hossain; Markauskaite, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken from a phenomenographic perspective, which examines teachers' approaches to information communication technology (ICT)-enhanced teaching in vocational tertiary education. Twenty-three teachers from three Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutions participated in…

  4. Perspective: Autonomic care systems for hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J; Dong, Chunming; Rhodes, Nancy M; McNeill, Diana B; Adams, Martha B; Gilliss, Catherine L; Cuffe, Michael S; Califf, Robert M; Peterson, Eric D; Lubarsky, David A

    2009-12-01

    With advancements of medical technology and improved diagnostic and treatment options, children with severe birth defects who would otherwise have no chance of surviving post birth survive to go home every day. The average lifespan in the United States has increased substantially over the last century. These successes and many other medical breakthroughs in managing complex illnesses, particularly in frail, elderly patients, have resulted in an increasing percentage of patients with comorbidities. This, coupled with a policy change by Medicare (i.e., Medicare will no longer reimburse hospitals for costs associated with treating preventable errors and injuries that a patient acquires while in the hospital), creates an enormous challenge to health care providers. To meet the challenge, the authors propose a new model of health care--the autonomic care system (ACS)--a concept derived from the intensive care unit and the autonomic computing initiative in the computer industry. Using wound care as an example, the authors examine the necessity, feasibility, design, and challenges related to ACS. Specifically, they discuss the role of the human operator, the potential combination of ACS and existing hospital information technology (e.g., electronic medical records and computerized provider order entry), and the costs associated with ACS. ACS may serve as a roadmap to revamp the health care system, bringing down the barriers among different specialties and improving the quality of care for each problem for all hospitalized patients.

  5. Perspectives for Cell-homing Approaches to Engineer Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Kerstin M; Widbiller, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Sufficient proof is available today to demonstrate that dental pulp tissue engineering is possible. The body of evidence was generated mainly on cell transplantation; however, because of several severe problems afflicted with this approach, it might not be feasible for a clinical setting in the near future. More recently, cell homing has been proposed as a viable alternative. We suggest a modification of the tissue engineering paradigm, where resident cells are attracted by endogenous, dentin-derived growth factors that further induce cell proliferation and differentiation and a bioactive scaffold material laden with these growth factors that serves as a template for tissue formation. This article highlights the latest developments regarding scaffold materials, stem cells, and dentin-derived growth factors specifically for a cell-homing approach to engineer dental pulp and summarizes new ideas. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mysterium tremendum et fascinans liturgical perspectives on the approach to God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Cilliers

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the component of the approach to God, being part of an ancient sequence of worship, is liturgically neglected and should therefore be revisited. The important contribution of Rudolf Otto with regard to the approach to God is acknowledged here, culminating in his well-known phrase “mysterium tremendum et fascinans”. In the light of this, some liturgical implications and perspectives are attended to, includ- ing liturgy as silence, awe, lament and affirmation.

  7. Severe accident prevention and mitigation: A utility perspective - EDF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Current plans have excellent safety records and are cost competitive. For future plants, excellence in safety will remain a prerequisite, as well as increased cost competitiveness. When contemplating solutions to Severe Accident challenges, cost effectiveness is essential in the decision making process. This cost effectiveness must be understood not only in terms of capital cost, but also of Operation and Maintenance costs as well as absence of additional risks to plant operators. Examples are given to illustrate the recommended approach

  8. Market valuation perspectives for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, working with Energy Sense Finance developed the proof-ofconcept PV Valueª tool in 2011 to provide real estate appraisers a tool that can be used to develop the market value and fair market value of a solar photovoltaic system. PV Valueª moved from a proof-of-concept spreadsheet to a commercial web-based tool developed and operated exclusively by Energy Sense Finance in June 2014. This paper presents the results of a survey aimed at different user categories in order to measure how the tool is being used in the marketplace as well as elicit information that can be used to improve the tools effectiveness.

  9. A Solar System Perspective on Laboratory Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary science deals with a wide variety of natural materials in a wide variety of environments. These materials include metals, minerals, ices, gases, plasmas, and organic chemicals. In addition, the newly defined discipline of astrobiology introduces biological materials to planetary science. The environments range from the interiors of planets with megapascal pressures to planetary magnetospheres, encompassing planetary mantles, surfaces, atmospheres, and ionospheres. The interplanetary environment includes magnetic and electrical fields, plasma, and dust. In order to understand planetary processes over these vast ranges, the properties of materials must be known, and most of the necessary information comes from the laboratory. Observations of the bodies and materials in the Solar System are accomplished over the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum by remote sensing from Earth or spacecraft. Comets exemplify this; molecular and atomic identifications are made from the hard ultraviolet to radio wavelengths, while X-rays are emitted as comets interact with the solar wind. Gamma rays from the surfaces of the Moon and asteroids are diagnostic of the mineral and ice content of those bodies; eventually, gamma rays will also be observed by probes to comets. A number of planetary materials are available in the laboratory for extensive Study: rocks from the Moon, Mars, several asteroids, as well as dust from comets (and perhaps the Kuiper Belt) are closely studied at every level, including atomic (isotopic). Even pre-solar interstellar grains isolated from meteorites are scrutinized for composition and crystalline structure. Beyond the materials themselves, various agents and processes have altered them over the 4.6-Gy age of the Solar System. Solar radiation, solar wind particles, trapped magnetospheric particles, cosmic rays, and micrometeoroid impacts have produced chemical, physical, and morphological changes in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of all

  10. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey...

  11. Engineering Value-Effective Healthcare Solutions: A Systems Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Our modern healthcare systems commonly face an important dilemma. While they depend on innovation to provide continuously greater healthcare value, they also struggle financially with the burden of adopting a continuous flow of new products and services. Although several disruptive healthcare...... of Design for Evolvability and by elaborating on two examples: MRI systems and Point-of-Care in-vitro diagnostics solutions. We specifically argue that Design for Evolvability can realign the agendas of various healthcare stakeholders, serving both individual and national interests. We finally acknowledge...... the limitations of current engineering design practices and call for new theoretical and empirical research initiatives taking a systems perspective on healthcare product and service design....

  12. Wireless transceiver circuits system perspectives and design aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Woogeun

    2015-01-01

    This cutting-edge work contains comprehensive coverage of integrated circuit (IC) design for modern transceiver circuits and wireless systems. Ranging in scope from system perspectives to practical circuit design for emerging wireless applications, the book includes detailed discussions of transceiver architectures and system parameters, mm-wave circuits, ultra-low-power radios for biomedical and sensor applications, and the latest circuit techniques. Written by renowned international experts in IC industry and academia, the text is an ideal reference for engineers and researchers in the area

  13. Primary Emotional Systems and Personality: An Evolutionary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Montag, Christian; Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    The present article highlights important concepts of personality including stability issues from the perspective of situational demands and stability over the life-course. Following this more introductory section, we argue why individual differences in primary emotional systems may represent the phylogenetically oldest parts of human personality. Our argumentation leads to the need to increasingly consider individual differences in the raw affects/emotions of people to understand human person...

  14. Solid waste management of Jakarta : Indonesia an environmental systems perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trisyanti, Dini

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management has been one of the critical issues in Jakarta, Indonesia.With enormous amounts of generated waste per day and limited supportinginfrastructure, the city has faced serious threat of environmental deterioration andhealth hazard. It relies on one sanitary landfill only, whose capacity is currently beingexceeded, leading to excessive amounts of solid wastes left untreated in the city. An assessment with a system perspective was carried out, aiming to examine thecomplexity ...

  15. One Size Does Not Fit All: A System Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    currently four IT Level 1 acquisitions programs, which are outlined in the Major Systems Acquisition Manual as having lifecycle cost estimates equal to or...rather than taking a parochial perspective. This allowed somewhat of a 360° view of the issue and generally resulted in a much more fruitful solution...were learning “on the fly .” However, the mandate of the acquisition process requires that project needs and engineering solution be identified upfront

  16. Perspective: Codesign for materials science: An optimal learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turab Lookman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A key element of materials discovery and design is to learn from available data and prior knowledge to guide the next experiments or calculations in order to focus in on materials with targeted properties. We suggest that the tight coupling and feedback between experiments, theory and informatics demands a codesign approach, very reminiscent of computational codesign involving software and hardware in computer science. This requires dealing with a constrained optimization problem in which uncertainties are used to adaptively explore and exploit the predictions of a surrogate model to search the vast high dimensional space where the desired material may be found.

  17. Approaching multiphase flows from the perspective of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic simulation methodologies based on subchannel and porous-medium concepts are briefly reviewed and contrasted with the general approach of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). An outline of the advanced CFD methods for single-phase turbulent flows is followed by a short discussion of the unified formulation of averaged equations for turbulent and multiphase flows. Some of the recent applications of CFD at Chalk River Laboratories are discussed, and the complementary role of CFD with regard to the established thermalhydraulic methods of analysis is indicated. (author). 8 refs

  18. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catena Quattropani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment

  19. Alcoholism and its treatment approach from a citizen perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Antoni; Arbesú, José Ángel; Zarco, José; López Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    The main objective of the study is to describe alcohol consumption in the general Spanish population, to discover citizens' opinion on their alcohol consumption, on alcoholism and on treatment approaches.   In 2015 a cross-sectional study was carried out by means of a telephone survey. A representative sample was selected. Participants were asked about their alcohol consumption, their perception of risk regarding their pattern of alcohol consumption, about their opinion on alcoholism, alcohol consequences and the treatment approach. A questionnaire was designed. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C was used to define the pattern of alcohol intake. A descriptive and an statistical inference analysis were done. 22.1% were classified as risky drinkers, with a higher proportion in young males. The majority of individuals think that alcoholism is an illness, and more than 75% agree that alcohol has negative consequences on health, social functioning, occupational functioning and family relationships. Furthermore, the perception of risk that citizens have regarding their own drinking pattern is high (37.6%). 67.7% considered that the general practitioner can manage alcoholism, with females and older people believing this most strongly. Alcohol consumption is very prevalent in the Spanish population, especially in young people (31.8%). The perception of alcohol risk is high. The majority agree with the fact that general practitioners are well prepared for treating alcohol problems.

  20. Essential Power Systems Workshop - OEM Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Gouse

    2001-12-12

    general. In addition to the survey, we believe data loggers and focus groups will be necessary to collect the idling duration and location data necessary to compare auxiliary power units to truck stop electrification. Focus groups are recommended to better understand the driver response to APUs and electrification. The appearance and perception of the new systems will need further clarification, which could be accomplished with a demonstration for truck drivers.

  1. Essential Power Systems Workshop - OEM Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bill Gouse

    2001-01-01

    general. In addition to the survey, we believe data loggers and focus groups will be necessary to collect the idling duration and location data necessary to compare auxiliary power units to truck stop electrification. Focus groups are recommended to better understand the driver response to APUs and electrification. The appearance and perception of the new systems will need further clarification, which could be accomplished with a demonstration for truck drivers

  2. The Case of Value Based Communication—Epistemological and Methodological Reflections from a System Theoretical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria von Groddeck

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect the epistemological and methodological aspects of an empirical research study which analyzes the phenomenon of increased value communication within business organizations from a system theoretical perspective in the tradition of Niklas LUHMANN. Drawing on the theoretical term of observation it shows how a research perspective can be developed which opens up the scope for an empirical analysis of communication practices. This analysis focuses on the reconstruction of these practices by first understanding how these practices stabilize themselves and second by contrasting different practices to educe an understanding of different forms of observation of the relevant phenomenon and of the functions of these forms. Thus, this approach combines system theoretical epistemology, analytical research strategies, such as form and functional analysis, and qualitative research methods, such as narrative interviews, participant observation and document analysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003177

  3. Changing physician perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine: the need for a top-down approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon TS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas S MacKinnon,1 Norbert F Banhidy,1 Daniel R Tuite21School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, 2Faculty of Medicine, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UKWe read with great interest the article by Patel et al1 discussing the changing perspectives towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, and an impetus for additional physician knowledge of the strengths and drawbacks of CAM. These findings are indeed relevant in the UK, with an estimated 41.1% one-year prevalence of CAM use, responsible for an annual out-of-pocket expenditure of £1.6 billion.2 We agree that improved training and education in medical school and residencies – which can be thought of as a “bottom-up” approach – are fundamental in preparing the health care system for improved integration of CAM. However, we also suggest that “top-down” changes are required to optimize patient care.Authors' reply Sejal J Patel,1 Kathi J Kemper,2 Joseph P Kitzmiller31College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, 2Center for Integrative Health and Wellness, The Ohio State Wexner University Medical Center, 3Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAWe agree the letter is worthy of publication but have a little to add: a top-down approach (as suggested and described by the authors of the letter certainly complements the bottom-up approach (described in our article.1View the original paper by Patel et al.

  4. Understanding Digital Learning from the Perspective of Systems Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The System Dynamics approach can be seen as a new way of understanding dynamical phenonema (natural, physical, biological, etc.) that occur in our daily lives taking into consideration not only single pairs of cause-effect variables, but the functioning of the system as a whole. This approach also provides the students with a new understanding in…

  5. Freight Transport Time Savings and Organizational Performance: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Sambracos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of freight transport time savings (FTTS on the performance of transport consuming companies. In the first part existing methods on FTTS valuation are critically discussed and their limitations are identified. Following, a conceptual model is built introducing an alternative approach for the valuation of FTTS that is based on the system perspective of firms, integrating the disciplines of systems thinking, performance measurement, transport and logistics decision making. Evidence from a Systems Dynamics’ simulation experiment on a retailer suggests that the effect of FTTS on performance depends highly on the structure of the firm's transport related processes and decision making process. Through the development and simulation of several scenarios concerning the reaction of the firm to the FTTS, it is concluded that the value of FTTS is sensitive to the type of the reaction and its time profile.

  6. Coordination Approaches for Complex Software Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the results of a collaboration between the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Artificial Intelligence and Force Vision to investigate coordination approaches for complex software systems. The project was funded by Force Vision.

  7. Nonequilibrium Green's functions approach to inhomogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Balzer, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a self-contained introduction to non-equilibrium quantum particle dynamics for inhomogeneous systems, including a survey of recent breakthroughs pioneered by the authors and others. The approach is based on real-time Green's functions.

  8. Primary Emotional Systems and Personality: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    The present article highlights important concepts of personality including stability issues from the perspective of situational demands and stability over the life-course. Following this more introductory section, we argue why individual differences in primary emotional systems may represent the phylogenetically oldest parts of human personality. Our argumentation leads to the need to increasingly consider individual differences in the raw affects/emotions of people to understand human personality in a bottom–up fashion, which can be coordinated with top–down perspectives. In support of this idea, we also review existing evidence linking individual differences in primal emotions as assessed with the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales and the widely accepted Big Five Model of Personality. In this context, we provide additional evidence on the link between primal emotions and personality in German and Chinese sample populations. In short, this article addresses evolutionary perspectives in the evaluation of human personality, highlighting some of the ancestral emotional urges that probably still control variations in the construction of human personality structures. Moreover, we address how individual differences in primary emotional systems can illuminate linkages to major human psychopathologies and the potential advantages and disadvantages of carrying a certain personality trait within certain cultural/environmental niches. PMID:28443039

  9. Primary Emotional Systems and Personality: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    The present article highlights important concepts of personality including stability issues from the perspective of situational demands and stability over the life-course. Following this more introductory section, we argue why individual differences in primary emotional systems may represent the phylogenetically oldest parts of human personality. Our argumentation leads to the need to increasingly consider individual differences in the raw affects/emotions of people to understand human personality in a bottom-up fashion, which can be coordinated with top-down perspectives. In support of this idea, we also review existing evidence linking individual differences in primal emotions as assessed with the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales and the widely accepted Big Five Model of Personality. In this context, we provide additional evidence on the link between primal emotions and personality in German and Chinese sample populations. In short, this article addresses evolutionary perspectives in the evaluation of human personality, highlighting some of the ancestral emotional urges that probably still control variations in the construction of human personality structures. Moreover, we address how individual differences in primary emotional systems can illuminate linkages to major human psychopathologies and the potential advantages and disadvantages of carrying a certain personality trait within certain cultural/environmental niches.

  10. EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF PROPORTIONAL ELECTORAL SYSTEM IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Скоропад Тетяна Іванівна

    2015-01-01

    The existing approaches to the typology of electoral systems is analized, the features of the majority, proportional and mixed electoral systems are clarified. The evolution of the Ukrainian electoral system during the period of independence is characterized. Proportional electoral system is seen as a factor in ensuring the stability and effectiveness of elected bodies.

  11. Perspective of the Westinghouse steam generator secondary side maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaley, D.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Westinghouse had developed a set of steam generator secondary maintenance guidelines focused around performing recurring activities each outage without direct regards to the age, deposit loading, operational status, or corrosion status of the steam generator. Through the evolution of steam generator design and steam generator condition data, Westinghouse now uses a proactive assessment and planning approach for utilities. Westinghouse works with utilities to develop steam generator secondary maintenance plans for long term steam generator viability. Westinghouse has developed a portfolio of products to allow utilities to optimize steam generator operability and develop programs aimed at maintaining the steam generator secondary side in a favorable condition for successful long term operation. Judicious use of the means available for program development should allow for corrosion free operation, long term full power operation at optimum thermal efficiency, and leveling of outage expenditures over a long period of time. This paper will review the following required elements for an effective steam generator secondary side strategy: • Assessment: In order to develop an appropriate maintenance strategy, actions must be taken to obtain an accurate picture of the SG secondary side condition. • Forecasting: Using available data predictions are developed for future steam generator conditions and required maintenance actions. • Action: Cost effective engineering and maintenance actions must be completed at the appropriate time as designated by the plan. • Evaluation of Results: Following execution of maintenance tactics, it is necessary to revise strategy and develop technology enhancements as appropriate. (author)

  12. Perspective of the Westinghouse steam generator secondary side maintenance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaley, D. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Historically, Westinghouse had developed a set of steam generator secondary maintenance guidelines focused around performing recurring activities each outage without direct regards to the age, deposit loading, operational status, or corrosion status of the steam generator. Through the evolution of steam generator design and steam generator condition data, Westinghouse now uses a proactive assessment and planning approach for utilities. Westinghouse works with utilities to develop steam generator secondary maintenance plans for long term steam generator viability. Westinghouse has developed a portfolio of products to allow utilities to optimize steam generator operability and develop programs aimed at maintaining the steam generator secondary side in a favorable condition for successful long term operation. Judicious use of the means available for program development should allow for corrosion free operation, long term full power operation at optimum thermal efficiency, and leveling of outage expenditures over a long period of time. This paper will review the following required elements for an effective steam generator secondary side strategy: • Assessment: In order to develop an appropriate maintenance strategy, actions must be taken to obtain an accurate picture of the SG secondary side condition. • Forecasting: Using available data predictions are developed for future steam generator conditions and required maintenance actions. • Action: Cost effective engineering and maintenance actions must be completed at the appropriate time as designated by the plan. • Evaluation of Results: Following execution of maintenance tactics, it is necessary to revise strategy and develop technology enhancements as appropriate. (author)

  13. Current Perspectives on Desmoid Tumors: The Mayo Clinic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joglekar, Siddharth B. [Musculoskeletal Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN55905 (United States); Rose, Peter S.; Sim, Franklin, E-mail: sim.franklin@mayo.edu [Department of Orthopedics, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st ST SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Okuno, Scott [Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN55905 (United States); Petersen, Ivy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN55905 (United States)

    2011-08-08

    Desmoid tumors are a rare group of locally aggressive, non malignant tumors of fibroblastic origin that can lead to significant morbidity due to local invasion. Despite advances in the understanding of these tumors, their natural history is incompletely understood and the optimal treatment is still a matter of debate. Local control is the main goal of treatment and there has been a change in philosophy regarding the management of these tumors from aggressive surgical resection to function preservation. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to plan local control with acceptable morbidity. The current Mayo Clinic algorithm for the treatment of these tumors is based on institutional experience and the available evidence in the literature: asymptomatic/non progressive lesions away from vital structures are managed with observation and regular imaging; primary or recurrent desmoid tumors which are symptomatic or progressive or near vital structures are managed with wide surgical resection when wide surgical margins are possible with minimal functional and cosmetic loss. When positive or close surgical margins are likely, surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive radiotherapy is preferred. If likely functional or cosmetic deficit is unacceptable, radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. Unresectable lesions are considered for radiotherapy, chemotherapy or newer modalities however an unresectable lesion associated with a painful, functionless, infected extremity is managed with an amputation.

  14. BUKOVINA’S TOURISM PERSPECTIVES – A STRATEGIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel STANCIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that the market is the component that validates the correctness of decisions on the fate and prospects of a phenomenon, tourism development strategy should be based on good knowledge and assessment of the market, on the requirement to achieve a balance between its two correlative categories, which are supply and demand.Bukovina is among the touristic destinations known and appreciated by tourists. However, the elaboration of a development strategy should emphasize those tourism sustaining forms that can generate a beneficial multiplier effect upon Suceava County’s economy. Promoting a mix between cultural - religious, rural, active, and mountain tourism tour, accessible to a diverse range of tourists, must be coupled with general and specific infrastructural consolidation. These elements will be able to create favourable conditions conductive to the development of touristic “focal points” or will favour the development of “circuit - type” touristic programs with international visibility overlapped to the Bukovina’s territory, without excluding the possibility of their interconnection with adjacent areas like Maramureş, Neamţ and Chernovtsy Oblast.Main tourism coordinates analysis in the county of Suceava - arrivals, overnight stays, average stay, capacity utilization index etc. - show insufficient concern from local authorities to this field, which argues the need to develop a realistic strategy to approach the issue of tourism development in a modern, complex vision, connected to the latest theoretical results.

  15. The "Classroom Systems Observation Scale": Development of an Instrument To Assess Classrooms Using a Systems Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Marian C.; Dane, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the Classroom Systems Observation Scale (CSOS), which assesses preschool through sixth grade classroom functioning from a systems perspective using a theoretical framework based on the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems. Discusses influences of home environment and parental support on learning; and…

  16. Development of the Lurian approach: a cultural neurolinguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik-Friedgut, Bella

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a discussion of the principle of extracortical organization of higher mental functions and its significance for the development of contemporary neuropsychology. The role of external factors (stimulus-mediator, symbol) in establishing functional connections between various brain systems is, in principle, universal. However, inasmuch as differing mediators and means, or significantly different details within them (direction of writing, orientation by maps or by the behavior of sea birds, etc.) may and in fact do develop in different cultures, neuropsychological analysis must take into account cross-cultural differences. Diagnostic tools must also be adapted to differing cultural contexts. The efficacy of this principle for the analysis of bilingual aphasia and of mental organization of speech, including the effect of acquisition of literacy in native language, is demonstrated. The importance of this principle for the development of new directions in applied neuropsychology is also discussed.

  17. What value means? an approach based on different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Hans Dener Ribeiro da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research related to the development and value concept involves different areas of knowledge and is characterized by a temporal course associated with the genesis and evolution of economic systems. A significant number of studies in this area over the years has been directed to purely economic aspects, particularly with regards to the analysis of value creation by organizations. This article aims to revisit the concept of value through economic-social paradigm by using a literature review based on different disciplines that contribute to conceptually define the determinants of value creation. It was observed that corporate sustainability and operations engineering techniques have been widely studied in recent years, with sustainability being referenced as "intangible value", as well as credibility and organizational reputation. This research contributed verifying sustainability as one of the key concepts in the strategic agenda of organizations and an important guidance on value creation and maintaining long-term business.

  18. Determining the Real Causes of Financial Crisis in Islamic Economic Perspective: ANP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Ascarya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study is to determine the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective.Methods - This study applies Analytic Network Process (ANP to determine the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective to be able to formulate the real solutions to end financial crisis.Results - The ANP results show that the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective are Social Instability (EXTERNAL FACTOR, Speculation (MISBEHAVIOR, Ineffective Fiscal System (UNSUSTAINABLE FISCAL SYSTEM, Hedonism (MISBEHAVIOR, Fractional Reserve Banking System (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, Political Instability (EXTERNAL FACTOR, Corruption (POOR GOVERNANCE, Interest Rate (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, Fiat Money (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, and the Wrong Man in the Wrong Place (POOR GOVERNANCE. These main real causes should be removed gradually in order to systematically and gradually improve the stability of financial system so that financial crisis will not reappear again and again in the future.Conclusions - Financial crisis would not happen under Islamic economic system if all Allah’s laws in financial dealings were followed. Financial crisis in conventional economic system could be prevented or lessened by gradually adopting Islamic economic and finance laws and regulations, partly or fully, especially the main pillars of Islamic financial system, namely the prohibition of ribā (usury or interest, prohibition of maysir (gambling and game of chance or speculation and prohibition of gharar (excessive uncertainty, in their many forms.

  19. Stimulating the diffusion of photovoltaic systems: A behavioural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, Wander

    2006-01-01

    This paper first discusses consumer motives for adopting photovoltaic systems (PV systems) from a behavioural-theoretical perspective. Different motives are discussed within a framework of underlying needs and the time sensitivity of various outcomes. Next, empirical data are presented concerning the motives of buyers of PV systems after a promotional and support campaign in the city of Groningen (the Netherlands). Financial support and general problem awareness are found to be critical motives, but the (strong) positive effects of information meetings, technical support meetings and social networks are also identified. Conclusions focus on the critical motives for adopting a PV system, and suggestions are presented concerning policy measures to stimulate the further diffusion of PV systems

  20. Deciding 'what to teach' health professionals: a human-centred systems engineering perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Anna T

    2014-12-01

    Recent calls propose the conceptualisation of medical education research as 'an improvement science for complex social interventions'. This involves developing principled, yet contextually grounded, descriptions of health care practice that increase the likelihood of successful intervention. Defining what health professionals should be taught using theoretical perspectives and analytical techniques borrowed from human-centred systems engineering (HCSE) may acknowledge this call by allowing learning objectives and performance assessment criteria to be aligned with the demands of actual work. Human-centred systems engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavour that seeks to promote the safe, efficient and productive performance of socio-technological systems. Systems theories in HCSE explain how environmental conditions constrain and afford human goal-directed behaviour and are modified by such. Many of the techniques used in HCSE research that are applicable to examining health care practice should be familiar to medical education researchers. This method differs from other empirical approaches that have been applied to the study of health care practice in its emphasis on practical problem solving via intervention design. Learning objectives and performance assessment criteria derived from an HCSE perspective target people's attunement to environmental conditions as they strive to enact goal-directed behaviour. Implementing educational interventions from an HCSE perspective should facilitate a sustained positive impact across contexts because theories of person-environment interaction enable principled adaptations of interventions to local circumstances. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Soft systems methodology as a systemic approach to nuclear safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Neto, Antonio S.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Rubin, Gerson A.; Caldeira Filho, Jose S.; Camargo, Iara M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Safety approach currently adopted by nuclear installations is built almost exclusively upon analytical methodologies based, mainly, on the belief that the properties of a system, such as its safety, are given by its constituent parts. This approach, however, does not properly address the complex dynamic interactions between technical, human and organizational factors occurring within and outside the organization. After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, experts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended a systemic approach as a complementary perspective to nuclear safety. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the systems thinking approach and its potential use for structuring socio technical problems involved in the safety of nuclear installations, highlighting the methodologies related to the soft systems thinking, in particular the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The implementation of a systemic approach may thus result in a more holistic picture of the system by the complex dynamic interactions between technical, human and organizational factors. (author)

  2. Soft systems methodology as a systemic approach to nuclear safety management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Neto, Antonio S.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Rubin, Gerson A.; Caldeira Filho, Jose S.; Camargo, Iara M.C., E-mail: asvneto@ipen.br, E-mail: snguilhen@ipen.br, E-mail: garubin@ipen.br, E-mail: jscaldeira@ipen.br, E-mail: icamargo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Safety approach currently adopted by nuclear installations is built almost exclusively upon analytical methodologies based, mainly, on the belief that the properties of a system, such as its safety, are given by its constituent parts. This approach, however, does not properly address the complex dynamic interactions between technical, human and organizational factors occurring within and outside the organization. After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, experts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended a systemic approach as a complementary perspective to nuclear safety. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the systems thinking approach and its potential use for structuring socio technical problems involved in the safety of nuclear installations, highlighting the methodologies related to the soft systems thinking, in particular the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The implementation of a systemic approach may thus result in a more holistic picture of the system by the complex dynamic interactions between technical, human and organizational factors. (author)

  3. Parasites, ecosystems and sustainability: an ecological and complex systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2005-06-01

    Host-parasite relationships can be conceptualised either narrowly, where the parasite is metabolically dependent on the host, or more broadly, as suggested by an ecological-evolutionary and complex systems perspective. In this view Host-parasite relationships are part of a larger set of ecological and co-evolutionary interdependencies and a complex adaptive system. These interdependencies affect not just the hosts, vectors, parasites, the immediate agents, but also those indirectly or consequentially affected by the relationship. Host-parasite relationships also can be viewed as systems embedded within larger systems represented by ecological communities and ecosystems. So defined, it can be argued that Host-parasite relationships may often benefit their hosts and contribute significantly to the structuring of ecological communities. The broader, complex adaptive system view also contributes to understanding the phenomenon of disease emergence, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms involved, and the role of parasitology in research and management of ecosystems in light of the apparently growing problem of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and humans. An expanded set of principles for integrated parasite management is suggested by this perspective.

  4. System Identification A Frequency Domain Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pintelon, Rik

    2012-01-01

    System identification is a general term used to describe mathematical tools and algorithms that build dynamical models from measured data. Used for prediction, control, physical interpretation, and the designing of any electrical systems, they are vital in the fields of electrical, mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering. Focusing mainly on frequency domain techniques, System Identification: A Frequency Domain Approach, Second Edition also studies in detail the similarities and differences with the classical time domain approach. It high??lights many of the important steps in the identi

  5. Choice Architecture as a Way to Encourage a Whole Systems Design Perspective for More Sustainable Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Harris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes for certain stakeholders and the surrounding environment. A whole systems design perspective would help connect this fragmented industry and lead to more sustainable outcomes. For example, a whole systems design approach to relieve traffic on a highway might see beyond the obvious, but often ineffective, response of adding a new vehicle lane to encourage a solution such as repurposing existing road lanes from automobiles to above-ground “subway” systems. This paper discusses influences to whole systems design and how intentional choice architecture, meaning the way decisions are posed, can nudge decision-makers to employ whole systems design and result in more sustainable infrastructure. By uncovering these influences and organizing them by the social, organizational, and individual levels of the infrastructure design process, this paper provides the needed foundation for interdisciplinary research to help harness these influences through choice architecture and whole systems design for the infrastructure industry.

  6. Managing Schools as Complex Adaptive Systems: A Strategic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Tuncer; Balci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual study examines the analogies between schools and complex adaptive systems and identifies strategies used to manage schools as complex adaptive systems. Complex adaptive systems approach, introduced by the complexity theory, requires school administrators to develop new skills and strategies to realize their agendas in an…

  7. Dilemmas in Enterprise Architecture Research and Practice from a Perspective of Feral Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Bækgaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper is presenting a discussion of feral information systems (FIS) in relationship to enterprise architecture (EA) thereby aiming to better qualify the architectural understanding of information systems not in line with corporate IT/IS strategy and policies. A qualitative and case......-based approach is used as empirical foundation of this paper. With users developing own IS, classical strategy-based EA approaches are challenged. Identifying FIS can strongly improve insight into organizational processes and shortcomings official EA. A functional and temporal perspective is proposed to guide EA...... processes to embrace unofficial, user-driven systems. As FIS tend not to follow any rules of corporate IS, EA embrace of FIS is more complex. Using a meta-model for the social and operational character of FIS this complexity can be managed along with the improve business insight. The recognition of FIS...

  8. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  9. Local Balancing System from the Business Model Canvas Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Bożena Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overall view of the business model (BM for the e-balance system for: balancing energy production and consumption in energy efficient, smart neighbourhoods (the e-balance project, FP7-SMARTCITIES-2013 along with its functionalities, based upon the Osterwalder’s canvas methodology. Additionally, this is the second, after two years of work, more incisive evaluation of the BM from the user’s and demo site’s perspective (Bronsbergen, the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to present results and assess the above mentioned BM in the face its commercialisation and applicability to Europe.

  10. Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    , however, not limited to this development context, it may be applied for in-house or contract development as well. In system development, particularly in cooperative and experimental system development, we argue that it is necessary to analytically separate the abstract concerns, e.g. analysis, design......This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis...

  11. Impact of a Collective Intelligence Tailored Messaging System on Smoking Cessation: The Perspect Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani Shankar; Borglund, Erin M; Adams, Roy; Marlin, Benjamin M; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-11-08

    Outside health care, content tailoring is driven algorithmically using machine learning compared to the rule-based approach used in current implementations of computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) systems. A special class of machine learning systems ("recommender systems") are used to select messages by combining the collective intelligence of their users (ie, the observed and inferred preferences of users as they interact with the system) and their user profiles. However, this approach has not been adequately tested for CTHC. Our aim was to compare, in a randomized experiment, a standard, evidence-based, rule-based CTHC (standard CTHC) to a novel machine learning CTHC: Patient Experience Recommender System for Persuasive Communication Tailoring (PERSPeCT). We hypothesized that PERSPeCT will select messages of higher influence than our standard CTHC system. This standard CTHC was proven effective in motivating smoking cessation in a prior randomized trial of 900 smokers (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.03-2.81). PERSPeCT is an innovative hybrid machine learning recommender system that selects and sends motivational messages using algorithms that learn from message ratings from 846 previous participants (explicit feedback), and the prior explicit ratings of each individual participant. Current smokers (N=120) aged 18 years or older, English speaking, with Internet access were eligible to participate. These smokers were randomized to receive either PERSPeCT (intervention, n=74) or standard CTHC tailored messages (n=46). The study was conducted between October 2014 and January 2015. By randomization, we compared daily message ratings (mean of smoker ratings each day). At 30 days, we assessed the intervention's perceived influence, 30-day cessation, and changes in readiness to quit from baseline. The proportion of days when smokers agreed/strongly agreed (daily rating ≥4) that the messages influenced them to quit was significantly higher for PERSPeCT (73%, 23/30) than

  12. A Service Systems Perspective of E-Government Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, Chee Wei; Kankanhalli, Atreyi

    There have been increasing efforts by governments worldwide to innovate public service delivery, one of the means being through e-government. However, the mixed success of e-government initiatives highlights the need to better understand citizens' requirements and engage them in the development of e-government service offerings. In response to this need, we propose a service systems perspective to analyze a participatory e-government service system based on the key resources of people, organizations, shared information, and technologies. By doing so, this study bridges the gap in existing research that has separately examined the different resources without considering their inter-relationships in a systematic manner. For practitioners, the resulting framework provides a tool to understand how the key resources as well as stakeholders of the e-government service system inter-relate, which allows more comprehensive strategies to be formulated for improving e-government service offerings.

  13. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  14. Understanding energy technology developments from an innovation system perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, M.; Nygaard Madsen, A. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Gregersen, Birgitte [Aalborg Univ., Department of Business Studies (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    With the increased market-orientation and privatisation of the energy area, the perspective of innovation is becoming more and more relevant for understanding the dynamics of change and technology development in the area. A better understanding of the systemic and complex processes of innovation is needed. This paper presents an innovation systems analysis of new and emerging energy technologies in Denmark. The study focuses on five technology areas: bio fuels, hydrogen technology, wind energy, solar cells and energy-efficient end-use technologies. The main result of the analysis is that the technology areas are quite diverse in a number of innovation-relevant issues like actor set-up, institutional structure, maturity, and connections between market and non-market aspects. The paper constitutes background for discussing the framework conditions for transition to sustainable energy technologies and strengths and weaknesses of the innovation systems. (au)

  15. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  16. Systems approach to project risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindinger, J. P. (John P.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the need for better performance in the planning and execution of projects and examines the capabilities of two different project risk analysis methods for improving project performance. A quantitative approach based on concepts and tools adopted from the disciplines of systems analysis, probabilistic risk analysis, and other fields is advocated for managing risk in large and complex research & development projects. This paper also provides an overview of how this system analysis approach for project risk management is being used at Los Alamos National Laboratory along with examples of quantitative risk analysis results and their application to improve project performance.

  17. Perspectives on integrating the US radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culler, F.L.; Croff, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    The waste management systems being developed and deployed by the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is large, complex, decentralized, and long term. As a result, a systems integration approach has been implemented by OCRWM. The fundamentals of systems integration and its application are examined in the context of the OCRWM program. This application is commendable, and some additional systems integration features are suggested to enhance its benefits. 6 refs., 1 fig

  18. Comparing Approaches for the Integration of Stakeholder Perspectives in Environmental Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Scolobig

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Including stakeholder perspectives in environmental decision making is in many countries a legal requirement and is widely seen as beneficial as it can help increase decision legitimacy, likelihood of implementation, and quality of the outcome. Whereas the theoretical literature on stakeholder engagement is large, less attention has been devoted to comparing and discussing different methodological approaches. Here, we compare three approaches—multi-criteria analysis, plural rationality theory, and scenario construction—that include stakeholders’ perspectives in environmental decision making. We find differences between the approaches concerning the assumptions about stakeholder rationality and whether experts and/or stakeholders are in charge of framing the problem. Further differences concern the type of data input from stakeholders and how it is used by the experts, as well as the role of stakeholders and whether they are involved early—already for identifying options—or later in the process, for evaluating or ranking alternatives analyzed by the experts. The choice of approach thus predetermines the type and depth of stakeholder engagement. No approach is “better” than another, but they are suited for different problems and research aims: the choice of the approach, however, has a large impact on the results.

  19. Three perspectives on motivation and multicriteria assessment of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2014-01-01

    . The question is how an MCA tool should be designed to facilitate reflections, communication, and decision making in relation to organic food systems. A key issue is motivation. There are several divergent theories of motivation, and the question cannot be adequately answered by using any single theory. We...... attention to the influence of cognitive structures and experience-based emotional drivers. Finally, the relational approach stresses that motivation is situated in the relations between agents. We discuss how the three perspectives converge and diverge regarding the purpose of using an MCA tool, the scope...

  20. A Multi-Level Systems Perspective for the Science of Team Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Katy; Contractor, Noshir; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J.; Fiore, Stephen M.; Hall, Kara L.; Keyton, Joann; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William; Uzzi, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This Commentary describes recent research progress and professional developments in the study of scientific teamwork, an area of inquiry termed the “science of team science” (SciTS, pronounced “sahyts”). It proposes a systems perspective that incorporates a mixed-methods approach to SciTS that is commensurate with the conceptual, methodological, and translational complexities addressed within the SciTS field. The theoretically grounded and practically useful framework is intended to integrate existing and future lines of SciTS research to facilitate the field’s evolution as it addresses key challenges spanning macro, meso, and micro levels of analysis. PMID:20844283

  1. Benefits from a geographers' perspective on human-water systems - the waterscape concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Recently a couple of theoretical foundations and concepts were developed such as hydro-sociology, hydro-economics and integrated water resources management in order to structure and process parameterizations of hydrological research and reflect human-water-interrelations. However, a remaining challenge in human-water-system research is that approaches like socio-hydrology still struggle to formalize hypotheses which are capable to capture the basic driving mechanisms of the dynamic human-water system beyond optimizing algorithms or the principle of optimality or entropy as the societal values and experiences may unfold diverging policy and society responses (cf. Troy et al. 2015). Another challenge that we see is the integration of physical and social sciences with regard to the different epistemologies and perspectives: positivist thinking common in natural sciences and engineering and constructivist conceptualisation common in the social sciences. Here, geographic research seeks to acknowledge multi-spatial perspectives of the different actors and entities and their integration into the physical system that needs mutual recognition of natural and social sciences concepts, theories and methods. We suggest for human-water system research a more geographic perspective, which we call waterscape concept. Water can be regarded as a key structuring element for landscape and its management and, hence, from our perspective, the dynamics in water resources and interrelation of actors and entities in its management also helps to better understand current landscape patterns, their developments and interrelations, respectively. By our definition, a waterscape includes sources and users of water, their interactions, feedbacks and external influencing factors. It is therefore not only the physical space but rather includes the arena of actors and entities interacting. Against this understanding, waterscapes are defined by reciprocal boundary conditions which allow integrating

  2. Impact of a Collective Intelligence Tailored Messaging System on Smoking Cessation: The Perspect Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglund, Erin M; Adams, Roy; Marlin, Benjamin M; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Background Outside health care, content tailoring is driven algorithmically using machine learning compared to the rule-based approach used in current implementations of computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) systems. A special class of machine learning systems (“recommender systems”) are used to select messages by combining the collective intelligence of their users (ie, the observed and inferred preferences of users as they interact with the system) and their user profiles. However, this approach has not been adequately tested for CTHC. Objective Our aim was to compare, in a randomized experiment, a standard, evidence-based, rule-based CTHC (standard CTHC) to a novel machine learning CTHC: Patient Experience Recommender System for Persuasive Communication Tailoring (PERSPeCT). We hypothesized that PERSPeCT will select messages of higher influence than our standard CTHC system. This standard CTHC was proven effective in motivating smoking cessation in a prior randomized trial of 900 smokers (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.03-2.81). Methods PERSPeCT is an innovative hybrid machine learning recommender system that selects and sends motivational messages using algorithms that learn from message ratings from 846 previous participants (explicit feedback), and the prior explicit ratings of each individual participant. Current smokers (N=120) aged 18 years or older, English speaking, with Internet access were eligible to participate. These smokers were randomized to receive either PERSPeCT (intervention, n=74) or standard CTHC tailored messages (n=46). The study was conducted between October 2014 and January 2015. By randomization, we compared daily message ratings (mean of smoker ratings each day). At 30 days, we assessed the intervention’s perceived influence, 30-day cessation, and changes in readiness to quit from baseline. Results The proportion of days when smokers agreed/strongly agreed (daily rating ≥4) that the messages influenced them to quit was significantly

  3. A business case for Smart Grid technologies: A systemic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Fulli, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization of the electricity grid opens the way to bundle value added services to the electricity commodity, and possibly shift business value to electricity services in line with the notions of efficiency, conservation and sustainability. In this context, market forces should be mobilized within the boundaries of energy policy goals to contribute to the massive investments that are required to fulfill the Smart Grid vision. In this paper, we present a systemic perspective aimed at establishing technical and economic synergies that may improve the business cases of individual different Smart Grid technologies and contribute to reverse the consumption-driven paradigm of the electricity sector. Our analysis is supported by evidence from applications in the electric vehicle and smart meter ecosystems. Throughout the paper, an EU (European Union) perspective is primarily considered. - Highlights: ► We show how the analysis of systemic effects can play a fundamental role in offering a business case to Smart Grid technology and in providing some guidance to new policy interventions and initiatives. ► We base our discussion on two case studies: the set-up of business platforms for (1) Electric Vehicles and E-mobility services and (2) Smart Meters and Smart Home Services. ► We highlight how new business arrangements might leverage technological/business synergies, foster investments and shift business value to electricity services. ► We discuss possible downsides and challenges such as privacy concerns, dominant positions in new business platforms, and consumers' resistance.

  4. Music Genre Classification Systems - A Computational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Automatic music genre classification is the classification of a piece of music into its corresponding genre (such as jazz or rock) by a computer. It is considered to be a cornerstone of the research area Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and closely linked to the other areas in MIR. It is thought...... that MIR will be a key element in the processing, searching and retrieval of digital music in the near future. This dissertation is concerned with music genre classification systems and in particular systems which use the raw audio signal as input to estimate the corresponding genre. This is in contrast...... to systems which use e.g. a symbolic representation or textual information about the music. The approach to music genre classification systems has here been system-oriented. In other words, all the different aspects of the systems have been considered and it is emphasized that the systems should...

  5. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical....... The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations...... application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods...

  6. Sri Lanka's post-tsunami health system recovery: a qualitative analysis of physician perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, William Collin; Bui, Thuy

    2018-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to the health system in Sri Lanka. Rebuilding infrastructure and improving the mental health system were targets of recovery policies. Retrospective analyses of the post-tsunami health system recovery in Sri Lanka lack the perspectives of local stakeholders, including health care providers. In 2014 we interviewed 23 Sri Lankan physicians from the Eastern and Southern regions. Participants were recruited with snowball sampling. We used a content analysis approach in analysing the transcriptions. Sri Lankan physicians critiqued governance, sustainability and equity in the health system recovery. They held leadership roles as facilitators and sustainers of specific projects but were rarely formally consulted in recovery strategic planning. They identified instances of poor coordination among partners, corruption trends, local resource mismatches, regional resource disparities and the influence of the Sri Lankan civil war. Post-tsunami health system recovery planning and implementation in Sri Lanka did not involve local physician stakeholders in ways that have been prioritized more recently in other recovery frameworks. Despite limited formal inclusion, local physicians developed significant leadership roles that have informed their critical perspectives on the health system recovery. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Advances on plant-pathogen interactions from molecular toward systems biology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraud, Rémi; Dubiella, Ullrich; Barbacci, Adelin; Genin, Stéphane; Raffaele, Sylvain; Roby, Dominique

    2017-05-01

    In the past 2 decades, progress in molecular analyses of the plant immune system has revealed key elements of a complex response network. Current paradigms depict the interaction of pathogen-secreted molecules with host target molecules leading to the activation of multiple plant response pathways. Further research will be required to fully understand how these responses are integrated in space and time, and exploit this knowledge in agriculture. In this review, we highlight systems biology as a promising approach to reveal properties of molecular plant-pathogen interactions and predict the outcome of such interactions. We first illustrate a few key concepts in plant immunity with a network and systems biology perspective. Next, we present some basic principles of systems biology and show how they allow integrating multiomics data and predict cell phenotypes. We identify challenges for systems biology of plant-pathogen interactions, including the reconstruction of multiscale mechanistic models and the connection of host and pathogen models. Finally, we outline studies on resistance durability through the robustness of immune system networks, the identification of trade-offs between immunity and growth and in silico plant-pathogen co-evolution as exciting perspectives in the field. We conclude that the development of sophisticated models of plant diseases incorporating plant, pathogen and climate properties represent a major challenge for agriculture in the future. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. System identification: a frequency domain approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pintelon, R; Schoukens, J

    2001-01-01

    ... in the Identification Process 17 1.4.1 Collect Information about the System 17 1.4.2 Select a Model Structure to Represent the System 17 1.4.3 Match the Selected Model Structure to the Measurements 19 1.4.4 Validate the Selected Model 19 1.4.5 Conclusion 19 A Statistical Approach to the Estimation Problem 1.5.1 Least Squares Estimation 20 1.5.2 Weighted Least Squar...

  9. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  10. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  11. Promotion of agricultural innovation systems approach: policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study (Wambura et al., 2016) which assessed extension and advisory service delivery for maize production in Morogoro and Dodoma Regions of Tanzania using Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) Approach. Maize productivity in Tanzania is low in spite of its importance to the country's food ...

  12. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    ABSTRACT. The systemic approach to teaching and learning (SATL) has been developed during the last decade 1-7). SATL techniques have been implemented and evaluated in many different disciplines (chemistry, biology, physics, and math) in all educational levels, but the major SATL applications have been reported ...

  13. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  14. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita Wilkinson

    AJCE, 2017, 7(3), Special Issue. ISSN 2227-5835. 68. Firstly, SAQs were proposed by Fahmy and Lagowski [14] within Systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry (SATLC) as new objective test questions, or assessment schemas that belong to the broader group of concept mapping technique. Similarly, to ...

  15. Cloud service performance evaluation: status, challenges, and opportunities – a survey from the system modeling perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With rapid advancement of Cloud computing and networking technologies, a wide spectrum of Cloud services have been developed by various providers and utilized by numerous organizations as indispensable ingredients of their information systems. Cloud service performance has a significant impact on performance of the future information infrastructure. Thorough evaluation on Cloud service performance is crucial and beneficial to both service providers and consumers; thus forming an active research area. Some key technologies for Cloud computing, such as virtualization and the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA, bring in special challenges to service performance evaluation. A tremendous amount of effort has been put by the research community to address these challenges and exciting progress has been made. Among the work on Cloud performance analysis, evaluation approaches developed with a system modeling perspective play an important role. However, related works have been reported in different sections of the literature; thus lacking a big picture that shows the latest status of this area. The objectives of this article is to present a survey that reflects the state of the art of Cloud service performance evaluation from the system modeling perspective. This articles also examines open issues and challenges to the surveyed evaluation approaches and identifies possible opportunities for future research in this important field.

  16. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  17. Crisis Communication in a Systems- and Medium Theoretical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    the paper takes into account and discusses crisis communication in relation to the new medium environment and especially in regard to social media. The conclusion is that organizations now more than ever must be observant, reflected and responsive with regard to the public opinion, because of the new, more...... conflict, risk, trust, public opinion and mass media in regard to this field, and, vice versa, how can we understand crisis communication with sociologically systems theoretical concepts? This paper tries to answer these questions and thereby to contribute to the understanding of the field. Hereto......The academic field of crisis communication is more relevant now than ever before because of the digital media revolution, setting new standards for how to react to critics. But what is this academic field in a systems theoretical perspective? How can we understand sociological concepts like...

  18. Concept development of control system for perspective unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koryanov Vsevolod V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented actual aspects of the development of the control system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in the example of perspective. Because the current and future UAV oriented to implementation of a wide range of tasks, taking into account the use of several types of payload, in this paper discusses the general principles of construction of onboard control complex, in turn, a hardware implementation of the automatic control system has been implemented in the microcontroller Arduino platform and the Raspberry Pi. In addition, in the paper presents the most common and promising way to ensure the smooth and reliable communication of the command post with the UAV as well as to the ways of parry considered and abnormal situations.

  19. System learning approach to assess sustainability and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key method in Information Theory, to preserve trends in the historical data and prevent over fitting projections. The methodology was applied to demographic, environmental, food and energy consumption, and agricultural production in the San Luis Basin regional system in Colorado, U.S.A. These variables are important for tracking conditions in human and natural systems. However, available data are often so far out of date that they limit the ability to manage these systems. Results indicate that the approaches developed provide viable tools for forecasting outcomes with the aim of assisting management toward sustainable trends. This methodology is also applicable for modeling different scenarios in other dynamic systems. Indicators are indispensable for tracking conditions in human and natural systems, however, available data is sometimes far out of date and limit the ability to gauge system status. Techniques like regression and simulation are not sufficient because system characteristics have to be modeled ensuring over simplification of complex dynamics. This work presents a methodology combining the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to capture patterns in a real dyna

  20. Reducing Technology-Induced Errors: Organizational and Health Systems Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Senthriajah, Yalini; Kushniruk, Andre W; Palojoki, Sari; Saranto, Kaija; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Technology-induced errors are a growing concern for health care organizations. Such errors arise from the interaction between healthcare and information technology deployed in complex settings and contexts. As the number of health information technologies that are used to provide patient care rises so will the need to develop ways to improve the quality and safety of the technology that we use. The objective of the panel is to describe varying approaches to improving software safety from and organizational and health systems perspective. We define what a technology-induced error is. Then, we discuss how software design and testing can be used to improve health information technologies. This discussion is followed by work in the area of monitoring and reporting at a health district and national level. Lastly, we draw on the quality, safety and resilience literature. The target audience for this work are nursing and health informatics researchers, practitioners, administrators, policy makers and students.

  1. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  2. Exact combinatorial approach to finite coagulating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Agata; Chmiel, Anna; Fronczak, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    This paper outlines an exact combinatorial approach to finite coagulating systems. In this approach, cluster sizes and time are discrete and the binary aggregation alone governs the time evolution of the systems. By considering the growth histories of all possible clusters, an exact expression is derived for the probability of a coagulating system with an arbitrary kernel being found in a given cluster configuration when monodisperse initial conditions are applied. Then this probability is used to calculate the time-dependent distribution for the number of clusters of a given size, the average number of such clusters, and that average's standard deviation. The correctness of our general expressions is proved based on the (analytical and numerical) results obtained for systems with the constant kernel. In addition, the results obtained are compared with the results arising from the solutions to the mean-field Smoluchowski coagulation equation, indicating its weak points. The paper closes with a brief discussion on the extensibility to other systems of the approach presented herein, emphasizing the issue of arbitrary initial conditions.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo approaches for correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becca, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, computational approaches to studying strongly-interacting systems have become increasingly varied and sophisticated. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo techniques relevant for applications in correlated systems. Providing a clear overview of variational wave functions, and featuring a detailed presentation of stochastic samplings including Markov chains and Langevin dynamics, which are developed into a discussion of Monte Carlo methods. The variational technique is described, from foundations to a detailed description of its algorithms. Further topics discussed include optimisation techniques, real-time dynamics and projection methods, including Green's function, reptation and auxiliary-field Monte Carlo, from basic definitions to advanced algorithms for efficient codes, and the book concludes with recent developments on the continuum space. Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Correlated Systems provides an extensive reference ...

  4. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and organize the key factors in complex social-ecological systems, but can be overwhelming to generate and lead to key concepts being overlooked if development is unstructured. Using a DPSIR approach (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses), conceptual models can be developed to link decision scenarios and stressors to impacts on ecosystem services. These impacts on priority ecosystem services can then be linked to changes in human health and well-being through benefit functions. Expert input and contributions across disciplines provides appropriate temporal and spatial scales for determination of targets, project implementation, and monitoring strategies. This approach is being applied to create descriptive SES models of two wetland restoration projects. The first, the dredging of a degraded estuarine channel and restoration of mangrove forests in Caño Martìn Peña in San Juan, Puerto Rico is in the planning stage. The second, the restoration of a former cranberry farm in Plymouth, Massachusetts has completed a large restoration of freshwater wetland, and is gearing up for a second phase. Through the development of conceptual models, we are connecting driving forces wi

  5. Dual fermion approach to disordered correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Disorder is ubiquitous in real materials and influences the physical properties like the conductivity to varying degrees. If electron-electron interactions are strong, theoretical and numerical treatment of these systems becomes challenging. In this thesis a numerical approach is developed to address these systems, treating both interactions and disorder on equal footing. The approach is based on the dual fermion approach for interacting systems developed by Rubtsov et al. Terletska et al. applied the ideas of the dual fermion approach to disordered non-interacting systems. In this approach, the replica trick is used to integrate out the disorder in favor of an effective electron-electron interaction. We extended the approach from Terletska et al. to treat disordered interacting systems. Dual Fermions allow to take into account non-local fluctuations by means of a perturbative expansion around an impurity problem. The impurity reference system is determined self-consistently, analogously to the dynamical mean-field theory. The perturbative expansion is expected to yield good results for small and large values of interaction strength and disorder. A priori, it is not clear what to expect for intermediate values, but experience shows that oftentimes good results are obtained for this region. An advantage of the dual fermion approach is that there is no sign-problem for a single orbital model if quantum Monte Carlo is used to solve the interacting reference system. Additionally, perturbation theory is usually numerically much cheaper than fully solving an interacting lattice or cluster problem. Thus, the dual fermion approach allows to address regions of parameter space that are not accessible to lattice quantum Monte Carlo calculations or cluster extension of dynamical mean-field theory. Cluster extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory are for example the dynamical cluster approximation or the cellular dynamical mean-field theory. The new approach is benchmarked

  6. Global nurse leader perspectives on health systems and workforce challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Nancy Rollins; Sherman, Rose; Jasper, Melanie; Choo, Chua Gek; Herrin-Griffith, Donna; Harris, Kathy

    2012-05-01

    As part of the 2011 annual American Organization of Nurse Executives conference held in San Diego, California, a session was presented that focused on nursing workforce and health systems challenges from a global perspective. This article includes content addressed during the session representing nurse leader perspectives from the UK, Singapore and the USA. Recent events in global economic markets have highlighted the interdependence of countries. There is now a global focus on health-care costs and quality as government leaders struggle to reduce budgets and remain solvent. Finding solutions to these complex problems requires that nurse leaders adopt more of a world view and network with one another as they look for best practices and creative strategies. Nursing leadership challenges such as staffing, competency development, ageing populations, reduced health-care funding and maintaining quality are now common global problems. There is a need for innovation in nursing practice to accommodate the enormous challenges facing nursing's future. Opportunities on an international scale for nurse leaders to have dialogue and network, such as the conference presentation discussed in this article, will become increasingly more important to facilitate the development of innovative leadership strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Sound velocity estimation: A system theoretic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sullivan, E.J. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI (United States)

    1993-07-30

    A system-theoretic approach is proposed to investigate the feasibility of reconstructing a sound velocity profile (SVP) from acoustical hydrophone measurements. This problem is based on a state-space representation of the normal-mode propagation model. It is shown that this representation can be utilized to investigate the so-called observability of the SVP from noisy measurement data. A model-based processor is developed to extract this information and it is shown that even in cases where limited SVP information is available, the SVP can be estimated using this approach.

  8. The Influence of Teachers' Teaching Approaches on Students' Learning Approaches: The Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausaert, Simon A. J.; Segers, M. S. R; Wiltink, Danique P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on the relation between teaching and learning approaches has been mainly conducted in higher education and it is not yet clear to what extent the results can be generalised when it comes to secondary education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to research how students in secondary education perceive their teachers'…

  9. An engineering design approach to systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Kevin A; Chandran, Preethi L; Ford, Roseanne M; Lazzara, Matthew J; Papin, Jason A; Peirce, Shayn M; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2017-07-17

    Measuring and modeling the integrated behavior of biomolecular-cellular networks is central to systems biology. Over several decades, systems biology has been shaped by quantitative biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and engineers in different ways. However, the basic and applied versions of systems biology are not typically distinguished, which blurs the separate aspirations of the field and its potential for real-world impact. Here, we articulate an engineering approach to systems biology, which applies educational philosophy, engineering design, and predictive models to solve contemporary problems in an age of biomedical Big Data. A concerted effort to train systems bioengineers will provide a versatile workforce capable of tackling the diverse challenges faced by the biotechnological and pharmaceutical sectors in a modern, information-dense economy.

  10. Distributed design approach in persistent identifiers systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Car, Nicholas; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID) systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementations, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, persistence, and trustworthiness, regardless of the identifier's application domain, the scope of which has expanded significantly in the past two decades. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by small communities, or even a single organisation, they have faced challenges in gaining widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. This has left a legacy of identifiers that still exist and are being used but which have lost their resolution service. We believe that one of the causes of once successful PID systems fading is their reliance on a centralised technical infrastructure or a governing authority. Golodoniuc et al. (2016) proposed an approach to the development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system, as a distributed system for the registration and first-degree resolution of persistent identifiers, and (b) the PID Service (Golodoniuc et al., 2015), to enable fine-grained resolution to different information object representations. The proposed approach solved the problem of guaranteed first-degree resolution of identifiers, but left fine-grained resolution and information delivery under the control of a single authoritative source, posing risk to the long-term availability of information resources. Herein, we develop these approaches further and explore the potential of large-scale decentralisation at all levels: (i) persistent identifiers and information resources registration; (ii) identifier resolution; and (iii) data delivery. To achieve large-scale decentralisation

  11. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Developmental mechanisms: putting genes in their place. STUART A NEWMAN. Department of Cell Biology ... effects, multifactoriality and func- tional redundancy of gene action in the determination of. Perspectives .... The vertebrate seg- mental plate becomes sequentially partitioned into paired somites by a process that ...

  12. Adaptive Control of the Chaotic System via Singular System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control problem of the chaotic system subject to disturbance. The sliding mode surface is designed by singular system approach, and sufficient condition for convergence is given. Then, the adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to make the state arrive at the sliding mode surface in finite time. Finally, Lorenz system is considered as an example to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Approach trajectory planning system for maximum concealment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David N., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate a maximum concealment guidance technique (pop-up maneuver), which military aircraft may use to capture a glide path from masked, low-altitude flight typical of terrain following/terrain avoidance flight enroute. The guidance system applied to this problem is the Fuel Conservative Guidance System. Previous studies using this system have concentrated on the saving of fuel in basically conventional land and ship-based operations. Because this system is based on energy-management concepts, it also has direct application to the pop-up approach which exploits aircraft performance. Although the algorithm was initially designed to reduce fuel consumption, the commanded deceleration is at its upper limit during the pop-up and, therefore, is a good approximation of a minimum-time solution. Using the model of a powered-lift aircraft, the results of the study demonstrated that guidance commands generated by the system are well within the capability of an automatic flight-control system. Results for several initial approach conditions are presented.

  14. Future Perspectives of ERAS: A Narrative Review on the New Applications of an Established Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bugada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ERAS approach (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery is a multimodal, perioperative pathway designed to achieve early recovery after surgery. ERAS has shown documented efficacy in elective surgery, and the concept of “multimodal” and “multidisciplinary” approach seems still to be of higher importance than each single item within ERAS protocols. New perspectives include the use of ERAS in emergency surgery, where efficacy and safety on outcome have been documented, and flexibility of traditional items may add benefits for traditionally high-risk patients. Obstetric surgery, as well, may open wide horizons for future research, since extremely poor data are currently available, and ERAS benefits may translate even on the baby. Finally, the concept of “outcome” may be extended when considering the specific setting of cancer surgery, in which variables like cancer recurrence, early access to adjuvant therapies, and, finally, long-term survival are as important as the reduced perioperative complications. In this perspective, different items within ERAS protocols should be reinterpreted and eventually integrated towards “protective” techniques, to develop cancer-specific ERAS approaches keeping pace with the specific aims of oncologic surgery.

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting – a Stakeholder’s Perspective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litfin Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: International financial reporting standards have constantly been facing fast-growing significant development. This has mainly been driven by the aim of better serving the needs of the investors. Awareness that corporate financial reporting provides short-sighted information and measures has been rising among politicians, in the society and on the financial markets. Therefore, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting as a form of non-financial reporting has made it to limelight. Various reporting types developed, but the type of reporting is hardly codified. Objective: The goal of this paper is to identify the superior CSR reporting type from a stakeholder’s perspective. After identifying and analyzing central guidelines on CSR reporting and presenting different approaches, the authors will apply a positive-empirical methodology. Methods/Approach: In this first innovative joint attempt, eye-tracking technology is combined with a questionnaire for approaching CSR quality. Results: This study demonstrates the validity of the used methodology for the analysis of search and information browsing behavior in various types of sustainability reports. Conclusions: Overall our findings indicate that the reporting type "reference sustainability report" may not be advisable from a stakeholder’s perspective.

  16. Systemic Problems: A perspective on stem cell aging and rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Irina M; Conboy, Michael J; Rebo, Justin

    2015-10-01

    This review provides balanced analysis of the advances in systemic regulation of young and old tissue stem cells and suggests strategies for accelerating development of therapies to broadly combat age-related tissue degenerative pathologies. Many highlighted recent reports on systemic tissue rejuvenation combine parabiosis with a "silver bullet" putatively responsible for the positive effects. Attempts to unify these papers reflect the excitement about this experimental approach and add value in reproducing previous work. At the same time, defined molecular approaches, which are "beyond parabiosis" for the rejuvenation of multiple old organs represent progress toward attenuating or even reversing human tissue aging.

  17. MyOcean Central Information System - Achievements and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dianous, Rémi; Jolibois, Tony; Besnard, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    MyOcean (http://www.myocean.eu) is providing a pre-operational service, for forecasts, analysis and expertise on ocean currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, primary ecosystems and ice coverage. Since 2009, three successive projects (MyOcean-I, MyOcean-II and MyOcean-Follow-on) have been designed to prepare and to lead the demonstration phases of the future Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service. The main goal of these projects was to build a system of systems offering the users a unique access point to European oceanographic data. Reaching this goal at European level with 59 partners from 28 different countries was a real challenge: initially, each local system had its own human processes and methodology, its own interfaces for production and dissemination. At the end of MyOcean Follow-on, any user can connect to one web portal, browse an interactive catalogue of products and services, use one login to access all data disseminated through harmonized interfaces in a common format and contact a unique centralized service desk. In this organization the central information system plays a key role. The production of observation and forecasting data is done by 48 Production Units (PU). Product download and visualisation are hosted by 26 Dissemination Units (DU). All these products and associated services are gathered in a single system hiding the intricate distributed organization of PUs and DUs. This central system will be presented in detail, including notably the technical choices in architecture and technologies which have been made and why, and the lessons learned during these years of real life of the system, taking into account internal and external feedbacks. Then, perspectives will be presented to sketch the future of such system in the next Marine Copernicus Service which is meant to be fully operational from 2015 onwards.

  18. On the origins of anticipation as an evolutionary framework: functional systems perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurismaa, Andres

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the problem of anticipation from an evolutionary and systems-theoretical perspective, developed in the context of Russian/Soviet evolutionary biological and neurophysiological schools in the early and mid-twentieth century. On this background, an outline is given of the epigenetic interpretation of anticipatory capacities formulated and substantiated by the eminent Russian neurophysiologist academician Peter K. Anokhin in the framework of functional systems theory. It is considered that several key positions of this theory are well confirmed by recent evidence on anticipation as an evolutionarily basic adaptive capacity, possibly inherent to the organization of life. In the field of neuroscience, the theory of functional systems may potentially facilitate future studies at the intersection of learning, development and evolution by representing an integrative approach to the problem of anticipation.

  19. Perspective loads of transformer substations at development of urban power supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Guseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In work the system approach to formation of the urban power supply system is given. The hierarchical structure of the construction, voltage levels and load densities is considered. The mathematical and geometrical modeling of service areas for transformer substations of diff erent voltage is fulfi lled. Determination of perspective loads of transformer substations is given. The method of graphic placement of transformer substations in the city territory for new substations at existing structure of networks is off ered. The calculation program Microsoft EXCEL and the graphic program AutoCad are used for realization of method. The method allows fi nding a rational decision for the development of urban power supply system on the beginning design stages in conditions of the information uncertainty.

  20. Introduction to Focus Issue: Complex network perspectives on flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V; Hernández-García, Emilio; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    During the last few years, complex network approaches have demonstrated their great potentials as versatile tools for exploring the structural as well as dynamical properties of dynamical systems from a variety of different fields. Among others, recent successful examples include (i) functional (correlation) network approaches to infer hidden statistical interrelationships between macroscopic regions of the human brain or the Earth's climate system, (ii) Lagrangian flow networks allowing to trace dynamically relevant fluid-flow structures in atmosphere, ocean or, more general, the phase space of complex systems, and (iii) time series networks unveiling fundamental organization principles of dynamical systems. In this spirit, complex network approaches have proven useful for data-driven learning of dynamical processes (like those acting within and between sub-components of the Earth's climate system) that are hidden to other analysis techniques. This Focus Issue presents a collection of contributions addressing the description of flows and associated transport processes from the network point of view and its relationship to other approaches which deal with fluid transport and mixing and/or use complex network techniques.

  1. Differentiation in Online Retailing from a Consumer’s Perspective – A Repertory Grid Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellner, Julian; Wagner, Gerhard; Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the highly competitive nature of the online retail environment, differentiation strategies are import for online retailers to gain competitive advantages and achieve a unique positioning on the market. However, little is known about perceptual dimensions used by consumers to make...... a distinction between online retailers. The present study addresses this research gap by using a repertory grid approach to identify points of difference between online retailers from a consumer’s perspective. The results have important implications for positioning strategies of online retailers and research...... on online store formats....

  2. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  3. Iraqi primary care system in Kurdistan region: providers' perspectives on problems and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S; Sondorp, Egbert; Vaughan, Kelsey

    2012-09-27

    As part of a comprehensive study on the primary health care system in Iraq, we sought to explore primary care providers' perspectives about the main problems influencing the provision of primary care services and opportunities to improve the system. A qualitative study based on four focus groups involving 40 primary care providers from 12 primary health care centres was conducted in Erbil governorate in the Iraqi Kurdistan region between July and October 2010. A topic guide was used to lead discussions and covered questions on positive aspects of and current problems with the primary care system in addition to the priority needs for its improvement. The discussions were fully transcribed and the qualitative data was analyzed by content analysis, followed by a thematic analysis. Problems facing the primary care system included inappropriate health service delivery (irrational use of health services, irrational treatment, poor referral system, poor infrastructure and poor hygiene), health workforce challenges (high number of specialists, uneven distribution of the health workforce, rapid turnover, lack of training and educational opportunities and discrepancies in the salary system), shortage in resources (shortage and low quality of medical supplies and shortage in financing), poor information technology and poor leadership/governance. The greatest emphasis was placed on poor organization of health services delivery, particularly the irrational use of health services and the related overcrowding and overload on primary care providers and health facilities. Suggestions for improving the system included application of a family medicine approach and ensuring effective planning and monitoring. This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that negatively affect the primary care system in Iraq's Kurdistan region from the perspective of primary care providers. From their experience, primary care providers have a role in informing the community and

  4. REVERSIBLE WATERMARKING APPROACH FOR HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Turuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Health Information System [HIS] are gaining augmented acceptability and wide popularity as exchange of medical information and medical images between the healthcare centres are boosted up, which makes reversible watermarking emerge as an upcoming thrust area of research. This paper presents an efficient reversible approach for interleaving patient information in the form of Electro Cardio Graph [ECG] signal and hospital logo in the medical images. The proposed approach based on Discrete Wavelet Transform [DWT], utilizes the peak point of the difference image histogram for hiding the credentials of the corresponding patients. The superiority of the proposed approach is validated using 60 case studies of various modalities (CT, MRI, MRA and US and comparing it with the spatial domain approach. Experimental results show that the histogram based approach using DWT gives high quality of watermarked image even after hiding the ECG signal encrypted with Adaptive Delta Modulation [ADM] and binary hospital logo. The high values of PSNR ensure the perceptual integrity, authentication of the patient’s data and bandwidth reduction of the medical images as compared to the state of art methods.

  5. Complexity in neurobiology: perspectives from the study of noise in human motor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Torre, Kjerstin

    2012-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the themed special issue on "Complex Systems in Neurobiology." The study of complexity in neurobiology has been sensitive to the stochastic processes that dominate the micro-level architecture of neurobiological systems and the deterministic processes that govern the macroscopic behavior of these systems. A large body of research has traversed these scales of interest, seeking to determine how noise at one spatial or temporal scale influences the activity of the system at another scale. In introducing this special issue, we pay special attention to the history of inquiry in complex systems and why scientists have tended to favor linear, causally driven, reductionist approaches in Neurobiology. We follow this with an elaboration of how an alternative approach might be formulated. To illustrate our position on how the sciences of complexity and the study of noise can inform neurobiology, we use three systematic examples from the study of human motor control and learning: 1) phase transitions in bimanual coordination; 2) balance, intermittency, and discontinuous control; and 3) sensorimotor synchronization and timing. Using these examples and showing that noise is adaptively utilized by the nervous system, we make the case for the studying complexity with a perspective of understanding the macroscopic stability in biological systems by focusing on component processes at extended spatial and temporal scales. This special issue continues this theme with contributions in topics as diverse as neural network models, physical biology, motor learning, and statistical physics.

  6. Benefits and Drawbacks of Computer-Based Assessment and Feedback Systems: Student and Educator Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuse, Justin C. W.; Lawley, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Providing students with high quality feedback is important and can be achieved using computer-based systems. While student and educator perspectives of such systems have been investigated, a comprehensive multidisciplinary study has not yet been undertaken. This study examines student and educator perspectives of a computer-based assessment and…

  7. Multiple Measures Accountability Systems: A Perspective from Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Amy

    2018-01-01

    In response to Bae's (2018) "Redesigning systems of school accountability: A multiple measures approach to accountability and support," this commentary expands on some key considerations for states and school districts as they seek different ways to support school improvement while also addressing the competing demands of educators,…

  8. System engineering approach to GPM retrieval algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, C. R. (Chris R.); Chandrasekar, V.

    2004-01-01

    System engineering principles and methods are very useful in large-scale complex systems for developing the engineering requirements from end-user needs. Integrating research into system engineering is a challenging task. The proposed Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite will use a dual-wavelength precipitation radar to measure and map global precipitation with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and areal coverage. The satellite vehicle, precipitation radars, retrieval algorithms, and ground validation (GV) functions are all critical subsystems of the overall GPM system and each contributes to the success of the mission. Errors in the radar measurements and models can adversely affect the retrieved output values. Ground validation (GV) systems are intended to provide timely feedback to the satellite and retrieval algorithms based on measured data. These GV sites will consist of radars and DSD measurement systems and also have intrinsic constraints. One of the retrieval algorithms being studied for use with GPM is the dual-wavelength DSD algorithm that does not use the surface reference technique (SRT). The underlying microphysics of precipitation structures and drop-size distributions (DSDs) dictate the types of models and retrieval algorithms that can be used to estimate precipitation. Many types of dual-wavelength algorithms have been studied. Meneghini (2002) analyzed the performance of single-pass dual-wavelength surface-reference-technique (SRT) based algorithms. Mardiana (2003) demonstrated that a dual-wavelength retrieval algorithm could be successfully used without the use of the SRT. It uses an iterative approach based on measured reflectivities at both wavelengths and complex microphysical models to estimate both No and Do at each range bin. More recently, Liao (2004) proposed a solution to the Do ambiguity problem in rain within the dual-wavelength algorithm and showed a possible melting layer model based on stratified spheres. With the No and Do

  9. Notes on economic time series analysis system theoretic perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Masanao

    1983-01-01

    In seminars and graduate level courses I have had several opportunities to discuss modeling and analysis of time series with economists and economic graduate students during the past several years. These experiences made me aware of a gap between what economic graduate students are taught about vector-valued time series and what is available in recent system literature. Wishing to fill or narrow the gap that I suspect is more widely spread than my personal experiences indicate, I have written these notes to augment and reor­ ganize materials I have given in these courses and seminars. I have endeavored to present, in as much a self-contained way as practicable, a body of results and techniques in system theory that I judge to be relevant and useful to economists interested in using time series in their research. I have essentially acted as an intermediary and interpreter of system theoretic results and perspectives in time series by filtering out non-essential details, and presenting coherent accounts of wha...

  10. A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S. Hopkins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods. The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations appropriate to a selected policy issue and to the social-environmental conditions of each Study Site Application. Their findings are not the result of funded research projects; instead, they are by-products of pilot applications conducted to develop and improve the SAF methodology. The final article of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management.

  11. Globalization from a World-System Perspective: A New Phase in the CoreA New Destiny for Brazil and the Semiperiphery

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen C. Schwartzman

    2015-01-01

    The study of globalization, prominent in all fields of social science, scarcely draws upon the insights generated by the world-systems theory. In this essay, I delineate five key dimensions on which a world-systems approach diverges from a world society approach. When linked together, these five stages offer support for a dependency perspective that was elaborated in the theoretical work underpinning the world-system paradigm. I use the case of Brazil to demonstrate how a consent model, deriv...

  12. Experimental evaluation of a perspective tunnel display for three-dimensional helicopter approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, A. J.; Robertson, J. B.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-generated perspective tunnel display for a steep and strongly curved three-dimensional helicopter approach is studied. The necessary control variables for following a curved trajectory are analyzed, the effectiveness of superimposed predictor symbology is investigated, and a suitable predictor law is formulated. The theoretical considerations are validated by an extensive fixed-base simulator program. The tunnel display with a superimposed predictor symbol is shown to outperform conventional-type displays in its abilities to follow a curved trajectory in the presence of gust disturbances, to enter the trajectory from an unknown position outside this trajectory, as well as to monitor automatic approaches. The feasibility of the tunnel display for operation in actual flight has been demonstrated in an exploratory flight test.

  13. Storage Integration in Energy Systems: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Schuyer, Aurelie

    2016-06-01

    Energy storage is partly an 'old story' and a new one. Energy storage is an essential stabilizing factor in existing electrical systems. Looking forward, energy storage is being considered as a key element of the transformation of energy systems, given the higher shares of renewable generation integrating the systems and demand-side management offered to end-customers. Today, the cost of electricity produced from battery storage is approaching parity with electricity bought from the grid. For this trend to gain strength and energy storage to be part of new business models, energy policies and regulatory frameworks need to be adapted. (author)

  14. AI systems approach in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Kori, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    The large particle accelerators machines like pelletron accelerator at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (T.I.F.R) have several levels of controls with operators responsible for overall global control decisions and closed loop feedback controllers for relatively small subsystems of the machines. As the accelerator machines are becoming more complicated and the requirements more stringent, there is a need to provide the operators with an artificial intelligence (AI) system to aid in the tuning the machine and in failure diagnosis. There are few major areas in the pelletron operation, which can be done more efficiently using AI systems approach so that useful beam is available for much more time: 1) Accelerator Conditioning, 2) Accelerator Tuning, and 3) Maintaining the Tune beams. The feasibility study for using expert system for above areas and also for safety evaluation of the various subsystems is carried out. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  15. Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela eCuesta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation.Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how lateral roots and thereby root system architecture is established and developed.

  16. Policy and System Approach (PSA: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of public health challenges have emerged at global and national level in the last two decades. The response to these challenges has rarely been swift and often “knee-jerk.” The national and state level program officials responsible for the activities often apportion the blame on weak health systems or fragmented health service delivery mechanisms, amongst other. In India, the viral illnesses (including those due to dengue and chikungunya are becoming the increasing realities. The Public health response of early identification, disease surveillance, reporting and the preventive and curative measures, remains suboptimal. The health challenges which require multidimensional interventions are usuallyattempted to be resolved through piece meal solutions. This article proposes “policy and system approach (PSA,” combining concepts of “Health in all policies” for intersectoral coordination and “health system approach” for intra-sectoral tackling of the emerging and existing health challenges.

  17. Metaheuristic Approaches for Hydropower System Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda G. Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the short-term scheduling problem of hydropower systems. The objective is to meet the daily energy demand in an economic and safe way. The individuality of the generating units and the nonlinearity of their efficiency curves are taken into account. The mathematical model is formulated as a dynamic, mixed integer, nonlinear, nonconvex, combinatorial, and multiobjective optimization problem. We propose two solution methods using metaheuristic approaches. They combine Genetic Algorithm with Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization. Both approaches are divided into two phases. In the first one, to maximize the plant’s net generation, the problem is solved for each hour of the day (static dispatch. In the second phase, to minimize the units’ switching on-off, the day is considered as a whole (dynamic dispatch. The proposed methodology is applied to two Brazilian hydroelectric plants, in cascade, that belong to the national interconnected system. The nondominated solutions from both approaches are presented. All of them meet demand respecting the physical, electrical, and hydraulic constraints.

  18. Current and future perspectives on the development, evaluation and application of in silico approaches for predicting toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety-related problems continue to be one of the major reasons of attrition in drug development. Non-testing approaches to predict toxicity could form part of the solution. This review provides a perspective of current status of non-testing approaches available for the predictio...

  19. The Osmosis of Ideas. The Analysis of the Integrated Approach to IT Management from a Translation Theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Bijsterveld, M.J.L. van

    2001-01-01

    Compared to the critical success factors approach, Translation Theory, which is based on Callon/Latour's Actor-network Theory, presents an innovative and inspiring perspective of analyzing a particular management fashion: the so-called Integrated Approach to IT Management. We argue that the

  20. [The virtue of that precious balsam...: approach to Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Munoz, F; Garcia-Garcia, P; Alamo, C

    2007-01-01

    The most outstanding novel of the Spanish literature, Don Quixote, represents the source to which the different specialists who intend to deepen their knowledge of the late Renaissance society usually address. This masterpiece of Miguel de Cervantes has been frequently approached from the psychopathological perspective to obtain a psychiatric diagnosis of its main character, Alonso Quijano. Also, other clinical approaches from the traumatological and general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, balms and other pharmacy preparations) have been frequent. We have tackled Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective, a barely explored field. In this work, we intend to study the therapeutical cures used during the Cervantine time for the treatment of insane and mentally disturbed people (sedatives like opium, laxatives like hellebore, tonics, irritants and surgical techniques like bloodlettings and ) and we analyze the limited and unspecific therapies, mainly of herbal origin (balms, purgatives and emetics), which Cervantes reveals to us in his novel. Among them, rhubarb root (Rumex alpinus), seeds of spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), main ingredient of Aparicio's oil, and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), primary component of the famous balsam of Fierabras, should be highlighted. We have also examined the possible scientific influences which might have inspired Cervantes in this field, mainly the works of Juan Huarte de San Juan The examination of men's wits and the one of Andres Laguna Dioscorides' materia medica.

  1. A multiscale systems perspective on cancer, immunotherapy, and Interleukin-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinke David J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monoclonal antibodies represent some of the most promising molecular targeted immunotherapies. However, understanding mechanisms by which tumors evade elimination by the immune system of the host presents a significant challenge for developing effective cancer immunotherapies. The interaction of cancer cells with the host is a complex process that is distributed across a variety of time and length scales. The time scales range from the dynamics of protein refolding (i.e., microseconds to the dynamics of disease progression (i.e., years. The length scales span the farthest reaches of the human body (i.e., meters down to the range of molecular interactions (i.e., nanometers. Limited ranges of time and length scales are used experimentally to observe and quantify changes in physiology due to cancer. Translating knowledge obtained from the limited scales observed experimentally to predict patient response is an essential prerequisite for the rational design of cancer immunotherapies that improve clinical outcomes. In studying multiscale systems, engineers use systems analysis and design to identify important components in a complex system and to test conceptual understanding of the integrated system behavior using simulation. The objective of this review is to summarize interactions between the tumor and cell-mediated immunity from a multiscale perspective. Interleukin-12 and its role in coordinating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is used illustrate the different time and length scale that underpin cancer immunoediting. An underlying theme in this review is the potential role that simulation can play in translating knowledge across scales.

  2. Incorporating a Socio-Ecological-Technological Systems (SETS) perspective into the adaptive management framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporating a social-ecological-technological systems (SETS) perspective to the adaptive management process requires that stakeholders and managers conceptualize restoration projects as part of coupled human and natural systems and assess underlying social drivers and accrued b...

  3. Three perspectives on motivation and multicriteria assessment of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2014-01-01

    Organic food systems are based on a complex of value criteria that often are not explicitly considered when agents think, communicate, and make decisions concerning organic food. Multicriteria assessment (MCA) refers to a group of tools that help the user to tackle such highly complex issues....... The question is how an MCA tool should be designed to facilitate reflections, communication, and decision making in relation to organic food systems. A key issue is motivation. There are several divergent theories of motivation, and the question cannot be adequately answered by using any single theory. We...... discuss an economic, a psychosocial, and a relational perspective on motivation and MCA. Using the example of a consumer assessing and choosing products in the supermarket, the economic conception of motivation offers a focus on decision-making processes. The psychosocial approach to motivation draws...

  4. Allergic asthma biomarkers using systems approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab eSircar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by lung inflammation caused by complex interaction between the immune system and environmental factors such as allergens and inorganic pollutants. Recent research in this field is focused on discovering new biomarkers associated with asthma pathogenesis. This review illustrates updated research associating biomarkers of allergic asthma and their potential use in systems biology of the disease. We focus on biomolecules with altered expression, which may serve as inflammatory, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of asthma discovered in human or experimental asthma model using genomic, proteomic and epigenomic approaches for gene and protein expression profiling. These include high-throughput technologies such as state of the art microarray and proteomics Mass Spectrometry (MS platforms. Emerging concepts of molecular interactions and pathways may provide new insights in searching potential clinical biomarkers. We summarized certain pathways with significant linkage to asthma pathophysiology by analyzing the compiled biomarkers. Systems approaches with this data can identify the regulating networks, which will eventually identify the key biomarkers to be used for diagnostics and drug discovery.

  5. Incremental and developmental perspectives for general-purpose learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez-Plumed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The stupefying success of Articial Intelligence (AI for specic problems, from recommender systems to self-driving cars, has not yet been matched with a similar progress in general AI systems, coping with a variety of (dierent problems. This dissertation deals with the long-standing problem of creating more general AI systems, through the analysis of their development and the evaluation of their cognitive abilities. It presents a declarative general-purpose learning system and a developmental and lifelong approach for knowledge acquisition, consolidation and forgetting. It also analyses the use of the use of more ability-oriented evaluation techniques for AI evaluation and provides further insight for the understanding of the concepts of development and incremental learning in AI systems.

  6. Tangata whaiora/consumers perspectives on current psychiatric classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Debra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have been undertaken with the aim of considering the utility of mental health classification systems from the perspective of a variety of stakeholders. There is a lack of research on how useful consumers/tangata whaiora think these are in assisting them in their recovery. Methods Seventy service users were involved in seven focus groups in order to consider this question. Results and discussion While for clinicians diagnosing someone might be a discrete event and easily forgotten as a moment in a busy schedule, most people in this study remembered the occasion and aftermath very clearly. The overall consensus was that whether being 'diagnosed' was helpful or not, in large part, depended on how the process happened and what resulted from being 'labeled' in the person's life. Conclusion Overall, people thought that in terms of their recovery, the classification systems were tools and their utility depended on how they were used. They suggested that whatever tool was used it needed to help them make sense of their distress and provide them with a variety of supports, not just medication, to assist them to live lives that were meaningful to them.

  7. Advantages of a Unified Earth and Space Science Approach for Geoscience Education: Perspectives from the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Barnes, T.; Bergman, J.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Foster, S.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.; Lagrave, M.; Munoz, R.; Russell, R.; Araujo-Pradere, E.; Metcalfe, T.; Mastie, D.; Pennington, P.

    2005-05-01

    The intellectual divisions common among scientists involved in research in specific disciplines are frequently not shared by the broader community of learners. For example, in K-12 education, the Earth sciences and the space sciences have generally been taught in an integrated approach, until opportunities for more advanced courses become available at the higher grade levels in some fortunate school districts. When scientists involved in EPO activities retain a perspective limited to their particular science mission, rather than stepping back to a broader perspective that places the research in a larger context, they risk limiting the usefulness of these activities to a broad cross-section of learners that seek to learn in a contextual framework. The re-integration of Earth and space sciences within NASA's Science Mission Directorate provides an opportunity to more systematically take advantage of the fact that Earth is one of many examples of possible planetary evolution scenarios presented in our solar system and beyond. This development should encourage integration of research across the SMD into a broader context that encourages the development of higher learning skills and a systems thinking approach. At the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the interdisciplinary nature of the research problems we address requires an approach that integrates Earth and space science, and we parallel this in our education and outreach activities, ranging from our exhibits on climate change to our professional development workshops and online courses to our websites and curriculum development efforts. The Windows to the Universe project (http://www.windows.ucar.edu), initiated at the University of Michigan with support from NASA in 1995 and now developed and maintained at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, has maintained this integrated approach from its inception with great success - leading to over 6 million users of our English and Spanish language

  8. The Systems Approach to Innovation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Manley

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature, and business practice, reveals a shift in the way analysts understand innovation processes. This shift is not revealed as a cohesive trend, rather it comprises contributions from a wide range of academic disciplines and empirical evidence. Building on Edquist (1997 this paper ties together the diverse new ideas which stress a systems approach to successful innovation. The paper presents an up-to-date overview of this fast moving field, with a view to assisting public policy makers and business managers in designing more effective innovation processes.

  9. Comparative research and the business system approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Robson Silva

    2003-01-01

    . The NBS is not widely known in the LatinAmerica countries, and this paper intends to shortly present it The second aim is toquestion, based on the NBS approach, some of the assumptions about the diffusion of anew universal template for organising work (Lean Production) and its agent, themultinational......This paper has two distinct aims. First, I would like to present and discuss the nationalbusiness systems (NBS) framework ( Whitley, 1992,1992a,1996,1997). NBS frameworkconcerns how national variations in economic co-ordination and control systemsfacilitate and constrain organisational change...

  10. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  11. A Social Representations Perspective on Information Systems Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Berente, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to advocate a "social representations" approach to the study of socio-cognitive processes during information systems (IS) implementation as an alternative to the technological frames framework. Design/methodology/approach - The paper demonstrates how...... social representations theory can improve research outcomes by applying it to three recent studies that employed the technological frames framework. Findings - It is found that because the technological frames framework is overly technologically centered, temporally bounded, and individually focused......, it may lead to symptomatic explanations of IS implementation. Alternatively, using the theory of social representations can offer more fundamental causal explanations of IS implementation processes. Research limitations/implications - IS researchers are encouraged to use a social representations approach...

  12. Exploring the development of an organisational culture of control and dependency from a systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van Eeden

    2010-05-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this research was to study the impact of the change process at a plant of a South African production company. Motivations for the study: Problems were experienced in terms of production and a need for transformation at different levels was expressed. Co-dependence in the environment necessitated exploration of intra-organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The study focused on the management team at a specifc plant, but by applying the systems psychodynamic perspective it was possible to also explore the mutual effect of relationships with other systems in the organisation, the company as a whole and the environment. Respondents included the directors of manufacturing and of human resources, the general manager, an 11-member management team and staff representatives. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews, group interviews and a group consultation session were held. Main findings: Hypotheses were formulated regarding the change experienced in the company, the overemphasis of control in the various systems, efforts to move from dependency to interdependence, personal authority as a requirement for interdependent functioning and problems with interrelatedness. Practical/managerial implications: The study illustrates the application of the systems psychodynamic approach in exploring the interaction between and mutual infuence of various organisational systems, especially in times of change. Contribution/value add: At a broader level, the study contributes to the understanding of the application of the theory as well as suggesting the use of a methodology. Recommendations for an intervention of this nature were also made.

  13. Hospital System Readmissions: A Care Cycle Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Mullen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital readmission rates can be used as an indicator of the quality of health care services and can highlight high-priority research areas to ensure better health. A readmission is defined as when a patient is discharged from an acute care hospital and is admitted back to an acute care hospital in a set amount of days, with 30 days being the current national standard. On average, 19.6% of Medicare patients are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge and 56.1% within a year (Jencks, Williams, & Coleman, 2009. The hypothesis of this study was that the discharge location, or where a patient went immediately after discharge, would not have a significant effect on readmissions. A data set with all admission records was obtained from a major health provider. These data contain all hospital patients’ demographic and diagnosis information. General, women’s, and children’s hospitals were looked at from a system perspective to study the discharge location of patients as well as the effects of patient demographics on discharge location. By using a z-significance test in Microsoft Excel and SAS 9.2, it was discovered that patients discharged to home have a significantly lower likelihood of readmission. Generally, patients who are discharged to an extended care or intermediate care facility or patients with home health carerelated services had a significantly higher likelihood of being readmitted. The findings may indicate a possible need for an institution-to-institution intervention as well as institution-to-patient intervention. Future work will develop potential interventions in partnership with hospital staff.

  14. Enabling Strategy Formulation by ICT: A Viable Systems Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.J.; Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter the role of ICT for competitive intelligence is approached from the perspective of strategy formulation. The authors hold the view that competitive intelligence can be seen as knowledge necessary for the process of strategy formulation. To determine the role of ICT, it is proposed to

  15. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Urano, Kaoru; Delrot, Serge; Pezzotti, Mario; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2011-11-17

    The natural environment for plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and biotic stresses. Plant responses to these stresses are equally complex. Systems biology approaches facilitate a multi-targeted approach by allowing one to identify regulatory hubs in complex networks. Systems biology takes the molecular parts (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) of an organism and attempts to fit them into functional networks or models designed to describe and predict the dynamic activities of that organism in different environments. In this review, research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses is summarized from the physiological level to the molecular level. New insights obtained from the integration of omics datasets are highlighted. Gaps in our knowledge are identified, providing additional focus areas for crop improvement research in the future.

  16. Software Systems for Robotics An Applied Research Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Broten; Simon Monckton; Jared Giesbrecht; Jack Collier

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Defence Research and Development Canada has developed numerous teleoperated unmanned ground vehicles (UGV), many founded on the ANC?US command and control system. This paper relates how long experience with tele-operated UGVs influenced DRDC's shift in focus from tele-operated to autonomous unmanned vehicles (UV), the forces that guided DRDC's development approach and DRDC's experience adapting a specific tool set, MIRO, to a UGV implementation.

  17. Software Systems for Robotics An Applied Research Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Collier

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, Defence Research and Development Canada has developed numerous teleoperated unmanned ground vehicles (UGV, many founded on the ANC?US command and control system. This paper relates how long experience with tele-operated UGVs influenced DRDC's shift in focus from tele-operated to autonomous unmanned vehicles (UV, the forces that guided DRDC's development approach and DRDC's experience adapting a specific tool set, MIRO, to a UGV implementation.

  18. Software Systems for Robotics An Applied Research Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Broten

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, Defence Research and Development Canada has developed numerous tele-operated unmanned ground vehicles (UGV, many founded on the ANCÆUS command and control system. This paper relates how long experience with tele-operated UGVs influenced DRDC's shift in focus from tele-operated to autonomous unmanned vehicles (UV, the forces that guided DRDC's development approach and DRDC's experience adapting a specific tool set, MIRO, to a UGV implementation.

  19. Eliminating perspective elongation for LGS based AO-systems at ELTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Stephan; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Farinato, Jacopo

    2006-06-01

    Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics systems become in the moment reality at several 8...10m class telescope facilities. At these aperture diameters all effects, arising from the finite distance and vertical extend of the artificial excited guide star can still be neglected for the wavefront sensing process. This is changing completely when the telescope diameter become further increased as it is the case of next generation Extremely Large Telescopes. Effects such as perspective elongation become dominant and impact negatively the wavefront sensing process. This will result in severe quality restrictions for next generation Adaptive Optics systems. In this paper we want to introduce and explain in detail a novel kind of wavefront sensing techniques, optimized to overcome perspective elongation. Its basic idea is to project the generated LGS virtually to infinity. We will give a theoretical introduction and some background information about the proposed sensing concept and introduce a practical solution for a potential optical setup. The latter is based on inverting the so called Bessel Beam concept, producing diffraction less beam over a certain finite range. Furthermore we will characterize the new sensor type, compare the senor efficiency to alternative approaches and discuss finally both its advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Priorities and approaches to investigating Asian youth health: perspectives of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Agnes; Peiris-John, Roshini; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-12-01

    The proportion of young people in New Zealand identifying with Asian ethnicities has increased considerably. Despite some prevalent health concerns, Asian youth are less likely than non-Asian peers to seek help. As preparatory research towards a more nuanced approach to service delivery and public policy, this qualitative study aimed to identify young Asian New Zealanders' perspectives on best approaches to investigate health issues of priority concern to them. Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 15 Asian youth leaders aged 18-24 years. Using an inductive approach for thematic analysis, key themes were identified and analysed. Study participants considered ethno-cultural identity, racism and challenges in integration to play significant roles influencing the health of Asian youth (especially mental health) and their access to health services. While emphasising the importance of engaging young Asians in research and service development so that their needs and aspirations are met, participants also highlighted the need for approaches that are cognisant of the cultural, contextual and intergenerational dimensions of issues involved in promoting youth participation. Research that engages Asian youth as key agents using methods that are sensitive to their cultural and sociological contexts can inform more responsive health services and public policy. This is of particular relevance in primary health care where culturally competent services can mitigate risks of unmet health needs and social isolation.

  1. Intelligent adaptive systems an interaction-centered design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Ming; Burns, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A synthesis of recent research and developments on intelligent adaptive systems from the HF (human factors) and HCI (human-computer interaction) domains, this book provides integrated design guidance and recommendations for researchers and system developers. It addresses a recognized lack of integration between the HF and HCI research communities, which has led to inconsistencies between the research approaches adopted, and a lack of exploitation of research from one field by the other. The book establishes design guidance through the review of conceptual frameworks, analytical methodologies,

  2. Challenges in data science: a complex systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, Meiko; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    The ability to process and manage large data volumes has been proven to be not enough to tackle the current challenges presented by “Big Data”. Deep insight is required for understanding interactions among connected systems, space- and time- dependent heterogeneous data structures. Emergence of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: “What can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ”. Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking “What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?” These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics.

  3. NASA EOSDIS Data Identifiers: Approach and System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Wanchoo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available NASA’s Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS Project began investigating the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs in 2010 with the goal of assigning DOIs to various data products. These Earth science research data products produced using Earth observations and models are archived and distributed by twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs located across the United States. Each data center serves a different Earth science discipline user community and, accordingly, has a unique approach and process for generating and archiving a variety of data products. These varied approaches present a challenge for developing a DOI solution. To address this challenge, the ESDIS Project has developed processes, guidelines, and several models for creating and assigning DOIs. Initially the DOI assignment and registration process was started as a prototype but now it is fully operational. In February 2012, the ESDIS Project started using the California Digital Library (CDL EZID for registering DOIs. The DOI assignments were initially labor-intensive. The system is now automated, and the assignments are progressing rapidly. As of February 28, 2017, over 50% of the data products at the DAACs had been assigned DOIs. Citations using the DOIs increased from about 100 to over 370 between 2015 and 2016.

  4. Psychological experiences in South African society before the 2010 FIFA World Cup from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2012-05-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to analyse and describe the psychological experiences of South Africans before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives. The study comprised a qualitative, explorative and social phenomenological study. The researchers conducted interviews with a wide range of their colleagues and clients. Main findings: The results seemed to indicate that South Africans had had a number of positive and negative experiences before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Practical/managerial implications: The researchers presented the findings as a number of systems psychodynamic and positive psychology themes. Contribution/value-add: This study presents original research that contributes valuable new knowledge to the positive psychology and systems psychodynamic perspectives.

  5. A Design Perspective on Aligning Process-Centric and Technology-Centric Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Process Management (BPM) have evolved as alternative approaches to operational transformation. As a result, companies struggle to find the right balance when prioritizing technology and processes as change drivers. The purpose of this paper...

  6. Resource-assessment perspectives for unconventional gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Concepts are described for assessing those unconventional gas systems that can also be defined as continous accumulations. Continuous gas accumulations exist more or less independently of the water column and do not owe their existence directly to the bouyancy of gas in water. They cannot be represented in terms of individual, countable fields or pools delineated by downdip water contacts. For these reasons, traditional resource-assessment methods based on estimating the sizes and numbers of undiscovered discrete fields cannot not be applied to continuous accumulations. Specialized assessment methods are required. Unconventional gas systems that are also continous accumulations include coalbed methane, basin-centered gas, so-called tight gas, fractured shale (and chalk) gas, and gas hydrates. Deep-basin and bacterial gas systems may or may not be continuous accumulations, depending on their geologic setting. Two basic resource-assessment approaches have been employed for continous accumulations. The first approach is based on estimates of gas in place. A volumetric estimate of total gas in place is commonly coupled with an overall recovery factor to narrow the assessment scope from a treatment of gas volumes residing in sedimentary strata to a prediction of potential additions to reserves. The second approach is based on the production performance of continous gas reservoirs, as shown empirically by wells and reservoir-simulation models. In these methods, production characteristics (as opposed to gas in place) are the foundation for forecasts of potential additions to reserves.

  7. A systems approach to nuclear facility monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, P.E.; Doak, J.E.; Howse, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Sensor technology for use in nuclear facility monitoring has reached an advanced stage of development. Research on where to place these sensors in a facility and how to combine their outputs in a meaningful fashion does not appear to be keeping pace. In this paper, the authors take a global view of the problem where sensor technology is viewed as only one piece of a large puzzle. Other pieces of this puzzle include the optimal location and type of sensors used in a specific facility, the rate at which sensors record information, and the risk associated with the materials/processes at a facility. If the data are analyzed off-site, how will they be transmitted? Is real-time analysis necessary? Is one monitoring only the facility itself, or might one also monitor the processing that occurs there (e.g., tank levels and concentrations)? How is one going to combine the outputs from the various sensors to give us an accurate picture of the state of the facility? This paper will not try to answer all these questions, but rather it will attempt to stimulate thought in this area by formulating a systems approach to the problem demonstrated by a prototype system and a system proposed for an actual facility. The focus will be on the data analysis aspect of the problem. Future work in this area should focus on recommendations and guidelines for a monitoring system based upon the type of facility and processing that occurs there

  8. Implementing lean manufacturing system: ISM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lean Manufacturing System has emerged as an important area of research in Indian context. The requirement of Lean Manufacturing has increased due to defects in products (semi finished and finished and subsequent increase in cost. In this context, this study is an attempt to develop a structural model of the variables, important to implement Lean Manufacturing System in Indian automobile industry. Design/Methodology/Approach: Various variables of lean manufacturing system implementation have been identified from literature review and experts’ opinions. Contextual relationship among these identified variables has been set after carrying out brainstorming session. Further, classification of the variables has been carried out based upon the driving power and dependence. In addition to this, a structural model of variables to implement lean concept in Indian automobile industry has also been developed using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Questionnaire based survey has also been conducted to rank these variables. Findings: Eighteen variables have been identified from the literature and subsequent discussions with experts. Out of which, nine variables have been identified as dependent and nine variables have been identified as driver. No variable has been identified as linkage variable and autonomous variable. From the model developed, ‘Relative cost benefits’ has been identified as top level dependent variable and top management commitment as bottom level most independent variable. Research limitations/Implications: The model so developed is a hypothetical model based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation. Practical implication: Clear understanding of interactions among these variables will help organizations to prioritize and manage these variables more effectively and efficiently to draw advantage from lean manufacturing system implementation

  9. Comparison of Routable Control System Security Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2011-06-01

    This document is an supplement to the 'Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems.' It addressed security in routable control system communication. The control system environment that monitors and manages the power grid historically has utilized serial communication mechanisms. Leased-line serial communication environments operating at 1200 to 9600 baud rates are common. However, recent trends show that communication media such as fiber, optical carrier 3 (OC-3) speeds, mesh-based high-speed wireless, and the Internet are becoming the media of choice. In addition, a dichotomy has developed between the electrical transmission and distribution environments, with more modern communication infrastructures deployed by transmission utilities. The preceding diagram represents a typical control system. The Communication Links cloud supports all of the communication mechanisms a utility might deploy between the control center and devices in the field. Current methodologies used for security implementations are primarily led by single vendors or standards bodies. However, these entities tend to focus on individual protocols. The result is an environment that contains a mixture of security solutions that may only address some communication protocols at an increasing operational burden for the utility. A single approach is needed that meets operational requirements, is simple to operate, and provides the necessary level of security for all control system communication. The solution should be application independent (e.g., Distributed Network Protocol/Internet Protocol [DNP/IP], International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] C37.118, Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control [OPC], etc.) and focus on the transport layer. In an ideal setting, a well-designed suite of standards for control system communication will be used for vendor implementation and compliance testing. An expected outcome of this effort is an international standard.

  10. A Multi-Systems Life Course Perspective of Economic Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameri Christy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV against women slowly moved out of the private sphere and into the public realm in the United States in the early 1970’s. While progress has been made regarding psychological, physical, and sexual trauma related to IPV, it has been only in the last decade that attention about IPV has included an examination of the impact of economic abuse (EA. This is disturbing given that EA is one of the eight spokes on the Power and Control wheel (PCW and many women state that they are not able to leave or get away from the abusive relationship due to financial reasons. Using a multi-systems life course (MSLC perspective, this paper considers the importance of elevating EA as a form of IPV-related trauma. We examine EA’s differential impact among women, review current practices and policies, and conclude with implications for micro, mezzo, and macro levels of trauma-informed practice with survivors of EA.

  11. A dynamical system perspective to understanding badminton singles game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jia Yi; Seifert, Ludovic; Hérault, Romain; Chia, Shannon Jing Yi; Lee, Miriam Chang Yi

    2014-02-01

    By altering the task constraints of cooperative and competitive game contexts in badminton, insights can be obtained from a dynamical systems perspective to investigate the underlying processes that results in either a gradual shift or transition of playing patterns. Positional data of three pairs of skilled female badminton players (average age 20.5±1.38years) were captured and analyzed. Local correlation coefficient, which provides information on the relationship of players' displacement data, between each pair of players was computed for angle and distance from base position. Speed scalar product was in turn established from speed vectors of the players. The results revealed two patterns of playing behaviors (i.e., in-phase and anti-phase patterns) for movement displacement. Anti-phase relation was the dominant coupling pattern for speed scalar relationships among the pairs of players. Speed scalar product, as a collective variable, was different between cooperative and competitive plays with a greater variability in amplitude seen in competitive plays leading to a winning point. The findings from this study provide evidence for increasing stroke variability to perturb existing stable patterns of play and highlights the potential for speed scalar product to be a collective variable to distinguish different patterns of play (e.g., cooperative and competitive). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Policy, Research and Residents’ Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stankov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR. Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups’ perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) from different perspectives: a transdisciplinary integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Brajković, Lovorka; Jakšić, Nenad; Lončar, Mladen; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Lasić, Davor

    2012-09-01

    Psychotraumatization continues to be a pervasive aspect of life in the 21st century all over the world so we should better understand psychological trauma and PTSD for the sake of prevention and healing. We have made an overview of available literature on PTSD to identify explanatory models, hypotheses and theories. In this paper we describe our transdisciplinary multiperspective integrative model of PTSD based on the seven perspective explanatory approach, on the fifth discipline, the art and practice of the learning organization as well as on the method of multiple working hypotheses.Trauma vulnerability, strengths, resilience and posttraumatic growth are key concepts that enable an integration of the distinct perspectives into a coherent transdisciplinary multiperspective explanatory and treatment model of PTSD. PTSD is a complex highly disabling and suffering disorder where the past is always present in people haunted by the dread frozen in memory of the traumatic events. However, PTSD also represents an oportunity for psychological and spiritual growth due to the human ability to adapt and thrive despite experiencing adversity and tough times.

  14. Policy, Research and Residents' Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Ivana; Howard, Natasha J; Daniel, Mark; Cargo, Margaret

    2017-02-09

    An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups' perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention.

  15. Planned approaches to business and school partnerships. Does it make a difference? The business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Hope, John; Abdulghani, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    In many countries, schools are encouraged to link with business to add authenticity to learning. The number of these business-school partnerships has shown a marked increase over the last twenty years. Traditionally researchers investigating these partnerships have focussed on the schools' perspectives (Du, Bhattacharya, & Sen, 2010, pp. 32-33), however this New Zealand research has focused solely on the business perspective of established school partnerships. The study used a mixed methods approach utilising both online survey and semi-structured interviews. Ten out of the forty participating businesses surveyed used a brokering organisation as a way of developing and maintaining these partnerships and some developed rationales to support the partnership. This study investigated the value of using brokering organisations, rationales and designated staff to support business-school partnerships. Findings indicate that brokers and designated staff play a very effective role in enhancing business-school links, and more benefits are perceived when a rationale has been established. It is anticipated that these findings will support the development and success of business-school partnerships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Significance of system approach in health system quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanka Štern

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Quality is a concept that defines a value-dependent judgement about a certain object or phenomenon under consideration. Quality assessment is a process, showing the level of accordance between quality criteria of the reviewer/-s (customers, clients, stakeholders and actual attributes of products, services or systems. Quality assessment therefore always contains subjective values of the reviewer/-s. This also means, that some differences in quality assessment of dimensions, elements and processes of health system and health system as a whole are inevitable and legitimate and indicates the need for focusing essential attention to such differences in the origins of projecting of systems for quality assessment and in the management of different aspects of quality within the health system. Nevertheless, a certain degree of »common validity« of definitions, criteria, indicators and reference values (quality standards is needed to create an effective quality assessment model. The complex nature of the quality concept demands systemic, interdisciplinary/transdisciplinary approach and use of qualitative and quantitative methods of scientific work either in health sistem quality assessment or in the process of creation of health quality systems. Every health quality system modelling should also consider environmental influences upon the estimated system.

  17. An effectiveness analysis of healthcare systems using a systems theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Kerry

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of accreditation and quality measurement and reporting to improve healthcare quality and patient safety has been widespread across many countries. A review of the literature reveals no association between the accreditation system and the quality measurement and reporting systems, even when hospital compliance with these systems is satisfactory. Improvement of health care outcomes needs to be based on an appreciation of the whole system that contributes to those outcomes. The research literature currently lacks an appropriate analysis and is fragmented among activities. This paper aims to propose an integrated research model of these two systems and to demonstrate the usefulness of the resulting model for strategic research planning. Methods/design To achieve these aims, a systematic integration of the healthcare accreditation and quality measurement/reporting systems is structured hierarchically. A holistic systems relationship model of the administration segment is developed to act as an investigation framework. A literature-based empirical study is used to validate the proposed relationships derived from the model. Australian experiences are used as evidence for the system effectiveness analysis and design base for an adaptive-control study proposal to show the usefulness of the system model for guiding strategic research. Results Three basic relationships were revealed and validated from the research literature. The systemic weaknesses of the accreditation system and quality measurement/reporting system from a system flow perspective were examined. The approach provides a system thinking structure to assist the design of quality improvement strategies. The proposed model discovers a fourth implicit relationship, a feedback between quality performance reporting components and choice of accreditation components that is likely to play an important role in health care outcomes. An example involving accreditation

  18. Analysing Smart Metering Systems from a Consumer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Rani

    Many countries are deploying smart meters and Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems as part of demand management and grid modernisation efforts. Several of these projects are facing consumer resistance. The advertised benefits to the consumer appear mainly monetary but detailed analysis shows that financial benefits are hard to realise since the fixed services charges are high. Additionally, the data collected from smart meters have security and privacy implications for the consumer. These projects failed to consider end-users as an important stakeholder group during planning stages resulting in the design and roll-out of expensive systems, which do not demonstrate clear consumer benefits. The overall goal of the research reported in this thesis was to improve the smart metering system to deliver consumer benefits that increase confidence and acceptance of these projects. The smart metering system was examined from an end-user perspective for realistic insights into consumer concerns. Processes from Design Science Research methodology were utilised to conduct this research due to the utilitarian nature of the objective. Consumer segmentation was central to the proposed measures. Initially, a consumer-friendly risk analysis framework was devised, and appropriate requirement elicitation techniques were identified. Control options for smart meter data transfer and storage were explored. Various scenarios were analysed to determine consumer-friendly features in the smart metering system, including control options for smart meter data transfer and storage. Proposed functionalities (billing choices, feedback information and specific configurations to match the needs of different user segments) were studied using the Australian smart metering system. Smart meters vary in capabilities depending on the manufacturer, mode and place of deployment. The research showed that features proposed in this thesis are implementable in smart meters, by examining their applicability

  19. A system approach to nuclear facility monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, P.E.; Doak, J.E.; Howse, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    Sensor technology for use in nuclear facility monitoring has reached and advanced stage of development. Research on where to place these sensors in a facility and how to combine their outputs in a meaningful fashion does not appear to be keeping pace. In this paper, we take a global view of the problem where sensor technology is viewed as only one piece of a large puzzle. Other pieces of this puzzle include the optimal location and type of sensors used in a specific facility, the rate at which sensors record information, and the risk associated with the materials/processes at a facility. If the data are analyzed off-site, how will they be transmitted? Is real-time analysis necessary? Are we monitoring only the facility itself, or might we also monitor the processing that occurs there? How are we going to combine the output from the various sensors to give us an accurate picture of the state of the facility? This paper will not try to answer all these questions, but rather it will attempt to stimulate thought in this area by formulating a systems approach to the problem demonstrated by a prototype system and a systems proposed for an actual facility. Our focus will be on the data analysis aspect of the problem.

  20. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  1. Systems Harmonization and Convergence - the GIGAS Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, P. G.; Biancalana, A.; Coene, Y.; Uslander, T.

    2009-04-01

    0.1 Background The GIGAS1 Support Action promotes the coherent and interoperable development of the GMES, INSPIRE and GEOSS initiatives through their concerted adoption of standards, protocols, and open architectures. 0.2 Preparing for Coordinated Data Access The GMES Coordinated Data Access System is under design and implementation2. This objective has motivated the definition of the interoperability standards between the contributing missions. The following elements have been addressed with associated papers submitted to OGC: The EO Product Metadata has been based on the OGC Geographic Markup Language, addressing sensor characteristics for optical, radar and atmospheric products. Collection and service discovery: an ISO extension package for CSW ebRim has been proposed. Catalogue Service (CSW): an Earth Observation extension package of the CSW ebRim has been proposed. Feasibility Analysis and Order: an Order interface control document and an Earth Observation profile of the Sensor Planning Service have been proposed. Online Data Access: an Earth Observation profile of the Web Map Services (WMS) for visualization and evaluation purposes has been proposed. Identity (user) management: the objective in the long term is to allow for a single sign-on to the Coordinated Data Access system by users registered in the various Earth Observation ground segments by providing a federated identity across participating ground segments, exploiting OASIS standards. 0.3 The GIGAS proposed harmonization approach The approach proposed by GIGAS is based on three elements: Technology watch Comparative analysis Shaping of initiatives and standards This paper concentrates on the methodology for technology watch and comparative analysis. The complexity of the GIGAS scenario involving huge systems (i.e. GEOSS, INSPIRE, GMES etc.) entails the interaction with different heterogeneous partners, each with a specific competence, expertise and know-how. 0.3.1 Technology watch The methodology

  2. Theoretical Approaches in Evolutionary Ecology: Environmental Feedback as a Unifying Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary biology and ecology have a strong theoretical underpinning, and this has fostered a variety of modeling approaches. A major challenge of this theoretical work has been to unravel the tangled feedback loop between ecology and evolution. This has prompted the development of two main classes of models. While quantitative genetics models jointly consider the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a focal population, a separation of timescales between ecology and evolution is assumed by evolutionary game theory, adaptive dynamics, and inclusive fitness theory. As a result, theoretical evolutionary ecology tends to be divided among different schools of thought, with different toolboxes and motivations. My aim in this synthesis is to highlight the connections between these different approaches and clarify the current state of theory in evolutionary ecology. Central to this approach is to make explicit the dependence on environmental dynamics of the population and evolutionary dynamics, thereby materializing the eco-evolutionary feedback loop. This perspective sheds light on the interplay between environmental feedback and the timescales of ecological and evolutionary processes. I conclude by discussing some potential extensions and challenges to our current theoretical understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

  3. The role of breast-feeding in infant immune system: a systems perspective on the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Paurush; Jordan, Ferenc; Priami, Corrado; Morine, Melissa J

    2015-09-24

    The human intestinal microbiota changes from being sparsely populated and variable to possessing a mature, adult-like stable microbiome during the first 2 years of life. This assembly process of the microbiota can lead to either negative or positive effects on health, depending on the colonization sequence and diet. An integrative study on the diet, the microbiota, and genomic activity at the transcriptomic level may give an insight into the role of diet in shaping the human/microbiome relationship. This study aims at better understanding the effects of microbial community and feeding mode (breast-fed and formula-fed) on the immune system, by comparing intestinal metagenomic and transcriptomic data from breast-fed and formula-fed babies. We re-analyzed a published metagenomics and host gene expression dataset from a systems biology perspective. Our results show that breast-fed samples co-express genes associated with immunological, metabolic, and biosynthetic activities. The diversity of the microbiota is higher in formula-fed than breast-fed infants, potentially reflecting the weaker dependence of infants on maternal microbiome. We mapped the microbial composition and the expression patterns for host systems and studied their relationship from a systems biology perspective, focusing on the differences. Our findings revealed that there is co-expression of more genes in breast-fed samples but lower microbial diversity compared to formula-fed. Applying network-based systems biology approach via enrichment of microbial species with host genes revealed the novel key relationships of the microbiota with immune and metabolic activity. This was supported statistically by data and literature.

  4. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  5. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  6. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  7. Development of the supply chain oriented quality assurance system for aerospace manufacturing SMEs and its implementation perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdullahi; Cheng, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace manufacturing SMEs are continuously facing the challenge on managing their supply chain and complying with the aerospace manufacturing quality standard requirement due to their lack of resources and the nature of business. In this paper, the ERP system based approach is presented to quality control and assurance work in light of seamless integration of in-process production data and information internally and therefore managing suppliers more effectively and efficiently. The Aerospace Manufacturing Quality Assurance Standard (BS/EN9100) is one of the most recognised and essential protocols for developing the industry-operated-and-driven quality assurance systems. The research investigates using the ERP based system as an enabler to implement BS/EN9100 quality management system at manufacturing SMEs and the associated implementation and application perspectives. An application case study on a manufacturing SME is presented by using the SAP based implementation, which helps further evaluate and validate the approach and application system development.

  8. Modelling tools to evaluate China's future energy system - a review of the Chinese perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2014-01-01

    compares 18 energy modelling tools from ten Chinese institutions. These models have been described in English language publications between 2005 and 2013, although not all are published in peer-reviewed journals. When comparing the results for three main energy system indicators across models, this paper...... finds that there are considerable ranges in the reference scenarios: (i) GDP is projected to grow by 630e840% from 2010 to 2050, (ii) energy demand could increase by 200e300% from 2010 to 2050, and (iii) CO2 emissions could rise by 160e250% from 2010 to 2050. Although the access to the modelling tools...... and the underlying data remains challenging, this study concludes that the Chinese perspective, independently from the modelling approach and institution, suggests a rather gradual and long-term transition towards a low carbon economy in China. Few reference scenarios include an emission peak or stabilisation period...

  9. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: “Omic” Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Munguia-Fragozo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the “Omic” technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS. However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. “Omic” technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current “Omic” tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems.

  10. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: “Omic” Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V.; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F.; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the “Omic” technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. “Omic” technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current “Omic” tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems. PMID:26509157

  11. The mammary gland in domestic ruminants: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M; Bislev, Stine L; Bendixen, Emøke; Almeida, André M

    2013-12-06

    Milk and dairy products are central elements in the human diet. It is estimated that 108kg of milk per year are consumed per person worldwide. Therefore, dairy production represents a relevant fraction of the economies of many countries, being cattle, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and other ruminants the main species used worldwide. An adequate management of dairy farming cannot be achieved without the knowledge on the biological mechanisms behind lactation in ruminants. Thus, understanding the morphology, development and regulation of the mammary gland in health, disease and production is crucial. Presently, innovative and high-throughput technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics allow a much broader and detailed knowledge on such issues. Additionally, the application of a systems biology approach to animal science is vastly growing, as new advances in one field of specialization or animal species lead to new lines of research in other areas or/and are expanded to other species. This article addresses how modern research approaches may help us understand long-known issues in mammary development, lactation biology and dairy production. Dairy production depends upon the knowledge of the morphology and regulation of the mammary gland and lactation. High-throughput technologies allow a much broader and detailed knowledge on the biology of the mammary gland. This paper reviews the major contributions that genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and proteomics approaches have provided to understand the regulation of the mammary gland in health, disease and production. In the context of mammary gland "omics"-based research, the integration of results using a Systems Biology Approach is of key importance. © 2013.

  12. Energy systems and climate change: Approaches to formulating responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Deborah.

    1993-04-01

    A method is presented for computing the direct and indirect radiative forcings of emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane and comparing them in terms of their carbon-equivalent radiative forcing potential as a common unit. Examples illustrate application of the method in comparisons of the carbon-equivalent emissions from coal-, oil- and natural gas-based electricity and combined heat and power production assuming near-, medium- and long-term perspectives. The second article provides a systematic approach to calculating the net cost of avoiding greenhouse-gas emissions by adopting individual supply- and demand-side fuel switching and energy efficiency measures instead of proceeding down business as usual energy paths. Individual measures are grouped and ranked to form scenario packages for total and average costs of avoided carbon equivalent emissions. Examples are presented for Sweden, the United States and the state of Karnataka, India. A key finding is that there appears to exist significant emission avoiding potential that can be exploited at a net economic benefit to society. This potential is insufficient, however, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases. The suggestion that changes can be made to energy systems leading to significant levels of avoided carbon dioxide emissions at little or no cost to society has been refuted by economic theoreticians, whose writings warn that policies aimed at avoiding greenhouse gas emissions will incur exorbitant costs. A case study of the potential to use ethanol produced from sugar cane as a transportation fuel in Thailand is used to illustrate an integrated approach to evaluating components of alternative energy systems

  13. A sustainable system of systems approach: a new HFE paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability issues such as natural resource depletion, pollution and poor working conditions have no geographical boundaries in our interconnected world. To address these issues requires a paradigm shift within human factors and ergonomics (HFE), to think beyond a bounded, linear model understanding towards a broader systems framework. For this reason, we introduce a sustainable system of systems model that integrates the current hierarchical conceptualisation of possible interventions (i.e., micro-, meso- and macro-ergonomics) with important concepts from the sustainability literature, including the triple bottom line approach and the notion of time frames. Two practical examples from the HFE literature are presented to illustrate the model. The implications of this paradigm shift for HFE researchers and practitioners are discussed and include the long-term sustainability of the HFE community and comprehensive solutions to problems that consider the emergent issues that arise from this interconnected world. A sustainable world requires a broader systems thinking than that which currently exists in ergonomics. This study proposes a sustainable system of systems model that incorporates ideas from the ecological sciences, notably a nested hierarchy of systems and a hierarchical time dimension. The implications for sustainable design and the sustainability of the HFE community are considered.

  14. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, “Quality of work” and “Total productivity”, had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it

  15. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-02-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, "Quality of work" and "Total productivity", had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it is

  16. Systems Biology Perspectives on Minimal and Simpler Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana C.; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. PMID:25184563

  17. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  18. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from an intruder attempting to

  19. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ALFRED GIERER. Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstraße 35, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany. (Fax, 49-7071-601 448; Email, alfred.gierer@tuebingen.mpg.de). The topic of this article is the relation between bottom-up and top-down, reductionist and “holistic” approaches to the solution of basic ...

  20. Structures and perspectives of the Austrian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemut, N.

    1992-03-01

    The technical tools for projecting future energy demand can be grouped into two broad categories: Firstly, time series or cross section data based econometric models which contain information about customers' past behavior and thus enable to judge the causal effects of economic factors like incomes and prices on energy demand (passive forecasting). Secondly, structural simulation models which indicate how energy services transform to flows of useful, final and primary energy. These models enable to estimate the technical potential of improving the energy application and energy transformation systems (active scenario approach). Comparison of the two approaches with respect to projections for future energy demand yields that, typically, in the short run of econometric approach will dominate the structural simulation model. In the long run, however, this relation will be reversed. The econometric models suffer lack of technical information necessary to describe the demand for energy. The structural simulation model enables an incorporation of technical factors like efficiencies and fuel shares. An application of the structural model is a simulation run describing a scenario in order to reduce the Austrian CO 2 -emissions according to the recommendations of the conference of Toronto

  1. A systems biology approach to study systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammation needs a precise control on the sequence and magnitude of occurring events. The high throughput data on the host-pathogen interactions gives us an opportunity to have a glimpse on the systemic inflammation. In this article, a dynamic Candida albicans-zebrafish interactive infectious network is built as an example to demonstrate how systems biology approach can be used to study systematic inflammation. In particular, based on microarray data of C. albicans and zebrafish during infection, the hyphal growth, zebrafish, and host-pathogen intercellular PPI networks were combined to form an integrated infectious PPI network that helps us understand the systematic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. albicans and the immune response of the host. The signaling pathways for morphogenesis and hyphal growth of C. albicans were 2 significant interactions found in the intercellular PPI network. Two cellular networks were also developed corresponding to the different infection stages (adhesion and invasion), and then compared with each other to identify proteins to gain more insight into the pathogenic role of hyphal development in the C. albicans infection process. Important defense-related proteins in zebrafish were predicted using the same approach. This integrated network consisting of intercellular invasion and cellular defense processes during infection can improve medical therapies and facilitate development of new antifungal drugs.

  2. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective tests and maintenance practices that control; risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective test and maintenance practices that control risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety

  4. Hybrid Societies: Challenges and Perspectives in the Design of Collective Behavior in Self-organizing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eHamann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid societies are self-organizing, collective systems composed of different components, for example, natural and artificial parts (bio-hybrid or human beings interacting with and through technical systems (socio-technical. Many different disciplines investigate methods and systems closely related to the design of hybrid societies. A~stronger collaboration between these disciplines could allow for re-use of methods and create significant synergies. We identify three main areas of challenges in the design of self-organizing hybrid societies. First, we identify the formalization challenge. There is an urgent need for a generic model that allows a description and comparison of collective hybrid societies. Second, we identify the system design challenge. Starting from the formal specification of the system, we need to develop an integrated design process. Third, we identify the challenge of interdisciplinarity. Current research on self-organizing hybrid societies stretches over many different fields and hence requires the re-use and synthesis of methods at intersections between disciplines. We then conclude by presenting our perspective for future approaches with high potential in this area.

  5. Strategic Human Resource Metrics: A Perspective of the General Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and quantifying strategic human resource outcomes in relation to key performance criteria is essential to developing value-adding metrics. Objectives This paper posits (using a general systems lens that strategic human resource metrics should interpret the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance criteria such as profitability, quality or customer service. Approach Using the general systems model as underpinning theory, the study assesses the variation in response to a Likert type questionnaire with twenty-four (24 items measuring the major attitudinal dispositions of HRM outcomes (employee commitment, satisfaction, engagement and embeddedness. Results A Chi-square test (Chi-square test statistic = 54.898, p=0.173 showed that variation in responses to the attitudinal statements occurred due to chance. This was interpreted to mean that attitudinal human resource outcomes influence performance as a unit of system components. The neutral response was found to be associated with the ‘reject’ response than the ‘acceptance’ response. Value The study offers suggestion on the determination of strategic HR metrics and recommends the use of systems theory in HRM related studies. Implications This study provides another dimension to human resource metrics by arguing that strategic human resource metrics should measure the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance using a systems perspective.

  6. Early Intervention Approaches to Enhance the Peer-Related Social Competence of Young Children with Developmental Delays: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a framework for future research and program development designed to support children's peer-related social competence. Intervention research is examined within a historical perspective culminating with a discussion of contemporary translational approaches capable of integrating models of normative development, developmental…

  7. Theme in Translation: A Systemic Functional Linguistic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, discourse analysis has been applied to translation studies, and studies with this approach have become quite prominent. As one resource of discourse analysis, the SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistics model can be applied to analyze both the original text and the translated text. Following this approach, both texts are compared at the sociological, semiotic, generic, registerial, discoursal, and lexicogrammatical levels by adopting a top-down process. The applicability of Halliday’s linguistic framework has then been widely recognized within the field of translation studies. Meanwhile, different strata of Systemic Functional Grammar have shed light on a number of studies. In this paper, I have restricted the topic to one aspect only, i.e. the textual metafunction. I have first traced the development of SFL and its integration with translation studies. Some basic terms in SFL and Theme/Rheme analysis are also explained. Then, some of the existing studies involving thematic analysis and translation are reviewed. As advocated by several scholars, what we need is a more objective apparatus for descriptive translation studies. It would be beneficial to link SFL and descriptive translation studies together, as SFL serves as a tool that relates linguistic choices to the sociocultural context systematically.

  8. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design

  9. AN APPROACH TO SOCIAL POLICY IN ROMANIA FROM THE LIFECYCLE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POENARU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic reality and the changes of population compositions, families and communities from the urban and, respectively, the rural area contain several challenges for reconfiguring the social policies in the future. This study proposes an approach of the Romanian social policy in the context of ageing, of changes and risks it generates from the lifecycle perspective. First, the main arguments are reviewed that motivate such an approach by highlighting the modification trends of risks and opportunities during the individuals’ lifetime. Next, an analysis is realised with respect to the opportunities of adjusting the social policy to the risks associated to the main stages of the lifecycle: years of growing and learning (childhood and adolescence; the period of forming families and the working life years; the post-active period. A special emphasis is laid on taking into account the differences between men and women. The study contains recommendations for policies oriented on diminishing the risks during the lifecycle in the context of ageing.

  10. Nonoperative approach to locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant combined modality therapy: challenges and opportunities from a surgical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischkoff, Katherine N; Ruby, Jeannine A; Guillem, José G

    2011-12-01

    This review contains a surgical perspective on the evolution of the nonoperative approach to patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who have a clinical complete response after neoadjuvant combined modality therapy, including accuracy of pathologic complete response identification, the timing between neoadjuvant combined modality therapy and assessment of response, the extent of long-term follow-up, and the likelihood of surgical salvage after an initial nonoperative approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.

  12. The intersubjective endeavour of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second person perspective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGalbusera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of otherness.We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first- and second-person approaches. Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, American Psychiatric Association, 2013 and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which - by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioural symptoms - takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first person experience. But how can we speak about a first person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from within, if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it

  13. The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of “otherness.” We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which—by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms—takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from “within,” if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge. PMID:25368589

  14. The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of "otherness." We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which-by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms-takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients' first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from "within," if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge.

  15. Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research......, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design...... to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlying assumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found...

  16. Electronic system level design an open-source approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rigo, Sandro; Santos, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This book devises ESL design from the pragmatic perspective of a SystemC-based representation by showing how to build and how to use ESL languages, models and tools. It includes TLM 2.0 and step-by-step examples; it also addresses power modeling.

  17. Invited review: gravitational biology of the neuromotor systems: a perspective to the next era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    2000-01-01

    Earth's gravity has had a significant impact on the designs of the neuromotor systems that have evolved. Early indications are that gravity also plays a key role in the ontogenesis of some of these design features. The purpose of the present review is not to assess and interpret a body of knowledge in the usual sense of a review but to look ahead, given some of the general concepts that have evolved and observations made to date, which can guide our future approach to gravitational biology. We are now approaching an era in gravitational biology during which well-controlled experiments can be conducted for sustained periods in a microgravity environment. Thus it is now possible to study in greater detail the role of gravity in phylogenesis and ontogenesis. Experiments can range from those conducted on the simplest levels of organization of the components that comprise the neuromotor system to those conducted on the whole organism. Generally, the impact of Earth's gravitational environment on living systems becomes more complex as the level of integration of the biological phenomenon of interest increases. Studies of the effects of gravitational vectors on neuromotor systems have and should continue to provide unique insight into these mechanisms that control and maintain neural control systems designed to function in Earth's gravitational environment. A number of examples are given of how a gravitational biology perspective can lead to a clearer understanding of neuromotor disorders. Furthermore, the technologies developed for spaceflight studies have contributed and should continue to contribute to studies of motor dysfunctions, such as spinal cord injury and stroke. Disorders associated with energy support and delivery systems and how these functions are altered by sedentary life styles at 1 G and by space travel in a microgravity environment are also discussed.

  18. A Collaborative Approach to Transportation Planning: Federal and State Perspectives on Section 180(c) Program Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaluso, C.; Strong, T.; Janairo, L.; Helvey, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) committed in its November 2003 Strategic Plan for the Safe Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to Yucca Mountain: A Guide to Stakeholder Interactions to develop the transportation system collaboratively with stakeholders. The Strategic Plan further stated that four state regional groups (SRGs) would be the 'anchors' for OCRWM's collaboration with the states. The first major transportation planning activity that OCRWM initiated after publication of the Strategic Plan was the development of the Section 180(c) grant program. This document describes that collaboration and its outcomes from the perspective of the OCRWM participants and one of the SRGs, the Council of State Governments - Midwestern Office (CSG Midwest). (authors)

  19. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation—A Sustainable Development Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Burns

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in relation to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. We conceptualize sustainability from a social systemic perspective, that is, from a perspective that encompasses the multiple functionalities of a social system and their interrelationships in particular environmental contexts. The systems perspective is applied in our consideration and analysis of disaster risk reduction (DRR, climate change adaptation (CCA, and sustainable development (SD. Section “Sustainability and Sustainable Development” introduces briefly sustainability and sustainable development, followed by a brief presentation of the theory of complex social systems (Section “Social System Model”. The theory conceptualizes interdependent subsystems, their multiple functionalities, and the agential and systemic responses to internal and external stressors on a social system. Section “Case Studies of Response to Stressors” considers disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA, emerging in response to one or more systemic stressors. It illustrates these with disaster risk reduction in the cases of food and chemical security regulation in the EU. CCA is illustrated by initiatives and developments on the island of Gotland, Sweden and in the Gothenburg Metropolitan area, which go beyond a limited CCA perspective, taking into account long-term sustainability issues. Section “Sustainable Development as a Societal Development System” discusses the limitations of DRR and CCA, not only their technical limitations but economic, socio-cultural, and political limitations, as informed from a sustainability perspective. It is argued that DRRs are only partial subsystems and must be considered and assessed in the context of a more encompassing systemic perspective. Part of the discussion is focused on the distinction between sustainable and non-sustainable DRRs and

  20. Systems Approaches to Modeling Chronic Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Boning; Choudhary, Sanjeev; Wood, Thomas G.; Carmical, Joseph R.; Boldogh, Istvan; Mitra, Sankar; Minna, John D.; Brasier, Allan R.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory mucosa is a major coordinator of the inflammatory response in chronic airway diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Signals produced by the chronic inflammatory process induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) that dramatically alters the epithelial cell phenotype. The effects of EMT on epigenetic reprogramming and the activation of transcriptional networks are known, its effects on the innate inflammatory response are underexplored. We used a multiplex gene expression profiling platform to investigate the perturbations of the innate pathways induced by TGFβ in a primary airway epithelial cell model of EMT. EMT had dramatic effects on the induction of the innate pathway and the coupling interval of the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways. Simulation experiments demonstrate that rapid, coordinated cap-independent translation of TRAF-1 and NF-κB2 is required to reduce the noncanonical pathway coupling interval. Experiments using amantadine confirmed the prediction that TRAF-1 and NF-κB2/p100 production is mediated by an IRES-dependent mechanism. These data indicate that the epigenetic changes produced by EMT induce dynamic state changes of the innate signaling pathway. Further applications of systems approaches will provide understanding of this complex phenotype through deterministic modeling and multidimensional (genomic and proteomic) profiling. PMID:24228254

  1. Ostwald ripening: an approach with dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lameiras F.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This approach assumes three functions independently acting on a set of microparticles. The first one, w1, concerns re-distribution of mass to decrease the surface energy. The second one, w2, concerns re-distribution of mass to increase the entropy of the microparticle set. The third one, w3, is a further re-distribution of mass that vanishes a microparticle. Once vanished, its mass is distributed among its neighbors. w1 and w3 release energy, whereas w2 absorbs energy. Part of the energy released should be available to sustain w2. The action frequency of w1, w2, and w3, the amount of mass exchanged in each iteraction, the fraction of released energy available to sustain w2, and the size of a vanishing microparticle can be varied. As the dynamical system formed by w1, w2, and w3 act on an initial microparticle set, it is observed an evolution resembling the Ostwald ripening concerning steady-state size distribution and microparticle growth.

  2. A systems approach to rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyong You

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily attacks synovial joints. Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment of RA, novel molecular targets are still needed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and the therapeutic outcomes. Here, we present a systems approach that can effectively 1 identify core RA-associated genes (RAGs, 2 reconstruct RA-perturbed networks, and 3 select potential targets for diagnosis and treatments of RA. By integrating multiple gene expression datasets previously reported, we first identified 983 core RAGs that show RA dominant differential expression, compared to osteoarthritis (OA, in the multiple datasets. Using the core RAGs, we then reconstructed RA-perturbed networks that delineate key RA associated cellular processes and transcriptional regulation. The networks revealed that synovial fibroblasts play major roles in defining RA-perturbed processes, anti-TNF-α therapy restored many RA-perturbed processes, and 19 transcription factors (TFs have major contribution to deregulation of the core RAGs in the RA-perturbed networks. Finally, we selected a list of potential molecular targets that can act as metrics or modulators of the RA-perturbed networks. Therefore, these network models identify a panel of potential targets that will serve as an important resource for the discovery of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers, as well as providing novel insights into RA pathogenesis.

  3. A multiscale modeling approach for biomolecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowling, Alan, E-mail: bowling@uta.edu; Haghshenas-Jaryani, Mahdi, E-mail: mahdi.haghshenasjaryani@mavs.uta.edu [The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a new multiscale molecular dynamic model for investigating the effects of external interactions, such as contact and impact, during stepping and docking of motor proteins and other biomolecular systems. The model retains the mass properties ensuring that the result satisfies Newton’s second law. This idea is presented using a simple particle model to facilitate discussion of the rigid body model; however, the particle model does provide insights into particle dynamics at the nanoscale. The resulting three-dimensional model predicts a significant decrease in the effect of the random forces associated with Brownian motion. This conclusion runs contrary to the widely accepted notion that the motor protein’s movements are primarily the result of thermal effects. This work focuses on the mechanical aspects of protein locomotion; the effect ATP hydrolysis is estimated as internal forces acting on the mechanical model. In addition, the proposed model can be numerically integrated in a reasonable amount of time. Herein, the differences between the motion predicted by the old and new modeling approaches are compared using a simplified model of myosin V.

  4. A systems perspective of waste and energy - Strengths and weaknesses of the ORWARE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2000-11-01

    Waste management of today in Sweden is a complex phenomenon that demands for a scientific and systematic approach. The complexity is a result of a wide variety of actors, technologies, and impact on the environment, health, and the economy. Waste management also has a high relevance with respect to energy. There are direct connections as e.g. energy recovery from waste, but also indirect as the systems complexity and the environmental and economical impacts. Helpful tools in the planning of waste management are different types of models of which ORWARE is one. Based on principles from Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and complemented with a simple Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) ORWARE can provide some help in finding environmentally sound solutions for waste management systems. The model does not answer all questions raised by practitioners but can still be used for advisory purposes. The model does not include sociological or political aspects but it covers the area of physical flows with impacts on environment, society and economy. Other impacts have to be considered with other methods. The experiences from using ORWARE in Swedish municipalities during more than a half decade clearly shows the advantages and disadvantages of the tool. The model is very flexible when it comes to the possibility of site-specific adjustments of input data and process functions. With help of the model the complexity of the studied system can be illustrated by e.g. a map of the number of connections between different types of information. In this way ORWARE supports dialogue between different stakeholders and collects knowledge in a unique way. On the other hand, modelling such an extensive and complex system often leads to errors that takes time to find and correct. The model can not be considered as user friendly and does not cover all aspects wanted by the society. There are also educational problems with different time frames and space boundaries in the analysis that make the results hard

  5. Perspectives of cancer and cancer screening among homeless adults of New York City shelter-based clinics: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Sckell, Blanca; Alcabes, Analena; Naderi, Ramesh; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2015-10-01

    Millions of homeless Americans have lower cancer screening and higher cancer mortality rates. We explored perspectives and perceptions regarding cancer and cancer screening among homeless. Using random and criteria sampling, we conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 50 homeless adults from New York City's (NYC) shelters and shelter-based clinics. Mean age was 51.66 years with average 2.03 years of homelessness; 33/50 were older than 50. Only a small number of participants had their recommended cancer screening. Contrary to general assumptions and despite significant barriers, the homeless were concerned about cancer, believed their risk of cancer is higher compared to the general population, and generally considered screening a high priority during homelessness. While they acknowledged several individual- and systems-level barriers, they welcomed targeted measures to address their multi-level barriers. Suggested strategies included active counseling by providers, health education or reminders via mHealth strategies or face-to-face in shelters, addressing potential providers' prejudice and biases regarding their priorities, incentives, and patient navigators or coach to help navigating the complex cancer screening process. There are gaps in effective cancer screening despite adequate attitude and perceptions among homeless. The health system needs to shift from addressing only basic care to a more equitable approach with accessible and acceptable opportunities for preventive cancer care for the homeless.

  6. Aromaticity and antiaromaticity of substituted fulvene derivatives: perspectives from the information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Donghai; Rong, Chunying; Lu, Tian; Chattaraj, Pratim K; De Proft, Frank; Liu, Shubin

    2017-07-19

    Even though the concept of aromaticity and antiaromaticity is extremely important and widely used, there still exist lots of controversies in the literature, which are believed to be originated from the fact that there are so many aromatic types discovered and at the same time there are many aromaticity indexes proposed. In this work, using seven series of substituted fulvene derivatives as an example and with the information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory, we examine these concepts from a different perspective. We investigate the changing patterns of Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, information gain, Onicescu information energy, and relative Renyi entropy on the ring carbon atoms of these systems. Meanwhile, we also consider variation trends of four representative kinds of aromaticity indexes such as FLU, HOMA, ASE and NICS. Statistical analyses among these quantities show that with the same ring structure of the derivatives, both information-theoretic quantities and aromaticity indexes obey the same changing pattern, which are valid across all seven systems studied. However, cross correlations between these two sets of quantities yield two completely opposite patterns. These ring-structure dependent correlations are in good agreement with Hückel's 4n + 2 rule of aromaticity and 4n rule of antiaromaticity. Our results should provide a novel and complementary viewpoint on how aromaticity and antiaromaticity should be appreciated and categorized. More studies are in progress to further our understanding about the matter.

  7. Managing responsible antimicrobial use: perspectives across the healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, O J; Tebano, G; Pulcini, C

    2017-07-01

    Healthcare systems consist of building blocks. Shaping how these building blocks function and interact can promote responsible antimicrobial use, and this represents an important opportunity for managers at different points within healthcare systems to act upon. To review real-world examples of how healthcare systems can promote responsible antimicrobial use, focusing on the role of governance and managers. We searched and reviewed existing literature and official documents, which mostly focused on antibiotics. We also drew on the diverse experiences of the ESGAP (the ESCMID (European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) Study Group for Antimicrobial stewardshiP) network. First, we explored at the institution level the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the need to embrace multidisciplinary approaches, the benefits of engaging with social sciences experts, and the role of governance and leadership. We look beyond individual institutions and highlight the urgent need for workforce capacity estimates for antimicrobial stewardship activities, how antimicrobial stewardship efforts can connect to form networks, and the importance of governance and regulation at national and international levels. Managers in the healthcare system are in a strong position to look beyond individual prescriptions and to recognize the many ways in which different healthcare system building blocks can contribute to responsible use of antimicrobials. At the institution level this can be achieved by implementing antimicrobial stewardship programmes, ensuring they are adequately resourced, and driving buy-in across clinical leadership. At regional and national levels this includes facilitating the sharing of experiences and resources between institutions, and developing the standards and regulations needed to support responsible antimicrobial use. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier

  8. Teacher Perspectives of Challenges within the Norwegian Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah K.; Terras, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines teacher perspectives' of educational challenges in Norway. Norway is one of the most well-resourced, prosperous, social welfare states in the world, yet the OECD (2011) recognized students' weak basic skills and insufficient teacher ability in content and pedagogy, along with engagement and imbalanced resources as points for…

  9. OECD/NEA WGFCS Workshop: Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities - Regulatory Approaches and Industry Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is produced, processed, and stored mainly in industrial-scale facilities. Uranium ores are processed and refined to produce a pure uranium salt stream, Uranium is converted and enriched, nuclear fuel is fabricated (U fuel and U/Pu fuel for the closed cycle option); and spent fuel is stored and reprocessed in some countries (close cycle option). Facilities dedicated to the research and development of new fuel or new processes are also considered as Fuel Cycle Facilities. The safety assessment of nuclear facilities has often been led by the methodology and techniques initially developed for Nuclear Power Plants. As FCFs cover a wide diversity of installations the various approaches of national regulators, and their technical support organizations, for the Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities are also diverse, as are the approaches by their industries in providing safety justifications for their facilities. The objective of the Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety is to advance the understanding for both regulators and operators of relevant aspects of nuclear fuel cycle safety in member countries. A large amount of experience is available in safety assessment of FCFs, which should be shared to develop ideas in this field. To contribute to this task, the Workshop on 'Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities - Regulatory Approaches and Industry Perspectives' was held in Toronto, on 27 - 29 September 2011. The workshop was hosted by Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The current proceedings provide summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  10. The Enactive Approach to Architectural Experience: A Neurophysiological Perspective on Embodiment, Motivation, and Affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, Andrea; Tieri, Gaetano; De Matteis, Federico; Babiloni, Fabio; Vecchiato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, the efforts to reveal through neuroscientific lens the relations between the mind, body, and built environment have set a promising direction of using neuroscience for architecture. However, little has been achieved thus far in developing a systematic account that could be employed for interpreting current results and providing a consistent framework for subsequent scientific experimentation. In this context, the enactive perspective is proposed as a guide to studying architectural experience for two key reasons. Firstly, the enactive approach is specifically selected for its capacity to account for the profound connectedness of the organism and the world in an active and dynamic relationship, which is primarily shaped by the features of the body. Thus, particular emphasis is placed on the issues of embodiment and motivational factors as underlying constituents of the body-architecture interactions. Moreover, enactive understanding of the relational coupling between body schema and affordances of architectural spaces singles out the two-way bodily communication between architecture and its inhabitants, which can be also explored in immersive virtual reality settings. Secondly, enactivism has a strong foothold in phenomenological thinking that corresponds to the existing phenomenological discourse in architectural theory and qualitative design approaches. In this way, the enactive approach acknowledges the available common ground between neuroscience and architecture and thus allows a more accurate definition of investigative goals. Accordingly, the outlined model of architectural subject in enactive terms-that is, a model of a human being as embodied, enactive, and situated agent, is proposed as a basis of neuroscientific and phenomenological interpretation of architectural experience.

  11. Endoscopic transorbital superior eyelid approach: anatomical study from a neurosurgical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Somma, Alberto; Andaluz, Norberto; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Notaris, Matteo; Dallan, Iacopo; Solari, Domenico; Zimmer, Lee A; Keller, Jeffrey T; Zuccarello, Mario; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2017-12-15

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have proposed the superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital approach as a new minimally invasive route to access orbital lesions, mostly in otolaryngology and maxillofacial surgeries. The authors undertook this anatomical study in order to contribute a neurosurgical perspective, exploring the anterior and middle cranial fossa areas through this purely endoscopic transorbital trajectory. METHODS Anatomical dissections were performed in 10 human cadaveric heads (20 sides) using 0° and 30° endoscopes. A step-by-step description of the superior eyelid transorbital endoscopic route and surgically oriented classification are provided. RESULTS The authors' cadaveric prosection of this approach defined 3 modular routes that could be combined. Two corridors using bone removal lateral to the superior and inferior orbital fissures exposed the middle and anterior cranial fossa (lateral orbital corridors to the anterior and middle cranial base) to unveil the temporal pole region, lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, middle cranial fossa floor, and frontobasal area (i.e., orbital and recti gyri of the frontal lobe). Combined, these 2 corridors exposed the lateral aspect of the lesser sphenoid wing with the Sylvian region (combined lateral orbital corridor to the anterior and middle cranial fossa, with lesser sphenoid wing removal). The medial corridor, with extension of bone removal medially to the superior and inferior orbital fissure, afforded exposure of the opticocarotid area (medial orbital corridor to the opticocarotid area). CONCLUSIONS Along with its minimally invasive nature, the superior eyelid transorbital approach allows good visualization and manipulation of anatomical structures mainly located in the anterior and middle cranial fossae (i.e., lateral to the superior and inferior orbital fissures). The visualization and management of the opticocarotid region medial to the superior orbital fissure are more complex. Further studies are needed

  12. The enactive approach to architectural experience: a neurophysiological perspective on embodiment, motivation, and affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eJelic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the efforts to reveal through neuroscientific lens the relations between the mind, body, and built environment have set a promising direction of using neuroscience for architecture. However, little has been achieved thus far in developing a systematic account that could be employed for interpreting current results and providing a consistent framework for subsequent scientific experimentation. In this context, the enactive perspective is proposed as a guide to studying architectural experience for two key reasons. Firstly, the enactive approach is specifically selected for its capacity to account for the profound connectedness of the organism and the world in an active and dynamic relationship, which is primarily shaped by the features of the body. Thus, particular emphasis is placed on the issues of embodiment and motivational factors as underlying constituents of the body-architecture interactions. Moreover, enactive understanding of the relational coupling between body schema and affordances of architectural spaces singles out the two-way bodily communication between architecture and its inhabitants, which can be also explored in immersive virtual reality settings. Secondly, enactivism has a strong foothold in phenomenological thinking that corresponds to the existing phenomenological discourse in architectural theory and qualitative design approaches. In this way, the enactive approach acknowledges the available common ground between neuroscience and architecture and thus allows a more accurate definition of investigative goals. Accordingly, the outlined model of architectural subject in enactive terms – that is, a model of a human being as embodied, enactive, and situated agent, is proposed as a basis of neuroscientific and phenomenological interpretation of architectural experience.

  13. Recasting brain-machine interface design from a physical control system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chase, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    With the goal of improving the quality of life for people suffering from various motor control disorders, brain-machine interfaces provide direct neural control of prosthetic devices by translating neural signals into control signals. These systems act by reading motor intent signals directly from the brain and using them to control, for example, the movement of a cursor on a computer screen. Over the past two decades, much attention has been devoted to the decoding problem: how should recorded neural activity be translated into the movement of the cursor? Most approaches have focused on this problem from an estimation standpoint, i.e., decoders are designed to return the best estimate of motor intent possible, under various sets of assumptions about how the recorded neural signals represent motor intent. Here we recast the decoder design problem from a physical control system perspective, and investigate how various classes of decoders lead to different types of physical systems for the subject to control. This framework leads to new interpretations of why certain types of decoders have been shown to perform better than others. These results have implications for understanding how motor neurons are recruited to perform various tasks, and may lend insight into the brain's ability to conceptualize artificial systems.

  14. A perspective on computer documentation: System developer vs. technical editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    Between the computer-knowledgeable {open_quotes}techie{close_quotes} and the technical writer is a chasm created by differences in knowledge bases and skills. Although this gap is widened by misunderstandings and misconceptions of system development roles, it is bridged by mutual need and dual appreciation. Often the editor/writer is {open_quotes}behind{close_quotes} from beginning to end. The writer normally joins the team after the programmers are well into system development and do not want to {open_quotes}waste time{close_quotes} discussing fundamentals. The writer is usually excluded from technical discussions because it is assumed that he/she would not understand anyway. Later in the system development cycle, the writer has no time to polish the documentation before a new version of the software is issued which implies that the documentation must be revised. Nevertheless, the editor/writer`s product is critical for the end-user`s appreciation of the software, a fact which promotes unity to complete the comprehensive package of software and documentation. This paper explores the planks in the bridge that spans the chasm between developers and their fundamental PR agents, the technical editors/writers. This paper defines approaches (e.g., The Circling Theory) and techniques (Bold Thrust!) employed for effective communication -- between software developer and technical writer as well as between the software and the end-user.

  15. System of screen violence’s marking: problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Plyusnin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence is so widespread on modern screens that it becomes to be especially important in the discourse of the humanitarian knowledge. Significantly actual is the problem of the impact of media content on the audience and ways of its effective regulation. In this connection, the need to create a system of control over the information space comes to the fore. In Ukraine there is no adequate model of the estimation of media content. As to our opinion, the existing rating system focuses the attention on age limitations and does not take into account the semantic characteristics that are used effectively in systems of Western countries. The problem of individuals’ protection from interaction with the content, which contains violence, can not be solved by the restriction of the access to information, but instead the situation of temptation to get what is tabooed is created. Despite the obvious usefulness of classification systems, the question of their modern low effectiveness arises, when it comes to the individuals’ protection from the undesirable audiovisual information. Attempts to revise the criteria for an objective analysis of media content were, in particular, the motivation for the creation of an alternative classification system, based on the principle of informing with the help of pictograms. A serious work on the study of various theoretical approaches to the research of the screen cruelty has been made by the author (the experiment by A. Bandura, the study by T. Payne’s fund of theoretical and experimental science on the impact of the violence on adolescent behavior, Gerbner’s cultivation theory, the hypothesis of catharsis by D. Zallman and R Gibson. It has been established that an individual who has not received the sufficient social experience and education level is at risk. There comes a threat of influence of factors capable, which can deform ideas about the world around us. Main definitions have been made in the article and

  16. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  17. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user's perspective of the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user's processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user's perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user's ''model of the world,'' in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more

  18. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user`s perspective of the system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.

  19. A multi-perspective analysis of lessons learned from building an Integrated Care Coordination Information System (ICCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jordan A; Behkami, Nima A; Olsen, Gwenivere S; Dorr, David A

    2012-01-01

    Care coordination is at the forefront of current health reform efforts, yet most electronic health records (EHRs) lack the functionality needed to facilitate and document care coordination activities. The Integrated Care Coordination Information System (ICCIS) was iteratively developed with user input to meet these needs. Following 16 months of system use, ICCIS users and developers were interviewed about their experiences. These interviews, along with quantitative information about system use, were analyzed using a combination of Linstone's Multiple Perspective approach and the ABC framework to determine lessons learned about novel system creation. Overall, clinicians saw value in specialized health information technology (HIT) tools for care coordination as long as development focuses on providing user-requested functionality that integrates closely with existing HIT systems and workflows. Close integration between novel HIT and EHRs may increase use by relieving the cited fatigues of duplicative data entry, multiple system logins, and potential data inconsistencies.

  20. A complex adaptive systems perspective of health information technology implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavjee, Karim; Kuziemsky, Craig; Vassanji, Karim; Ghany, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Implementing health information technology (HIT) is a challenge because of the complexity and multiple interactions that define HIT implementation. Much of the research on HIT implementation is descriptive in nature and has focused on distinct processes such as order entry or decision support. These studies fail to take into account the underlying complexity of the processes, people and settings that are typical of HIT implementations. Complex adaptive systems (CAS) is a promising field that could elucidate the complexity and non-linear interacting issues that are typical in HIT implementation. Initially we sought new models that would enable us to better understand the complex nature of HIT implementation, to proactively identify problem issues that could be a precursor to unintended consequences and to develop new models and new approaches to successful HIT implementations. Our investigation demonstrates that CAS does not provide prediction, but forces us to rethink our HIT implementation paradigms and question what we think we know. CAS provides new ways to conceptualize HIT implementation and suggests new approaches to increasing HIT implementation successes.

  1. Linking Microbiota to Human Diseases: A Systems Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2015-12-01

    The human gut microbiota encompasses a densely populated ecosystem that provides essential functions for host development, immune maturation, and metabolism. Alterations to the gut microbiota have been observed in numerous diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and irritable bowel syndrome, and some animal experiments have suggested causality. However, few studies have validated causality in humans and the underlying mechanisms remain largely to be elucidated. We discuss how systems biology approaches combined with new experimental technologies may disentangle some of the mechanistic details in the complex interactions of diet, microbiota, and host metabolism and may provide testable hypotheses for advancing our current understanding of human-microbiota interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nature-aligned approaches to form students’ system motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Ulyanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the society involves the transition of the society from the current evolutional stage to a higher stage without revolutionary destruction of the existing frames of society. An individual, playing a prominent role in human history from time to time, is able to provide for the evolution of consciousness of the whole community, appearing on the top of the evolutional cone in the moment of passing of the system to the qualitatively new stage of its development. Only an integral individual, a person-creator possessing a high potential of harmony is able to accomplish such transition. The golden proportion of the social structure of the society implies a certain correlation of ontological categories of people, having personality orientation that characterizes them as a creator, consumer or destroyer. The modern approaches to education involve motivating a human being to self-improvement all his/her lifelong. The question is that, how much pedagogical systems correspond to the laws of harmony, which provide formation of social strata golden proportion structure considered not from the perspective of class position, but from the perspective of creative personality orientation. The analysis of the existing educational approaches showed, that the best indices satisfying the set social problem belong to noospheric pedagogics, based on nature-aligned methodology of teaching academic disciplines. It is built on principles of health protection and health development, intellectual potential, system motivation of an individual to self-perfection. Nature-aligned educational methodology is personality oriented and enables the student to accomplish object-subject transformation in the process of education, as a result of which, following the receipt of special educational knowledge, abilities and skills, he/she gets common educational abilities and skills, on the basis of which the processes of self-actualization, self

  3. Exploring the development of an organisational culture of control and dependency from a systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van Eeden

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Globalisation and accelerating rates of change characterise the work environment.Research purpose: The aim of this research was to study the impact of the change process at a plant of a South African production company.Motivations for the study: Problems were experienced in terms of production and a need for transformation at different levels was expressed. Co-dependence in the environment necessitated exploration of intra-organisational dynamics.Research design, approach and method: The study focused on the management team at a specifc plant, but by applying the systems psychodynamic perspective it was possible to also explore the mutual effect of relationships with other systems in the organisation, the company as a whole and the environment. Respondents included the directors of manufacturing and of human resources, the general manager, an 11-member management team and staff representatives. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews, group interviews and a group consultation session were held.Main findings: Hypotheses were formulated regarding the change experienced in the company, the overemphasis of control in the various systems, efforts to move from dependency to interdependence, personal authority as a requirement for interdependent functioning and problems with interrelatedness.Practical/managerial implications: The study illustrates the application of the systems psychodynamic approach in exploring the interaction between and mutual infuence of various organisational systems, especially in times of change.Contribution/value add: At a broader level, the study contributes to the understanding of the application of the theory as well as suggesting the use of a methodology. Recommendations for an intervention of this nature were also made.

  4. From Product to System Approaches in European Sustainable Product Policies: Analysis of the Package Concept of Heating Systems in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calero-Pastor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Different policies with the goal of reducing energy consumption and other environmental impacts in the building sector coexist in Europe. Sustainable product polices, such as the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives, have recently broadened the scope of their target product groups from a strict product approach to extended product and system approaches. Indeed, there is a potential for greater savings when the focus is at a system level rather than on regulating individual products. Product policies for space and water heating systems have recently introduced and implemented the package label, which is a modular approach, standing between the extended product and the system approaches. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the different system approaches of various policies from an engineering perspective. It analyses in detail the package concept and its features through a practical application using a real case study. It focuses on how the package concept can support decisions made in the building design phase and, in particular, how can support the choice of appropriate components based on estimating system performances. This brings building engineers and regulators closer regarding the use of more consistent data on energy performance. Finally, this paper highlights the need to improve the alignment of the building-related product policies with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive.

  5. PERSPECTIVES OF INTERNET-IMPLEMENTATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dolotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers new version of the Internet implementation of the interactive information system “Crimea Coasts” based on the use of the Javascript in conjunction with the open library Leaflet and vector formats for the oceanographic data presentation. The first current system version includes a complete set of materials of published earlier monograph “The Current State of the Crimean Seashores”, implemented as interactive maps. In contrast to the printed version, interactive maps allow one to obtain data about the length of individual coast sections, the areas of coastal objects, and other characteristic data. It is expected that further system development will be performed with the wide using of modern vector graphics technologies, such as GeoDjango, C3- D3, Dojo and other add-ons over Javascript modules. The main attention will be given to the operational presentation of the results of nature observations and the assessment of the dynamics of the Crimea coastal zone as a whole. Variants of this approach have now been implemented on the basis of data on the measurement of the position of the coastline of the north-west Crimea coast. In addition, the system has reserved sections both for the basics and results of the implementation of a previously developed algorithm of the beaches cadastral assessment, including their recreational areas, the economic evaluation of recreational resources, as well as the results of a complex interdisciplinary monitoring of the ecological status of the Sevastopol Bay since 1998, including the geoinformation cartographic representation of the region elements. The monitoring results allow one to realize the visualization of the spatial distributions for the hydrological, hydrochemical and hydrobiological characteristics of the bay marine environment in a user-specified digital format, as well as to perform vertical distributions and some calculations. It is planned to put the final materials on the

  6. Current Challenges and Future Perspectives of Accounting Education : An Inter-Disciplinary Research Approach

    OpenAIRE

    中村, 恒彦

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the current challenges and future perspectives of accounting education. To adapt to changes in contemporary society, discussions of accounting that focus only on the internal aspects of accounting will be insufficient. This paper is arranged in terms of four inter-disciplinary perspectives : liberal arts, critical thinking, multiple intelligence theory and experiential learning. The first and second of these perspectives address the challenges of accoun...

  7. Professional perspectives on systemic barriers to admission avoidance: learning from a system dynamics study of older people's admission pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bronagh; Lattimer, Valerie; Wintrup, Julie; Brailsford, Sally

    2015-06-01

    There is debate worldwide about the best way to manage increased healthcare demand within ageing populations, particularly rising rates of unplanned and avoidable hospital admissions. To understand health and social care professionals' perspectives on barriers to admission avoidance throughout the admissions journey, in particular: the causes of avoidable admissions in older people; drivers of admission and barriers to use of admission avoidance strategies; and improvements to reduce unnecessary admissions. A qualitative framework analysis of interview data from a System dynamics (SD) modelling study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty health and social care professionals with experience of older people's admissions. The interviews were used to build understanding of factors facilitating or hindering admission avoidance across the admissions system. Data were analysed using framework analysis. Three overarching themes emerged: understanding the needs of the patient group; understanding the whole system; and systemwide access to expertise in care of older people. There were diverse views on the underlying reasons for avoidable admissions and recognition of the need for whole-system approaches to service redesign. Participants recommended system redesign that recognises the specific needs of older people, but there was no consensus on underlying patient needs or specific service developments. Access to expertise in management of older and frailer patients was seen as a barrier to admission avoidance throughout the system. Providing access to expertise and leadership in care of frail older people across the admissions system presents a challenge for service managers and nurse educators but is seen as a prerequisite for effective admission avoidance. System redesign to meet the needs of frail older people requires agreement on causes of avoidable admission and underlying patient needs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: Broadening the matrix approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grootel, Leonie; van Wesel, Floryt; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; Hox, Joop; Boeije, Hennie

    2017-09-01

    This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the qualitative evidence synthesis against interventions in primary quantitative studies. However, types of qualitative evidence syntheses that are associated with theory building generate theoretical models instead of recommendations. Therefore, the output from these types of qualitative evidence syntheses cannot directly be used for the matrix approach but requires transformation. This approach allows for the transformation of these types of output. The approach enables the inference of moderation effects instead of direct effects from the theoretical model developed in a qualitative evidence synthesis. Recommendations for practice are formulated on the basis of interactional relations inferred from the qualitative evidence synthesis. In doing so, we apply the realist perspective to model variables from the qualitative evidence synthesis according to the context-mechanism-outcome configuration. A worked example shows that it is possible to identify recommendations from a theory-building qualitative evidence synthesis using the realist perspective. We created subsets of the interventions from primary quantitative studies based on whether they matched the recommendations or not and compared the weighted mean effect sizes of the subsets. The comparison shows a slight difference in effect sizes between the groups of studies. The study concludes that the approach enhances the applicability of the matrix approach. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Different perspectives of success in innovative projects: a comparative analysis of the Design for Six Sigma and Design Thinking approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Martinelli Lopes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the alignment of the DFSS and DT approaches to innovative projects and the dimensions of success applied to evaluate them. A qualitative research strategy was applied, with the development of a case study in 2014 at a financial company that practices both approaches. The study involved the data analysis of eight projects, four DFSS and four DT. Descriptive statistics and the Mood median test were applied in order to interpret and summarize the results. The results indicate that the approach selected influences the project’s dimensions of success and that DT projects tend to have greater perspectives of success in innovation.

  10. Policy and Prevention Approaches for Disordered and Hazardous Gaming and Internet Use: an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Doh, Young Yim; Wu, Anise M S; Kuss, Daria J; Pallesen, Ståle; Mentzoni, Rune; Carragher, Natacha; Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Problems related to high levels of gaming and Internet usage are increasingly recognized as a potential public health burden across the developed world. The aim of this review was to present an international perspective on prevention strategies for Internet gaming disorder and related health conditions (e.g., Internet addiction), as well as hazardous gaming and Internet use. A systematic review of quantitative research evidence was conducted, followed by a search of governmental reports, policy and position statements, and health guidelines in the last decade. The regional scope included the USA, UK, Australia, China, Germany, Japan, and South Korea. Prevention studies have mainly involved school-based programs to train healthier Internet use habits in adolescents. The efficacy of selective prevention is promising but warrants further empirical attention. On an international scale, the formal recognition of gaming or Internet use as a disorder or as having quantifiable harms at certain levels of usage has been foundational to developing structured prevention responses. The South Korean model, in particular, is an exemplar of a coordinated response to a public health threat, with extensive government initiatives and long-term strategic plans at all three levels of prevention (i.e., universal, selective, and indicated). Western regions, by comparison, are dominated by prevention approaches led by non-profit organizations and private enterprise. The future of prevention of gaming and Internet problems ultimately relies upon all stakeholders working collaboratively in the public interest, confronting the reality of the evidence base and developing practical, ethical, and sustainable countermeasures.

  11. Perceiving design as modelling: A cybernetic systems perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Wynn, David C.; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The creation and use of models is central to engineering design, to the extent that designing might be perceived as a propagation from model to model and modelling may be described as the language of the designer (the terms product model and artefact model are used synonymously throughout...... out to add value for a given purpose and context. Implications of a cybernetic perspective that could guide effective modelling in design are discussed....

  12. Support systems for the diffusion of renewable energy technologies-an investor perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2006-01-01

    Concern over climate change impacts and the projected depletion of fossil fuels has urged more governments to adopt policies that stimulate the diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RET). With an increasingly diverse suite of support instruments, the question emerges as to which instruments or combinations are able to achieve faster, more substantial diffusion results. Although various support instruments were extensively addressed in policy studies, there is still no consensus. This is partly because many policy studies take a policy-maker approach in comparing support instruments, leaving relationships between policy design and policy results as a black box. This paper proposes an investor-oriented perspective to analyze the diffusion potential of support systems for RET. The main argument is that it is not the type of support instrument but rather its risk/profitability characteristics that influence investor behavior and the rate of diffusion. The two instruments most frequently discussed and compared are the feed-in-tariff and the quota model. The analysis in this paper concludes that policy design is crucial: while often feed-in tariffs are applauded and quota system feared, feed-in tariffs may also bring about disappointing diffusion results when poorly designed while quota systems may be also conceived as attractive instruments for independent power producers

  13. A psychosocial approach in humanitarian forensic action: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Ute; Navarro, Susana

    2017-11-01

    Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories. In this framework, forensics and psychosocial sciences need to work in complementary and coordinated interaction for the benefit of the families and communities. For forensic investigations to be restorative - their ultimate humanitarian objective - there are certain additional conditions apart from those of scientific quality and ethics: respect, information and coordination are among the main pillars for forensic action with a psychosocial approach, taking into account the need to treat on an individual and collective level the continuous psychological affectations caused by the disappearance of a loved one. On this basis, psychological and psychosocial accompaniment of the victims can contribute to the victims' healing process and also improve the forensic investigations themselves. This article, which is based on the experience of two decades of practical forensic and psychosocial work in the field, explains the main psychological effects of disappearances and the resulting needs. It gives a short historical overview of the origins and developments in psychosocial support and a perspective in relation to the search for missing persons and forensic interventions in Latin America. It goes on to demonstrate how coordinated interaction among the forensic and psychosocial fields strengthens both of them to the benefit of the affected families, groups and communities. Finally, it takes up some of the international recommendations

  14. Teaching ERP Systems: A Multi-Perspective View on the ERP System Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Leyh, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in university courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward a few large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Therefore, this paper describes a course outline for an additional course…

  15. Learning from Multiple Classifier Systems: Perspectives for Improving Decision Making of QSAR Models in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-The, Hai; Nam, Nguyen-Hai; Nga, Doan-Viet; Hai, Dang Thanh; Dieguez-Santana, Karel; Marrero-Poncee, Yovani; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Casanola-Martin, Gerardo M; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong

    2018-02-09

    Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling has been widely used in medicinal chemistry and computational toxicology for many years. Today, as the amount of chemicals is increasing dramatically, QSAR methods have become pivotal for the purpose of handling the data, identifying a decision, and gathering useful information from data processing. The advances in this field have paved a way for numerous alternative approaches that require deep mathematics in order to enhance the learning capability of QSAR models. One of these directions is the use of Multiple Classifier Systems (MCSs) that potentially provide a means to exploit the advantages of manifold learning through decomposition frameworks, while improving generalization and predictive performance. In this paper, we presented MCS as a next generation of QSAR modeling techniques and discuss the chance to mining the vast number of models already published in the literature. We systematically revisited the theoretical frameworks of MCS as well as current advances in MCS application for QSAR practice. Furthermore, we illustrated our idea by describing ensemble approaches on modeling histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitors. We expect that our analysis would contribute to a better understanding about MCS application and its future perspectives for improving the decision making of QSAR models. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Caregiver Perspectives during the Post Inpatient Hospital Transition: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, Angela M.; Weiss, Catherine L.; Wideman, Rukiya; Stephan, Sharon H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of caregiver perspectives of their psychosocial resources and needs during the post inpatient psychiatric hospitalization is limited. Examining caregivers' perspectives of the transition period may be a critical step in improving the transition success of children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Using quantitative…

  17. Trust in Legal Institutions: an Empirical Approach from a Social Capital Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Zuleta Ferrari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there is a growing public perception that some of the democratic institutions and frameworks, which were once taken for granted, are now showing their flaws, inefficiencies, increasingly struggling to keep up with society’s demands and expectations. This has led to a generalized feeling of uncertainty and disappointment, resulting in a lack of trust institutions. The implications of these circumstances on legal theory cannot be overlooked; this article aims to address the problem from an innovative perspective. A unique tool is presented in this article, which proposes a methodological agenda for approaching trust in legal institutions, from the perspective of the social capital theory. To this end, different variables and social capital dynamics will be identified and discussed in relation to trust in legal institutions. The aim is to, on one hand, provide an innovative methodological contribution to better understand the trust crisis, and in particular, the public perception towards legal institutions, and on the other, expand the analysis of social capital dimensions. Durante las últimas décadas, ha sido posible observar una creciente percepción general de que instituciones y estructuras democráticas que años atrás eran dadas por sentadas, presentan, hoy en día, fallas e ineficiencias que dificultan su capacidad de acompañar las demandas y expectativas de la sociedad. Ello ha llevado a un estado generalizado de incertidumbre y decepción, que resulta en la falta de confianza en las instituciones. Las implicancias de estas circumstancias para la teoría legal no pueden ser subestimadas. Este artículo aborda el problema desde una pespectiva innovadora. Presenta una herramienta única que propone una agenda metodológica para aproximarse a la temática de la confianza en las instituciones legales, desde la perspectiva de la teoría del capital social. A este fin, distintas variables y dinámicas del capital

  18. Industrial ecology: a new perspective on the future of the industrial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkman, S

    2001-09-22

    Industrial ecology? A surprising, intriguing expression that immediately draws our attention. The spontaneous reaction is that "industrial ecology" is a contradiction in terms, something of an oxymoron, like "obscure clarity" or "burning ice". Why this reflex? Probably because we are accustomed to considering the industrial system as isolated from the Biosphere, with factories and cities on one side and nature on the other, as well as the recurrent problem of trying to minimise th impact of the industrial system on what is "beyond" it: its surroundings, the "environment". As early as the 1950's, this end-of-pipe angle was the one adopted by ecologists, whose first serious studies focused on the consequences of the various forms of pollution on nature. In this perspective on the industrial system, human industrial activity as such remained outside the field of research. Industrial ecology explores the opposite assumption: The industrial system can be seen as a certain kind of ecosystem. After all, the industrial system, just as natural ecosystems, can be described as a particular distribution of materials, energy, and information flows. Furthermore, the entire industrial system relies on resources and services provided by the Biosphere, from which it cannot be dissociated. (It should be specified that "industrial", in the context of industrial ecology, refers to all human activities occurring within modern technological society. Thus, tourism, housing, medical services, transportation, agriculture, etc. are part of the industrial system.) Besides its rigorous scientific conceptual framework (scientific ecology), industrial ecology can also be seen as a practical approach to sustainability. It is an attempt to address the question, "How can the concept of sustainable development be made operational in an economically feasible way?" Industrial ecology represents precisely one of the paths that could provide concrete solutions. Governments have traditionally approached

  19. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is suggested. The similarity between the classical systems approach and typical current policy development life-cycles are striking. The rigorous systems approach, as often used in Systems Engineering projects, could be adapted, and thus provide the rigour...

  20. Systems approach for design control at Monitored Retrievable Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.N.; Williams, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the systems approach in establishing design control for the Monitored Retrievable Storage Project design development. Key elements in design control are enumerated and systems engineering aspects are detailed. Application of lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project experience is addressed. An integrated approach combining quality assurance and systems engineering requirements is suggested to practice effective design control

  1. Stochastic Thermodynamics: A Dynamical Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Rajpurohit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an energy-based, large-scale dynamical system model driven by Markov diffusion processes to present a unified framework for statistical thermodynamics predicated on a stochastic dynamical systems formalism. Specifically, using a stochastic state space formulation, we develop a nonlinear stochastic compartmental dynamical system model characterized by energy conservation laws that is consistent with statistical thermodynamic principles. In particular, we show that the difference between the average supplied system energy and the average stored system energy for our stochastic thermodynamic model is a martingale with respect to the system filtration. In addition, we show that the average stored system energy is equal to the mean energy that can be extracted from the system and the mean energy that can be delivered to the system in order to transfer it from a zero energy level to an arbitrary nonempty subset in the state space over a finite stopping time.

  2. Navigating towards Decoupled Aquaponic Systems: A System Dynamics Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical working principle of aquaponics is to provide nutrient-rich aquacultural water to a hydroponic plant culture unit, which in turn depurates the water that is returned to the aquaculture tanks. A known drawback is that a compromise away from optimal growing conditions for plants and fish must be achieved to produce both crops and fish in the same environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a theoretical concept of a decoupled aquaponic system (DAPS, and predict water, nutrient (N and P, fish, sludge, and plant levels. This has been approached by developing a dynamic aquaponic system model, using inputs from data found in literature covering the fields of aquaculture, hydroponics, and sludge treatment. The outputs from the model showed the dependency of aquacultural water quality on the hydroponic evapotranspiration rate. This result can be explained by the fact that DAPS is based on one-way flows. These one-way flows results in accumulations of remineralized nutrients in the hydroponic component ensuring optimal conditions for the plants. The study also suggests to size the cultivation area based on P availability in the hydroponic component as P is an exhaustible resource and has been identified one of the main limiting factors for plant growth.

  3. Perspectives on the changing healthcare system: teaching systems-based practice to medical residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education restructured its accreditation system to be based on educational outcomes in six core competencies. Systems-based practice is one of the six core competencies. The purpose of this report is to describe Weill Cornell Medical College's Internal Medicine Residency program curriculum for systems-based practice (SBP and its evaluation process. Methods: To examine potential outcomes of the POCHS curriculum, an evaluation was conducted, examining participants': (1 knowledge gain; (2 course ratings; and (3 qualitative feedback. Results: On average, there was a 19 percentage point increase in knowledge test scores for all three cohorts. The course was rated overall highly, receiving an average of 4.6 on a 1–5 scale. Lastly, the qualitative comments supported that the material is needed and valued. Conclusion: The course, entitled Perspectives on the Changing Healthcare System (POCHS and its evaluation process support that systems-based practice is crucial to residency education. The course is designed not only to educate residents about the current health care system but also to enable them to think critically about the risk and benefits of the changes. POCHS provides a framework for teaching and assessing this competency and can serve as a template for other residency programs looking to create or restructure their SBP curriculum.

  4. Radio systems engineering a tutorial approach

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Héctor J De Los; Ponte, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for readers who already have knowledge of devices and circuits for radio-frequency (RF) and microwave communication and are ready to study the systems engineering-level aspects of modern radio communications systems. The authors provide a general overview of radio systems with their components, focusing on the analog parts of the system and their non-idealities. Based on the physical functionality of the various building blocks of a modern radio system, block parameters are derived, which allows the examination of their influence on the overall system performance. The dis

  5. A Diagnostic Approach to Weapon System Lifecycle Support: The Phalanx Close-in Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apte, Aruna; Rendon, Rene

    2009-01-01

    This study discusses a diagnostic approach to examining the lifecycle support system of a weapon system specifically illustrating the approaches for the US Navy Phalanx Close-in Weapon System (CIWS...

  6. Holistic System of Care: a ten-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebelkopf, Ethan; Wright, Serena

    2011-01-01

    The Holistic System of Care for Native Americans in an Urban Environment is a community-focused intervention that provides behavioral health care, promotes health, and prevents disease. This approach is based on a community strategic planning process that honored Native American culture and relationships. Substance abuse, mental illness, homelessness, poverty, crime, physical illness, and violence are symptoms of historical trauma, family dysfunction, and spiritual imbalance. The holistic model links treatment, prevention, and recovery. The link between prevention and treatment is early intervention. Peer support is the link between treatment and recovery. Recovering individuals serve as role models linking recovery to prevention. Culture and spirituality build a strong and resilient foundation for recovery. This article documents the effectiveness of the holistic model over a ten-year period that it has been implemented at the Family & Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center in the San Francisco Bay Area. The holistic model has produced statistically significant reductions in substance abuse among adult Native American women, men, reentry, and homeless populations; reductions in substance abuse among Native American adolescents; reductions in HIV/AIDS high-risk behavior among Native American men, women, and adolescents; and decreases in acting out behavior among Native American severely emotionally disturbed children.

  7. Program Information System Auditing Theoritical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Aidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient information systems when using fewer resources or minimal in achieving organizational goals are expected. Effective information system capable of completing the organizations objectives. Audit information systems necessary to know the needs of users whether it is in line with the preparation of the decision-making process

  8. A Comprehensive Systems Biology Approach to Studying Zika Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan May

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is responsible for an ongoing and intensifying epidemic in the Western Hemisphere. We examined the complete predicted proteomes, glycomes, and selectomes of 33 ZIKV strains representing temporally diverse members of the African lineage, the Asian lineage, and the current outbreak in the Americas. Derivation of the complete selectome is an 'omics' approach to identify distinct evolutionary pressures acting on different features of an organism. Employment of the M8 model did not show evidence of global diversifying selection acting on the ZIKV polyprotein; however, a mixed effect model of evolution showed strong evidence (P<0.05 for episodic diversifying selection acting on specific sites. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predictably frequent across strains relative to the derived consensus sequence. None of the 9 published detection procedures utilize targets that share 100% identity across the 33 strains examined, indicating that ZIKV escape from molecular detection is predictable. The predicted O-linked glycome showed marked diversity across strains; however, the N-linked glycome was highly stable. All Asian and American strains examined were predicted to include glycosylation of E protein ASN154, a modification proposed to mediate neurotropism, whereas the modification was not predicted for African strains. SNP diversity, episodic diversifying selection, and differential glycosylation, particularly of ASN154, may have major biological implications for ZIKV disease. Taken together, the systems biology perspective of ZIKV indicates: a. The recently emergent Asian/American N-glycotype is mediating the new and emerging neuropathogenic potential of ZIKV; and b. further divergence at specific sites is predictable as endemnicity is established in the Americas.

  9. Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens

    2014-05-08

    The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.

  10. System perspectives for mobile platform design in m-Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roveda, Janet M.; Fink, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Advances in integrated circuit technologies have led to the integration of medical sensor front ends with data processing circuits, i.e., mobile platform design for wearable sensors. We discuss design methodologies for wearable sensor nodes and their applications in m-Health. From the user perspective, flexibility, comfort, appearance, fashion, ease-of-use, and visibility are key form factors. From the technology development point of view, high accuracy, low power consumption, and high signal to noise ratio are desirable features. From the embedded software design standpoint, real time data analysis algorithms, application and database interfaces are the critical components to create successful wearable sensor-based products.

  11. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  12. Optical selectionist approach to optical connectionist systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    1994-03-01

    Two broad approaches to computing are known - connectionist (which includes Turing Machines but is demonstrably more powerful) and selectionist. Human computer engineers tend to prefer the connectionist approach which includes neural networks. Nature uses both but may show an overall preference for selectionism. "Looking back into the history of biology, it appears that whenever a phenomenon resembles learning, an instructive theory was first proposed to account for the underlying mechanisms. In every case, this was later replaced by a selective theory." - N. K. Jeme, Nobelist in Immunology.

  13. Integrating Recovery and the Narrative Attachment Systems Perspective to Working through Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardon, Stephanie; Pernice-Duca, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) presents a number of symptoms and adjustment issues for individuals, but it is also associated with a myriad of risks for the larger family system. A systemic perspective is crucial to comprehending the development of BPD. Promoting healthy relationships with one or more supportive adult enables the child to…

  14. On the Brink of Shifting Paradigms, Molecular Systems Engineering Ethics Needs to Take a Proactive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Raheleh; Elger, Bernice S; Stutzki, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Molecular Systems Engineering (MSE) is a paradigm shift in both engineering and life sciences. While the field is still in its infancy the perspectives of MSE in revolutionising technology is promising. MSE will offer a wide range of applications in clinical, biotechnological and engineering fields while simultaneously posing serious questions on the ethical and societal aspects of such technology. The moral and societal aspects of MSE need systematic investigation from scientific and social perspectives. In a democratic setting, the societal outcomes of MSE's cutting-edge technology need to be consulted and influenced by society itself. For this purpose MSE needs inclusive public engagement strategies that bring together the public, ethicists, scientists and policy makers for optimum flow of information that maximizes the impact of public engagement. In this report we present an MSE consortium and its ethics framework for establishing a proactive approach in the study of the ethics of MSE technology.

  15. Key properties of expert movement systems in sport : an ecological dynamics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Button, Chris; Davids, Keith

    2013-03-01

    This paper identifies key properties of expertise in sport predicated on the performer-environment relationship. Weaknesses of traditional approaches to expert performance, which uniquely focus on the performer and the environment separately, are highlighted by an ecological dynamics perspective. Key properties of expert movement systems include 'multi- and meta-stability', 'adaptive variability', 'redundancy', 'degeneracy' and the 'attunement to affordances'. Empirical research on these expert system properties indicates that skill acquisition does not emerge from the internal representation of declarative and procedural knowledge, or the imitation of expert behaviours to linearly reduce a perceived 'gap' separating movements of beginners and a putative expert model. Rather, expert performance corresponds with the ongoing co-adaptation of an individual's behaviours to dynamically changing, interacting constraints, individually perceived and encountered. The functional role of adaptive movement variability is essential to expert performance in many different sports (involving individuals and teams; ball games and outdoor activities; land and aquatic environments). These key properties signify that, in sport performance, although basic movement patterns need to be acquired by developing athletes, there exists no ideal movement template towards which all learners should aspire, since relatively unique functional movement solutions emerge from the interaction of key constraints.

  16. Comparative research and the business system approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Robson Silva

    2003-01-01

    . The NBS is not widely known in the LatinAmerica countries, and this paper intends to shortly present it The second aim is toquestion, based on the NBS approach, some of the assumptions about the diffusion of anew universal template for organising work (Lean Production) and its agent, themultinational...

  17. Systems engineering approach to preconceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Steps in the typical pre-conceptual engineering study are: problem identification, identify alternatives, evaluate alternatives, and recommend solution. Three examples of the use of pre-conceptual approach to save money are given; they include the water supply for fire protection in the 200-West Area of Hanford, emergency power for the Purex plant, and new filter for the Purex plant canyon exhaust

  18. System Behavior Models: A Survey of Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the Petri model allowed a quick assessment of all potential states but was more cumbersome to build than the MP model. A comparison of approaches...identical state space results. The combined state space graph of the Petri model allowed a quick assessment of all potential states but was more...59 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST ...................................................................................65 ix LIST

  19. An expert system approach for safety diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, R.C.; Sun, B.K.H.

    1988-01-01

    An expert system was developed with the intent to provide real-time information about an accident to an operator who is in the process of diagnosing and bringing that accident under control. Explicit use was made of probabilistic risk analysis techniques and plant accident response information in constructing this system. The expert system developed contains 70 logic rules and provides contextual messages during simulated accident sequences and logic sequence information on the entire sequence in graphical form for accident diagnosis. The present analysis focuses on integrated control system-related transients with Babcock and Wilcox-type reactors. While the system developed here is limited in extent and was built for a composite reactor, it demonstrates that an expert system may enhance the operator's capability in the control room

  20. Radiological approach to systemic connective tissue diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, W.; Schneider, M.

    1988-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) represent the most frequent manifestations of systemic connective tissue diseases (collagen diseases). Radiological examinations are employed to estimate the extension and degree of the pathological process. In addition, progression of the disease can be verified. In both of the above collagen diseases, specific radiological findings can be observed that permit them to be differentiated from other entities. An algorithm for the adequate radiological work-up of collagen diseases is presented.

  1. Approaching Sentient Building Performance Simulation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Perkov, Thomas; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Sentient BPS systems can combine one or more high precision BPS and provide near instantaneous performance feedback directly in the design tool, thus providing speed and precision of building performance in the early design stages. Sentient BPS systems are essentially combining: 1) design tools, 2......) parametric tools, 3) BPS tools, 4) dynamic databases 5) interpolation techniques and 6) prediction techniques as a fast and valid simulation system, in the early design stage....

  2. Desiccant cooling system performance: A simple approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Grolmes, M. A.

    1982-10-01

    The wave nature of heat and mass transfer in fixed desiccant bed adsorption is explained. A simple algebraic model of wave motion under single low desiccant bed operation is developed and applied to the prediction of the performance potential of the overall desiccant cooling system. The model is used to explain the increase in cooling system performance that is realized through the use of mixed inert desiccant material adsorption beds. The response of cooling system performance to changes in external process conditions is examined and conclusions are drawn relative to optimization of system characteristics.

  3. Urban energy systems an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    Energy demands of cities need to be met more sustainably. This book analyses the technical and social systems that satisfy these needs and asks how methods can be put into practice to achieve this.Drawing on analytical tools and case studies developed at Imperial College London, the book presents state-of-the-art techniques for examining urban energy systems as integrated systems of technologies, resources, and people.Case studies include:a history of the evolution of London's urban energy system, from pre-history to present daya history of the growth of d

  4. Understanding Nuclear Safety Culture: A Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afghan, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima accident was a systemic failure (Report by Director General IAEA on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident). Systemic failure is a failure at system level unlike the currently understood notion which regards it as the failure of component and equipment. Systemic failures are due to the interdependence, complexity and unpredictability within systems and that is why these systems are called complex adaptive systems (CAS), in which “attractors” play an important role. If we want to understand the systemic failures we need to understand CAS and the role of these attractors. The intent of this paper is to identify some typical attractors (including stakeholders) and their role within complex adaptive system. Attractors can be stakeholders, individuals, processes, rules and regulations, SOPs etc., towards which other agents and individuals are attracted. This paper will try to identify attractors in nuclear safety culture and influence of their assumptions on safety culture behavior by taking examples from nuclear industry in Pakistan. For example, if the nuclear regulator is an attractor within nuclear safety culture CAS then how basic assumptions of nuclear plant operators and shift in-charges about “regulator” affect their own safety behavior?

  5. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-12-08

    To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals' and organisations' growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate, reflection and reform. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  6. A multiple perspective modeling and simulation approach for renewable energy policy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyamani, Talal M.

    Environmental issues and reliance on fossil fuel sources, including coal, oil, and natural gas, are the two most common energy issues that are currently faced by the United States (U.S.). Incorporation of renewable energy sources, a non-economical option in electricity generation compared to conventional sources that burn fossil fuels, single handedly promises a viable solution for both of these issues. Several energy policies have concordantly been suggested to reduce the financial burden of adopting renewable energy technologies and make such technologies competitive with conventional sources throughout the U.S. This study presents a modeling and analysis approach for comprehensive evaluation of renewable energy policies with respect to their benefits to various related stakeholders--customers, utilities, governmental and environmental agencies--where the debilitating impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of such policies can be assessed and quantified at the state level. In this work, a novel simulation framework is presented to help policymakers promptly assess and evaluate policies from different perspectives of its stakeholders. The proposed framework is composed of four modules: 1) a database that collates the economic, operational, and environmental data; 2) elucidation of policy, which devises the policy for the simulation model; 3) a preliminary analysis, which makes predictions for consumption, supply, and prices; and 4) a simulation model. After the validity of the proposed framework is demonstrated, a series of planned Florida and Texas renewable energy policies are implemented into the presented framework as case studies. Two solar and one energy efficiency programs are selected as part of the Florida case study. A utility rebate and federal tax credit programs are selected as part of the Texas case study. The results obtained from the simulation and conclusions drawn on the assessment of current energy policies are presented with respect to the

  7. Implicit Reasons for Disclosure of the Use of Complementary Health Approaches (CHA): a Consumer Commitment Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Riess, Helene; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-10-01

    Disclosure of the use of complementary health approaches (CHA) is an important yet understudied health behavior with important implications for patient care. Yet research into disclosure of CHA has been atheoretical and neglected the role of health beliefs. Using a consumer commitment model of CHA use as a guiding conceptual framework, the current study tests the hypotheses that perceived positive CHA outcomes (utilitarian values) and positive CHA beliefs (symbolic values) are associated with disclosure of CHA to conventional care providers in a nationally representative US sample. From a sample of 33,594 with CHA use information from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a subsample of 7348 who used CHA within the past 12 months was analyzed. The 2012 NHIS is a cross-sectional survey of the non-institutionalized US adult population, which includes the most recent nationally representative CHA use data. The 63.2% who disclosed CHA use were older, were less educated, and had visited a health care provider in the past year. Weighted logistic regression analyses controlling for demographic variables revealed that those who disclosed were more likely to report experiencing positive psychological (improved coping and well-being) and physical outcomes (better sleep, improved health) from CHA and hold positive CHA-related beliefs. CHA users who perceive physical and psychological benefits from CHA use and who hold positive attitudes towards CHA are more likely to disclose their CHA use. Findings support the relevance of a consumer commitment perspective for understanding CHA disclosure and suggest CHA disclosure as an important proactive health behavior that warrants further attention.

  8. Globalization from a World-System Perspective: A New Phase in the Core–A New Destiny for Brazil and the Semiperiphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C. Schwartzman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of globalization, prominent in all fields of social science, scarcely draws upon the insights generated by the world-systems theory. In this essay, I delineate five key dimensions on which a world-systems approach diverges from a world society approach. When linked together, these five stages offer support for a dependency perspective that was elaborated in the theoretical work underpinning the world-system paradigm. I use the case of Brazil to demonstrate how a consent model, derived from this paradigm, offers a better understanding of the dynamics leading to global convergence than a consensus model derived from a world society paradigm.

  9. Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, I.; Klimov, A.B.; Saavedra, C.

    2006-01-01

    We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found

  10. Spectrally-balanced chromatic approach-lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Approach lighting system employing combinations of red and blue lights reduces problem of color-based optical illusions. System exploits inherent chromatic aberration of eye to create three-dimensional effect, giving pilot visual clues of position.

  11. Exploring the meaning of trauma in the South African Police Service: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explores individual stories of trauma and their dissonance with the official, dominant discourse on trauma in the South African Police Service (SAPS from a systems psychodynamic perspective.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was, firstly, to explore how trauma experienced by South African Police Service members is constructed or ‘talked about’ and made sense of. Questions and issues that are considered relevant to the primary purpose are: which aspects of the working environment do members consider to be the most stressful, traumatic and difficult to cope with, and what is the effect of the change and transition processes on members’ working experiences?Motivation for the study: The authors set out to explore the role of systems psychodynamics in the experience of trauma and stress in the SAPS.Research design, approach and method: Through this qualitative, explorative, social phenomenological study, contributing circumstances and processes are included as additional discourses in an attempt to deepen understanding. The epistemology viewpoint of the study is found in the social constructionism and the data comprise 15 essays by members of the SAPS, all of which have been analysed from the perspective of systems psychodynamics.Main findings: Although the effect of trauma on police officers can never be negated, the way in which they deal with trauma seems to be different from what was initially believed. Further, their experience of stress is not solely the result of traumatic experiences but rather the result of traumatic experiences and systems psychodynamics operating within their organisation – which includes both organisational stressors or dynamics and transformation dynamics.Practical/managerial implications: The history of psychological trauma indicates that constructions of traumatic stress are strongly related to cultural, social and political circumstances. Current psychoanalytic thinking

  12. Emerging Ecological Approaches to Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health in the School Context: Next Steps from a Community Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J.; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, ecological perspectives have become more visible in prevention, health promotion, and public health within the school context. Individually based approaches to understanding and changing behavior have been increasingly challenged by these perspectives because of their appreciation for contextual influences on individual behavior.…

  13. Towards an Ethical Approach to Perspective-Taking and the Teaching of Multicultural Texts: Getting beyond Persuasion, Politeness and Political Correctness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Amanda Haertling; Sloan, DeAnn Long

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to problematize perspective-taking -- an instructional practice widely thought to be useful in helping students develop the ability to better understand their own worlds and the worlds of others in multicultural texts. We provide examples that illustrate difficulties discovered in implementing a perspective-taking approach to…

  14. Systems information management: graph theoretical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temel, T.

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a new method for characterising the underlying information structure of a multi-sector system. A complete characterisation is accomplished by identifying information gaps and cause-effect information pathways in the system, and formulating critical testable hypotheses.

  15. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita Wilkinson

    AJCE, 2017, 7(3), Special Issue. ISSN 2227-5835. 47 meaning was a “study of chemistry concepts through interacted systems in which all relationships between concepts are clear”. They sought “to change our educational systems from linearity to systemic”. Linearity is one of the features of normal science education as ...

  16. A System Theoretical Inspired Approach to Knowledge Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    student's knowledge construction, in the light of operative constructivism, inspired by the German sociologist N. Luhmann's system theoretical approach to epistemology. Taking observations as operations based on distinction and indication (selection) contingency becomes a fundamental condition in learning....... In the light of operative constructivism this is a paradox and a challenge for the Educational system....... consequences for ways of organising teaching, and thereby the educational systems approaches to aims, goals, requirements, learning media and tests. The paper invite the educational system to rethink the condition for knowledge construction. The consequence of the systems theoretical approach...

  17. A bottom-up approach to urban metabolism: the perspective of BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, N.; Borrego, C.; San Josè, R.; Grimmond, S. B.; Jones, M. B.; Magliulo, V.; Klostermann, J.; Santamouris, M.

    2011-12-01

    Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and usually distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. "Metabolic" studies are usually top-down approaches that assess the inputs and outputs of food, water, energy, and pollutants from a city, or that compare the changing metabolic process of several cities. In contrast, bottom-up approaches are based on quantitative estimates of urban metabolism components at local to regional scales. Such approaches consider the urban metabolism as the 3D exchange and transformation of energy and matter between a city and its environment. The city is considered as a system and the physical flows between this system and its environment are quantitatively estimated. The transformation of landscapes from primarily agricultural and forest uses to urbanized landscapes can greatly modify energy and material exchanges and it is, therefore, an important aspect of an urban area. Here we focus on the exchanges and transformation of energy, water, carbon and pollutants. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods and models to estimate local scale energy, water, carbon and pollutant fluxes. However, there is often poor communication of new knowledge and its implications to end-users, such as planners, architects and engineers. The FP7 Project BRIDGE (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) aims at bridging this gap and at illustrating the advantages of considering environmental issues in urban planning. BRIDGE does not perform a complete life cycle analysis or calculate whole system urban metabolism, but rather focuses on specific metabolism components (energy, water, carbon and pollutants). Its main goal is the development of a Decision Suport System (DSS) with the potential to select planning actions which better fit the goal of changing the metabolism of urban systems towards sustainability. BRIDGE evaluates how planning alternatives can modify the physical

  18. Cost of outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery from the perspective of the Canadian government: a time-driven activity-based costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Jennifer; Rudmik, Luke

    2013-09-01

    The time-driven activity-based costing (TD-ABC) method is a novel approach to quantify the costs of a complex system. The aim of this study was to apply the TD-ABC technique to define the overall cost of a routine outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) from the perspective of the Canadian government payer. Costing perspective was the Canadian government payer. All monetary values are in Canadian dollars as of December 2012. Costs were obtained by contacting staff unions, reviewing purchasing databases and provincial physician fee schedules. Practical capacity time values were collected from the College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta. Capacity cost rates ($/min) were calculated for all staff, capital equipment, and hospital space. The overall cost for routine outpatient ESS was $3510.31. The cost per ESS case for each clinical pathway encounter was as follows: preoperative holding ($49.19); intraoperative ($3296.60); sterilization ($90.20); postanesthesia care unit ($28.64); and postoperative day ward ($45.68). The 3 major cost drivers were physician fees, disposable equipment, and nursing costs. The intraoperative phase contributed to 94.5% of the overall cost. This study applied the TD-ABC method to evaluate the cost of outpatient ESS from the perspective of the Canadian government payer and defined the overall cost to be $3510.31 per case. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. Approach of Measuring System Analyses for Automotive Part Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    S. Homrossukon; S. Sansureerungsigun

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to introduce an efficient and to standardize the measuring system analyses for automotive industrial. The study started by literature reviewing about the management and analyses measurement system. The approach of measuring system management, then, was constructed. Such approach was validated by collecting the current measuring system data using the equipments of interest including vernier caliper and micrometer. Their accuracy and precision of measurements were analyzed. Final...

  20. Higher Economic Education System. A Postindustrial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gh. Rosca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human society steps, with or without its willing, towards knowledge era which rises new exigencies for education and research. Universities are influenced and, in the same time, influence the new society. They define new duties, visions and aims according to the European common space organizing. New arguments appear as national priority, changes within concepts approaches are produced, universities adapt to new structures, integrate within education’s global market, ensuring a high level ofthe research and training services.

  1. Higher Economic Education System. A Postindustrial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gh. Rosca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human society steps, with or without its willing, towards knowledge era which rises new exigencies for education and research. Universities are influenced and, in the same time, influence the new society. They define new duties, visions and aims according to the European common space organizing. New arguments appear as national priority, changes within concepts approaches are produced, universities adapt to new structures, integrate within education’s global market, ensuring a high level of the research and training services.

  2. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design

  3. Personalized Audio Systems - a Bayesian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Toke Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Modern audio systems are typically equipped with several user-adjustable parameters unfamiliar to most users listening to the system. To obtain the best possible setting, the user is forced into multi-parameter optimization with respect to the users's own objective and preference. To address this......, the present paper presents a general inter-active framework for personalization of such audio systems. The framework builds on Bayesian Gaussian process regression in which a model of the users's objective function is updated sequentially. The parameter setting to be evaluated in a given trial is selected...

  4. Simulation approach towards energy flexible manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides in-depth analysis and methods for aligning electricity demand of manufacturing systems to VRE supply. The book broaches both long-term system changes and real-time manufacturing execution and control, and the author presents a concept with different options for improved energy flexibility including battery, compressed air and embodied energy storage. The reader will also find a detailed application procedure as well as an implementation into a simulation prototype software. The book concludes with two case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of green manufacturing systems. .

  5. Distributed Database Management Systems A Practical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimi, Saeed K

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses issues related to managing data across a distributed database system. It is unique because it covers traditional database theory and current research, explaining the difficulties in providing a unified user interface and global data dictionary. The book gives implementers guidance on hiding discrepancies across systems and creating the illusion of a single repository for users. It also includes three sample frameworksâ€"implemented using J2SE with JMS, J2EE, and Microsoft .Netâ€"that readers can use to learn how to implement a distributed database management system. IT and

  6. Modeling a terminology-based electronic nursing record system: an object-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Cho, InSook; Byeun, NamSoo

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to present our perspectives on healthcare information analysis at a conceptual level and the lessons learned from our experience with the development of a terminology-based enterprise electronic nursing record system - which was one of components in an EMR system at a tertiary teaching hospital in Korea - using an object-oriented system analysis and design concept. To ensure a systematic approach and effective collaboration, the department of nursing constituted a system modeling team comprising a project manager, systems analysts, user representatives, an object-oriented methodology expert, and healthcare informaticists (including the authors). A rational unified process (RUP) and the Unified Modeling Language were used as a development process and for modeling notation, respectively. From the scenario and RUP approach, user requirements were formulated into use case sets and the sequence of activities in the scenario was depicted in an activity diagram. The structure of the system was presented in a class diagram. This approach allowed us to identify clearly the structural and behavioral states and important factors of a terminology-based ENR system (e.g., business concerns and system design concerns) according to the viewpoints of both domain and technical experts.

  7. The 727 Approach Energy Management System avionics specification (preliminary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.O.; Lambregts, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    Hardware and software requirements for an Approach Energy Management System (AEMS) consisting of an airborne digital computer and cockpit displays are presented. The displays provide the pilot with a visual indication of when to manually operate the gear, flaps, and throttles during a delayed flap approach so as to reduce approach time, fuel consumption, and community noise. The AEMS is an independent system that does not interact with other navigation or control systems, and is compatible with manually flown or autopilot coupled approaches. Operational use of the AEMS requires a DME ground station colocated with the flight path reference.

  8. Perspective: Differential dynamic microscopy extracts multi-scale activity in complex fluids and biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, Roberto; Cicuta, Pietro

    2017-09-01

    Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) is a technique that exploits optical microscopy to obtain local, multi-scale quantitative information about dynamic samples, in most cases without user intervention. It is proving extremely useful in understanding dynamics in liquid suspensions, soft materials, cells, and tissues. In DDM, image sequences are analyzed via a combination of image differences and spatial Fourier transforms to obtain information equivalent to that obtained by means of light scattering techniques. Compared to light scattering, DDM offers obvious advantages, principally (a) simplicity of the setup; (b) possibility of removing static contributions along the optical path; (c) power of simultaneous different microscopy contrast mechanisms; and (d) flexibility of choosing an analysis region, analogous to a scattering volume. For many questions, DDM has also advantages compared to segmentation/tracking approaches and to correlation techniques like particle image velocimetry. The very straightforward DDM approach, originally demonstrated with bright field microscopy of aqueous colloids, has lately been used to probe a variety of other complex fluids and biological systems with many different imaging methods, including dark-field, differential interference contrast, wide-field, light-sheet, and confocal microscopy. The number of adopting groups is rapidly increasing and so are the applications. Here, we briefly recall the working principles of DDM, we highlight its advantages and limitations, we outline recent experimental breakthroughs, and we provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. DDM can become a standard primary tool in every laboratory equipped with a microscope, at the very least as a first bias-free automated evaluation of the dynamics in a system.

  9. Earth System Science: An Integrated Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Details how an understanding of the role played by human activities in global environmental change has emerged. Presents information about the earth system provided by research programs. Speculates about the direction of future research. (DDR)

  10. A Systemic Approach: The Ultimate Choice for Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ting; Shi, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    In "Towards a systemic theory of gifted education," A. Ziegler and S.N. Phillipson have proposed a systemic approach to gifted education. For this approach, they built a model that they call an "actiotope" model. As they explained in the article, an actiotope consists of the acting individual and the environment with which he or she interacts. The…

  11. Solving water quality problems in agricultural landscapes: New approaches for these nonlinear, multiprocess, multiscale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Patrick; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    Changes in climate and agricultural practices are putting pressure on agroenvironmental systems all over the world. Predicting the effects of future management or conservation actions has proven exceptionally challenging in these complex landscapes. We present a perspective, gained from a decade of research and stakeholder involvement in the Minnesota River Basin, where research findings have influenced solutions and policy in directions not obvious at the outset. Our approach has focused on identifying places, times, and processes of accelerated change and developing reduced complexity predictive frameworks that can inform mitigation actions.

  12. Layered approach to multimedia database systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Timothy; Guercio, Angela; Maresca, Paolo

    1999-08-01

    Multimode database systems are becoming increasingly important as organizations accumulate more multimedia data. There are few solutions that allow the information to be stored and managed efficiently. Relational systems provide features that organization rely on for their alphanumeric data. Unfortunately, these system lack facilities necessary for the handling of multimedia data - things like media integration, composition and presentation, multimedia interface and interactivity, imprecise query support, and multimedia indexing. One solution suggested for storage of multimedia data is the use of object-oriented database management system as a layer on top of the relational system. The layer adds required multimedia functionality to the capabilities provided by the relational system. A prototype solution implemented in Java uses the facilities offered by JDBC to provide connection to a large number of databases. Java Media Framework is used to present the video and audio data. Among the facilities provided are image/video/audio display/playback and extension of SQL to include multimedia operators and functions.

  13. The need and approach for characterization - U.S. air force perspectives on materials state awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, John C.; Lindgren, Eric A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper expands on the objective and motivation for NDE-based characterization and includes a discussion of the current approach using model-assisted inversion being pursued within the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). This includes a discussion of the multiple model-based methods that can be used, including physics-based models, deep machine learning, and heuristic approaches. The benefits and drawbacks of each method is reviewed and the potential to integrate multiple methods is discussed. Initial successes are included to highlight the ability to obtain quantitative values of damage. Additional steps remaining to realize this capability with statistical metrics of accuracy are discussed, and how these results can be used to enable probabilistic life management are addressed. The outcome of this initiative will realize the long-term desired capability of NDE methods to provide quantitative characterization to accelerate certification of new materials and enhance life management of engineered systems.

  14. A trust based approach to mobile multi-agent systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kevin I.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis undertakes to provide an architecture and understanding of the incorporation of trust into the paradigm of mobile multi-agent systems. Trust deliberation is a soft security approach to the problem of mobile agent security whereby an agent is protected from the malicious behaviour of others within the system. Using a trust approach capitalises on observing malicious behaviour rather than preventing it. We adopt an architectural approach to trust such than we do not provide a mod...

  15. Interpretative perspectives on the acceptance of an optional information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the acceptance and use of information systems is a central concern in the field of information systems. Especially in cases where users are relatively free to use an information system (a so called optional information system) it is important for

  16. Determinants of Banking System Fragility : A Regional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Banking systems are fragile not only within one country but also within and across regions. We study the role of regional banking system characteristics for regional banking system fragility. We find that regional banking system fragility reduces when banks in the region jointly hold more

  17. Performance improvement integration: a whole systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, C K

    1999-02-01

    Performance improvement integration in health care organizations is a challenge for health care leaders. Required for accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (Joint Commission), performance improvement (PI) can be designed as a sustainable model for performance to survive in a turbulent period. Central Baptist Hospital developed a model for PI that focused on strategy established by the leadership team, delineated responsibility through the organizational structure of shared governance, and accountability for outcomes evidenced through the organization's profitability. Such an approach integrated into the culture of the organization can produce positive financial margins, positive customer satisfaction, and commendations from the Joint Commission.

  18. Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K Anders

    2015-11-01

    As a part of a special collection in this issue of Academic Medicine, which is focused on mastery learning in medical education, this Perspective describes how the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice is consistent with many characteristics of mastery learning. Importantly, this Perspective also explains how the expert-performance approach provides a very different perspective on the acquisition of skill. Whereas traditional education with mastery learning focuses on having students attain an adequate level of performance that is based on goals set by the existing curricula, the expert-performance approach takes an empirical approach and first identifies the final goal of training-namely, reproducibly superior objective performance (superior patient outcomes) for individuals in particular medical specialties. Analyzing this superior complex performance reveals three types of mental representations that permit expert performers to plan, execute, and monitor their own performance. By reviewing research on medical performance and education, the author describes evidence for these representations and their development within the expert-performance framework. He uses the research to generate suggestions for improved training of medical students and professionals. Two strategies-designing learning environments with libraries of cases and creating opportunities for individualized teacher-guided training-should enable motivated individuals to acquire a full set of refined mental representations. Providing the right resources to support the expert-performance approach will allow such individuals to become self-regulated learners-that is, members of the medical community who have the tools to improve their own and their team members' performances throughout their entire professional careers.

  19. Opportunities for using systems approaches in pest management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Heong, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Pest problems are complex and a systems view contributes to understanding their causes and assessing possible solutions. Systems approaches provide a framework for systematic analysis, synthesis and design of agricultural systems at different levels of aggregation. In systems research, the real

  20. Teaching sustainability science from a systems analysis perspective: MSc course at Utrecht University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria J.; de Boer, Hugo; Dekker, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Sustainability science has emerged as a key discipline that embraces both disciplinary depth and interdisciplinary breadth. The challenge is to design University courses that convey both properties without sacrificing either of them. Here we present the design of such course at Utrecht University (the Netherlands) for the MSC program 'Sustainable Development' and discuss the perceived learning and student evaluations. Our course (Sustainability Modelling and Indicators (SMI)) follows an introductory course on Sustainability Perspectives. SMI philosophy is that system thinking and system analysis is central to sustainability science. To convey this philosophy, we focus on four themes: the Anthropocene, Food security, Energy security and Agency and decision making. We developed four hands-on assignments with increasing complexity and make use of different software (Stella, Excel, IMAGE and Netlogo). The assignments aimed at: (1) teaching students the system components by using a pre-existing model in Stella, (2) challenge students to build their own coupled system in Excel, (3) assess outputs from the fully-coupled and dynamic model integrated assessment model IMAGE, and (4) understand emergent properties using an agent-based model in Netlogo. Based on detailed student evaluations (n = 95) we found that the mathematics presented a manageable challenge to a part of the students. The student pool identified a priori having higher experience with Excel in comparison with other software. Netlogo was the highest ranked software in the student evaluations and this was linked to its user-interface with moving agents. The Excel assignment received the highest and lowest scores, and students found it challenging, time consuming but also indicated that they learned the most from this assignment. Students graded what we considered 'easy' assignments with the highest grades. These results suggest that a systems analytical approach to sustainability science can be operationalized

  1. Women, harm reduction and history: gender perspectives on the emergence of the 'British System' of drug control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2008-04-01

    Taking Kohn's classic book Dope Girls as its starting point, this paper explores the particular place of women and gender issues in the emergence of the 'British System' of drug control in the early twentieth century. The 'British System' refers to the approach put in place in the 1920s in Britain, notably by the 1926 Rolleston Report. In essence, it involved the medically based prescription of opiates to addicts, often on a long-term basis. It is viewed by many as one of the beginnings of the general principle of harm reduction within drug policy. This paper will examine how female figures - chorus girls, actresses, night club girls, prostitutes - were central to British drugs discourse in the 1920s, with the representation of some individual women in particular, most famously the actress Billie Carleton, featuring very prominently. It will be argued that this gendering of drugs discourse can be best understood in the wider context of social change, namely the transition from liberalism to welfarism at the turn of the twentieth century. It is suggested that this historical analysis provides a radical new perspective on some fundamental issues for contemporary approaches to harm reduction for women, a perspective that has far-reaching implications and challenges some 'taken-for-granted' assumptions.

  2. Embedded and real time system development a software engineering perspective concepts, methods and principles

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Saqib; Darwish, Ashraf; Abraham, Ajith

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays embedded and real-time systems contain complex software. The complexity of embedded systems is increasing, and the amount and variety of software in the embedded products are growing. This creates a big challenge for embedded and real-time software development processes and there is a need to develop separate metrics and benchmarks. “Embedded and Real Time System Development: A Software Engineering Perspective: Concepts, Methods and Principles” presents practical as well as conceptual knowledge of the latest tools, techniques and methodologies of embedded software engineering and real-time systems. Each chapter includes an in-depth investigation regarding the actual or potential role of software engineering tools in the context of the embedded system and real-time system. The book presents state-of-the art and future perspectives with industry experts, researchers, and academicians sharing ideas and experiences including surrounding frontier technologies, breakthroughs, innovative solutions and...

  3. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture development is conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this presentation characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  4. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  5. Logic-Dynamic Approach to Fault Diagnosis in Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Filaretov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a problem of fault detection and isolation (FDI in mechatronic systems described by nonlinear dynamic models with such types of no differentiable nonlinearities as saturation, Coulomb friction, backlash, and hysteresis. To solve this problem, so-called logic-dynamic approach is suggested. This approach consists of three main steps: replacing the initial nonlinear system by certain linear logic-dynamic system, obtaining the bank of linear logic-dynamic observers, and transforming these observes into the nonlinear ones. Logic-dynamic approach allows one to use the linear FDI methods for diagnosis in nonlinear mechatronic systems.

  6. Systems approach to waste management in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    A systems engineering approach to the development of waste management facilities is described which may prove to be useful for developing countries. Basically the approach involves a determination of performance objectives, the functions necessary to achieve the objectives, the constraints involved, and the basic facility requirements necessary to accomplish the functions. The foregoing provides the basis for developing a set of descriptions and associated requirements for the overall system as well as for elements of the system at different hierarchical levels. These in turn provide the basis for initiation of design and subsequently construction of the facilities involved. The operation of the approach is illustrated for a hypothetical low level waste processing system

  7. An Architecture, System Engineering, and Acquisition Approach for Space System Software Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dewanne Marie

    Software intensive space systems can harbor defects and vulnerabilities that may enable external adversaries or malicious insiders to disrupt or disable system functions, risking mission compromise or loss. Mitigating this risk demands a sustained focus on the security and resiliency of the system architecture including software, hardware, and other components. Robust software engineering practices contribute to the foundation of a resilient system so that the system "can take a hit to a critical component and recover in a known, bounded, and generally acceptable period of time". Software resiliency must be a priority and addressed early in the life cycle development to contribute a secure and dependable space system. Those who develop, implement, and operate software intensive space systems must determine the factors and systems engineering practices to address when investing in software resiliency. This dissertation offers methodical approaches for improving space system resiliency through software architecture design, system engineering, increased software security, thereby reducing the risk of latent software defects and vulnerabilities. By providing greater attention to the early life cycle phases of development, we can alter the engineering process to help detect, eliminate, and avoid vulnerabilities before space systems are delivered. To achieve this objective, this dissertation will identify knowledge, techniques, and tools that engineers and managers can utilize to help them recognize how vulnerabilities are produced and discovered so that they can learn to circumvent them in future efforts. We conducted a systematic review of existing architectural practices, standards, security and coding practices, various threats, defects, and vulnerabilities that impact space systems from hundreds of relevant publications and interviews of subject matter experts. We expanded on the system-level body of knowledge for resiliency and identified a new software

  8. Developing Inclusive Schools: A Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, William; Senior, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    This paper emerges from an ongoing study which involved, firstly, key informant interviews with strategic personnel within the Irish education system, such personnel representing both service providers and service users. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of the findings of that aspect of the study in relation to the key…

  9. Intelligence for embedded systems a methodological approach

    CERN Document Server

    Alippi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Addressing current issues of which any engineer or computer scientist should be aware, this monograph is a response to the need to adopt a new computational paradigm as the methodological basis for designing pervasive embedded systems with sensor capabilities. The requirements of this paradigm are to control complexity, to limit cost and energy consumption, and to provide adaptation and cognition abilities allowing the embedded system to interact proactively with the real world. The quest for such intelligence requires the formalization of a new generation of intelligent systems able to exploit advances in digital architectures and in sensing technologies. The book sheds light on the theory behind intelligence for embedded systems with specific focus on: ·        robustness (the robustness of a computational flow and its evaluation); ·        intelligence (how to mimic the adaptation and cognition abilities of the human brain), ·        the capacity to learn in non-stationary and evolv...

  10. Promotion of Agricultural Innovation Systems Approach: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extension services. In the 1980s, the linear model was used to argue for ... of the maize production value chain), or by inadequate extension services often associated with inappropriate research. ... Keywords:Agricultural innovation system (AIS), Maize value chain actors, Extension and advisory services (AES), Tanzania.

  11. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO TEACHING AND LEARNING:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita Wilkinson

    three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a ...... Electrolysis. HNO3. Q3) Choose compounds from column (A) and reaction conditions from column (B) to build the systemic diagram in column (C):. (A). (C). (B). CH4. CH3COOH. CH3CHO.

  12. Unmanned Maritime Systems Incremental Acquisition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Bynum, 2013). As Allen and Eide explain in their 2012 journal article, acquisition reform in the early 1980s occurred due to fraud , waste, and abuse...system has delivered buoyancy-driven undersea gliders (LBS-G) and electrically powered, autonomous undersea vehicles (LBS-AUV) to enable anti

  13. Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several other relevant macro economic and meso level factors such as policy and legislative framework and nature of human capital, physical infrastructure, finance and investment climate and system for facilitating information and knowledge flows were not considered as important. The emerging reforms and changes in

  14. Nutritional Systems Biology: Definitions and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    waiting for a predictive knowledge of genetic variation. It is widely recognized that systems and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how nutrition influences metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this regulation is disturbed in a diet-related disease, and to what extent...... individual genotypes contribute to such diseases....

  15. Operating system design the Xinu approach

    CERN Document Server

    Comer, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The book guides readers through the construction of a conventional process-based operating system using practical, straightforward primitives. It gives the implementation details of one set of primitives, usually the most popular set. Once readers understand how primitives can be implemented on conventional hardware, they can then easily implement alternative versions.

  16. Integrating systems approaches into pharmaceutical sciences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhoff, H.V.; Mosekilde, E.; Noe, C.; Clemensen, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    During the first week of December 2007, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) and BioSim, the major European Network of Excellence on Systems Biology, held a challenging conference on the use of mathematical models in the drug development process. More precisely, the purpose

  17. Perspectives of energy investments: production system; Perspectivas do investimento em energia: sistema produtivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Ronaldo

    2009-04-15

    This paper analyses the investment dynamic of energy production system in Brazil, from the identification of the determining factors and discussions on the perspectives of the evolution of the investment of the production dynamic system - establishing the key questions for the definition of the system future in the Brazil, and proposing strategies, investments and energy politic actions which guarantee the necessary energy to the productive development of Brazil. (author)

  18. Analysis Social Security System Model in South Sulawesi Province: On Accounting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mediaty,; Said, Darwis; Syahrir,; Indrijawati, Aini

    2015-01-01

    - This research aims to analyze the poverty, education, and health in social security system model based on accounting perspective using empirical study on South Sulawesi Province. Issued Law No. 40 for 2004 regarding National Social Security System is one of attentions from government about social welfare. Accounting as a social science deserves to create social security mechanisms. One of the crucial mechanisms is social security system. This research is a grounded exploratory research w...

  19. A Survey on M2M Systems for mHealth: A Wireless Communications Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Kartsakli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review ofWireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, which constitute the enabling technology at the patient’s side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities.

  20. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of coupled plasmonic systems: beyond the standard electron perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, G. D.; Flauraud, V.; Alexander, D. T. L.; Brugger, J.; Martin, O. J. F.; Butet, J.

    2016-09-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has become an experimental method of choice for the investigation of localized surface plasmon resonances, allowing the simultaneous mapping of the associated field distributions and their resonant energies with a nanoscale spatial resolution. The experimental observations have been well-supported by numerical models based on the computation of the Lorentz force acting on the impinging electrons by the scattered field. However, in this framework, the influence of the intrinsic properties of the plasmonic nanostructures studied with the electron energy-loss (EEL) measurements is somehow hidden in the global response. To overcome this limitation, we propose to go beyond this standard, and well-established, electron perspective and instead to interpret the EELS data using directly the intrinsic properties of the nanostructures, without regard to the force acting on the electron. The proposed method is particularly well-suited for the description of coupled plasmonic systems, because the role played by each individual nanoparticle in the observed EEL spectrum can be clearly disentangled, enabling a more subtle understanding of the underlying physical processes. As examples, we consider different plasmonic geometries in order to emphasize the benefits of this new conceptual approach for interpreting experimental EELS data. In particular, we use it to describe results from samples made by traditional thin film patterning and by arranging colloidal nanostructures.