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Sample records for system needle protein

  1. Chlamydial Type III Secretion System Needle Protein Induces Protective Immunity against Chlamydia muridarum Intravaginal Infection

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    Ekaterina A. Koroleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis imposes serious health problems and causes infertility. Because of asymptomatic onset, it often escapes antibiotic treatment. Therefore, vaccines offer a better option for the prevention of unwanted inflammatory sequelae. The existence of serologically distinct serovars of C. trachomatis suggests that a vaccine will need to provide protection against multiple serovars. Chlamydia spp. use a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS composed of structural and effector proteins which is an essential virulence factor. In this study, we expressed the T3SS needle protein of Chlamydia muridarum, TC_0037, an ortholog of C. trachomatis CdsF, in a replication-defective adenoviral vector (AdTC_0037 and evaluated its protective efficacy in an intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum model. For better immune responses, we employed a heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol in which mice were intranasally primed with AdTC_0037 and subcutaneously boosted with recombinant TC_0037 and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A mixed in a squalene nanoscale emulsion. We found that immunization with TC_0037 antigen induced specific humoral and T cell responses, decreased Chlamydia loads in the genital tract, and abrogated pathology of upper genital organs. Together, our results suggest that TC_0037, a highly conserved chlamydial T3SS protein, is a good candidate for inclusion in a Chlamydia vaccine.

  2. The Structure of a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) Ruler Protein Suggests a Molecular Mechanism for Needle Length Sensing*

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    Bergeron, Julien R. C.; Fernández, Lucia; Wasney, Gregory A.; Vuckovic, Marija; Reffuveille, Fany; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Strynadka, Natalie C. J.

    2016-01-01

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and the bacterial flagellum are related pathogenicity-associated appendages found at the surface of many disease-causing bacteria. These appendages consist of long tubular structures that protrude away from the bacterial surface to interact with the host cell and/or promote motility. A proposed “ruler” protein tightly regulates the length of both the T3SS and the flagellum, but the molecular basis for this length control has remained poorly characterized and controversial. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa T3SS as a model system, we report the first structure of a T3SS ruler protein, revealing a “ball-and-chain” architecture, with a globular C-terminal domain (the ball) preceded by a long intrinsically disordered N-terminal polypeptide chain. The dimensions and stability of the globular domain do not support its potential passage through the inner lumen of the T3SS needle. We further demonstrate that a conserved motif at the N terminus of the ruler protein interacts with the T3SS autoprotease in the cytosolic side. Collectively, these data suggest a potential mechanism for needle length sensing by ruler proteins, whereby upon T3SS needle assembly, the ruler protein's N-terminal end is anchored on the cytosolic side, with the globular domain located on the extracellular end of the growing needle. Sequence analysis of T3SS and flagellar ruler proteins shows that this mechanism is probably conserved across systems. PMID:26589798

  3. The Structure of a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) Ruler Protein Suggests a Molecular Mechanism for Needle Length Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julien R C; Fernández, Lucia; Wasney, Gregory A; Vuckovic, Marija; Reffuveille, Fany; Hancock, Robert E W; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2016-01-22

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and the bacterial flagellum are related pathogenicity-associated appendages found at the surface of many disease-causing bacteria. These appendages consist of long tubular structures that protrude away from the bacterial surface to interact with the host cell and/or promote motility. A proposed "ruler" protein tightly regulates the length of both the T3SS and the flagellum, but the molecular basis for this length control has remained poorly characterized and controversial. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa T3SS as a model system, we report the first structure of a T3SS ruler protein, revealing a "ball-and-chain" architecture, with a globular C-terminal domain (the ball) preceded by a long intrinsically disordered N-terminal polypeptide chain. The dimensions and stability of the globular domain do not support its potential passage through the inner lumen of the T3SS needle. We further demonstrate that a conserved motif at the N terminus of the ruler protein interacts with the T3SS autoprotease in the cytosolic side. Collectively, these data suggest a potential mechanism for needle length sensing by ruler proteins, whereby upon T3SS needle assembly, the ruler protein's N-terminal end is anchored on the cytosolic side, with the globular domain located on the extracellular end of the growing needle. Sequence analysis of T3SS and flagellar ruler proteins shows that this mechanism is probably conserved across systems. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Measurement of backbone hydrogen-deuterium exchange in the type III secretion system needle protein PrgI by solid-state NMR

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    Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2017-10-01

    In this report we present site-specific measurements of amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates in a protein in the solid state phase by MAS NMR. Employing perdeuteration, proton detection and a high external magnetic field we could adopt the highly efficient Relax-EXSY protocol previously developed for liquid state NMR. According to this method, we measured the contribution of hydrogen exchange on apparent 15N longitudinal relaxation rates in samples with differing D2O buffer content. Differences in the apparent T1 times allowed us to derive exchange rates for multiple residues in the type III secretion system needle protein.

  5. Structural and functional similarity between the bacterial type III secretion system needle protein PrgI and the eukaryotic apoptosis Bcl-2 proteins.

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    Matthew D Shortridge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional similarity is challenging to identify when global sequence and structure similarity is low. Active-sites or functionally relevant regions are evolutionarily more stable relative to the remainder of a protein structure and provide an alternative means to identify potential functional similarity between proteins. We recently developed the FAST-NMR methodology to discover biochemical functions or functional hypotheses of proteins of unknown function by experimentally identifying ligand binding sites. FAST-NMR utilizes our CPASS software and database to assign a function based on a similarity in the structure and sequence of ligand binding sites between proteins of known and unknown function.The PrgI protein from Salmonella typhimurium forms the needle complex in the type III secretion system (T3SS. A FAST-NMR screen identified a similarity between the ligand binding sites of PrgI and the Bcl-2 apoptosis protein Bcl-xL. These ligand binding sites correlate with known protein-protein binding interfaces required for oligomerization. Both proteins form membrane pores through this oligomerization to release effector proteins to stimulate cell death. Structural analysis indicates an overlap between the PrgI structure and the pore forming motif of Bcl-xL. A sequence alignment indicates conservation between the PrgI and Bcl-xL ligand binding sites and pore formation regions. This active-site similarity was then used to verify that chelerythrine, a known Bcl-xL inhibitor, also binds PrgI.A structural and functional relationship between the bacterial T3SS and eukaryotic apoptosis was identified using our FAST-NMR ligand affinity screen in combination with a bioinformatic analysis based on our CPASS program. A similarity between PrgI and Bcl-xL is not readily apparent using traditional global sequence and structure analysis, but was only identified because of conservation in ligand binding sites. These results demonstrate the unique opportunity

  6. Mutations in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Needle Protein Gene pscF Confer Resistance to Phenoxyacetamide Inhibitors of the Type III Secretion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlin, Nicholas O.; Williams, John D.; Knoten, Claire A.; Torhan, Matthew C.; Tashjian, Tommy F.; Li, Bing; Aiello, Daniel; Mecsas, Joan; Hauser, Alan R.; Peet, Norton P.; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a clinically important virulence mechanism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that secretes and translocates effector toxins into host cells, impeding the host's rapid innate immune response to infection. Inhibitors of T3SS may be useful as prophylactic or adjunctive therapeutic agents to augment the activity of antibiotics in P. aeruginosa infections, such as pneumonia and bacteremia. One such inhibitor, the phenoxyacetamide MBX 1641, exhibits very responsive structure-activity relationships, including striking stereoselectivity, in its inhibition of P. aeruginosa T3SS. These features suggest interaction with a specific, but unknown, protein target. Here, we identify the apparent molecular target by isolating inhibitor-resistant mutants and mapping the mutation sites by deep sequencing. Selection and sequencing of four independent mutants resistant to the phenoxyacetamide inhibitor MBX 2359 identified the T3SS gene pscF, encoding the needle apparatus, as the only locus of mutations common to all four strains. Transfer of the wild-type and mutated alleles of pscF, together with its chaperone and cochaperone genes pscE and pscG, to a ΔpscF P. aeruginosa strain demonstrated that each of the single-codon mutations in pscF is necessary and sufficient to provide secretion and translocation that is resistant to a variety of phenoxyacetamide inhibitor analogs but not to T3SS inhibitors with different chemical scaffolds. These results implicate the PscF needle protein as an apparent new molecular target for T3SS inhibitor discovery and suggest that three other chemically distinct T3SS inhibitors interact with one or more different targets or a different region of PscF. PMID:24468789

  7. Molecular model of a type III secretion system needle: Implications for host-cell sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Janet E; Roversi, Pietro; Cordes, Frank S; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Daniell, Sarah; Booy, Frank; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Blocker, Ariel J; Lea, Susan M

    2006-08-15

    Type III secretion systems are essential virulence determinants for many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The type III secretion system consists of cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular domains. The extracellular domain is a hollow needle protruding above the bacterial surface and is held within a basal body that traverses both bacterial membranes. Effector proteins are translocated, via this external needle, directly into host cells, where they subvert normal cell functions to aid infection. Physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to formation of a pore, thought to be contiguous with the needle channel, in the host-cell membrane. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri needle subunit MxiH and a complete model for the needle assembly built into our three-dimensional EM reconstruction. The model, combined with mutagenesis data, reveals that signaling of host-cell contact is relayed through the needle via intersubunit contacts and suggests a mode of binding for a tip complex.

  8. Novel Double-Needle System That Can Prevent Intravascular Injection of Any Filler

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    Hsiang Huang, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. A new type of needle system combines 2 parts, an inner needle and an outer needle. The inner needle is used for filler injection and the outer needle acts as a guiding needle that can observe blood reflow when inserting into the vessel lumen during injection process. This new needle system can be used for all kinds of filler, providing real time monitoring for physician and preventing intravascular injection of any filler.

  9. A training system for ultrasound-guided needle insertion procedures.

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    Zhu, Yanong; Magee, Derek; Ratnalingam, Rish; Kessel, David

    2007-01-01

    Needle placement into a patient body under guidance of ultrasound is a frequently performed procedure in clinical practice. Safe and successful performance of such procedure requires a high level of spatial reasoning and hand-eye co-ordination skills, which must be developed through intensive practice. In this paper we present a training system designed to improve the skills of interventional radiology trainees in ultrasound-guided needle placement procedures. Key issues involved in the system include surface and volumetric registration, solid texture modelling, spatial calibration, and real-time synthesis and rendering of ultrasound images. Moreover, soft tissue deformation caused by the needle movement and needle cutting is realised using a mass-spring-model approach. These have led to a realistic ultrasound simulation system, which has been shown to be a useful tool for the training of needle insertion procedures. Preliminary results of a construct evaluation study indicate the effectiveness and usefulness of the developed training system.

  10. Master-slave robotic system for needle indentation and insertion.

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    Shin, Jaehyun; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-12-01

    Bilateral control of a master-slave robotic system is a challenging issue in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. It requires the knowledge on contact interaction between a surgical (slave) robot and soft tissues. This paper presents a master-slave robotic system for needle indentation and insertion. This master-slave robotic system is able to characterize the contact interaction between the robotic needle and soft tissues. A bilateral controller is implemented using a linear motor for robotic needle indentation and insertion. A new nonlinear state observer is developed to online monitor the contact interaction with soft tissues. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed master-slave robotic system for robotic needle indentation and needle insertion.

  11. A portable integrated system to control an active needle

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    Konh, Bardia; Motalleb, Mahdi; Ashrafiuon, Hashem

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective of this work is to introduce an integrated portable system to operate a flexible active surgical needle with actuation capabilities. The smart needle uses the robust actuation capabilities of the shape memory alloy wires to drastically improve the accuracy of in medical procedures such as brachytherapy. This, however, requires an integrated system aimed to control the insertion of the needle via a linear motor and its deflection by the SMA wire in real-time. The integrated system includes a flexible needle prototype, a Raspberry Pi computer, a linear stage motor, an SMA wire actuator, a power supply, electromagnetic tracking system, and various communication supplies. The linear stage motor guides the needle into tissue. The power supply provides appropriate current to the SMA actuator. The tracking system measures tip movement for feedback, The Raspberry Pi is the central tool that receives the tip movement feedback and controls the linear stage motor and the SMA actuator via the power supply. The implemented algorithms required for communication and feedback control are also described. This paper demonstrates that the portable integrated system may be a viable solution for more effective procedures requiring surgical needles.

  12. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  13. Computer-vision-based inspecting system for needle roller bearing

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    Li, Wei; He, Tao; Zhong, Fei; Wu, Qinhua; Zhong, Yuning; Shi, Teiling

    2006-11-01

    A Computer Vision based Inspecting System for Needle Roller Bearing (CVISNRB) is proposed in the paper. The characteristic of technology, main functions and principle of CVISNRB are also introduced. CVISNRB is composed of a mechanic transmission and an automatic feeding system, an imaging system, software arithmetic, an automatic selecting system of inspected bearing, a human-computer interaction, a pneumatic control system, an electric control system and so on. The computer vision technique is introduced in the inspecting system for needle roller bearing, which resolves the problem of the small needle roller bearing inspecting in bearing production business enterprise, raises the speed of the inspecting, and realizes the automatic untouched and on-line examination. The CVISNRB can effectively examine the loss of needle and give the accurate number. The accuracy can achieve 99.5%, and the examination speed can arrive 15 needle roller bearings each minute. The CVISNRB has none malfunction in the actual performance in the past half year, and can meet the actual need.

  14. Single amino acid substitutions on the needle tip protein IpaD increased Shigella virulence.

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    Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Schiavolin, Lionel; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2014-07-01

    Infection of colonic epithelial cells by Shigella is associated with the type III secretion system, which serves as a molecular syringe to inject effectors into host cells. This system includes an extracellular needle used as a conduit for secreted proteins. Two of these proteins, IpaB and IpaD, dock at the needle tip to control secretion and are also involved in the insertion of a translocation pore into host cell membrane allowing effector delivery. To better understand the function of IpaD, we substituted thirteen residues conserved among homologous proteins in other bacterial species. Generated variants were tested for their ability to surface expose IpaB and IpaD, to control secretion, to insert the translocation pore, and to invade host cells. In addition to a first group of seven ipaD variants that behaved similarly to the wild-type strain, we identified a second group with mutations V314D and I319D that deregulated secretion of all effectors, but remained fully invasive. Moreover, we identified a third group with mutations Y153A, T161D, Q165L and Y276A, that exhibited increased levels of translocators secretion, pore formation, and cell entry. Altogether, our results offer a better understanding of the role of IpaD in the control of Shigella virulence. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-functional characteristics of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III needle-tip protein, PcrV; comparison to orthologs in other gram negative bacteria

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    Hiromi eSato

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS to intoxicate host cells and evade innate immunity. This virulence-related machinery consists of a molecular syringe and needle assembled on the bacterial surface, which allows delivery of T3 effector proteins into infected cells. To accomplish a one-step effector translocation, a tip protein is required at the top end of the T3 needle structure. Strains lacking expression of the functional tip protein fail to intoxicate host cells.P. aeruginosa encodes a T3S that is highly homologous to the proteins encoded by Yersinia species. The needle tip proteins of Yersinia, LcrV, and P. aeruginosa, PcrV, share 37% identity and 65% similarity. Other known tip proteins are AcrV (Aeromonas, IpaD (Shigella, SipD (Salmonella, BipD (Burkholderia, EspA (EPEC, EHEC, Bsp22 (Bordetella, with additional proteins identified from various Gram negative species, such as Vibrio and Bordetella. The tip proteins can serve as a protective antigen or may be critical for sensing host cells and evading innate immune responses. Recognition of the host microenvironment transcriptionally activates synthesis of T3SS components. The machinery appears to be mechanically controlled by the assemblage of specific junctions within the apparatus. These junctions include the tip and base of the T3 apparatus, the needle proteins and components within the bacterial cytoplasm. The tip proteins likely have chaperone functions for translocon proteins, allowing the proper assembly of translocation channels in the host membrane and completing vectorial delivery of effector proteins into the host cytoplasm. Multifunctional features of the needle-tip proteins appear to be intricately controlled. In this review, we highlight the functional aspects and complex controls of T3 needle-tip proteins with particular emphasis on PcrV and LcrV.

  16. Effect of fascia dry needling on non-specific thoracic pain - A proposed dry needling grading system.

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    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Manivasagam, Murugavel

    2017-05-01

    This case report describes a 42-year-old female who presented with complaints of diffuse pain in her thoracic paraspinal region from T2 to T7. Physical examination revealed tenderness, increased turgor and restriction of her superficial fascia. A potential first time description of successful management utilizing fascia dry needling is described in this report with improvements noted in pain, range of motion, and functional activities. The patient was discharged from physiotherapy after four treatment sessions, and a follow-up after 3 months revealed that she was pain free and fully functional. A grading system (Sudarshan and Murugavel Dry Needling Grading Scale © ) is proposed describing the various grades of dry needling to guide clinical reasoning and decision-making.

  17. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration and the bethesda classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Louise Vølund; Egset, Alice Viktoria; Holm, Camilla

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a cornerstone in diagnosing thyroid nodules. For decades, Danish FNA have been categorised into the groups: “FNA not per-formed”, “Inadequate”, “Cystic”, “Inconclusive”, “Benign”, “Suspicious”, “Malignant” and “Information missing”. Internationally......, The Bethesda Classification System (TBCS) is increasingly accepted, especially owing to a detailed specification of FNA suspicious for malignancy. The Danish “Suspicious” group is very broad and includes atypia, follicular neoplasia and FNA suspicious of other malignancies. The purpose of this study...... risk of 36.4%, 13.3%, 17.2%, 16.1%, 55.3% and 88.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish “Suspicious” group contains a broad spectrum of BG with varying malignancy risk. The results indicate a need for standardisation of the Danish FNA classification. A national introduction of the TBCS might secure...

  18. A needle guidance system for biopsy and therapy using two-dimensional ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluvol, Nathan; Sheikh, Allison; Kornecki, Anat; Del Rey Fernandez, David; Downey, Donal; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Image-guided needle biopsies are currently used to provide a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer; however, difficulties in tumor targeting exist as the ultrasound (United States) scan plane and biopsy needle must remain coplanar throughout the procedure to display the actual needle tip position. The additional time associated with aligning and maintaining this coplanar relationship results in increased patient discomfort. Biopsy procedural efficiency is further hindered since needle pathway interpretation is often difficult, especially for needle insertions at large depths that usually require multiple reinsertions. The authors developed a system that would increase the speed and accuracy of current breast biopsy procedures using readily available two-dimensional (2D) US technology. This system is composed of a passive articulated mechanical arm that attaches to a 2D US transducer. The arm is connected to a computer through custom electronics and software, which were developed as an interface for tracking the positioning of the mechanical components in real time. The arm couples to the biopsy needle and provides visual guidance for the physician performing the procedure in the form of a real-time projected needle pathway overlay on an US image of the breast. An agar test phantom, with stainless steel targets interspersed randomly throughout, was used to validate needle trajectory positioning accuracy. The biopsy needle was guided by both the software and hardware components to the targets. The phantom, with the needle inserted and device decoupled, was placed in an x-ray stereotactic mammography (SM) machine. The needle trajectory and bead target locations were determined in three dimensions from the SM images. Results indicated a mean needle trajectory accuracy error of 0.75±0.42 mm. This is adequate to sample lesions that are <2 mm in diameter. Chicken tissue test phantoms were used to compare core needle biopsy procedure times between experienced radiologists

  19. Development of angle information system to facilitate the adjustment of needle-holding posture.

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    Cao, Yang; Liu, Li; Miura, Satoshi; Seki, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yo; Kawamura, Kazuya; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2017-11-01

    Our purpose is to develop a system based on image processing methods that can inform users of the angular relationship between the needle and the forceps. The user thereby adjusts their needle grasping posture according to the angle information, which leads to an improvement in suturing accuracy. The system prototype consists of a camera and an image processing computer. The image captured by the camera is input to the computer, and then, the angular relationship between the forceps and needle is calculated via image processing. Then, the system informs the user of the calculated angular relationship between the needle and forceps in real time. To evaluate whether the system improves suturing accuracy, we invited 12 participants to enroll in an experiment based on a suturing task. The experimental results illustrate that the system allows participants to easily adjust the positional relationship between the needle and the forceps and that this adjusted angular relationship leads to higher suturing accuracy. Adjustment to holding the needle at a right angle before insertion has a critical effect on suturing quality. Therefore, we developed a system that informs the user of the angular relationship between the needle and the forceps. The results of the evaluation show that the system significantly improves the suturing accuracy of participants via informing them of the angle.

  20. Piericidin A1 BlocksYersiniaYsc Type III Secretion System Needle Assembly.

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    Morgan, Jessica M; Duncan, Miles C; Johnson, Kevin S; Diepold, Andreas; Lam, Hanh; Dupzyk, Allison J; Martin, Lexi R; Wong, Weng Ruh; Armitage, Judith P; Linington, Roger G; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial virulence factor expressed by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens but largely absent from commensals. The T3SS is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents that may disarm pathogenic bacteria while leaving commensal populations intact. We previously identified piericidin A1 as an inhibitor of the Ysc T3SS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis . Piericidins were first discovered as inhibitors of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and some bacteria. However, we found that piericidin A1 did not alter Yersinia membrane potential or inhibit flagellar motility powered by the proton motive force, indicating that the piericidin mode of action against Yersinia type III secretion is independent of complex I. Instead, piericidin A1 reduced the number of T3SS needle complexes visible by fluorescence microscopy at the bacterial surface, preventing T3SS translocator and effector protein secretion. Furthermore, piericidin A1 decreased the abundance of higher-order YscF needle subunit complexes, suggesting that piericidin A1 blocks YscF needle assembly. While expression of T3SS components in Yersinia are positively regulated by active type III secretion, the block in secretion by piericidin A1 was not accompanied by a decrease in T3SS gene expression, indicating that piericidin A1 may target a T3SS regulatory circuit. However, piericidin A1 still inhibited effector protein secretion in the absence of the T3SS regulator YopK, YopD, or YopN. Surprisingly, while piericidin A1 also inhibited the Y. enterocolitica Ysc T3SS, it did not inhibit the SPI-1 family Ysa T3SS in Y. enterocolitica or the Ysc family T3SS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Together, these data indicate that piericidin A1 specifically inhibits Yersinia Ysc T3SS needle assembly. IMPORTANCE The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is widely used by both human and animal pathogens to cause disease yet remains incompletely understood. Deciphering

  1. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  2. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  3. Transjugular liver biopsy : the efficacy of quick-core biopsy needle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gyoo Sik; Ahn, Byung Kwon; Lee, Sang Ouk; Chang, Hee Kyong; Oh, Kyung Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Quick-Core biopsy needle system in performing transjugular liver biopsy. Between December 1995 and June 1997, eight patients underwent transjugular liver biopsy involving use of the Quick-Core biopsy needle system; the conditions involved were coagulopathy (n=4), thrombocytopenia (n=3), and ascites (n=1). Via the right internal jugular vein, the right hepatic vein was selectively catheterized with a 7-F transjugular guiding catheter, and a14-guage stiffening cannula was then inserted through this catheter; to obtain core tissue, a Quick-Core needle was then advanced into the liver parenchyma through the catheter-cannula combination. Eighteen- and 19-guage needles were used in three and five patients, respectively; specimen size, adequacy of the biopsy specimen and histologic diagnosis were determined, and complications were recorded. Biopsy was successful in all patients. The mean length of the specimen was 1.4 cm (1.0 - 1.8 cm), and all were adequate for pathologic examinations ; specific diagnosis was determined in all patients. There were two malignant neoplasms, two cases of veno-occlusive disease, and one case each of cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, Banti syndrome and Budd-Chiari syndrome. One patient complained of neck pain after the procedure, but no serious procedural complications were noted. Our preliminary study shows that the Quick-Core biopsy needle system is safe and provides adequate core tissues with high diagnostic yields. (author). 23 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. Transjugular liver biopsy : the efficacy of quick-core biopsy needle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyoo Sik; Ahn, Byung Kwon; Lee, Sang Ouk; Chang, Hee Kyong; Oh, Kyung Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Quick-Core biopsy needle system in performing transjugular liver biopsy. Between December 1995 and June 1997, eight patients underwent transjugular liver biopsy involving use of the Quick-Core biopsy needle system; the conditions involved were coagulopathy (n=4), thrombocytopenia (n=3), and ascites (n=1). Via the right internal jugular vein, the right hepatic vein was selectively catheterized with a 7-F transjugular guiding catheter, and a14-guage stiffening cannula was then inserted through this catheter; to obtain core tissue, a Quick-Core needle was then advanced into the liver parenchyma through the catheter-cannula combination. Eighteen- and 19-guage needles were used in three and five patients, respectively; specimen size, adequacy of the biopsy specimen and histologic diagnosis were determined, and complications were recorded. Biopsy was successful in all patients. The mean length of the specimen was 1.4 cm (1.0 - 1.8 cm), and all were adequate for pathologic examinations ; specific diagnosis was determined in all patients. There were two malignant neoplasms, two cases of veno-occlusive disease, and one case each of cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, Banti syndrome and Budd-Chiari syndrome. One patient complained of neck pain after the procedure, but no serious procedural complications were noted. Our preliminary study shows that the Quick-Core biopsy needle system is safe and provides adequate core tissues with high diagnostic yields. (author). 23 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  5. System for CT-guided needle placement in the thorax and abdomen: A design for clinical acceptability, applicability and usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolli, Maarten Menno; Buijze, Martijn; Franken, Michel; de Jong, Koert P.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    BACKGROUND: Various systems exist for CT-guided needle placement in the thorax and abdomen, but widespread adoption is lacking. The goal of this work is to develop a system for precise needle placement with a design focus on clinical acceptability, applicability and usability. METHODS: A system was

  6. A magnetic resonance image-guided breast needle intervention robot system: overview and design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Samuel Byeongjun; Kim, Jung-Gun; Lim, Ki-Woong; Yoon, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun; Kang, Han-Sung; Jo, Yung-Ho

    2017-08-01

    We developed an image-guided intervention robot system that can be operated in a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging gantry. The system incorporates a bendable needle intervention robot for breast cancer patients that overcomes the space limitations of the MR gantry. Most breast coil designs for breast MR imaging have side openings to allow manual localization. However, for many intervention procedures, the patient must be removed from the gantry. A robotic manipulation system with integrated image guidance software was developed. Our robotic manipulator was designed to be slim, so as to fit between the patient's side and the MR gantry wall. Only non-magnetic materials were used, and an electromagnetic shield was employed for cables and circuits. The image guidance software was built using open source libraries. In situ feasibility tests were performed in a 3-T MR system. One target point in the breast phantom was chosen by the clinician for each experiment, and our robot moved the needle close to the target point. Without image-guided feedback control, the needle end could not hit the target point (distance = 5 mm) in the first experiment. Using our robotic system, the needle hits the target lesion of the breast phantom at a distance of 2.3 mm from the same target point using image-guided feedback. The second experiment was performed using other target points, and the distance between the final needle end point and the target point was 0.8 mm. We successfully developed an MR-guided needle intervention robot for breast cancer patients. Further research will allow the expansion of these interventions.

  7. Studies on the MxiH protein in T3SS needles using DNP-enhanced ssNMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Pascal; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2014-01-13

    Bacterial T3SS needles formed by the protein MxiH are studied using DNP-enhanced ssNMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T (600 MHz). This technique provides spectra of good resolution, allowing us to draw conclusions about the protein dynamics. With the obtained signal enhancement, samples of limited quantity now get within reach of ssNMR studies. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Human vs. robot operator error in a needle-based navigation system for percutaneous liver interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Hein, Lena; Walsh, Conor J.; Seitel, Alexander; Hanumara, Nevan C.; Shepard, Jo-Anne; Franz, A. M.; Pianka, F.; Müller, Sascha A.; Schmied, Bruno; Slocum, Alexander H.; Gupta, Rajiv; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous punctures of the liver for cancer diagnosis and therapy (e.g. tumor biopsy, radiofrequency ablation) are well-established procedures in clinical routine. One of the main challenges related to these interventions is the accurate placement of the needle within the lesion. Several navigation concepts have been introduced to compensate for organ shift and deformation in real-time, yet, the operator error remains an important factor influencing the overall accuracy of the developed systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the operator error and, thus, the overall insertion error of an existing navigation system could be further reduced by replacing the user with the medical robot Robopsy. For this purpose, we performed navigated needle insertions in a static abdominal phantom as well as in a respiratory liver motion simulator and compared the human operator error with the targeting error performed by the robot. According to the results, the Robopsy driven needle insertion system is able to more accurately align the needle and insert it along its axis compared to a human operator. Integration of the robot into the current navigation system could thus improve targeting accuracy in clinical use.

  9. Computed tomography-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy using a coaxial needle system: technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, R.P.; Chung, D-G.

    2003-01-01

    Biopsy of the prostate gland for suspected carcinoma is usually performed using transrectal ultrasound guidance. However, this method cannot be employed in patients who have undergone proctocolectomy. The technique of transgluteal prostate biopsy using a coaxial needle system under computed tomographic (CT) guidance in a patient who was previously treated with low anterior resection for carcinoma of the rectum is discussed. (author)

  10. Treatment feasibility study of osteoporosis using minimal invasive laser needle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongyeon; Ko, Chang-Yong; Ryu, Yeon-Hang; Park, Sunwook; Kim, Han-Sung; Jung, Byungjo

    2010-02-01

    Although the mechanism of laser stimulation effect in bone has not completely understood, laser stimulation is recommended in the treatment of osteoporosis due to positive treatment efficacy. In this study, a minimal invasive laser needle system (MILNS) was developed using a fine hollow needle in order to stimulate directly bone site by guiding an optical fiber. In order to evaluate the MILNS as a treatment method, in-vivo animal experiment study was performed using osteopenic mice. Twelve virginal ICR mice were employed and divided two groups: SHAM-group and LASERgroup. SHARM-group was stimulated by only fine hollow needle and LASER-group by fine hollow needle combined with laser stimulation. All mice were served in-vivo micro-CT images before and after treatment. Three dimensional (3D) structural parameters and vBMD (volume bone mineral density, g/cm3) in the trabecular bone were measured. After 2 weeks of stimulation, the vBMD, BV/TV, Tb.Th and Tb.N in LASER-group were significantly higher than those in SHAM-group (p<0.05). Potentially, this study suggested that the MILNS might prevent the bone loss and maintains the bone mineral density of osteopenic mice.

  11. [An Introduction to A Newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" Based on Optical Motion Capture Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; Yan, Xing-Ke; Liu, An-Guo

    2016-12-25

    In the present paper, the authors introduce a newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" based on optical motion capture technique. It is composed of two parts, sensor and software, and overcomes some shortages of mechanical motion capture technique. This device is able to analyze the data of operations of the pressing-hand and needle-insertion hand during acupuncture performance and its software contains personal computer (PC) version, Android version, and Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Apple version. It is competent in recording and analyzing information of any ope-rator's needling manipulations, and is quite helpful for teachers in teaching, training and examining students in clinical practice.

  12. Systemic air embolism during percutaneous core needle biopsy of the lung: frequency and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Martin C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of risk factors for an air embolism in the left atrium, left ventricle, or systemic circulation (systemic air embolism, SAE during a percutaneous core needle biopsy (PCNB of the thorax. Methods In a retrospective observational study, all PCNBs of the thorax in 610 patients between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. The SmartStep™ technique (General Electric was used for the biopsy, with which the examiner can prepare a batch of three 1.25-mm or 2.5-mm collimated slices within a second using a foot switch in the CT room to check the needle position. The image data thus generated and the control CT scans that followed were examined retrospectively for the presence of intravascular air. Intravascular air was defined as two or more adjacent voxels with absorption values of Results The radiological incidence of an SAE during a PCNB was 3.8% (23/610 patients, whereas the clinically apparent incidence was 0.49%. Two patients developed clinical symptoms consisting of transient hemiplegia or transient amaurosis; one died due to a fatal SAE of the coronary arteries. The mortality was thus 0.16%. The depth of the needle in the lesion (Wald: 6.859, endotracheal anesthesia (Wald: 5.721, location of the lesion above the level of the left atrium (Wald: 5.159, and prone position of the patients (Wald: 4.317 were independent risk factors for the incidence of an SAE (p Conclusion If possible, the PCNB should be performed under local anesthesia. We recommend avoiding endotracheal anesthesia and prone position. Whenever possible, patients should be positioned on the back in such a way that the tumor is lower than the left atrium. The tip of the needle should be within the tumor during the biopsy procedure.

  13. CT-guided procedures: evaluation of a phantom system to teach accurate needle placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmick, S.; Jones, M.; Challen, J.; Iedema, J.; Wattuhewa, U.; Coucher, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the use of a phantom system to help teach the basic techniques of accurate CT-guided needle placement, thereby avoiding the risks associated with teaching on patients. Materials and Methods: Gelatine phantoms with five, 1.9 cm embedded spherical wooden targets were constructed. Four trainee operators performed 15 simulated biopsy procedures on the targets (series one) and repeated identical procedures 2 weeks later (series two). Statistical analysis of accuracy of needle placement and subject confidence were performed. Results: Significant sequential improvement in axial plane angular error was noted with the average error decreasing by 0.33 degrees after every five procedures performed (95% CI: -0.58 to -0.08, p = 0.01). Operator confidence indicated significant improvement both within each series and from series one to series two (95% CI: 0.08 to 1.17, p = 0.025 and 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.58, p = 0.05) respectively. However, variability in operator performance made statistically significant improvement in other variables unproven. Conclusion: Despite the study comprising a relatively small number of participants and procedures, it clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of teaching operators to perform CT-guided procedures using a phantom system. Needle placement accuracy significantly improved, with a reduction in axial angular error, and improved operator confidence without the risks associated with training on patients. Three of the operators in this study had never performed a CT-guided procedure previously, and their proficiency, after a relatively short but intense period of training, was impressive. The use of phantoms should be considered routinely for basic training of CT-guided needle placement

  14. Teleoperation System with Hybrid Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Needle Insertion with Haptic Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave tele-operation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. This system consists of a piezoelectrically actuated slave robot for needle placement with integrated fiber optic force sensor utilizing Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle. The sensor flexure is optimized and embedded to the slave robot for measuring needle insertion force. A novel, compact opto-mechanical FPI ...

  15. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloush, Ruba A; Lavrovskaya, Elena; Mody, Dina R; Lager, Donna; Truong, Luan

    2010-01-15

    Systemic amyloidosis (SA) has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA) has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years) during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR). A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain) was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%), suspicious in 1/39 (3%), negative in 28/39 (72%), and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13%) of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  16. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halloush Ruba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic amyloidosis (SA has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR. A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. Results: FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%, suspicious in 1/39 (3%, negative in 28/39 (72%, and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13% of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. Conclusion: FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  17. Design and development of a mobile image overlay system for needle interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M; King, F; Ungi, T; Lasso, A; Rudan, J; Jayender, J; Fritz, J; Carrino, J A; Jolesz, F A; Fichtinger, G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, a static and adjustable image overlay systems were proposed for aiding needle interventions. The system was either fixed to a scanner or mounted over a large articulated counterbalanced arm. Certain drawbacks associated with these systems limited the clinical translation. In order to minimize these limitations, we present the mobile image overlay system with the objective of reduced system weight, smaller dimension, and increased tracking accuracy. The design study includes optimal workspace definition, selection of display device, mirror, and laser source. The laser plane alignment, phantom design, image overlay plane calibration, and system accuracy validation methods are discussed. The virtual image is generated by a tablet device and projected into the patient by using a beamsplitter mirror. The viewbox weight (1.0 kg) was reduced by 8.2 times and image overlay plane tracking precision (0.21 mm, STD = 0.05) was improved by 5 times compared to previous system. The automatic self-calibration of the image overlay plane was achieved in two simple steps and can be done away from patient table. The fiducial registration error of the physical phantom to scanned image volume registration was 1.35 mm (STD = 0.11). The reduced system weight and increased accuracy of optical tracking should enable the system to be hand held by the physician and explore the image volume over the patient for needle interventions.

  18. Life-threatening complication of percutaneous transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy: systemic arterial air embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Deniz Cebi; Samanci, Cesur; Ergin, Ayse Seda; Akman, Canan

    2015-02-01

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions is a well known diagnostic technique. Nevertheless, it has some complications; such as pneumothorax, intraparenchymal hemorrhage and hemoptysis, which are not rare. Air embolism is one of the rare but potentially fetal complications of this procedure. Herein, we report the case of a 69-year-old male, in which case of systemic air embolism developed after the performance of lung biopsy. Early diagnosis and prompt oxygen therapy is crucial for patient's survival so careful reviewing of the obtained computed tomography images during the biopsy may prevent a missing systemic air embolism and provide an adequate therapy.

  19. Assessment of decorin-binding protein A to the infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the murine models of needle and tick infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman Kayla E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decorin-binding proteins (Dbps A and B of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, are surface-exposed lipoproteins that presumably bind to the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, decorin. B. burgdorferi infects various tissues including the bladder, heart, joints, skin and the central nervous system, and the ability of B. burgdorferi to bind decorin has been hypothesized to be important for this disseminatory pathogenic strategy. Results To determine the role of DbpBA in the infectious lifecycle of B. burgdorferi, we created a DbpBA-deficient mutant of B. burgdorferi strain 297 and compared the infectious phenotype of the mutant to the wild-type strain in the experimental murine model of Lyme borreliosis. The mutant strain exhibited a 4-log decrease in infectivity, relative to the wild-type strain, when needle inoculated into mice. Upon complementation of the DbpBA-mutant strain with DbpA, the wild-type level of infectivity was restored. In addition, we demonstrated that the DbpBA-deficient mutant was able to colonize Ixodes scapularis larval ticks after feeding on infected mice and persist within the ticks during the molt to the nymphal state. Moreover, surprisingly, the DbpBA-mutant strain was capable of being transmitted to naïve mice via tick bite, giving rise to infected mice. Conclusion These results suggest that DbpBA is not required for the natural tick-transmission process to mammals, despite inferences from needle-inoculation experiments implying a requirement for DbpBA during mammalian infection. The combined findings also send a cautionary note regarding how results from needle-inoculation experiments with mice should be interpreted.

  20. A support system in virtual reality for effective hyperthermia treatments. Heating properties of needle applicator for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Yasuhiro; Iseki, Yuya; Nakane, Kazuya; Mimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Mitsunori; Kato, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Uzuka, Takeo; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the effectiveness of the developed simulator system for performing an effective hyperthermia treatment with a needle applicator in virtual reality (VR). The human brain is protected by the skull, which makes it difficult to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy. Generally, needle applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. However, some problems exist. One is that this heating method has a small heating area around the needle. In order to expand the heating area of a needle applicator, we developed a new type of needle applicator made from a shape memory alloy (SMA). The thermal properties of the SMA were checked experimentally using the developed heating system. As a result, the proposed needle applicator made of SMA is useful to create a wider heating area inside a tumor. Another problem is that medical doctors find it difficult to put a needle applicator into a target point inside of tumors. Therefore, a support system for performing an effective hyperthermia treatment is required in the clinic. In this paper, first, we constructed an anatomical 3-D model from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) images by using 3-D computer aided design (CAD) software. Second, we presented the finite element method (FEM) model which is divided into non-linear elements on 3-D computer graphics (CG). Finally, we calculated temperature distributions using the 3-D FEM model with blood perfusion during hyperthermia treatments. From these results, it was found that the proposed VR system is effective for performing hyperthermia treatments. (author)

  1. Accuracy of biopsy needle navigation using the Medarpa system - computed tomography reality superimposed on the site of intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Fawad; Maataoui, Adel; Gurung, Jessen; Schiemann, Mirko; Vogl, Thomas J.; Dogan, Selami; Ackermann, Hanns; Wesarg, Stefan; Sakas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the accuracy of a new navigational system, Medarpa, with a transparent display superimposing computed tomography (CT) reality on the site of intervention. Medarpa uses an optical and an electromagnetic tracking system which allows tracking of instruments, the radiologist and the transparent display. The display superimposes a CT view of a phantom chest on a phantom chest model, in real time. In group A, needle positioning was performed using the Medarpa system. Three targets (diameter 1.5 mm) located inside the phantom were punctured. In group B, the same targets were used to perform standard CT-guided puncturing using the single-slice technique. The same needles were used in both groups (15 G, 15 cm). A total of 42 punctures were performed in each group. Post puncture, CT scans were made to verify needle tip positions. The mean deviation from the needle tip to the targets was 6.65±1.61 mm for group A (range 3.54-9.51 mm) and 7.05±1.33 mm for group B (range 4.10-9.45 mm). No significant difference was found between group A and group B for any target (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the targets of the same group (p>0.05). The accuracy in needle puncturing using the augmented reality system, Medarpa, matches the accuracy achieved by CT-guided puncturing technique. (orig.)

  2. [Bone biopsy needles: mechanical properties, needle design and specimen quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulers, A; Cunha-Cruz, V C; Bruners, P; Penzkofer, T; Braunschweig, T; Schmitz-Rode, T; Mahnken, A

    2011-03-01

    To quantitatively analyze differences in mechanical properties, needle design including signs of wear, subjective handling and specimen quality of bone biopsy needles. In this study 19 different bone biopsy systems (total 38; 2 /type) were examined. With each biopsy needle five consecutive samples were obtained from vertebral bodies of swine. During puncture a force-torques sensor measured the mechanical properties and subjective handling was assessed. Before and after each biopsy the needles were investigated using a profile projector and signs of wear were recorded. Afterwards, a pathologist semi-quantitatively examined the specimen regarding sample quality. The overall evaluation considered mechanical properties, needle wear, subjective handling and sample quality. Differences were assessed for statistical significance using ANOVA and t-test. Needle diameter (p = 0.003) as well as needle design (p = 0.008) affect the mechanical properties significantly. Franseen design is significantly superior to other needle designs. Besides, length reduction recorded by the profile projector, as a quality criterion showed notable distinctions in between the needle designs. Bone biopsy needles vary significantly in performance. Needle design has an important influence on mechanical properties, handling and specimen quality. Detailed knowledge of those parameters would improve selecting the appropriate bone biopsy needle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Teleoperation System with Hybrid Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Needle Insertion with Haptic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave tele-operation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. This system consists of a piezoelectrically actuated slave robot for needle placement with integrated fiber optic force sensor utilizing Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle. The sensor flexure is optimized and embedded to the slave robot for measuring needle insertion force. A novel, compact opto-mechanical FPI sensor interface is integrated into an MRI robot control system. By leveraging the complementary features of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation, a pneumatically actuated haptic master robot is also developed to render force associated with needle placement interventions to the clinician. An aluminum load cell is implemented and calibrated to close the impedance control loop of the master robot. A force-position control algorithm is developed to control the hybrid actuated system. Teleoperated needle insertion is demonstrated under live MR imaging, where the slave robot resides in the scanner bore and the user manipulates the master beside the patient outside the bore. Force and position tracking results of the master-slave robot are demonstrated to validate the tracking performance of the integrated system. It has a position tracking error of 0.318mm and sine wave force tracking error of 2.227N. PMID:25126446

  4. Shigella IpaD has a dual role: signal transduction from the type III secretion system needle tip and intracellular secretion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrich, A Dorothea; Guillossou, Enora; Blocker, Ariel J; Martinez-Argudo, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein injection devices essential for the interaction of many Gram-negative bacteria with eukaryotic cells. While Shigella assembles its T3SS when the environmental conditions are appropriate for invasion, secretion is only activated after physical contact with a host cell. First, the translocators are secreted to form a pore in the host cell membrane, followed by effectors which manipulate the host cell. Secretion activation is tightly controlled by conserved T3SS components: the needle tip proteins IpaD and IpaB, the needle itself and the intracellular gatekeeper protein MxiC. To further characterize the role of IpaD during activation, we combined random mutagenesis with a genetic screen to identify ipaD mutant strains unable to respond to host cell contact. Class II mutants have an overall defect in secretion induction. They map to IpaD's C-terminal helix and likely affect activation signal generation or transmission. The Class I mutant secretes translocators prematurely and is specifically defective in IpaD secretion upon activation. A phenotypically equivalent mutant was found in mxiC. We show that IpaD and MxiC act in the same intracellular pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that IpaD has a dual role and acts at two distinct locations during secretion activation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. An ultra-high field strength MR image-guided robotic needle delivery system for in-bore small animal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Matthew; Cepek, Jeremy; Fenster, Aaron

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an image-guided robotic needle delivery system for accurate and repeatable needle targeting procedures in mouse brains inside the 12 cm inner diameter gradient coil insert of a 9.4 T MR scanner. Many preclinical research techniques require the use of accurate needle deliveries to soft tissues, including brain tissue. Soft tissues are optimally visualized in MR images, which offer high-soft tissue contrast, as well as a range of unique imaging techniques, including functional, spectroscopy and thermal imaging, however, there are currently no solutions for delivering needles to small animal brains inside the bore of an ultra-high field MR scanner. This paper describes the mechatronic design, evaluation of MR compatibility, registration technique, mechanical calibration, the quantitative validation of the in-bore image-guided needle targeting accuracy and repeatability, and demonstrated the system's ability to deliver needles in situ. Our six degree-of-freedom, MR compatible, mechatronic system was designed to fit inside the bore of a 9.4 T MR scanner and is actuated using a combination of piezoelectric and hydraulic mechanisms. The MR compatibility and targeting accuracy of the needle delivery system are evaluated to ensure that the system is precisely calibrated to perform the needle targeting procedures. A semi-automated image registration is performed to link the robot coordinates to the MR coordinate system. Soft tissue targets can be accurately localized in MR images, followed by automatic alignment of the needle trajectory to the target. Intra-procedure visualization of the needle target location and the needle were confirmed through MR images after needle insertion. The effects of geometric distortions and signal noise were found to be below threshold that would have an impact on the accuracy of the system. The system was found to have negligible effect on the MR image signal noise and geometric distortion

  6. Design and Analysis of a Continuous Split Typed Needle-Free Injection System for Animal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Pan, Min; Liu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Liquid needle-free injection devices (NFIDs) employ a high-velocity liquid jet to deliver drugs and vaccine through transdermal injection. NFIDs for animal vaccination are more complicated than those used for human beings for their much larger and more flexible power sources, as well as rapid, repetitive and continuous injection features. In the paper, spring-powered NFID is designed for animal vaccine injection. For convenience, the device is a split into a power source and handheld injector. A mathematical model is proposed to calculate the injection pressure, taking into the account pressure loss and the strain energy loss in the bendable tube due to elastic deformation. An experimental apparatus was build to verify the calculation results. Under the same system conditions, the calculation results of the dynamic injection pressure match the experimental results. It is found that the bendable tube of the split typed NFID has significant impact on the profile of the injection pressure. The initial peak pressure is less than the initial peak pressure of NFID without bendable tube, and there is occurrence time lag of the peak pressure. The mathematical model is the first attempt to reveal the relationship between the injection pressure and the system variables of split typed NFID.

  7. Second opinion in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy by the Bethesda system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Hyun Ki; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong-Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the impact of secondary review of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy on surgical management. A retrospective review of patients referred to our institution with a thyroid FNA biopsy was conducted. Cytologic diagnoses from the report at our center and the referring institution were re-categorized by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. The rate of diagnostic disagreement was evaluated between Primary Diagnosis (PD) and Second Opinion Diagnosis (SOD), and the clinicopathologic correlations and the number of cases that prompted changes in treatment as a result of diagnostic disagreement were analyzed. 1499 patients meeting our study criteria were enrolled in this study. Diagnostic disagreement comprised 394 cases (26.3%). In the case of diagnostic disagreement, SOD was supported on clinicopathologic follow-up in 271 cases (68.8%), of which a change in management was made in 54 (13.7%) cases, and PD was supported in 93 (23.6%) cases, of which a change in management was made in 13 (3.3%) cases. By the second opinion, 65 (4.5%) patients received proper management, and 14 (1.0%) patients received superfluous management. Wide use of secondary cytopathologic review of thyroid FNA specimens from referring institutions was recommended.

  8. Flexible needle steering for percutaneous therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, Daniel; Shoham, Moshe

    2006-07-01

    A robotic system is presented for flexible needle steering and control in soft tissue. Flexible needle insertion into a deformable tissue is modeled as a linear beam supported by virtual springs, where the stiffness coefficients of the springs can vary along the needle. Using this simplified model, the forward and inverse kinematics of the needle are solved analytically, thus enabling both path planning and path correction in real time. Given target and obstacle locations, the computer calculates the needle tip trajectory that will avoid the obstacle and hit the target. Using the inverse kinematics algorithm, the corresponding needle base maneuver needed to follow this trajectory is calculated. It is demonstrated that the needle tip path is not unique and can be optimized to minimize lateral pressure of the needle body on the tissue. Needle steering, i.e., the needle base movements that steer the needle tip, is not intuitive. Therefore, the needle insertion procedure is best performed by a robot. The model was verified experimentally on muscle and liver tissues by robotically assisted insertion of a flexible spinal needle. During insertion, the position and shape of the needle were recorded by X-ray. This study demonstrates the ability to curve a flexible needle by its base motion in order to achieve a planned tip trajectory.

  9. Treatment of chronic subdural hematoma by novel YL-1 hollow needle aspiration drainage system (697 cases report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Dong, L; She, L; Zhang, H Z; Wang, X D; Yan, Z C; Wu, W; Yang, L

    2017-01-01

    It is written to discuss the effect and syndromes of novel YL-1 hollow needle aspiration drainage system to treat chronic subdural hematoma. Collecting clinical data about 697 patients with chronic subdural hematoma in neurosurgery of People' Hospital in North Jiangsu from January 2004 to December 2014, including clinical manifestation, imaging data, operation time, postoperative complications and prognostic factors and so on. 593 patients got cured, 53 patients with recurrence, 19 patients with acute subdural hematoma, 13 patients with poor drainage, 9 case of patients with acute epidural hematoma, puncture failure in 6 cases, 3 cases of pulmonary infection, one got intracranial hemorrhage (brain stem and basal ganglia hemorrhage). The total time of the operation is 15-28 min, the mean time is 18 ± 3.6 min, the average retention time of novel YL-1 hollow needle aspiration drainage system was 2.6 ± 1.3 days, the average use of urokinase was 30,000 ± 2.10,000 units. It takes a short time for novel YL-1 hollow needle aspiration drainage system to treat chronic subdural hematoma without any syndromes like brain tissue injury, tension pneumocrania, intracranial infection and so on. The clinical cure rate is 85.08 %, recurrence rate is 7.6 %. Using novel YL-1 hollow needle aspiration drainage system to treat chronic subdural hematoma is such a minimally invasive surgical technology which has a higher curative rate, small damage, is also easy to operate with security and less severe complications.

  10. Comparison of sealer penetration using the EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Tuncer, Aysun; Unal, Bayram

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the EndoVac irrigation system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and conventional endodontic needle irrigation on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. Forty single-rooted, recently extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the irrigation technique used: conventional endodontic needle irrigation and EndoVac irrigation. All teeth were instrumented using the ProFile rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) labeled with fluorescent dye. Transverse sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were then measured. Mann-Whitney test results showed that EndoVac irrigation resulted in a significantly higher percentage of sealer penetration than conventional irrigation at both the 1- and 3-mm levels (P irrigation system significantly improved the sealer penetration at the 1- to 3-mm level over that of conventional endodontic needle irrigation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest

  12. Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture - development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle and laser acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to controversially discussed results in scientific literature concerning changes of electrical skin impedance before and during acupuncture a new measurement system has been developed. Methods The prototype measures and analyzes the electrical skin impedance computer-based and simultaneously in 48 channels within a 2.5×3.5 cm matrix. Preliminary measurements in one person were performed using metal needle and violet laser (405 nm) acupuncture at the acupoint Kongzui (LU6). The new system is an improvement on devices previously developed by other researchers for this purpose. Results Skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following needle stimulation and also violet laser stimulation. Conclusions A new instrumentation for skin impedance measurements is presented. The following hypotheses suggested by our results will have to be tested in further studies: Needle acupuncture causes significant, specific local changes of electrical skin impedance parameters. Optical stimulation (violet laser) at an acupoint causes direct electrical biosignal changes. PMID:21092296

  13. Reduced variability and execution time to reach a target with a needle GPS system: Comparison between physicians, residents and nurse anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevre, Marie-Cécile; Vincent, Caroline; Picard, Julien; Vighetti, Arnaud; Chapuis, Claire; Detavernier, Maxime; Allenet, Benoît; Payen, Jean-François; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Albaladejo, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) guided needle positioning is safer than anatomical landmark techniques for central venous access. Hand-eye coordination and execution time depend on the professional's ability, previous training and personal skills. Needle guidance positioning systems (GPS) may theoretically reduce execution time and facilitate needle positioning in specific targets, thus improving patient comfort and safety. Three groups of healthcare professionals (41 anaesthesiologists and intensivists, 41 residents in anaesthesiology and intensive care, 39 nurse anaesthetists) were included and required to perform 3 tasks (positioning the tip of a needle in three different targets in a silicon phantom) by using successively a conventional US-guided needle positioning and a needle GPS. We measured execution times to perform the tasks, hand-eye coordination and the number of repositioning occurrences or errors in handling the needle or the probe. Without the GPS system, we observed a significant inter-individual difference for execution time (PGPS attenuated the inter-individual and group variability. We observed a reduced execution time and improved hand-eye coordination in all groups as compared to US without GPS. Neither US training, video gaming nor demographic personal or professional factors were found to be significantly associated with reduced execution time when GPS was used. US associated with GPS systems may improve safety and decrease execution time by reducing inter-individual variability between professionals for needle-handling procedures. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an MRI-Guided Intra-Prostatic Needle Placement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    technologies include Stoianovici et al. who describe a fully MRI-compatible pneu - matic stepper motor called PneuStep in [18], Elhawary et al. describe an...described in [20]. Other recent developments in MRI-compatible mechanisms include pneu - matic stepping motors on a light needle puncture robot [21...pneumatic actuation seems ideal for MRI, most standard pneu - matic cylinders are not suitable for use in MRI. Custom MR compatible pneumatic cylinders have

  15. Needle autopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Davis Marsden

    1997-01-01

    Often in tropical practice there is not time or conditions to do a proper autopsy on a patient who has died. A needle biopsy technique is described for limited closed autopsy examination to clariffy organ histology. In this way the clinician may resolve puzzling fatal disease.Muitas vezes, em clínicas de países tropicais, não há tempo nem condições para se realizar uma necropsia adequada em um paciente que foi a óbito. Um técnica de biópsia por punção é descrita para fins de exame em necropsi...

  16. Needle autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Davis Marsden

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Often in tropical practice there is not time or conditions to do a proper autopsy on a patient who has died. A needle biopsy technique is described for limited closed autopsy examination to clariffy organ histology. In this way the clinician may resolve puzzling fatal disease.Muitas vezes, em clínicas de países tropicais, não há tempo nem condições para se realizar uma necropsia adequada em um paciente que foi a óbito. Um técnica de biópsia por punção é descrita para fins de exame em necropsia limitadamente fechada, para esclarecimento da histologia do órgão. Dessa maneira, o clínico pode resolver enigmas de doenças fatais.

  17. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  18. An overview of systems for CT- and MRI-guided percutaneous needle placement in the thorax and abdomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolli, Maarten Menno; Hanumara, Nevan C.; Franken, Michel; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive biopsies, drainages and therapies in the soft tissue organs of the thorax and abdomen are typically performed through a needle, which is inserted percutaneously to reach the target area. The conventional workflow for needle placement employs an iterative freehand

  19. Protein detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruetel, Julie A [Livermore, CA; Fiechtner, Gregory J [Bethesda, MD; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; McIlroy, Andrew [Livermore, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  20. Pollutant effects on the conformation of chlorophyll-protein complexes in forest trees suffering from air pollutant stress. Pt. 2. Pigment content and characteristics of the light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b-protein complex in needles of healthy and damaged spruce trees in the area Kaelbelescheuer (Southern Black Forest)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefermann-Harms, D.; Ninnemann, H.; Horsch, F.; Filby, G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A. (comps.)

    1986-04-01

    Symptoms of the forest decline type 'photobleaching in higher altitudes' are studied with spruce trees, Picea abies (L.) Karst., growing in a clean-air area. The pigment content in 1- and 2-year old needles of spruce tree 'No. 5' (strongly damaged; 70% of needles, mainly the older ones, lost) is reduced as compared with 2 healthy controls. Chl-a, Chl-b, carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin are lowered at similar degree, while lutein shows little change. The same pattern of pigment bleaching is observed in light-exposed 3-year old needles of spruce tree 'No. 22' (strongly damaged; 30% of needles lost) while no bleaching is observed in 3-year old shaded needles of the same tree. The pattern of pigment bleaching observed in the damaged trees differs from that induced by exposing spruce trees to chloroethenes. The light-harvesting Chl-a/b-protein (LHC) isolated from needles of spruce No. 5 or from shaded needles of spruce No. 22 is less stable under acidic conditions than LHCs from healthy controls. This observation points at some conformational change occurring in LHCs of the damaged trees. Since a decreased acid stability is observed for the LHC from shaded needles of tree 22 the pigments of which are not bleached, we consider that some conformational change of the LHC might precede light-induced pigment bleaching.

  1. The common structural architecture of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium type three secretion needles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Demers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Type Three Secretion System (T3SS, or injectisome, is a macromolecular infection machinery present in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. It consists of a basal body, anchored in both bacterial membranes, and a hollow needle through which effector proteins are delivered into the target host cell. Two different architectures of the T3SS needle have been previously proposed. First, an atomic model of the Salmonella typhimurium needle was generated from solid-state NMR data. The needle subunit protein, PrgI, comprises a rigid-extended N-terminal segment and a helix-loop-helix motif with the N-terminus located on the outside face of the needle. Second, a model of the Shigella flexneri needle was generated from a high-resolution 7.7-Å cryo-electron microscopy density map. The subunit protein, MxiH, contains an N-terminal α-helix, a loop, another α-helix, a 14-residue-long β-hairpin (Q51-Q64 and a C-terminal α-helix, with the N-terminus facing inward to the lumen of the needle. In the current study, we carried out solid-state NMR measurements of wild-type Shigella flexneri needles polymerized in vitro and identified the following secondary structure elements for MxiH: a rigid-extended N-terminal segment (S2-T11, an α-helix (L12-A38, a loop (E39-P44 and a C-terminal α-helix (Q45-R83. Using immunogold labeling in vitro and in vivo on functional needles, we located the N-terminus of MxiH subunits on the exterior of the assembly, consistent with evolutionary sequence conservation patterns and mutagenesis data. We generated a homology model of Shigella flexneri needles compatible with both experimental data: the MxiH solid-state NMR chemical shifts and the state-of-the-art cryoEM density map. These results corroborate the solid-state NMR structure previously solved for Salmonella typhimurium PrgI needles and establish that Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium subunit proteins adopt a conserved structure and orientation in their

  2. [On-site fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules. Quality assurance of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Mihály; Péter, Ilona; Nyári, Tibor; Simon, Péter; Újlaky, Mátyás; Boér, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2015-10-11

    The methods available for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules include physical examination, imaging, laboratory and fine-needle aspiration cytology tests. The aim of this study was to determine the quality assurance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules. Cytology results were rated to 6 categories according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (2008) (I. nondiagnostic; II. benign; III. atypia of undetermined significance; IV. follicular neoplasia; V. suspicious for malignancy; VI. malignant). All cytology reports were compared with the final histology diagnosis. A total of 1384 patient with thyroid nodule underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology. Smears were classified I. inadequate in 214 (15.9%); II. benign 986; III. atypical 56; IV. follicular neoplasm 41; V. suspicious for malignancy 18; VI. malignant 33 cases. Two hundred and twenty seven (16.8%) of the cases were operated and histologically verified. The positive predictive value in the benign category was 98.25% and in the malignant 88.46%. The sensitivity of the follicular neoplasm was 66.67%. The results suggest that fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules using the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology has a high diagnostic accuracy. The auditing values of the results meet the proposed threshold values.

  3. The Wiley Spinal Catheter-Over-Needle System for Continuous Spinal Anesthesia: A Case Series of 5 Cesarean Deliveries Complicated by Paresthesias and Headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Christine P; Carvalho, Brendan; Riley, Edward T

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal catheter devices using a catheter-over-needle design and softer flexible material have been introduced to clinical practice with the aim of reducing some of the complications such as postdural puncture headaches and paresthesias seen with previous versions of intrathecal catheters. We present a case series of 5 cesarean deliveries using the Wiley Spinal intrathecal system (Epimed, Johnstown, New York), which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The intrathecal catheter system consists of a flexible 23-gauge intrathecal cannula over a 27-gauge pencil-point spinal needle. The placement of the intrathecal catheter was successful in all 5 cases; however, paresthesias in 3 cases and postdural puncture headaches in 2 cases complicated the placement and use of the device. Although the unique catheter-over-needle design facilitates the use of smaller-gauge spinal needles for dural puncture and larger-gauge catheters for medication administration, this case series using the Wiley Spinal suggests that paresthesias and postdural puncture headaches may still limit its widespread utilization. Future studies are needed to determine the true incidence of complications and to determine the role of continuous spinal anesthesia in the obstetric population.

  4. Experiences with a new breast localisation needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergan, K.; Amann, T.; Doringer, W.; Hollenstein, P.

    1990-01-01

    In view of the increasing number of biopsies of non-palpable lesions of the female breast we found an ideal localisation system in the Hawkins breast localisation needle. Localisation was successful without technical problems in 31 out of 34 patients. The special advantages of the needle are its stability in position and excellent manoeverability due to the construction of the needle. The very simple handling of the needle is an advantage not only for the radiologist but also for the surgeon. (orig.) [de

  5. [Design thinking and clinical basic operation rules of the needling instrument for Shu-needle therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shou-qian

    2009-03-01

    Shu-needle therapy is a transcutaneous, close and micro-traumatic treatment technique founded on the basis of the theoretical system and the treatment thought of TCM acupuncture eye surgery. This therapy uses the needling instrument for Shu-needle therapy of original creation to relieve pressure, relieve tension, relieve spasm, relieve rigid, etc. for chronic pain, and achieves unique clinical therapeutic effects, and it originally creates the diagnostic and therapeutic system of special acupoint selection for human chronic pain and difficult diseases of the vegetable nerves and important treatment rules, in combination with modern medicine. Shu-needle therapy mixes TCM surgery with the cream of other special acupuncture therapies, and it is a new development and supplement of special needling therapies such as small needle knife, etc. and traditional acupuncture treatment.

  6. Of Needles and Haystacks: Building an Accurate Statewide Dropout Early Warning System in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jared E.

    2015-01-01

    The state of Wisconsin has one of the highest four year graduation rates in the nation, but deep disparities among student subgroups remain. To address this the state has created the Wisconsin Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS), a predictive model of student dropout risk for students in grades six through nine. The Wisconsin DEWS is in use…

  7. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP3-05: Adaptive Determination of Needle Sequence HDR Prostate Brachytherapy with Divergent Needle-By-Needle Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borot de Battisti, M; Maenhout, M; Lagendijk, J J W; Van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A; Denis de Senneville, B; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new method which adaptively determines the optimal needle insertion sequence for HDR prostate brachytherapy involving divergent needle-by-needle dose delivery by e.g. a robotic device. A needle insertion sequence is calculated at the beginning of the intervention and updated after each needle insertion with feedback on needle positioning errors. Methods: Needle positioning errors and anatomy changes may occur during HDR brachytherapy which can lead to errors in the delivered dose. A novel strategy was developed to calculate and update the needle sequence and the dose plan after each needle insertion with feedback on needle positioning errors. The dose plan optimization was performed by numerical simulations. The proposed needle sequence determination optimizes the final dose distribution based on the dose coverage impact of each needle. This impact is predicted stochastically by needle insertion simulations. HDR procedures were simulated with varying number of needle insertions (4 to 12) using 11 patient MR data-sets with PTV, prostate, urethra, bladder and rectum delineated. Needle positioning errors were modeled by random normally distributed angulation errors (standard deviation of 3 mm at the needle’s tip). The final dose parameters were compared in the situations where the needle with the largest vs. the smallest dose coverage impact was selected at each insertion. Results: Over all scenarios, the percentage of clinically acceptable final dose distribution improved when the needle selected had the largest dose coverage impact (91%) compared to the smallest (88%). The differences were larger for few (4 to 6) needle insertions (maximum difference scenario: 79% vs. 60%). The computation time of the needle sequence optimization was below 60s. Conclusion: A new adaptive needle sequence determination for HDR prostate brachytherapy was developed. Coupled to adaptive planning, the selection of the needle with the largest dose coverage impact

  8. Needles in a Haystack: Screening and Healthcare System Evidence for Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Byrne, Thomas; Brignone, Emily; Cusack, Meagan; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness of screening for homelessness in a large healthcare system was evaluated in terms of successfully referring and connecting patients with appropriate prevention or intervention services. Screening and healthcare services data from nearly 6 million U.S. military veterans were analyzed. Veterans either screened positive for current or risk of housing instability, or negative for both. Current living situation was used to validate results of screening. Administrative evidence for homelessness-related services was significantly higher among positive-screen veterans who accepted a referral for services compared to those who declined. Screening for current or risk of homelessness led to earlier identification, which led to earlier and more extensive service engagement.

  9. Temno biopsy needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Demlow, T.; Dunkley, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Temno needle which is spring-activated biopsy needle that is being marketed to radiologists as a needle that can obtain histologic cores. One hundred fifteen biopsy procedures were performed; biopsy sites included liver; retroperitoneum; lung, mediastinum, and pleura; musculoskeletal structures; thyroid; abdominal and pelvic masses; and pancreas. The needle sizes included 21-gauge, 18-gauge, 16-gauge, and 14-gauge needles. The biopsy procedures were diagnostic in 87.8D% of cases, and the average biopsy specimen measured 1.0-40.0 mm. The biopsy diagnoses included both malignant and benign processes. The Temno needle has a lightweight, nonattenuating handle that makes it especially useful for CT-guided procedures

  10. Looking for a needle in a haystack: Cellular proteins that may interact with the tyrosine-based sorting signal of the TGEV S protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Anna; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel

    2015-04-16

    The spike protein S of transmissible gastroenteritis virus, an Alphacoronavirus, contains a tyrosine-based sorting signal that is responsible for ERGIC retention and may be important for a correct viral assembly process. To find out whether the S protein interacts with cellular proteins via this sorting signal, a pulldown assay with GST fusion proteins was performed. Filamin A has been identified as a putative interaction candidate. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed a co-localization between the TGEV S protein and filamin A. Further experiments have to be performed to prove a significant impact of filamin A on TGEV infection. Different approaches of several researchers for the identification of cellular interaction candidates relevant for coronavirus replication are summarized. These results may help in the future to identify the role of cellular proteins during coronavirus assembly at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Intrapulmonary Sewing Needle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisama, Naoya; Tsunemitsu, Nobumasa; Yasumasu, Tetsuo; Yamasaki, Takashi; Uchida, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Intrapulmonary aberrant needles are rarely encountered in clinical practice. A 82-year-old woman, though she was asymptomatic, was referred to our department due to an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography showed a foreign body suspected to be a sewing needle in the left upper lobe. The needle was successfully removed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

  12. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  13. Effects of canal enlargement and irrigation needle depth on the cleaning of the root canal system at 3 mm from the apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Jin Moon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis, that the effectiveness of irrigation in removing smear layer in the apical third of root canal system is dependent on the depth of placement of the irrigation needle into the root canal and the enlargement size of the canal. Materials and Methods Eighty sound human lower incisors were divided into eight groups according to the enlargement size (#25, #30, #35 and #40 and the needle penetration depth (3 mm from working length, WL-3 mm and 9 mm from working length, WL-9 mm. Each canal was enlarged to working length with Profile.06 Rotary Ni-Ti files and irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl. Then, each canal received a final irrigation with 3 mL of 3% EDTA for 4 min, followed by 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl at different level (WL-3 mm and WL-9 mm from working length. Each specimen was prepared for the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Photographs of the 3mm area from the apical constriction of each canal with a magnification of ×250, ×500, ×1,000, ×2,500 were taken for the final evaluation. Results Removal of smear layer in WL-3 mm group showed a significantly different effect when the canal was enlarged to larger than #30. There was a significant difference in removing apical smear layer between the needle penetration depth of WL-3 mm and WL-9 mm. Conclusions Removal of smear layer from the apical portion of root canals was effectively accomplished with apical instrumentation to #35/40 06 taper file and 3 mm needle penetration from the working length.

  14. Remote Electromagnetic Vibration of Steerable Needles for Imaging in Power Doppler Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabreros, Sarah S.; Jimenez, Nina M.; Greer, Joseph D.; Adebar, Troy K.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic needle steering systems for minimally invasive medical procedures require complementary medical imaging systems to track the needles in real time. Ultrasound is a promising imaging modality because it offers relatively low-cost, real-time imaging of the needle. Previous methods applied vibration to the base of the needle using a voice coil actuator, in order to make the needle visible in power Doppler ultrasound. We propose a new method for needle tip vibration, using electromagnetic actuation of small permanent magnets placed inside the needle to improve needle tip visibility in power Doppler imaging. Robotic needle insertion experiments using artificial tissue and ex vivo porcine liver showed that the electromagnetic tip vibration method can generate a stronger Doppler response compared to the previous base vibration method, resulting in better imaging at greater needle depth in tissue. It also eliminates previous issues with vibration damping along the shaft of the needle. PMID:26413379

  15. Robotically steering flexible needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen

    2015-01-01

    Needle insertion into soft tissue is one of the common minimally invasive surgical procedures. Many diagnostic and therapeutic clinical procedures require insertion of a needle to a specific location in soft-tissue, including biopsy or radioactive seed implantation for cancer treatment

  16. Sorption studies of uranium in sediment-groundwater systems from the natural analogue sites of Needle's Eye and Broubster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.; Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of sorption experiments designed to provide essential data for migration modelling. Sorption of 233 U from natural ground-water onto peat from Broubster and silt from Needle's Eye was studied under atmospheric conditions and different pH regimes. The temperature was maintained at 10 0 C and, in the case of Needle's Eye silt, the kinetics of sorption were followed. The results were analyzed in conjunction with speciation modelling in an attempt to understand the sorption mechanisms and to extrapolate the findings to cover the range of conditions likely to be met in the field. This work is part of the CEC project Mirage - Second phase, research area 'Natural analogues'

  17. Needle phobia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Kimberly; Baukus, Mary; Stark, Mary Ann; Morin, Karen H; Rudell, Barb

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the experience of a pregnant woman with needle phobia and examine its impact on her antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum experience. A case study format was employed. A 21-year-old primiparous woman with diagnosed needle phobia was interviewed, and her prenatal and delivery records were reviewed. Three tasks during pregnancy were identified: seeking trusting relationships with health care providers; establishing and maintaining control and understanding; and coping with fear of needles, pain, and invasion. As frequent caregivers during childbearing, nurses with an understanding of needle phobia can help to establish trusting relationships with women with this phobia and support them and their families during childbearing and their encounters with needles. (c) 2006, AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses

  18. Hydrogeochemical modelling of an active system of uranium fixation by organic soils and sediments (Needle's Eye, Scotland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, P.; Schmitt, J.M.; Ledoux, E.; Hooker, P.J.; Escalier des Orres, P.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium accumulation in organic-rich sediments can be closely modelled by assuming that the dominant effect of the uranium-organic matter interaction is the direct or indirect reduction of uranyl compounds to form U(IV) minerals, especially uraninite-pitchblende. Application of this model to the Needle's Eye (Scotland) site where uranium is actively accumulating in Quaternary sediments demonstrates that uranium accumulation is both effective and rapid in environments involving shallow, organic-rich, reducing horizons. The period of uranium deposit formation at Needle's Eye is estimated to be as short as 5000 years. The transport of uranium to the site of deposition by oxidizing groundwaters and the channelling of these oxidizing uraniferous groundwaters are identified as important factors involved in the rapid accumulation of uranium. The regional hydrogeological model indicates that a fault in the area appears to act as a hydraulic screen for the uraniferous groundwaters. On one side of the fault the Quaternary sediments are well drained whilst on the other the flow of groundwater seeps out creating a major flux just at the bottom of the organic-rich layers. The local hydrogeological model shows that the groundwater flow is vertical in this area. A third significant factor in the development of these uranium accumulations is the presence of a significant nearby source of leachable primary uranium. In the case of the Needle's Eye site this is in the form of some thirty 185 ± 20 Ma, pitchblende-bearing veins. 32 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Needle muscle biopsy and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-long CHEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Needle muscle biopsy is a straightforward and reliable minimally-invasive technique. During the past century, the needle biopsy can provide adequate samples and the technique has gradually gained wider acceptance. Compared with open biopsy, needle biopsy is less traumatic, with low rate of complications, and is suitable for the identifications and evaluations of muscular dystrophy, inflammatory myopathies and systemic diseases involving muscles, specially for infants and young children. Domestic insiders should be encouraged to apply this technique. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.003 

  20. Introduction of a New Diagnostic Method for Breast Cancer Based on Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Test Data and Combining Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuzy, Mohammad; Haddadnia, Javad; Mollania, Nasrin; Hashemian, Maryam; Hassanpour, Kazem

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate Diagnosis of Breast Cancer is of prime importance. Fine Needle Aspiration test or "FNA”, which has been used for several years in Europe, is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive and accurate technique for detecting breast cancer. Expending the suitable features of the Fine Needle Aspiration results is the most important diagnostic problem in early stages of breast cancer. In this study, we introduced a new algorithm that can detect breast cancer based on combining artificial intelligent system and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA). Methods We studied the Features of Wisconsin Data Base Cancer which contained about 569 FNA test samples (212 patient samples (malignant) and 357 healthy samples (benign)). In this research, we combined Artificial Intelligence Approaches, such as Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) with Genetic Algorithm (GA), and also used Exact Classifier Systems (here by Fuzzy C-Means (FCM)) to separate malignant from benign samples. Furthermore, we examined artificial Neural Networks (NN) to identify the model and structure. This research proposed a new algorithm for an accurate diagnosis of breast cancer. Results According to Wisconsin Data Base Cancer (WDBC) data base, 62.75% of samples were benign, and 37.25% were malignant. After applying the proposed algorithm, we achieved high detection accuracy of about "96.579%” on 205 patients who were diagnosed as having breast cancer. It was found that the method had 93% sensitivity, 73% specialty, 65% positive predictive value, and 95% negative predictive value, respectively. If done by experts, Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) can be a reliable replacement for open biopsy in palpable breast masses. Evaluation of FNA samples during aspiration can decrease insufficient samples. FNA can be the first line of diagnosis in women with breast masses, at least in deprived regions, and may increase health standards and clinical supervision of patients. Conclusion Such a smart, economical, non-invasive, rapid

  1. Needles in the EST haystack: large-scale identification and analysis of excretory-secretory (ES proteins in parasitic nematodes using expressed sequence tags (ESTs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar H Nagaraj

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes of humans, other animals and plants continue to impose a significant public health and economic burden worldwide, due to the diseases they cause. Promising antiparasitic drug and vaccine candidates have been discovered from excreted or secreted (ES proteins released from the parasite and exposed to the immune system of the host. Mining the entire expressed sequence tag (EST data available from parasitic nematodes represents an approach to discover such ES targets.In this study, we predicted, using EST2Secretome, a novel, high-throughput, computational workflow system, 4,710 ES proteins from 452,134 ESTs derived from 39 different species of nematodes, parasitic in animals (including humans or plants. In total, 2,632, 786, and 1,292 ES proteins were predicted for animal-, human-, and plant-parasitic nematodes. Subsequently, we systematically analysed ES proteins using computational methods. Of these 4,710 proteins, 2,490 (52.8% had orthologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas 621 (13.8% appeared to be novel, currently having no significant match to any molecule available in public databases. Of the C. elegans homologues, 267 had strong "loss-of-function" phenotypes by RNA interference (RNAi in this nematode. We could functionally classify 1,948 (41.3% sequences using the Gene Ontology (GO terms, establish pathway associations for 573 (12.2% sequences using Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and identify protein interaction partners for 1,774 (37.6% molecules. We also mapped 758 (16.1% proteins to protein domains including the nematode-specific protein family "transthyretin-like" and "chromadorea ALT," considered as vaccine candidates against filariasis in humans.We report the large-scale analysis of ES proteins inferred from EST data for a range of parasitic nematodes. This set of ES proteins provides an inventory of known and novel members of ES proteins as a foundation for studies focused on understanding the

  2. Needles in the EST Haystack: Large-Scale Identification and Analysis of Excretory-Secretory (ES) Proteins in Parasitic Nematodes Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Shivashankar H.; Gasser, Robin B.; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes of humans, other animals and plants continue to impose a significant public health and economic burden worldwide, due to the diseases they cause. Promising antiparasitic drug and vaccine candidates have been discovered from excreted or secreted (ES) proteins released from the parasite and exposed to the immune system of the host. Mining the entire expressed sequence tag (EST) data available from parasitic nematodes represents an approach to discover such ES targets. Methods and Findings In this study, we predicted, using EST2Secretome, a novel, high-throughput, computational workflow system, 4,710 ES proteins from 452,134 ESTs derived from 39 different species of nematodes, parasitic in animals (including humans) or plants. In total, 2,632, 786, and 1,292 ES proteins were predicted for animal-, human-, and plant-parasitic nematodes. Subsequently, we systematically analysed ES proteins using computational methods. Of these 4,710 proteins, 2,490 (52.8%) had orthologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas 621 (13.8%) appeared to be novel, currently having no significant match to any molecule available in public databases. Of the C. elegans homologues, 267 had strong “loss-of-function” phenotypes by RNA interference (RNAi) in this nematode. We could functionally classify 1,948 (41.3%) sequences using the Gene Ontology (GO) terms, establish pathway associations for 573 (12.2%) sequences using Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and identify protein interaction partners for 1,774 (37.6%) molecules. We also mapped 758 (16.1%) proteins to protein domains including the nematode-specific protein family “transthyretin-like” and “chromadorea ALT,” considered as vaccine candidates against filariasis in humans. Conclusions We report the large-scale analysis of ES proteins inferred from EST data for a range of parasitic nematodes. This set of ES proteins provides an inventory of known and novel members of ES proteins as a

  3. Experiments with needle bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  4. Bacterial systems for production of heterologous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbs, Sarah; Frank, Ashley M; Collart, Frank R

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are the working molecules of all biological systems and participate in a majority of cellular chemical reactions and biological processes. Knowledge of the properties and function of these molecules is central to an understanding of chemical and biological processes. In this context, purified proteins are a starting point for biophysical and biochemical characterization methods that can assist in the elucidation of function. The challenge for production of proteins at the scale and quality required for experimental, therapeutic and commercial applications has led to the development of a diverse set of methods for heterologous protein production. Bacterial expression systems are commonly used for protein production as these systems provide an economical route for protein production and require minimal technical expertise to establish a laboratory protein production system.

  5. High-Field MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    SU, Hao; CAMILO, Alex; COLE, Gregory A.; HATA, Nobuhiko; TEMPANY, Clare M.; FISCHER, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible needle placement system actuated by piezoelectric actuators for prostate brachytherapy and biopsy. An MRI-compatible modular 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) needle driver module coupled with a 3-DOF x-y-z stage is proposed as a slave robot to precisely deliver radioactive brachytherapy seeds under interactive MRI guidance. The needle driver module provides for needle cannula rotation, needle insertion and cannula retrac...

  6. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  7. A novel adaptive needle insertion sequencing for robotic, single needle MR-guided high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borot de Battisti, M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Hautvast, G.; Binnekamp, D.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Maenhout, M.; Moerland, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has gained increasing interest as a treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer because of the superior value of MRI for tumor and surrounding tissues localization. To enable needle insertion into the prostate with the patient in the MR bore, a single needle MR-compatible robotic system involving needle-by-needle dose delivery has been developed at our institution. Throughout the intervention, dose delivery may be impaired by: (1) sub-optimal needle positioning caused by e.g. needle bending, (2) intra-operative internal organ motion such as prostate rotations or swelling, or intra-procedural rectum or bladder filling. This may result in failure to reach clinical constraints. To assess the first aforementioned challenge, a recent study from our research group demonstrated that the deposited dose may be greatly improved by real-time adaptive planning with feedback on the actual needle positioning. However, the needle insertion sequence is left to the doctor and therefore, this may result in sub-optimal dose delivery. In this manuscript, a new method is proposed to determine and update automatically the needle insertion sequence. This strategy is based on the determination of the most sensitive needle track. The sensitivity of a needle track is defined as its impact on the dose distribution in case of sub-optimal positioning. A stochastic criterion is thus presented to determine each needle track sensitivity based on needle insertion simulations. To assess the proposed sequencing strategy, HDR prostate brachytherapy was simulated on 11 patients with varying number of needle insertions. Sub-optimal needle positioning was simulated at each insertion (modeled by typical random angulation errors). In 91% of the scenarios, the dose distribution improved when the needle was inserted into the most compared to the least sensitive needle track. The computation time for sequencing was less than 6 s per needle track. The

  8. A recombinant protein expression system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... Serum free cultivation of Leishmania is cost-effective and improves large scale production of well- defined parasite material. Moreover, the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins requires cultivation of the host in a culture medium free of animal materials, so several culture media for.

  9. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  10. The 3DBiopsy Prostate Biopsy System: Preclinical Investigation of a Needle, Actuator, and Specimen Collection Device Allowing Sampling of Individualized Prostate Lengths Between 20 and 60 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nelson N; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Schechter, David; Lucia, M Scott; Smith, Elizabeth E; Arangua, Paul; Hoenemeyer, John; Rosa, Jim; Bawa, Rajan; Crawford, E David

    2017-09-01

    To increase the likelihood of detecting anterior cancers within the prostate and provide a specimen that spans the length of the gland. Newly designed 17- and 15-gauge (G) biopsy needles, a variable actuator, and an integrated pathology system intended for the longer cores were developed and tested for this purpose. Testing was performed comparing 2 common cannula tip grinds, a Vet-point (sharp tip) and a Menghini-point (atraumatic tip), and were tested against 18-G Bard Monopty in porcine kidney. A variable actuator was developed to fire the needle 20-60 mm and tested in cadaver prostates. The aggregate firings for 3 different shot lengths comparing the Vet- with the Menghini-tip cannulas demonstrated 91% vs 85.2% fill (length of specimen/length of core bed, P = .007). A 15-G trocar needle with the Vet-tip cannula also had the best performance, with an aggregate standard deviation of 6.4% across 3 firing ranges and a minimum to maximum specimen length of 81%-105% of potential fill. Cadaver testing with the Vet-tip needles in the actuator for the transrectal (17-G) and transperineal (15-G) biopsies demonstrated mean fills of 93.3% and 76.5%, respectively. The new transrectal ultrasound needle obtained a 2-fold increase in specimen length over the standard Bard device (P planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Essential-oil composition of the needles collected from natural populations of Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce Griseb.) from the Scardo-Pindic mountain system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Bojović, Srdjan; Matevski, Vlado; Krivošej, Zoran; Marin, Petar D

    2014-06-01

    The needle-terpene profiles of two natural Pinus peuce populations from the Scardo-Pindic mountain system (Mt. Ošljak and Mt. Pelister) were analyzed. Among the 90 detected compounds, 87 were identified. The dominant constituents were α-pinene (45.5%), germacrene D (11.1%), β-pinene (10.8%), and camphene (10.3%). The following eight additional components were found to be present in medium-to-high amounts (0.5-10%): bornyl acetate (5.0%), β-phellandrene (3.4%), β-caryophyllene (2.9%), β-myrcene (0.9%), germacrene D-4-ol (0.9%), tricyclene (0.7%), (E)-hex-2-enal (0.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (0.6%). Although the general needle-terpene profiles of the populations from Mt. Ošljak and Mt. Pelister were found to be similar to those of the populations from Zeletin, Sjekirica, and Mokra Gora (Dinaric Alps), principle component analysis (PCA) of eight terpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene, α-terpinolene, bornyl acetate, α-terpinyl acetate, β-caryophyllene, trans-β-farnesene, and germacrene D) in 139 tree samples suggested a divergence between the two population groups, i.e., the samples from the Scardo-Pindic mountain system and those from the Dinaric Alps. Genetic analysis of the β-pinene content demonstrated a partial divergence between the two geographical groups. The profiles of both population groups differed from those published for populations from the Balkan-Rhodope mountains system (literature results), which were characterized by high contents of bornyl acetate and citronellol (Greek populations) or δ-car-3-ene (Bulgarian populations). Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. The Shigella T3SS needle transmits a signal for MxiC release, which controls secretion of effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Argudo, Isabel; Blocker, Ariel J

    2010-12-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are key determinants of virulence in many Gram-negative bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens. They inject 'effector' proteins through a 'needle' protruding from the bacterial surface directly into eukaryotic cells after assembly of a 'translocator' pore in the host plasma membrane. Secretion is a tightly regulated process, which is blocked until physical contact with a host cell takes place. Host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle 'tip complex' and translocators are secreted before effectors. MxiC, a Shigella T3SS substrate, prevents premature effector secretion. Here, we examine how the different parts of T3SSs work together to allow orderly secretion. We show that T3SS assembly and needle tip composition are not altered in an mxiC mutant. We find that MxiC not only represses effector secretion but that it is also required for translocator release. We provide genetic evidence that MxiC acts downstream of the tip complex and then the needle during secretion activation. Finally, we show that the needle controls MxiC release. Therefore, for the first time, our data allow us to propose a model of secretion activation that goes from the tip complex to cytoplasmic MxiC via the needle. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Needle-free powder lidocaine delivery system provides rapid effective analgesia for venipuncture or cannulation pain in children: randomized, double-blind Comparison of Venipuncture and Venous Cannulation Pain After Fast-Onset Needle-Free Powder Lidocaine or Placebo Treatment trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempsky, William T; Bean-Lijewski, Jolene; Kauffman, Ralph E; Koh, Jeffrey L; Malviya, Shobha V; Rose, John B; Richards, Patricia T; Gennevois, Daniel J

    2008-05-01

    The Comparison of Venipuncture and Venous Cannulation Pain After Fast-Onset Needle-Free Powder Lidocaine or Placebo Treatment trial was a randomized, single-dose, double-blind, phase 3 study investigating whether a needle-free powder lidocaine delivery system (a sterile, prefilled, disposable system that delivers lidocaine powder into the epidermis) produces effective local analgesia within 1 to 3 minutes for venipuncture and peripheral venous cannulation procedures in children. Pediatric patients (3-18 years of age) were randomly assigned to treatment with the needle-free powder lidocaine delivery system (0.5 mg of lidocaine and 21 +/- 1 bar of pressure; n = 292) or a sham placebo system (n = 287) at the antecubital fossa or the back of the hand 1 to 3 minutes before venipuncture or cannulation. All patients rated the administration comfort of the needle-free systems and the pain of the subsequent venous access procedures with the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (from 0 to 5). Patients 8 to 18 years of age also provided self-reports with a visual analog scale, and parents provided observational visual analog scale scores for their child's venous access pain. Safety also was assessed. Immediately after administration, mean Wong-Baker Faces scale scores were 0.54 and 0.24 in the active system and sham placebo system groups, respectively. After venipuncture or cannulation, mean Wong-Baker Faces scale scores were 1.77 +/- 0.09 and 2.10 +/- 0.09 and mean visual analog scale scores were 22.62 +/- 1.80 mm and 31.97 +/- 1.82 mm in the active system and sham placebo system groups, respectively. Parents' assessments of their child's procedural pain were also lower in the active system group (21.35 +/- 1.43 vs 28.67 +/- 1.66). Treatment-related adverse events were generally mild and resolved without sequelae. Erythema and petechiae were more frequent in the active system group. The needle-free powder lidocaine delivery system was well tolerated and produced significant

  14. Combined Fluoroscopy- and CT-Guided Transthoracic Needle Biopsy Using a C-Arm Cone-Beam CT System: Comparison with Fluoroscopy-Guided Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Joo Yeon; Shim, Sung Shine; Lim, Soo Mee

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of combined fluoroscopy- and CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (FC-TNB) using a cone beam CT system in comparison to fluoroscopy-guided TNB (F-TNB). Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated 74 FC-TNB cases (group A) and 97 F-TNB cases (group B) to compare their respective diagnostic accuracies according to the size and depth of the lesion, as well as complications, procedure time, and radiation dose. Results The sensitivity for malignancy and diagnostic accuracy for small ( 0.05). Concerning lesions ≥ 30 mm in size and fluoroscopy- and CT-guided TNB allows the biopsy of small (< 30 mm) and deep lesions (≥ 50 mm) with high diagnostic accuracy and short procedure times, whereas F-TNB is still a useful method for large and superficial lesions with a low radiation dose. PMID:21228944

  15. Topology and organization of the Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion needle complex components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Schraidt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The correct organization of single subunits of multi-protein machines in a three dimensional context is critical for their functionality. Type III secretion systems (T3SS are molecular machines with the capacity to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells and are fundamental for the biology of many pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria. A central component of T3SSs is the needle complex, a multiprotein structure that mediates the passage of effector proteins through the bacterial envelope. We have used cryo electron microscopy combined with bacterial genetics, site-specific labeling, mutational analysis, chemical derivatization and high-resolution mass spectrometry to generate an experimentally validated topographic map of a Salmonella typhimurium T3SS needle complex. This study provides insights into the organization of this evolutionary highly conserved nanomachinery and is the basis for further functional analysis.

  16. Structural dynamics in the host-parasitoid system of the pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis) during invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Il; Jeon, Mun-Jang; Park, Young-Seuk

    2017-01-01

    The structural dynamics of host-parasitoid populations play a key role in the mechanism of natural community development with invasive species. Species invading new habitats experience coevolution with their newly acquired natural enemies, and their population dynamics are driven by a complex interaction between biological and environmental factors. We examined the biological and environmental factors which potentially influence a community of parasitoids throughout the 25-year invasion history of the pine needle gall midge (PNGM), Thecodiplosis japonensis , an important pest of pines in eastern Asia. We found that differences in establishment sequence and competitive ability among the parasitoids attacking this species determined the parasitoid community's structure and dynamics. In particular, the timing for the initial establishment of the host-parasitoid association, incomplete superiority in competition among parasitoids, and indirect competition by a combination of the parasitoids were important factors for determining community's structure and dynamics. Finally, the history of change in the community composition could be explained by the phenology differences in its member species, mediated by environmental factors.

  17. A substrate-fusion protein is trapped inside the Type III Secretion System channel in Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dohlich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Type III Secretion System (T3SS is a macromolecular complex used by Gram-negative bacteria to secrete effector proteins from the cytoplasm across the bacterial envelope in a single step. For many pathogens, the T3SS is an essential virulence factor that enables the bacteria to interact with and manipulate their respective host. A characteristic structural feature of the T3SS is the needle complex (NC. The NC resembles a syringe with a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and a long needle-like structure that protrudes from the bacterium. Based on the paradigm of a syringe-like mechanism, it is generally assumed that effectors and translocators are unfolded and secreted from the bacterial cytoplasm through the basal body and needle channel. Despite extensive research on T3SS, this hypothesis lacks experimental evidence and the mechanism of secretion is not fully understood. In order to elucidate details of the T3SS secretion mechanism, we generated fusion proteins consisting of a T3SS substrate and a bulky protein containing a knotted motif. Because the knot cannot be unfolded, these fusions are accepted as T3SS substrates but remain inside the NC channel and obstruct the T3SS. To our knowledge, this is the first time substrate fusions have been visualized together with isolated NCs and we demonstrate that substrate proteins are secreted directly through the channel with their N-terminus first. The channel physically encloses the fusion protein and shields it from a protease and chemical modifications. Our results corroborate an elementary understanding of how the T3SS works and provide a powerful tool for in situ-structural investigations in the future. This approach might also be applicable to other protein secretion systems that require unfolding of their substrates prior to secretion.

  18. Mosquito inspired medical needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, Thomas; Drakidis, Alexandros Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The stinging proboscis in mosquitos have diameters of only 40-100 μm which is much less than the thinnest medical needles and the mechanics of these natural stinging mechanisms have therefore attracted attention amongst developers of injection devises. The mosquito use a range of different...

  19. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  20. [Development of a novel transdermal delivery system of peptide and protein drugs using microneedle arrays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Hidemasa; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Kusamori, Kosuke; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery of peptide and protein drugs may be limited by the stratum corneum, which is a protective barrier against the entry of microorganisms and water. Many approaches have been utilized to promote peptide and protein drugs delivery across the stratum corneum, including chemical enhancer modification and physical disruption of barrier function. However, it has been difficult to achieve therapeutic levels of peptide and protein drugs via this route without any skin irritation. Recently, attention has been paid to the possibility of using microneedle arrays in delivering peptide and protein drugs into the skin. As a novel and minimally invasive approach, microneedle arrays are capable of creating superficial pathways across the skin for peptide and protein drugs to achieve enhanced transdermal drug delivery. This method combines the efficacy of conventional injection needles with the convenience of transdermal patches, while minimizing the disadvantages of these administration methods. Therefore, microneedle arrays are a very useful alternative method for delivering peptide and protein drugs from the skin into the systemic circulation without any serious damage to skin. In this review, recent challenges in the developments of microneedle arrays for the delivery of peptide and protein drugs are summarized. Then, future developments of microneedle arrays for the delivery of peptide and protein drugs are also discussed in order to improve their therapeutic efficacy and safety.

  1. Mechanics of needle-tissue interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesthuis, Roy; van Veen, Youri; Jahya, Alex; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    When a needle is inserted into soft tissue, interac- tion forces are developed at the needle tip and along the needle shaft. The needle tip force is due to cutting of the tissue, and the force along the needle shaft is due to friction between needle and tissue. In this study, the friction force is

  2. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie HD; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian MT; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as ‘new system’ names. PMID:24524803

  3. Semi-Automated Needle Steering in Biological Tissue Using an Ultrasound-Based Deflection Predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Mohsen; Rossa, Carlos; Usmani, Nawaid; Sloboda, Ron S; Tavakoli, Mahdi

    2017-04-01

    The performance of needle-based interventions depends on the accuracy of needle tip positioning. Here, a novel needle steering strategy is proposed that enhances accuracy of needle steering. In our approach the surgeon is in charge of needle insertion to ensure the safety of operation, while the needle tip bevel location is robotically controlled to minimize the targeting error. The system has two main components: (1) a real-time predictor for estimating future needle deflection as it is steered inside soft tissue, and (2) an online motion planner that calculates control decisions and steers the needle toward the target by iterative optimization of the needle deflection predictions. The predictor uses the ultrasound-based curvature information to estimate the needle deflection. Given the specification of anatomical obstacles and a target from preoperative images, the motion planner uses the deflection predictions to estimate control actions, i.e., the depth(s) at which the needle should be rotated to reach the target. Ex-vivo needle insertions are performed with and without obstacle to validate our approach. The results demonstrate the needle steering strategy guides the needle to the targets with a maximum error of 1.22 mm.

  4. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Pascal [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Mance, Deni [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Chevelkov, Veniamin [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-Based Structural Biology (Germany); Baldus, Marc [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Lange, Adam, E-mail: alange@fmp-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  5. LGI proteins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Linde; Aunin, Eerik; Meijer, Dies; Bermingham, John R

    2013-06-25

    The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin) domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein-protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe) epilepsy) also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features). LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  6. The effect of needle gauge, needle type, and needle orientation on the volume of a drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Geneva K; Good, Kathryn L; Motta, Monica J; Kass, Philip H; Murphy, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine impact of needle gauge, type, and orientation on average volume of drop dispensed. Five needle gauges (22G, 23G, 25G, 27G, and 30G) were examined. For each gauge, volume of drop delivered was determined for standard sharp beveled tip, blunt tip, and after breaking off of the sharp needle from the hub. Vertical and horizontal orientation of the needle was tested for effect on drop volume for 22-G and 30-G sharp beveled needles. Mean drop volume was affected by needle gauge, needle orientation, and whether the needle had been broken off from its hub. Mean drop volume scaled directly with needle diameter with drop volumes of 25.0 μL (±20.2) and 83.9 μL (±16.5) being found for 30-gauge and 22-gauge needles, respectively. Intermediate gauges (27, 25, 23G) yielded intermediate drop volumes. Blunt needles tended to produce larger drop volumes compared to sharp beveled needles, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Breaking off of the needle from the hub produced substantially larger drop volumes with little difference being found between needle gauges. Average volumes of 1 drop from a 22-G vertical, 22-G horizontal, 30-G vertical, and 30-G horizontal sharp beveled needle were 20.2, 9.1, 10.1, and 3.3 μL, respectively. These findings have relevance for controlled delivery of topical ophthalmic medications to patients. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Multifunctional Bone Morphogenetic Protein System in Endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuka,Fumio

    2013-01-01

    New biological activities of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the endocrine system have recently been revealed. The BMP system is composed of approximately 30 ligands and preferential combinations of type I and type II receptors. The BMP system not only induces bone formation but also plays unique tissue-specific roles in various organs. For instance, the ovarian BMP system is a physiological inhibitor of luteinization in growing ovarian follicles. In the ovary, the expression of oocyte-...

  8. Comparative cyto-histological study of needle tip aspirates and entry sites after intravitreal injection using different needle types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk

    Full Text Available A comparison of the cellular content of needle tip aspirates and entry sites after transconjunctival intravitreal injection (IVI using different needle types was performed. White outbred rats and human cadaver eyes were used for IVI by hypodermic 27 gauge (G and 30G needles, and spinal anesthesia Pencan 27G needles. Aspiration of vitreous for quantitative morphological and cell cultivation analysis, as well as cyto-histological analysis of aspirates and entry sites were carried out. The most common cells in the aspirates from all needle types were conjunctival epithelial-, ciliary body non-pigmented epithelial- and sclerocyte-like cells and granular proteins. Crystallized vitreous specimens were present in each aspirate. The entry sites of hypodermic needles showed marked trauma in all wall layers of rat and human eyes accompanied by cellular destruction and hemorrhages. Pencan 27G needle caused less tissue trauma with partial reposition of sclerocytes. Transconjunctival IVIs with hypodermic 27G and 30G, and Pencan 27G needles result in trauma of all layers of the eyeball. The possible consequences of cellular content being cut and injected into the eye, as well as the entry site wound shape deserve future consideration and improvements.

  9. LGI Proteins in the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Kegel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein–protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe epilepsy also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  10. Safety and Efficacy of a Needle-free Powder Lidocaine Delivery System in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Venipuncture or Peripheral Venous Cannulation: Randomized Double-blind COMFORT-004 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Michael L; Zempsky, William T; Meyer, James M

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if a lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate powder intradermal system designed to provide cutaneous analgesia is efficacious, safe, and tolerable for pediatric subjects compared with a sham placebo system. COMFORT-004, A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Confirm the Effectiveness and Safety of ALGRX 3268 in Pediatric Subjects, was a single-dose, parallel group study of children undergoing venipuncture or peripheral venous cannulation at the antecubital fossa or back of the hand. Included were subjects (3-18 years) in 3 age groups: 3-7, 8-12, and 13-18 years. Excluded were those with recent similar procedures or with implantable devices or skin pathologies at the anatomical site, insufficient cognitive skills, or allergies to local anesthetics or adhesives. Subjects were randomized to receive the needle-free powder lidocaine delivery system (active system, 0.5 mg of lidocaine/21 ± 1 bar of pressure [n = 269]) or sham placebo (n = 266) 1-3 minutes before venipuncture or peripheral venous cannulation. Analgesic efficacy was assessed patient self-report of venous access pain (Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale [3-18 years] and visual analog scale [VAS; 8-18 years]) and parental observational VAS. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) and relationship to study treatment. Skin signs and symptoms were graded numerically. Wong-Baker FACES scores, VAS, and parental VAS were analyzed by using an ANOVA model. Responder ratings and success rates were compared by using a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test stratified according to center, age group, and body site. The active system group had significantly (P = 0.0022) less pain compared with the sham placebo in all age groups combined according to the modified Wong-Baker FACES scale. Secondary efficacy analyses found that the active system resulted in less pain as assessed by subjects' VAS pain assessments aged 8-18 years (P = 0.1856), responder analysis (P

  11. Protein losing enteropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, A; Narasimhan, Denesh; Krishnaveni, J; Rajendiran, G

    2013-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic immunologic disorder that may affect multiple organ systems and present with myriad of clinical features. Gastro-intestinal (GI) manifestations are oral ulcers, dysphagia and abdominal pain caused by autoimmune peritonitis/intestinal vasculitis. Hypoalbuminaemia due to GI loss is uncommon. Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) is a group of clinical entities where there is loss of protein through GI tract. PLE due to SLE is rare but it can be the initial manifestation. Patients usually present with pedal oedema mimicking nephrotic syndrome clinically. It is diagnosed by excluding other causes of hypoalbuminaemia. Radio nucleotide labelled albumin scan is useful in confirming albumin loss through GI tract. Often there is a good response to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here we present two SLE patients whose presenting manifestation was protein losing enteropathy and both improved with corticosteroids.

  12. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  13. pH sensitivity of type III secretion system tip proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Aaron P; Birket, Susan E; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Middaugh, C Russell

    2008-06-01

    Many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria employ type III secretion systems to transport proteins into the host cell membrane and cytoplasm to subvert normal cellular functions. The type III secretion apparatus consists of a basal body spanning the inner and outer bacterial membranes and a needle which extends away from the bacterium. Recent work has found that a special class of proteins localizes to the tip of the needle to control secretion of effector proteins. Five of these tip proteins are IpaD (Shigella flexneri), BipD (Burkholderia pseudomallei), SipD (Salmonella spp.), LcrV (Yersinia spp.), and PcrV (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In this study, the conformational stability of these proteins was characterized as a function of pH and temperature. Understanding the stability of the proteins in different pH environments is particularly important since they are expected to encounter different pH environments in their passage through the gastrointestinal tract and are exposed to low pH microenvironments near the surface of target cell membranes. Secondary and tertiary structural changes were monitored using the spectroscopic techniques of far-UV circular dichroism, Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence, and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. Optical density and right angle scattering measurements were also used to evaluate protein association/dissociation. Empirical phase diagrams were then applied to mathematically combine data from the various spectroscopic techniques to provide a global picture of the proteins' structural behavior in solution. The responses of the proteins to changes in temperature and pH conditions reveal two distinct subfamilies in terms of stability. The first is that of IpaD, BipD, and SipD whose corresponding phase diagrams show conformational differences at pH 5-6. The conserved pH dependence in this subfamily suggests possible common mechanistic function. In the second subfamily (LcrV and PcrV), conformational stability is directly related to p

  14. Needling the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, I.; Wright, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that the whole microwave background can be produced by a bright population of pregalactic stars at a redshift of a few hundred is explored. The radiation is thermalized by a combination of amorphous silicate, amorphous carbon, graphite, and needle-shaped conducting grains which give rise to the opacity needed at wavelengths greater than 3 cm. The occurrence of distortion in a primordial microwave background spectrum due to its interaction with Population III stars and dust is investigated. The possibility of producing deviations small enough to be consistent with the best available observations, but still detectable by COBE, is considered. 65 references

  15. 21 CFR 862.1630 - Protein (fractionation) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein (fractionation) test system. 862.1630... Systems § 862.1630 Protein (fractionation) test system. (a) Identification. A protein (fractionation) test system is a device intended to measure protein fractions in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and other...

  16. Dynamics of translational friction in needle-tissue interaction during needle insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadian, Ali; Patel, Rajni V; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a distributed approach to account for dynamic friction during needle insertion in soft tissue is presented. As is well known, friction is a complex nonlinear phenomenon. It appears that classical or static models are unable to capture some of the observations made in systems subjected to significant frictional effects. In needle insertion, translational friction would be a matter of importance when the needle is very flexible, or a stop-and-rotate motion profile at low insertion velocities is implemented, and thus, the system is repeatedly transitioned from a pre-sliding to a sliding mode and vice versa. In order to characterize friction components, a distributed version of the LuGre model in the state-space representation is adopted. This method also facilitates estimating cutting force in an intra-operative manner. To evaluate the performance of the proposed family of friction models, experiments were conducted on homogeneous artificial phantoms and animal tissue. The results illustrate that our approach enables us to represent the main features of friction which is a major force component in needle-tissue interaction during needle-based interventions.

  17. Effects of irrigation, fertilization and drought on the occurrence of Lophodermium piceae in Picea abies needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, Asko; Barklund, Pia [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-08-01

    Effects of irrigation, drought and fertilization on the frequency of the fungal endophyte Lophodermium piceae in green needles was assessed in a 30-year-old experimental stand of Picea abies in southern Sweden. Frequencies of needles with L. piceae were lower in irrigation and ammonium sulphate fertilization treatments than in the control. Drought treatment frequencies were similar to the control. Needles were susceptible to colonization for at least 3 years; colonization increased with needle age. The results indicate that the increased availability of water to the root system as well as ammonium sulphate fertilization indirectly delays colonization of needles by L. piceae 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  18. High-Field MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    SU, Hao; CAMILO, Alex; COLE, Gregory A.; HATA, Nobuhiko; TEMPANY, Clare M.; FISCHER, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible needle placement system actuated by piezoelectric actuators for prostate brachytherapy and biopsy. An MRI-compatible modular 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) needle driver module coupled with a 3-DOF x-y-z stage is proposed as a slave robot to precisely deliver radioactive brachytherapy seeds under interactive MRI guidance. The needle driver module provides for needle cannula rotation, needle insertion and cannula retraction to enable the brachytherapy procedure with the preloaded needles. The device mimics the manual physician gesture by two point grasping (hub and base) and provides direct force measurement of needle insertion force by fiber optic force sensors. The fabricated prototype is presented and an experiment with phantom trials in 3T MRI is analyzed to demonstrate the system compatibility. PMID:21335868

  19. Why should we use atraumatic needles in lumbar puncture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Luiz de Andrade Matas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic lumbar puncture is essential to the diagnosis of central nervous system infections, subarachnoid haemorrhage and others neurological diseases. Myeloradicular involvement or life-threatening adverse events due to the procedure are rare, but less severe complications are more frequent. Post-lumbar puncture headache is the most common complication, by spinal fluid leakage due to delayed closure of a dural defect. Therefore, the development of fine needles, with differentiated atraumatic bevel, has contributed to minimize that problem. These generically called atraumatic needles cause less deformation of the dura mater then the Quincke® ones. So, why don't we use these atraumatic needles?

  20. Seed Storage Proteins as a System for Teaching Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karl A.; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed,…

  1. Design and evaluation of a computed tomography (CT)-compatible needle insertion device using an electromagnetic tracking system and CT images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahriari, Navid; Hekman, Edsko E.G.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Although current technology allows accurate localization of lesions, they cannot yet be precisely targeted. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, and early detection

  2. Design and evaluation of a computed tomography (CT)-compatible needle insertion device using an electromagnetic tracking system and CT images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahriari, Navid; Hekman, Edsko; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Although current technology allows accurate localization of lesions, they cannot yet be precisely targeted. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, and early detection reduces

  3. Ultrasound guided needle biopsy of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindequist, S; Schrøder, H D; Larsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Guided by ultrasonography percutaneous needle biopsy of skeletal muscle was performed in 24 patients, using the one hand held Biopty system and a 2 mm Tru-Cut needle. The specimens were graded with regard to diagnostic quality and utility and almost all specimens (96%) were of highest quality....... The use of ultrasonography was helpful in selecting a suitable area for the biopsy and vascular structures could be avoided. The procedure was well tolerated and easy to perform, and no complications were recorded....

  4. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle. The...

  5. Measurement of bio-impedance with a smart needle to confirm percutaneous kidney access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D J; Sinkov, V A; Roberts, W W; Allaf, M E; Patriciu, A; Jarrett, T W; Kavoussi, L R; Stoianovici, D

    2001-10-01

    The traditional method of percutaneous renal access requires freehand needle placement guided by C-arm fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, or computerized tomography. This approach provides limited objective means for verifying successful access. We developed an impedance based percutaneous Smart Needle system and successfully used it to confirm collecting system access in ex vivo porcine kidneys. The Smart Needle consists of a modified 18 gauge percutaneous access needle with the inner stylet electrically insulated from the outer sheath. Impedance is measured between the exposed stylet tip and sheath using Model 4275 LCR meter (Hewlett-Packard, Sunnyvale, California). An ex vivo porcine kidney was distended by continuous gravity infusion of 100 cm. water saline from a catheter passed through the parenchyma into the collecting system. The Smart Needle was gradually inserted into the kidney to measure depth precisely using a robotic needle placement system, while impedance was measured continuously. The Smart Needle was inserted 4 times in each of 4 kidneys. When the needle penetrated the distended collecting system in 11 of 16 attempts, a characteristic sharp drop in resistivity was noted from 1.9 to 1.1 ohm m. Entry into the collecting system was confirmed by removing the stylet and observing fluid flow from the sheath. This characteristic impedance change was observed only at successful entry into the collecting system. A characteristic sharp drop in impedance signifies successful entry into the collecting system. The Smart Needle system may prove useful for percutaneous kidney access.

  6. The N-terminus of IpaB provides a potential anchor to the Shigella type III secretion system tip complex protein IpaD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Arizmendi, Olivia; Patil, Mrinalini K.; Toth, Ronald T.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri, providing a conduit through which host-altering effectors are injected directly into a host cell to promote uptake. The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) is comprised of a basal body, external needle, and regulatory tip complex. The nascent needle is a polymer of MxiH capped by a pentamer of invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD). Exposure to bile salts (e.g. deoxycholate) causes a conformational change in IpaD and promotes recruitment of IpaB to the needle tip. It has been proposed that IpaB senses contact with host cell membranes, recruiting IpaC and inducing full secretion of T3SS effectors. While the steps of T3SA maturation and their external triggers have been identified, details of specific protein interactions and mechanisms have remained difficult to study due to the hydrophobic nature of the IpaB and IpaC translocator proteins. Here we explored the ability for a series of soluble N-terminal IpaB peptides to interact with IpaD. We found that DOC is required for the interaction and that a region of IpaB between residues 11–27 is required for maximum binding, which was confirmed in vivo. Furthermore, intramolecular FRET measurements indicated that movement of the IpaD distal domain away from the protein core accompanied the binding of IpaB11-226. Together these new findings provide important new insight into the interactions and potential mechanisms that define the maturation of the Shigella T3SA needle tip complex and provide a foundation for further studies probing T3SS activation. PMID:24236510

  7. N-terminus of IpaB provides a potential anchor to the Shigella type III secretion system tip complex protein IpaD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Nicholas E; Arizmendi, Olivia; Patil, Mrinalini K; Toth, Ronald T; Middaugh, C Russell; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L

    2013-12-10

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri , providing a conduit through which host-altering effectors are injected directly into a host cell to promote uptake. The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) is composed of a basal body, external needle, and regulatory tip complex. The nascent needle is a polymer of MxiH capped by a pentamer of invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD). Exposure to bile salts (e.g., deoxycholate) causes a conformational change in IpaD and promotes recruitment of IpaB to the needle tip. It has been proposed that IpaB senses contact with host cell membranes, recruiting IpaC and inducing full secretion of T3SS effectors. Although the steps of T3SA maturation and their external triggers have been identified, details of specific protein interactions and mechanisms have remained difficult to study because of the hydrophobic nature of the IpaB and IpaC translocator proteins. Here, we explored the ability for a series of soluble N-terminal IpaB peptides to interact with IpaD. We found that DOC is required for the interaction and that a region of IpaB between residues 11-27 is required for maximum binding, which was confirmed in vivo. Furthermore, intramolecular FRET measurements indicated that movement of the IpaD distal domain away from the protein core accompanied the binding of IpaB11-226. Together, these new findings provide important new insight into the interactions and potential mechanisms that define the maturation of the Shigella T3SA needle tip complex and provide a foundation for further studies probing T3SS activation.

  8. Missing needle during episiotomy repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeb Roychowdhury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakage and missing of the episiotomy needle is not uncommon occurrence at the hands of the junior doctors. Retrieving it from deeper tissue planes following its migration can be a challenging task.

  9. Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy: A Proposal of the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Chan Kwon; Min, Hye Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Jang Hee; Park, So Yeon; Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In recent years throughout Korea, the use of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has become common for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, there is no consensus on the pathology reporting system for thyroid CNB. The Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group held a conference on thyroid CNB pathology and developed guidelines through contributions from the participants. This article discusses the outcome of the discussions that led to a consens...

  10. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET as a Tool for Dissecting the Molecular Mechanisms for Maturation of the Shigella Type III Secretion Needle Tip Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Picking

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET provides a powerful tool for monitoring intermolecular interactions and a sensitive technique for studying Å-level protein conformational changes. One system that has particularly benefited from the sensitivity and diversity of FRET measurements is the maturation of the Shigella type III secretion apparatus (T3SA needle tip complex. The Shigella T3SA delivers effector proteins into intestinal cells to promote bacterial invasion and spread. The T3SA is comprised of a basal body that spans the bacterial envelope and a needle with an exposed tip complex that matures in response to environmental stimuli. FRET measurements demonstrated bile salt binding by the nascent needle tip protein IpaD and also mapped resulting structural changes which led to the recruitment of the translocator IpaB. At the needle tip IpaB acts as a sensor for host cell contact but prior to secretion, it is stored as a heterodimeric complex with the chaperone IpgC. FRET analyses showed that chaperone binding to IpaB’s N-terminal domain causes a conformational change in the latter. These FRET analyses, with other biophysical methods, have been central to understanding T3SA maturation and will be highlighted, focusing on the details of the FRET measurements and the relevance to this particular system.

  11. [Improvement of sonographic visualization of cannula needle tips by alignment of the needle lumen : In vitro investigation of established needle tip forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, U; Geppert, T; Steinfeldt, T; Wunder, C

    2015-10-13

    In the context of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks (regional anesthesia), clear visualization of the needle tip and the target structure are mandatory for the performance of a safe puncture and injection. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the visualization of different forms of needle tips and calibers of cannulas in a phantom simulating human tissue, with the help of a standardized image analysis system. Different depths and angles of the puncture needle in relation to the ultrasound probe were tested. Cannula needles established for use in regional anesthesia with different surfaces, diameters and needle tip form in 23 different combinations were analyzed. A gelatine-based phantom was used to simulate human tissue. The standardized visualization of the needle tip with the ultrasound probe was performed in plane at different angles (30°, 45° and 60°), depths of penetration (1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm) and two different alignments of the cannula needle lumen to the ultrasound probe (0° and 180°). The screenshots of the ultrasound pictures were analyzed by quantifying the pixel brightness around the needle tip (region of interest) with a standardized software (score 0-255). In this study 1104 ultrasound images of cannula needles were analyzed. Diminished scores (reduced pixel brightness) of the needle tips were documented with increasing distance from the ultrasound probe. Comparison of punctures at angles of 30° and 45° showed no differences in needle tip visibility (same scores) but punctures at an angle of 60° were poorly visualized compared with 30° and 45° (mean scores 87.90 ± 11.60 vs. 78.40 ± 12.07, p cannula lumen towards the ultrasound probe (0°) was significantly more easily visualized when compared with the reverse alignment of 180° (mean scores 86.90 ± 12.74 vs. 84.80 ± 11.66, p = 0.003, respectively). No differences in visibility were detected between the different cannula needle diameters

  12. Indwelling small pleural catheter needle thoracentesis in the management of large pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzin, C J; Balk, R A

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical safety, efficacy, and cost of a small indwelling pleural catheter (7F, Turkel Safety Thoracentesis System [Sherwood, Davis, and Geck; St. Louis]) vs repeated needle thoracentesis or closed tube thoracostomy as a means to drain a large-volume pleural effusion. Inpatients in a tertiary care university teaching hospital in urban Chicago. Prospective, consecutive patient comparative study using historical controls. Fifty-seven therapeutic aspirations in 23 patients with large pleural effusions as defined by opacification of at least one third of the hemithorax on chest radiography. Patients were excluded if they had a history of thoracic surgery, documented loculations, structural chest abnormalities, severe coagulopathy, or refused to give informed consent. Volume of each pleural aspiration, total fluid removed, pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase, protein, glucose, cytologic analysis, microbiologic stains, and cultures based on clinical indications. We found that initial thoracentesis and repeated pleural drainage using the indwelling catheter system is a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective procedure that may aid the evacuation and management of a large-volume pleural effusion. There were fewer adverse effects and complications such as pneumothorax, splenic laceration, hemopneumothorax, local pain, dry tap, and hematomas, as compared with previous reports. The overall complication rate was 12% (7/57). There were two pneumothoraces detected (3.5%), one of which required closed tube thoracostomy for treatment (1.75%). A further benefit comes in the form of a significant cost savings at our institution ($80 vs $240) when this needle-catheter system is used in place of closed tube thoracostomy in the drainage of a large-volume pleural effusion. An indwelling pleural catheter with the Turkel safety needle-catheter (as described in the study) can be used to successfully drain the pleural space with reduced morbidity and a significant cost saving

  13. Multifunctional bone morphogenetic protein system in endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    New biological activities of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the endocrine system have recently been revealed. The BMP system is composed of approximately 30 ligands and preferential combinations of type I and type II receptors. The BMP system not only induces bone formation but also plays unique tissue-specific roles in various organs. For instance, the ovarian BMP system is a physiological inhibitor of luteinization in growing ovarian follicles. In the ovary, the expression of oocyte-derived BMP-15 is critical for female reproduction. In the pituitary, BMP-4 is a key player for initial development of the anterior pituitary, while it is also functionally involved in some differentiated pituitary tumors, including prolactinoma and Cushing's disease. In the adrenal glands, BMP-6 and BMP-4 modulate aldosterone and catecholamine production, respectively, which contributes to a functional interaction between the cortex and medulla. In the present review, recent advances in BMP biology in the field of endocrinology are described and the possibility for clinical application of BMP activity is discussed.

  14. Ultrasonic Needles for Bone Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Cleary, Rebecca; Li Li; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-02-01

    Bone biopsy is an invasive clinical procedure, where a bone sample is recovered for analysis during the diagnosis of a medical condition. When the architecture of the bone tissue is required to be preserved, a core-needle biopsy is taken. Although this procedure is performed while the patient is under local anaesthesia, the patient can still experience significant discomfort. Additionally, large haematoma can be induced in the soft tissue surrounding the biopsy site due to the large axial and rotational forces, which are applied through the needle to penetrate bone. It is well documented that power ultrasonic surgical devices offer the advantages of low cutting force, high accuracy, and preservation of soft tissues. This paper reports a study of the design, analysis, and test of two novel power ultrasonic needles for bone biopsy that operate using different configurations to penetrate bone. The first utilizes micrometric vibrations generated at the distil tip of a full-wavelength resonant ultrasonic device, while the second utilizes an ultrasonic-sonic approach, where vibrational energy generated by a resonant ultrasonic horn is transferred to a needle via the chaotic motion of a free-mass. It is shown that the dynamic behavior of the devices identified through experimental techniques closely match the behavior calculated through numerical and finite-element analysis methods, demonstrating that they are effective design tools for these devices. Both devices were able to recover trabecular bone from the metaphysis of an ovine femur, and the biopsy samples were found to be comparable to a sample extracted using a conventional biopsy needle. Furthermore, the resonant needle device was also able to extract a cortical bone sample from the central diaphysis, which is the strongest part of the bone, and the biopsy was found to be superior to the sample recovered by a conventional bone biopsy needle.

  15. Control of type III protein secretion using a minimal genetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miryoung; Sukovich, David J; Ciccarelli, Luciano; Mayr, Julia; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; Mirsky, Ethan A; Tucker, Alex C; Gordon, D Benjamin; Marlovits, Thomas C; Voigt, Christopher A

    2017-05-09

    Gram-negative bacteria secrete proteins using a type III secretion system (T3SS), which functions as a needle-like molecular machine. The many proteins involved in T3SS construction are tightly regulated due to its role in pathogenesis and motility. Here, starting with the 35 kb Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), we eliminated internal regulation and simplified the genetics by removing or recoding genes, scrambling gene order and replacing all non-coding DNA with synthetic genetic parts. This process results in a 16 kb cluster that shares no sequence identity, regulation or organizational principles with SPI-1. Building this simplified system led to the discovery of essential roles for an internal start site (SpaO) and small RNA (InvR). Further, it can be controlled using synthetic regulatory circuits, including under SPI-1 repressing conditions. This work reveals an incredible post-transcriptional robustness in T3SS assembly and aids its control as a tool in biotechnology.

  16. Clogging in staked-in needle pre-filled syringes (SIN-PFS): Influence of water vapor transmission through the needle shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bardi, M; Müller, R; Grünzweig, C; Mannes, D; Rigollet, M; Bamberg, F; Jung, T A; Yang, K

    2018-02-12

    Staked-in needle pre-fillable syringes (SIN-PFS) are a convenient delivery system widely established in the growing pharmaceutical market. Under specific storage conditions, the needle of PFS containing high concentration drug product (DP) solution is prone to clogging, which prevents administration of the liquid. The purpose of this study is to clarify the clogging phenomenon of SIN-PFS and to elucidate the role of water vapor transmission via the needle shield. The presence of liquid within needles is a prerequisite condition for clogging and was investigated non-invasively by neutron imaging (NI) to confirm that liquid can migrate into the needle under certain processing conditions. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of different needle shields was measured and the impact of temperature and relative humidity (rH) on the WVTR was investigated on sheets with the same composition as used in commercial needle shields. Our study clearly showed that the partial vapor pressure difference (ΔPP) across the needle shield is the dominant driving factor for water vapor transmission. A linear correlation between ΔPP and WVTR was found and a model to predict the water vapor transmission for PFS under specific storage conditions was developed. The impact of the WVTR on needle clogging was confirmed by clogging tests performed on SIN-PFS stored under different conditions. Thereby, we clearly show that high water loss induced by higher WVTR can be correlated to an increased occurrence of needle clogging. In conclusion, the WVTR of the needle shield plays a key role in needle clogging and the established WVTR model can be employed to assess the clogging risk for product development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.A.; Fung, A.Y.C.; Zaider, M.

    2002-01-01

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results. (author)

  18. NOTE: Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. A.; Fung, A. Y. C.; Zaider, M.

    2002-08-01

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results.

  19. Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.A. [Department of Medical Physics, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States); Fung, A.Y.C.; Zaider, M. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-08-21

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results. (author)

  20. A data-driven soft sensor for needle deflection in heterogeneous tissue using just-in-time modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossa, Carlos; Lehmann, Thomas; Sloboda, Ronald; Usmani, Nawaid; Tavakoli, Mahdi

    2017-08-01

    Global modelling has traditionally been the approach taken to estimate needle deflection in soft tissue. In this paper, we propose a new method based on local data-driven modelling of needle deflection. External measurement of needle-tissue interactions is collected from several insertions in ex vivo tissue to form a cloud of data. Inputs to the system are the needle insertion depth, axial rotations, and the forces and torques measured at the needle base by a force sensor. When a new insertion is performed, the just-in-time learning method estimates the model outputs given the current inputs to the needle-tissue system and the historical database. The query is compared to every observation in the database and is given weights according to some similarity criteria. Only a subset of historical data that is most relevant to the query is selected and a local linear model is fit to the selected points to estimate the query output. The model outputs the 3D deflection of the needle tip and the needle insertion force. The proposed approach is validated in ex vivo multilayered biological tissue in different needle insertion scenarios. Experimental results in five different case studies indicate an accuracy in predicting needle deflection of 0.81 and 1.24 mm in the horizontal and vertical lanes, respectively, and an accuracy of 0.5 N in predicting the needle insertion force over 216 needle insertions.

  1. Foreign Body in the Liver: Sewing Needle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Akturk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion is a frequent clinical problem. Many foreign bodies go through the alimentary system without causing any damage. Incisory and penetrative foreign bodies may migrate and stay in the neighboring organs after perforation. Nevertheless this is an unusual case. The foreign bodies may be found outside of the gastrointestinal system and computed tomography is helpfull for localization and to identify their relationship between surrounding tissues. Here we report of a case in which a swallowed needle perforates duodenum and penetrates the liver.

  2. Comparision of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Fine Needle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Open biopsy of the breast used to be the main traditional method of diagnosis of breast lumps. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was later introduced which depends on suction and thus yields hemorrhagic material for cytological study.This study was undertaken to find out if there is a difference in ...

  3. Penetration force, geometry, and cutting profile of the novel and old Ozurdex needle: the MONO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carsten H; Liu, Zengping; Brinkmann, Christian K; Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Bertelmann, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the geometry, penetration force, and cutting profile of the novel and old needle of the drug delivery system (DDS) for Ozurdex injections in a standardized laboratory setting. In this experimental study, the normative geometrical data of the DDS needle were systematically analyzed according to nomenclature DIN 13097 (ISO 7864) and ISO 9626. The force to penetrate a standardized 0.4-mm-thick polyurethane foil was measured by a penetrometer, when the needle was piercing, cutting, and sliding through the foil and plotted as a load-displacement diagram. Magnified images of the consecutive cut were taken after the entire penetration through the foil. In this experimental study, the mean point length was equal to 3.34 mm (3.28-3.36 mm) for the old DDS needle versus 3.33 mm (3.30-3.36 mm) for the new DDS needle. The secondary bevel length was 1.64 mm (1.42-1.73 mm) for the new and 1.66 mm (1.62-1.69 mm) for the old needle. The primary angle was 9.2° (9.0°-9.5°) for the old and 8.9° (8.5°-9.0°) for the new needle, respectively. The secondary bevel angle was 117.2° (116°-118°) for the old and 111.4° (110°-113°) for the new needle. The mean penetration force of the old DDS needles was significantly higher at all phases of the penetration experiment: The mean piercing force was 0.7 Newton (N) with the old and 0.47 N with the new DDS needle. The mean cutting force was remarkable higher with 1.1 N for the old DDS needle versus 0.78 N for the new DDS needle. The dilatation phase was not statistically significant between 0.94 and 0.99 N in both DDS needles. The friction phase was maintained at significantly higher levels with the old DDS needle of 0.47 N, whereas it returned to the lowest measurements of 0.11 N with the new DDS needle. Both DDS systems induced a characteristic chevron-shaped incision. A comparison of the old and new DDS needles demonstrated a reduced penetration force with the modified new DDS needle, which may help to achieve a smooth

  4. Histological observation for needle-tissue interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Koseki, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    We histologically investigated tissue fractures and deformations caused by ex vivo needle insertions. The tissue was formalin-fixed while the needle remained in the tissue. Following removal of the needle, the tissue was microtomed, stained, and observed microscopically. This method enabled observations of cellular and tissular conditions where deformations caused by needle insertions were approximately preserved. For this study, our novel method presents preliminary findings related with tissue fractures and the orientation of needle blade relative to muscle fibers. When the needle blade was perpendicular to the muscle fiber, transfiber fractures and relatively large longitudinal deformations occurred. When the needle blade was parallel to the muscle fiber, interfiber fractures and relatively small longitudinal deformations occurred. This made a significant difference in the resistance force of the needle insertions.

  5. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various ...

  6. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  7. MAINTENANCE PLANNING OF THE SEWING NEEDLES OF SIMPLE SEWING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius Darius

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of simple sewing machines can be increased through the planning of predictive maintenance activities. The monitoring of the technical condition of the sewing needles of simple sewing machines was based on the measurement of their noise level. For this purpose a Center 322 sonometer was used, while the data obtained during the monitoring process was analyzed through the E322 software. The working speed of the simple sewing machine that was used for obtaining the experimental results varied from 200 stitches/minute to 4000 stitches/minute. The noise levels of a new needle at the working speed of 200 stitches/minute and 4000 stitches/minute were measured. The noise levels for a fault needle at the same working speed of 200 stitches/minute, respectively 4000 stitches/minute were also measured. Using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox ™ module of Matlab®, a decision-making system for determining when replacement of the sewing needles of simple sewing machines should be performed was developed. A case study illustrates the employment of the decision-making system based on fuzzy logic for a simple sewing machine. By replacing the sewing needles of simple sewing machines at the time specified through the decision-making system based on fuzzy logic, the occurrence of the failure can be prevented and the quality of textile products can be improved.

  8. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects...

  9. KINEMATICS FRICTION PAIR FOR EXAMPLE NEEDLE BEARINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy NACHIMOWICZ; Robert KORBUT

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns certain phenomena that take place in the needle roller bearing. The friction that generates the anti-torque of a friction pair is the major factor that influences the needle bearing’s wear. In the needle bearing there occur two predominant types of friction: the rolling friction and the sliding friction, and both are subject to examination. The study presents recordings and analysis of the movements of all needle bearing’s rolling elements. The examination was carri...

  10. Autosizing Control Panel for Needle Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Prof.A.R.Wadhekar,; Ms Jyoti R. Rajput

    2016-01-01

    A needle roller bearing is a bearing which uses small cylindrical rollers. Bearings are used to reduce friction of any rotating surface. Needle bearings have a large surface in contact with the bearing outer surfaces as compared to ball bearings. There is less added clearance(Diameter of the shaft and the diameter of the bearing are different) so they are much compact. The structure consists of a needle cage which contains the needle rollersthemselves and an outer race (The housin...

  11. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Liu

    Full Text Available The "robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy" (RALTCT system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1 multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2 the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3 the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4 an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles' operating environment, and (5 the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot's movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle "collision-free reachable workspace" (CFRW, which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor

  12. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoli; Xia, Zeyang; Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Jing; Ren, He; Lu, Tong; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    The "robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy" (RALTCT) system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1) multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2) the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3) the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4) an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles' operating environment, and (5) the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot's movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle "collision-free reachable workspace" (CFRW), which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy

  13. Modulating fracture properties of mixed protein systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.E.; Laak, I. ter; Linden, E. van der; Venema, P.; Martin, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    To design foods with desired textures it is important to understand structure build-up and breakdown. One can obtain a wide range of structures using mixtures of different structuring ingredients such as for example protein mixtures. Mixed soy protein isolate (SPI)/gelatine gels were analyzed for

  14. Rhizosphaera Needle Disease of Fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Albers; Jana Albers; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Linda Haugen; Nancy Wenner

    1996-01-01

    Rhizosphaera pini is a common plant pathogen in the Lake States, Northeastern States and Canada. A closely related pathogen, Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii, causes a common needle blight on spruce and other conifers. R. pini is often considered to be a weak pathogen, occurring on stressed foliage or foliage killed by other causes. However, it has been observed causing...

  15. Changing the needle for lumbar punctures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engedal, Thorbjørn Søndergaard; Ording, H.; Vilholm, O. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication of diagnostic lumbar punctures. Both a non-cutting needle design and the use of smaller size needles have been shown to greatly reduce the risk of PDPH. Nevertheless, larger cutting needles are still widely used. This study d...

  16. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  17. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS - PART ONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, John S; Halle, Rob J

    2016-08-01

    Dry needling is an evidence-based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This treatment approach focuses on releasing or inactivating muscular trigger points to decrease pain, reduce muscle tension, and assist patients with an accelerated return to active rehabilitation. While commonly used, the technique has some patient risk and value of the treatment should be based on benefit compared to the potential risk. Adverse effects (AEs) with dry needling can be mild or severe, with overall incidence rates varying from zero to rates of approximately 10 percent. While mild AEs are the rule, any procedure that involves a needle insertion has the potential for an AE, with select regions and the underlying anatomy increasing the risk. Known significant AEs from small diameter needle insertion include pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, hematoma, infection, central nervous system injury, and other complications. Underlying anatomy across individuals has variability, requiring an in-depth knowledge of anatomy prior to any needle placement. This commentary is an overview of pertinent anatomy in the region of the thorax, with a 'part two' that addresses the abdomen, pelvis, back, vasovagal response, informed consent and other pertinent issues. The purpose of the commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Dry needling is an effective adjunct treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of physical therapy practice. Physical therapy education and training provides practitioners with the anatomy, basic sciences, and clinical foundation to use this intervention safely and effectively. A safe and evidenced-based implementation of the procedure is based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks coordinated with patients via informed consent. Level 5.

  18. Removal of calcium hydroxide from Weine Type II systems using photon-induced photoacoustic streaming, passive ultrasonic, and needle irrigation: a microcomputed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam LLOYD

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation (PIPS, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI with EndoUltra and standard needle irrigation (SNI in the removal of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] from the mesial roots of Weine Type II mandibular molars. Material and Methods Thirty mandibular molars were screened by µCT for the presence of mesial roots with complex intra-canal anatomy and a common apical foramen. The teeth were enlarged to a standardized 25/.06 preparation and filled with Ca(OH2 paste. Specimens were divided into three groups (n=10 according to the technique used for Ca(OH2 removal: PIPS, at 15 Hz and 20 mJ using a 9 mm long, 600 µm diameter tip; PUI using a 15/.02 tip; and SNI (30 Ga. side-vented needle. Equal volumes of 8.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were used in all groups. µCT was used to measure the initial amount of Ca(OH2 present and to assess the residual volume of Ca(OH2 following each irrigation protocol. Data were analyzed using Tukey HSD and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=5%. Results The mean volume of Ca(OH2 before removal was significantly higher in the coronal third than in the middle and apical third (p0.05. PIPS (median 0%; IQR: 0-0 showed significant higher Ca(OH2 removal in the apical third than PUI (median 100%, IQR: 85-100 and SNI (median 47%; IQR: 16-72 (p<0.001. Conclusions PIPS laser-activation was more effective for the removal of Ca(OH2 from mesial roots of mandibular molars with Weine Type II canal configurations than PUI with EndoUltra and SNI.

  19. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  20. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  1. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  2. Biopsy Needle Localization and Tracking Using ROI-RK Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ROI-RK method is a biopsy needle localization and tracking method. Previous research work has proved that it has a robust performance on different series of simulated 3D US volumes. Unfortunately, in real situations, because of the strong speckle noise of the ultrasound image and the different echogenic properties of the tissues, the real 3D US volumes have more complex background than the simulated images used previously. In this paper, to adapt the ROI-RK method in real 3D US volumes, a line-filter enhancement calculation only in the ROI is added to increase the contrast between the needle and background tissue, decreasing the phenomenon of expansion of the biopsy needle due to reverberation of ultrasound in the needle. To make the ROI-RK method more stable, a self-correction system is also implemented. Real data have been acquired on an ex vivo heart of lamb. The result of the ROI-RK method shows that it is capable to localize and track the biopsy needle in real situations, and it satisfies the demand of real-time application.

  3. Fabrication of Silk Nanofibres with Needle and Roller Electrospinning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnut Sasithorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, silk nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning from silk fibroin in a mixture of formic acid and calcium chloride. A needle and a rotating cylinder were used as fibre generators in the spinning process. The influences of the spinning electrode and spinning parameters (silk concentration and applied voltage on the spinning process, morphology of the obtained fibres, and the production rate of the spinning process were examined. The concentration of the spinning solution influenced the diameter of the silk electrospun fibres, with an increase in the concentration increasing the diameters of the fibres in both spinning systems. The diameters of the electrospun fibres produced by roller electrospinning were greater than those produced by needle electrospinning. Moreover, increasing the concentration of the silk solution and the applied voltage in the spinning process improved the production rate in roller electrospinning but had less influence on the production rate in needle electrospinning.

  4. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. 29 gauge needles improve patient satisfaction over 27 gauge needles for daily glatiramer acetate injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Glenski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Glenski, Jill ConnerMedical Affairs – Teva Neuroscience, Kansas City, MO, USAAbstract: Using three surveys, a comparative assessment of needle performance and patient preference for 27-gauge (G and 29G needles for glatiramer acetate administration for multiple sclerosis therapy was performed. Eligible patients participated in a specialty pharmacy program and administered glatiramer acetate for ≥1 month. In Survey 1 on the 27G needle, 545 (82.70% patients reported no needle problems, 106 (16.09% cited one type (dull, bent, or broken, five (0.76% cited two types, and three (0.46% cited all three types. In Survey 2 on the 29G needle, 553 (98.05% indicated no problems, two (0.35% cited dull needles, and nine (1.60% cited bent needles. On the 29G needles versus 27G needles pain comparison, 219 (38.83% reported the 29G needle was a little better, and 155 (27.48% reported it was a lot better than the 27G. For injection-site experiences, 515 patients (91.31% reported no, very slight, or mild reactions with the 29G needle. In Survey 3, over 76% of patients preferred the 29G to the 27G needle and significantly fewer patients reported one or more problems with the 29G needle compared to patients reporting problems with the 27G needle (P < 0.00001. In conclusion, significantly fewer patients reported problems after 30 days of use of the 29G than the 27G needle. Fewer injectionsite experiences occurred with the 29G needle and the 29G needle was preferred overall.Keywords: 29 gauge needle, subcutaneous injection, glatiramer acetate

  6. Alkylation damage by lipid electrophiles targets functional protein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G; Ullery, Jody C; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Beavers, William N; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-03-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions.

  7. Alkylation Damage by Lipid Electrophiles Targets Functional Protein Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G.; Ullery, Jody C.; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A.; Beavers, William N.; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions. PMID:24429493

  8. Emerging Roles of Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins in the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druey, Kirk M

    2017-01-01

    The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a large, evolutionarily conserved group of intracellular proteins expressed in every cell type and tissue throughout the body including the immune system. Through their signature GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity on heterotrimeric G proteins and interactions with signaling complexes and membrane constituents (e.g., lipids), RGS proteins determine the intensity and duration of G protein-coupled receptor-induced responses. They may also have a function in generating intracellular signaling gradients necessary for the directional migration of leukocytes to inflamed tissues containing local accumulations of chemoattractants. Although physiological functions of most RGS proteins in leukocytes and lymphoid organs are largely unknown, it appears thus far that deficiency of individual RGS proteins in mice does not affect homeostatic immune responses in the absence of immunogenic challenge and/or microbial infection. Although aberrant expression of some RGS proteins has been linked to dysregulated immunity and/or neoplasia in humans, there are no human diseases attributed to specific RGS dysfunction. Here, we highlight mostly published work describing expression and functions of the core group of RGS proteins that were among the first discovered, in both innate and adaptive immune processes, with particular emphasis on cell trafficking. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial protein quality control systems in aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Karin; Weil, Andrea C; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2010-01-01

    Preserving the integrity of proteins, biomolecules prone to molecular damage, is a fundamental function of all biological systems. Impairments in protein quality control (PQC) may lead to degenerative processes, such as aging and various disorders and diseases. Fortunately, cells contain a hierarchical system of pathways coping protein damage. Specific molecular pathways detect misfolded proteins and act either to unfold or degrade them. Degradation of proteins generates peptides and amino acids that can be used for remodelling of impaired pathways and cellular functions. At increased levels of cellular damage whole organelles can be removed via autophagy, a process that depends on the activity oflysosomes. In addition, cells may undergo apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, which in single-cellular and lower multicellular organisms can lead to death of the individual. Molecular damage of cellular compartments is mainly caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS is generated via different cellular pathways and frequently arises in the mitochondrial electron transport chain as a by-product of oxygenic energy transduction. Consequently, mitochondrial proteins are under high risk to become damaged. Perhaps for this reason mitochondria contain a very efficient PQC system that keeps mitochondrial proteins functional as long as damage does not reach a certain threshold and the components of this system themselves are not excessively damaged. The mitochondrial PQC system consists of chaperones that counteract protein aggregation through binding and refolding misfolded polypeptides and of membrane-bound and soluble ATP-dependent proteases that are involved in degradation of damaged proteins. During aging and in neurodegenerative diseases components of this PQC system, including Lon protease present in the mitochondrial matrix, become functionally impaired. In this chapter we summarise the current knowledge of cellular quality control systems with special emphasis

  10. Development of a prediction system for tail-anchored proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Shunsuke; Cao, Wei; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-09-15

    "Tail-anchored (TA) proteins" is a collective term for transmembrane proteins with a C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) and without an N-terminal signal sequence. TA proteins account for approximately 3-5 % of all transmembrane proteins that mediate membrane fusion, regulation of apoptosis, and vesicular transport. The combined use of TMD and signal sequence prediction tools is typically required to predict TA proteins. Here we developed a prediction system named TAPPM that predicted TA proteins solely from target amino acid sequences according to the knowledge of the sequence features of TMDs and the peripheral regions of TA proteins. Manually curated TA proteins were collected from published literature. We constructed hidden markov models of TA proteins as well as three different types of transmembrane proteins with similar structures and compared their likelihoods as TA proteins. Using the HMM models, we achieved high prediction accuracy; area under the receiver operator curve values reaching 0.963. A command line tool written in Python is available at https://github.com/davecao/tappm_cli .

  11. Initial experience with new dedicated needles for laparoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and histological biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M B; Durup, J; Pless, T

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) is an important imaging modality during laparoscopic staging of intra-abdominal malignancies, but LUS-assisted biopsy is often difficult or impossible. We report a newly developed inbuilt biopsy system for direct LUS-guided fine-needle...

  12. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  13. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  14. Protein buffering in model systems and in whole human saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamanda

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting saliva. It was further demonstrated that changes in the protein concentration as small as 0.1% may change the buffer value of a buffer solution up to 15 times. Additionally, it was shown that there was a protein concentration change in the same range (0.16% between saliva samples collected at the time periods of 13:00 and others collected at 9:00 am and 17:00. The mode of the protein expression changed between these samples corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the change of the buffer value at pH 6.7. Finally, SDS Page and Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate staining unveiled a constant protein expression in all samples except for one 50 kDa protein band. As the change in the expression pattern of that 50 kDa protein band corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the buffer value at pH 6.7, it was reasonable to conclude that this 50 kDa protein band may contain the protein(s belonging to the protein buffer system of human saliva.

  15. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data.

  16. [Comparison of port needle with safety device between Huber Plus (HP) and Poly PERF Safe (PPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Chigusa; Tanaka, Atsuko; Fujita, Ai; Ishimoto, Miki; Oura, Shoji; Yamaue, Hiroki; Sato, Morio

    2010-05-01

    An embedded port is frequently used for outpatients with advanced cancer in central venous chemotherapy or hepatic arterial chemoinfusion. The port needle with a safety device in an ambulatory treatment center is indispensable for medical employees and patient plus family to reduce the risk of a needle puncture accident and to prevent iatrogenic infection. The port needle with safety system has been already introduced in our chemotherapy center. There are two types of port needle with safety device; Huber Plus (HP, Medicon Co., Ltd.) and POLY PERF Safe (PPS, Pyolax Device, Co., Ltd.). The comparison of the feasibility between HP and PPS was conducted by both medical employees and patients plus family using an inquiry score method. HP was highly regarded for its stability plus fixation and PPS for its usefulness in puncture and extraction of the needle. PPS was found to be preferable to HP based on the overall evaluation.

  17. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hye Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected.

  18. Processing and Characterization of Needled Carbon Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    are found in the literature of needled/felted carbon-carbon (C/C) composites for high temperature applications such as ablative aerospace heat shields...carbon fibers themselves. Reductions in tensile strength of up to 25% for stitched carbon/ epoxy composites have been reported, as have drops in elastic...laminate plane. Previous work with needled glass/ epoxy composites has shown a 270% improvement in Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness when needled

  19. Acid-induced assembly of a reconstituted silk protein system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, A. Pasha; Weigandt, Katie M.; Blair, Daniel L.

    2017-08-01

    Silk cocoons are reconstituted into an aqueous suspension, and protein stability is investigated by comparing the protein's response to hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride. Aggregation occurs for systems mixed with hydrochloric acid, while sodium chloride over the same range of concentrations does not cause aggregation. We measure the structures present on the protein and aggregate length scales in these solutions using both optical and small-angle neutron scattering, while mass spectrometry techniques shed light on a possible mechanism for aggregate formation. We find that the introduction of acid modulates the aggregate size and pervaded volume of the protein, an effect that is not observed with salt.

  20. Migration of innumerable chronically retained acupuncture needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Lazarow, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 50-year-old female with a 2-day history of back and abdominal pain who was discovered to have innumerable chronically retained acupuncture needles, which had migrated throughout her abdomen and pelvis. Although many of these needles were in precarious positions, including the epidural space, renal parenchyma, small bowel, and vasculature, there was no evidence for acute injury. We also briefly discuss evidence for the magnetic resonance imaging compatibility of acupuncture needles. Although a rare complication, given the high frequency of acupuncture therapy in the United States, physicians must be aware of the potential for retained and migrated needles.

  1. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking.......To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  2. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellmer, Troy; Bratko, Dusan; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey

    2005-06-20

    Computational studies of proteins have significantly improved our understanding of protein folding. These studies are normally carried out using chains in isolation. However, in many systems of practical interest, proteins fold in the presence of other molecules. To obtain insight into folding in such situations, we compare the thermodynamics of folding for a Miyazawa-Jernigan model 64-mer in isolation to results obtained in the presence of additional chains. The melting temperature falls as the chain concentration increases. In multi-chain systems, free-energy landscapes for folding show an increased preference for misfolded states. Misfolding is accompanied by an increase in inter-protein interactions; however, near the folding temperature, the transition from folded chains to misfolded and associated chains isentropically driven. A majority of the most probable inter-protein contacts are also native contacts, suggesting that native topology plays a role in early stages of aggregation.

  4. Recombinant tagging system using ribosomal frameshifting to monitor protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Se Jong; Cho, Sayeon; Lowehhaupt, Ky; Park, So-Young; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Yang-Gyun

    2013-03-01

    For rapid and accurate quantitation of recombinant proteins during expression and after purification, we introduce a new tagging strategy that expresses both target proteins and limitedly tagged target proteins together in a single cell at a constant ratio by utilizing cis-elements of programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1RFS) as an embedded device. -1RFS is an alternative reading mechanism that effectively controls protein expression by many viruses. When a target gene is fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene with a -1RFS element implanted between them, the unfused target and the target-GFP fusion proteins are expressed at a fixed ratio. The expression ratio between these two protein products is adjustable simply by changing -1RFS signals. This limited-tagging system would be valuable for the real-time monitoring of protein expression when optimizing expression condition for a new protein, and in monitoring large-scale bioprocesses without a large metabolic burden on host cells. Furthermore, this strategy allows for the direct measurement of the quantity of a protein on a chip surface and easy application to proteomewide study of gene products. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Real-time tracking of liver motion and deformation using a flexible needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Moeslein, Fred; Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A real-time 3D image guidance system is needed to facilitate treatment of liver masses using radiofrequency ablation, for example. This study investigates the feasibility and accuracy of using an electromagnetically tracked flexible needle inserted into the liver to track liver motion and deformation. Methods This proof-of-principle study was conducted both ex vivo and in vivo with a CT scanner taking the place of an electromagnetic tracking system as the spatial tracker. Deformations of excised livers were artificially created by altering the shape of the stage on which the excised livers rested. Free breathing or controlled ventilation created deformations of live swine livers. The positions of the needle and test targets were determined through CT scans. The shape of the needle was reconstructed using data simulating multiple embedded electromagnetic sensors. Displacement of liver tissues in the vicinity of the needle was derived from the change in the reconstructed shape of the needle. Results The needle shape was successfully reconstructed with tracking information of two on-needle points. Within 30 mm of the needle, the registration error of implanted test targets was 2.4 ± 1.0 mm ex vivo and 2.8 ± 1.5 mm in vivo. Conclusion A practical approach was developed to measure the motion and deformation of the liver in real time within a region of interest. The approach relies on redesigning the often-used seeker needle to include embedded electromagnetic tracking sensors. With the nonrigid motion and deformation information of the tracked needle, a single- or multimodality 3D image of the intraprocedural liver, now clinically obtained with some delay, can be updated continuously to monitor intraprocedural changes in hepatic anatomy. This capability may be useful in radiofrequency ablation and other percutaneous ablative procedures. PMID:20700662

  6. How needless are Buffon's needles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babović, Miloš; Babović, Vukota

    2013-01-01

    The study of statistical physics requires introductory preparation regarding probability theory. Understanding its fundamental concepts (randomness, distributions, fluctuations), and some experience in application of the basic concepts of statistics can be obtained in several ways. We found that the basic training in probability and statistics needed for physics and engineering study can be achieved by focusing on Buffon's needle problem. We believe this approach could help university specialists make study more efficient when probability and statistics play an important role. Buffon's experiment, with its convincing simplicity and flexibility, as well as its attractiveness, is in our opinion a useful tool in physics education at university level. (paper)

  7. Accuracy of 3-D needle navigation in interstitial brachytherapy in various body regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassmann, G.; Engelhart, R.C. [Department of Radio-Oncology, University of Marburg (Germany); Heyd, R. [Department of Radio-Oncology and Phisical Medicine, Klinikum Offenbach (DE)] [and others

    2002-11-01

    Background: Precise immobilisation of a patient during extracranial stereotactic 3-D navigation is essential in order to minimize the patient's movement during CT data recording and needle application. In this paper we report the first results of needle positioning accuracy in various body regions, using a 3-D navigation system for brachytherapy and a new patient immobilisation system. Patients and Methods: Six patients with different manifestations of neoplastic diseases were immobilized by a special vacuum system and treated with stereotactic 3-D navigational interstitial brachytherapy. Results: The comparison of the simulated stereotactic needle positions with the actual needle positions resulted in a mean positioning deviation varying from 3.4 to 6.5 mm for 29 needles. The maximum positioning deviation lay between 5.7 and 13 mm. Conclusion: The results of our study show that, despite effective patient immobilisation, an increase in needle positioning accuracy is limited by the method of stereotactic 3-D navigation. Effects such as modification of body shape caused by the needle application, morphologic alterations, and inherent inaccuracies within the navigation system have an important influence upon accuracy, which it is not yet possible to calculate. (orig.)

  8. Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

  9. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

    2008-02-01

    AIM: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. LOCATION: Western North America. METHODS: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. RESULTS: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  10. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  11. Development of a high frequency single-element ultrasound needle transducer for anesthesia delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; Son, Jungik; Liang, Jingwei; Foster, F. Stuart; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Peters, Terry M.

    2017-03-01

    Epidural anesthesia is one of the most commonly used and yet challenging techniques employed for pain management and anesthesia delivery. The major complications of this procedure are due to accidental dural puncture, with an incidence of 1-3%, which could lead to both temporary and irreversible permanent neurological complications. Needle placement under ultrasound (US) guidance has received increasing interest for improving needle placement accuracy. However, poor needle visibility in US, difficulties in displaying relevant anatomical structure such as dura mater due to attenuation and bone shadowing, and image interpretation variability among users pose significant hurdles for any US guidance system. As a result, US guidance for epidural injections has not been widely adopted for everyday use for the performance of neuraxial blocks. The difficulties in localizing the ligamentum flavum and dura with respect to the needle tip can be addressed by integrating A-mode US, provided by a single-element transducer at the needle tip, into the B-mode US guidance system. We have taken the first steps towards providing such a guidance system. Our goal is to improve the safety of this procedure with minimal changes to the clinical workflow. This work presents the design and development of a 20 MHz single-element US transducer housed at the tip of a 19 G needle hypodermic tube, which can fit inside an epidural introducer needle. In addition, the results from initial transducer characterization tests and performance evaluation of the transducer in a euthanized porcine model are provided.

  12. On the food quality of spruce needles for forest damaging insects. Pt. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopf, R.

    1979-01-01

    Twigs of Picea abies with 1-3 year old needles were radioactively labeled by photosynthesis two hours long in atmosphere of 14 CO 2 . The 14 C-activity of the components investigates remains nearly constant between the 6th and 23rd hour after the pulse. During this period the labeled needles were fed to 20 days old larve of Gilpinia hercyaniae. The 14 C-distribution of soluble neutral and acidic compounds, hydrolyzable neutral and acidic compounds, lipids, amino acids, and proteins in needles, bodies of the larve without guts, and faeces was investigated. In addition to the total intake of soluble needle sugars by the larvae there are indications of a limited digestive decomposition of starch. The carbohydrates absorbed are mainly directed to the synthesis of one fraction of the larvae lipids. As to the molar composition in the larvae the protein bound amino acids serine, alanine, glycine, and glutamic acid were found in greater quantities than in the needles. Their carbon back-bone is partially synthesized from the absorbed needle sugars. For these transaminations proline, aspartic acid, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and lysine seem to be possible amino donors. The remaining α-keto acids were considered to be involved in the fuel supply of the larvae. (orig.) [de

  13. Quantification of Protein Hydration, Glass Transitions, and Structural Relaxations of Aqueous Protein and Carbohydrate-Protein Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Yrjö H; Potes, Naritchaya

    2015-06-11

    Water distribution and miscibility of carbohydrate and protein components in biological materials and their structural contributions in concentrated solids are poorly understood. In the present study, structural relaxations and a glass transition of protein hydration water and antiplasticization of the hydration water at low temperatures were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for bovine whey protein (BWP), aqueous glucose-fructose (GF), and their mixture. Thermal transitions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin components of BWP included water-content-dependent endothermic but reversible dehydration and denaturation, and exothermic and irreversible aggregation. An α-relaxation assigned to hydration water in BWP appeared at water-content-dependent temperatures and increased to over the range of 150-200 K at decreasing water content and in the presence of GF. Two separate glass transitions and individual fractions of unfrozen water of ternary GF-BWP-water systems contributed to uncoupled α-relaxations, suggesting different roles of protein hydration water and carbohydrate vitrification in concentrated solids during freezing and dehydration. Hydration water in the BWP fraction of GF-BWP systems was derived from equilibrium water sorption and glass transition data of the GF fraction, which gave a significant universal method to quantify (i) protein hydration water and (ii) the unfrozen water in protein-carbohydrate systems for such applications as cryopreservation, freezing, lyophilization, and dehydration of biological materials. A ternary supplemented phase diagram (state diagram) established for the GF-BWP-water system can be used for the analysis of the water distribution across carbohydrate and protein components in such applications.

  14. Binary polypeptide system for permanent and oriented protein immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailes Julian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques in molecular biology, clinical diagnostics and biotechnology rely on binary affinity tags. The existing tags are based on either small molecules (e.g., biotin/streptavidin or glutathione/GST or peptide tags (FLAG, Myc, HA, Strep-tag and His-tag. Among these, the biotin-streptavidin system is most popular due to the nearly irreversible interaction of biotin with the tetrameric protein, streptavidin. The major drawback of the stable biotin-streptavidin system, however, is that neither of the two tags can be added to a protein of interest via recombinant means (except for the Strep-tag case leading to the requirement for chemical coupling. Results Here we report a new immobilization system which utilizes two monomeric polypeptides which self-assemble to produce non-covalent yet nearly irreversible complex which is stable in strong detergents, chaotropic agents, as well as in acids and alkali. Our system is based on the core region of the tetra-helical bundle known as the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex. This irreversible protein attachment system (IPAS uses either a shortened syntaxin helix and fused SNAP25-synaptobrevin or a fused syntaxin-synaptobrevin and SNAP25 allowing a two-component system suitable for recombinant protein tagging, capture and immobilization. We also show that IPAS is suitable for use with traditional beads and chromatography, planar surfaces and Biacore, gold nanoparticles and for protein-protein interaction in solution. Conclusions IPAS offers an alternative to chemical cross-linking, streptavidin-biotin system and to traditional peptide affinity tags and can be used for a wide range of applications in nanotechnology and molecular sciences.

  15. Binary polypeptide system for permanent and oriented protein immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Enrico; Darios, Frédéric; Zhang, Fan; Niranjan, Dhevahi; Bailes, Julian; Soloviev, Mikhail; Davletov, Bazbek

    2010-05-12

    Many techniques in molecular biology, clinical diagnostics and biotechnology rely on binary affinity tags. The existing tags are based on either small molecules (e.g., biotin/streptavidin or glutathione/GST) or peptide tags (FLAG, Myc, HA, Strep-tag and His-tag). Among these, the biotin-streptavidin system is most popular due to the nearly irreversible interaction of biotin with the tetrameric protein, streptavidin. The major drawback of the stable biotin-streptavidin system, however, is that neither of the two tags can be added to a protein of interest via recombinant means (except for the Strep-tag case) leading to the requirement for chemical coupling. Here we report a new immobilization system which utilizes two monomeric polypeptides which self-assemble to produce non-covalent yet nearly irreversible complex which is stable in strong detergents, chaotropic agents, as well as in acids and alkali. Our system is based on the core region of the tetra-helical bundle known as the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex. This irreversible protein attachment system (IPAS) uses either a shortened syntaxin helix and fused SNAP25-synaptobrevin or a fused syntaxin-synaptobrevin and SNAP25 allowing a two-component system suitable for recombinant protein tagging, capture and immobilization. We also show that IPAS is suitable for use with traditional beads and chromatography, planar surfaces and Biacore, gold nanoparticles and for protein-protein interaction in solution. IPAS offers an alternative to chemical cross-linking, streptavidin-biotin system and to traditional peptide affinity tags and can be used for a wide range of applications in nanotechnology and molecular sciences.

  16. Targeting endogenous proteins for degradation through the affinity-directed protein missile system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Luke J; Hutchinson, Luke D; Macartney, Thomas J; Turnbull, Craig; Sapkota, Gopal P

    2017-05-01

    Targeted proteolysis of endogenous proteins is desirable as a research toolkit and in therapeutics. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts are irreversible and often not feasible for many genes. Similarly, RNA interference approaches necessitate prolonged treatments, can lead to incomplete knockdowns and are often associated with off-target effects. Targeted proteolysis can overcome these limitations. In this report, we describe an affinity-directed protein missile (AdPROM) system that harbours the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein, the substrate receptor of the Cullin2 (CUL2) E3 ligase complex, tethered to polypeptide binders that selectively bind and recruit endogenous target proteins to the CUL2-E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. By using synthetic monobodies that selectively bind the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and a camelid-derived VHH nanobody that selectively binds the human ASC protein, we demonstrate highly efficient AdPROM-mediated degradation of endogenous SHP2 and ASC in human cell lines. We show that AdPROM-mediated loss of SHP2 in cells impacts SHP2 biology. This study demonstrates for the first time that small polypeptide binders that selectively recognize endogenous target proteins can be exploited for AdPROM-mediated destruction of the target proteins. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  18. Sugar export limits size of conifer needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademaker, Hanna; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Bohr, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    produced near the tip of long needles cannot be exported efficiently, because the pressure required to drive vascular flow would exceed the greatest available pressure (the osmotic pressure). This basic constraint leads to the formation of an inactive region of stagnant fluid near the needle tip, which...

  19. An Antibiotic Selection System For Protein Overproducing Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Protein overproduction is a major bottleneck for analyses of membrane proteins and for the construction of cell factories. Screening for optimized protein production can be very time consuming. In this study we show that the coupling of antibiotic resistance to poorly produced...... membrane proteins of Escherichia coli can be used as a fast and simple selection system for protein overproduction.Methods: We designed an expression plasmid encoding the gene of interest and an additional, inducible antibiotic resistance marker. Both genes were linked by a hairpin structure...... that translationally couples the genes. Consequently, high expressing gene variants also allow for higher production of the coupled antibiotic resistance marker. Therefore, high expressing gene variants in a library can be determined either by plating the expression library on selection plates or by growing...

  20. [The role of protein glycosylation in immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ząbczyńska, Marta; Pocheć, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most frequent post-translational modifications of proteins. The majority of cell surface and secreted proteins involved in immune response is glycosylated. The structural diversity of glycans depends on monosaccharide composition, type of glycosidic linkage and branching. These structural modifications determine a great variability of glycoproteins. The oligosaccharide components of proteins are regulated mostly by expression of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases and many environmental factors. Glycosylation influences the function of all immune cells. Glycans play a crucial role in intercellular contacts and leukocytes migration. These interactions are important in activation and proliferation of leukocytes and during immune response. The key immune proteins, such as TCR, MHC, TLR and antibodies are glycosylated. Sugars on the surface of pathogens and self-surface glycoproteins are recognized by special carbohydrate binding proteins called lectins. Changes of glycan structure are common in many pathological processes occurring in immune system, therefore they are used as molecular markers of different diseases.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of protein-bound...

  2. Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Y. K. Loyeung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site.

  3. Optimising oral systems for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suitable oral delivery system should retain the drug and maintain its integrity until it gets to the region of maximum absorption where the protein/peptide is released. It would be advantageous for such a delivery system to be capable of attaching itself to the absorptive cells in that region during the course of drug release by ...

  4. KINEMATICS FRICTION PAIR FOR EXAMPLE NEEDLE BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy NACHIMOWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns certain phenomena that take place in the needle roller bearing. The friction that generates the anti-torque of a friction pair is the major factor that influences the needle bearing’s wear. In the needle bearing there occur two predominant types of friction: the rolling friction and the sliding friction, and both are subject to examination. The study presents recordings and analysis of the movements of all needle bearing’s rolling elements. The examination was carried out on a special examination stand that precisely emulates the real conditions of the needle bearing’s work. Carefully prepared examination methods enable recording and analyzing frictions in the bearing, estimating a sphere within which the load is shifted, and calculating the coefficient of friction.

  5. Smart surgical needle actuated by shape memory alloys for percutaneous procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konh, Bardia

    . Design parameters influencing the steerability include the needle's diameter, wire diameter, pre-strain, and its offset from the needle. A simplified model was developed to decrease the computation time in iterative analyses of the optimization algorithm. In the fourth part of this work a design of an active needling system was proposed where actuation forces of SMAs as well as shape memory polymers (SMPs) were incorporated. SMP elements provide two major additional advantages to the design: (i) recovery of the SMP's plastic deformation by heating the element above its glass transition temperature, and (ii) achieving a higher needle deflection by having a softer stage of SMP at higher temperatures with less amount of actuation force. Finally, in the fifth and last part of this study, an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation in LS-DYNA software was used to model the solid-fluid interactions between the needle and tissue. A 150mm long needle was considered to bend within the tissue due to the interacting forces on its asymmetric bevel tip. Some additional assumptions were made to maintain a reasonable computational time, with no need of parallel processing, while having practical accuracies. Three experimental tests of needle steering in a soft phantom were performed to validate the simulation. Results: The finite element model of the active needle was first validated experimentally with developed prototypes. Several design parameters affecting the needle's deflection such as the needle's Young's modulus, the SMA's pre-strain and its offset from the neutral axis of the cannula were studied using the FE model. Then by the integration of the SMA characteristics with the automated optimization schemes an improved design of the active needle was obtained. Real-time experiments with different prototypes showed that the quickest response and the maximum deflection were achieved by the needle with two sections of actuation compared to a single section of actuation. Also the

  6. Preparation and examination of monolithic in-needle extraction (MINE) device for the direct analysis of liquid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzyńska, Monika, E-mail: monikapietrzynska@gmail.com; Voelkel, Adam; Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-05-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •MINE device for isolation of analytes from water samples. •Nine polymer poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monoliths prepared in stainless steel needles. •High efficiency of in-needle extraction systems based on monolithic materials. •New possibilities in sample preparation area. -- Abstract: Combination of extraction and chromatographic techniques opens NEW possibilities in sample preparation area. Macroporous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) monoliths were prepared by in situ polymerization in stainless steel needles. The surface of stainless steel needle was modified earlier by the silane coupling agent. Monolithic materials located inside needles were used as the in-needle extraction device. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were obtained for nine monoliths. Spectra of prepared materials were also performed with the use of two techniques: Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The new monolithic in-needle extraction (MINE) devices were used in the preparation of a series of test water samples for chromatographic analysis. The extraction of phenolic compounds from water samples was carried out by pumping liquid samples through the MINE device. Obtained results indicate a high efficiency of in-needle extraction systems based on monolithic materials. Breakthrough volume and the sorption efficiency of prepared monolithic in-needle extraction devices were determined experimentally. The achieved recovery was close to 90%, and determined LOQ values varied between 0.4 and 6 μg.

  7. Preparation and examination of monolithic in-needle extraction (MINE) device for the direct analysis of liquid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyńska, Monika; Voelkel, Adam; Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •MINE device for isolation of analytes from water samples. •Nine polymer poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monoliths prepared in stainless steel needles. •High efficiency of in-needle extraction systems based on monolithic materials. •New possibilities in sample preparation area. -- Abstract: Combination of extraction and chromatographic techniques opens NEW possibilities in sample preparation area. Macroporous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) monoliths were prepared by in situ polymerization in stainless steel needles. The surface of stainless steel needle was modified earlier by the silane coupling agent. Monolithic materials located inside needles were used as the in-needle extraction device. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were obtained for nine monoliths. Spectra of prepared materials were also performed with the use of two techniques: Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The new monolithic in-needle extraction (MINE) devices were used in the preparation of a series of test water samples for chromatographic analysis. The extraction of phenolic compounds from water samples was carried out by pumping liquid samples through the MINE device. Obtained results indicate a high efficiency of in-needle extraction systems based on monolithic materials. Breakthrough volume and the sorption efficiency of prepared monolithic in-needle extraction devices were determined experimentally. The achieved recovery was close to 90%, and determined LOQ values varied between 0.4 and 6 μg

  8. Protein S-sulfhydration by hydrogen sulfide in cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guoliang; Zhao, Shuang; Xie, Liping; Han, Yi; Ji, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), independently of any specific transporters, has a number of biological effects on the cardiovascular system. However, until now, the detailed mechanism of H 2 S was not clear. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H 2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is the chemical modification of specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H 2 S. There are several methods for detecting S-sulfhydration, such as the modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry. H 2 S induces S-sulfhydration on enzymes or receptors (such as p66Shc, phospholamban, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and ATP synthase subunit α), transcription factors (such as specific protein-1, kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1, NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor-1), and ion channels (such as voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels, transient receptor potential channels and ATP-sensitive K + channels) in the cardiovascular system. Although significant progress has been achieved in delineating the role of protein S-sulfhydration by H 2 S in the cardiovascular system, more proteins with detailed cysteine sites of S-sulfhydration as well as physiological function need to be investigated in further studies. This review mainly summarizes the role and possible mechanism of S-sulfhydration in the cardiovascular system. The S-sulfhydrated proteins may be potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention and drug design in the cardiovascular system, which may accelerate the development and application of H 2 S-related drugs in the future. This article is part of a themed section on Spotlight on Small Molecules in Cardiovascular Diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.8/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Protein design in systems metabolic engineering for industrial strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Accelerating the process of industrial bacterial host strain development, aimed at increasing productivity, generating new bio-products or utilizing alternative feedstocks, requires the integration of complementary approaches to manipulate cellular metabolism and regulatory networks. Systems metabolic engineering extends the concept of classical metabolic engineering to the systems level by incorporating the techniques used in systems biology and synthetic biology, and offers a framework for the development of the next generation of industrial strains. As one of the most useful tools of systems metabolic engineering, protein design allows us to design and optimize cellular metabolism at a molecular level. Here, we review the current strategies of protein design for engineering cellular synthetic pathways, metabolic control systems and signaling pathways, and highlight the challenges of this subfield within the context of systems metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inspection and recognition of missed needle roller bearings based on image

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Wu, Wenjun; Wu, Qinghua; Li, Wei; Xia, Mingan; Chen, Li

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a missed needle rollers inspecting device and a missed needle rollers recognizing algorithm, which are based on mechanical vision technology, are introduced. The cores of this system are image acquisition devices and image processing. The image acquisition system is composed of a CCD, lens, low angle light resource, image acquisition card, and mechanical position. The image processing procedure includes conditioning module, image partition module, image searching module and the number of needle rollers recognizing module. According to the results of dynamic and static testing, a method synthesizing the static and dynamic image acquisition is selected. Meanwhile, the specific parameters of image acquisition and steps of image processing are established. The machine vision technology is used to find the missed needle rollers, the speed of inspecting is promoted, and an automatically, non-touched and online inspecting system is realized.

  11. Effect of Needle Size in Ultrasound-guided Core Needle Breast Biopsy: Comparison of 14-, 16-, and 18-Gauge Needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Michela; Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Rella, Rossella; Fabrizi, Gina; Petta, Federica; Carlino, Giorgio; Di Leone, Alba; Mulè, Antonino; Bufi, Enida; Romani, Maurizio; Belli, Paolo; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) of breast lesions, comparing smaller needles (16- and 18-gauge) with the 14-gauge needle, and to analyze the lesion characteristics influencing US-CNB diagnostic performance. All the patients provided informed consent before the biopsy procedure. The data from breast lesions that had undergone US-CNB in our institution from January 2011 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criterion was the surgical histopathologic examination findings of the entire lesion or radiologic follow-up data for ≥ 24 months. The exclusion criterion was the use of preoperative neoadjuvant therapy. The US-CNB results were compared with the surgical pathologic results or with the follow-up findings in the 3 needle size groups (14-, 16-, and 18-gauge). The needle size- and lesion characteristic-specific diagnostic accuracy parameters were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using a dedicated software program, and P ≤ .01 was considered significant. A total of 1118 US-CNB cases (1042 patients) were included. Of the 1118 cases, 630 (56.3%) were in the 14-gauge group, 136 (12.2%) in the 16-gauge, and 352 (31.5%) in the 18-gauge needle group. Surgery was performed on 800 lesions (71.6%). Of these, 619 were malignant, 77 were high risk, and 104 were benign. The remaining 318 lesions (28.4%) underwent follow-up imaging studies. All the lesions were stable and, therefore, were considered benign. No differences were observed in the diagnostic accuracy parameters among the 3 needle size groups (P > .01). The false-negative rate was greater for lesions gauges (P > .01). US-CNB performed with small needles (16 and 18 gauge) had the same diagnostic accuracy as that performed with 14-gauge needles, regardless of the lesion characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Migration of a sewing needle foreign body into the brainstem of a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Emily J; Gannon, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A 1-year-old, female spayed domestic shorthair cat with a 6 week history of upper respiratory signs and a progressive reluctance to move, which culminated in a right-sided hemiparesis, was found to have a sewing needle foreign body lodged in the brainstem. Surgical extraction of the needle was successful and the cat's neurological deficits resolved over the days to weeks following its removal. This case report describes, to our knowledge, the first reported incidence and management of an ingested sewing needle migrating into the central nervous system of a cat.

  13. Sewing machine needle retrieval from distal airways using flexible bronchoscope under fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Talha; Shafiq, Adnan; Hafeez, Abdul; Saqib, Muhammad; Farooq, Sidrah

    2016-01-01

    18-year-old lady was admitted through emergency department after she accidently aspirated a long sewing machine needle into her airways. Upon examination, she was anxious with normal vital signs and without any respiratory distress with SpO 2 of 98% on air. Systemic examination was normal except slightly reduced breath sounds intensity on right lower side of chest. Her chest radiograph revealed needle in right lower lobe but it was not visualized on bronchoscopic examination of airways up to sub segmental level. Using flexible bronchoscope under fluoroscope guidance, needle was retrieved successfully from posterior basal sub segment of right lower lobe utilizing alligator biopsy forceps, without any noticeable complication.

  14. Protein labelling with avidin-biotin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez B, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of connection in avidin-biotin system is very important due to the quadruple connections with avidin established with the same number of biotin molecules, which can amplify damage on cancer cells and increase specific activity of radio immuno conjugate in white cell. If between the first and second step (Ac Mo-biotin + avidin) enough time is left so that the monoclonal antibody accumulates in a therapeutic concentration required for the tumor or cancerous cells, then upon application of the third step (biotin-DTPA- 153 Sm) it is hoped that in the first 30 minutes after application, only radioactivity remains with tumor. However, so that the amount radioactivity is enough to destroy a tumor, it would be necessary to use 153 Sm with an activity of approximately 370 GBq (10 Ci)/ (mg). Since 99m Tc has similar chemistry to that of the 188 Re, it is possible to propose their conjugates with biotin-avidin-Ac Mo- 188 Re as a powerful option for therapeutic applications, this is, recommending the use of biotinylated labelled monoclonal antibody and the further injection of avidin to decrease of desirable effects on several other organs and bone marrow and high specific and selective action on tumor. On the other hand, we postulate the hypothesis in the sense that 188 Re complexes tend to be more stable than those of 99m Tc, probably due to their metabolism, in which radioactivity of 188 Re, not captured by tumor, is cleared easily from blood stream which results in a decrease of total and liver total dose in patient. (Author)

  15. Occurrence and knowledge about needle stick injury in nursing students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasuna, J.; Sharma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Needle stick injury (NSI) became a major issue and most of the research focuses on Nurses, Doctors and other health care workers, but at the same time nursing students in clinical duties are at high risk. Studies are available which examined NSI only in Medical students and health care workers. The present study is aimed to measure the occurrence of needle stick injury along with post exposure measures and evaluation of the knowledge regarding needle stick injury among nursing student. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in North-East India in 2013. The study participants comprised of 83 nursing students studying in 4th year B.Sc. (N) and 3rd year General Nursing and Midwifery (GNM). Students were questioned regarding their occurrence to Needle Stick Injury throughout their clinical training and measures taken following the exposure. They were also asked to complete the Knowledge questionnaire on NSI. Results: The study among 83 nursing students included 43 (51.81%) GNM 3rd year and 40 (48.19%) B.Sc. Nursing Students. Out of a total 83 students, 75 (90.36%) were females. The occurrence of NSI during their course was reported by 33 (39.76%) participants. The maximum NSI occurred during first year of course (57.57%). It was found that 18 (54.54%) of NSIs were not reported. Among those exposed, only 5 (15.15%) students had undergone blood investigation and very few students took post exposure measures. It was found that, only 23 (69.69%) students were immunized against Hepatitis B before NSI. Conclusion: The present study indicated a high incidence of needle stick injuries among nursing students with more under-reported cases and subjects were not aware of post exposure measures. It is essential to deal above problems by regular training on real-life procedure at the entry level and reporting system should be more user-friendly platform. (author)

  16. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a protein expression system for pharmaceutical and biotechnological proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbeck, Christoph; Kobl, Iris; Heitzer, Markus

    2006-10-01

    Recombinant proteins have become more and more important for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Although various systems for protein expression have been developed, there is an increasing demand for inexpensive methods of large-scale production. Eukaryotic algae could serve as a novel option for the manufacturing of recombinant proteins, as they can be cultivated in a cheap and easy manner and grown to high cell densities. Being a model organism, the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied intensively over the last decades and offers now a complete toolset for genetic manipulation. Recently, the successful expression of several proteins with pharmaceutical relevance has been reported from the nuclear and the chloroplastic genome of this alga, demonstrating its ability for biotechnological applications.

  17. Lamellar keratoplasty using position-guided surgical needle and M-mode optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sungwon; Bae, Jung Kweon; Ahn, Yujin; Kim, Hyeongeun; Choi, Geonho; Yoo, Young-Sik; Joo, Choun-Ki; Moon, Sucbei; Jung, Woonggyu

    2017-12-01

    Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) is an emerging surgical technique for the restoration of corneal clarity and vision acuity. The big-bubble technique in DALK surgery is the most essential procedure that includes the air injection through a thin syringe needle to separate the dysfunctional region of the cornea. Even though DALK is a well-known transplant method, it is still challenged to manipulate the needle inside the cornea under the surgical microscope, which varies its surgical yield. Here, we introduce the DALK protocol based on the position-guided needle and M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT). Depth-resolved 26-gage needle was specially designed, fabricated by the stepwise transitional core fiber, and integrated with the swept source OCT system. Since our device is feasible to provide both the position information inside the cornea as well as air injection, it enables the accurate management of bubble formation during DALK. Our results show that real-time feedback of needle end position was intuitionally visualized and fast enough to adjust the location of the needle. Through our research, we realized that position-guided needle combined with M-mode OCT is a very efficient and promising surgical tool, which also to enhance the accuracy and stability of DALK.

  18. The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-Needling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304 needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations.

  19. Complications of transradial coronary angiography: a comparative study between using trocar needle and using bare needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chunyan; Wang Zhongjie; Chen Liyuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the advantages and disadvantages of trocar needle puncturing and bare needle puncturing in performing transradial coronary angiography through comparing the surgical successful rate and the occurrence of complications between two techniques. Methods: A total of 450 patients, who were scheduled to receive transradial coronary angiography, were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly and equally divided into trocar needle group (n=225) and bare needle group (n=225). Transradial coronary angiography was performed in all patients, the technical success and the puncture-related complications were observed. The differences between two groups were compared and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The successful rate of placing sheath pipe in trocar needle group and bare needle group was 98.22% (221/225) and 90.22% (203/225) respectively, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The mean time spent in puncturing in trocar needle group and bare needle group was (3.98 ± 0.54) min. and (6.13 ± 0.61) min. respectively (P < 0.01). In bare needle group the complications included radial artery spasm (4.89%, n=11), subcutaneous ecchymosis (6.67%, n=15) and local hematoma (3.56%, n=8), while in trocar group the complications included radial artery spasm (1.33%, n=3), subcutaneous ecchymosis (2.67%, n=6) and local hematoma (0.44%, n=1). Conclusion: In performing percutaneous coronary arteriography via radial arterial access the use of trocar needle is superior to the use of bare needle. Using trocar needle can reduce the operative time,increase the technical successful rate and lower the occurrence of complications. Therefore, using trocar needle to perform puncturing should be the technique of first choice. (authors)

  20. Clinical experience of a new retractable barb needle for breast lesion localization: The first 60 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, E.J.; Hawkins, I.F.; Hawkins, M.C.; Meacham, M.A.; Bland, K.I.; Copelan, E.M. III.

    1987-01-01

    Recently there has been an increase in the request to the radiologists from surgeons to localize nonpalpable breast lesions suspicious for malignancy. Currently there are several needles used for this purpose. The authors present here a new retractable barb needle which consists of a coaxial system with a 20-gauge outer cannula and a 23-gauge inner cannula with a sharp stylus with a hook spring wire soldered to it. The main advantage of this needle over other systems is the ability of the barb to be retracted and the needle repositioned. Other advantages are the strong anchoring properties of the barb, permitting retraction by the surgeon and ending fear of dislodgement, breaking, or transection as experienced with other systems. This system also lowers the radiation exposure to the patients since only one confirmatory radiograph is necessary after optimal positioning of the needle as opposed to two with the most popular system used currently. The authors have done 60 localizations in 58 patients with no failures or major complications. The area in question was successfully sampled in all cases. The authors' referring surgeons prefer this needle over other commercially available types

  1. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve......-destructive methods for this purpose. A significant changed structure was observed in skim milk depleted or partly depleted for whey protein, acidified and UHPH treated. Some of the properties of the UHPH treated skim milk depleted from whey protein observed in this study support the idea, that UHPH treatment has...... this. LF-NMR relaxation were utilised to obtain information about the water mobility (relaxation time), in diluted skim milk systems depleted from whey protein. Obtained results indicate that measuring relaxation times with LF-NMR could be difficult to utilize, since no clear relationship between...

  2. Tetraphenylporphyrin as a protein label for triple detection analytical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Konopińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrins and metalloporphyrins are promising new protein labels that can be detected using multiple techniques; improving the reliability of the analysis and broadening the range of the linear response. Here, we investigate the potential of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (Tpp as a hybrid protein label. The electrochemical and optical properties of porphyrin conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA, chicken egg albumin (CEA and immunoglobulin G (IgG were determined and optimal conditions for Tpp-protein conjugation established. Model conjugates of carboxylated Tpp with BSA and short peptides were characterized using differential pulse voltammetry, UV–Vis spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry. These results reveal that Tpp is a promising molecule to be used in a triple detection protein labelling system.

  3. Modulation of protein quality control systems by food phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira

    2013-05-01

    There is compelling evidence showing that dietary phytochemicals have exhibited pronounced bioactivities in a number of experimental models. In addition, a variety of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that frequent ingestion of vegetables and fruits, which contain abundant phytochemicals, lowers the risk of onset of some diseases. However, the action mechanisms by which dietary phytochemicals show bioactivity remain to be fully elucidated and a fundamental question is why this class of chemicals has great potential for regulating health. Meanwhile, maintenance and repair of biological proteins by molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, and clearance of abnormal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy play central roles in health, some disease prevention, and longevity. Interestingly, several recent studies have revealed that phytochemicals, including curcumin (yellow pigment in turmeric), resveratrol (phytoalexin in grapes), quercetin (general flavonol in onions and others), and isothiocyanates (preferentially present in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage), are remarkable regulators of protein quality control systems, suggesting that their physiological and biological functions are exerted, at least in part, through activation of such unique mechanisms. This review article highlights recent findings regarding the effects of representative phytochemicals on protein quality control systems and their possible molecular mechanisms.

  4. Therapeutically important proteins from in vitro plant tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Pauline M

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells cultured in liquid medium in bioreactors are now being used commercially to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. The emergence of in vitro plant cell culture as a production vehicle reflects the importance of key biosafety and biocontainment concerns affecting the competitiveness of alternative systems such as mammalian cell culture and agriculture. Food plant species are particularly attractive as hosts for in vitro protein production: the risk of transgene escape and food chain contamination is eliminated using containment facilities, while regulatory approval for oral delivery of drugs may be easier than if non-edible species were used. As in whole plants, proteolysis in cultured plant cells can lead to significant degradation of foreign proteins after synthesis; however, substantial progress has been made to counter the destructive effects of proteases in plant systems. Although protein secretion into the culture medium is advantageous for product recovery and purification, measures are often required to minimise extracellular protease activity and product losses due to irreversible surface adsorption. Disposable plastic bioreactors, which are being used increasingly in mammalian cell bioprocessing, are also being adopted for plant cell culture to allow rapid scale-up and generation of saleable product. This review examines a range of technical and regulatory issues affecting the choice of industrial production platform for foreign proteins, and assesses progress in the development of in vitro plant systems for biopharmaceutical production.

  5. Proteins of the lactococcin A secretion system : lcnD encodes two in-frame proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varcamonti, M; Nicastro, G; Venema, G; Kok, J

    2001-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against LcnC and LcnD proteins of the Lactococcus lactis bacteriocin lactococcin A secretory system to examine their cellular location and interaction. Two major reacting bands were detected by Western immunoblot with the anti-LcnD antibody: one of 52 kDa (LcnD) and

  6. [Comparison of analgesic effects between subcutaneous penetration needling and straight needling of otopoints in the treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chun-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Xiao-Shun; Shi, Jing; Liu, Er-Jun

    2008-10-01

    To confirm the better analgesic effect of subcutaneous penetration needling of otopoints for treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis (SHPA) patients. Sixty-six SHPA patients were randomized into penetration-needling group (n = 33) and straight needling group (n = 33) by using pairing principle according to the sex and state of disease. Penetration needling was adopted for patients of penetration-needling group, while straight needling was used for those of straight needling group. Simplified McGill Scale was used to evaluate the patients' pain reactions. The pain integral scores were analyzed by using sequential test and pairing t test. Sequential test showed that the analgesic effect of penetration needling was significantly superior to that of straight needling 30 min after the treatment (P straight needling (P straight needling in the treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis.

  7. Learning Ultrasound-Guided Needle Insertion Skills through an Edutainment Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-Yin; Ni, Dong; Pang, Wai-Man; Qin, Jing; Chui, Yim-Pan; Yu, Simon Chun-Ho; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is essential in many of minimally invasive surgeries or procedures, such as biopsy, drug delivery, spinal anaesthesia, etc. Accurate and safe needle insertion is a difficult task due to the high requirement of hand-eye coordination skills. Many proposed virtual reality (VR) based training systems put their emphasis on realistic simulation instead of pedagogical efficiency. The lack of schematic training scenario leads to boredom of repetitive operations. To solve this, we present our novel training system with the integration of game elements in order to retain the trainees' enthusiasm. Task-oriented scenarios, time attack scenarios and performance evaluation are introduced. Besides, some state-of-art technologies are also presented, including ultrasound simulation, needle haptic rendering as well as a mass-spring-based needle-tissue interaction simulation. These works are shown to be effective to keep the trainees up with learning.

  8. Alternative Eukaryotic Expression Systems for the Production of Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Suárez, Teresa; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Besides the most established expression hosts, several eukaryotic microorganisms and filamentous fungi have also been successfully used as platforms for the production of foreign proteins. Filamentous fungi and Dictyostelium discoideum are two prominent examples. Filamentous fungi, typically Aspergillus and Trichoderma, are usually employed for the industrial production of enzymes and secondary metabolites for food processing, pharmaceutical drugs production, and textile and paper applications, with multiple products already accepted for their commercialization. The low cost of culture medium components, high secretion capability directly to the extracellular medium, and the intrinsic ability to produce post-translational modifications similar to the mammalian type, have promoted this group as successful hosts for the expression of proteins, including examples from phylogenetically distant groups: humans proteins such as IL-2, IL-6 or epithelial growth factor; α-galactosidase from plants; or endoglucanase from Cellulomonas fimi, among others. D. discoideum is a social amoeba that can be used as an expression platform for a variety of proteins, which has been extensively illustrated for cytoskeletal proteins. New vectors for heterologous expression in D. discoideum have been recently developed that might increase the usefulness of this system and expand the range of protein classes that can be tackled. Continuous developments are ongoing to improve strains, promoters, production and downstream processes for filamentous fungi, D. discoideum, and other alternative eukaryotic hosts. Either for the overexpression of individual genes, or in the coexpression of multiples genes, this chapter illustrates the enormous possibilities offered by these groups of eukaryotic organisms.

  9. A Gateway-Based System for Fast Evaluation of Protein-Protein Interactions in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Thorsten; Barlag, Britta; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Hensel, Michael; Sourjik, Victor; Gerlach, Roman G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important layers of regulation in all kingdoms of life. Identification and characterization of these interactions is one challenging task of the post-genomic era and crucial for understanding of molecular processes within a cell. Several methods have been successfully employed during the past decades to identify protein-protein interactions in bacteria, but most of them include tedious and time-consuming manipulations of DNA. In contrast, the MultiSite Gateway system is a fast tool for transfer of multiple DNA fragments between plasmids enabling simultaneous and site directed cloning of up to four fragments into one construct. Here we developed a new set of Gateway vectors including custom made entry vectors and modular Destination vectors for studying protein-protein interactions via Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), Bacterial two Hybrid (B2H) and split Gaussia luciferase (Gluc), as well as for fusions with SNAP-tag and HaloTag for dual-color super-resolution microscopy. As proof of principle, we characterized the interaction between the Salmonella effector SipA and its chaperone InvB via split Gluc and B2H approach. The suitability for FRET analysis as well as functionality of fusions with SNAP- and HaloTag could be demonstrated by studying the transient interaction between chemotaxis response regulator CheY and its phosphatase CheZ. PMID:25856398

  10. Root canal debris removal using different irrigating needles: An SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Ghivari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of three irrigating needle designs in removal of debris from different parts of the root canal. Materials and Methods: Thirty human maxillary canines were prepared using HERO Shaper rotary system and irrigated with 1 ml of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl after each instrument change. Three 25-gauge irrigation needle designs - brush-covered Navi Tip FX (Group I, side-vented needle RC Twents (Group II and single-beveled (Group III irrigating needles - were tested for their efficiency in debris removal in three different parts of the root canal (n=10 canals per group. Following instrumentation, the roots were vertically sectioned and divided into coronal, middle and apical thirds for observation under scanning electron microscope (×200 magnification. Debris on the canal wall was evaluated by using a four-scale scoring system described by Paque and his co-workers. Results: The canals irrigated with brush-covered needle Navi Tip FX (Group I showed lower average debris score, indicating greater removal of debris in coronal third as compared to middle and apical thirds, whereas the canals irrigated with side-vented needle (Group II and single-beveled needle (Group III exhibited lower average score in the middle third than coronal and apical thirds. All the three needle designs exhibited higher debris score in apical third of the root canal. Tukey multiple comparisons test was applied at a significance level of P>0.05. A statistically significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the debris removal in the coronal and middle thirds of root canals irrigated with brush-covered Navi Tip FX (Group I and side-vented (Group II needles, respectively, when compared with other needle design groups. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all the needle designs tested were effective in certain regions of the root canal with apical third uncleaned. Side-vented needle by

  11. A highly controllable reconstituted cell-free system--a breakthrough in protein synthesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Takashi; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Takuya

    2010-04-01

    The PURE system is a highly controllable cell-free protein synthesis system composed of individually prepared components that are required for protein synthesis in Escherichia coli. The PURE system contains neither nucleases nor proteases, both of which degrade DNA or mRNA templates and proteins. The protein products are easily purified using affinity chromatography to remove the tagged protein factors. The PURE system should help to create new fields in protein research.

  12. Model systems for understanding absorption tuning by opsin proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review reports on model systems that have been synthesised and investigated for elucidating how opsin proteins tune the absorption of the protonated retinal Schiff base chromophore. In particular, the importance of the counteranion is highlighted. In addition, the review advocates...

  13. The E. coli Single Protein Production (cSPP) System for Production and Structural Analysis of Membrane Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Lili; Vaiphei, S. Thangminlal; Shimazu, Tsutomu; Schneider, William M.; Tang, Yuefeng; Mani, Rajeswari; Roth, Monica J.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Inouye, Masayori

    2009-01-01

    At present, only 0.9% of PDB-deposited structures are of membrane proteins in spite of the fact that membrane proteins constitute approximately 30% of total proteins in most genomes from bacteria to humans. Here we address some of the major bottlenecks in the structural studies of membrane proteins and discuss the ability of the new technology, the Single-Protein Production (SPP) system, to help solve these bottlenecks.

  14. Analysis of a Steerable Needle for Fine Needle Aspiration and Biopsy: Efficiency and Radiation Dose Compared With a Conventional Straight Needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutigliano, Sandra; Abraham, John A; Kenneally, Barry E; Zoga, Adam C; Nevalainen, Mika; Roedl, Johannes B

    Percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy has proven to be an efficacious method for sampling of many soft tissue lesions, especially deep-seated masses in the abdomen and pelvis. This study sought to test the potential for a novel steerable needle to improve localization and to reduce procedure duration and radiation dose compared with a conventional straight needle. A fresh, raw meat sample (lean bovine flank) was imbedded with cylindrical radiopaque and radiolucent obstacles designed to simulate vessels (radiolucent objects) and bones (radiopaque objects) on CT. A pit-containing olive (partially radiopaque) was imbedded beyond the obstacles to represent the target. Two sites on the surface of the meat were selected and marked to determine initial needle placement. Two radiologists with different levels of experience proceeded to position a straight needle and the steerable needle from each skin site to the target using CT guidance as efficiently as possible, avoiding the obstacles. The total positioning time, the number of CT scans required for positioning, and the number of repositioning events (partial withdrawal followed by advancement) were tracked for the straight and steerable needles. For the straight needle, total time to reach the target was 499 to 667 seconds (mean, 592 seconds); for the steerable needle, total time to reach the target was 281 to 343 seconds (mean, 309 seconds), on average, 48% lower. The number of CT scans needed for needle positioning averaged 6.25 for the straight needle and 3.5 for the steerable needle, which is 44% lower. Repositioning events (withdrawing and readvancing the needle) ranged from 3 to 10 for the straight needle (mean, 6.5) and 0 for the steerable needle. Using an in vitro model embedded with obstacles, the steerable needle performed better than a straight needle with regard to procedure time, needle repositioning events, and CT scans required for placement.

  15. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  16. Exploiting Expert Knowledge of Protein-Protein Interactions in a Computational Evolution System for Detecting Epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattin, Kristine A.; Payne, Joshua L.; Hill, Douglas P.; Caldwell, Thomas; Fisher, Jonathan M.; Moore, Jason H.

    The etiology of common human disease often involves a complex genetic architecture, where numerous points of genetic variation interact to influence disease susceptibility. Automating the detection of such epistatic genetic risk factors poses a major computational challenge, as the number of possible gene-gene interactions increases combinatorially with the number of sequence variations. Previously, we addressed this challenge with the development of a computational evolution system (CES) that incorporates greater biological realism than traditional artificial evolution methods. Our results demonstrated that CES is capable of efficiently navigating these large and rugged epistatic landscapes toward the discovery of biologically meaningful genetic models of disease predisposition. Further, we have shown that the efficacy of CES is improved dramatically when the system is provided with statistical expert knowledge. We anticipate that biological expert knowledge, such as genetic regulatory or protein-protein interaction maps, will provide complementary information, and further improve the ability of CES to model the genetic architectures of common human disease. The goal of this study is to test this hypothesis, utilizing publicly available protein-protein interaction information. We show that by incorporating this source of expert knowledge, the system is able to identify functional interactions that represent more concise models of disease susceptibility with improved accuracy. Our ability to incorporate biological knowledge into learning algorithms is an essential step toward the routine use of methods such as CES for identifying genetic risk factors for common human diseases.

  17. The plug-based nanovolume Microcapillary Protein Crystallization System (MPCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdts, Cory J.; Elliott, Mark; Lovell, Scott; Mixon, Mark B.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Staker, Bart L.; Nollert, Peter; Stewart, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The Microcapillary Protein Crystallization System (MPCS) is a new protein-crystallization technology used to generate nanolitre-sized crystallization experiments for crystal screening and optimization. Using the MPCS, diffraction-ready crystals were grown in the plastic MPCS CrystalCard and were used to solve the structure of methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase. The Microcapillary Protein Crystallization System (MPCS) embodies a new semi-automated plug-based crystallization technology which enables nanolitre-volume screening of crystallization conditions in a plasticware format that allows crystals to be easily removed for traditional cryoprotection and X-ray diffraction data collection. Protein crystals grown in these plastic devices can be directly subjected to in situ X-ray diffraction studies. The MPCS integrates the formulation of crystallization cocktails with the preparation of the crystallization experiments. Within microfluidic Teflon tubing or the microfluidic circuitry of a plastic CrystalCard, ∼10–20 nl volume droplets are generated, each representing a microbatch-style crystallization experiment with a different chemical composition. The entire protein sample is utilized in crystallization experiments. Sparse-matrix screening and chemical gradient screening can be combined in one comprehensive ‘hybrid’ crystallization trial. The technology lends itself well to optimization by high-granularity gradient screening using optimization reagents such as precipitation agents, ligands or cryoprotectants

  18. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed.

  19. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP) can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed. PMID:23346211

  20. Intracranial sewing needles in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanci, Atilla; Ozdemir, Halil Ibrahim; Kazanci, Burak; Kazanci, Dilek Ozturk; Er, Uygur

    2012-01-01

    A 37-year-old patient is reported with intracranial sewing needles, which were located in the right frontal lobe. Both clinical and radiological findings suggested that these needles must have been introduced in infancy before the closure of anterior fontanelle during an unsuccessful homicide. Usually intracranial foreign objects are placed due to penetrating trauma or surgical procedures. Child abuse has been known for centuries. Many types of physical traumas have been reported, especially in Western countries. In Iran, insertion of sewing needles into the brain aiming to kill the infant have been seen in a lot of cases. This situation takes part in a lot of Persian stories. We reported a 37-year-old man who had 2 intracranial sewing needles with unknown etiology.

  1. Inverse Kinematics of Concentric Tube Steerable Needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Patrick; Dupont, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    Prior papers have introduced steerable needles composed of precurved concentric tubes. The curvature and extent of these needles can be controlled by the relative rotation and translation of the individual tubes. Under certain assumptions on the geometry and design of these needles, the forward kinematics problem can be solved in closed form by means of algebraic equations. The inverse kinematics problem, however, is not as straightforward owing to the nonlinear map between relative tube displacements and needle tip configuration as well as to the multiplicity of solutions as the number of tubes increases. This paper presents a general approach to solving the inverse kinematics problem using a pseudoinverse solution together with gradients of nullspace potential functions to enforce geometric and mechanical constraints.

  2. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies.

  3. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Abraham

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP. AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies.

  4. C-arm cone beam computed tomography needle path overlay for fluoroscopic guided vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Alda L; Mohamed, Ashraf; Pfister, Marcus; Chinndurai, Ponraj; Rohm, Esther; Hall, Andrew F; Wallace, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Retrospective review. To report our early clinical experience using C-arm cone beam computed tomography (C-arm CBCT) with fluoroscopic overlay for needle guidance during vertebroplasty. C-arm CBCT is advanced three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat panel based angiography systems. The imaging information provided by C-arm CBCT allows for the acquisition and reconstruction of "CT-like" images in flat panel based angiography/interventional suites. As part of the evolution of this technology, enhancements allowing the overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real time fluoroscopy. We report our early clinical experience with C-arm CBCT with fluoroscopic overlay for needle guidance during vertebroplasty. This is a retrospective review of 10 consecutive oncology patients who underwent vertebroplasty of 13 vertebral levels using C-arm CBCT with fluoroscopic overlay for needle guidance from November 2007 to December 2008. Procedural data including vertebral level, approach (transpedicular vs. extrapedicular), access (bilateral vs. unilateral) and complications were recorded. Technical success with the overlay technology was assessed based on accuracy which consisted of 4 measured parameters: distance from target to needle tip, distance from planned path to needle tip, distance from midline to needle tip, and distance from the anterior 1/3 of the vertebral body to needle tip. Success within each parameter required that the distance between the needle tip and parameter being evaluated be no more than 5 mm on multiplanar CBCT or fluoroscopy. Imaging data for 12 vertebral levels was available for review. All vertebral levels were treated using unilateral access and 9 levels were treated with an extrapedicular approach. Technical success rates were 92% for both distance from planned path and distance from midline to final needle tip, 100% when distance from needle tip to the anterior 1

  5. A Novel Mechanism for Protein Delivery by the Type 3 Secretion System for Extracellularly Secreted Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Dominguez, Farid; Huerta-Cantillo, Jazmin; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2017-03-28

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is essential for bacterial virulence through delivering effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. Here, we identified an alternative delivery mechanism of virulence factors mediated by the T3SS, which consists of the association of extracellularly secreted proteins from bacteria with the T3SS to gain access to the host cytosol. Both EspC, a protein secreted as an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) autotransporter, and YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia , require a functional T3SS for host cell internalization; here we provide biophysical and molecular evidence to support the concept of the EspC translocation mechanism, which requires (i) an interaction between EspA and an EspC middle segment, (ii) an EspC translocation motif (21 residues that are shared with the YopH translocation motif), (iii) increases in the association and dissociation rates of EspC mediated by EspA interacting with EspD, and (iv) an interaction of EspC with the EspD/EspB translocon pore. Interestingly, this novel mechanism does not exclude the injection model (i.e., EspF) operating through the T3SS conduit; therefore, T3SS can be functioning as an internal conduit or as an external railway, which can be used to reach the translocator pore, and this mechanism appears to be conserved among different T3SS-dependent pathogens. IMPORTANCE The type 3 secretion system is essential for injection of virulence factors, which are delivered directly into the cytosol of the host cells for usurping and subverting host processes. Recent studies have shown that these effectors proteins indeed travel inside an "injectisome" conduit through a single step of translocation by connecting the bacterium and host cell cytoplasms. However, all findings are not compatible with this model. For example, both YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia , and EspC, an autotransporter protein secreted by enteropathogenic E. coli , require a

  6. Finding the Needles in the Haystacks: High-Fidelity Models of the Modern and Archean Solar System for Simulating Exoplanet Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Aki; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Lincowski, Andrew P.; Arney, Giada N.; Stark, Christopher C.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Snyder, Gregory F.; Pueyo, Laurent; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Jansen, Tiffany; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present two state-of-the-art models of the solar system, one corresponding to the present day and one to the Archean Eon 3.5 billion years ago. Each model contains spatial and spectral information for the star, the planets, and the interplanetary dust, extending to 50 au from the Sun and covering the wavelength range 0.3-2.5 micron. In addition, we created a spectral image cube representative of the astronomical backgrounds that will be seen behind deep observations of extrasolar planetary systems, including galaxies and Milky Way stars. These models are intended as inputs to high-fidelity simulations of direct observations of exoplanetary systems using telescopes equipped with high-contrast capability. They will help improve the realism of observation and instrument parameters that are required inputs to statistical observatory yield calculations, as well as guide development of post-processing algorithms for telescopes capable of directly imaging Earth-like planets.

  7. Finding the Needles in the Haystacks: High-fidelity Models of the Modern and Archean Solar System for Simulating Exoplanet Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Aki; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Lincowski, Andrew P.; Arney, Giada N.; Stark, Christopher C.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Snyder, Gregory F.; Pueyo, Laurent; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Jansen, Tiffany; Nesvold, Erika R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Turnbull, Margaret C.

    2017-12-01

    We present two state-of-the-art models of the solar system, one corresponding to the present day and one to the Archean Eon 3.5 billion years ago. Each model contains spatial and spectral information for the star, the planets, and the interplanetary dust, extending to 50 au from the Sun and covering the wavelength range 0.3-2.5 μm. In addition, we created a spectral image cube representative of the astronomical backgrounds that will be seen behind deep observations of extrasolar planetary systems, including galaxies and Milky Way stars. These models are intended as inputs to high-fidelity simulations of direct observations of exoplanetary systems using telescopes equipped with high-contrast capability. They will help improve the realism of observation and instrument parameters that are required inputs to statistical observatory yield calculations, as well as guide development of post-processing algorithms for telescopes capable of directly imaging Earth-like planets.

  8. Clinical translation of controlled protein delivery systems for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Kara L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-04-01

    Strategies that utilize controlled release of drugs and proteins for tissue engineering have enormous potential to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The multiple advantages of controlled release strategies merit overcoming the significant challenges to translation, including high costs and long, difficult regulatory pathways. This review highlights the potential of controlled release of proteins for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We specifically discuss treatment modalities that have reached preclinical and clinical trials, with emphasis on controlled release systems for bone tissue engineering, the most advanced application with several products already in clinic. Possible strategies to address translational and regulatory concerns are also discussed.

  9. Dr. PIAS: an integrative system for assessing the druggability of protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuya Toshio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of data on protein-protein interactions (PPIs available in public databases and in the literature has rapidly expanded in recent years. PPI data can provide useful information for researchers in pharmacology and medicine as well as those in interactome studies. There is urgent need for a novel methodology or software allowing the efficient utilization of PPI data in pharmacology and medicine. Results To address this need, we have developed the 'Druggable Protein-protein Interaction Assessment System' (Dr. PIAS. Dr. PIAS has a meta-database that stores various types of information (tertiary structures, drugs/chemicals, and biological functions associated with PPIs retrieved from public sources. By integrating this information, Dr. PIAS assesses whether a PPI is druggable as a target for small chemical ligands by using a supervised machine-learning method, support vector machine (SVM. Dr. PIAS holds not only known druggable PPIs but also all PPIs of human, mouse, rat, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV proteins identified to date. Conclusions The design concept of Dr. PIAS is distinct from other published PPI databases in that it focuses on selecting the PPIs most likely to make good drug targets, rather than merely collecting PPI data.

  10. Uranium solubility and solubility controls in selected Needle's Eye groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been co-ordinating a research programme centred on the Needle's Eye natural analogue site in Dumfries and Galloway District, southwest Scotland. This study of a natural radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving confidence in using geochemical and predictive models of radionuclide (uranium) migration in the geosphere. The Needle's Eye site is located on the Solway Coat within the Southwick Coast Reserve of the Scottish Wildlife Trust who gave permission to sample for soils, sediments and waters for analysis. This report is one of a series and covers the period from June 1989 to June 1990. It presents the results of applying the PHREEQE code to the hydrochemistry of the site using the CHEMVAL thermodynamic database. (author)

  11. A spatial analysis of the physical and social environmental correlates of discarded needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montigny, Luc; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Leigh, Barbara C; Kim, Sun-Young

    2011-05-01

    The role that the urban environment plays in influencing drug users' injection and needle disposal decisions is poorly understood. We identified potential attractors and deterrents of needle discarding, and then used a geographic information system (GIS) to quantify these factors for a neighborhood in Montréal, Canada. In multivariate logistic regression, discarded needles were found to have more associations with physical factors than with social factors. Visual exposure and proximity to a single-room occupancy hotel, a pay phone, an adult service or a pawnshop were important physical environmental predictors. These findings are discussed in relation to developing public health and urban design-based harm reduction approaches to needle discarding in public space. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PROGRAM SYSTEM AND INFORMATION METADATA BANK OF TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nikitin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the architecture of metadata storage model for check results of three-dimensional protein structures. Concept database model was built. The service and procedure of database update as well as data transformation algorithms for protein structures and their quality were presented. Most important information about entries and their submission forms to store, access, and delivery to users were highlighted. Software suite was developed for the implementation of functional tasks using Java programming language in the NetBeans v.7.0 environment and JQL to query and interact with the database JavaDB. The service was tested and results have shown system effectiveness while protein structures filtration.

  13. Clinical use of disinfectable needle-free connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yébenes, Juan C; Serra-Prat, Mateu

    2008-12-01

    In 1992, the United States Food and Drug Administration required health care services to adopt needle-free devices to prevent health care workers' exposure to bloodborne pathogens resulting from needlestick injuries, and several systems of disinfectable needle-free connectors (DNC) were introduced. MICROBIAL COLONIZATION: Experimental studies showed that DNCs designed with a split septum (SS-DNCs) and mechanical valve systems (MLV-DNC) prevented endoluminal colonization as effectively as needles or conventional caps. A comparison of the microbiologic barrier effect of SS-DNCs, MLV-DNCs, and passive positive-pressure (PPV)-DNCs found that PPV-DNCs were least effective in providing protection under experimental conditions of poor handling practices and high microorganism concentrations. PREVENTION OF CATHETER-RELATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTIONS: Some randomized trials show a positive or neutral effect of DNC use on the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs); however, some investigators have reported outbreaks of CR-BSIs following the introductions of DNCs that could be related to noncompliance with DNC handling recommendations or the use of PPV-DNCs. Strategies focused in the implication of the nurse staff in CRBSI surveillance increase compliance with DNC handling recommendations and minimize the risk of developing a CR-BSI. DNCs can be used safely if staff complies with recommendations for use.

  14. In-plane ultrasonic needle tracking using a fiber-optic hydrophone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Wenfeng, E-mail: wenfeng.xia@ucl.ac.uk; Desjardins, Adrien E. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Mari, Jean Martial [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and GePaSud, University of French Polynesia, Faa’a 98702, French Polynesia (France); West, Simeon J. [Department of Anaesthesia, University College Hospital, Main Theatres, Maple Bridge Link Corridor, Podium 3, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Ginsberg, Yuval; David, Anna L. [Institute for Women’s Health, University College London, 86-96 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX (United Kingdom); Ourselin, Sebastien [Center for Medical Imaging Computing, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Accurate and efficient guidance of needles to procedural targets is critically important during percutaneous interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging is widely used for real-time image guidance in a variety of clinical contexts, but with this modality, uncertainties about the location of the needle tip within the image plane lead to significant complications. Whilst several methods have been proposed to improve the visibility of the needle, achieving accuracy and compatibility with current clinical practice is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, the authors present a method for directly visualizing the needle tip using an integrated fiber-optic ultrasound receiver in conjunction with the imaging probe used to acquire B-mode ultrasound images. Methods: Needle visualization and ultrasound imaging were performed with a clinical ultrasound imaging system. A miniature fiber-optic ultrasound hydrophone was integrated into a 20 gauge injection needle tip to receive transmissions from individual transducer elements of the ultrasound imaging probe. The received signals were reconstructed to create an image of the needle tip. Ultrasound B-mode imaging was interleaved with needle tip imaging. A first set of measurements was acquired in water and tissue ex vivo with a wide range of insertion angles (15°–68°) to study the accuracy and sensitivity of the tracking method. A second set was acquired in an in vivo swine model, with needle insertions to the brachial plexus. A third set was acquired in an in vivo ovine model for fetal interventions, with insertions to different locations within the uterine cavity. Two linear ultrasound imaging probes were used: a 14–5 MHz probe for the first and second sets, and a 9–4 MHz probe for the third. Results: During insertions in tissue ex vivo and in vivo, the imaged needle tip had submillimeter axial and lateral dimensions. The signal-to-noise (SNR) of the needle tip was found to depend on the insertion angle. With

  15. Information theory in systems biology. Part II: protein-protein interaction and signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Díaz, José; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    By the development of information theory in 1948 by Claude Shannon to address the problems in the field of data storage and data communication over (noisy) communication channel, it has been successfully applied in many other research areas such as bioinformatics and systems biology. In this manuscript, we attempt to review some of the existing literatures in systems biology, which are using the information theory measures in their calculations. As we have reviewed most of the existing information-theoretic methods in gene regulatory and metabolic networks in the first part of the review, so in the second part of our study, the application of information theory in other types of biological networks including protein-protein interaction and signaling networks will be surveyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo characterization of protein-protein interactions in the AP1 system with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Baudendistel (Nina); T.A. Knoch (Tobias); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); T. Weidemann (Thomas); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of these studies is the quantitative investigation of protein-protein interactions in the AP1 system in vivo. First results of FCS measurements show an exchange in the nucleus of the proteins Fos-CFP and Jun-YFP in the stably mono-transfected HeLa-Cells. This is also shown by

  17. Structure of AscE and Induced Burial Regions in AscE and AscG upon Formation of the Chaperone Needle-subunit Complex of Type III Secretion System in Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.; Yu, H; Leung, K; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Y

    2008-01-01

    In the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Aeromonas hydrophila, the putative needle complex subunit AscF requires both putative chaperones AscE and AscG for formation of a ternary complex to avoid premature assembly. Here we report the crystal structure of AscE at 2.7 A resolution and the mapping of buried regions of AscE, AscG, and AscF in the AscEG and AscEFG complexes using limited protease digestion. The dimeric AscE is comprised of two helix-turn-helix monomers packed in an antiparallel fashion. The N-terminal 13 residues of AscE are buried only upon binding with AscG, but this region is found to be nonessential for the interaction. AscE functions as a monomer and can be coexpressed with AscG or with both AscG and AscF to form soluble complexes. The AscE binding region of AscG in the AscEG complex is identified to be within the N-terminal 61 residues of AscG. The exposed C-terminal substrate-binding region of AscG in the AscEG complex is induced to be buried only upon binding to AscF. However, the N-terminal 52 residues of AscF remain exposed even in the ternary AscEFG complex. On the other hand, the 35-residue C-terminal region of AscF in the complex is resistant to protease digestion in the AscEFG complex. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that two C-terminal hydrophobic residues, Ile83 and Leu84, of AscF are essential for chaperone binding.

  18. The impact of atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance on the rate of malignancy in thyroid fine-needle aspiration: evaluation of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, James T; Solorzano, Carmen C

    2011-12-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) was developed to refine definitions and improve clinical communication and management. This study evaluates the impact of the BSRTC in a large cohort of patients undergoing thyroidectomy before and after its adoption at a single institution. The records from 469 patients in the pre-BSRTC (n = 187) and post-BSRTC (n = 282) periods were reviewed. Cytologic categories in group 1 included nondiagnostic, benign, follicular/Hürthle neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant. Atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) was included in group 2. The percentage of each fine-needle aspiration (FNA) category, malignancy rate per category, and rate of AUS/FLUS utilization were calculated. Group 1 FNA results included 3% (n = 6) nondiagnostic, 48% (n = 89) benign, 17% (n = 32) follicular/Hürthle, 13% (n = 25) suspicious for malignancy, and 19% (n = 35) malignant. Group 2 results included 4% (n = 11) nondiagnostic, 34% (n = 96) benign, 29% (n = 82) AUS/FLUS, 12% (n = 33) follicular/Hürthle, 10% (n = 29) suspicious for malignancy, and 11% (n = 31) malignant. The rate of cancer changed from 25% to 36% for follicular/Hürthle lesions. AUS/FLUS was utilized in 154 of 1095(14%) FNAs reviewed with a malignancy rate of 20%. The new AUS/FLUS category was used more often than recommended (14%) with a higher than expected rate of malignancy (20%). Rigorous cytopathology to histopathology correlation is needed to accurately reflect the malignancy rates of the different BSRTC categories at each individual institution. Clinical management should be tailored based on such institutional findings. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Micro-needle electro-tactile display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    Haptic feedback is strongly demanded for high-precision robot-assisted surgery and teleoperation. The haptic feedback consists of force and tactile feedback, however tactile feedback has been little studied and the size and weight of the system poses challenges for practical applications. In this paper we propose a sheet-type wearable electro-tactile display which provides tactile sensations to the user as the feedback at a low voltage and power consumption. The display possesses needle-shaped electrodes, which can penetrate through the high-impedance stratum corneum. We developed the fabrication process and, as the first step, we investigated the tactile sensation that can be created to the fingertip by the display. Rough and smooth surfaces were successfully presented to the user. Then, we characterized the tactile display when used on the forearm, in particular, with respect to the spatial resolution. These tactile displays can be used to inform the user of the surface property of the parts of interest, such as tumor tissues, and to guide him in the manipulation of surgery robots.

  20. Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladek, R E J; Stoffels, E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2005-06-07

    In this paper we present a parameter study on deactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by means of a non-thermal plasma (plasma needle). The plasma needle is a small-sized (1 mm) atmospheric glow sustained by radio-frequency excitation. This plasma will be used to disinfect heat-sensitive objects; one of the intended applications is in vivo deactivation of dental bacteria: destruction of plaque and treatment of caries. We use E. coli films plated on agar dishes as a model system to optimize the conditions for bacterial destruction. Plasma power, treatment time and needle-to-sample distance are varied. Plasma treatment of E. coli films results in formation of a bacteria-free void with a size up to 12 mm. 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} colony forming units are already destroyed after 10 s of treatment. Prolongation of treatment time and usage of high powers do not significantly improve the destruction efficiency: short exposure at low plasma power is sufficient. Furthermore, we study the effects of temperature increase on the survival of E. coli and compare it with thermal effects of the plasma. The population of E. coli heated in a warm water bath starts to decrease at temperatures above 40 deg. C. Sample temperature during plasma treatment has been monitored. The temperature can reach up to 60 deg. C at high plasma powers and short needle-to-sample distances. However, thermal effects cannot account for bacterial destruction at low power conditions. For safe and efficient in vivo disinfection, the sample temperature should be kept low. Thus, plasma power and treatment time should not exceed 150 mW and 60 s, respectively.

  1. Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladek, R E J; Stoffels, E

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a parameter study on deactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by means of a non-thermal plasma (plasma needle). The plasma needle is a small-sized (1 mm) atmospheric glow sustained by radio-frequency excitation. This plasma will be used to disinfect heat-sensitive objects; one of the intended applications is in vivo deactivation of dental bacteria: destruction of plaque and treatment of caries. We use E. coli films plated on agar dishes as a model system to optimize the conditions for bacterial destruction. Plasma power, treatment time and needle-to-sample distance are varied. Plasma treatment of E. coli films results in formation of a bacteria-free void with a size up to 12 mm. 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units are already destroyed after 10 s of treatment. Prolongation of treatment time and usage of high powers do not significantly improve the destruction efficiency: short exposure at low plasma power is sufficient. Furthermore, we study the effects of temperature increase on the survival of E. coli and compare it with thermal effects of the plasma. The population of E. coli heated in a warm water bath starts to decrease at temperatures above 40 deg. C. Sample temperature during plasma treatment has been monitored. The temperature can reach up to 60 deg. C at high plasma powers and short needle-to-sample distances. However, thermal effects cannot account for bacterial destruction at low power conditions. For safe and efficient in vivo disinfection, the sample temperature should be kept low. Thus, plasma power and treatment time should not exceed 150 mW and 60 s, respectively

  2. High resolution microphotonic needle for endoscopic imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Mohanty, Aseema; Roberts, Samantha P.; Barbosa, Felippe; Lipson, Michal

    2017-02-01

    GRIN (Graded index) lens have revolutionized micro endoscopy enabling deep tissue imaging with high resolution. The challenges of traditional GRIN lenses are their large size (when compared with the field of view) and their limited resolution. This is because of the relatively weak NA in standard graded index lenses. Here we introduce a novel micro-needle platform for endoscopy with much higher resolution than traditional GRIN lenses and a FOV that corresponds to the whole cross section of the needle. The platform is based on polymeric (SU-8) waveguide integrated with a microlens micro fabricated on a silicon substrate using a unique molding process. Due to the high index of refraction of the material the NA of the needle is much higher than traditional GRIN lenses. We tested the probe in a fluorescent dye solution (19.6 µM Alexa Flour 647 solution) and measured a numerical aperture of 0.25, focal length of about 175 µm and minimal spot size of about 1.6 µm. We show that the platform can image a sample with the field of view corresponding to the cross sectional area of the waveguide (80x100 µm2). The waveguide size can in principle be modified to vary size of the imaging field of view. This demonstration, combined with our previous work demonstrating our ability to implant the high NA needle in a live animal, shows that the proposed system can be used for deep tissue imaging with very high resolution and high field of view.

  3. Utilization of No-Kor needles for slit-micrografting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandy, D A; Meshkin, M

    1994-05-01

    This article introduces the No-Kor vented needle as an excellent tool for micrograft recipient site development. To show that No-Kor vented needles are better than conventional hypodermic needles (with and without dilators) and Bard Parker blades for micrograft recipient site development. Comparisons with hypodermic needles (with and without dilators) and Bard Parker blade incisions are made. When compared with hypodermic needles (with and without dilators, the No-Kor needles show less scarring, allow easier placement, take less surgical time, and are less expensive. When compared with Bard Parker blade incisions, the No-Kor needles demonstrate less scarring, more precision, and less expense. The No-Kor vented needle is an excellent tool for the development of micrograft recipient sites. It demonstrates advantages over both hypodermic needles and Bard Parker blades.

  4. The cellularity yield of three different 22-gauge endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed O; Abdelfatah, Mohamed M; Padilla, Osvaldo; Hussinat, Maha; Elhanafi, Sherif; Eloliby, Mohamed; Torabi, Alireza; Hakim, Nawar; Boman, Darius A

    2017-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an integral part in the diagnosis of pancreatic, intestinal and extra-intestinal masses or lesions. There is no clear data on the superiority of the core biopsy needle over standard 22-gauge needles. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the cellularity yield of three commonly used 22-gauge FNA needles available in the US market. This is a prospective, randomized study comparing the cellularity yield of three commercially available EUS needles (two standard FNA needles and core biopsy needle). Two blinded pathologists evaluated the cytology specimens based on an already agreed upon cytology score. We included adult patients (18-80 years old) who presented to our endoscopy unit for FNA of pancreatic or extrapancreatic masses. 109 patients (57 F, 52 M) were recruited to the study, 88 lesions were pancreatic lesions. 39 patients were recruited in the EZ Shot 2™ group, 36 in the Procore ® group and 34 in the Expect™ group. The average cellularity score and the mean number of passes (SD) were not different between the three needles; P = 0.91 and P = 0.16, respectively. There was no difference between the three needles in obtaining an onsite diagnosis (P = 0.627) and no difference in reported adverse events between the three groups. The cellularity yields, the mean number of passes and reported adverse events were similar in the three compared 22-gauge needles. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:426-432. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Exploring the diversity of protein modifications: special bacterial phosphorylation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Grangeasse, Christophe; Turgay, Kürşad

    2016-01-01

    Protein modifications not only affect protein homeostasis but can also establish new cellular protein functions and are important components of complex cellular signal sensing and transduction networks. Among these post-translational modifications, protein phosphorylation represents the one that ...

  6. Pine needle oil induces G2/M arrest of HepG2 cells by activating the ATM pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bing; Jiang, Wei; Qiu, Wenliang; Mu, Wenling; Qin, Yujing; Zhu, Yongcui; Zhang, Jianying; Wang, Qingyi; Liu, Dongjie; Qu, Zhangyi

    2018-02-01

    Over the last two decades, inducing DNA damage of cancer cells by natural medicines has become a research hotspot in the field of cancer treatment. Although various natural medicines have anticancer effects, very few studies have been conducted to explore the anti-cancer effect of pine needle oil. In the present study, the role of pine needle oil in inducing G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells was investigated. The data revealed that pine needle oil could induce DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. In the pine needle oil-treated HepG2 cells, the protein levels of phosphorylated (p)-ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), γ-H2A histone family, member X, p-p53, p-checkpoint kinase 2 and p-cell division cycle 25C were evidently increased, indicating that pine needle oil facilitated G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells through the ATM pathway. In response to the treatment with pine needle oil, ATM was activated in HepG2 cells, which subsequently phosphorylated downstream targets and induced G2/M arrest. In summary, the data of the present study indicated that pine needle oil induces G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells by facilitating ATM activation.

  7. EUS needle identification comparison and evaluation (NICE) study (with videos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shou-jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S.; Saftoiu, Adrian; Wang, Wanmei; Streba, Costin; Fink, Peter P.; Griswold, Michael; Wu, Ruonan; Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Hocke, Michael; Kantowski, Marcus; Pohl, Jürgen; Fockens, Paul; Annema, Jouke T.; van der Heijden, Erik H.F.M.; Havre, Roald Flesland; Pham, Khanh Do-Cong; Kunda, Rastislav; Deprez, Pierre H.; Mariana, Jinga; Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Larghi, Alberto; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Fusaroli, Pietro; Lahav, Maor; Puri, Rajesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Malay; Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Sahai, Anand; Brugge, William R.; Lee, Linda S.; Aslanian, Harry R.; Wang, Andrew Y.; Shami, Vanessa M.; Markowitz, Arnold; Siddiqui, Ali A.; Mishra, Girish; Scheiman, James M.; Isenberg, Gerard; Siddiqui, Uzma D.; Shah, Raj J.; Buxbaum, James; Watson, Rabindra R.; Willingham, Field F.; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Levy, Michael J.; Harris, Cynthia; Wallace, Michael B.; Nolsøe, Christian Pállson; Lorentzen, Torben; Bang, Niels; Sørensen, Sten Mellerup; Gilja, Odd Helge; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Piscaglia, Fabio; Gritzmann, Norbert; Radzina, Maija; Sparchez, Zeno Adrian; Sidhu, Paul S.; Freeman, Simon; McCowan, Timothy C.; de Araujo, Cyrillo Rodrigues; Patel, Akash; del Ali, Mohammad A; Campbell, Garth; Chen, Edward; Vilmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy is widely practiced. Optimal sonographic visualization of the needle is critical for image guided interventions. There are several commercially available needles but no bench-top testing and direct comparison of these needles to reveal their inherent echogenicity. The aims are to provide bench-top data that can be used to guide clinical applications and to promote future device research and development. Methods Descriptive bench-top testing and comparison. Bench-top testing of 8 commonly used EUS-FNA needles (all of 22 gauge in size): SonoTip Pro Control (Medi-Globe); Expect Slimline (Boston Scientific); EchoTip, EchoTip Ultra, EchoTip ProCore High Definition, (Cook Medical); ClearView (Conmed); EZ Shot2 (Olympus); BNX (Beacon Endoscopic); and 2 new prototype needles that are coated by echogenic polymers by Medi-Globe. Blinded evaluation of standardized and unedited videos by 43 EUS endoscopists and 17 radiologists specialized in gastrointestinal ultrasound examination that is unfamiliar with EUS needle devices. Results There was no significant difference in the ratings and rankings of these needles between endosonographers and radiologists. Overall, one prototype needle was rated as the best, ranking 10% to 40% higher than all other needles (p<0.01). Among the commercially available needles, the EchoTip Ultra needle and the ClearView needle were top choices. The EZ Shot 2 needle was ranked statistically lower than other needles (30%–75% worse, p<0.001). Conclusions All FNA needles have their inherent and different echogenicity, and these differences are similarly recognized by EUS endoscopists and radiologists. Needles with polymeric coating from the entire shaft to the needle tip may offer better echogenicity. PMID:26873530

  8. Cyclin B1 Destruction Box-Mediated Protein Instability: The Enhanced Sensitivity of Fluorescent-Protein-Based Reporter Gene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodic expression and destruction of several cyclins are the most important steps for the exact regulation of cell cycle. Cyclins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during cell cycle. Besides, a short sequence near the N-terminal of cyclin B called the destruction box (D-box; CDB is also required. Fluorescent-protein-based reporter gene system is insensitive to analysis because of the overly stable fluorescent proteins. Therefore, in this study, we use human CDB fused with both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP at C-terminus and red fluorescent protein (RFP, DsRed at N-terminus in the transfected human melanoma cells to examine the effects of CDB on different fluorescent proteins. Our results indicated that CDB-fused fluorescent protein can be used to examine the slight gene regulations in the reporter gene system and have the potential to be the system for screening of functional compounds in the future.

  9. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  10. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of pine needle powder ingestion and endurance training in high cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyobin; Lee, Nam-Ho; Ryu, Sungpil

    2014-09-01

    Pine needle is a kind of medicinal plant ingested traditionally for a variety of purposes. Therefore, we examined the antioxidant and antiapoptotic capacities of pine needle ingestion in high cholesterol-fed and endurance exercise-trained rats. Animals were divided into six groups as; CON: normal diet control group; EX: normal diet and exercise training group; HC: high cholesterol diet group; HCE: high cholesterol diet and exercise training group; HCP: high cholesterol and pine needle group; HCPE: high-cholesterol and pine needle diet with exercise training group, respectively. Each group consisted of seven Sprague-Dawley male rats. The swim-training groups, EX, HCE, and HCPE swam in the swim pool 60 min/d and 5 d/week for 5 weeks. During the rearing periods, freeze-dried pine needle powder mix with 5% of the high cholesterol diet was supplied to the HCP and HCPE groups. Gastrocnemius muscle was used as the skeletal muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu, Zn containing superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analyzed for their antioxidant capacities. Finally, p53, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), caspase-3 protein expression was analyzed to determine antiapoptotic ability. MDA showed low content in HCPE compared to the HC. Mn-SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD, and GPx protein expression was significantly increased by pine needle ingestion and/or exercise training. In addition, suppression of p53 protein expression resulted in Bcl-2 increase followed by caspase-3 decrease with/without pine needle ingestion and exercise training. When exercise training in addition to pine needle powder ingestion may be a helpful nutritional regimen to athletes and exercisers.

  11. Effect of Blinding With a New Pragmatic Placebo Needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyan; Xu, Huanfang; Ma, Rui; Mo, Qian; Yan, Shiyan; Liu, Zhishun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Placebo control is a useful method for determining the efficacy of a therapy. In acupuncture researches, the preferred method for placebo control is acupuncture using a placebo needle that has a blunt tip and achieves no skin penetration. We performed a crossover study to validate the blinding effect of a new type of placebo needle. Sixty volunteers were randomized to receive acupuncture using 2 types of needles with different sequences: sequence AB, involving first the pragmatic placebo needle and then the real needle, and sequence BA, in a reverse order. Placebo acupuncture was performed by administering the placebo needle through an adhesive pad without skin penetration on the acupoints LI4, RN12, BL25, and BL36. Real acupuncture was performed by needling through the pad and penetrating the skin to 15 mm using a real needle on the same acupoints. The acupuncture was administered every other day with 3 sessions for 1 type of needle. The primary outcome was the perception of needle penetration. Besides degree of acupuncture pain, type, and degree of needle sensation, needle acceptability and factors influencing the subject blinding effect were assessed. Needle penetration was felt by 100%, 90% (54/60), 88.3% (53/60), and 95% (57/60) of volunteers receiving placebo acupuncture and 98.3% (59/60), 96.7% (58/60), 95% (57/60), and 95% (57/60) of volunteers receiving real acupuncture on LI4, RN12, BL25, and BL36, respectively. Differences of the volunteers’ perception of needle penetration between the placebo needle and real needle were not significant for the 4 acupoints (all P > 0.05). Volunteers experienced fewer distension sensations (P = 0.01), a lower degree of needle sensation (P = 0.007), and less pain (P = 0.006) during placebo acupuncture than during real acupuncture. The placebo needle was more easily accepted than the real needle (OR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.01–2.64). The influences of age, sex, educational level, acupuncture

  12. Specific interaction of central nervous system myelin basic protein with lipids effects of basic protein on glucose leakage from liposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gould, R.M.; London, Y.

    1972-01-01

    The leakage from liposomes preloaded with glucose was continuously monitored in a Perkin-Elmer Model 356 dual beam spectrophotometer using an enzyme-linked assay system. The central nervous system myelin basic protein (A1 protein) caused a 3–4-fold increase in the rate of leakage from liposomes

  13. Circulating surfactant protein D is decreased in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Silje Vermedal; Voss, Anne; Sørensen, Grith Lykke

    2009-01-01

    -1118) in patients and 1068 ng/ml (95% CI 901-1246) in controls (p = 0.0004). Circulating SP-D did not differ significantly in patients with high, intermediate, or low SLE disease activity. Similarly, SP-D did not correlate with C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and anti-dsDNA seropositivity......OBJECTIVE: Deficiencies of innate immune molecules like mannan binding lectin (MBL) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Surfactant protein D (SP-D) and MBL belong to the same family of innate immune molecules - the collectins, which share important...... structural and functional properties. We aimed to compare concentrations of serum SP-D in patients with SLE and in healthy controls, and to investigate if SP-D is associated with selected disease indicators. We investigated the possible association of the Met11Thr polymorphism with disease, since...

  14. A computer graphics program system for protein structure representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A M; Golub, E E

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a computer graphics program system for the schematic representation of several protein secondary structure analysis algorithms. The programs calculate the probability of occurrence of alpha-helix, beta-sheet and beta-turns by the method of Chou and Fasman and assign unique predicted structure to each residue using a novel conflict resolution algorithm based on maximum likelihood. A detailed structure map containing secondary structure, hydrophobicity, sequence identity, sequence numbering and the location of putative N-linked glycosylation sites is then produced. In addition, helical wheel diagrams and hydrophobic moment calculations can be performed to further analyze the properties of selected regions of the sequence. As they require only structure specification as input, the graphics programs can easily be adapted for use with other secondary structure prediction schemes. The use of these programs to analyze protein structure-function relationships is described and evaluated. PMID:2832829

  15. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. 21 CFR 866.5150 - Bence-Jones proteins immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bence-Jones proteins immunological test system....5150 Bence-Jones proteins immunological test system. (a) Identification. A Bence-Jones proteins... the Bence-Jones proteins in urine and plasma. Immunoglobulin molecules normally consist of pairs of...

  17. Unconsciously penetrated foreign body (sewing needle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Zorlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The injuries of foreign body in work accidents are often seen in adults. It could be diagnosed in different parts of the body. In this study, a twenty year old woman who had a pain in the left axillary region of the body, a constraint on joint movement coordination center and high fever is not aware of the needle in her body was examined. There was a sewing needle penetrates to pectoralis major muscle at the left axillary region of the body seen in her anterior posterior chest x ray. It was removed under general anesthesia using fluoroscopy. Patients could have different clinical complaints due to the mobile sewing needle in different parts of the body. The questioning of her profession history and physical examination would help for diagnosis of the complaints in the evaluation of patients. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 265-268

  18. Structure of Phage P22 Cell Envelope-Penetrating Needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olia, A.S.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2009-06-02

    Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope. The 2.1-{angstrom} crystal structure of gp26 reveals a 240-{angstrom} elongated protein fiber formed by two trimeric coiled-coil domains interrupted by a triple {beta}-helix. The N terminus of gp26 plugs the portal protein channel, retaining the genetic material inside the virion. The C-terminal tip of the fiber exposes {beta}-hairpins with hydrophobic tips similar to those seen in class II fusion peptides. The {alpha}-helical core connecting these two functionally polarized tips presents four trimerization octads with consensus sequence IXXLXXXV. The slender conformation of the gp26 fiber minimizes the surface exposed to solvent, which is consistent with the idea that gp26 traverses the cell envelope lipid bilayers.

  19. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Targeting 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions to stimulate central nervous system repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of developing treatments for central nervous system (CNS injuries is becoming more attainable with the recent identification of various drugs that can repair damaged axons. These discoveries have stemmed from screening efforts, large expression datasets and an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular biology underlying axon growth. It will be important to continue searching for new compounds that can induce axon repair. Here we describe how a family of adaptor proteins called 14-3-3s can be targeted using small molecule drugs to enhance axon outgrowth and regeneration. 14-3-3s bind to many functionally diverse client proteins to regulate their functions. We highlight the recent discovery of the axon-growth promoting activity of fusicoccin-A, a fungus-derived small molecule that stabilizes 14-3-3 interactions with their client proteins. Here we discuss how fusicoccin-A could serve as a starting point for the development of drugs to induce CNS repair.

  1. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: A comparison of 11-gauge and 8-gauge needles in benign breast disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraemer Bernhard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimal invasive breast biopsy is standard care for the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions. There are different vacuum biopsy (VB systems in use. The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the 8-gauge and the 11-gauge needle with respect to a diagnostic reliability, b complication rate and c subjective perception of pain when used for vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. Methods Between 01/2000 and 09/2004, 923 patients at St. Josefs-Hospital Wiesbaden underwent VB using the Mammotome® (Ethicon Endosurgery, Hamburg. Depending on preoperative detection, the procedure was performed under sonographic or mammographic guidance under local anaesthesia. All patients included in the study were followed up both clinically and using imaging techniques one week after the VB and a second time after a median of 41 months. Excisional biopsy on the ipsilateral breast was an exclusion criteria. Subjective pain scores were recorded on a scale of 0 – 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain. The mean age of the patients was 53 years (30 – 88. Results 123 patients were included in the study in total. 48 patients were biopsied with the 8-gauge needle and 75 with the 11-gauge needle. The use of the 8-gauge needle did not show any significant differences to the 11-gauge needle with regard to diagnostic reliability, complication rate and subjective perception of pain. Conclusion Our data show that there are no relevant differences between the 8-gauge and 11-gauge needle when used for VB. Under sonographic guidance, the use of the 8-gauge needle is recommended for firm breast tissue due to its sharp scalpel point and especially for complete removal of benign lesions. We did not find any advantages in the use of the larger 8-gauge needle compared to the 11-gauge needle in the mammography setting. The utilisation costs of the 8-gauge needle are somewhat higher.

  2. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: A comparison of 11-gauge and 8-gauge needles in benign breast disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Markus; Okamgba, Stella; Scheler, Peter; Freidel, Klaus; Hoffmann, Gerald; Kraemer, Bernhard; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Krainick-Strobel, Ute

    2008-01-01

    Background Minimal invasive breast biopsy is standard care for the diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions. There are different vacuum biopsy (VB) systems in use. The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the 8-gauge and the 11-gauge needle with respect to a) diagnostic reliability, b) complication rate and c) subjective perception of pain when used for vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. Methods Between 01/2000 and 09/2004, 923 patients at St. Josefs-Hospital Wiesbaden underwent VB using the Mammotome® (Ethicon Endosurgery, Hamburg). Depending on preoperative detection, the procedure was performed under sonographic or mammographic guidance under local anaesthesia. All patients included in the study were followed up both clinically and using imaging techniques one week after the VB and a second time after a median of 41 months. Excisional biopsy on the ipsilateral breast was an exclusion criteria. Subjective pain scores were recorded on a scale of 0 – 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain). The mean age of the patients was 53 years (30 – 88). Results 123 patients were included in the study in total. 48 patients were biopsied with the 8-gauge needle and 75 with the 11-gauge needle. The use of the 8-gauge needle did not show any significant differences to the 11-gauge needle with regard to diagnostic reliability, complication rate and subjective perception of pain. Conclusion Our data show that there are no relevant differences between the 8-gauge and 11-gauge needle when used for VB. Under sonographic guidance, the use of the 8-gauge needle is recommended for firm breast tissue due to its sharp scalpel point and especially for complete removal of benign lesions. We did not find any advantages in the use of the larger 8-gauge needle compared to the 11-gauge needle in the mammography setting. The utilisation costs of the 8-gauge needle are somewhat higher. PMID:18489771

  3. Methods and systems for identifying ligand-protein binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2016-05-06

    The invention provides a novel integrated structure and system-based approach for drug target prediction that enables the large-scale discovery of new targets for existing drugs Novel computer-readable storage media and computer systems are also provided. Methods and systems of the invention use novel sequence order-independent structure alignment, hierarchical clustering, and probabilistic sequence similarity techniques to construct a probabilistic pocket ensemble (PPE) that captures even promiscuous structural features of different binding sites for a drug on known targets. The drug\\'s PPE is combined with an approximation of the drug delivery profile to facilitate large-scale prediction of novel drug- protein interactions with several applications to biological research and drug development.

  4. Penetrating cardiac injury following sewing needle ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobnach, Sanju; Castillo, Franco; Blanco Vinent, René; Kahn, Delawir; Bhyat, Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Penetrating cardiac injuries are common in South Africa. Reports describing traumatic lesions to the heart caused by caudo-cranial migration of ingested foreign bodies are however extremely rare. Delayed presentation and intervention are associated with poor outcome in these patients; cardiac tamponade remains the most serious complication. We present the case of a 19 year-old man who sustained a left ventricular injury after intentionally swallowing eight sewing needles. The impacted needle was removed through a median sternotomy and the patient recovered uneventfully. Copyright © 2011 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [King Injo's disease and burnt needle therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sook

    2004-12-01

    This paper investigates an interrelationship between burnt needle therapy and King Injo's disease. From 1633 (Year 11 in King Injo's reign) to May 5, 1649 (Year 27 in King Injo's reign), right before his death, King Injo was treated with burnt needles by Yi Hyeongik, an acupuncturist when the king had health problems. This study arises from two questions: why was King Injo often treated with burnt needles? and what effect did burnt needles have?Burnt needle therapy is a combined form of acupuncture and moxibustion. Yi Hyeongik was famous for eradicating pathogenic factors. He was appointed as a doctor in the Royal Hospital. The medical definition for pathogenic factors is that they are disease-causing factors. Understanding the pathogenic factor for King Injo's disease could make it possible to find the interrelationship between burnt needles and the king's disease. In the Joseon ear, the prevalent belief about diseases was that diseases could be caused by homeopathic magic. Some people thought homeopathic magic caused King Injo's disease. The actual reasons for King Injo's disease were the participation in the excessive rites of Queen Mother Inmok's funeral and the constant oppression from the Ching Dynasty after disgraceful defeat in the war. When King Injo started to be sick, homeopathic magic cases were found in the royal palace. The king's incurable disease was believed to have happened as a result of homeopathic magic. King Injo's suspicion toward Princess Jeongmyeong derived from her mother, Queen Mother Inmok. Moral justification for King Injo's coup was Gwanghaegun or Prince Gwanghae's immoral conduct toward Queen Mothe Inmok. After he was installed, King Injo obeyed the Queen Mother and showed her every attention. Meanwhile, he treated Princess Jeongmyeong with respect, maximized the moral justification for the coup, and solidified the royal authority. However, constant rebellions and treasons threatened King Injo. The king suspected that Queen Mother

  6. King Injo's Disease and Burnt Needle Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM In-Sook

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an interrelationship between burnt needle therapy(번침 and King Injo'sdisease. From 1633 (Year 11 in King Injo's reign to May 5, 1649 (Year 27 King in Injo's reign, right before his death, King Injo(인조 was treated with burnt needles by Yi Hyeongik(이형익, an acupuncturist when the king had health problems. This study arises from two questions: why was King Injo often treated with burnt needles? and what effect did burnt needles have? Burnt needle therapy is a combined form of acupuncture and moxibustion. Yi Hyeongik was famous for eradicating pathogenic factors. He was appointed as a doctor in the Royal Hospital. The medical definition for pathogenic factors is that they are disease-causing factors. Understanding the pathogenic factor for King Injo's disease could make it possible to find the interrelationship between burnt needles and the king's disease. In the Joseon era, the prevalent belief about diseases was that diseases could be caused by homeopathic magic. Some people thought homeopathic magic caused King Injo's disease.  The actual reasons for King Injo's disease were the participation in the excessive rites of Queen Mother Inmok's funeral and the constant oppression from the Ching Dynasty after disgraceful defeat in the war. When King Injo started to be sick, homeopathic magic cases were found in the royal palace. The king's incurable disease was believed to have happened as a result of homeopathic magic. King Injo's suspicion toward Princess Jeongmyeong(정명공주 derived from her mother, Queen Mother Inmok(인목대비. Moral justification for King Injo's coup was Gwanghaegun(광해군 or Prince Gwanghae's immoral conduct toward Queen Mother Inmok. After he was installed, King Injo obeyed the Queen Mother and showed her every attention. Meanwhile, he treated Princess Jeongmyeong with respect, maximized the moral justification for the coup, and solidified the royal authority. However, constant

  7. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm 2 ), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of −517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (−435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  8. Etiological studies on needle fungi associated with semimature-tissue needle blight of eastern white pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzon, S.N.

    1968-01-01

    The results of etiological studies on semimature-tissue needle blight (SNB) of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) deny any role to needle fungi as the primary cause. No mycelium was found in newly blighted semimature tissue by either cultural or histological methods. Mycelia of several saprophytic fungi were isolated from the blighted portions of current year needles about 2 weeks after the onset of SNB, and fruit-bodies of different organisms were found to occur both in the interior and on the exterior of blighted needles about 4 weeks after the first occurrence of disease symptoms. The morphological development of apothecia of C. acuum was studied. Hysterothecia of Lophodermium spp. (L. pinastri (Schrad. ex Fr.) Chev. and L. nitens Darker) occurred ubiquitously on fallen white pine needles. Aerial spore trapping showed that ascospores of C. acuum were abundant, those of Lophodermium spp. were prevalent, and those of H. desmazierii were practically non-existent in the area investigated. There was little coincidence between the occurrence of SNB outbreaks and peak populations of air-borne ascospores of these fungi. Ascospore suspensions and needles bearing fructifications of C. acuum and Lophodermium spp. were used to inoculate the newly developing needles of SNB-susceptible and non-susceptible field trees and potted seedlings, but the typical symptoms of SNB did not develop as a result of these inoculations. Two fungicides, captan and Bordeaux mixture, were applied to SNB-susceptible and non-susceptible field trees throughout the growing season, but neither fungicide prevented the symptoms of SNB from appearing on the new needles of susceptible trees at the same time as they appeared on untreated susceptible trees in the area. The fungicidal sprays, however, did prevent saprophyttic fungi from invading blighted portions of the needles. It is concluded from this investigation that SNB is not a disease of fungal origin. 19 references, 17 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Interactions of Cells with Magnetic Nanowires and Micro Needles

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.

    2017-12-01

    The use of nanowires, nano and micro needles in biomedical applications has markedly increased in the past years, mainly due to attractive properties such as biocompatibility and simple fabrication. Specifically, these structures have shown promise in applications including cell separation, tumor cell capture, intracellular delivery, cell therapy, cancer treatment and as cell growth scaffolds. The work proposed here aims to study two platforms for different applications: a vertical magnetic nanowire array for mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and a micro needle platform for intracellular delivery. First, a thorough evaluation of the cytotoxicity of nanowires was done in order to understand how a biological system interacts with high aspect ratio structures. Nanowires were fabricated through pulsed electrodeposition and characterized by electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Studies of biocompatibility, cell death, cell membrane integrity, nanowire internalization and intracellular dissolution were all performed in order to characterize the cell response. Results showed a variable biocompatibility depending on nanowire concentration and incubation time, with cell death resulting from an apoptotic pathway arising after internalization. A vertical array of nanowires was then used as a scaffold for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy, the interactions between the dense array of nanowires and the cells were analyzed, as well as the biocompatibility of the array and its effects on cell differentiation. A magnetic field was additionally applied on the substrate to observe a possible differentiation. Stem cells grown on this scaffold showed a cytoskeleton and focal adhesion reorganization, and later expressed the osteogenic marker osteopontin. The application of a magnetic field counteracted this outcome. Lastly, a micro needle platform was fabricated

  10. The treatment of high strength protein wastewater by UASB system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploypatarapinyo, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to treat the high strength protein wastewater by UASB system. The wastewater of this experiment had COD 2,938 mg/l, SS 478 mg/l and total of nitrogen 435 mg/l. The granule was developed from bacteria of activated sludge system as suspended sludge by fermenting anaerobically at 40ºC for 1 month and acclimatizing with the high strength protein wastewater for another month. The MLSS and MLVSS of the started bacterial sludge were 7,105 mg/l and 5,360 mg/l respectively.The maximum organic volume loading of this system was 6 kg COD/m3.d at the hydraulic retention time 12 hrs. The efficiency of COD and BOD removal was 88.38 and 93.07% respectively. The biogas production was 0.52 l/g CODr.d. The content of methane gas was 76.20%. The bacterial suspended sludge was developed to granular sludge with the granule's size of 1.0 mm as 86.02%, 2.05%, 11.84% and 0.09% respectively.

  11. Mechanisms for Differential Protein Production in Toxin–Antitoxin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Deter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin–antitoxin (TA systems are key regulators of bacterial persistence, a multidrug-tolerant state found in bacterial species that is a major contributing factor to the growing human health crisis of antibiotic resistance. Type II TA systems consist of two proteins, a toxin and an antitoxin; the toxin is neutralized when they form a complex. The ratio of antitoxin to toxin is significantly greater than 1.0 in the susceptible population (non-persister state, but this ratio is expected to become smaller during persistence. Analysis of multiple datasets (RNA-seq, ribosome profiling and results from translation initiation rate calculators reveal multiple mechanisms that ensure a high antitoxin-to-toxin ratio in the non-persister state. The regulation mechanisms include both translational and transcriptional regulation. We classified E. coli type II TA systems into four distinct classes based on the mechanism of differential protein production between toxin and antitoxin. We find that the most common regulation mechanism is translational regulation. This classification scheme further refines our understanding of one of the fundamental mechanisms underlying bacterial persistence, especially regarding maintenance of the antitoxin-to-toxin ratio.

  12. Analysis of the protein-protein interactions between the human acidic ribosomal P-proteins: evaluation by the two hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, M; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O

    2000-01-01

    cells. It is concluded that the heterodimeric complex of the P1/P2 proteins is formed preferentially. Formation of homodimers (P1/P1 and P2/P2) can also be observed, though with much less efficiency. Regarding that, we propose to describe the double heterodimeric complex as a protein configuration which......The surface acidic ribosomal proteins (P-proteins), together with ribosomal core protein P0 form a multimeric lateral protuberance on the 60 S ribosomal subunit. This structure, also called stalk, is important for efficient translational activity of the ribosome. In order to shed more light...... on the function of these proteins, we are the first to have precisely analyzed mutual interactions among human P-proteins, employing the two hybrid system. The human acidic ribosomal P-proteins, (P1 or P2,) were fused to the GAL4 binding domain (BD) as well as the activation domain (AD), and analyzed in yeast...

  13. Postruminal Delivery System for Amino Acids and Proteins in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sýkora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to develop an effective postruminal transport system (PTS with a high content of suitable vegetable proteins and amino acids. PTS serves for nutrient delivery to the abomasum and small intestine of dairy cows in order to increase the milk yield. Direct addition of proteins and amino acids to the diet is not useful as the ruminal microbes will utilize active substances before they reach absorption sites in the small intestine. PTS has several advantages, e.g. a possibility of the direct application in a food, low cost, and nutritional and therapeutical improvement. PTS consists of a core (pellets, small tablets and a coating, which protects the core against the environment of rumen and enables to release the core content in the environment of abomasum and small intestine. Lenticular tablets - cores of PTS were prepared by wet granulation method and compression. Qualitative indicators of tablets (average weight, weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time were determined according to valid Czech and European Pharmacopoeias. Cores were subsequently coated with several types of coating - ethylcellulose, stearic acid and pH sensitive polymer poly-(2-vinylpyridine-co-styren, alone or in combination of various rates. Nine samples of coated protein tablets exhibiting appropriate characteristics in vitro were prepared. The presence of the pH sensitive polymer at least in 10% concentration of the coating and the coating amount of 9.0 to 12.6% per tablet were necessary to ensure the requested PTS properties.

  14. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith

    1971-01-01

    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  15. Morphology of jack pine and tamarack needles in dense stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry F. Strong; J. Zavitkovski

    1978-01-01

    Effects of position in the crown on needle morphology and surface area were studied. Needle length, surface area, and dry weight increased and specific needs area decreased from the lower to the upper third of the crown.

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ... Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During ...

  17. Analysis of the protein-protein interactions between the human acidic ribosomal P-proteins: evaluation by the two hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, M; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O

    2000-01-01

    on the function of these proteins, we are the first to have precisely analyzed mutual interactions among human P-proteins, employing the two hybrid system. The human acidic ribosomal P-proteins, (P1 or P2,) were fused to the GAL4 binding domain (BD) as well as the activation domain (AD), and analyzed in yeast...... forms the 60 S ribosomal stalk: P0-(P1/P2)(2). Additionally, mutual interactions among human and yeast P-proteins were analyzed. Heterodimer formation could be observed between human P2 and yeast P1 proteins....

  18. [Thinking and status of research on acupoint temperature sensor needle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Yang, Hua-yuan; Liu, Tang-yi; Gao, Ming; Hu, Yin-e

    2010-09-01

    ABSTRACT Based on acupoint temperature sensor needle related literatures, the development and the applications of temperature sensor needle and the measuring instrument which is used for measuring the temperature of acupoints are introduced in the present paper. This paper summarizes the basic structure and measuring principle of temperature sensor needle; it also summarizes the hardware and measuring procedures of the measuring instrument. According to the characteristics of the temperature sensor needle, this paper states its broad applications and development trend.

  19. STUDY & ANALYSIS OF MICRO NEEDLE MATERIAL BY ANSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar Singh*, Prabhat Sinha, N.N. Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In this research the concept of design and analysis, silicon and stainless steel based on hollow micro-needles for transdermal drug delivery(TDD) have been evaluated by Using ANSYS & computational fluid dynamic (CFD), structural. Micro fluidic analysis has performed to ensure the micro-needles design suitability for Drug delivery. The effect of axial and transverse load on single and micro-needle array has investigated with the mechanical properties of micro-needle. The analysis predicte...

  20. Atypical chest pain: Needles in a haystack

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be needles of the type used for sewing. An electrocardiogram showed a minor interference pattern but no ischaemic changes, and the results of blood tests were all within normal limits. An echocardiogram confirmed the presence of foreign bodies in the myocardium (Fig. 2). There was no evidence of valvular defects.

  1. Biocompatible 3D printed magnetic micro needles

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2017-01-30

    Biocompatible functional materials play a significant role in drug delivery, tissue engineering and single cell analysis. We utilized 3D printing to produce high aspect ratio polymer resist microneedles on a silicon substrate and functionalized them by iron coating. Two-photon polymerization lithography has been used for printing cylindrical, pyramidal, and conical needles from a drop cast IP-DIP resist. Experiments with cells were conducted with cylindrical microneedles with 630 ± 15 nm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:10 and pitch of 12 μm. The needles have been arranged in square shaped arrays with various dimensions. The iron coating of the needles was 120 ± 15 nm thick and has isotropic magnetic behavior. The chemical composition and oxidation state were determined using energy electron loss spectroscopy, revealing a mixture of iron and Fe3O4 clusters. A biocompatibility assessment was performed through fluorescence microscopy using calcein/EthD-1 live/dead assay. The results show a very high biocompatibility of the iron coated needle arrays. This study provides a strategy to obtain electromagnetically functional microneedles that benefit from the flexibility in terms of geometry and shape of 3D printing. Potential applications are in areas like tissue engineering, single cell analysis or drug delivery.

  2. Genetics studies involving Swiss needle cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Johnson; F. Temel; K. Jayawickrama

    2002-01-01

    Three studies were analyzed this year that examined genetic aspects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) tolerance . Families sampled across the Siuslaw National forest showed differences in foliage health traits, but very little of the variation could be explained by environmental or climatic conditions at the parent tree location. Five test sites of the Nehalem series of...

  3. Acylated flavonol glycosides from Larix needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, Gerard J.

    2006-01-01

    Kaempferol-3-p-coumarylglucoside (KCG) was isolated from ether fractions of acetone-extracted freeze-dried needles of all larch species investigated. In each case, KCG was found as one of the main flavonoids, whereas often a variety of closely related, acylated flavonoids was present in either

  4. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Fine needle aspiration cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The increasing prevalence of extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis with the HIV scourge is a cause for concern. Objective: To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Patients and Methods: This is a consecutive 9-year analysis of ...

  5. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. Module 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on parts of the machine, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains eight sections. Each section contains the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

  6. Relationship between needle phobia and dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majstorovic, M.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional study aimed to explain the nature of needle phobia and its relationship in dental phobic children with evidence on age-related differences. Methods: The study used 2,865 patients (52% boys, 48% girls), 4 to 11 years old (mean=7.18 years). The patient sample included

  7. Intracranially Retained Sewing Needle in a Child: Does the Rust on the Needle Have any Implication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Naci; Güçlü, Güçlühan; Karaca, Ismail; Aksoy, Sema

    2008-04-01

    A penetrating injury with a sewing needle is a rare phenomenon. The pathophysiological mechanism of late epilepsy after penetrating injuries is not clear. A 10-year-old female child had a seizure. An X-ray study of the skull and the cranial computed tomography scans showed a foreign object retained in the skull cavity. She was intact on neurological examination. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that there was bioelectrical disorganization in both hemispheres, being more prominent on the left side. A right posterior frontal median craniotomy was performed in order not to retract the left hemisphere within the interhemispheric fissure and the sewing needle was removed successfully. The sewing needle was rusted. The reason for the patient's seizure, 10 years after the injury, may be the corrosion of the sewing needle and rust formation in this case.

  8. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient to...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in in...

  10. Exploring needle anxiety among students attending a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Needle anxiety, a form of specific phobia refers to an intense fear of needles used for various medical procedures. It may result in the avoidance of such needle-involving procedures like intramuscular injections or vaccinations. About 4-8% of children and adolescents are said to generally suffer some form of anxiety.

  11. Diversity and identification of fungi associated with needles of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity and identification of fungi associated with needles of Pinus radiata in Tasmania. ... Previous studies of P. radiata have been based on fungal isolation and not direct PCR detection from needles. This research was a component ... Keywords: endophyte, environmental PCR, fungal isolation, MOTU, needle fungi, OTU ...

  12. Hollow needle used to cut metal honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, E. A.

    1966-01-01

    Hollow needle tool cuts metal honeycomb structures without damaging adjacent material. The hollow needle combines an electrostatic discharge and a stream of oxygen at a common point to effect rapid, accurate metal cutting. The tool design can be varied to use the hollow needle principle for cutting a variety of shapes.

  13. Percutaneous core needle biopsies: The yield in spinal tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Current recommendations for spinal tuberculosis (TB) not requiring open surgery include core needle biopsy to confirm TB and determine drug sensitivity. International figures show the positive culture yield from core needle biopsies is 50 - 83%. Objectives. To (i) assess the yield of percutaneous needle ...

  14. Physical Properties Of Acupuncture Needles: Do Disposable Acupuncture Needles Break With Normal Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Lamb shank, which has complexity of tendon, fascia, and bone , was used to mimic human tissue. The needles (n=10) were stressed in the tissue substitute...Synthetic tissues have been used in other studies11 but are too simplistic and do not mimic human tissue since they do not have muscle, fascia or bone ...They also deposit a sticky , oily residue on the acupuncture needles that is difficult to remove before viewing under a microscope11. Due to lack

  15. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  16. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  17. Linking instantaneous rate of injection to X-ray needle lift measurements for a direct-acting piezoelectric injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viera, Juan P.; Payri, Raul; Swantek, Andrew B.; Duke, Daniel J.; Sovis, Nicolas; Kastengren, Alan L.; Powell, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A direct-acting prototype diesel injector is utilized to control needle lift. • The effects of partial needle lift on rate of injection are analyzed. • Time-resolved needle lift is measured from fast phase-contrast X-ray images. • The link between instantaneous needle lift and rate of injection is analyzed. - Abstract: Internal combustion engines have been and still are key players in today’s world. Ever increasing fuel consumption standards and the ongoing concerns about exhaust emissions have pushed the industry to research new concepts and develop new technologies that address these challenges. To this end, the diesel direct injection system has recently seen the introduction of direct-acting piezoelectric injectors, which provide engineers with direct control over the needle lift, and thus instantaneous rate of injection (ROI). Even though this type of injector has been studied previously, no direct link between the instantaneous needle lift and the resulting rate of injection has been quantified. This study presents an experimental analysis of the relationship between instantaneous partial needle lifts and the corresponding ROI. A prototype direct-acting injector was utilized to produce steady injections of different magnitude by partially lifting the needle. The ROI measurements were carried out at CMT-Motores Térmicos utilizing a standard injection rate discharge curve indicator based on the Bosch method (anechoic tube). The needle lift measurements were performed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The analysis seeks both to contribute to the current understanding of the influence that partial needle lifts have over the instantaneous ROI and to provide experimental data with parametric variations useful for numerical model validations. Results show a strong relationship between the steady partial needle lift and the ROI. The effect is non-linear, and also strongly dependent on the injection pressure. The

  18. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS – PART ONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling is an evidence-based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This treatment approach focuses on releasing or inactivating muscular trigger points to decrease pain, reduce muscle tension, and assist patients with an accelerated return to active rehabilitation. Issue While commonly used, the technique has some patient risk and value of the treatment should be based on benefit compared to the potential risk. Adverse effects (AEs) with dry needling can be mild or severe, with overall incidence rates varying from zero to rates of approximately 10 percent. While mild AEs are the rule, any procedure that involves a needle insertion has the potential for an AE, with select regions and the underlying anatomy increasing the risk. Known significant AEs from small diameter needle insertion include pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, hematoma, infection, central nervous system injury, and other complications. Purpose/Objective Underlying anatomy across individuals has variability, requiring an in-depth knowledge of anatomy prior to any needle placement. This commentary is an overview of pertinent anatomy in the region of the thorax, with a ‘part two’ that addresses the abdomen, pelvis, back, vasovagal response, informed consent and other pertinent issues. The purpose of the commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Conclusions/Implications Dry needling is an effective adjunct treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of physical therapy practice. Physical therapy education and training provides practitioners with the anatomy, basic sciences, and clinical foundation to use this intervention safely and effectively. A safe and evidenced-based implementation of the procedure is based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks coordinated with patients via informed consent. Levels of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27525188

  19. Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongbae J.; Akazawa, Margeaux; Ahn, Jaeki; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Lin, Feng-Chang; Lee, Kwangjae; Fine, Jason; Davis, Robert T; Langevin, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather than on any quantifiable physiological basis. Purpose To preliminarily investigate the frequency of key sensations experienced while needling to specific, quantifiable tissue levels (TLs) guided by ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods Five participants received needling at two acupuncture points and two control points at four TLs. US scans were used to determine when each TL was reached. Each volunteer completed 32 sets of modified Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaires. Part one of the study tested sensations experienced at each TL and part two compared the effect of oscillation alone versus oscillation + rotation. Results In all volunteers, the frequency of pricking, sharp sensations was significantly greater in shallower TLs than deeper (p=0.007); the frequency of sensations described as deep, dull and heavy, as spreading, and as electric shocks was significantly greater in deeper TLs than shallower (p=0.002). Sensations experienced did not significantly differ between real and control points within each of three TLs (p>0.05) except TL 4 (p=0.006). The introduction of needle rotation significantly increased deep, dull, heavy sensations, but not pricking and sharp sensations; within each level, the spectrum of sensation experienced during both oscillation + rotation and oscillation alone did not significantly differ between acupuncture and control points. Conclusion The preliminary study indicates a strong connection between acupuncture sensation and both tissue depth and needle rotation. Furthermore, the new methodology has been proven feasible. A further study with an objective measurement is warranted. PMID:21642648

  20. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huiru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases and non-interacting proteins (negative cases are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. Results GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  1. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Fiona; Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco

    2009-01-26

    Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases) and non-interacting proteins (negative cases) are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes) is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  2. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-13

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  3. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  4. Distinct amyloid precursor protein processing machineries of the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yeon; Rasheed, Ameer; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Kim, So Yeun; Cho, Bongki; Son, Gowoon; Yu, Seong-Woon; Chang, Keun-A; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Moon, Cheil

    2018-01-01

    Processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) occurs through sequential cleavages first by β-secretase and then by the γ-secretase complex. However, abnormal processing of APP leads to excessive production of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the central nervous system (CNS), an event which is regarded as a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, gene mutations of the γ-secretase complex-which contains presenilin 1 or 2 as the catalytic core-could trigger marked Aβ accumulation. Olfactory dysfunction usually occurs before the onset of typical AD-related symptoms (eg, memory loss or muscle retardation), suggesting that the olfactory system may be one of the most vulnerable regions to AD. To date however, little is known about why the olfactory system is affected so early by AD prior to other regions. Thus, we examined the distribution of secretases and levels of APP processing in the olfactory system under either healthy or pathological conditions. Here, we show that the olfactory system has distinct APP processing machineries. In particular, we identified higher expressions levels and activity of γ-secretase in the olfactory epithelium (OE) than other regions of the brain. Moreover, APP c-terminal fragments (CTF) are markedly detected. During AD progression, we note increased expression of presenilin2 of γ-secretases in the OE, not in the OB, and show that neurotoxic Aβ*56 accumulates more quickly in the OE. Taken together, these results suggest that the olfactory system has distinct APP processing machineries under healthy and pathological conditions. This finding may provide a crucial understanding of the unique APP-processing mechanisms in the olfactory system, and further highlights the correlation between olfactory deficits and AD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Force-Sensor-Based Estimation of Needle Tip Deflection in Brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    in real time during needle insertion is the main contribution of this paper. The proposed approach solely relies on the measured forces and torques without a need for any other invasive/noninvasive sensing devices. A few mechanical models have been introduced previously regarding the way the forces are composed along the needle during insertion; we will compare our model to those approaches in terms of accuracy. In order to conduct experiments to verify the deflection model, a custom-built, 2-DOF robotic system for needle insertion is developed and discussed. This system is a prototype of an intelligent, hand-held surgical assistant tool that incorporates the virtual sensor proposed in this paper.

  6. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  7. Characterizing tissue stiffness at the tip of a rigid needle using an opto-mechanical force sensor (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmans, Steven V.; Iannuzzi, Davide; van den Dobbelsteen, John J.

    2016-03-01

    Each year, in the Netherlands alone, more than 50.000 percutaneous procedures are performed for treatment or for removal of tissue from possibly diseased organs, of which 30% return non-diagnostic due to erroneous needle targeting, often as a result of non-homogeneity of the penetrated tissue. In this study, we aim to facilitate needle targeting by assessing the tissue in front of the needle based on its mechanical properties. A probe that can identify tissues via real-time measurements of their mechanical properties is placed at the tip of the needle. The probe, actuated by a remote system at the distal part of the needle, employs the bending of a micro-machined cantilever fabricated on top of an optical fiber. The displacement of the cantilever, imposed by pressing a micro-bead (r = 75 µm) glued at the tip of the cantilever against the tissue, is interrogated by Fabry-Pérot interferometry and converted to force acted on the tissue in real-time. The force transducer is able to perform in harsh environments due to its monolithic design and all-optical working principle. Using our setup, load-indentation curves were obtained during needle insertion in several gelatin-based specimens. We demonstrate the ability of our device to detect and quantify layers of varying stiffness and to successfully locate tissue boundaries in animal tissue embedded in gelatin. Furthermore, a diagnostic measurement can be made by quantifying intra-organ tissue stiffness at the needle target location.

  8. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Hinrichsen, Michael H.; Buckman, Colby

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  9. Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Shujun; Sun Lei; Zhang Xinge, E-mail: zhangxinge@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China); Wu Zhongming [Tianjin Medical University, Metabolic Diseases Hospital (China); Wang Zhen; Li Chaoxing, E-mail: lcx@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China)

    2011-09-15

    Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of BSA was affected by molecular parameter, i.e., degree of substitution, and average molecular weight of quaternized chitosan, as well as concentration of BSA. Fast release occurred in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) while the release was slow in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.4). The drug release mechanism is Fickian diffusion through release kinetics analysis. Cell uptake demonstrated nanoparicles can internalize into Caco-2 cells, which suggested that nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. No significant conformation change was noted for the released BSA in comparison with native BSA using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This kind of novel composite nanoparticles may be a promising delivery system for oral protein and peptide drugs.

  10. Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Shujun; Sun Lei; Zhang Xinge; Wu Zhongming; Wang Zhen; Li Chaoxing

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of BSA was affected by molecular parameter, i.e., degree of substitution, and average molecular weight of quaternized chitosan, as well as concentration of BSA. Fast release occurred in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) while the release was slow in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.4). The drug release mechanism is Fickian diffusion through release kinetics analysis. Cell uptake demonstrated nanoparicles can internalize into Caco-2 cells, which suggested that nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. No significant conformation change was noted for the released BSA in comparison with native BSA using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This kind of novel composite nanoparticles may be a promising delivery system for oral protein and peptide drugs.

  11. Source strength verification and quality assurance of preloaded brachytherapy needles using a CMOS flat panel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Maryam; Spadinger, Ingrid; Chng, Nick

    2016-06-01

    Current methods of low dose rate brachytherapy source strength verification for sources preloaded into needles consist of either assaying a small number of seeds from a separate sample belonging to the same lot used to load the needles or performing batch assays of a subset of the preloaded seed trains. Both of these methods are cumbersome and have the limitations inherent to sampling. The purpose of this work was to investigate an alternative approach that uses an image-based, autoradiographic system capable of the rapid and complete assay of all sources without compromising sterility. The system consists of a flat panel image detector, an autoclavable needle holder, and software to analyze the detected signals. The needle holder was designed to maintain a fixed vertical spacing between the needles and the image detector, and to collimate the emissions from each seed. It also provides a sterile barrier between the needles and the imager. The image detector has a sufficiently large image capture area to allow several needles to be analyzed simultaneously.Several tests were performed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of source strengths obtained using this system. Three different seed models (Oncura 6711 and 9011 (125)I seeds, and IsoAid Advantage (103)Pd seeds) were used in the evaluations. Seeds were loaded into trains with at least 1 cm spacing. Using our system, it was possible to obtain linear calibration curves with coverage factor k = 1 prediction intervals of less than ±2% near the centre of their range for the three source models. The uncertainty budget calculated from a combination of type A and type B estimates of potential sources of error was somewhat larger, yielding (k = 1) combined uncertainties for individual seed readings of 6.2% for (125)I 6711 seeds, 4.7% for (125)I 9011 seeds, and 11.0% for Advantage (103)Pd seeds. This study showed that a flat panel detector dosimetry system is a viable option for source strength verification in

  12. A Brief Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medical Elongated Needle Therapy on Acute Spinal Cord Injury and Its Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxuan Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute spinal cord injury is one of the most common and complicated diseases among human spinal injury. We aimed to explore the effect of point-through-point acupuncture therapy with elongated needles on acute spinal cord injury in rabbits and its possible mechanism. Adult rabbits were randomly divided into a model group, elongated needle therapy group, and blank group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the protein levels of Fas and caspase-3 in the model group were significantly higher than those in the blank group at each time point (P<0.05 and significantly lower than those in the elongated needle therapy group on the 3rd and 5th days after operation (P<0.05. RT-PCR showed that Fas and caspase-3 mRNA levels in the model group and elongated needle therapy group were significantly higher than those in the blank group (P<0.05, 0.01. The mRNA levels of Fas and caspase-3 in the elongated needle therapy group were significantly lower than those in model group on the 3rd day (P<0.05, 0.01. Therefore, we confirmed that elongated needle therapy has an obvious effect on acute spinal cord injury in rabbits. Its mechanism is made possible by inhibiting the expression of the Fas→caspase-3 cascade, thereby inhibiting cell apoptosis after spinal cord injury.

  13. Analytical and clinical validation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) washings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Lasho, Michael A; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) quantitation in fine needle aspirate biopsy (FNAB) saline washings complements current modalities for parathyroid tissue localization. To establish the performance characteristics of the Roche Elecsys intact PTH immunoassay in FNAB needle washings and its diagnostic performance for the identification of parathyroid tissue. Accuracy, precision, reportable range, and analytical specificity and sensitivity for the intact PTH immunoassay in FNAB needle washings were established. For clinical validation, 93 specimens from 79 patients were evaluated. Diagnostic cut-offs were established via receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Performance of PTH in FNAB needle washings was compared to cytology. Measurement of the PTH in FNAB needle washings demonstrated a matrix interference that was overcome by supplementation of the samples with a protein based matrix prior to analysis. ROC area under the curve (AUC) was 0.96 for PTH in FNAB needle washings. A PTH concentration ≥100pg/mL showed 100% specificity and 82% sensitivity for identifying parathyroid tissue. On histology-confirmed parathyroid specimens, 21/38 (55%) were correctly identified by cytology; whereas 31/38 (82%) were identified by PTH. Measurement of PTH in FNAB washings complements cytology for identification of parathyroid tissue. Analytical validation to exclude interference in the PTH immunoassay and proper localization of the parathyroid tissue by ultrasound is necessary to ensure the robustness of the method. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phage Display: Selecting Straws Instead of a Needle from a Haystack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Lunder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of peptides with specific binding affinity to various protein and even non-protein targets are being discovered from phage display libraries. The power of this method lies in its ability to efficiently and rapidly identify ligands with a desired target property from a large population of phage clones displaying diverse surface peptides. However, the search for the needle in the haystack does not always end successfully. False positive results may appear. Thus instead of specific binders phage with no actual affinity toward the target are recovered due to their propagation advantages or binding to other components of the screening system, such as the solid phase, capturing reagents, contaminants in the target sample or blocking agents, rather than the target. Biopanning experiments on different targets performed in our laboratory revealed some previously identified and many new target-unrelated peptide sequences, which have already been frequently described and published, but not yet recognized as target-unrelated. Distinguishing true binders from false positives is an important step toward phage display selections of greater integrity. This article thoroughly reviews and discusses already identified and new target-unrelated peptides and suggests strategies to avoid their isolation.

  15. Hydraulic design of pine needles: one-dimensional optimization for single-vein leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Stone, Howard A; Leigh, Andrea; Boyce, C Kevin; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-05-01

    Single-vein leaves have the simplest hydraulic design possible, yet even this linear water delivery system can be modulated to improve physiological performance. We determined the optimal distribution of transport capacity that minimizes pressure drop per given investment in xylem permeability along the needle for a given length without a change in total water delivery, or maximizes needle length for a given pressure difference between petiole and needle tip. This theory was tested by comparative analysis of the hydraulic design of three pine species that differ in the length of their needles [Pinus palustris (Engl.) Miller, approximately 50 cm; Pinus ponderosa Lawson & Lawson, approximately 20 cm and Pinus rigida Miller, approximately 5 cm]. In all three species, the distribution of hydraulic permeability was similar to that predicted by the optimum solution. The needles of P. palustris showed an almost perfect match between predicted and actual hydraulic optimum solution, providing evidence that vein design is a significant factor in the hydraulic design of pine leaves.

  16. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  17. Needle phobia: etiology, adverse consequences, and patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Chester J; Giovannitti, Joseph A; Boynes, Sean G

    2010-10-01

    Needle phobia has profound health, dental, societal, and legal implications, and severe psychological, social, and physiologic consequences. There is genetic evidence for the physiologic response to needle puncture, and a significant familial psychological component, showing evidence of inheritance. Needle phobia is also a learned behavior. The dental practitioner must recognize patients with needle phobia before the administration of local anesthetics to identify patients who are potentially reactive and to prevent untoward sequelae. Needle phobia is highly associated with avoidance behavior, and the dentist must exhibit compassion and respect. To avoid bradycardia, hypotension, unconsciousness, convulsions, and possibly asystole, oral premedication with benzodiazepines or other antianxiety agents must be considered for patients who are needle phobic. Management of needle phobiaeinduced syncope includes perioperative monitoring, oxygen administration, positioning, atropine, and vasopressors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A versatile selection system for folding competent proteins using genetic complementation in a eukaryotic host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, C.; Kjaerulff, S.; Muller, S.

    2010-01-01

    -control systems to retain misfolded proteins in the ER and redirect them for cytosolic degradation, thereby only allowing folded proteins to reach the cell surface. Accordingly, the folding potential of the tested protein determines the ability of autotrophic colony growth. This system was successfully...

  19. Overview of systems and techniques for surface display of recombinant proteins in yeast S. cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Teparic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade much effort has been devoted to the development of new expression systems and novel techniques for the surface display of heterologous proteins in yeast in order to improve their applications in biotechnology, food technology, pharmacology and medicine. Heterologous protein-encoding genes are generally fused with genes coding for yeast cell wall proteins or their fragments required for anchoring. The variety of reactions by which a protein can be displayed at the cell surface enables finding the appropriate one for each individual protein. However, it is still challenging how to improve the efficiency of display of protein complexes and increase the quantity of protein displayed on the yeast surface. Recently, synthetic protein chimeras that self-assemble into the scaffolds on the yeast surface displaying different proteins have been constructed. This review focuses on systems and techniques for display of recombinant proteins on the yeast cell surfaces and applications afforded by this technology.

  20. Engineering FKBP-Based Destabilizing Domains to Build Sophisticated Protein Regulation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlin An

    Full Text Available Targeting protein stability with small molecules has emerged as an effective tool to control protein abundance in a fast, scalable and reversible manner. The technique involves tagging a protein of interest (POI with a destabilizing domain (DD specifically controlled by a small molecule. The successful construction of such fusion proteins may, however, be limited by functional interference of the DD epitope with electrostatic interactions required for full biological function of proteins. Another drawback of this approach is the remaining endogenous protein. Here, we combined the Cre-LoxP system with an advanced DD and generated a protein regulation system in which the loss of an endogenous protein, in our case the tumor suppressor PTEN, can be coupled directly with a conditionally fine-tunable DD-PTEN. This new system will consolidate and extend the use of DD-technology to control protein function precisely in living cells and animal models.

  1. Chitosan-based delivery systems for protein therapeutics and antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, M.; Mastrobattista, E.; Jiskoot, W.; Hennink, W.E.

    Therapeutic peptides/proteins and protein-based antigens are chemically and structurally labile compounds, which are almost exclusively administered by parenteral injections. Recently, non-invasive mucosal routes have attracted interest for administration of these biotherapeutics. Chitosan-based

  2. Identification of novel protein-protein interactions of Yersinia pestis type III secretion system by yeast two hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Yang

    Full Text Available Type III secretion system (T3SS of the plague bacterium Y. pestis encodes a syringe-like structure consisting of more than 20 proteins, which can inject virulence effectors into host cells to modulate the cellular functions. Here in this report, interactions among the possible components in T3SS of Yersinia pestis were identified using yeast mating technique. A total of 57 genes, including all the pCD1-encoded genes except those involved in plasmid replication and partition, pseudogenes, and the putative transposase genes, were subjected to yeast mating analysis. 21 pairs of interaction proteins were identified, among which 9 pairs had been previously reported and 12 novel pairs were identified in this study. Six of them were tested by GST pull down assay, and interaction pairs of YscG-SycD, YscG-TyeA, YscI-YscF, and YopN-YpCD1.09c were successfully validated, suggesting that these interactions might play potential roles in function of Yersinia T3SS. Several potential new interactions among T3SS components could help to understand the assembly and regulation of Yersinia T3SS.

  3. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration versus core needle biopsy: comparison of post-biopsy hematoma rates and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, In Hye; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Y; Kwak, Jin Young

    2017-07-01

    To compare post-biopsy hematoma rates between ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration and ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy, and to investigate risk factors for post-biopsy hematoma. A total of 5304 thyroid nodules which underwent ultrasound guided biopsy were included in this retrospective study. We compared clinical and US features between patients with and without post-biopsy hematoma. Associations between these features and post-biopsy hematoma were analyzed. Post-biopsy hematoma rate was 0.8% (43/5121) for ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration and 4.9% (9/183) for ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy (P guided-fine needle aspiration, gender, age, size, presence of vascularity, and suspicious US features were not associated with post-biopsy hematoma according to experience level. Post-biopsy hematoma occurred significantly more with ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy (9/179, 5.0%) than with ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration (9/1138, 0.8%) (P guided-core needle biopsy was the only significant risk factor for post-biopsy hematoma (adjusted Odds Ratio, 6.458, P guided-core needle biopsy than in ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration and ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy was the only independent factor of post-biopsy hematoma in thyroid nodules.

  4. A plasma needle generates nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, E; Gonzalvo, Y Aranda; Whitmore, T D; Seymour, D L; Rees, J A

    2006-01-01

    Generation of nitric oxide (NO) by a plasma needle is studied by means of mass spectrometry. The plasma needle is an atmospheric glow generated by a radio-frequency excitation in a mixture of helium and air. This source is used for the treatment of living tissues, and nitric oxide may be one of the most important active agents in plasma therapy. Efficient NO generation is of particular importance in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Mass spectrometric measurements have been performed under various plasma conditions; gas composition in the plasma and conversion of feed gases (nitrogen and oxygen) into other species has been studied. Up to 30% of the N 2 and O 2 input is consumed in the discharge, and NO has been identified as the main conversion product

  5. A simultaneous comparison of acupuncture needle and insulated needle sphenoidal electrodes for detection of anterior temporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    1992-01-01

    Uninsulated acupuncture needles have been used as sphenoidal electrodes, but the issue of insulation has not been adequately addressed. In this report, acupuncture needles and insulated needle sphenoidal electrodes were simultaneously used to compare the rate of spike detection, spike amplitude and distribution of maximal spikes from eight spike foci in seven patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. When compared to the insulated needle electrode, the acupuncture needle electrode was equally effective in spike detection, but spike amplitudes tended to be smaller and maximal spikes were less frequently encountered. Thus, insulation has an influence on the spikes recorded by the acupuncture needle sphenoidal electrode. However, the overall effect appears to be not sufficiently different from the insulated needle electrode for the purpose of detecting anterior temporal spikes in outpatient EEG recordings for the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  6. A retractable barb needle for drug darts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. van Rooyen

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism and action of a new retractable barbneedle for drug darts are described. This dart needle is particularly successful in obviating unnecessary flight reactions andtrauma in darted animals, and facilitates the complete injection of the drug dose before the barb is retracted and the dart is dislogded from the animal. The whole process is completed within a few seconds and the expended dart can usually be retrieved in the immediate vicinity where the animal was darted.

  7. Strategies for production of active eukaryotic proteins in bacterial expression system

    OpenAIRE

    Orawan Khow; Sunutcha Suntrarachun

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria have long been the favorite expression system for recombinant protein production. However, the flaw of the system is that insoluble and inactive proteins are co-produced due to codon bias, protein folding, phosphorylation, glycosylation, mRNA stability and promoter strength. Factors are cited and the methods to convert to soluble and active proteins are described, for example a tight control of Escherichia coli milieu, refolding from inclusion body and through fusion technology.

  8. Pulsed photoelectric field emission from needle cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Garcia, C

    2002-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to measure the current emitted by tungsten needles with 1-mu m tip radius operated up to 50 kV. This corresponds to electric fields in the order of 10 sup 9 to 10 sup 1 sup 0 V/m. The needles were illuminated with 10-ns laser pulses at 532, 355 and 266 nm. The laser intensity was varied from 10 sup 1 sup 0 to 10 sup 1 sup 2 W/m sup 2 , limited by damage to the needle tip. The observed quantum efficiency depends on the wavelength and the electric field, approaching unity at the highest electric fields when illuminated at 266 nm. Peak currents up to 100 mA were observed in nanosecond pulses, corresponding to an estimated brightness of 10 sup 1 sup 6 A/m sup 2 sr. Since the current is controlled by the laser intensity, with only a weak voltage dependence, these cathodes can be used for infrared and ultraviolet tabletop free-electron lasers and other applications that demand short electron-beam pulses with high brightness.

  9. Liver abscess due to sewing needle perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Ewoud; Cense, Huib

    2010-08-03

    A 45-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a 1-week history of right upper abdominal pain and nausea. Ultrasonography showed a thickened duodenum with infiltration. Subsequent gastroscopy did not reveal any abnormalities. CT scan showed a foreign body perforation at the duodenum and a liver abscess (Fig. 1A,B). A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. During the operation, the abscess was drained (Fig. 2A,B) and a sewing needle was removed (Fig. 3A,B). The patient claimed to have no recollection of swallowing the needle and made a quick recovery. Although rare, gastrointestinal perforations due to ingested foreign bodies most frequently occur at ileocecal, rectosigmoid, and duodenal regions[1]. Sewing needle perforations into the liver have been reported in children, adults, and psychiatric cases. Symptoms can vary from mild gastric pain to signs of peritonitis[2]. "Wait and see" is recommended for asymptomatic patients with no complications. Symptomatic patients (e.g., liver abscess) need surgical intervention[1,2,3].

  10. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Fabio; Baena, Riccardo Rodriguez y; Dioguardi, Nicola; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Gaetani, Paolo; Franceschini, Barbara; Di Ieva, Antonio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Ceva-Grimaldi, Giorgia; Bollati, Angelo; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, E

    2006-01-01

    Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT) antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS) malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen) MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma), 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma),. A number of neuroectodermal (21%) and meningeal tumours (4%) were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells

  11. A Novel Design of Needle Aspiration Biopsy Monitoring Instrument (NAOMI Tested on a Low Cost Chest Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surakusumah Rino Ferdian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Needle biopsy is a medical intervention method for taking a lung tissue sample that suspected as a cancer. The disadvantage is the physicians directly visualize the anatomical structures in an open surgery for lung cancer biopsy procedure. There is a need to develop an instrument that may help the physician to guarantee the accuracy and efficiency while performing needle aspiration biopsy. Therefore, a needle aspiration biopsy monitoring instrument or named as NAOMI is proposed. It consists of a microcontroller system, an IMU sensor, an ultrasonic ranging module, a bluetooth module, and a 9V lithium battery. The experimental testing consist of performance testing, functional testing using chest phantom, and user acceptances. The results showed that the NAOMI improve the accuracy and efficiency while performing the needle biopsy operation.

  12. Ultrahigh-resolution robust needle probe for high-speed interstitial OCT imaging at 800 nm (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Li, Xingde

    2017-02-01

    We report an anastigmatic needle probe made with fiber-optic ball lens for high-speed circumferential interstitial OCT imaging. The anastigmatic design affords a high transverse resolution of 11.9 µm. The improved mechanical design enables a robust circumferential scanning speed up to 26.8 frames per second. The miniaturized needle probe has an outer diameter of 620 µm including the encasing metal guard and glass microcapillary. The performance of the anastigmatic OCT needle was demonstrated by imaging rat belly tissues and rat liver ex vivo with a 1300-nm swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system. The preliminary results suggest the potential of the needle probe for minimally invasive interstitial imaging and image-guided biopsy.

  13. Functionality of system components: Conservation of protein function in protein feature space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2003-01-01

    Many protein features useful for prediction of protein function can be predicted from sequence, including posttranslational modifications, subcellular localization, and physical/chemical properties. We show here that such protein features are more conserved among orthologs than paralogs, indicating...... they are crucial for protein function and thus subject to selective pressure. This means that a function prediction method based on sequence-derived features may be able to discriminate between proteins with different function even when they have highly similar structure. Also, such a method is likely to perform...... well on organisms other than the one on which it was trained. We evaluate the performance of such a method, ProtFun, which relies on protein features as its sole input, and show that the method gives similar performance for most eukaryotes and performs much better than anticipated on archaea...

  14. Functionality of system components: Conservation of protein function in protein feature space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2003-01-01

    well on organisms other than the one on which it was trained. We evaluate the performance of such a method, ProtFun, which relies on protein features as its sole input, and show that the method gives similar performance for most eukaryotes and performs much better than anticipated on archaea......Many protein features useful for prediction of protein function can be predicted from sequence, including posttranslational modifications, subcellular localization, and physical/chemical properties. We show here that such protein features are more conserved among orthologs than paralogs, indicating...... they are crucial for protein function and thus subject to selective pressure. This means that a function prediction method based on sequence-derived features may be able to discriminate between proteins with different function even when they have highly similar structure. Also, such a method is likely to perform...

  15. InSilico Proteomics System: Integration and Application of Protein and Protein-Protein Interaction Data using Microsoft .NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straßer Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, biological databases became the major knowledge resource for researchers in the field of molecular biology. The distribution of information among these databases is one of the major problems. An overview about the subject area of data access and representation of protein and protein-protein interaction data within public biological databases is described. For a comprehensive and consistent way of searching and analysing integrated protein and protein-protein interaction data, the InSilico Proteomics (ISP project has been initiated. Its three main objectives are (1 to provide an integrated knowledge pool for data investigation and global network analysis functions for a better understanding of a cell’s interactome, (2 employment of public data for plausibility analysis and validation of in-house experimental data and (3 testing the applicability of Microsoft’s .NET architecture for bioinformatics applications. Data integrated into the ISP database can be queried through the Web portal PRIMOS (PRotein Interaction and MOlecule Search which is freely available at http://biomis.fh-hagenberg.at/isp/primos.

  16. Operating needle exchange programmes in the hills of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J

    1995-01-01

    Injecting drug use is increasingly markedly amongst the ethnically distinct Hilltribe peoples of northern Thailand in the notorious 'Golden Triangle'. This paper reports on the establishing of needle exchanges in three remote Hilltribe villages, examining the success and the failure. Up to 60% of adult males and a smaller percentage of adult females in these villages are habitual users of opium and/or heroin. Overcoming initial concern that needle distribution would encourage increased use, the villagers themselves have assumed responsibility for much of the needle exchange operation. Prior to the introduction of the needle exchanges all the injecting drug users were sharing needles. This behaviour changed significantly with the introduction of the exchanges. Reluctance on the part of locally-based government officials to participate fully in the programme created difficulties in maintaining needle supplies which saw some resumption in needle sharing. HIV seroprevalence rates amongst the tested injecting drug users remained fairly stable at 33% in February 1993 and 32% in February 1994. The conclusion can be drawn that needle exchange programmes are operable in the Hilltribe context and that they are the best means of limiting HIV/AIDS transmission amongst injecting drug users and the wider community. The success of needle exchange programmes, however, is dependent upon co-operation from various government agencies and non-government agencies, in addition to the local communities. To this end mechanisms ensuring co-operation, training, monitoring and evaluation need to be developed alongside the introduction of needle exchanges.

  17. Initial experience using a radiofrequency powered transseptal needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelley, Matthew P; Shah, Dipak P; Weisberg, Ian; Kim, Susan S; Lin, Albert C; Beshai, John F; Burke, Martin C; Knight, Bradley P

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of using a novel radiofrequency (RF) powered transseptal needle to perform transseptal puncture (TSP). TSP was performed in 35 consecutive patients undergoing left-sided catheter ablation (mean age = 51 years; male = 71%) using a RF powered transseptal needle (NRG, Adult Large and Standard Curve C1, 71 cm, Baylis Medical Company, Inc.). Prior TSP had been performed in 34% of patients. The transseptal apparatus was positioned with the tip of the dilator engaged in the fossa ovalis. RF energy was delivered to the tip of the transseptal needle using a proprietary RF generator at 10 W for 2 seconds as gentle pressure was applied to the needle. In 5 of the 41 TSPs, the needle crossed into the left atrium before RF energy was delivered. In 35 of the remaining 36 punctures, the needle was successfully advanced into the left atrium after application of RF current. In 1 patient, the TSP with the powered needle was unsuccessful but was accomplished using a standard needle. The only complication was a transient right atrial thrombus, which occurred in 2 patients. A radiofrequency powered transseptal needle can be used to perform TSP safely and successfully without the need for significant mechanical force, even in patients who have undergone TSP previously. Additional studies are needed to determine whether a powered transseptal needle should be used routinely.

  18. Tendon needling for treatment of tendinopathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, David; Borchers, James; McCamey, Kendra

    2015-02-01

    To summarize the best available evidence to determine if tendon needling is an effective treatment for tendinopathy. Data source. Medline and Cochrane Databases through November 2013. Utilizing the search terms tendinopathy, needle, needling, tenotomy, dry needling, needling tendon, needle fenestration, and tendon fenestration, 17 articles were identified through our systematic literature search. Of these, 4 studies met the inclusion criteria. Four independent reviewers reviewed the articles. The study results and generated conclusions were agreed upon. The studies that were included in this review suggest that tendon needling improves patient reported outcomes in patients with tendinopathy. In 2 studies evaluating tendon needling in lateral epicondylosis, one showed an improvement in a subjective visual analogue scale score of 34% (significant change > 25%) from baseline at 6 months. The other showed an improvement of 56.1% in a visual analogue scale score from baseline. In 1 study evaluating tendon needling in addition to eccentric therapy for Achilles tendinosis, the subjective Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score improved by 19.9 (significant change > 10) (95% CI, 13.6-26.2) from baseline. In 1 study evaluating tendon needling in rotator cuff tendinosis, the subjective shoulder pain and disability index showed statistical significant improvement from baseline at 6 months (P tendinopathy. There is a trend that shows that the addition of autologous blood products may further improve theses outcomes.

  19. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP. Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1% of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3% of the needles and deflection ≥ 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%. Forty-seven (41.5% patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH and 13 (11.5% patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH. No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05. Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH.

  20. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Demir, Caner F.; Varol, Sefer; Arslan, Demet; Yıldız, Mustafa; Akil, Eşref

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP). Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1%) of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3%) of the needles and deflection ≥ 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%). Forty-seven (41.5%) patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) and 13 (11.5%) patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH). No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05). Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH. PMID:25883480

  1. SepD/SepL-dependent secretion signals of the type III secretion system translocator proteins in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B; Li, Yuling; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-04-01

    The type III protein secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for the pathogenesis of attaching/effacing bacterial pathogens, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and Citrobacter rodentium. These pathogens use the T3SS to sequentially secrete three categories of proteins: the T3SS needle and inner rod protein components; the EspA, EspB, and EspD translocators; and many LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors. SepD and SepL are essential for translocator secretion, and mutations in either lead to hypersecretion of effectors. However, how SepD and SepL control translocator secretion and secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors is poorly understood. In this report, we show that the secreted T3SS components, the translocators, and both LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors all carry N-terminal type III secretion and translocation signals. These signals all behave like those of the effectors and are sufficient for mediating type III secretion and translocation by wild-type EPEC and hypersecretion by the sepD and sepL mutants. Our results extended previous observations and suggest that the secretion hierarchy of the different substrates is determined by a signal other than the N-terminal secretion signal. We identified a domain located immediately downstream of the N-terminal secretion signal in the translocator EspB that is required for SepD/SepL-dependent secretion. We further demonstrated that this EspB domain confers SepD/SepL- and CesAB-dependent secretion on the secretion signal of effector EspZ. Our results thus suggest that SepD and SepL control and regulate secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors by recognizing translocator-specific export signals. Many bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like protein secretion apparatus, termed the type III protein secretion system (T3SS), to secrete and inject numerous proteins directly into the host cells to

  2. Ultrasound-guided three-dimensional needle steering in biological tissue with curved surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Moreira, Pedro; Shahriari, Navid; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    In this paper, we present a system capable of automatically steering a bevel-tipped flexible needle under ultrasound guidance toward a physical target while avoiding a physical obstacle embedded in gelatin phantoms and biological tissue with curved surfaces. An ultrasound pre-operative scan is

  3. A bacterial two-hybrid system that utilizes Gateway cloning for rapid screening of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Zogaj, Xhavit; Barker, Jeffrey R; Seshu, Janakiram; Dove, Simon L; Klose, Karl E

    2010-11-01

    Comprehensive clone sets representing the entire genome now exist for a large number of organisms. The Gateway entry clone sets are a particularly useful means to study gene function, given the ease of introduction into any Gateway-suitable destination vector. We have adapted a bacterial two-hybrid system for use with Gateway entry clone sets, such that potential interactions between proteins encoded within these clone sets can be determined by new destination vectors. We show that utilizing the Gateway clone sets for Francisella tularensis and Vibrio cholerae, known interactions between F. tularensis IglA and IglB and V. cholerae VipA and VipB could be confirmed with these destination vectors. Moreover, the introduction of unique tags into each vector allowed for visualization of the expressed hybrid proteins via Western immunoblot. This Gateway-suitable bacterial two-hybrid system provides a new tool for rapid screening of protein-protein interactions.

  4. EFFICACY OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN PROSTATE NEEDLE BIOPSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tameem Afroz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Prostate needle biopsies can pose a major diagnostic challenge when it comes to differentiating adenocarcinoma and its variants from its benign mimics. In needle biopsies, when the suspicious focus is small, morphological features may not suffice to differentiate it from its morphologic mimics like atrophy, basal cell hyperplasia, reactive inflammatory changes, seminal vesicles and adenosis. Immunohistochemical marker for basal cells, p63 and prostate cancer specific marker, Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase (AMACR help in overcoming such diagnostic dilemmas. MATERIALS AND METHODS We analysed 157 prostate core needle biopsies over a period of 2 years. Routine Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E sections and immunohistochemical markers for basal cells (p63 and prostate cancer specific marker (AMACR were used. Prospective study was done on prostate needle core biopsies. Biopsy was done under ultrasound guidance with an 18-gauge needle. Biopsy was done in patients with raised serum PSA levels for exclusion of prostate carcinoma. RESULTS Over a period of two years, 157 prostate core needle biopsies were studied. 83 were benign lesions comprising 69 benign prostatic hyperplasias, five basal cell hyperplasias, four granulomatous lesions and three showed atrophic changes. Two biopsies morphologically resembled seminal vesicles. Prostate cancer specific marker, AMACR was negative in all, but two lesions. In these two lesions, it showed weak nonspecific staining. Basal cell marker p63 showed a continuous staining pattern highlighting the basal cells in all the 69 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia, 5 cases of basal hyperplasia showed positivity in all the hyperplastic basal cells. In the two cases of seminal vesicles, it showed intense basal cell positivity. It showed a discontinuous pattern in two of the four granulomatous lesions and showed a weak, but a continuous staining pattern in the atrophic lesions. 74 were adenocarcinomas; the predominant

  5. Fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling for lumbar spinal stenosis using a specially designed needle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Kang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the methodological approach and clinical application of a minimally invasive intervention to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS. Methods Thirty-four patients with LSS underwent fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling using a specially designed flexed Round Needle. The needle was inserted 8-12 cm lateral to the midline at the level of the stenosis and advanced to a position between the anterior side of the facet joint and pedicle up to the outer-third of the pedicle. The needle was advanced medially and backed laterally within a few millimetres along the canal side of the inferior articular process between the facet joint and pedicle. The procedure was completed when a marked reduction in resistance was felt at the tip of the needle. The procedure was performed bilaterally at the level of the stenosis. Results The average follow-up period was 12.9 ± 1.1 months. The visual analogue scale (VAS pain score was reduced from 7.3 ± 2.0 to 4.6 ± 2.5 points, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI score decreased from 41.4 ± 17.2 to 25.5 ± 12.6% and the average self-rated improvement was 52.6 ± 33.1%. The VAS scores indicated that 14 (41.2% patients reported a "good" to "excellent" treatment response, while 11 (32.4% had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the ODI and 22 (64.7% had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the self-rated improvement scale. Conclusions These results suggest that fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling is effective for managing LSS.

  6. Context-specific protein network miner - an online system for exploring context-specific protein interaction networks from the literature

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh

    2012-04-06

    Background: Protein interaction networks (PINs) specific within a particular context contain crucial information regarding many cellular biological processes. For example, PINs may include information on the type and directionality of interaction (e.g. phosphorylation), location of interaction (i.e. tissues, cells), and related diseases. Currently, very few tools are capable of deriving context-specific PINs for conducting exploratory analysis. Results: We developed a literature-based online system, Context-specific Protein Network Miner (CPNM), which derives context-specific PINs in real-time from the PubMed database based on a set of user-input keywords and enhanced PubMed query system. CPNM reports enriched information on protein interactions (with type and directionality), their network topology with summary statistics (e.g. most densely connected proteins in the network; most densely connected protein-pairs; and proteins connected by most inbound/outbound links) that can be explored via a user-friendly interface. Some of the novel features of the CPNM system include PIN generation, ontology-based PubMed query enhancement, real-time, user-queried, up-to-date PubMed document processing, and prediction of PIN directionality. Conclusions: CPNM provides a tool for biologists to explore PINs. It is freely accessible at http://www.biotextminer.com/CPNM/. © 2012 Chowdhary et al.

  7. Treatment planning for prostate focal laser ablation in the face of needle placement uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepek, Jeremy, E-mail: jcepek@robarts.ca; Fenster, Aaron [Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John [Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Urology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Davidson, Sean R. H. [Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7 (Canada); Ghai, Sangeet [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To study the effect of needle placement uncertainty on the expected probability of achieving complete focal target destruction in focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer. Methods: Using a simplified model of prostate cancer focal target, and focal laser ablation region shapes, Monte Carlo simulations of needle placement error were performed to estimate the probability of completely ablating a region of target tissue. Results: Graphs of the probability of complete focal target ablation are presented over clinically relevant ranges of focal target sizes and shapes, ablation region sizes, and levels of needle placement uncertainty. In addition, a table is provided for estimating the maximum target size that is treatable. The results predict that targets whose length is at least 5 mm smaller than the diameter of each ablation region can be confidently ablated using, at most, four laser fibers if the standard deviation in each component of needle placement error is less than 3 mm. However, targets larger than this (i.e., near to or exceeding the diameter of each ablation region) require more careful planning. This process is facilitated by using the table provided. Conclusions: The probability of completely ablating a focal target using FLA is sensitive to the level of needle placement uncertainty, especially as the target length approaches and becomes greater than the diameter of ablated tissue that each individual laser fiber can achieve. The results of this work can be used to help determine individual patient eligibility for prostate FLA, to guide the planning of prostate FLA, and to quantify the clinical benefit of using advanced systems for accurate needle delivery for this treatment modality.

  8. Genetic reporter system for positioning of proteins at the bacterial pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixen, Kathryn R; Janakiraman, Anuradha; Garrity, Sean; Slade, Daniel J; Gray, Andrew N; Karahan, Nilay; Hochschild, Ann; Goldberg, Marcia B

    2012-01-01

    Spatial organization within bacteria is fundamental to many cellular processes, although the basic mechanisms underlying localization of proteins to specific sites within bacteria are poorly understood. The study of protein positioning has been limited by a paucity of methods that allow rapid large-scale screening for mutants in which protein positioning is altered. We developed a genetic reporter system for protein localization to the pole within the bacterial cytoplasm that allows saturation screening for mutants in Escherichia coli in which protein localization is altered. Utilizing this system, we identify proteins required for proper positioning of the Shigella autotransporter IcsA. Autotransporters, widely distributed bacterial virulence proteins, are secreted at the bacterial pole. We show that the conserved cell division protein FtsQ is required for localization of IcsA and other autotransporters to the pole. We demonstrate further that this system can be applied to the study of proteins other than autotransporters that display polar positioning within bacterial cells. Many proteins localize to specific sites within bacterial cells, and localization to these sites is frequently critical to proper protein function. The mechanisms that underlie protein localization are incompletely understood, in part because of the paucity of methods that allow saturation screening for mutants in which protein localization is altered. We developed a genetic reporter assay that enables screening of bacterial populations for changes in localization of proteins to the bacterial pole, and we demonstrate the utility of the system in identifying factors required for proper localization of the polar Shigella autotransporter protein IcsA. Using this method, we identify the conserved cell division protein FtsQ as being required for positioning of IcsA to the bacterial pole. We demonstrate further that the requirement for FtsQ for polar positioning applies to other autotransporters

  9. Systems and methods for the secretion of recombinant proteins in gram negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, III, Sydnor T.; Dominguez, Miguel A.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Haitjema, Charles H.

    2017-02-21

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for producing recombinant proteins utilizing mutant E. coli strains containing expression vectors carrying nucleic acids encoding the proteins, and secretory signal sequences to direct the secretion of the proteins to the culture medium. Host cells transformed with the expression vectors are also provided.

  10. Systems Proteomics View of the Endogenous Human Claudin Protein Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Koval, Michael; Ranganathan, Shoba; Fanayan, Susan; Hancock, William S; Lundberg, Emma K; Beavis, Ronald C; Lane, Lydie; Duek, Paula; McQuade, Leon; Kelleher, Neil L; Baker, Mark S

    2016-02-05

    Claudins are the major transmembrane protein components of tight junctions in human endothelia and epithelia. Tissue-specific expression of claudin members suggests that this protein family is not only essential for sustaining the role of tight junctions in cell permeability control but also vital in organizing cell contact signaling by protein-protein interactions. How this protein family is collectively processed and regulated is key to understanding the role of junctional proteins in preserving cell identity and tissue integrity. The focus of this review is to first provide a brief overview of the functional context, on the basis of the extensive body of claudin biology research that has been thoroughly reviewed, for endogenous human claudin members and then ascertain existing and future proteomics techniques that may be applicable to systematically characterizing the chemical forms and interacting protein partners of this protein family in human. The ability to elucidate claudin-based signaling networks may provide new insight into cell development and differentiation programs that are crucial to tissue stability and manipulation.

  11. Evaluating the advances and use of hypodermic needles in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynes, Sean G

    2014-10-01

    Different injection techniques and patient management methodologies have been proposed to decrease the fear patients may have concerning dental needles. Dental providers should have an understanding of the technological advances, changes in techniques, and patient perceptions associated with the hypodermic needle. This article provides an overview of the pain perception process associated with dental injections. It reviews the two main sensory nerve fibers associated with injection pain and discusses needle properties as well as complications and adverse occurrences.

  12. Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in a Rural Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultrasound scan. A 21-gauge 1½-inch or 23-gauge 1¼-inch needle, attached to a 10-mL disposable plastic syringe, was used for FNAB of superficial masses. For percutaneous FNAB of deep-seated organs and masses, a 23 gauge 1¼-inch needle or 3½-inch spinal needle was used. The aspirate was spread on slides and ...

  13. [Warm needling combined with element calcium for postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guowei; Li, Jing; Xue, Yuazhi; Li, Gang; Wu, Man; Li, Pengfei

    2015-09-01

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of warm needling combined with element calcium on postmenopausal osteoporosis, and to explore its action mechanism. Eighty-five postmenopausal patients were randomly divided into an observation group (43 cases) and a control group (42 cases). Both the two groups were treated with oral administration of caltrate-D tablet, 600 mg per day, once a day before sleep for one year. Patients in the observation group were treated with warm needling at Dazhu (BL 11), Shenshu (BL 23), Xuan-zhong (GB 39), once a day; 30 days of treatment were taken as a course, and totally 4 courses were given with an interval of 60 days between courses. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and hip joint, and the level of serum bone gla protein (S-BGP) and hydroxyproline/creatinine (Hyp/Cr) were observed before and after treatment in the two groups. (1)After treatment, the BMD in the observation group was significantly increased [lumbar vertebra (0. 811±0. 024) g/cm2 vs (0. 892±0.019) g/cm2, femoral neck (0. 512±0.014) g/cm2 vs (0. 554±0. 015) g/cm2, femoral trochanter (0. 716±0. 028) g/cm2 vs (0.769±0.026) g/cm2, Ward's trigonum (0. 590±0. 013) g/cm2 vs (0. 660±0. 017) g/cm2, all Posteoporosis is significant, which is likely to be achieved by reducing the bone metabolism of postmenopausal patients.

  14. Klotho Protein: Its Role in Aging and Central Nervous System Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksha, I S; Prokhorova, T A; Savushkina, O K; Tereshkina, E B

    2017-09-01

    This review is devoted to Klotho protein and recent evidences for its functions in the brain. Information on transcriptional regulation of the klotho gene and posttranslational modifications of the protein resulting in multiple forms of Klotho is reviewed. Evidence is summarized that Klotho regulates the activity of protein factors, enzymes, and receptors, including data suggesting the importance of its glycosidase activity. Effects of Klotho on components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system, signal cascades involving protein kinases and protein phosphorylation, as well as oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination are discussed. A possible contribution is proposed for Klotho levels in the development of central nervous system pathologies including mental disorders.

  15. NMR identification of the binding surfaces involved in the Salmonella and Shigella Type III secretion tip-translocon protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C; Kaur, Kawaljit; Chatterjee, Srirupa; Knight, Kevin M; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2016-08-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential for the pathogenesis of many bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella, which together are responsible for millions of deaths worldwide each year. The structural component of the T3SS consists of the needle apparatus, which is assembled in part by the protein-protein interaction between the tip and the translocon. The atomic detail of the interaction between the tip and the translocon proteins is currently unknown. Here, we used NMR methods to identify that the N-terminal domain of the Salmonella SipB translocon protein interacts with the SipD tip protein at a surface at the distal region of the tip formed by the mixed α/β domain and a portion of its coiled-coil domain. Likewise, the Shigella IpaB translocon protein and the IpaD tip protein interact with each other using similar surfaces identified for the Salmonella homologs. Furthermore, removal of the extreme N-terminal residues of the translocon protein, previously thought to be important for the interaction, had little change on the binding surface. Finally, mutations at the binding surface of SipD reduced invasion of Salmonella into human intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these results reveal the binding surfaces involved in the tip-translocon protein-protein interaction and advance our understanding of the assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus. Proteins 2016; 84:1097-1107. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Current status of core needle biopsy of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and large-needle biopsy have been used to diagnose thyroid nodules. Before the 1980s, large-needle biopsy was the standard procedure for the thyroid, but FNA became the standard diagnostic tool in the 1980s because it is a safe procedure that leads to accurate diagnoses. With advances in core needle biopsy (CNB) devices (i.e., spring-activated core needles) and development of high-resolution ultrasound, it has become possible to make accurate diagnoses while minimizing complications. Although 18- to 21-gauge core needles can be used to biopsy thyroid nodules, 18-gauge needles are most commonly used in Korea. The relationships among the size of the needle, the number of core specimens, and diagnostic accuracy have not yet been conclusively established, but the general tendency is that thinner needles cause less damage to the normal thyroid, but allow a smaller amount of thyroid tissue to be biopsied to be obtained. These relationships may be validated in the future.

  17. Systems Proteomics View of the Endogenous Human Claudin Protein Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Koval, Michael; Ranganathan, Shoba; Fanayan, Susan; Hancock, William S.; Lundberg, Emma K.; Beavis, Ronald C.; Lane, Lydie; Duek, Paula; McQuade, Leon; Kelleher, Neil L.; Baker, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are the major transmembrane protein components of tight junctions in human endothelia and epithelia. Tissue-specific expression of claudin members suggests that this protein family is not only essential for sustaining the role of tight junctions in cell permeability control but also vital in organizing cell contact signaling by protein–protein interactions. How this protein family is collectively processed and regulated is key to understanding the role of junctional proteins in preserving cell identity and tissue integrity. The focus of this review is to first provide a brief overview of the functional context, on the basis of the extensive body of claudin biology research that has been thoroughly reviewed, for endogenous human claudin members and then ascertain existing and future proteomics techniques that may be applicable to systematically characterizing the chemical forms and interacting protein partners of this protein family in human. The ability to elucidate claudin-based signaling networks may provide new insight into cell development and differentiation programs that are crucial to tissue stability and manipulation. PMID:26680015

  18. [Percutaneous needle aponeurotomy for Dupuytren's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, C K; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Bassemir, D; Hahn, P; Unglaub, F

    2016-02-01

    Percutaneous transverse aponeurotomy of the cord by using a hypodermic needle as a scalpel blade in order to improve function of the hand. Symptomatic flexion contracture with positive table top test caused by a single, palpable cord within the palm (primarily Tubiana stages I and II). Multiple, infiltrating or broad-based cords within the palm; irritated skin conditions; exclusive digital cord localization; recurrence after aponeurectomy; previous surgical intervention at the site of interest, digital nerve lesions; lack of patient compliance. Pinpoint surface anesthesia is obtained by injecting each portal area subdermally with 0.1 ml of local anesthetic. These applications start from distally to proximally within the palm while the most distal injection site is located proximal to the distal palm crease. Then the needle tip is introduced perpendicular to the cord. Sawing movements through the cord are performed transversely. While passively extending the contracted finger, the cord is held under tension which guarantees safe cutting. Patients are encouraged to report immediate pain sensation or numbness in order to prevent injuries to neurovascular structures and active finger flexion excludes tendon lesions during the procedure. Introducing the needle tip may be performed at several sites along the cord, if necessary, from distal to proximal at least 5 mm apart with prior pinpoint surface anesthesia. Finally, cautious passive stretching may be done after each release. Bandaging allowing immediate motion; application of a hand-based extension splint-glove during the night for 3-6 months. Recurrence rate was 53% in 15 retrospectively examined patients after a mean interval of 40 months postoperatively.

  19. Transbronchial needle aspiration "by the books"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupeli Elif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Training for advanced bronchoscopic procedures is acquired during the interventional pulmonology (IP Fellowship. Unfortunately a number of such programs are small, limiting dissemination of formal training. Objective : We studied success of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA in the hands of physicians without formal IP training. Methods : A technique of C-TBNA was learned solely from the literature, videos and practicing on inanimate models at "Hands-On" courses. Conventional TBNA with 21 and/or 19 gauge Smooth Shot Needles (Olympus® , Japan was performed on consecutive patients with undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Results : Thirty-four patients (male 23, mean age 54.9 ± 11.8 years underwent C-TBNA. Twenty-two patients had nodes larger than 20 mms. Suspected diagnoses were malignancy in 20 and nonmalignant conditions in 14. Final diagnoses were malignancy 17, sarcoidosis 4, reactive lymph nodes 12, and tuberculosis 1. Final diagnosis was established by C-TBNA in 14 (11 malignancy, 3 sarcoidosis; yield 41.1%, mediastinoscopy in 14, transthoracic needle aspiration in 3, peripheral lymph node biopsies in 2 and by endobronchial biopsy in 1. Nodal size had an impact on outcome (P = 0.000 while location did not (P = 0.33. C-TBNA was positive in 11/20 when malignancy was suspected (yield 55%, while 3/14 when benign diagnosis was suspected (yield 21.4% (P = 0.05. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy were 66.6%, 100%, 100%, 65%, and 79.4%, respectively. There were no complications or scope damage. Conclusion : Conventional-TBNA can be learned by the books and by practicing on inanimate models without formal training and results similar to those published in the literature could be achieved.

  20. A novel needle-type sampling device for flexible ultrathin bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yuji; Tanaka, Akiko; Hayashi, Katsutoshi; Shindoh, Yuriko; Iijima, Hideya

    2008-09-01

    Diagnosis of suspected cancer in the periphery of the lung is difficult. A flexible ultrathin bronchoscope has been developed for the diagnosis of peripherally located pulmonary lesions that cannot be reached with the sampling devices for standard flexible bronchoscopes. The diagnostic yield with forceps and a brush for ultrathin bronchoscopes, however, is not adequate, especially when a lesion is not exposed to the bronchial lumen. We have thus developed a novel needle-type sampling device and tested its yield in transbronchial cytology. The device consists of an elongated dental H-file (0.4 mm in diameter and 110 cm in length), a housing sheath (1.0 mm in outer diameter), and a novel handle, which enables rapid out-and-in motion of the needle. Ten consecutive patients with a peripheral pulmonary lesion who had an indication for diagnostic procedure with a flexible ultrathin bronchoscope were enrolled. The optimal bronchial route to the lesion was analyzed with virtual bronchoscopy in a data set obtained with high-resolution computed tomography, and a novel bronchial route labeling system (prior-ridge-based relative orientation nomenclature) was employed to guide insertion of the bronchoscope. Sampling with the novel needle was performed prior to use of the forceps and brush under conventional fluoroscopy. In all the cases, sampling with the needle was successful and the amount of the specimen was sufficient for cytology. Our novel sampling system with flexible ultrathin bronchoscopes may contribute to accurate and minimally invasive diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions.

  1. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signalling: focus on the cardiovascular system and regulator of G protein signalling proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Michel, Martin C.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many biological processes. Therefore, GPCR function is tightly controlled both at receptor level and at the level of signalling components. Well-known mechanisms by which GPCR function can be regulated comprise desensitization/resensitization

  2. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  3. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Manipulation of Proteins in Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolouie, Haniye; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    -functional characteristics of processed foods and/or the physico-chemical properties of protein-based films. At the same time, some proteins are responsible for reduction in quality and nutritional value, and/or causing allergic reactions in the human body. This study is a review of the influences of different types...... of plasma on the conformation and function of proteins with food origin, especially enzymes and allergens, as well as protein-made packaging films. In enzyme manipulation with plasma, deactivation has been reported to be either partial or complete. In addition, an activity increase has been observed in some...... factors, including treatment power, time, and gas type, as well as the nature of the substance and the treatment environment....

  4. PARPs database: A LIMS systems for protein-protein interaction data mining or laboratory information management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picard-Cloutier Aude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the "post-genome" era, mass spectrometry (MS has become an important method for the analysis of proteins and the rapid advancement of this technique, in combination with other proteomics methods, results in an increasing amount of proteome data. This data must be archived and analysed using specialized bioinformatics tools. Description We herein describe "PARPs database," a data analysis and management pipeline for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS proteomics. PARPs database is a web-based tool whose features include experiment annotation, protein database searching, protein sequence management, as well as data-mining of the peptides and proteins identified. Conclusion Using this pipeline, we have successfully identified several interactions of biological significance between PARP-1 and other proteins, namely RFC-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

  5. Relationship between buckling of acupuncture needles and the handle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Pannirselvan, Muthu; Xue, Charlie Changli; Xie, Yi Min

    2014-10-01

    Most popular single-use acupuncture needles consist of a stainless steel shaft with a handle made of copper coil or plastic stick. To determine the strengths and weaknesses of these two handle types for needle buckling. The buckling load for acupuncture needles with these two different handle types was determined using a digital scale, and the stiffness of stainless steel wires used in different types of acupuncture needles was measured using a Dynamic Mechanical Analysis machine. This study showed that an acupuncture needle with a copper coil handle was far more susceptible to buckling than a needle with a plastic stick handle. The average buckling force of acupuncture needles with plastic stick handles was 46.7% higher than that with copper coil handles for needles of 0.25 mm×30 mm, and 30.8% higher for needles of 0.25 mm×60 mm. Replacing a copper coil handle with a plastic stick handle could save about 100 tonnes of copper wires and 20 million metres of medical grade stainless steel wire a year worldwide. The results from this study suggest that the common practice of using coiled copper for handles on acupuncture needles should be re-evaluated. Replacing a copper coil handle with a plastic stick handle would significantly reduce needle buckling and improve patient comfort and safety. This would also reduce the consumption of copper and medical grade stainless steel wire considerably. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A bacterial pathogen uses distinct type III secretion systems to alternate between host kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causative agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and...

  7. Artifact-reduced imaging of biopsy needles with 2D multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hans; Hargreaves, Brian A; Daniel, Bruce L

    2017-12-29

    Magnetic resonance (MR) guidance for biopsy procedures requires high intrinsic soft-tissue contrast. However, artifacts induced by the metallic needle can reduce its localization and require low-susceptibility needle materials with poorer cutting performance. In a proof of concept, we demonstrate the feasibility of 2D multispectral imaging (2DMSI) for both needle tracking and for needle artifact reduction for more precise needle localization and to enable the usage of needle materials with higher susceptibility. We applied 2DMSI for imaging of MR-compatible biopsy needles, conventional stainless-steel needles, and mixed-material needles and compared it to conventional techniques. In addition, we exploited intrinsic off-resonance information for passive needle tracking. 2DMSI achieved a stronger reduction of the needle artifact compared to conventional techniques. For the mixed-material needles, the artifact was reduced to a level below that for MR-compatible needles with conventional imaging. The passive tracking also improved the ability to pinpoint the needle. 2DMSI is promising for both needle tracking and artifact-reduced imaging of biopsy needles for a more precise needle localization. 2DMSI may be particularly promising for needles inducing large distortions or for targeting of small lesions. In addition, it may enable the use of needle materials with higher susceptibility and potentially better sampling performance. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Effect of needle brand, needle bevel grind, and silicone lubrication on contamination of joints with tissue and hair debris after arthrocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sarah J; Adams, Stephen B; Moore, George E

    2015-04-01

    To assess contamination of joints with tissue and hair debris after arthrocentesis. Experimental. Fetlock joint tissues (n = 6 horses). Soft tissue flaps including joint capsule were dissected from the dorsal aspect of fetlock joints of 6 anesthetized horses leaving an intact proximal base ("live" model) or with complete excision and immediate mounting to a wooden frame ("fresh" model). Needles were inserted through joint tissues and saline solution was flushed through them into tissue culture plate wells, and then examined for tissue and hair debris. Nine needle types were assessed; variables included needle brand, needle bevel grind, needle size, and silicone lubrication. No significant difference was detected between "live" and "fresh" models for hair or tissue contamination. Compared to 20 g hypodermic needles, 19 g lubricated and 19 g non-lubricated needles had a significantly greater odds ratio (OR) for hair contamination. Nineteen-gauge non-lubricated needles had a significantly greater OR for hair contamination than 19 g lubricated needles. No significant differences in ORs were identified between type of needle bevel grind, brands of disposable hypodermic needles, or brands of spinal needles for hair or tissue contamination. Nineteen-gauge needles significantly increase the risk of joint contamination with hair compared to 20 g needles; non-lubricated 19 g needles have the greatest risk. All other needle types tested in this study have similar risks for tissue and hair contamination after arthrocentesis. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hot wire needle probe for thermal conductivity detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Rempe, Joy Lynn; Knudson, Darrell lee; Daw, Joshua Earl; Wilkins, Steven Curtis; Fox, Brandon S.; Heng, Ban

    2015-11-10

    An apparatus comprising a needle probe comprising a sheath, a heating element, a temperature sensor, and electrical insulation that allows thermal conductivity to be measured in extreme environments, such as in high-temperature irradiation testing. The heating element is contained within the sheath and is electrically conductive. In an embodiment, the heating element is a wire capable of being joule heated when an electrical current is applied. The temperature sensor is contained within the sheath, electrically insulated from the heating element and the sheath. The electrical insulation electrically insulates the sheath, heating element and temperature sensor. The electrical insulation fills the sheath having electrical resistance capable of preventing electrical conduction between the sheath, heating element, and temperature sensor. The control system is connected to the heating element and the temperature sensor.

  11. Extracellular matrix-associated proteins form an integral and dynamic system during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Though the essential role of extracellular matrix in biofilm development has been extensively documented, the function of matrix-associated proteins is elusive. Determining the dynamics of matrix-associated proteins would be a useful way to reveal their functions in biofilm development. Therefore, we applied iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to evaluate matrix-associated proteins isolated from different phases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 biofilms. Among the identified 389 proteins, 54 changed their abundance significantly. The increased abundance of stress resistance and nutrient metabolism-related proteins over the period of biofilm development was consistent with the hypothesis that biofilm matrix forms micro-environments in which cells are optimally organized to resist stress and use available nutrients. Secreted proteins, including novel putative effectors of the type III secretion system were identified, suggesting that the dynamics of pathogenesis-related proteins in the matrix are associated with biofilm development. Interestingly, there was a good correlation between the abundance changes of matrix-associated proteins and their expression. Further analysis revealed complex interactions among these modulated proteins, and the mutation of selected proteins attenuated biofilm development. Collectively, this work presents the first dynamic picture of matrix-associated proteins during biofilm development, and provides evidences that the matrix-associated proteins may form an integral and well regulated system that contributes to stress resistance, nutrient acquisition, pathogenesis and the stability of the biofilm.

  12. Evaluation of certain crop residues for carbohydrate and protein fractions by cornell net carbohydrate and protein system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarulu Swarna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four locally available crop residues viz., jowar stover (JS, maize stover (MS, red gram straw (RGS and black gram straw (BGS were evaluated for carbohydrate and protein fractions using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein (CNCP system. Lignin (% NDF was higher in legume straws as compared to cereal stovers while Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC (% DM followed the reverse trend. The carbohydrate fractions A and B1 were higher in BGS while B2 was higher in MS as compared to other crop residues. The unavailable cell wall fraction (C was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers. Among protein fractions, B1 was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers while B2 was higher in cereal stovers as compared to legume straws. Fraction B3 largely, bypass protein was highest in MS as compared to other crop residues. Acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP (% CP or unavailable protein fraction C was lowest in MS and highest in BGS. It is concluded that MS is superior in nutritional value for feeding ruminants as compared to other crop residues.

  13. Maillard-reaction-induced modification and aggregation of proteins and hardening of texture in protein bar model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Guo, Mufan; Liu, Dasong; Liu, Xiaoming; Labuza, Teodore P

    2013-03-01

    The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. The objective of this study was to determine the progress of the Maillard reaction in model systems of high-protein nutritional bars containing reducing sugars, and to illustrate the influences of the Maillard reaction on the modification and aggregation of proteins and the hardening of bar matrices during storage. The progress of the Maillard reaction, glycation, and aggregation of proteins, and textural changes in bar matrices were investigated during storage at 25, 35, and 45 °C. The initial development of the Maillard reaction caused little changes in hardness; however, further storage resulted in dramatic modification of protein with formation of high-molecular-weight polymers, resulting in the hardening in texture. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula minimized the changes in texture. The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. Maillard reaction is one of the mechanisms contributing to the hardening of bar matrix, particularly for the late stage of storage. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula will minimize the changes in texture. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper

    2014-01-01

    skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after...... blood perfusion recording and grouped according to needle type, skin blood perfusion response relates to needle diameter. The response was significantly higher after insertions with 28G and hooked 32G needles than with 30G (P ..., but there was a trend of an increased response with increasing needle diameter. Skin blood perfusion response to pen needle insertions rank according to needle diameter, and the tissue response caused by hooked 32G needles corresponds to that of 28G needles. The relation between needle diameter and trauma when...

  15. Fast and efficient protein purification using membrane adsorber systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suck, Kirstin; Walter, Johanna; Menzel, Frauke; Tappe, Alexander; Kasper, Cornelia; Naumann, Claudia; Zeidler, Robert; Scheper, Thomas

    2006-02-10

    The purification of proteins from complex cell culture samples is an essential step in proteomic research. Traditional chromatographic methods often require several steps resulting in time consuming and costly procedures. In contrast, protein purification via membrane adsorbers offers the advantage of fast and gentle but still effective isolation. In this work, we present a new method for purification of proteins from crude cell extracts via membrane adsorber based devices. This isolation procedure utilises the membranes favourable pore structure allowing high flow rates without causing high back pressure. Therefore, shear stress to fragile structures is avoided. In addition, mass transfer takes place through convection rather than diffusion, thus allowing very rapid separation processes. Based on this membrane adsorber technology the separation of two model proteins, human serum albumin (HSA) and immungluboline G (IgG) is shown. The isolation of human growth hormone (hGH) from chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture supernatant was performed using a cation exchange membrane. The isolation of the enzyme penicillin acylase from the crude Escherichia coli supernatant was achieved using an anion exchange spin column within one step at a considerable purity. In summary, the membrane adsorber devices have proven to be suitable tools for the purification of proteins from different complex cell culture samples.

  16. Time effect and aliquot concentration in Streptococcus mutans elimination by plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcantara, E.; López-Callejas, R.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Lagunas-Bernabé, S.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Barocio, S. R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; de la Piedad-Beneitez, A.

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric plasma needle systems are being intensively studied with a view to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study is the improved elimination of Streptococcus Mutants (S. mutans) bacteria. A 5 ml volume of Luria-Bertani culture medium has been inoculated with a test bacterial population and incubated during 24 hours, followed by ten dilutions producing aliquots at 20, 50 and 100 micro l per dilution. Each aliquot is deposited on a paper filter and then exposed to a 2 W RF room pressure helium plasma needle discharge at a 1.5 l.p.m. rate for 1, 3, 5 or 7 minutes. Each sample paper is placed in a test tube, again containing Luria-Bertani fluid, in order to develop a new bacterium colony after a 24h incubation period. The plasma needle lethality has been evaluated from absorbance studies by means of a 6305 Jeway spectrophotometer at a 600 nm wavelength, indicating a clear correlation with exposure time. These studies validate the high disinfection efficacy of the plasma needle.

  17. Time effect and aliquot concentration in Streptococcus mutans elimination by plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Alcantara, E; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Lagunas-Bernabé, S

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma needle systems are being intensively studied with a view to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study is the improved elimination of Streptococcus Mutants (S. mutans) bacteria. A 5 ml volume of Luria-Bertani culture medium has been inoculated with a test bacterial population and incubated during 24 hours, followed by ten dilutions producing aliquots at 20, 50 and 100 micro l per dilution. Each aliquot is deposited on a paper filter and then exposed to a 2 W RF room pressure helium plasma needle discharge at a 1.5 l.p.m. rate for 1, 3, 5 or 7 minutes. Each sample paper is placed in a test tube, again containing Luria-Bertani fluid, in order to develop a new bacterium colony after a 24h incubation period. The plasma needle lethality has been evaluated from absorbance studies by means of a 6305 Jeway spectrophotometer at a 600 nm wavelength, indicating a clear correlation with exposure time. These studies validate the high disinfection efficacy of the plasma needle.

  18. Electrical and optical characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet driven by neon trasformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, Rizan Rizon; Ahmad, Mohd Khairul; Soon, Chin Fhong; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Lias, Jais; Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Rusop, Mohamad; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2017-09-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet driven by double sinusoidal waveform of neon transformer is reported in this paper. The commercial neon transformer produces about 5 kV of peak sinusoidal voltages and 35 kHz of frequency. Argon gas has been used as discharge gas for this system since the discharge was easily developed rather than using helium gas. In addition, argon gas is three times cheaper than helium gas. The electrical property of the argon discharge has been analyzed in details by measuring its voltage, current and power during the discharge process. Interestingly, it has been found that the total power on the inner needle electrode was slightly lower than that of outer electrode. This may be due to the polarization charges that occurred at inner needle electrode. Then, further investigation to understand the discharge properties was carried out using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis. During OES measurements, two positions of plasma discharge are measured by aligning the quartz optical lens and spectrometer fiber. The OH emission intensity was found higher than that of N2 at the plasma orifice. However, OH emission intensity was lower at 1.5 cm distance from orifice which may be due to penning ionization effect. These results and understanding are essential for surface modification and biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet.

  19. Needle Tip Visibility in 3D Ultrasound Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arif (Muhammad); A. Moelker (Adriaan); T.W. van Walsum (Theo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAim: Needle visibility is crucial for effective and safe ultrasound-guided interventional procedures. Several studies have investigated needle visibility in 2D ultrasound imaging, but less information is available for 3D ultrasound imaging, a modality that has great potential for image

  20. Local variations in microfungal populations on Pinus sylvestris needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbière, François; Debouzie, Domitien

    2003-10-01

    We studied the fungal colonization of Pinus sylvestris needles in two neighbouring sites, comparing stands of isolated and grouped trees. We observed large variations among the proportions of needles bearing fruit bodies of Cyclaneusma minus, Lophodermium pinastri, Verticicladium trifidum and black lines characteristic of L. pinastri colonization. Variations between sites and within trees were greater than that between stands or between trees. The frequency of L. pinastri colonization was negatively correlated with C. minus fruit body frequency, while the frequency of V. trifidum conidiophores was positively correlated with L. pinastri colonization frequency without fruiting, and negatively correlated with C. minus apothecia frequency. Although L. pinastri black lines and C. minus apothecia were nearly randomly associated on individual needles in each sample, the two fungi occupied different segments when they occupied the same needle. These patterns at needle and sample scales do not explain the negative correlation between the frequencies of these two species observed at larger scales. In each sample, frequency of V. trifidum conidiophores was highest on needles colonized by L. pinastri without fruiting. On individual needles, V. trifidum conidiophores developed on segments colonized by L. pinastri without fruiting, but not on segments bearing fruit bodies of L. pinastri or C. minus. These patterns at needle and sample scales were consistent with the correlations between frequencies observed at larger scales. These results were compared to variations observed with stand age and climate in others studies. The observed variations might result from both microclimate variations and fungal interactions.

  1. Effect of dietary mugwort ( Artemisia vulgaris L.) and pine needle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary mugwort and pine needle powder supplementation on growth performance, serum cholesterol, and meat quality of broilers were evaluated in a 35 days feed trial. 200 one day old broilers were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0, 1 and 2% mugwort or 1 and 2% pine needle powder) with ...

  2. Effect of vibration frequency on biopsy needle insertion force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Qin, Xuemei; Zhang, Qinhe; Zhang, Hongcai; Dong, Hongjian; Guo, Tuodang; Liu, Guowei

    2017-05-01

    Needle insertion is critical in many clinical medicine procedures, such as biopsy, brachytherapy, and injection therapy. A platform with two degrees of freedom was set up to study the effect of vibration frequency on needle insertion force. The gel phantom deformation at the needle cutting edge and the Voigt model are utilized to develop a dynamic model to explain the relationship between the insertion force and needle-tip velocity. The accuracy of this model was verified by performing needle insertions into phantom gel. The effect of vibration on insertion force can be explained as the vibration increasing the needle-tip velocity and subsequently increasing the insertion force. In a series of needle insertion experiments with different vibration frequencies, the peak forces were selected for comparison to explore the effect of vibration frequency on needle insertion force. The experimental results indicate that the insertion force at 500Hz increases up to 17.9% compared with the force at 50Hz. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spinal anaesthesia in young patients: evaluation of needle gauge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The well-known complication of spinal anaesthesia, postdural puncture headache (PDPH), is especially troublesome in young patients. The needle gauge and configuration of needle tip appear to be the important factors in reducing the incidence of PDPH; however it may increase the incidence of technical ...

  4. Needle-shaped and platelet growth of borax crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takoo, R.K.; Patel, B.R.; Joshi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Needle-shaped and platelet growth of borax crystals from solutions is reported. Results of microtopographical studies on both the varieties are discussed. It is suggested that a slow rate of evaporation favours needle growth and a faster rate is conducive to the growth of platelets. (author)

  5. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In Tumour Diagnosis | Obaseki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), a technique for obtaining cellular material for cytological examination and diagnosis using a 21- gauge or smaller needle, is performed using a 5, 10, or 20ml syringe either freehand or using special syringe holders. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of tissue samples but

  6. Diagnosis Of Thyroid Enlargement: Use Of Fine Needle Aspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ten Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies (FNAC) obtained from 87 patients with thyroid enlargement or nodules were retrospectively reviewed. Aspiration biopsy was accomplished using 21-gauge needle attached with 20-ml plastic syringe. There were 14 males and 73 females involved in the study. Sixty- four ...

  7. Prevalence of needle-stick injuries, blood and body fluids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health care workers are frequently exposed to needle-stick injuries, blood and body fluids in the performance of their duties. Aims and objectives: This study sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to needle-stick injuries, blood and body fluid contamination among clinical and ...

  8. Prevalence of Needle Stick Injuries among Healthcare Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Needle stick injuries represent one of the most important occupational hazards to which health workers are exposed. These injuries result from accidental piercing of the skin and or mucous membranes by sharp objects. Needle stick injuries carry the risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, especially ...

  9. Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Histopathologic Diagnosis. Wondwossen Ergete, Daniel Abebe. Abstract. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid is a low cost procedure, which can give an accurate diagnosis promptly. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic ...

  10. PVA matches human liver in needle-tissue interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, T.L.; Pluymen, L.H.; van Gerwen, D.J.; Kleinrensink, GJ; Dankelman, J.; van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Medical phantoms can be used to study needle-tissue interaction and to train medical residents. The purpose of this research is to study the suitability of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a liver tissue mimicking material in terms of needle-tissue interaction. Insertions into ex-vivo human livers were

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Door-to-needle time for administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infarction (STEMI) were identified; 161 patients were eligible for the study. The median door-to-needle time achieved was 54 minutes (range 13 - 553 mins). A door-to-needle time of 30 minutes or less was achieved in 33 (20.5%) patients; 51.3% of the patients arrived by ambulance; 34% of patients had a pre-hospital 12- ...

  12. Darning Needle Impacted in the Male Urethra | Singla | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign bodies of varied nature have been introduced into the urethra to achieve sexual stimulation. We report the case of a long (9.5 cm) darning needle impacted in the urethra of a male patient following urethral masturbation. After a failed trial at endoscopic extraction the needle had to be removed via open surgery.

  13. Importance of Fine Needle Aspiration in Evaluation of Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of biochemical thyroid tests, as well as the development of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and improved cytological techniques, have dramatically impacted clinical strategies for detecting and treating thyroid disorders. Fine needle aspiration is a safe and ...

  14. CT-guided needle puncture for diagnosis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Takashi; Kaji, Tatsumi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yasuo; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Kuroki, Kazunori; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Hara, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Tohru

    1987-12-01

    CT-guided needle puncture was performed in 16 aspiration biopsies, 12 nerve neurolysis, 6 percutaneous treatment such as abscess drainage. CT-guidance was better than fluoroscopic or sonographic control, in dealing with small, deeply-located lesions where precise location of needle is inevitable. We used the slotted 20 gauge thin-walled needle for biopsy, 21 or 22-gauge chiba-needle for other purposes. Over-all accuracy was 93.3 % in aspiration biopsies and technical successful rate in nerve neurolysis was 100 %. Only one pneumothorax was noted as a complication. CT-guided needle puncture was safe and exact, especially when fluoroscopic or sonographic guidance was not possible.

  15. Spread of fluid: Role of tip configurations in needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Silvana; Drakidis, Alexandros Dimitrios; Silva, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    data were obtained after injecting 0.3 mL of fluid into a foamed polymer model with a velocity of 2 mm/s. The spread area and the depth were determined for 3 different types of hypodermic needles: Single channel needles with bevel tip and blunt tip and a needle with conical tip and 3 internal channels......During the injection of a fluid in a tissue model, the fluid might be affected by the needle tip configuration and the number of channels. Thus, the objective of the present work is to observe the influence of different needle tips and number of channels on the spread of a fluid. Fluid distribution...

  16. Cell-free protein synthesis: Pros and cons of prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zemella, Anne; Thoring, Lena; Hoffmeister, Christian; Kubick, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    From its start as a small-scale in vitro system to study fundamental translation processes, cell-free protein synthesis quickly rose to become a potent platform for the high-yield production of proteins. In contrast to classical in vivo protein expression, cell-free systems do not need time-consuming cloning steps, and the open nature provides easy manipulation of reaction conditions as well as high-throughput potential. Especially for the synthesis of difficult to express proteins, such as t...

  17. Factors of importance for a successful delivery system for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert, Marco; Jorgensen, Lene; Horn Moeller, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Protein pharmaceuticals have matured into an important class of drugs, now comprising one in three novel drugs introduced on the market. However, significant gains are still to be made in reducing the costs of production, ensuring proper pharmacokinetics and efficacy, increasing patient compliance...

  18. New factors influencing G protein coupled receptors' system functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New factors such as the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) surrounding's chemical environment, cell membrane constituents, the existent gap junction, endogenous receptor affinity status and animal species have been shown to influence the GPCR physiology and variations of those factors can modify the functions of the ...

  19. Efficient preparation and analysis of membrane and membrane protein systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 10 (2016), s. 2468-2482 ISSN 0005-2736 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : tools and software * membrane building * protein insertion * molecular dynamics * lipid bilayer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  20. Smart sustainable bottle (SSB) system for E. coli based recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaopeng; Carstensen, Bettina; Rinas, Ursula

    2014-11-05

    Recombinant proteins are usually required in laboratories interested in the protein but not in the production process itself. Thus, technical equipment which is easy to handle and straight forward protein production procedures are of great benefit to those laboratories. Companies selling single use cultivation bags and bioreactors are trying to satisfy at least part of these needs. However, single-use systems can contribute to major costs which might be acceptable when "good manufacturing practices" are required but not acceptable for most laboratories facing tight funding. The assembly and application of a simple self-made "smart sustainable bottle" (SSB) system for E. coli based protein production is presented. The core of the SSB system is a 2-L glass bottle which is operated at constant temperature, air flow, and stirrer speed without measurement and control of pH and dissolved oxygen. Oxygen transfer capacities are in the range as in conventional bioreactors operated at intermediate aeration rates and by far exceed those found in conventional shaking flasks and disposable bioreactors. The SSB system was applied for the production of various recombinant proteins using T7-based expression systems and a defined autoinduction medium. The production performance regarding amount and solubility of proteins with robust and delicate properties was as good as in state-of-the-art stirred tank commercial bioreactors. The SSB system represents a low cost protein production device applicable for easy, effective, and reproducible recombinant protein production.

  1. Expression of Trans-Membrane Proteins in vitro Using a Cell Free System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Natalie; Noireaux, Vincent; Chalmeau, Jerome

    2010-10-01

    Trans-membrane proteins represent a significant portion of the proteins expressed by cells. The expression of proteins in vitro, however, remains a challenge. Numerous expression approaches have been developed with cell free expression (CFE) being one of the most promising. CFE is based on a transcription-translation system that has been extracted from E. coli bacteria. Adding the desired DNA allows expression of a selected protein, and in the presence of phospholipids the expression of trans-membrane proteins becomes possible. In order to express trans-membrane proteins in a closed native environment, the cell free system (CFS) is encapsulated with a phospholipid bilayer, creating an artificial cell. To verify protein expression, AquaporinZ (AqpZ), a well-known trans-membrane protein tagged with a green fluorescent protein (eGFP), was used so the expressed proteins could be seen under a fluorescent microscope. These artificial cells will serve as an experimental platform for testing the viability of the expressed trans-membrane proteins. Results from the manipulation of these artificial cells by attaching them to the slide surface through streptavidin-biotin bonding will be presented.

  2. Multi-host expression system for recombinant production of challenging proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Steffen; Lorenz, Carmen; Baser, Bahar; Wördehoff, Mona; Jäger, Volker; van den Heuvel, Joop

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant production of complex eukaryotic proteins for structural analyses typically requires a profound screening process to identify suitable constructs for the expression of ample amounts of properly folded protein. Furthermore, the evaluation of an optimal expression host has a major impact on protein yield and quality as well as on actual cost of the production process. Here we present a novel fast expression system for multiple hosts based on a single donor vector termed pFlp-Bac-to-Mam. The range of applications of pFlp-Bac-to-Mam comprises highly efficient transient transfection of HEK293-6E in serum-free suspension culture and subsequent large-scale production of challenging proteins expressing in mg per Liter level using either the baculoviral expression vector system or stable CHO production cell lines generated by Flp-mediated cassette exchange. The success of the multi-host expression vector to identify the optimal expression strategy for efficient production of high quality protein is demonstrated in a comparative expression study of three model proteins representing different protein classes: intracellular expression using a fluorescent protein, secretion of a single-chain-Fv-hIgG1Fc fusion construct and production of a large amount of highly homogeneous protein sample of the extracellular domain of a Toll-like receptor. The evaluation of the production efficiency shows that the pFlp-Bac-to-Mam system allows a fast and individual optimization of the expression strategy for each protein class.

  3. A feature analysis of lower solubility proteins in three eukaryotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Razvan F; Chan, Gerard T; Zhu, Mang; Wong, Eric T C; Taghizadeh, Farnaz; Hu, Xiaoke; Mehran, Arya E; Johnson, James D; Gsponer, Jörg; Mayor, Thibault

    2015-04-06

    Because misfolded and damaged proteins can form potentially harmful aggregates, all living organisms have evolved a wide variety of quality control mechanisms. However, the timely clearance of aggregation-prone species may not always be achieved, potentially leading to the accumulation of low solubility proteins. At the same time, promiscuity, which can be a driving force for aggregation, is also important to the functionality of certain proteins which have a large number of interaction partners. Considerable efforts have been made towards characterizing why some proteins appear to be more aggregation-prone than others. In this study, we analyze the features of proteins which precipitate following centrifugation in unstressed yeast cells, human SH-SY5Y cells and mouse brain tissue. By normalizing for protein abundance, we devised an approach whereby lower solubility proteins are reliably identified. Our findings indicate that these tend to be longer, low abundance proteins, which contain fewer hydrophobic amino acids. Furthermore, low solubility proteins also contain more low complexity and disordered regions. Overall, we observed an increase in features that link low solubility proteins to functional aggregates. Our results indicate that lower solubility proteins from three biologically distinct model systems share several common traits, shedding light on potentially universal solubility determinants. We set up a novel approach to identify lower solubility proteins in unstressed cells by comparing precipitated proteins with those that remain soluble after centrifugation. By analyzing three eukaryotic model systems in parallel, we were able to identify traits which cross the species barrier, as well as species-specific characteristics. Notably, our analyses revealed a number of primary and secondary structural features that set apart lower solubility proteins, a number of which connected them to a greater potential for promiscuity. This article is part of a Special

  4. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Feng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-15

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y{sup 3+}), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10{sup -7}-2.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10{sup -9}, 9.8x10{sup -9} and 2.1x10{sup -8}g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of pancreatic lesions with 22 versus 25 Gauge needles: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Stasi, Elisa; Di Maso, Marianna; Serviddio, Gaetano; Ali Hussein, Mohammed Salah; Muscatiello, Nicola

    2017-10-01

    Robust data in favour of a clear superiority of 22 versus 25 Gauge needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration are still lacking. We aimed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and safety of these two needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of solid pancreatic lesions. A computerized bibliographic search was restricted to randomized controlled trials only. Pooled effects were calculated using a random-effects model and expressed in terms of risk ratio and 95% confidence interval. We analysed seven trials with 689 patients and 732 lesions (295 sampled with 22 Gauge needle, 309 with 25 Gauge needle, and 128 with both needles). A non-significant superiority of 25 Gauge in terms of pooled sensitivity (risk ratio: 0.93, 0.91-0.95 versus 0.89, 0.85-0.94 of 22 Gauge needle; p  = 0.13) and no difference in terms of specificity (1.00, 0.98-1.00 in both groups; p  = 0.85) were observed. Sample adequacy was similar between the two devices (risk ratio: 1.03, 0.99-1.06; p  = 0.15). Very few adverse events were observed and did not impact on patient outcomes. Our meta-analysis reveals non-superiority of 25 Gauge over 22 Gauge; hence no definitive recommendations over the use of one particular device can be made.

  6. Single-Camera Closed-Form Real-Time Needle Tracking for Ultrasound-Guided Needle Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mohammad; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rohling, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Many common needle intervention procedures are performed with ultrasound guidance because it is a flexible, cost-effective and widely available intra-operative imaging modality. In a needle insertion procedure with ultrasound guidance, real-time calculation and visualization of the needle trajectory can help to guide the choice of puncture site and needle angle to reach the target depicted in the ultrasound image. We found that it is feasible to calculate the needle trajectory with a single camera mounted directly on the ultrasound transducer by using the needle markings. Higher accuracy is achieved compared with other similar transducer-mounted needle trackers. We used an inexpensive, real-time and easy-to-use tracking method based on an automatic feature extraction algorithm and a closed-form method for pose estimation of the needle. The overall accuracy was 0.94 ± 0.46 mm. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the astrocyte intermediate filament system in diseases of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M; Pekny, Milos

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the hallmark intermediate filament (IF; also known as nanofilament) protein in astrocytes, a main type of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have a range of control and homeostatic functions in health and disease. Astrocytes assume a

  8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the astrocyte intermediate filament system in diseases of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, E.M.; Pekny, M.

    2015-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the hallmark intermediate filament (IF; also known as nanofilament) protein in astrocytes, a main type of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have a range of control and homeostatic functions in health and disease. Astrocytes assume a

  9. A versatile electrophoresis system for the analysis of high- and low-molecular-weight proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Tastet, Christophe; Lescuyer, Pierre; Diemer, Hélène; Luche, Sylvie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    website publisher www.interscience.wiley.com; International audience; A new, versatile, multiphasic buffer system for high-resolution sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins in the relative molecular weight range of 300 000-3000 Da is described. The system, based on the theory of multiphasic zone electrophoresis, allows complete stacking and destacking of proteins in the above M(r) range. The buffer system uses taurine and chloride as trailing and leading ion, re...

  10. [Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness in terms of acupoint location, needle insertion and needle manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianggang; Gu, Wenlong; Ma, Fen; Du, Yuzheng; Zhao, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness activates soreness, numbness, distention, heaviness, radiating and moving, electric shock and ant climbing sensations at the specific acupoints in the stroke patients. Radiating and moving sensations are the summary of needling sensations such as soreness, numbness and twitching presenting during lifting and thrusting manipulation. These sensations are the essential factors of the therapeutic effect of regaining consciousness. Radiating sensation refers to the conduction along meridians and radiation of soreness and numbness. Moving sensation refers to the local muscular twitching at acupoints and the involuntary movement of limbs, joints and the distal. Acupuncture at the specific acupoints achieves radiating and moving sensations for promoting the circulation in meridians, regulating qi and mind and balancing yin and yang in stroke patients. This therapy was introduced in the paper in view of acupoint location, needle insertion and manipulation.

  11. Modeling, simulation, and optimal initiation planning for needle insertion into the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Sedeh, R; Ahmadian, M T; Janabi-Sharifi, F

    2010-04-01

    Needle insertion simulation and planning systems (SPSs) will play an important role in diminishing inappropriate insertions into soft tissues and resultant complications. Difficulties in SPS development are due in large part to the computational requirements of the extensive calculations in finite element (FE) models of tissue. For clinical feasibility, the computational speed of SPSs must be improved. At the same time, a realistic model of tissue properties that reflects large and velocity-dependent deformations must be employed. The purpose of this study is to address the aforementioned difficulties by presenting a cost-effective SPS platform for needle insertions into the liver. The study was constrained to planar (2D) cases, but can be extended to 3D insertions. To accommodate large and velocity-dependent deformations, a hyperviscoelastic model was devised to produce an FE model of liver tissue. Material constants were identified by a genetic algorithm applied to the experimental results of unconfined compressions of bovine liver. The approach for SPS involves B-spline interpolations of sample data generated from the FE model of liver. Two interpolation-based models are introduced to approximate puncture times and to approximate the coordinates of FE model nodes interacting with the needle tip as a function of the needle initiation pose; the latter was also a function of postpuncture time. A real-time simulation framework is provided, and its computational benefit is highlighted by comparing its performance with the FE method. A planning algorithm for optimal needle initiation was designed, and its effectiveness was evaluated by analyzing its accuracy in reaching a random set of targets at different resolutions of sampled data using the FE model. The proposed simulation framework can easily surpass haptic rates (>500 Hz), even with a high pose resolution level ( approximately 30). The computational time required to update the coordinates of the node at the

  12. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To impr......Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli...... membrane protein F (OmpF) and osmotically inducible protein Y (OsmY). Based on the results of this initial study, we carried out an extended expression screen employing the OsmY fusion and multiple constructs of a more diverse set of human proteins. Using this high-throughput compatible system, we clearly...

  13. Hip Pain: Dry Needling Versus Cortisone Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is chronic, intermittent pain and tenderness on the outside of the hip. The medical community once thought that a swollen hip bursa was the source of such pain, which led to the use of corticosteroid injections to the bursa to help decrease swelling and pain. However, researchers now believe that injuries to the muscles and tendons around the hip are the actual cause of this pain, and that inflammation is often not involved. A study published in the April 2017 issue of JOSPT explores dry needling as an alternative to cortisone injections to reduce pain and improve function in patients with GTPS. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(4):240. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0504.

  14. WE-AB-BRA-10: Assessment of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-Based Sensing for Real-Time Needle Tracking During MR-Guided Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borot de Battisti, M; Maenhout, M; Lagendijk, J J W; Van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiotherapy, Utrecht (Netherlands); Denis de Senneville, B [IMB, UMR 5251 CNRS/University of Bordeaux, Talence (France); University Medical Center Utrecht, Imaging Division, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D [Philips Group Innovation, Biomedical Systems, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study assesses the potential of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based sensing for real-time needle (including catheter or tube) tracking during MR-guided HDR brachytherapy. Methods: The proposed FBG-based sensing tracking approach involves a MR-compatible stylet composed of three optic fibers with nine sets of embedded FBG sensors each. When the stylet is inserted inside the lumen of the needle, the FBG sensing system can measure the needle’s deflection. For localization of the needle in physical space, the position and orientation of the stylet base are mandatory. For this purpose, we propose to fix the stylet base and determine its position and orientation using a MR-based calibration as follows. First, the deflection of a needle inserted in a phantom in two different configurations is measured during simultaneous MR-imaging. Then, after segmentation of the needle shapes on the MR-images, the position and orientation of the stylet base is determined using a rigid registration of the needle shapes on both MR and FBG-based measurements. The calibration method was assessed by measuring the deflection of a needle in a prostate phantom in five different configurations using FBG-based sensing during simultaneous MR-imaging. Any two needle shapes were employed for the calibration step and the proposed FGB-tracking approach was subsequently evaluated on the other three needles configurations. The tracking accuracy was evaluated by computing the Euclidian distance between the 3D FBG vs. MR-based measurements. Results: Over all needle shapes tested, the average(standard deviation) Euclidian distance between the FBG and MR-based measurements was 0.79mm(0.37mm). The update rate and latency of the FBG-based measurements were 100ms and 300ms respectively. Conclusion: The proposed FBG-based protocol can measure the needle position with an accuracy, precision, update rate and latency eligible for accurate needle steering during MR-guided HDR brachytherapy. M. Borot de

  15. WE-AB-BRA-10: Assessment of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-Based Sensing for Real-Time Needle Tracking During MR-Guided Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borot de Battisti, M; Maenhout, M; Lagendijk, J J W; Van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A; Denis de Senneville, B; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the potential of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based sensing for real-time needle (including catheter or tube) tracking during MR-guided HDR brachytherapy. Methods: The proposed FBG-based sensing tracking approach involves a MR-compatible stylet composed of three optic fibers with nine sets of embedded FBG sensors each. When the stylet is inserted inside the lumen of the needle, the FBG sensing system can measure the needle’s deflection. For localization of the needle in physical space, the position and orientation of the stylet base are mandatory. For this purpose, we propose to fix the stylet base and determine its position and orientation using a MR-based calibration as follows. First, the deflection of a needle inserted in a phantom in two different configurations is measured during simultaneous MR-imaging. Then, after segmentation of the needle shapes on the MR-images, the position and orientation of the stylet base is determined using a rigid registration of the needle shapes on both MR and FBG-based measurements. The calibration method was assessed by measuring the deflection of a needle in a prostate phantom in five different configurations using FBG-based sensing during simultaneous MR-imaging. Any two needle shapes were employed for the calibration step and the proposed FGB-tracking approach was subsequently evaluated on the other three needles configurations. The tracking accuracy was evaluated by computing the Euclidian distance between the 3D FBG vs. MR-based measurements. Results: Over all needle shapes tested, the average(standard deviation) Euclidian distance between the FBG and MR-based measurements was 0.79mm(0.37mm). The update rate and latency of the FBG-based measurements were 100ms and 300ms respectively. Conclusion: The proposed FBG-based protocol can measure the needle position with an accuracy, precision, update rate and latency eligible for accurate needle steering during MR-guided HDR brachytherapy. M. Borot de

  16. An experimental study on hepatic ablation using an expandable radio-frequency needle electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Il; Lim, Hyo Keun; Park, Jong Min; Kang, Bo Kyung; Woo, Ji Young; Jang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Park, Cheol Keun; Heo, Jin Seok

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing on the size of thermal lesions after ablation using an expendable radio-frequency needle electrode in porcine liver. Ablation procedures involved the use of a monopolar radio-frequency generator and 15-G needle electrodes with four and seven retractable hooks (RITA Medical System, Mountain View, Cal., U.S.A.). The ablation protocol in fresh porcine liver comprised of combinations of varying hook deployment, highest set temperature, and ablation time. Following ablation, the maximum diameter of all thermal lesions was measured on a longitudinal section of the specimen. Ten representive lesions were examined by an experienced pathologist. At 3-cm hook deployment of the needle electrode with four lateral hooks, the size of spherical thermal lesions increased substantially with increases in the highest set temperature and ablation time until 11 minutes. After 11 minutes lesion size remained similar, with a maximum diameter of 3.3 cm. At 2-cm hook deployment, sizes decreased to about 2/3 of those at 3 cm , and at 1-cm hook deployment lesions were oblong. At 3-cm hook deployment of a needle electrode with seven hooks, the size of thermal lesions increased with increasing ablation time until 14 minutes, and the maximum diameter was 4.1 cm. Microscopic examination showed a wide zone of degeneration and focal coagulation necrosis. The size of thermal lesions produced by the use of an expandable radio-frequency needle electrode were predictable, varying according to degree of hook deployment, highest set temperature, and ablation time

  17. System-wide analysis reveals intrinsically disordered proteins are prone to ubiquitylation after misfolding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alex H M; Fang, Nancy N; Comyn, Sophie A; Gsponer, Jörg; Mayor, Thibault

    2013-09-01

    Damaged and misfolded proteins that are no longer functional in the cell need to be eliminated. Failure to do so might lead to their accumulation and aggregation, a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Protein quality control pathways play a major role in the degradation of these proteins, which is mediated mainly by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Despite significant focus on identifying ubiquitin ligases involved in these pathways, along with their substrates, a systems-level understanding of these pathways has been lacking. For instance, as misfolded proteins are rapidly ubiquitylated, unconjugated ubiquitin is rapidly depleted from the cell upon misfolding stress; yet it is unknown whether certain targets compete more efficiently to be ubiquitylated. Using a system-wide approach, we applied statistical and computational methods to identify characteristics enriched among proteins that are further ubiquitylated after heat shock. We discovered that distinct populations of structured and, surprisingly, intrinsically disordered proteins are prone to ubiquitylation. Proteomic analysis revealed that abundant and highly structured proteins constitute the bulk of proteins in the low-solubility fraction after heat shock, but only a portion is ubiquitylated. In contrast, ubiquitylated, intrinsically disordered proteins are enriched in the low-solubility fraction after heat shock. These proteins have a very low abundance in the cell, are rarely encoded by essential genes, and are enriched in binding motifs. In additional experiments, we confirmed that several of the identified intrinsically disordered proteins were ubiquitylated after heat shock and demonstrated for two of them that their disordered regions are important for ubiquitylation after heat shock. We propose that intrinsically disordered regions may be recognized by the protein quality control machinery and thereby facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins after heat shock.

  18. The Effect of Codon Mismatch on the Protein Translation System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinglin Zhang

    Full Text Available Incorrect protein translation, caused by codon mismatch, is an important problem of living cells. In this work, a computational model was introduced to quantify the effects of codon mismatch and the model was used to study the protein translation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. According to simulation results, the probability of codon mismatch will increase when the supply of amino acids is unbalanced, and the longer is the codon sequence, the larger is the probability for incorrect translation to occur, making the synthesis of long peptide chain difficult. By comparing to simulation results without codon mismatch effects taken into account, the fraction of mRNAs with bound ribosome decrease faster along the mRNAs, making the 5' ramp phenomenon more obvious. It was also found in our work that the premature mechanism resulted from codon mismatch can reduce the proportion of incorrect translation when the amino acid supply is extremely unbalanced, which is one possible source of high fidelity protein synthesis after peptidyl transfer.

  19. The Effect of Codon Mismatch on the Protein Translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dinglin; Chen, Danfeng; Cao, Liaoran; Li, Guohui; Cheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Incorrect protein translation, caused by codon mismatch, is an important problem of living cells. In this work, a computational model was introduced to quantify the effects of codon mismatch and the model was used to study the protein translation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. According to simulation results, the probability of codon mismatch will increase when the supply of amino acids is unbalanced, and the longer is the codon sequence, the larger is the probability for incorrect translation to occur, making the synthesis of long peptide chain difficult. By comparing to simulation results without codon mismatch effects taken into account, the fraction of mRNAs with bound ribosome decrease faster along the mRNAs, making the 5' ramp phenomenon more obvious. It was also found in our work that the premature mechanism resulted from codon mismatch can reduce the proportion of incorrect translation when the amino acid supply is extremely unbalanced, which is one possible source of high fidelity protein synthesis after peptidyl transfer.

  20. Photoactive assemblies of organic compounds and biomolecules: drug-protein supramolecular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vayá Pérez, Ignacio; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie Lyria; Jiménez Molero, María Consuelo; Miranda Alonso, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The properties of singlet and triplet excited states are strongly medium-dependent. Hence, these species constitute valuable tools as reporters to probe compartmentalised microenvironments, including drug@protein supramolecular systems. In the present review, the attention is focused on the photophysical properties of the probe drugs (rather than those of the protein chromophores) using transport proteins (serum albumins and 1-acid glycoproteins) as hosts. Specifically, f...

  1. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunhui; Ma, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs); however, whether MTrP needling is effective remains controversial. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of MTrP needling in patients with plantar heel pain. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, People's Republic of China), and CNKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure, People's Republic of China) databases were systematically reviewed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effects of MTrP needling. Pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% CIs were calculated for change in visual analog scale (VAS) score, and pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% CIs were calculated for success rate for pain and incidence of adverse events. A fixed-effects model or random-effects model was used to pool the estimates, depending on the heterogeneity among the included studies. Extensive literature search yielded 1,941 articles, of which only seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that MTrP needling significantly reduced the VAS score (WMD =-15.50, 95% CI: -19.48, -11.53; P <0.001) compared with control, but it had a similar success rate for pain with control (risk ratio [RR] =1.15, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.51; P =0.320). Moreover, MTrP needling was associated with a similar incidence of adverse events with control (RR =1.89, 95% CI: 0.38, 9.39; P =0.438). MTrP needling effectively reduced the heel pain due to plantar fasciitis. However, considering the potential limitations in this study, more large-scale, adequately powered, good-quality placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more trustworthy evidence in this area.

  2. CSF RBC count in successful first-attempt lumbar puncture: the interest of atraumatic needle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Dimitri; Thouvenot, Eric

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze CSF red blood cell (RBC) count from first-attempt lumbar punctures and to analyze parameters associated with first-attempt lumbar punctures and hemorrhagic lumbar puncture. This is a prospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent lumbar puncture for any reason other than suspected acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Analyzed parameters were the following: age, indication for lumbar puncture, aPTT ratio, PTT, platelet count, patient's position, needle type (atraumatic/standard), needle diameter, person performing lumbar puncture (medical student/resident/attending physician), number of lumbar levels punctured, necessity of needle repositioning, CSF RBC and white blood cell count, and protein level. Lumbar puncture resulting in RBC count > 5 RBC/mm 2 was classified as hemorrhagic lumbar puncture (different cut-offs were studied: > 5/> 10/> 100/> 500/> 1000 RBC). In total, 169 elective lumbar punctures in 165 different patients were included. First-attempt lumbar puncture occurred in 22% > 5 RBC, in 19.5% > 10 RBC, in 4.5% > 100 RBC, in 3% > 500 RBC, and 1.5% > 1000 RBC count. First-attempt lumbar puncture was associated with non-hemorrhagic lumbar puncture for each of the RBC count cut-offs (OR for non-hemorrhagic lumbar puncture in first-attempt lumbar puncture 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.7). The presence of a hemorrhagic disorder (concerning cerebral amyloid angiopathy in all patients) and higher aPTT ratio were associated with hemorrhagic lumbar puncture. Atraumatic needle use was associated with non-hemorrhagic lumbar puncture for RBC count cut-offs ≤ 5 and ≤ 10 RBC (OR for non-hemorrhagic lumbar puncture in atraumatic needle use 2.5 [95% CI 1.3-4.8] and 2.2 [95% CI 1.1-4.4], respectively). First-attempt lumbar puncture and hemorrhagic lumbar puncture were not associated with other parameters. Slightly elevated CSF RBC count after first-attempt lumbar puncture occurs relatively frequently, but is even more

  3. Modelling the role of the Hsp70/Hsp90 system in the maintenance of protein homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Carole J; Lorimer, Ian A J

    2011-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is an age-related disorder which is characterised by the accumulation of aggregated protein and neuronal cell death. There are many different neurodegenerative diseases which are classified according to the specific proteins involved and the regions of the brain which are affected. Despite individual differences, there are common mechanisms at the sub-cellular level leading to loss of protein homeostasis. The two central systems in protein homeostasis are the chaperone system, which promotes correct protein folding, and the cellular proteolytic system, which degrades misfolded or damaged proteins. Since these systems and their interactions are very complex, we use mathematical modelling to aid understanding of the processes involved. The model developed in this study focuses on the role of Hsp70 (IPR00103) and Hsp90 (IPR001404) chaperones in preventing both protein aggregation and cell death. Simulations were performed under three different conditions: no stress; transient stress due to an increase in reactive oxygen species; and high stress due to sustained increases in reactive oxygen species. The model predicts that protein homeostasis can be maintained during short periods of stress. However, under long periods of stress, the chaperone system becomes overwhelmed and the probability of cell death pathways being activated increases. Simulations were also run in which cell death mediated by the JNK (P45983) and p38 (Q16539) pathways was inhibited. The model predicts that inhibiting either or both of these pathways may delay cell death but does not stop the aggregation process and that eventually cells die due to aggregated protein inhibiting proteasomal function. This problem can be overcome if the sequestration of aggregated protein into inclusion bodies is enhanced. This model predicts responses to reactive oxygen species-mediated stress that are consistent with currently available experimental data. The model can be used to assess specific

  4. Modelling the role of the Hsp70/Hsp90 system in the maintenance of protein homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole J Proctor

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration is an age-related disorder which is characterised by the accumulation of aggregated protein and neuronal cell death. There are many different neurodegenerative diseases which are classified according to the specific proteins involved and the regions of the brain which are affected. Despite individual differences, there are common mechanisms at the sub-cellular level leading to loss of protein homeostasis. The two central systems in protein homeostasis are the chaperone system, which promotes correct protein folding, and the cellular proteolytic system, which degrades misfolded or damaged proteins. Since these systems and their interactions are very complex, we use mathematical modelling to aid understanding of the processes involved. The model developed in this study focuses on the role of Hsp70 (IPR00103 and Hsp90 (IPR001404 chaperones in preventing both protein aggregation and cell death. Simulations were performed under three different conditions: no stress; transient stress due to an increase in reactive oxygen species; and high stress due to sustained increases in reactive oxygen species. The model predicts that protein homeostasis can be maintained during short periods of stress. However, under long periods of stress, the chaperone system becomes overwhelmed and the probability of cell death pathways being activated increases. Simulations were also run in which cell death mediated by the JNK (P45983 and p38 (Q16539 pathways was inhibited. The model predicts that inhibiting either or both of these pathways may delay cell death but does not stop the aggregation process and that eventually cells die due to aggregated protein inhibiting proteasomal function. This problem can be overcome if the sequestration of aggregated protein into inclusion bodies is enhanced. This model predicts responses to reactive oxygen species-mediated stress that are consistent with currently available experimental data. The model can be used to

  5. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  6. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  7. The Serine Protease EspC from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Regulates Pore Formation and Cytotoxicity Mediated by the Type III Secretion System

    OpenAIRE

    Guignot, Julie; Segura, Audrey; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are specialized macromolecular machines critical for bacterial virulence, and allowing the injection of bacterial effectors into host cells. The T3SS-dependent injection process requires the prior insertion of a protein complex, the translocon, into host cell membranes consisting of two-T3SS hydrophobic proteins, associated with pore-forming activity. In all described T3SS to date, a hydrophilic protein connects one hydrophobic component to the T3SS needle, ...

  8. Immunolocalization of protein 4.1B in the rat digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Nobuo; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Yamakawa, Hisashi; Baba, Takeshi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Osamu; Ohno, Shinichi

    2004-05-01

    Protein 4.1 family proteins are thought to interact with membrane proteins and also membrane skeletons. In this study, immunohistochemical studies by light and electron microscopy were performed with a specific antibody against protein 4.1B. Specific protein 4.1B immunolabeling was observed in simple columnar epithelium in the adult rat large intestine, small intestine and stomach. Protein 4.1B immunolabeling was localized along the membranes facing the adjacent cells (lateral portion) and also facing the extracellular matrix (basal portion). Moreover, a spatial protein 4.1B expression gradient was observed along the crypt-villus axis of the rat small and large intestinal epithelium: strong protein 4.1B expression was present within the villus, with the crypt showing barely any detectable protein 4.1B. The expression of protein 4.1B was not detected in the stratified squamous epithelium in the forestomach or the esophagus. By immunoelectron microscopy, the immunolabeling of the cells was observed to be restricted to the cytoplasmic side just beneath the plasma membrane, including the membranes adjacent to the next cells, except for the tight junctions. We conclude that the protein 4.1B expression pattern is related to the maturation of simple columnar epithelium in the rat digestive system, probably by the effect of adhesion.

  9. Insertion mechanics of bioinspired needles into soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Seyedvahid; Jezler, Kyle; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2017-12-22

    Most studies to date confirm that any increase in the needle insertion force increases the damage to the tissue. When it comes to brain tissue, even minor damage can cause a long-lasting traumatic brain injury. Thus there is a great demand for innovative minimally invasive needles among the medical community. In our previous studies a novel bioinspired needle design with specially designed barbs was used to perform insertion tests into Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tissue-mimicking gels, in which it decreased the insertion force by as much as 25%. In this work, bioinspired needles were designed using a CAD software, and were then manufactured using a 3 D printer. The insertion tests into bovine brain and liver were then performed to further investigate the performance of our bioinspired needles in real tissues. Our results show that there was a 10-25% decrease in the insertion force for insertions into bovine brain, and a 35-45% reduction in the insertion force for insertions into bovine liver using the proposed bioinspired needles. The reduction in the insertion force is due to the decrease in the friction force of the bioinspired needle with the bovine tissues, and its results are consistent with our previous results.

  10. Return Rates for Needle Exchange Programs: A Common Criticism Answered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksobiech Kate

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study searched the available needle exchange program (NEP literature for return rate data. A total of 26 articles were found. The overall worldwide return rate was 90%, although this ranged from a low of 15% to a high of 112%. U.S. NEP return rates were gathered from only eight studies, indicating a clear need for more data, although U.S. return rates were comparable to those from NEPs outside of the U.S. One underlying assumption made by opponents of NEPs is that IDUs will not return needles to the distribution site, thereby potentially increasing the risk of health problems to the surrounding community from exposure to contaminated needles. This study's results suggest that NEPs are relatively successful in taking in used needles, although it is generally unclear where the needles were originally acquired, and if IDUs return their own needles, or are returning needles for a social network. Ways for AIDS Service Organizations to capitalize on these brief encounters with IDUs, as well as public policy implications of the findings, are discussed.

  11. Role of enzymes in improving the functionality of proteins in non-wheat dough systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renzetti, S.; Rosell, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Gluten free systems lack the viscoelastic network required to resist gas production and expansion during baking. Enzymatic treatments of the GF flours have been proposed initially for creating protein aggregates that mimic gluten functionality but then also for modifying proteins changing their

  12. A novel protein expression system-PichiaPink™- and a protocol for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... Pichia pastoris is a eukaryote and has many of the advantages of higher eukaryotic expression systems, such as protein processing, protein folding, and the availability of posttranslational modifications. It is as easy to manipulate as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, some serious ...

  13. A novel protein expression system-PichiaPink™- and a protocol for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pichia pastoris is a eukaryote and has many of the advantages of higher eukaryotic expression systems, such as protein processing, protein folding, and the availability of posttranslational modifications. It is as easy to manipulate as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, some serious and unavoidable ...

  14. PVA matches human liver in needle-tissue interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Tonke L; Pluymen, Loes H; van Gerwen, Dennis J; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2017-05-01

    Medical phantoms can be used to study needle-tissue interaction and to train medical residents. The purpose of this research is to study the suitability of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a liver tissue mimicking material in terms of needle-tissue interaction. Insertions into ex-vivo human livers were used for reference. Six PVA samples were created by varying the mass percentage of PVA to water (4m% and 7m%) and the number of freeze-thaw cycles (1, 2 and 3 cycles, 16hours of freezing at -19°C, 8hours of thawing). The inner needle of an 18 Gauge trocar needle with triangular tip was inserted 13 times into each of the samples, using an insertion velocity of 5 mm/s. In addition, 39 insertions were performed in two ex-vivo human livers. Axial forces on the needle were captured during insertion and retraction and characterized by friction along the needle shaft, peak forces, and number of peak forces per unit length. The concentration of PVA and the number of freeze-thaw cycles both influenced the mechanical interaction between needle and specimen. Insertions into 4m% PVA phantoms with 2 freeze-thaw cycles were comparable to human liver in terms of estimated friction along the needle shaft and the number of peak forces. Therefore, these phantoms are considered to be suitable liver mimicking materials for image-guided needle interventions. The mechanical properties of PVA hydrogels can be influenced in a controlled manner by varying the concentration of PVA and the number of freeze-thaw cycles, to mimic liver tissue characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Needle-use declarations at the Olympic Games Rio 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Molly; Stuart, Mark Campbell; Gribble, Hannah; Budgett, Richard; Pipe, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    We report on the results of the 'IOC Needle Policy' applied during the course of the Games of the XXXI Summer Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The policy was intended to empower physicians to ensure appropriate clinical use of needles within team medical environments, enhance the safety of those responsible for housekeeping services and others in the Olympic environment, and permit documentation of such procedures as an adjunct to the doping control programme. Any needle use required the submission of an 'Injection Declaration Form' to IOC medical officials. All ' Injection Declaration Forms' were reviewed and archived. The declarations provided basic information regarding the nature of the needle use and the product(s) involved, the physician, athlete and respective National Olympic Committee (NOC). The details of the declarations were subsequently categorised. A total of 367 declarations were received from physicians representing 49 NOCs. Needle-use declarations were more common in athletics, gymnastics, football and aquatics. A single product was administered in 60% of the cases, and more than one product was administered in 40%. The majority of declarations indicated the use of local anaesthetics, glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. The introduction of a 'Needle Policy' in the Olympic Games setting was intended to minimise the use of needles by non-physicians, promote evidence-based practice and to deter needle-based doping practices. Declarations were received from 49 of 209 NOCs suggesting either that needle use is minimal among certain teams or opportunities remain to enhance compliance with such policies at future games. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. The Search for Covalently Ligandable Proteins in Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Lal Badshah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary highlights the recent article published in Nature, June 2016, titled: “Proteome-wide covalent ligand discovery in native biological systems”. They screened the whole proteome of different human cell lines and cell lysates. Around 700 druggable cysteines in the whole proteome were found to bind the electrophilic fragments in both active and inactive states of the proteins. Their experiment and computational docking results agreed with one another. The usefulness of this study in terms of bringing a change in medicinal chemistry is highlighted here.

  17. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21686038

  18. Functional improvement of antibody fragments using a novel phage coat protein III fusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Bak; Larsen, Martin; Pedersen, Jesper Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    Functional expressions of proteins often depend on the presence of host specific factors. Frequently recombinant expression strategies of proteins in foreign hosts, such as bacteria, have been associated with poor yields or significant loss of functionality. Improvements in the performance...... of heterologous expression systems will benefit present-day quests in structural and functional genomics where high amounts of active protein are required. One example, which has been the subject of considerable interest, is recombinant antibodies or fragments thereof as expressions of these in bacteria......(s) of the filamentous phage coat protein III. Furthermore, it will be shown that the observed effect is neither due to improved stability nor increased avidity....

  19. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio

  20. Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins Coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT): Expanding Footprinting Strategies to Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinas, Aimee; Jones, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    Peptides containing the oxidation products of hydroxyl radical-mediated protein footprinting experiments are typically much less abundant than their unoxidized counterparts. This is inherent to the design of the experiment as excessive oxidation may lead to undesired conformational changes or unfolding of the protein, skewing the results. Thus, as the complexity of the systems studied using this method expands, the detection and identification of these oxidized species can be increasingly difficult with the limitations of data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and one-dimensional chromatography. Here we report the application of multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in combination with hydroxyl radical footprinting as a method to increase the identification of quantifiable peptides in these experiments. Using this method led to a 37% increase in unique peptide identifications as well as a 70% increase in protein group identifications over one-dimensional data-dependent acquisition on the same samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate the combination of these methods as a means to investigate megadalton complexes.

  1. The Protein Maker: an automated system for high-throughput parallel purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Eric R.; Begley, Darren W.; Anderson, Vanessa; Raymond, Amy C.; Haffner, Taryn E.; Robinson, John I.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Duncan, Natalie; Gerdts, Cory J.; Mixon, Mark B.; Nollert, Peter; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Maker instrument addresses a critical bottleneck in structural genomics by allowing automated purification and buffer testing of multiple protein targets in parallel with a single instrument. Here, the use of this instrument to (i) purify multiple influenza-virus proteins in parallel for crystallization trials and (ii) identify optimal lysis-buffer conditions prior to large-scale protein purification is described. The Protein Maker is an automated purification system developed by Emerald BioSystems for high-throughput parallel purification of proteins and antibodies. This instrument allows multiple load, wash and elution buffers to be used in parallel along independent lines for up to 24 individual samples. To demonstrate its utility, its use in the purification of five recombinant PB2 C-terminal domains from various subtypes of the influenza A virus is described. Three of these constructs crystallized and one diffracted X-rays to sufficient resolution for structure determination and deposition in the Protein Data Bank. Methods for screening lysis buffers for a cytochrome P450 from a pathogenic fungus prior to upscaling expression and purification are also described. The Protein Maker has become a valuable asset within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) and hence is a potentially valuable tool for a variety of high-throughput protein-purification applications

  2. Force Modeling, Identification, and Feedback Control of Robot-Assisted Needle Insertion: A Survey of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjun Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted surgery is of growing interest in the surgical and engineering communities. The use of robots allows surgery to be performed with precision using smaller instruments and incisions, resulting in shorter healing times. However, using current technology, an operator cannot directly feel the operation because the surgeon-instrument and instrument-tissue interaction force feedbacks are lost during needle insertion. Advancements in force feedback and control not only help reduce tissue deformation and needle deflection but also provide the surgeon with better control over the surgical instruments. The goal of this review is to summarize the key components surrounding the force feedback and control during robot-assisted needle insertion. The literature search was conducted during the middle months of 2017 using mainstream academic search engines with a combination of keywords relevant to the field. In total, 166 articles with valuable contents were analyzed and grouped into five related topics. This survey systemically summarizes the state-of-the-art force control technologies for robot-assisted needle insertion, such as force modeling, measurement, the factors that influence the interaction force, parameter identification, and force control algorithms. All studies show force control is still at its initial stage. The influence factors, needle deflection or planning remain open for investigation in future.

  3. Chemical immobilization of free-ranging fallow deer (Dama dama): effect of needle length on induction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, Ulrika A; Kjellander, Petter; Ahlqvist, Per; Johansson, Örjan; Sköld, Kent; Arnemo, Jon M

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated impact of the needle length, sex, and body condition on chemical immobilization induction time in 50 (29 males and 21 females) free-ranging fallow deer (Dama dama) in Sweden, 2006-11. Induction time is probably the single most important factor when immobilizing free-ranging wildlife with the use of a remote drug-delivery system. Induction times should be short to minimize stress and risk of injury, and to ensure that immobilized animals can be found and clinically monitored as soon as possible. We measured the distance between the darting location and where we recovered the immobilized animal and also the time occurring between the two events. We used two types of needles: 2.0 × 30- or 2.0 × 40-mm barbed needles with side ports. The most important result is that a 10-mm-longer dart needle can reduce the retrieval time substantially (>20 min) until an animal is under monitoring. On average after the darting, the retrieval time decreased from 51 to 29 min and the distance decreased from 519 m from the darting location to 294 m. We suggest that a needle length of 40 mm is preferable for immobilization of wild fallow deer, especially for animals in over-average-to-fat body condition.

  4. High Opening Injection Pressure Is Associated With Needle-Nerve and Needle-Fascia Contact During Femoral Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsden, Jeff; Latmore, Malikah; Levine, D Matt; Robinson, Allegra

    2016-01-01

    High opening injection pressures (OIPs) have been shown to predict sustained needle tip contact with the roots of the brachial plexus. Such roots have a uniquely high ratio of fascicular versus connective tissue. It is unknown if this relationship is preserved during multifascicular nerve blockade. We hypothesized that OIP can predict needle-nerve contact during femoral nerve block, as well as detect needle contact with the fascia iliaca. Twenty adults scheduled for femoral block were recruited. Using ultrasound, a 22-gauge needle was sequentially placed in 4 locations: indenting the fascia iliaca, advanced through the fascia iliaca while lateral to the nerve, slightly indenting the femoral nerve, and withdrawn from the nerve 1 mm. At each location, the OIP required to initiate an injection of 1 mL D5W (5% dextrose in water) at 10 mL/min was recorded. Blinded investigators performed evaluations and aborted injections when an OIP of 15 psi was reached. Opening injection pressure was 15 psi or greater for 90% and 100% of cases when the needle indented the femoral nerve and fascia iliaca, respectively. Opening injection pressure was less than 15 psi for all 20 patients when the needle was withdrawn 1 mm from the nerve as well as at the subfascial position (McNemar χ2 P fascia iliaca (100%). Needle tip positions not indenting these structures were associated with OIP of less than 15 psi (100%).

  5. Severe malnutrition due to systemic lupus erythematosus associated protein losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matan J; Theodor, Iris; Elazary, Anat Scheiman; Bekerman, Pazit; Nahmias, Avital; Rubinov, Alan; Ben-Yehuda, Arie

    2012-02-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus most often targets organs such as joints, serosa, skin, bone marrow, and the kidneys. Gastrointestinal complications are uncommon, and among these, protein losing enteropathy is particularly rare. We present a young woman who suffered from chronic abdominal pain and diarrhea, developed severe malnutrition, and was eventually diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and associated protein losing enteropathy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot perform...

  7. Sonographic Finding of Scrotal Cystic Lymphangioma with Hemorrhage Caused by Percutaneous Needle Aspiration: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Woon; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Lymphangioma is a hamartoma, which is a benign tumor caused by congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. These tumors usually occur in the neck and axilla, and occasionally in the mediastinum, mesenterium, retroperitoneum and thigh, The scrotum and perineum are the least frequent sites. We report here on an uncommon case of cystic lymphangioma that presented as focal hemorrhage caused by percutaneous needle aspiration, and we briefly review the radiologic finding and the relevant literature

  8. A novel prototype 3/5 laparoscopic needle driver: A validation study with conventional laparoscopic needle driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, Arvind P; Deshmukh, Chaitanya S; Joshi, Tanmay

    2018-01-01

    The challenges in laparoscopic suturing include need to expertise to suture. Laparoscopic needle holder is a" key" instrument to accomplish this arduous task. The objective of this new invention was to develop a laparoscopic needle holder which would be adapted to avoid any wobble (with a shaft diameter same as a 5mm port), ensure accurate and dexterous suturing not just in adult patients but pediatric patients alike (with a short shaft diameter) and finally ensure seamless throw of knots with a narrow tip configuration. We did an initial evaluation to evaluate the validity of the prototype needle holder and its impact on laparoscopic suturing skills by experienced laparoscopic surgeons and novice laparoscopic Surgeons. Both the groups of surgeons performed two tasks. The first task was to grasp the needle and position it in an angle deemed ideal for suturing. The second task was to pass suture through two fixed points and make a single square knot. At the end of the tasks each participant was asked to complete a 5- point Likert's scale questionnaire (8 items; 4 items of handling and 4 items of suturing) rating each needle holder. In expert group, the mean time to complete task 1 was shorter with prototype 3/5 laparoscopic needle holder (11.8 sec Vs 20.8 sec). The mean time to complete task 2 was also shorter with prototype 3/5 laparoscopic needle holder (103.2 sec Vs 153.2 sec). In novice group, mean time to complete both the task was shorter with prototype 3/5 laparoscopic needle holder. The expert laparoscopic surgeons as well as novice laparoscopic surgeons performed laparoscopic suturing faster and with more ease while using the prototype 3/5 laparoscopic needle holder.

  9. Fusion tags for protein solubility, purification and immunogenicity in Escherichia coli: the novel Fh8 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sofia; Almeida, André; Castro, António; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are now widely produced in diverse microbial cell factories. The Escherichia coli is still the dominant host for recombinant protein production but, as a bacterial cell, it also has its issues: the aggregation of foreign proteins into insoluble inclusion bodies is perhaps the main limiting factor of the E. coli expression system. Conversely, E. coli benefits of cost, ease of use and scale make it essential to design new approaches directed for improved recombinant protein production in this host cell. With the aid of genetic and protein engineering novel tailored-made strategies can be designed to suit user or process requirements. Gene fusion technology has been widely used for the improvement of soluble protein production and/or purification in E. coli, and for increasing peptide's immunogenicity as well. New fusion partners are constantly emerging and complementing the traditional solutions, as for instance, the Fh8 fusion tag that has been recently studied and ranked among the best solubility enhancer partners. In this review, we provide an overview of current strategies to improve recombinant protein production in E. coli, including the key factors for successful protein production, highlighting soluble protein production, and a comprehensive summary of the latest available and traditionally used gene fusion technologies. A special emphasis is given to the recently discovered Fh8 fusion system that can be used for soluble protein production, purification, and immunogenicity in E. coli. The number of existing fusion tags will probably increase in the next few years, and efforts should be taken to better understand how fusion tags act in E. coli. This knowledge will undoubtedly drive the development of new tailored-made tools for protein production in this bacterial system.

  10. Fusion tags for protein solubility, purification and immunogenicity in Escherichia coli: the novel Fh8 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sofia; Almeida, André; Castro, António; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are now widely produced in diverse microbial cell factories. The Escherichia coli is still the dominant host for recombinant protein production but, as a bacterial cell, it also has its issues: the aggregation of foreign proteins into insoluble inclusion bodies is perhaps the main limiting factor of the E. coli expression system. Conversely, E. coli benefits of cost, ease of use and scale make it essential to design new approaches directed for improved recombinant protein production in this host cell. With the aid of genetic and protein engineering novel tailored-made strategies can be designed to suit user or process requirements. Gene fusion technology has been widely used for the improvement of soluble protein production and/or purification in E. coli, and for increasing peptide’s immunogenicity as well. New fusion partners are constantly emerging and complementing the traditional solutions, as for instance, the Fh8 fusion tag that has been recently studied and ranked among the best solubility enhancer partners. In this review, we provide an overview of current strategies to improve recombinant protein production in E. coli, including the key factors for successful protein production, highlighting soluble protein production, and a comprehensive summary of the latest available and traditionally used gene fusion technologies. A special emphasis is given to the recently discovered Fh8 fusion system that can be used for soluble protein production, purification, and immunogenicity in E. coli. The number of existing fusion tags will probably increase in the next few years, and efforts should be taken to better understand how fusion tags act in E. coli. This knowledge will undoubtedly drive the development of new tailored-made tools for protein production in this bacterial system. PMID:24600443

  11. Virtobot 2.0: the future of automated surface documentation and CT-guided needle placement in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars Christian; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Breitbeck, Robert; Fürst, Martin; Kronreif, Gernot; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Thali, Michael; Flach, Patricia M

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present the second prototype of a robotic system to be used in forensic medicine. The system is capable of performing automated surface documentation using photogrammetry, optical surface scanning and image-guided, post-mortem needle placement for tissue sampling, liquid sampling, or the placement of guide wires. The upgraded system includes workflow optimizations, an automatic tool-change mechanism, a new software module for trajectory planning and a fully automatic computed tomography-data-set registration algorithm. We tested the placement accuracy of the system by using a needle phantom with radiopaque markers as targets. The system is routinely used for surface documentation and resulted in 24 surface documentations over the course of 11 months. We performed accuracy tests for needle placement using a biopsy phantom, and the Virtobot placed introducer needles with an accuracy of 1.4 mm (±0.9 mm). The second prototype of the Virtobot system is an upgrade of the first prototype but mainly focuses on streamlining the workflow and increasing the level of automation and also has an easier user interface. These upgrades make the Virtobot a potentially valuable tool for case documentation in a scalpel-free setting that uses purely imaging techniques and minimally invasive procedures and is the next step toward the future of virtual autopsy.

  12. Small-Scale Production of Recombinant Proteins Using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Numerous technological improvements, including progress in vector design, simplification of virus isolation techniques, and advancements in molecular biology and cell culture technologies, have greatly facilitated the use of the baculovirus-insect cell system for routine production of recombinant proteins. This chapter outlines the basic techniques for small-scale protein production using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS), including protocols for titer estimation in 96-well plates, expression optimization in 24-well plates, and recombinant protein expression from adherent and suspension cultures in six-well plates and in 50 mL insect cell cultures.

  13. Isolation of High-Purity Extracellular Vesicles by Extracting Proteins Using Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmin Kim

    Full Text Available We present a simple and rapid method to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs by using a polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. This system isolated more than ~75% of melanoma-derived EVs from a mixture of EVs and serum proteins. To increase the purity of EVs, a batch procedure was combined as additional steps to remove protein contaminants, and removed more than ~95% of the protein contaminants. We also performed RT-PCR and western blotting to verify the diagnostic applicability of the isolated EVs, and detected mRNA derived from melanoma cells and CD81 in isolated EVs.

  14. Dataset on force measurements of needle insertions into two ex-vivo human livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, T.L.; Dankelman, J.; van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    A needle-tissue interaction experiment has been carried out, by inserting the inner needle of a trocar needle into two ex-vivo human livers. The dataset contains the forces that act on the needle during insertion and retraction into the livers. In addition, a MATLAB code file is included that

  15. Modulation of the renin-angiotensin system by food protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuike

    derived BAPs can promote their use as safe antihypertensive agents. Moreover, future studies are needed to elucidate the long-term systemic molecular interactions of antihypertensive BAPs with the human genome, proteome and other cellular ...

  16. Cell-Free Protein Synthesis: Pros and Cons of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemella, Anne; Thoring, Lena; Hoffmeister, Christian; Kubick, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    From its start as a small-scale in vitro system to study fundamental translation processes, cell-free protein synthesis quickly rose to become a potent platform for the high-yield production of proteins. In contrast to classical in vivo protein expression, cell-free systems do not need time-consuming cloning steps, and the open nature provides easy manipulation of reaction conditions as well as high-throughput potential. Especially for the synthesis of difficult to express proteins, such as toxic and transmembrane proteins, cell-free systems are of enormous interest. The modification of the genetic code to incorporate non-canonical amino acids into the target protein in particular provides enormous potential in biotechnology and pharmaceutical research and is in the focus of many cell-free projects. Many sophisticated cell-free systems for manifold applications have been established. This review describes the recent advances in cell-free protein synthesis and details the expanding applications in this field. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Roles of F-box proteins in human digestive system tumors (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Lv, Liang; Huo, Jirong

    2014-12-01

    F-box proteins (FBPs), the substrate-recognition subunit of E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase, are the important components of Ub proteasome system (UPS). FBPs are involved in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of their target proteins. Many studies have described the roles of FBPs in human cancers. Digestive system tumors account for a large proportion of all the tumors, and their mortality is very high. This review summarizes for the first time the roles of FBPs in digestive system tumorige-nesis and tumor progression, aiming at finding new routes for the rational design of targeted anticancer therapies in digestive system tumors.

  18. A sewing needle in liver: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Quan Zhou; Wang, Jie; Sun, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Hepatic foreign bodies are quite rare. A sewing needle as a hepatic foreign body in an old woman is very rare and the managements have been varied. An old woman was incidentally found to have a sewing needle in her liver on abdominal X-ray. The sewing needle was kept stable in her liver after two years of follow-up. Eleven cases of sewing needle in the liver were reviewed. Sewing needle as a foreign body in the liver is rare. In general, the sewing needle should be removed through laparotomy or laparoscopy, but a stable and uncomplicated sewing needle in the liver need not be removed.

  19. Metallic sewing needle ingestion presenting as acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S; Jain, V; Ahmad, F; Kumar, R; Kishore, N

    2013-01-01

    We reported an unusual case of a 26-year-old man presenting to surgical emergency as generalized peritonitis following an ingestion of multiple metallic sewing needles. The X-ray of his abdomen showed pneumoperitoneum and multiple metallic foreign bodies in the abdominal cavity. An ultrasonogram of his abdomen showed multiple metallic foreign bodies in the abdominal cavity and urinary bladder. Emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. On laparotomy, gastric and duodenal perforation was found through which metallic sewing needles were protruding out. A peritoneal lavage was done, and all the sewing needles were extracted from the perforation site, paracolic gutter, liver parenchyma, and urinary bladder. The primary repair of the perforation with omental patching was done with the drainage of subhepatic space and pelvic cavity. These multiple ingested sewing needles led to the perforation of the stomach and the duodenum, which resulted in perforation peritonitis.

  20. Video endoscopy: removal of retained sewing needles from the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Ashok S; Gajbhiye, Raj N; Tirupude, Bhupesh H; Bajaj, Prasang P; Gupta, Tarush H

    2013-06-01

    We report an interesting case of a 21-year-old unmarried girl who swallowed six sewing needles. Her complaints were pain in the epigastrium, associated with nausea and vomiting. On examination, there was mild tenderness in the epigastrium. X-ray of the abdomen and endoscopy confirmed the presence of six needles in the duodenum, with tips lodged in the duodenal wall. Psychiatric opinion was sought which was normal. Under video endoscope (Pentax 2.8, EG 27708) guidance with Captura biopsy forceps without spikes (Cook DBF-2.4-160-S), six sewing needles were removed successfully from the duodenum through the endoscope channel without any complications. However, a video endoscopic removal of the retained six needles from duodenum is probably being reported for the first time.

  1. [Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture with golden needles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually.

  2. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  3. Needle phobia--changing venepuncture practice in ambulatory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgate, Claire; Heppell, Sue

    2005-11-01

    Needle phobia is a term used in practice to describe an anticipatory fear of needle insertion. A proportion of children display high levels of fear, pain and behavioural distress when exposed to, or anticipating, needle insertion. A difficult routine venepuncture in our ambulatory care unit led staff to review practice and develop a three-step approach to overcoming 'needle phobia': relaxation, control and graded exposure. These developments have resulted in the unit becoming a local referral centre for children and young people between the ages of 5-19 years with this problem. Time and skill are needed to prevent or overcome this distressing problem which can be caused by health care professionals not listening to children and young people.

  4. A Multicenter comparative trial of a novel EUS-guided core biopsy needle (SharkCore™) with the 22-gauge needle in patients with solid pancreatic mass lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Mariam; Siddiqui, Ali A; Kowalski, Thomas E; Loren, David E; Khalid, Ammara; Soomro, Ayesha; Mazhar, Syed M; Yoo, Joseph; Hasan, Raza; Yalamanchili, Silpa; Tarangelo, Nicholas; Taylor, Linda J; Adler, Douglas G

    2018-01-01

    The ability to obtain adequate tissue of solid pancreatic lesions by EUS-guided remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics and safety of EUS-FNA for evaluating solid pancreatic lesions using the standard 22-gauge needle versus a novel EUS biopsy needle. This was a multicenter retrospective study of EUS-guided sampling of solid pancreatic lesions between 2009 and 2015. Patients underwent EUS-guided sampling with a 22-gauge SharkCore (SC) needle or a standard 22-gauge FNA needle. Technical success, performance characteristics of EUS-FNA, the number of needle passes required to obtain a diagnosis, diagnostic accuracy, and complications were compared. A total of 1088 patients (mean age = 66 years; 49% female) with pancreatic masses underwent EUS-guided sampling with a 22-gauge SC needle (n = 115) or a standard 22-gauge FNA needle (n = 973). Technical success was 100%. The frequency of obtaining an adequate cytology by EUS-FNA was similar when using the SC and the standard needle (94.1% vs. 92.7%, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA for tissue diagnosis were not significantly different between two needles. Adequate sample collection leading to a definite diagnosis was achieved by the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd pass in 73%, 92%, and 98% of procedures using the SC needle and 20%, 37%, and 94% procedures using the standard needle (P < 0.001), respectively. The median number of passes to obtain a tissue diagnosis using the SC needle was significantly less as compared to the standard needle (1 and 3, respectively; P< 0.001). The EUS SC biopsy needle is safe and technically feasible for EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic mass lesions. Preliminary results suggest that the SC needle has a diagnostic yield similar to the standard EUS needle and significantly reduces the number of needle passes required to obtain a tissue diagnosis.

  5. Cloning and expression of the HIV protein in Escherichia coli cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiqin; Xu, Zhinan; Yin, Xiufei; Cen, Peilin

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen kinds of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) target genes were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, and specific plasmids were constructed as the templates for the expression of these genes in the cell-free system. Similarly, the linear PCR templates of these genes for cell-free protein expression were also constructed by using two PCR amplification process. These different templates can be employed to biosynthesize HIV proteins in the cell-free system simultaneously and can be adapted for some high-throughput processes. HIV protease (P10) was performed as a target protein, and two different templates (plasmid and PCR product) were prepared and used for P10 expression in the Escherichia coli cell-free system. The target protein P10 was detected in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels either by using a plasmid template or by a PCR template. These results are promising and helpful to develop a high throughput process for drug discovery.

  6. Cardiac tamponade caused by a migrating sewing needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affronti, Alessandro; Di Bella, Isidoro; Di Lazzaro, Davide; Capozzi, Rosanna; Scarnecchia, Elisa; Ragni, Temistocle

    2016-12-01

    : Penetrating injuries of the heart caused by migrating needles have been rarely described. They usually occur accidentally or are self-inflicted in the setting of an underlying psychiatric disorder. We present an unusual case of cardiac tamponade caused by a sewing needle that migrated to the heart from the chest wall through the lung. The lesions were successfully repaired through a median sternotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. The pathophysiological mechanism and the pertinent literature are briefly analysed.

  7. Percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy with repetitive airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswald, M; Ong, G; Yeoh, E

    1995-11-01

    To develop a technique for needle cricothyrotomy that mimics the normal respiratory cycle (using repetitive obstruction of the upper airway and relatively low flow oxygen through small catheters), a controlled trial in three anesthetized dogs was performed. Oxygen from a standard bottle and pressure reducer was delivered through the cricothyroid membrane at 0.36 L/kg/min, which is metabolically equivalent to 0.2 L/kg/min in an adult human. The upper airway was obstructed until the chest rose and then was unobstructed to allow exhalation. The animals were ventilated for 5 minutes to allow equilibration. Arterial PCO2 was measured after 2-minute periods of apnea and 3 minutes of ventilation, each repeated four times. The procedure was repeated in three other dogs at a flow of 0.18 L/kg/min to simulate a 50% air leak. Cricothyroid ventilation at 0.36 L/kg/min lowered the PCO2 from 65 mm Hg to 43 mm Hg, F = 258, P = .004. All PCO2 after 25 minutes were in the normal range. Ventilation at 0.18 L/kg/min stabilized the PCO2 at approximately 1.5 times normal (67 mm Hg versus 79 mm Hg for the preceding apnea, F = 77, P = .013). Flow rates achievable with 18- to 20-gauge catheters and standard oxygen sources are adequate for cricothyroid ventilation when the airway is repetitively obstructed to allow a normal respiratory cycle.

  8. Protective Capnothorax During Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, John, E-mail: jokavana@tcd.ie; Siemienowicz, Miranda L.; Lyen, Stephen; Kandel, Sonja; Rogalla, Patrik [University of Toronto, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeTransthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB) is an established procedure in the management of pulmonary nodules. The most common complications are directly related to crossing the lung or visceral pleura during the biopsy. In this study, we describe the use of carbon dioxide instead of room air to create a protective “capnothorax” during TTNB.Materials and MethodsFive patients underwent creation of a capnothorax during TTNB. Parameters recorded were location and size of target, distance from pleura, length of procedure, volume of carbon dioxide, periprocedural complications and biopsy result.ResultsInduction of capnothorax was successful in all cases. In two patients, a continuous infusion of carbon dioxide was required to maintain an adequate volume of intrapleural gas. In two patients, the carbon dioxide resolved spontaneously and in the remaining patients it was aspirated at the end of the procedure. All biopsies were diagnostic with no periprocedural or postprocedural complications.ConclusionThis study suggests that protective iatrogenic capnothorax is a safe and effective technique during TTNB. The intrinsic properties and availability of carbon dioxide make it an attractive alternative to room air.

  9. Susuks (charm needles) in the craniofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.; Ibrahim, N.; Tandjung, Y.R.M.; Shanmuhasuntharam, P.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine the numbers of susuks (charm needles) and their distribution in the craniofacial region of susuk wearers, and the sex, racial affiliation, and age of the wearers. In addition, we sought to determine whether the presence of susuks posed any potential hazard to patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied various radiographs of 33 susuk wearers (age range, 33-69 years) and investigated the most common sites of insertion in the craniofacial region. A susuk was also suspended inside a 1.5-T MRI machine to determined whether it was attracted by the machine's magnet. The largest number of susuks that we observed in the craniofacial region was 39 pins, and susuks were particularly numerous in Malay Muslim women. Other sites with susuks were the maxillofacial region (except the temporomandibular region) and the forehead. The susuks showed no ferromagnetic characteristics. As susuks are made from gold, they are generally biocompatible with human tissue and do not cause problems to their wearers. Gold and the other minor metal constituents found in susuks have no ferromagnetic characteristics and therefore pose no hazard to patients undergoing MRI. (author)

  10. Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP using In Vitro translation cell free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohamadipoor

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of the study: One of the major concerns about recombinant protein production is its possible toxicity for the organism. Purification of the recombinant protein is another challenge in this respect. Recently In Vitro translation cell free system that provides a coupled transcription-translation reaction for protein synthesis to overcome the above mentioned problems has been emerged. The aim of this study was expression of GFP as a marker for gene expression and protein in In Vitro translation system. Methods: pIVEX2.3-GFP plasmid was cloned to E. coli   and the plasmid DNA extracted. In Vitro translation was performed with RTS 100 E. coli Hy kit according to manufacture's instructions. Expression of recombinant fusion protein, His- GFP, was determined by SDS-PAGE, ELISA and western blot analysis. Results: Expected size of recombinant protein was detected in SDS-PAGE and further confirmed by western blot analysis and ELISA. Major conclusion: Results showed that In Vitro translation is suitable for expression of recombinant protein and fusion of the recombinant protein with His-tag facilitates the purification.

  11. GPCRdb: an information system for G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberg, Vignir; Mordalski, Stefan; Munk, Christian; Rataj, Krzysztof; Harpsøe, Kasper; Hauser, Alexander S; Vroling, Bas; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Vriend, Gert; Gloriam, David E

    2016-01-04

    Recent developments in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structural biology and pharmacology have greatly enhanced our knowledge of receptor structure-function relations, and have helped improve the scientific foundation for drug design studies. The GPCR database, GPCRdb, serves a dual role in disseminating and enabling new scientific developments by providing reference data, analysis tools and interactive diagrams. This paper highlights new features in the fifth major GPCRdb release: (i) GPCR crystal structure browsing, superposition and display of ligand interactions; (ii) direct deposition by users of point mutations and their effects on ligand binding; (iii) refined snake and helix box residue diagram looks; and (iii) phylogenetic trees with receptor classification colour schemes. Under the hood, the entire GPCRdb front- and back-ends have been re-coded within one infrastructure, ensuring a smooth browsing experience and development. GPCRdb is available at http://www.gpcrdb.org/ and it's open source code at https://bitbucket.org/gpcr/protwis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Bioactive electrospun fish sarcoplasmic proteins as a drug delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Karen; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Jessen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    fiberswere insoluble in water. However, when exposed to proteolytic enzymes, the fibers were degraded. Thedegradation products of the FSP fibers proved to be inhibitors of the diabetes-related enzyme DPP-IV. TheFSP fibers may have biomedical applications, among others as a delivery system. To demonstrate...

  13. Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanpajouh Mohsen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. Methods In a secondary analysis of a sample of drug dependents who were sampled from medical centers, prisons and streets of the capitals of 29 provinces in the Iran in 2007, 2091 male IDUs entered. Socio-demographic data, drug use data and high risk behaviors entered to a logistic regression to determine independent predictors of lifetime needle and syringe sharing. Results 749(35.8% reported lifetime experience of needle and syringe sharing. The likelihood of lifetime needle and syringe sharing was increased by female gender, being jobless, having illegal income, drug use by family members, pleasure/enjoyment as causes of first injection, first injection in roofless and roofed public places, usual injection at groin, usual injection at scrotum, lifetime experience of nonfatal overdose, and history of arrest in past year and was decreased by being alone at most injections. Conclusion However this data has been extracted from cross-sectional design and we can not conclude causation, some of the introduced variables with association with needle and syringe sharing may be used in HIV prevention programs which target reducing syringe sharing among IDUs.

  14. Neuromuscular Damage and Repair after Dry Needling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ares Domingo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Some dry needling treatments involve repetitive and rapid needle insertions into myofascial trigger points. This type of treatment causes muscle injury and can also damage nerve fibers. The aim of this study is to determine the injury caused by 15 repetitive punctures in the muscle and the intramuscular nerves in healthy mouse muscle and its ulterior regeneration. Methods. We repeatedly needled the levator auris longus muscle of mice, and then the muscles were processed with immunohistochemistry, methylene blue, and electron microscopy techniques. Results. Three hours after the dry needling procedure, the muscle fibers showed some signs of an inflammatory response, which progressed to greater intensity 24 hours after the procedure. Some inflammatory cells could still be seen when the muscle regeneration was almost complete seven days after the treatment. One day after the treatment, some changes in the distribution of receptors could be observed in the denervated postsynaptic component. Reinnervation was complete by the third day after the dry needling procedure. We also saw very fine axonal branches reinnervating all the postsynaptic components and some residual sprouts the same day. Conclusion. Repeated dry needling punctures in muscle do not perturb the different stages of muscle regeneration and reinnervation.

  15. Novel design of honeybee-inspired needles for percutaneous procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Mohammad; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2018-04-18

    The focus of this paper is to present new designs of innovative bioinspired needles to be used during percutaneous procedures. Insect stingers have been known to easily penetrate soft tissues. Bioinspired needles mimicking the barbs in a honeybee stinger were developed for a smaller insertion force, which can provide a less invasive procedure. Decreasing the insertion force will decrease the tissue deformation, which is essential for more accurate targeting. In this study, some design parameters, in particular, barb shape and geometry (i.e. front angle, back angle, and height) were defined, and their effects on the insertion force were investigated. Three-dimensional printing technology was used to manufacture bioinspired needles. A specially-designed insertion test setup using tissue mimicking polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gels was developed to measure the insertion and extraction forces. The barb design parameters were then experimentally modified through detailed experimental procedures to further reduce the insertion force. Different scales of the barbed needles were designed and used to explore the size-scale effect on the insertion force. To further investigate the efficacy of the proposed needle design in real surgeries, preliminary ex vivo insertion tests into bovine liver tissue were performed. Our results show that the insertion force of the needles in different scales decreased by 21-35% in PVC gel insertion tests, and by 46% in bovine liver tissue insertion tests.

  16. Nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy treating ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Huaxiu; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Yiwen; Ning, Huaying

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to discuss the nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy in the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. We nursed 46 patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with silver needle diathermy. Specific nursing was focused on physical condition evaluation and mental nursing before treatment, observation during and after treatment, diet nursing, needle eye nursing, functional training and propaganda and education when discharged. The result suggested that all the patients received mental nursing, diet guide, skin care, health education, functional training and follow-up visit from the nurse and all of them could endure silver needle diathermy as discomfort or drug allergy was barely found, so were slight scald and skin infection nearby the needle eye caused by fainting during acupuncture, accidental puncture or overheat. Follow-up visit showed that no patient suffered obvious untoward effect and the pain, joint range of motion and living condition were distinctly improved a week after discharging. In conclusion, during the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis applying silver needle diathermy, the nursing before, during and after the treatment can obviously reduce the complication, accelerate the recovery, which is highly safe.

  17. Needle stick injury in a radiology department: a decade analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayani, R.; Rajani, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of needle stick injury in health care workers of radiology department. Study type, settings and duration: Cross sectional, observational study conducted at the Radiology department of Aga Khan University hospital from January 2000 to May 2010. Subject and Methods: All self-reported needle stick injuries data of Health care workers of radiology department was recorded. The personnel involved (Radiologist, resident, radiographer, nurses etc), area of working and the causes of injury were identified including the procedural or post procedural details. Patient's status of hepatitis or blood borne infection was also noted. Data was recorded and analyzed in Excel worksheet. Results: A total of 55 health workers reported needle stick injuries at all sections of radiology departments with maximum number needle stick injuries at general radiography, fluoroscopy and IVP section. Radiographers and radiology residents received the maximum number of injuries. Major cause of injury was cannulation however, many injuries occurred during disposing or handling of bin. In majority of cases the patients were not infected with any known blood borne infections. Conclusions: Doctors and nurses get needle-stick injuries while carrying out clinical procedures, while, ancillary staff get infected post procedure during disposal of garbage. Policy message: Good occupational health and safety practices must be promoted to all staff. Safer disposal of needles is an important area where practice and procedure needs to be carefully reviewed. It is necessary to undertake a risk assessment, to offer counseling and Post Exposure Prophylaxis and treatment where necessary. (author)

  18. Dry needling in lateral epicondylitis: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Esat; Aktaş, Birol; Özkut, Afşar; Erinç, Samet; Yilmazoglu, Emime Gül

    2017-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE), a common disease, especially in middle age, causes decreased productivity and economic losses. The first-line treatment for LE is conservative and consists of topical and oral anti-inflammatory drugs, ice application, and brace use. If the first-line treatment fails, second-line treatment modalities, which are generally invasive, are offered. Second-line therapeutic regimens include saline, corticosteroid, or platelet-rich plasma injections. Dry needling is relatively new. We hypothesized that dry needling would be at least as effective as first-line treatment for LE. We compared the outcomes of first-line treatment and dry needling. The study allocated 110 patients into groups using online randomization software. After completing the Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), patients in group I received dry needling, whereas those in group II received first-line treatment, consisting of ibuprofen 100 mg twice a day and a proximal forearm brace. The patients were evaluated after three weeks and six months. The study ultimately analyzed 92 patients. Although both treatment methods were effective at three weeks, dry needling was significantly more effective than the first-line treatment at six months. Because of the low complication rate, dry needling is a safe method, and it might be an effective treatment option for LE.

  19. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  20. Atraumatic needles for lumbar puncture: why haven't neurologists changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A; Dobson, R; Kaninia, S; Giovannoni, G; Schmierer, K

    2016-02-01

    Diagnostic lumbar puncture is a key procedure in neurology; however, it is commonly complicated by post-lumbar puncture headache. Atraumatic needle systems can dramatically reduce the incidence of this iatrogenic complication. However, only a minority of neurologists use such needles. In this paper, we discuss possible reasons why neurologists have not switched to new technology, looking more at diffusion of innovation rather than lack of evidence. We suggest ways to overcome this failure to adopt change, ranging from local interventions to patient empowerment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/