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Sample records for system motor-cortical beta

  1. Motor-cortical interaction in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

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    Stephanie Franzkowiak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS increased activation of the primary motor cortex (M1 before and during movement execution followed by increased inhibition after movement termination was reported. The present study aimed at investigating, whether this activation pattern is due to altered functional interaction between motor cortical areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 10 GTS-patients and 10 control subjects performed a self-paced finger movement task while neuromagnetic brain activity was recorded using Magnetoencephalography (MEG. Cerebro-cerebral coherence as a measure of functional interaction was calculated. During movement preparation and execution coherence between contralateral M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA was significantly increased at beta-frequency in GTS-patients. After movement termination no significant differences between groups were evident. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data suggest that increased M1 activation in GTS-patients might be due to increased functional interaction between SMA and M1 most likely reflecting a pathophysiological marker of GTS. The data extend previous findings of motor-cortical alterations in GTS by showing that local activation changes are associated with alterations of functional networks between premotor and primary motor areas. Interestingly enough, alterations were evident during preparation and execution of voluntary movements, which implies a general theme of increased motor-cortical interaction in GTS.

  2. Scaling of motor cortical excitability during unimanual force generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Monica A; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2009-10-01

    During performance of a unimanual force generation task primary motor cortices (M1s) experience clear functional changes. Here, we evaluated the way in which M1s interact during parametric increases in right wrist flexion force in healthy volunteers. We measured the amplitude and the slope of motor evoked potentials (MEP) recruitment curves to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the left and right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles at rest and during 10%, 30% and 70% of maximal wrist flexion force. At rest, no differences were observed in the amplitude and slope of MEP recruitment curves in the left and right FCR muscles. With increasing right wrist flexion force, MEP amplitudes increased in both FCR muscles, with larger amplitudes in the right FCR. We found a significant correlation between the left and right MEP amplitudes across conditions. The slope of right and left FCR MEP recruitment curve was significantly steeper at 70% of force compared to rest and 10% of force. A significant correlation between the slope of left and right FCR MEP amplitudes was found at 70% of force only. Our results indicate a differential scaling of excitability in the corticospinal system controlling right and left FCR muscles at increasing levels of unimanual force generation. Specifically, these data highlights that at strong levels of unimanual force the increases in motor cortical excitability with increasing TMS stimulus intensities follow a similar pattern in both M1s, while at low levels of force they do not.

  3. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward.

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    Pavan Ramkumar

    Full Text Available Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd and primary motor (M1 neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions.

  4. Motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease.

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    Udupa, Kaviraja; Chen, Robert

    2013-09-04

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), there are alterations of the basal ganglia (BG) thalamocortical networks, primarily due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. These changes in subcortical networks lead to plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1), which mediates cortical motor output and is a potential target for treatment of PD. Studies investigating the motor cortical plasticity using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have found altered plasticity in PD, but there are inconsistencies among these studies. This is likely because plasticity depends on many factors such as the extent of dopaminergic loss and disease severity, response to dopaminergic replacement therapies, development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID), the plasticity protocol used, medication, and stimulation status in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). The influences of LID and DBS on BG and M1 plasticity have been explored in animal models and in PD patients. In addition, many other factors such age, genetic factors (e.g., brain derived neurotropic factor and other neurotransmitters or receptors polymorphism), emotional state, time of the day, physical fitness have been documented to play role in the extent of plasticity induced by TMS in human studies. In this review, we summarize the studies that investigated M1 plasticity in PD and demonstrate how these afore-mentioned factors affect motor cortical plasticity in PD. We conclude that it is important to consider the clinical, demographic, and technical factors that influence various plasticity protocols while developing these protocols as diagnostic or prognostic tools in PD. We also discuss how the modulation of cortical excitability and the plasticity with these non-invasive brain stimulation techniques facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD and help design potential therapeutic possibilities in this disorder.

  5. Fast increase of motor cortical inhibition following postural changes in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Loriga, Rita; Pompa, Maria Novella; Versace, Viviana; Souchard, Philippe

    2012-11-14

    Postural reactions are associated with changes in the excitability of the motor system. In the present study we investigated the presence of neurophysiological changes of motor cortical areas targeting muscles of the inferior limbs following treatment with a physiotherapy technique aimed to treat postural dysfunctions by stretching postural muscles, global postural reeducation (GPR). Twenty healthy subjects were evaluated with paired-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and recording of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from peripheral muscles of the inferior limb before and after two GPR manoeuvres applied in different experiments (1 and 2). The effects of GPR were posture- and task-specific: indeed, a GPR manoeuvre applied in standing subjects increased inhibition in cortical areas controlling flexor muscles (Biceps Femoris: ppostural changes on motor cortical disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Results Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Conclusion Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action. PMID:24330638

  7. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloe, Rebecca; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-12-14

    Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action.

  8. Motor cortical activity changes during neuroprosthetic-controlled object interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, John E; Brane, Lucas; Gaunt, Robert A; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Boninger, Michael L; Collinger, Jennifer L

    2017-12-05

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled prosthetic arms are being developed to restore function to people with upper-limb paralysis. This work provides an opportunity to analyze human cortical activity during complex tasks. Previously we observed that BCI control became more difficult during interactions with objects, although we did not quantify the neural origins of this phenomena. Here, we investigated how motor cortical activity changed in the presence of an object independently of the kinematics that were being generated using intracortical recordings from two people with tetraplegia. After identifying a population-wide increase in neural firing rates that corresponded with the hand being near an object, we developed an online scaling feature in the BCI system that operated without knowledge of the task. Online scaling increased the ability of two subjects to control the robotic arm when reaching to grasp and transport objects. This work suggests that neural representations of the environment, in this case the presence of an object, are strongly and consistently represented in motor cortex but can be accounted for to improve BCI performance.

  9. Motor Cortical Plasticity to Training Started in Childhood: The Example of Piano Players.

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    Raffaella Chieffo

    Full Text Available Converging evidence suggest that motor training is associated with early and late changes of the cortical motor system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS offers the possibility to study plastic rearrangements of the motor system in physiological and pathological conditions. We used TMS to characterize long-term changes in upper limb motor cortical representation and interhemispheric inhibition associated with bimanual skill training in pianists who started playing in an early age. Ipsilateral silent period (iSP and cortical TMS mapping of hand muscles were obtained from 30 strictly right-handed subjects (16 pianists, 14 naïve controls, together with electromyographic recording of mirror movements (MMs to voluntary hand movements. In controls, motor cortical representation of hand muscles was larger on the dominant (DH than on the non-dominant hemisphere (NDH. On the contrary, pianists showed symmetric cortical output maps, being their DH less represented than in controls. In naïve subjects, the iSP was smaller on the right vs left abductor pollicis brevis (APB indicating a weaker inhibition from the NDH to the DH. In pianists, interhemispheric inhibition was more symmetric as their DH was better inhibited than in controls. Electromyographic MMs were observed only in naïve subjects (7/14 and only to voluntary movement of the non-dominant hand. Subjects with MM had a lower iSP area on the right APB compared with all the others. Our findings suggest a more symmetrical motor cortex organization in pianists, both in terms of muscle cortical representation and interhemispheric inhibition. Although we cannot disentangle training-related from preexisting conditions, it is possible that long-term bimanual practice may reshape motor cortical representation and rebalance interhemispheric interactions, which in naïve right-handed subjects would both tend to favour the dominant hemisphere.

  10. Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia

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    Kim, Sung-Phil; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Donoghue, John P.; Black, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Computer-mediated connections between human motor cortical neurons and assistive devices promise to improve or restore lost function in people with paralysis. Recently, a pilot clinical study of an intracortical neural interface system demonstrated that a tetraplegic human was able to obtain continuous two-dimensional control of a computer cursor using neural activity recorded from his motor cortex. This control, however, was not sufficiently accurate for reliable use in many common computer control tasks. Here, we studied several central design choices for such a system including the kinematic representation for cursor movement, the decoding method that translates neuronal ensemble spiking activity into a control signal and the cursor control task used during training for optimizing the parameters of the decoding method. In two tetraplegic participants, we found that controlling a cursor's velocity resulted in more accurate closed-loop control than controlling its position directly and that cursor velocity control was achieved more rapidly than position control. Control quality was further improved over conventional linear filters by using a probabilistic method, the Kalman filter, to decode human motor cortical activity. Performance assessment based on standard metrics used for the evaluation of a wide range of pointing devices demonstrated significantly improved cursor control with velocity rather than position decoding. Disclosure. JPD is the Chief Scientific Officer and a director of Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems (CYKN); he holds stock and receives compensation. JDS has been a consultant for CYKN. LRH receives clinical trial support from CYKN.

  11. Properties of primary motor cortical local field potentials in the leg and trunk representations during arm movements.

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    Tobaa, Adil A; Best, Matthew D; Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2016-08-01

    Large, spatially-distributed populations of motor cortical neurons are recruited during upper limb movements. Here, we examined how beta attenuation, a mesoscopic reflection of unit engagement, varies across a spatially expansive sampling of primary motor cortex in a non-human primate (macaca mulatta). We found that electrodes in both the trunk and leg representation of motor cortex exhibit qualitatively similar behavior to electrodes in the arm representation during a planar reaching task, despite the fact that there were no overt movements of the trunk or leg. These findings are interpreted in the context of a state-based brain machine interface.

  12. Motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviraja eUdupa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD, there are alterations of the basal ganglia (BG thalamo-cortical networks, primarily due to degeneration of nigrostrial dopaminergic neurons. These changes in subcortical networks lead to plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1, which mediates cortical motor output and is a potential target for treatment of PD. Studies investigating the motor cortical plasticity using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS have found altered plasticity in PD, but there are inconsistencies among these studies. This is likely because plasticity depends on many factors such as the extent of dopaminergic loss and disease severity, response to dopaminergic replacement therapies, development of L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LID, the plasticity protocol used, medication and stimulation status in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS. The influences of LID and DBS on BG and M1 plasticity have been explored in animal models and in PD patients. In addition, many other factors such age, genetic factors (e.g. brain derived neurotropic factor and other neurotransmitters or receptors polymorphism, emotional state, time of the day, physical fitness have been documented to play role in the extent of plasticity induced by TMS in human studies. In this review, we summarize the studies that investigated M1 plasticity in PD and demonstrate how these afore-mentioned factors affect motor cortical plasticity in PD. We conclude that it is important to consider the clinical, demographic and technical factors that influence various plasticity protocols while developing these protocols as diagnostic or prognostic tools in PD. We also discuss how the modulation of cortical excitability and the plasticity with these non-invasive brain stimulation techniques facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD and help design potential therapeutic possibilities in this disorder.

  13. Sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface training: the impact on motor cortical responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiorri, F.; De Vico Fallani, F.; Cincotti, F.; Babiloni, F.; Molinari, M.; Kleih, S. C.; Neuper, C.; Kübler, A.; Mattia, D.

    2011-04-01

    The main purpose of electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is to provide an alternative channel to support communication and control when motor pathways are interrupted. Despite the considerable amount of research focused on the improvement of EEG signal detection and translation into output commands, little is known about how learning to operate a BCI device may affect brain plasticity. This study investigated if and how sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training would induce persistent functional changes in motor cortex, as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and high-density EEG. Motor imagery (MI)-based BCI training in naïve participants led to a significant increase in motor cortical excitability, as revealed by post-training TMS mapping of the hand muscle's cortical representation; peak amplitude and volume of the motor evoked potentials recorded from the opponens pollicis muscle were significantly higher only in those subjects who develop a MI strategy based on imagination of hand grasping to successfully control a computer cursor. Furthermore, analysis of the functional brain networks constructed using a connectivity matrix between scalp electrodes revealed a significant decrease in the global efficiency index for the higher-beta frequency range (22-29 Hz), indicating that the brain network changes its topology with practice of hand grasping MI. Our findings build the neurophysiological basis for the use of non-invasive BCI technology for monitoring and guidance of motor imagery-dependent brain plasticity and thus may render BCI a viable tool for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  14. Dopamine replacement modulates oscillatory coupling between premotor and motor cortical areas in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian Marc; Florin, Esther; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2014-01-01

    Efficient neural communication between premotor and motor cortical areas is critical for manual motor control. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to study cortical connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and age-matched healthy controls while they performed repetitiv...

  15. Age-related decrease in motor cortical inhibition during standing under different sensory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma; Taube, Wolfgang; Hogenhout, Margot; Baudry, Stephane; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although recent studies point to the involvement of the primary motor cortex in postural control, it is unknown if age-related deterioration of postural control is associated with changes in motor cortical circuits. We examined the interaction between age and sensory condition in the

  16. Postural challenge affects motor cortical activity in young and old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma; Taube, Wolfgang; van Keeken, Helco G.; Otten, Egbert; Baudry, Stephane; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    When humans voluntarily activate a muscle, intracortical inhibition decreases. Such a decrease also occurs in the presence of a postural challenge and more so with increasing age. Here, we examined age-related changes in motor cortical activity during postural and non-postural contractions with

  17. Similar Motor Cortical Control Mechanisms for Precise Limb Control during Reaching and Locomotion

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    Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the course of evolution there has been a parallel development of the complexity and flexibility of the nervous system and the skeletomuscular system that it controls. This development is particularly evident for the cerebral cortical areas and the transformation of the use of the upper limbs from a purely locomotor function to one including, or restricted to, reaching and grasping. This study addresses the issue of whether the control of reaching has involved the development of new cortical circuits or whether the same neurons are used to control both locomotion and reaching. We recorded the activity of pyramidal tract neurons in the motor cortex of the cat both during voluntary gait modifications and during reaching. All cells showed generally similar patterns of activity in both tasks. More specifically, we showed that, in many cases, cells maintained a constant temporal relationship to the activity of synergistic muscle groups in each task. In addition, in some cells the relationship between the intensity of the cell discharge activity and the magnitude of the EMG activity was equally constant during gait modifications and reaching. As such, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the corticospinal circuits used to control reaching evolved from those used to precisely modify gait. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In an article in 1989, Georgopoulos and Grillner (1989) proposed that the corticospinal control mechanisms used for reaching movements in primates may have evolved from those used to control precise modifications of gait during quadrupedal locomotion. In this article, we provide a test of this hypothesis by recording the activity of individual motor cortical cells during both behaviors. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis in that they demonstrate that individual cortical neurons exhibit similar qualitative and quantitative patterns during each behavior. Beyond a general similarity of activity patterns, we show that some cortical

  18. Motor cortical control of movement speed with implications for brain-machine interface control.

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    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Schwartz, Andrew B; Chase, Steven M

    2014-07-15

    Motor cortex plays a substantial role in driving movement, yet the details underlying this control remain unresolved. We analyzed the extent to which movement-related information could be extracted from single-trial motor cortical activity recorded while monkeys performed center-out reaching. Using information theoretic techniques, we found that single units carry relatively little speed-related information compared with direction-related information. This result is not mitigated at the population level: simultaneously recorded population activity predicted speed with significantly lower accuracy relative to direction predictions. Furthermore, a unit-dropping analysis revealed that speed accuracy would likely remain lower than direction accuracy, even given larger populations. These results suggest that the instantaneous details of single-trial movement speed are difficult to extract using commonly assumed coding schemes. This apparent paucity of speed information takes particular importance in the context of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), which rely on extracting kinematic information from motor cortex. Previous studies have highlighted subjects' difficulties in holding a BMI cursor stable at targets. These studies, along with our finding of relatively little speed information in motor cortex, inspired a speed-dampening Kalman filter (SDKF) that automatically slows the cursor upon detecting changes in decoded movement direction. Effectively, SDKF enhances speed control by using prevalent directional signals, rather than requiring speed to be directly decoded from neural activity. SDKF improved success rates by a factor of 1.7 relative to a standard Kalman filter in a closed-loop BMI task requiring stable stops at targets. BMI systems enabling stable stops will be more effective and user-friendly when translated into clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls. II. Neuronal morphology of the visual and motor cortices in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bob; Harland, Tessa; Kennedy, Deborah; Schall, Matthew; Wicinski, Bridget; Butti, Camilla; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C; Manger, Paul R

    2015-09-01

    The present quantitative study extends our investigation of cetartiodactyls by exploring the neuronal morphology in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) neocortex. Here, we investigate giraffe primary visual and motor cortices from perfusion-fixed brains of three subadults stained with a modified rapid Golgi technique. Neurons (n = 244) were quantified on a computer-assisted microscopy system. Qualitatively, the giraffe neocortex contained an array of complex spiny neurons that included both "typical" pyramidal neuron morphology and "atypical" spiny neurons in terms of morphology and/or orientation. In general, the neocortex exhibited a vertical columnar organization of apical dendrites. Although there was no significant quantitative difference in dendritic complexity for pyramidal neurons between primary visual (n = 78) and motor cortices (n = 65), there was a significant difference in dendritic spine density (motor cortex > visual cortex). The morphology of aspiny neurons in giraffes appeared to be similar to that of other eutherian mammals. For cross-species comparison of neuron morphology, giraffe pyramidal neurons were compared to those quantified with the same methodology in African elephants and some cetaceans (e.g., bottlenose dolphin, minke whale, humpback whale). Across species, the giraffe (and cetaceans) exhibited less widely bifurcating apical dendrites compared to elephants. Quantitative dendritic measures revealed that the elephant and humpback whale had more extensive dendrites than giraffes, whereas the minke whale and bottlenose dolphin had less extensive dendritic arbors. Spine measures were highest in the giraffe, perhaps due to the high quality, perfusion fixation. The neuronal morphology in giraffe neocortex is thus generally consistent with what is known about other cetartiodactyls.

  20. Motor cortical adaptations to 2 weeks of lower limb immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Christensen, Mark Schram; Petersen, Tue Hvass

    It is well established that motor experience is associated with structural and functional plasticity within the central nervous system. It is less well investigated to which extent disuse relating to immobilization is also associated with plastic neuronal changes. The objective of this study...... was to examine the effect of 2 weeks of immobilization on corticospinal excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and to investigate blood flow changes in the sensorimotor cortex during ankle movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 12 healthy volunteers had the left ankle...... and foot immobilized by a cast for 2 weeks. TMS and fMRI testing was performed on 2 separate days before immobilization, on the day of cast removal and 2 weeks of recovery. fMRI was accomplished with a Siemens Trio 3T scanner and fMRI time series were obtained during both active and passive ankle movement...

  1. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  2. Ongoing slow oscillatory phase modulates speech intelligibility in cooperation with motor cortical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Onojima

    Full Text Available Neural oscillation is attracting attention as an underlying mechanism for speech recognition. Speech intelligibility is enhanced by the synchronization of speech rhythms and slow neural oscillation, which is typically observed as human scalp electroencephalography (EEG. In addition to the effect of neural oscillation, it has been proposed that speech recognition is enhanced by the identification of a speaker's motor signals, which are used for speech production. To verify the relationship between the effect of neural oscillation and motor cortical activity, we measured scalp EEG, and simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a speech recognition task in which participants were required to recognize spoken words embedded in noise sound. We proposed an index to quantitatively evaluate the EEG phase effect on behavioral performance. The results showed that the delta and theta EEG phase before speech inputs modulated the participant's response time when conducting speech recognition tasks. The simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment showed that slow EEG activity was correlated with motor cortical activity. These results suggested that the effect of the slow oscillatory phase was associated with the activity of the motor cortex during speech recognition.

  3. Reduced motor cortical inhibition in migraine: A blinded transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverdahl, J P; Omland, P M; Uglem, M; Engstrøm, M; Sand, T

    2017-12-01

    To investigate motor cortical excitability, inhibition, and facilitation with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in migraine in a blinded cross-sectional study. Resting motor threshold (RMT), cortical silent period (CSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were compared in 27 interictal migraineurs and 33 controls. 24 female interictal migraineurs and 27 female controls were compared in subgroup analyses. Seven preictal migraineurs were also compared to the interictal group in a hypothesis-generating analysis. Investigators were blinded for diagnosis during recording and analysis of data. SICI was decreased in interictal migraineurs when compared to healthy controls (p=0.013), CSP was shortened in female interictal migraineurs (p=0.041). ICF was decreased in preictal compared to interictal migraineurs (p=0.023). RMT and ICF were not different between interictal migraineurs and controls. Cortical inhibition was decreased in migraineurs between attacks, primarily in a female subgroup, indicating an importance of altered cortical inhibition in migraine. Previous studies on motor cortical excitability in migraineurs have yielded varying results. This relatively large and blinded study provides support for altered cortical inhibition in migraine. Measuring intracortical facilitation in the period preceding migraine attacks may be of interest for future studies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ongoing slow oscillatory phase modulates speech intelligibility in cooperation with motor cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojima, Takayuki; Kitajo, Keiichi; Mizuhara, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Neural oscillation is attracting attention as an underlying mechanism for speech recognition. Speech intelligibility is enhanced by the synchronization of speech rhythms and slow neural oscillation, which is typically observed as human scalp electroencephalography (EEG). In addition to the effect of neural oscillation, it has been proposed that speech recognition is enhanced by the identification of a speaker's motor signals, which are used for speech production. To verify the relationship between the effect of neural oscillation and motor cortical activity, we measured scalp EEG, and simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a speech recognition task in which participants were required to recognize spoken words embedded in noise sound. We proposed an index to quantitatively evaluate the EEG phase effect on behavioral performance. The results showed that the delta and theta EEG phase before speech inputs modulated the participant's response time when conducting speech recognition tasks. The simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment showed that slow EEG activity was correlated with motor cortical activity. These results suggested that the effect of the slow oscillatory phase was associated with the activity of the motor cortex during speech recognition.

  5. Human motor cortical activity recorded with Micro-ECoG electrodes, during individual finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Degenhart, A D; Collinger, J L; Vinjamuri, R; Sudre, G P; Adelson, P D; Holder, D L; Leuthardt, E C; Moran, D W; Boninger, M L; Schwartz, A B; Crammond, D J; Tyler-Kabara, E C; Weber, D J

    2009-01-01

    In this study human motor cortical activity was recorded with a customized micro-ECoG grid during individual finger movements. The quality of the recorded neural signals was characterized in the frequency domain from three different perspectives: (1) coherence between neural signals recorded from different electrodes, (2) modulation of neural signals by finger movement, and (3) accuracy of finger movement decoding. It was found that, for the high frequency band (60-120 Hz), coherence between neighboring micro-ECoG electrodes was 0.3. In addition, the high frequency band showed significant modulation by finger movement both temporally and spatially, and a classification accuracy of 73% (chance level: 20%) was achieved for individual finger movement using neural signals recorded from the micro-ECoG grid. These results suggest that the micro-ECoG grid presented here offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution for the development of minimally-invasive brain-computer interface applications.

  6. Motor cortical activity during motor tasks is normal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Gijsbrecht A J; Marinus, Johan; van Dijk, J Gert; van Zwet, Erik W; Schipper, Inger B; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2015-01-01

    Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is often considered a functional movement disorder. Earlier studies in patients with functional movement disorders found evidence of cortical inhibition during explicit but not implicit motor tasks, suggesting active inhibition from other brain areas. In this study, we explored whether active inhibition occurs in CRPS patients. We compared patients with CRPS with 2 control groups: healthy controls matched for age and sex, and patients whose hand was immobilized to treat a scaphoid fracture. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability at rest and during motor imagery (explicit motor task) and motor observation (implicit motor task). Motor corticospinal excitation measured at rest and during implicit and explicit motor tasks was similar for CRPS patients and healthy controls. Patients with an immobilized hand showed an absence of motor cortical excitation of the corresponding hemisphere during motor imagery of tasks involving the immobilized hand, but not during motor observation. The normal motor cortical processing during motor imagery and motor observation found in the corresponding hemisphere of CPRS patients suggests that the nature of motor dysfunction in this condition differs from that described in literature for patients with functional paresis or under circumstances of limb immobilization. This study shows that the nature of motor dysfunction in CRPS patients differs from that encountered in patients with functional paresis or under circumstances of limb immobilization. This information is important for patients and pain clinicians and could help prevent implementation of therapeutic strategies based on incorrect assumptions. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Slow-oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation can induce bidirectional shifts in motor cortical excitability in awake humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, S; Bergmann, T O; Siems, C

    2010-01-01

    Constant transcranial direct stimulation (c-tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1(HAND)) can induce bidirectional shifts in motor cortical excitability depending on the polarity of tDCS. Recently, anodal slow oscillation stimulation at a frequency of 0.75 Hz has been shown to augment intrinsic...

  8. Callosal anatomical and effective connectivity between primary motor cortices predicts visually cued bimanual temporal coordination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Mathias; Lauterbach-Soon, Birgit; Hattingen, Elke; Hübers, Annemarie; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Default in-phase coupling of hand movements needs to be suppressed when temporal coordination is required for out-of-phase bimanual movements. There is lack of knowledge on how the brain overrides these default in-phase movements to enable a required interval of activity between hands. We used a visually cued bimanual temporal coordination (vc-BTC) paradigm with a constant rhythmical time base of 1 s, to test the accuracy of in-phase and out-of-phase (0.1, 0.2,…,0.9) finger tapping. We hypothesized that (1) stronger anatomical and effective interhemispheric connectivity between the hand areas of the primary motor cortex (M1HAND) predict higher temporal offsets between hands in the out-of-phase conditions of the vc-BTC; (2) patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) have reduced interhemispheric connectivity and altered between-hand coupling. Anatomical connectivity was determined by fractional anisotropy of callosal hand motor fibers (FA-hCMF). Effective connectivity was probed by short interval interhemispheric inhibition (S-IHI) using paired-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In healthy subjects, higher FA-hCMF and S-IHI correlated with higher temporal offsets between hands in the out-of-phase conditions of the tapping test. FA-hCMF was reduced in patients with RRMS but not in CIS, while S-IHI was reduced in both patient groups. These abnormalities were associated with smaller temporal offsets between hands leading to less deviation from the required phasing in the out-of-phase tapping conditions. Findings provide multiple levels of evidence that callosal anatomical and effective connectivity between the hand areas of the motor cortices play important roles in visually cued bimanual temporal coordination performance.

  9. The motor cortical representation of a muscle is not homogeneous in brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jo Armour; Albishi, Alaa; Babikian, Sarine; Asavasopon, Skulpan; Fisher, Beth E; Kutch, Jason J

    2017-09-01

    Functional connectivity patterns of the motor cortical representational area of single muscles have not been extensively mapped in humans, particularly for the axial musculature. Functional connectivity may provide a neural substrate for adaptation of muscle activity in axial muscles that have both voluntary and postural functions. The purpose of this study was to combine brain stimulation and neuroimaging to both map the cortical representation of the external oblique (EO) in primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA), and to establish the resting-state functional connectivity associated with this representation. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited from the EO muscle in stimulation locations encompassing M1 and SMA. The coordinates of locations with the largest motor-evoked potentials were confirmed with task-based fMRI imaging during EO activation. The M1 and SMA components of the EO representation demonstrated significantly different resting-state functional connectivity with other brain regions: the SMA representation of the EO muscle was significantly more connected to the putamen and cerebellum, and the M1 representation of the EO muscle was significantly more connected to somatosensory cortex and the superior parietal lobule. This study confirms the representation of a human axial muscle in M1 and SMA, and demonstrates for the first time that different parts of the cortical representation of a human axial muscle have resting-state functional connectivity with distinct brain regions. Future studies can use the brain regions of interest we have identified here to test the association between resting-state functional connectivity and control of the axial muscles.

  10. Improved Discriminability of Spatiotemporal Neural Patterns in Rat Motor Cortical Areas as Directional Choice Learning Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei eMao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2-3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats’ behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task.

  11. Long-Term Stability of Motor Cortical Activity: Implications for Brain Machine Interfaces and Optimal Feedback Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert D; Scheid, Michael R; Wright, Zachary A; Solla, Sara A; Slutzky, Marc W

    2016-03-23

    The human motor system is capable of remarkably precise control of movements--consider the skill of professional baseball pitchers or surgeons. This precise control relies upon stable representations of movements in the brain. Here, we investigated the stability of cortical activity at multiple spatial and temporal scales by recording local field potentials (LFPs) and action potentials (multiunit spikes, MSPs) while two monkeys controlled a cursor either with their hand or directly from the brain using a brain-machine interface. LFPs and some MSPs were remarkably stable over time periods ranging from 3 d to over 3 years; overall, LFPs were significantly more stable than spikes. We then assessed whether the stability of all neural activity, or just a subset of activity, was necessary to achieve stable behavior. We showed that projections of neural activity into the subspace relevant to the task (the "task-relevant space") were significantly more stable than were projections into the task-irrelevant (or "task-null") space. This provides cortical evidence in support of the minimum intervention principle, which proposes that optimal feedback control (OFC) allows the brain to tightly control only activity in the task-relevant space while allowing activity in the task-irrelevant space to vary substantially from trial to trial. We found that the brain appears capable of maintaining stable movement representations for extremely long periods of time, particularly so for neural activity in the task-relevant space, which agrees with OFC predictions. It is unknown whether cortical signals are stable for more than a few weeks. Here, we demonstrate that motor cortical signals can exhibit high stability over several years. This result is particularly important to brain-machine interfaces because it could enable stable performance with infrequent recalibration. Although we can maintain movement accuracy over time, movement components that are unrelated to the goals of a task (such

  12. Motor Cortex and Motor Cortical Interhemispheric Communication in Walking After Stroke: The Roles of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Animal Models in Our Current and Future Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos C; Bowden, Mark G; Adkins, DeAnna L

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of human neurophysiological research, the bilateral involvement of the leg motor cortical areas and their interhemispheric interaction during both normal and impaired human walking is poorly understood. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we have expanded our understanding of the role upper-extremity motor cortical areas play in normal movements and how stroke alters this role, and probed the efficacy of interventions to improve post-stroke arm function. However, similar investigations of the legs have lagged behind, in part, due to the anatomical difficulty in using TMS to stimulate the leg motor cortical areas. Additionally, leg movements are predominately bilaterally controlled and require interlimb coordination that may involve both hemispheres. The sensitive, but invasive, tools used in animal models of locomotion hold great potential for increasing our understanding of the bihemispheric motor cortical control of walking. In this review, we discuss 3 themes associated with the bihemispheric motor cortical control of walking after stroke: (a) what is known about the role of the bihemispheric motor cortical control in healthy and poststroke leg movements, (b) how the neural remodeling of the contralesional hemisphere can affect walking recovery after a stroke, and (c) what is the effect of behavioral rehabilitation training of walking on the neural remodeling of the motor cortical areas bilaterally. For each theme, we discuss how rodent models can enhance the present knowledge on human walking by testing hypotheses that cannot be investigated in humans, and how these findings can then be back-translated into the neurorehabilitation of poststroke walking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Task-dependent changes of motor cortical network excitability during precision grip compared to isolated finger contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchtir-Devanne, Nezha; Capaday, Charles; Cassim, François

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether task-dependent differences in corticospinal pathway excitability occur in going from isolated contractions of the index finger to its coordinated activity with the thumb. Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure input......-output (I/O) curves—a measure of corticospinal pathway excitability—of the contralateral first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle in 21 healthy subjects performing two isometric motor tasks: index abduction and precision grip. The level of FDI electromyographic (EMG) activity was kept constant across tasks...... between the two tasks. Short- and long-latency intracortical inhibitions (SICI and LICI, respectively) were also measured in each task. Both measures of inhibition decreased during precision grip compared with the isolated contraction. The results demonstrate that the motor cortical circuits controlling...

  14. The Fermilab Collider D/Phi/ low BETA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInturff, A.D.; Carson, J.; Collins, T.; Koepke, K.; Malamud, E.; Mantsch, P.; Niemann, R.; Riddiford, A.

    1988-06-01

    A new low BETA system has been designed to serve the detector facility under construction at the D/Phi/ location of the Fermilab Superconducting Collider. The low BETA system consists of 18 special cold iron quadrupoles powered as 11 independent circuits that can adjust the BETA value at the intersection point down to 25 cm. Low beta is achieved with a set of 1.4 T/cm, two shell, high current quadrupoles. Smaller 0.7 T/cm, single shell trim quadrupoles are used to match the low beta insertion to the rest of the accelerator lattice. Gaps have been left in the lattice for electrostatic separators to separate the proton and antiproton beams everywhere except at the desired collision points. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  16. Functional MRI activation of somatosensory and motor cortices in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical sensorimotor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugroschl, C.; Denolin, V.; Schuind, F.; Holder, C. van; David, P.; Baleriaux, D.; Metens, T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate somatosensory and motor cortical activity with functional MRI (fMRI) in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical recovery. The patient had motor fMRI examinations before transplantation, and motor and passive tactile stimulations after surgery. His normal hand and a normal group were studied for comparison. A patient with complete brachial plexus palsy was studied to assess the lack of a fMRI signal in somatosensory areas in the case of total axonal disconnection. Stimulating the grafted hand revealed significant activation in the contralateral somatosensory cortical areas in all fMRI examinations. The activation was seen as early as 10 days after surgery; this effect cannot be explained by the known physiological mechanisms of nerve regeneration. Although an imagination effect cannot be excluded, the objective clinical recovery of sensory function led us to formulate the hypothesis that a connection to the somatosensory cortex was rapidly established. Additional cases and fundamental studies are needed to assess this hypothesis, but several observations were compatible with this explanation. Before surgery, imaginary motion of the amputated hand produced less intense responses than executed movements of the intact hand, whereas the normal activation pattern for right-handed subjects was found after surgery, in agreement with the good clinical motor recovery. (orig.)

  17. Functional MRI activation of somatosensory and motor cortices in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical sensorimotor recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugroschl, C.; Denolin, V.; Schuind, F.; Holder, C. van; David, P.; Baleriaux, D.; Metens, T. [ULB-Hopital Erasme, Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate somatosensory and motor cortical activity with functional MRI (fMRI) in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical recovery. The patient had motor fMRI examinations before transplantation, and motor and passive tactile stimulations after surgery. His normal hand and a normal group were studied for comparison. A patient with complete brachial plexus palsy was studied to assess the lack of a fMRI signal in somatosensory areas in the case of total axonal disconnection. Stimulating the grafted hand revealed significant activation in the contralateral somatosensory cortical areas in all fMRI examinations. The activation was seen as early as 10 days after surgery; this effect cannot be explained by the known physiological mechanisms of nerve regeneration. Although an imagination effect cannot be excluded, the objective clinical recovery of sensory function led us to formulate the hypothesis that a connection to the somatosensory cortex was rapidly established. Additional cases and fundamental studies are needed to assess this hypothesis, but several observations were compatible with this explanation. Before surgery, imaginary motion of the amputated hand produced less intense responses than executed movements of the intact hand, whereas the normal activation pattern for right-handed subjects was found after surgery, in agreement with the good clinical motor recovery. (orig.)

  18. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system....5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system....5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system....5630 Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-microglobulin... beta-2-microglobulin (a protein molecule) in serum, urine, and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2...

  1. Age-related changes in motor cortical properties and voluntary activation of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Taylor, Janet L

    2011-12-01

    Aging is associated with dramatic reductions in muscle strength and motor control, and many of these agerelated changes in muscle function result from adaptations in the central nervous system. Aging is associated with widespread qualitative and quantitative changes of the motor cortex. For example, advancing age has been suggested to result in cortical atrophy, reduced cortical excitability, reduced cortical plasticity, as well as neurochemical abnormalities.The associated functional effects of these changes likely influence numerous aspects of muscle performance such as muscle strength and motor control. For example, there is evidence to suggest that the muscle weakness associated with aging is partially due to impairments in the nervous system's ability to fully activate motor neurons- particularly in the larger proximal muscle groups. In this review article we discuss age-related changes in the motor cortex, as well as the abilityor lack thereof- of older adults to voluntarily activate skeletal muscle. We also provide perspectives on scientific and clinical questions that need to be addressed in the near future.

  2. Self-selected conscious strategies do not modulate motor cortical output during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Katherine R; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2015-10-01

    The human motor system is active not only when actions are performed but also when they are observed. Experimenters often manipulate aspects of the action or context to examine factors that influence this "mirror" response. However, little is known about the role of the observer's own top-down intentions and motivation. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether observers are able to exert conscious control over their mirror response, when they are explicitly instructed to either increase or decrease mirroring. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a thumb abductor muscle as participants (n = 13) watched a video of a hand squeezing a rubber ball. The size of these MEPs, relative to the size of MEPs elicited during fixation cross observation, was taken as an index of mirroring. In an initial block of trials, participants were instructed to merely observe the actions presented. After the first block, the concept of mirroring was explained to the participants, and in the second and third blocks participants were instructed to either increase or decrease their mirror response. We did not instruct them about how to achieve this increase or decrease. Our results showed no difference in either facilitation or absolute motor excitability (i.e., nonnormalized MEP size) between the three blocks, indicating that individuals do not seem to be able to exert control over motor excitability during action observation, at least in the absence of a specific and maintained strategy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Distinct roles of visual, parietal, and frontal motor cortices in memory-guided sensorimotor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Michael J; Pho, Gerald N; Woodson, Jonathan; Sur, Mriganka

    2016-08-04

    Mapping specific sensory features to future motor actions is a crucial capability of mammalian nervous systems. We investigated the role of visual (V1), posterior parietal (PPC), and frontal motor (fMC) cortices for sensorimotor mapping in mice during performance of a memory-guided visual discrimination task. Large-scale calcium imaging revealed that V1, PPC, and fMC neurons exhibited heterogeneous responses spanning all task epochs (stimulus, delay, response). Population analyses demonstrated unique encoding of stimulus identity and behavioral choice information across regions, with V1 encoding stimulus, fMC encoding choice even early in the trial, and PPC multiplexing the two variables. Optogenetic inhibition during behavior revealed that all regions were necessary during the stimulus epoch, but only fMC was required during the delay and response epochs. Stimulus identity can thus be rapidly transformed into behavioral choice, requiring V1, PPC, and fMC during the transformation period, but only fMC for maintaining the choice in memory prior to execution.

  4. The number of stimuli required to reliably assess corticomotor excitability and primary motor cortical representations using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Rocco; Schabrun, Siobhan M; Chipchase, Lucy S

    2017-03-06

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive means by which to assess the structure and function of the central nervous system. Current practices involve the administration of multiple stimuli over target areas of a participant's scalp. Decreasing the number of stimuli delivered during TMS assessments would improve time efficiency and decrease participant demand. However, doing so may also compromise the within- or between-session reliability of the technique. The aim of this review was therefore to determine the minimum number of TMS stimuli required to reliably measure (i) corticomotor excitability of a target muscle at a single cranial site and (ii) topography of the primary motor cortical representation of a target muscle across multiple cranial sites. Database searches were performed to identify diagnostic reliability studies published before May 2015. Two independent reviewers extracted data from studies employing single-pulse TMS to measure (i) the corticomotor excitability at a single cranial site or (ii) the topographic cortical organisation of a target muscle across a number of cranial sites. Outcome measures included motor evoked potential amplitude, map volume, number of active map sites and location of the map centre of gravity. Only studies comparing the reliability of varying numbers of stimuli delivered to a single cranial site were identified. Five was the lowest number of stimuli that could be delivered to produce excellent within-session motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.92, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.95). Ten stimuli were required to achieve consistent between-session MEP amplitudes among healthy participants (ICC = 0.89, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.95). However, between-session reliability was influenced by participant characteristics, intersession intervals and target musculature. Further exploration of the reliability of multi-site TMS mapping is required. Five stimuli produce

  5. Distinct Laterality in Forelimb-Movement Representations of Rat Primary and Secondary Motor Cortical Neurons with Intratelencephalic and Pyramidal Tract Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Shogo; Saiki, Akiko; Yoshida, Junichi; Ríos, Alain; Kawabata, Masanori; Sakai, Yutaka; Isomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-11-08

    Two distinct motor areas, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2), play crucial roles in voluntary movement in rodents. The aim of this study was to characterize the laterality in motor cortical representations of right and left forelimb movements. To achieve this goal, we developed a novel behavioral task, the Right-Left Pedal task, in which a head-restrained male rat manipulates a right or left pedal with the corresponding forelimb. This task enabled us to monitor independent movements of both forelimbs with high spatiotemporal resolution. We observed phasic movement-related neuronal activity (Go-type) and tonic hold-related activity (Hold-type) in isolated unilateral movements. In both M1 and M2, Go-type neurons exhibited bias toward contralateral preference, whereas Hold-type neurons exhibited no bias. The contralateral bias was weaker in M2 than M1. Moreover, we differentiated between intratelencephalic (IT) and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons using optogenetically evoked spike collision in rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Even in identified PT and IT neurons, Hold-type neurons exhibited no lateral bias. Go-type PT neurons exhibited bias toward contralateral preference, whereas IT neurons exhibited no bias. Our findings suggest a different laterality of movement representations of M1 and M2, in each of which IT neurons are involved in cooperation of bilateral movements, whereas PT neurons control contralateral movements. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In rodents, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2) are involved in voluntary movements via distinct projection neurons: intratelencephalic (IT) neurons and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons. However, it remains unclear whether the two motor cortices (M1 vs M2) and the two classes of projection neurons (IT vs PT) have different laterality of movement representations. We optogenetically identified these neurons and analyzed their functional activity using a novel behavioral task to monitor movements

  6. The transforming growth factor-betas: structure, signaling, and roles in nervous system development and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttner, M; Krieglstein, K; Unsicker, K

    2000-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) are among the most widespread and versatile cytokines. Here, we first provide a brief overview of their molecular biology, biochemistry, and signaling. We then review distribution and functions of the three mammalian TGF-beta isoforms, beta1, beta2, and beta3, and their receptors in the developing and adult nervous system. Roles of TGF-betas in the regulation of radial glia, astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia are addressed. Finally, we review the current state of knowledge concerning the roles of TGF-betas in controlling neuronal performances, including the regulation of proliferation of neuronal precursors, survival/death decisions, and neuronal differentiation.

  7. Data Acquisition System On Beta Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abtokhi, Ahmad; Nurhanan; Sudarno; Sumarno, Edy

    2000-01-01

    Data acquisition system is needed on every installation. This is important used to monitoring and processing data to get information desired. This system applied to β installation which is facility to carry out experiments on accident condition like as reflooding phenomena in test section. The 16 exp.th channel data acquisition system is drived by ADC 0804 and programme application DELPHI

  8. Functional connectivity of motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury after contralateral cervical nerve transfer: a resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Aihong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Liang, Wei; Bai, Rongjie [The 4th Medical College of Peking University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Xicheng Qu, Beijing (China); Wang, Shufeng; Xue, Yunhao; Li, Wenjun [The 4th Medical College of Peking University, Department of Hand Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the functional connectivity of the motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Twelve patients with total brachial plexus root avulsion underwent RS-fMRI after contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Seventeen healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study as controls. The hand motor seed regions were defined as region of interests in the bilateral hemispheres. The seed-based functional connectivity was calculated in all the subjects. Differences in functional connectivity of the motor cortical network between patients and healthy controls were compared. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the M1 areas was increased in patients with BPAI compared with the controls. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the supplementary motor areas was reduced bilaterally. The resting-state inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the bilateral M1 areas is altered in patients after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, suggesting a functional reorganization of cerebral cortex. (orig.)

  9. 21 CFR 866.5160 - Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system. 866.5160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5160 Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system. (a) Identification. A beta-globulin immunological test system is a...

  10. Microculture system for studying monolayers of functional beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobersen, M J; Scharff, J E; Notkins, A L

    1980-04-01

    A method is described for growing monolayers of newborn rat beta-cells in microculture trays. After disruption of the pancreas with collagenase, islets were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, trypsinized to obtain individual cells, and plated in 96-well tissue culture trays. The cells were incubated for the first 3 days in growth medium containing 0.1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine to promote monolayer formation. The cultures could be maintained in a functional state, as defined by their responsiveness to known modulators of insulin secretion, for at least 2 weeks. As few as 1 X 10(3) islet cells/well gave results that were reproducible within +/- 10%. It is suggested that the microculture system for islet cells might prove to be a rapid and reproducible screening technique for studying drugs, viruses, or other agents that affect beta-cell function.

  11. Improvement of spasticity following intermittent theta burst stimulation in multiple sclerosis is associated with modulation of resting-state functional connectivity of the primary motor cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutière, Clémence; Rey, Caroline; Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Le Troter, Arnaud; Rico, Audrey; Crespy, Lydie; Achard, Sophie; Reuter, Françoise; Pariollaud, Fanelly; Wirsich, Jonathan; Asquinazi, Patrick; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Soulier, Elisabeth; Guye, Maxime; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Audoin, Bertrand

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the primary motor cortex improves transiently lower limbs spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the cerebral mechanisms underlying this effect have never been investigated. To assess whether modulation of spasticity induced by iTBS is underlined by functional reorganization of the primary motor cortices. A total of 17 patients with MS suffering from lower limbs spasticity were randomized to receive real iTBS or sham iTBS during the first half of a 5-week indoor rehabilitation programme. Spasticity was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale at baseline, after the stimulation session and at the end of the rehabilitation programme. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed at the three time points, and brain functional networks topology was analysed using graph-theoretical approach. At the end of stimulation, improvement of spasticity was greater in real iTBS group than in sham iTBS group ( p = 0.026). iTBS had a significant effect on the balance of the connectivity degree between the stimulated and the homologous primary motor cortex ( p = 0.005). Changes in inter-hemispheric balance were correlated with improvement of spasticity (rho = 0.56, p = 0.015). This longitudinal resting-state fMRI study evidences that functional reorganization of the primary motor cortices may underlie the effect of iTBS on spasticity in MS.

  12. STOP-EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS FROM INTRACRANIAL ELECTRODES REVEAL A KEY ROLE OF PREMOTOR AND MOTOR CORTICES IN STOPPING ONGOING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eMattia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the ability to withhold manual motor responses seems to rely on a right-lateralized frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network, including the pre-supplementary motor area and the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas should drive subthalamic nuclei to implement movement inhibition via the hyperdirect pathway. The output of this network is expected to influence those cortical areas underlying limb movement preparation and initiation, i.e. premotor (PMA and primary motor (M1 cortices. Electroencephalographic (EEG studies have shown an enhancement of the N200/P300 complex in the event-related potentials (ERPs when a planned reaching movement is successfully stopped after the presentation of an infrequent stop-signal. PMA and M1 have been suggested as possible neural sources of this ERP complex but, due to the limited spatial resolution of scalp EEG, it is not yet clear which cortical areas contribute to its generation. To elucidate the role of motor cortices, we recorded epicortical ERPs from the lateral surface of the fronto-temporal lobes of five pharmacoresistant epileptic patients performing a reaching version of the countermanding task while undergoing presurgical monitoring. We consistently found a stereotyped ERP complex on a single-trial level when a movement was successfully cancelled. These ERPs were selectively expressed in M1, PMA and Brodmann's area (BA 9 and their onsets preceded the end of the stop process, suggesting a causal involvement in this executive function. Such ERPs also occurred in unsuccessful-stop trials, that is, when subjects moved despite the occurrence of a stop-signal, mostly when they had long reaction times. These findings support the hypothesis that motor cortices are the final target of the inhibitory command elaborated by the frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network.

  13. Interaction of motor training and intermittent theta burst stimulation in modulating motor cortical plasticity: influence of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Lee

    Full Text Available Cortical physiology in human motor cortex is influenced by behavioral motor training (MT as well as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol such as intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS. This study aimed to test whether MT and iTBS can interact with each other to produce additive changes in motor cortical physiology. We hypothesized that potential interaction between MT and iTBS would be dependent on BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, which is known to affect neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex. Eighty two healthy volunteers were genotyped for BDNF polymorphism. Thirty subjects were assigned for MT alone, 23 for iTBS alone, and 29 for MT + iTBS paradigms. TMS indices for cortical excitability and motor map areas were measured prior to and after each paradigm. MT alone significantly increased the motor cortical excitability and expanded the motor map areas. The iTBS alone paradigm also enhanced excitability and increased the motor map areas to a slightly greater extent than MT alone. A combination of MT and iTBS resulted in the largest increases in the cortical excitability, and the representational motor map expansion of MT + iTBS was significantly greater than MT or iTBS alone only in Val/Val genotype. As a result, the additive interaction between MT and iTBS was highly dependent on BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Our results may have clinical relevance in designing rehabilitative strategies that combine therapeutic cortical stimulation and physical exercise for patients with motor disabilities.

  14. Developmental regulation of {beta}-hexosaminidase {alpha}- and {beta}-subunit gene expression in the rat reproductive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trasler, J.M.; Wakamatsu, N.; Gravel, R.A.; Benoit, G. [McGill-Montreal Chilrden`s Hospital Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    {beta}-Hexosaminidase is an essential lysosomal enzyme whose absence in man results in a group of disorders, the G{sub M2} gangliosidoses. Enzyme activity for {beta}-hexosaminidase is many fold higher in the epididymis than in other tissues, is present in sperm and is postulated to be required for mammalian fertilization. To better understand how {beta}-hexosaminidase is regulated in the reproductive system, we quantitated the mRNA expression of the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits (Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta}) of the enzyme in the developing rat testis and epididymis. Hex {alpha} mRNA was differentially expressed and abundant in adult rat testis and epididymis, 13- and 2-fold brain levels, respectively. In contrast, Hex {beta} mRNA levels in the testis and epididymis were .3- and 5-fold brain levels. Within the epididymis both Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta} mRNA concentrations were highest in the corpus, 1.5-fold and 9-fold initial segment values, respectively. During testis development from 7-91 days of age, testis levels of Hex {alpha} mRNA increased 10-fold and coincided with the appearance of spermatocytes and spermatids in the epithelium. In isolated male germ cells, Hex {alpha} expression was most abundant in haploid round spermatids. Hex {alpha} mRNA was undetectable after hypophysectomy and returned to normal after testosterone administration and the return of advanced germ cells to the testis. Hex {beta} mRNA was expressed at constant low levels throughout testis development. In the caput-corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis Hex {alpha} mRNA levels increased 2-fold between 14 and 91 days; during the same developmental period epididymal Hex {beta} mRNA levels increased dramatically, by 10-20 fold. In summary, Hex {alpha} and Hex {beta} mRNAs are differentially and developmentally expressed at high levels in the rat testis and epididymis and augur for an important role for {beta}-hexosaminidase in normal male reproductive function.

  15. Dynamic modulation of shared sensory and motor cortical rhythms mediates speech and non-speech discrimination performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lee Bowers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Oscillatory models of speech processing have proposed that rhythmic cortical oscillations in sensory and motor regions modulate speech sound processing from the bottom-up via phase reset at low frequencies (3-10Hz and from the top-down via the disinhibition of alpha/beta rhythms (8-30Hz. To investigate how the proposed rhythms mediate perceptual performance, EEG was recorded while participants passively listened to or actively identified speech and tone-sweeps in a two-force choice in noise discrimination task presented high and low signal-to-noise ratios. EEG data were decomposed using independent component analysis (ICA and clustered across participants using principle component methods in EEGLAB. Clustering analysis showed left and right hemisphere sensorimotor and posterior temporal lobe components. In posterior temporal clusters, increases in phase reset at low-frequencies were driven by the quality of bottom-up acoustic information for speech and non-speech stimuli, whereas phase reset in sensorimotor clusters was associated with top-down active task demands. A comparison of correct discrimination trials to those identified at chance showed an earlier performance related effect for the left sensorimotor cluster relative to the left-temporal lobe cluster during the syllable discrimination task only. The right sensorimotor cluster was associated with performance related differences for tone-sweep stimuli only. Alpha/beta suppression was associated with active tasks only in sensorimotor and temporal clusters. Findings are consistent with internal model accounts suggesting that early efferent sensorimotor models transmitted along alpha and beta channels reflect a release from inhibition related to active attention to auditory stimuli. Results are discussed in the broader context of dynamic, oscillatory models of cognition proposing that top-down internally generated states interact with bottom-up sensory processing to enhance task performance.

  16. Expression of TGF-betas in the embryonic nervous system: analysis of interbalance between isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, M; Rabadán, M A; Peña-Melián, A; Valencia, M; Mondéjar, T; Blanco, M J

    2008-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a family of growth factors with essential and multiple roles during embryonic development. In mammals, three isoforms (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3) have been described. In the nervous system, the presence of TGF-beta1 has remained undetectable in other structures than meninges and choroids plexus, while TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 were considered as the neural members of the family. In the present study, we have analysed the expression pattern of the three isoforms in the neural tube, brain, and spinal cord during development in both mouse and chicken. The data reveal specific patterns for each isoform. This work also shows that both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 are expressed in neural crest cells. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of interbalance between TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 with possible functional implications, which, together with the expression of TGF-beta1 in the CNS, represents one of the most important contributions of this work.

  17. BetaWB - A language for modular representation of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihekwaba, Adoha; Larcher, Roberto; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2007-01-01

    A. Ihekwaba, R. Larcher, R. Mardare, C. Priami. BetaWB - A language for modular representation of biological systems. In Proc. of International Conference on Systems Biology (ICSB), 2007......A. Ihekwaba, R. Larcher, R. Mardare, C. Priami. BetaWB - A language for modular representation of biological systems. In Proc. of International Conference on Systems Biology (ICSB), 2007...

  18. Plastic Changes in Human Motor Cortical Output Induced by Random but not Closed-Loop Peripheral Stimulation: the Curse of Causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth I Brown

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous work showed that repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation can induce plastic changes in motor cortical output. Triggering electrical stimulation of central structures from natural activity can also generate plasticity. In this study, we tested whether triggering peripheral nerve stimulation from muscle activity would likewise induce changes in motor output. We developed a wearable electronic device capable of recording electromyogram (EMG and delivering electrical stimulation under closed-loop control. This allowed paired stimuli to be delivered over longer periods than standard laboratory-based protocols.We tested this device in healthy human volunteers. Motor cortical output in relaxed thenar muscles was first assessed via the recruitment curve of responses to contralateral transcranial magnetic stimulation. The wearable device was then configured to record thenar EMG and stimulate the median nerve at the wrist (intensity around motor threshold, rate ~0.66 Hz. Subjects carried out normal daily activities for 4-7 hours, before returning to the laboratory for repeated recruitment curve assessment. Four stimulation protocols were tested (9-14 subjects each: No Stim, no stimuli delivered; Activity, stimuli triggered by EMG activity above threshold; Saved, stimuli timed according to a previous Activity session in the same subject; Rest, stimuli given when EMG was silent. As expected, No Stim did not modify the recruitment curve. Activity and Rest conditions produced no significant effects across subjects, although there were changes in some individuals. Saved produced a significant and substantial increase, with average responses 2.14 times larger at 30% stimulator intensity above threshold.We argue that unavoidable delays in the closed loop feedback, due mainly to central and peripheral conduction times, mean that stimuli in the Activity paradigm arrived too late after cortical activation to generate consistent plastic changes. By contrast

  19. Cortical Plasticity Induction by Pairing Subthalamic Nucleus Deep-Brain Stimulation and Primary Motor Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Bahl, Nina; Ni, Zhen; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Moro, Elena; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Lang, Anthony E; Chen, Robert

    2016-01-13

    Noninvasive brain stimulation studies have shown abnormal motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD). These studies used peripheral nerve stimulation paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) at specific intervals to induce plasticity. Induction of cortical plasticity through stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG)-M1 connections has not been studied. In the present study, we used a novel technique of plasticity induction by repeated pairing of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the BG with M1 stimulation using TMS. We hypothesize that repeated pairing of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS and M1-TMS at specific time intervals will lead to plasticity in the M1. Ten PD human patients with STN-DBS were studied in the on-medication state with DBS set to 3 Hz. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between STN-DBS and TMS that produced cortical facilitation were determined individually for each patient. Three plasticity induction conditions with repeated pairings (180 times) at specific ISIs (∼ 3 and ∼ 23 ms) that produced cortical facilitation and a control ISI of 167 ms were tested in random order. Repeated pairing of STN-DBS and M1-TMS at short (∼ 3 ms) and medium (∼ 23 ms) latencies increased M1 excitability that lasted for at least 45 min, whereas the control condition (fixed ISI of 167 ms) had no effect. There were no specific changes in motor thresholds, intracortical circuits, or recruitment curves. Our results indicate that paired-associative cortical plasticity can be induced by repeated STN and M1 stimulation at specific intervals. These results show that STN-DBS can modulate cortical plasticity. We introduced a new experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that pairing subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) with motor cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation (M1-TMS) at specific times can induce cortical plasticity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that repeated pairing of STN

  20. Systemic lupus erythematosus activity and beta two microglobulin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a cyclical clinical course. Evaluation of the clinical activity of this disease is important for choosing the correct treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the value of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M serum levels in determining SLE clinical activity.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a private university hospital.METHODS: 129 SLE patients were studied regarding disease activity using SLEDAI (SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage using SLICC ACR (SLE International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. At the same time, the β2M serum level, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-dsDNA (anti-double-stranded DNA and C3 and C4 complement fractions were determined.RESULTS: β2M levels correlated positively with SLEDAI (P = 0.02 and ESR (P = 0.0009 and negatively with C3 (P = 0.007. Patients who were positive for anti-dsDNA had higher β2M serum levels (P = 0.009.CONCLUSION: β2M levels are elevated in SLE patients with active disease.

  1. The pattern of thalamocortical and brain stem projections to the vibrissae-related sensory and motor cortices in de-whiskered congenital hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Behzadi, Gila

    2017-08-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the plastic organization of the thalamo-cortical (TC) and brain stem afferents of whisker primary sensory (wS1) and motor (wM1) cortical areas in congenital hypothyroid (CH) pups following whisker deprivation (WD) from neonatal to adolescence period. Maternal hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water from early embryonic day 16 to postnatal day (PND) 60. Pregnant rats were divided into intact and CH groups (n = 8). In each group, the total whiskers of pups (4 of 8) were trimmed continuously from PND 1 to PND 60. Retrograde tracing technique with WGA-HRP was performed in the present study. Retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the specific thalamic nuclei (VPM and VL) following separately WGA-HRP injections into wS1/M1 cortical areas. The number of labeled cells in the VPM, VL, VM and PO nuclei of the thalamus significantly decreased in CH offsprings rats (P < 0.05). Neonatal WD did not show any significant effects on the number of VPM, VL, VM and PO labeled projection neurons to wS1 and wM1 cortical areas. In addition, retrogradely labeled neurons in dorsal raphe (DR) and locus coeruleus (LC) nuclei were observed in all experimental groups. The number of DR and LC labeled neurons were higher in the CH and whisker deprived groups compared to their matching controls (P < 0.05). Upon our results, CH and WD had no synergic or additive effects on the TC and brain stem afferent patterns of barrel sensory and motor cortices.

  2. Thyroid status affects the rat cardiac beta-adrenoceptor system transiently and time-dependently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, J.; Batink, H. D.; Taguchi, K.; de Jong, J.; Michel, M. C.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, A.

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-dependency of the influence of dysthyroid states on the beta-adrenoceptor system in rat heart left ventricle. Therefore, the influence of acute and chronic hyper- and hypothyroidism on beta-adrenoceptor-induced left ventricular responses,

  3. Alpha–beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-08-11

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha–beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha–beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha–beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  4. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in plasma is associated with preeclampsia risk in Peruvian women with systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muy-Rivera, Martin; Sanchez, Sixto E; Vadachkoria, Surab; Qiu, Chunfang; Bazul, Victor; Williams, Michelle A

    2004-04-01

    In a case-control study of 100 preeclamptics and 100 controls, we assessed plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) concentrations in relation to preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women with and without systemic inflammation. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The OR of preeclampsia increased across quartiles of TGF-beta1 concentrations. Women with elevated TGF-beta1 and a proinflammatory profile experienced the highest risk of preeclampsia (OR = 15.4, 95% CI 4.7-50.4). Our results confirm an association between TGF-beta1 and risk of preeclampsia and extend the literature by indicating a strong association in women with systemic inflammation.

  5. Effects of High-Definition Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Applied Simultaneously to Both Primary Motor Cortices on Bimanual Sensorimotor Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils H. Pixa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many daily activities, such as tying one’s shoe laces, opening a jar of jam or performing a free throw in basketball, require the skillful coordinated use of both hands. Even though the non-invasive method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been repeatedly shown to improve unimanual motor performance, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. More knowledge about how tDCS may improve bimanual behavior would be relevant to motor recovery, e.g., in persons with bilateral impairment of hand function. We therefore examined the impact of high-definition anodal tDCS (HD-atDCS on the performance of a bimanual sequential sensorimotor task. Thirty-two volunteers (age M = 24.25; SD = 2.75; 14 females participated in this double-blind study and performed sport stacking in six experimental sessions. In sport stacking, 12 specially designed cups must be stacked (stacked up and dismantled (stacked down in predefined patterns as fast as possible. During a pretest, posttest and follow-up test, two sport stacking formations (3-6-3 stack and 1-10-1 stack were performed. Between the pretest and posttest, all participants were trained in sport stacking with concurrent brain stimulation for three consecutive days. The experimental group (STIM-M1 received HD-atDCS over both primary motor cortices (M1, while the control group received a sham stimulation (SHAM. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of TIME and a significant interaction of TIME × GROUP. No significant effects were found for GROUP, nor for the three-way interaction of TIME × GROUP × FORMATION. Further two-way ANOVAs showed a significant main effect of TIME and a non-significant main effect for GROUP in both sport stacking formations. A significant interaction between TIME × GROUP was found only for the 3-6-3 formation, indicating superior performance gains for the experimental group (STIM-M1. To account and control for

  6. Effects of High-Definition Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Applied Simultaneously to Both Primary Motor Cortices on Bimanual Sensorimotor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixa, Nils H.; Steinberg, Fabian; Doppelmayr, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Many daily activities, such as tying one’s shoe laces, opening a jar of jam or performing a free throw in basketball, require the skillful coordinated use of both hands. Even though the non-invasive method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been repeatedly shown to improve unimanual motor performance, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. More knowledge about how tDCS may improve bimanual behavior would be relevant to motor recovery, e.g., in persons with bilateral impairment of hand function. We therefore examined the impact of high-definition anodal tDCS (HD-atDCS) on the performance of a bimanual sequential sensorimotor task. Thirty-two volunteers (age M = 24.25; SD = 2.75; 14 females) participated in this double-blind study and performed sport stacking in six experimental sessions. In sport stacking, 12 specially designed cups must be stacked (stacked up) and dismantled (stacked down) in predefined patterns as fast as possible. During a pretest, posttest and follow-up test, two sport stacking formations (3-6-3 stack and 1-10-1 stack) were performed. Between the pretest and posttest, all participants were trained in sport stacking with concurrent brain stimulation for three consecutive days. The experimental group (STIM-M1) received HD-atDCS over both primary motor cortices (M1), while the control group received a sham stimulation (SHAM). Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant main effect of TIME and a significant interaction of TIME × GROUP. No significant effects were found for GROUP, nor for the three-way interaction of TIME × GROUP × FORMATION. Further two-way ANOVAs showed a significant main effect of TIME and a non-significant main effect for GROUP in both sport stacking formations. A significant interaction between TIME × GROUP was found only for the 3-6-3 formation, indicating superior performance gains for the experimental group (STIM-M1). To account and control for baseline

  7. Enhanced proliferation of astrocytes from beta(2)-adrenergic receptor knockout mice is influenced by the IGF system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesik, Daniel; Glazenburg, Lisa; De Keyser, Jacques; Wilczak, Nadine

    In the present study, we investigated the IGF system in neonatal astrocytes derived from mice with a targeted disruption of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR). beta(2)AR knockout astrocytes demonstrated higher proliferation rates and increased expression of the astrogliotic marker GFAP, as

  8. A simultaneous beta and coincidence-gamma imaging system for plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Homayoon; Wen, Jie; Mathews, Aswin J.; Komarov, Sergey; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ke; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Positron emitting isotopes, such as 11C, 13N, and 18F, can be used to label molecules. The tracers, such as 11CO2, are delivered to plants to study their biological processes, particularly metabolism and photosynthesis, which may contribute to the development of plants that have a higher yield of crops and biomass. Measurements and resulting images from PET scanners are not quantitative in young plant structures or in plant leaves due to poor positron annihilation in thin objects. To address this problem we have designed, assembled, modeled, and tested a nuclear imaging system (simultaneous beta-gamma imager). The imager can simultaneously detect positrons ({β+} ) and coincidence-gamma rays (γ). The imaging system employs two planar detectors; one is a regular gamma detector which has a LYSO crystal array, and the other is a phoswich detector which has an additional BC-404 plastic scintillator for beta detection. A forward model for positrons is proposed along with a joint image reconstruction formulation to utilize the beta and coincidence-gamma measurements for estimating radioactivity distribution in plant leaves. The joint reconstruction algorithm first reconstructs beta and gamma images independently to estimate the thickness component of the beta forward model and afterward jointly estimates the radioactivity distribution in the object. We have validated the physics model and reconstruction framework through a phantom imaging study and imaging a tomato leaf that has absorbed 11CO2. The results demonstrate that the simultaneously acquired beta and coincidence-gamma data, combined with our proposed joint reconstruction algorithm, improved the quantitative accuracy of estimating radioactivity distribution in thin objects such as leaves. We used the structural similarity (SSIM) index for comparing the leaf images from the simultaneous beta-gamma imager with the ground truth image. The jointly reconstructed images yield SSIM indices of 0.69 and 0.63, whereas the

  9. Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, Claudia; Lubatschofski, Annelie; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Kotzerke, Joerg; Buchmann, Inga; Reske, Sven N.

    2003-01-01

    Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for high-risk leukaemia and lymphoma. In bone marrow-selective radioimmunotherapy, beta-irradiation is applied using iodine-131, yttrium-90 or rhenium-188 labelled radioimmunoconjugates. However, the mechanisms by which beta-irradiation induces cell death are not understood at the molecular level. Here, we report that beta-irradiation induced apoptosis and activated apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells depending on doses, time points and dose rates. After beta-irradiation, upregulation of CD95 ligand and CD95 receptor was detected and activation of caspases resulting in apoptosis was found. These effects were completely blocked by the broad-range caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In addition, irradiation-mediated mitochondrial damage resulted in perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation and cytochrome c release. Bax, a death-promoting protein, was upregulated and Bcl-x L , a death-inhibiting protein, was downregulated. We also found higher apoptosis rates and earlier activation of apoptosis pathways after gamma-irradiation in comparison to beta-irradiation at the same dose rate. Furthermore, irradiation-resistant cells were cross-resistant to CD95 and CD95-resistant cells were cross-resistant to irradiation, indicating that CD95 and irradiation used, at least in part, identical effector pathways. These findings demonstrate that beta-irradiation induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells using both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. Understanding the timing, sequence and molecular pathways of beta-irradiation-mediated apoptosis may allow rational adjustment of chemo- and radiotherapeutic strategies. (orig.)

  10. Beta-endorphin and the immune system--possible role in autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, H; Pedersen, B K

    1995-01-01

    The immune system and the neuroendocrine system are closely interconnected having such means of bidirectional communication and regulation. In this review, a hypothesis is put forward regarding the possible role of beta-endorphins in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: It is suggested...

  11. Implantation of a new Beta Secondary Standard system at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo, Sibele Reis

    2005-01-01

    The crescent use of beta radiation sources in medical, industrial and research applications has increased the need for higher accuracy in beta dosimetry. As the first Beta Secondary Standard system (BSS1) was developed about 20 years ago, a new BSS2 system was made commercially available to fulfill new metrological demands and to follow the technological development. The BSS2 has a new positioning set-up, high activity and long half-life beta radiation sources and a special safety system. The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear is the first laboratory in Latin America that has got a BSS2. This work describes the BSS2 and it compares its advantages in relation to BSS1; results of the beam uniformity tests of the radiation fields from 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 85 Kr and 147 Pm sources, that were measured with an ionization chamber and with thermoluminescent detectors, are also shown. Results show that the beta radiation fields are considered to be uniform for diameters between 8 and 20 cm according to the chosen source. (author)

  12. Effect of Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine on oxidative stress and the glutathione system in beta cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle M.P.H.J. Boesten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications is the formation of excessive levels of advanced glycation end (AGE products. Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine (CML is one of the best-characterized AGEs. Because little is known about the effects of AGEs on pancreatic beta cells, we investigated the effect of CML on human pancreatic cells and determined the activity and gene expression of glutathione system components. CML at a concentration of 0.5 mM induced cell death in human pancreatic beta cells, which was accompanied by increased intracellular oxidative stress. No changes in the gene expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE were found, although an increase in the level of a target cytokine of RAGE after CML exposure was observed. Additionally we found that CML lowered the levels of GSH and affected the activity and expression of other components of the glutathione system. These changes indicate that the cells are even more vulnerable for oxidative stress after exposure to CML. Since beta cells are low in antioxidant enzymes and repair for oxidized DNA, CML, but most likely also other AGEs, accelerates beta cell dysfunction and increases beta cell death during chronic hyperglycemia.

  13. Spectrofluorimetric study of the {beta}-cyclodextrin-dapsone-linear alcohol supramolecular system and determination of dapsone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Li; Tang Bo; Chu Chun

    2002-10-03

    Dapsone (DDS) forms a 1:1 supramolecular complex with {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) both in the absence and presence of linear alcohols. The apparent association constants (K{sub app}) were measured using a steady-state fluorescence method. K{sub app} decreases linearly with an increasing number of carbon atoms in the chain of the alcohol. We attribute this to a competition between dapsone and linear alcohol for the {beta}-CD hydrophobic cavity as detailed analysis of K{sub app} as a function of the concentration of alcohol suggests that the interactions in the {beta}-CD-dapsone-linear alcohol system do not result in the formation of ternary supramolecular complex. Quenching the fluorescence of dapsone with NaI shows that the {beta}-CD cavity acts as a shield against contact between dapsone and this aqueous phase quencher, while addition of alcohols inhibits this protective effect. This again suggests that alcohols occupy the space within the {beta}-CD cavity with the result that dapsone molecules are forced to reside in the aqueous environment. Based on the significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of dapsone produced through complex formation, a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of dapsone in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of {beta}-CD is developed. The linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and dapsone concentration was obtained in the range of 3.39 to 1.50x10{sup 3} ng ml{sup -1}, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The detection limit was 1.02 ng ml{sup -1}. There was no interference from the excipients normally used in tablet formulations. The application of the present method to the determination of dapsone in tablets and human plasma gave satisfactory results and was compared with the pharmacopoeia method.

  14. Beta-integrals and finite orthogonal systems of Wilson polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretin, Yu A

    2002-01-01

    The integral is calculated and the system of orthogonal polynomials with weight equal to the corresponding integrand is constructed. This weight decreases polynomially, therefore only finitely many of its moments converge. As a result the system of orthogonal polynomials is finite. Systems of orthogonal polynomials related to 5 H 5 -Dougall's formula and the Askey integral is also constructed. All the three systems consist of Wilson polynomials outside the domain of positiveness of the usual weight

  15. Determination of Potassium in Feldspars by Beta Counting Using a GM Multicounter System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Mejdahl, V.

    1985-01-01

    A gas flow multicounter system developed at Riso National Laboratory for low-level beta counting applications was adopted for measuring potassium in feldspars extracted from archaeological and geological materials, in connection with TL dating work. A guard counter reduces the background by using...... a anticoincidence technique. Calibration was accomplished by measuring KCl and a feldspar standard. A potassium content of 1% yields a net beta count rate (background subtracted) of about 40 c.p.h.; the background is around 15 c.p.h. The precision in repeated measurements is better than 2% and the estimated...

  16. Changes in Expressions of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I, Paired-Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor B, and Cluster of Differentiation 3ζ in Motor Cortical Representations of the Brachial Plexus After Avulsion in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI), paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), and cluster of differentiation 3ζ (CD3ζ) negatively regulate neuronal plasticity in developing and adult brains. The aim of this study was to evaluate expressive changes of these factors in motor cortical representations of the brachial plexus (MCRBP) after total brachial plexus root avulsion (tBPRA). A total of 45 rats were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups for evaluating mRNA and protein expression levels of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ: 7 days, 3 months, and control. In the 7-day and 3-month groups, expressions were examined at 7 days and 3 months, respectively, after left tBPRA. In the control group, the brachial plexus was uninjured. Three rats from each group were used for examining expressions of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ proteins by immunofluorescence labeling, 6 rats for quantification of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ mRNAs by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the remaining 6 animals for quantification of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ proteins by Western blotting. In the original MCRBP, mRNA and protein expression levels of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ were down-regulated 7 days postinjury compared with control (P  0.05). Recovery of protein expressions were initiated from near the border region of the original MCRBP. MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ may participate in motor cortical reorganization after tBPRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement and automatization of a proportional alpha-beta counting system - FAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Pelled, O.; Shemesh, Y.; Assido, H.

    1997-01-01

    An alpha and beta counting system - FAG*, for planchette samples is operated at the Health Physics department's laboratory of the NRCN. The original operation mode of the system was based on manual tasks handled by the FHT1 100 electronics. An option for a basic computer keyboard operation was available too. A computer with an appropriate I/O card was connected to the system and a new operating program was developed which enables full automatic control of the various components. The program includes activity calculations and statistical checks as well as data management. A bar-code laser system for sample number reading was integrated into the Alpha-Beta automatic counting system. The sample identification by means of an attached bar-code label enables unmistakable and reliable attribution of results to the counted sample. authors)

  18. From Demonstration System to Prototype: ShakeAlert Beta Users Provide Feedback to Improve Alert Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds to minutes of warning prior to ground shaking at a given location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A prototype earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is in development by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, and the USGS. Events are published to the UserDisplay--ShakeAlert's Java based graphical interface, which is being tested by a small group of beta users throughout California. The beta users receive earthquake alerts in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences. For early warning alerts to be useful, people, companies, and institutions must know beforehand what actions they will perform when they receive the information. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. We also collect feedback detailing costs of implementing actions and challenges within the beta user organizations, as well as anticipated benefits and savings. Thus, creating a blueprint for a fully operational system that will meet the needs of the public. New California users as well as the first group of Pacific Northwest users are slated to join the ShakeAlert beta test group in the fall of 2013.

  19. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U score were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  20. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Holfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the new miniaturized alpha/beta spectroscopic system is a Smart Card MCA having a 12 bit resolution and a 32 bit memory for each channel with the size of a cheque card. The system consists of a single or up to 12 alpha spectrometers in a battery powered casing with connectors for direct detector/amplifier module plugging. Surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm 2 of 239 Pu can be measured. (M.D.)

  1. Antagonizing the alpha(4)beta(1) Integrin, but Not alpha(4)beta(7), Inhibits Leukocytic Infiltration of the Central Nervous System in Rhesus Monkey Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, Krista G.; Hofman, Sam O.; Estevao, Dave M. Lopes; Blezer, Erwin L. A.; Bauer, Jan; Yang, Li-Li; Wyant, Tim; Csizmadia, Vilmos; 't Hart, Bert A.; Fedyk, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    The immune system is characterized by the preferential migration of lymphocytes through specific tissues (i.e., tissue tropism). Tissue tropism is mediated, in part, by the alpha(4) integrins expressed by T lymphocytes. The alpha(4)beta(1) integrin mediates migration of memory T lymphocytes into the

  2. A bar-code reader for an alpha-beta automatic counting system - FAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, S.; Shemesh, Y.; Ankry, N.; Assido, H.; German, U.; Peled, O.

    1996-01-01

    A bar-code laser system for sample number reading was integrated into the FAG Alpha-Beta automatic counting system. The sample identification by means of an attached bar-code label enables unmistakable and reliable attribution of results to the counted sample. Installation of the bar-code reader system required several modifications: Mechanical changes in the automatic sample changer, design and production of new sample holders, modification of the sample planchettes, changes in the electronic system, update of the operating software of the system (authors)

  3. Is an absolute level of cortical beta suppression required for proper movement? Magnetoencephalographic evidence from healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has connected a specific pattern of beta oscillatory activity to proper motor execution, but no study to date has directly examined how resting beta levels affect motor-related beta oscillatory activity in the motor cortex. Understanding this relationship is imperative to determining the basic mechanisms of motor control, as well as the impact of pathological beta oscillations on movement execution. In the current study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a complex movement paradigm to quantify resting beta activity and movement-related beta oscillations in the context of healthy aging. We chose healthy aging as a model because preliminary evidence suggests that beta activity is elevated in older adults, and thus by examining older and younger adults we were able to naturally vary resting beta levels. To this end, healthy younger and older participants were recorded during motor performance and at rest. Using beamforming, we imaged the peri-movement beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and extracted virtual sensors from the peak voxels, which enabled absolute and relative beta power to be assessed. Interestingly, absolute beta power during the pre-movement baseline was much stronger in older relative to younger adults, and older adults also exhibited proportionally large beta desynchronization (ERD) responses during motor planning and execution compared to younger adults. Crucially, we found a significant relationship between spontaneous (resting) beta power and beta ERD magnitude in both primary motor cortices, above and beyond the effects of age. A similar link was found between beta ERD magnitude and movement duration. These findings suggest a direct linkage between beta reduction during movement and spontaneous activity in the motor cortex, such that as spontaneous beta power increases, a greater reduction in beta activity is required to execute movement. We propose that, on an individual level, the primary motor cortices have an

  4. DMPD: The interferon-alpha/beta system in antiviral responses: a multimodal machineryof gene regulation by the IRF family of transcription factors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11790540 The interferon-alpha/beta system in antiviral responses: a multimodal mach...l. 2002 Feb;14(1):111-6. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The interferon-alpha/beta system in antiviral responses: a multimoda...ion factors. PubmedID 11790540 Title The interferon-alpha/beta system in antiviral responses: a multimodal m

  5. PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carter, Gregory L.; Douglas, David D.; Carrell, Dorothy M.

    2006-01-25

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG&G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

  6. Regulation of lactose-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and beta-D-phosphogalactoside galactohydrolase activities in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassy, B M; Thompson, J

    1983-01-01

    The lactose-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (lac-PTS) and beta-D-phosphogalactoside galactohydrolase (P-beta-gal) mediate the metabolism of lactose by Lactobacillus casei. Starved cells of L. casei contained a high intracellular concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate, and this endogenous energy reserve facilitated characterization of phosphotransferase system activities in physiologically intact cells. Data obtained from transport studies with whole cells and from in vitro phosphotransferase system assays with permeabilized cells revealed that the lac-PTS had a high affinity for beta-galactosides (e.g., lactose, lactulose, lactobionic acid, and arabinosyl-beta-D-galactoside). lac-PTS and P-beta-gal activities were determined in wild-type strains and strains defective in the glucose-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system after growth on various sugars and in the presence of potential inducers. We found that (i) the lac genes (i.e., the genes coding for the lac-PTS proteins and P-beta-gal) were induced by metabolizable and non-metabolizable beta-galactosides (presumably acting as their phosphorylated derivatives), (ii) galactose 6-phosphate was not an inducer in most strains, (iii) the ratio of lac-PTS activity to P-beta-gal activity in a given strain was not constant, and (iv) inhibition of lac gene expression during growth on glucose was a consequence of glucose-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system-mediated inducer exclusion, repressive effects of a functional glucose-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and glucose-derived metabolites. The expression of the lac-PTS structural genes and the expression of the P-beta-gal gene are independently regulated and may be subject to both positive control and negative control. Images PMID:6406426

  7. beta-hexosaminidase lentiviral vectors: transfer into the CNS via systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkanides, Stephanos; Miller, Jennie H; Brouxhon, Sabine M; Olschowka, John A; Federoff, Howard J

    2005-02-18

    Brain inflammation in GM2 gangliosidosis has been recently realized as a key factor in disease development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a FIV beta-hexosaminidase vector in the brain of HexB-deficient (Sandhoff disease) mice following intraperitoneal administration to pups of neonatal age. Since brain inflammation, lysosomal storage and neuromuscular dysfunction are characteristics of HexB deficiency, these parameters were employed as experimental outcomes in our study. The ability of the lentiviral vector FIV(HEX) to infect murine cells was initially demonstrated with success in normal mouse fibroblasts and human Tay-Sachs cells in vitro. Furthermore, systemic transfer of FIV(HEX) to P2 HexB-/- knockout pups lead to transduction of peripheral and central nervous system tissues. Specifically, beta-hexosaminidase expressing cells were immunolocalized in periventricular areas of the cerebrum as well as in the cerebellar cortex. FIV(HEX) neonatal treatment resulted in reduction of GM2 storage along with attenuation of the brain inflammation and amelioration of the attendant neuromuscular deterioration. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the effective transfer of a beta-hexosaminidase lentiviral vector to the brain of Sandhoff mice and resolution of the GM2 gangliosidosis after neonatal intraperitoneal administration.

  8. strange beta: An assistance system for indoor rock climbing route setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C.; Becker, L.; Bradley, E.

    2012-03-01

    This paper applies the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems and then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed strange beta, uses chaos to introduce novelty. We validated this approach with a large blinded study in a commercial climbing gym, in cooperation with experienced climbers and expert route setters. The results show that strange beta can help a human setter produce routes that are at least as good as, and in some cases better than, those produced in the traditional manner.

  9. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Parsekian Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1, BETA FLEXYTM (G2, BETA III WIRETM (G3 and BETA CNATM (G4. Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation from 5 mm of the initial activation. The moment-to-force (MF ratio, the overlapping of the vertical extensions of the TLSs and the load-deflection (LD ratio were also calculated. To complement the results, the Young's module (YM of each wire was determined by the slope of the load-deflection graph of a tensile test. The surface chemical composition was also evaluated by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results: All groups, except for G2, produced similar force levels initially. G3 produced the highest LD rates and G1 and G4 had similar amounts of overlap of the vertical extensions of the TLSs in "neutral position". G1 and G3 delivered the highest levels of moments, and G2 and G3 produced the highest MF ratios. b-Ti wires from G3 produced the highest YM and all groups showed similar composition, except for G2. Conclusion: The four beta-titanium wires analyzed produced different force systems when used in a more elaborate design due to the fact that each wire responds differently to bends.

  10. THE NEW METALL-BETA-LACTAMASE’S INHIBITOR EFFICACY IN A MODEL SYSTEM IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Afinogenova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterobacteriaceae antibiotics resistance depends on a combination of several mechanisms, such as the beta-lactamases overproduction, the microbial cell reduction outer membrane permeability (usually associated with loss of protein porin, the presence of efflux systems. Particularly noteworthy are the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL whose presence causes resistance of gram-negative microorganisms to all beta-lactam antibiotics (in some cases except aztreonam. Currently there are no MBL inhibitors permitted for use in the clinic. The effective inhibitors search for carbapenem-resistant bacteria’ MBL authorized for use in the clinic and reinforcing effects of carbapenems, served as the basis for the present study. The work was carried out in three stages: 1 creating a model system using a standard enzyme reagent metallo-beta-lactamase P. aeruginosa recombinant expressed in E. coli, to evaluate the increasing of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of carbapenems against previously sensitive Gram-negative microorganisms strains in vitro; 2 evaluation of MBL promising inhibitors in the presence of the same standard enzyme reagent; 3 evaluation of the ability of the identified inhibitors increase the carbapenems effects against clinical isolates of Gram-negative microorganisms producing MBL, in terms of the their MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index. The checkerboard array was modified to evaluate the combined use of carbapenems and potential MBL inhibitor — a drug from the group of bisphosphonates — etidronic acid. Using a standard enzyme reagent metallo-beta-lactamase P. aeruginosa recombinant expressed in E. coli, we created a model system that allows to assess the prospects of new inhibitors MBL gram-negative microorganisms. A dose-dependent effect of increasing the meropenem level MIC from reagent MBL quantity in a model system against previously antibiotic sensitive reference strains of microorganisms was

  11. Complex Self-Incompatibility Systems in Ranunculus acris L. and Beta vulgaris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, A.; Østerbye, U.; Larsen, K.

    1973-01-01

    -genes acting on the haploid pollen grain be matched in the pistil. This type of incompatibility system was previously considered to be unique for the grasses. However, whereas two S-loci with such complementary interaction have been established in the grasses, there are at least three S-loci in Ranunculus...... acris, and in Beta vulgaris there are at least four. The observations strongly support the theory of the incompatibility genes being ancient constituents of the breeding systems of the angiosperms. Most probably a complex type of incompatibility control was already present at the presumed common...

  12. Development of dose calibrators Tandem systems and establishment of beta dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecatti, Sonia Garcia Pereira

    2004-01-01

    A quality control program at Nuclear Medicine Services includes the checking of all equipment used for diagnostics and treatment, and the individual monitoring of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiations. In this work the main quality control tests were performed with three dose calibrators using standard radiation sources of 57 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs and 60 Co. Tandem systems of dose calibrators were established and characterized using four cylindrical absorbers of different materials for an additional quality control test in Nuclear Medicine. The main utility of this new test is the possibility of impurity detection in radiopharmaceuticals, when the ratio of the measurements with different absorbers is different from that obtained at the laboratory in ideal conditions. The dosimetric characteristics of three types of CaS0 4 :Dy + Teflon pellets were studied for an appropriate choice of the material to be used for individual monitoring of workers. The thermoluminescent detectors were irradiated using beta sources of 90 Sr+ 90 Y, 204 TI, 147 Pm, 153 Sm and 32 P. A wrist badge for beta individual monitoring was developed for workers that handle beta radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine Services. (author)

  13. Design and construction of an interface system for the extrapolation chamber from the beta secondary standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez C, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Interface System for the Extrapolation Chamber (SICE) contains several devices handled by a personal computer (PC), it is able to get the required data to calculate the absorbed dose due to Beta radiation. The main functions of the system are: a) Measures the ionization current or charge stored in the extrapolation chamber. b) Adjusts the distance between the plates of the extrapolation chamber automatically. c) Adjust the bias voltage of the extrapolation chamber automatically. d) Acquires the data of the temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity of the environment and the voltage applied between the plates of the extrapolation chamber. e) Calculates the effective area of the plates of the extrapolation chamber and the real distance between them. f) Stores all the obtained information in hard disk or diskette. A comparison between the desired distance and the distance in the dial of the extrapolation chamber, show us that the resolution of the system is of 20 μm. The voltage can be changed between -399.9 V and +399.9 V with an error of less the 3 % with a resolution of 0.1 V. These uncertainties are between the accepted limits to be used in the determination of the absolute absorbed dose due to beta radiation. (Author)

  14. Detection of IgG anti-beta 2 glycoprotein-I antibodies in Saudi patients with systemic lupus erythematosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenzi, Faris Q.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to develop an assay for the measurement of this anti-human beta2-glycoprotein I. This study was conducted from September 2004 to December 2006. The patients attending the Rheumatology Clinic were chosen from several centers in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia because they had complications. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay was optimized and developed to measure antibody levels in humans. Fifty normal blood donors and 50 systemic lupus erythrematosis (SLE) patients were selected for this experiment. Raised IGg a beta 2 GPI antibody levels were associated with the presence of venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia. The real value of IgG a beta 2 GPI as a predictor for the future clinical complications needs to be confirmed in prospective controlled studies investigating clinical complications in relationship to IgG a beta 2 GPI and to other risk factors for thrombosis. (author)

  15. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-BETA Personnel Safety and Interlocks System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the ''field-side'' of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-BETA Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  16. Motor System Interactions in the Beta Band Decrease during Loss of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Nicole C; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Maher, Ryan B; Stapleton, Catherine A; Meng, Lingzhong; Gelb, Adrian W; Starr, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Communication between brain areas and how they are influenced by changes in consciousness are not fully understood. One hypothesis is that brain areas communicate via oscillatory processes, utilizing network-specific frequency bands, that can be measured with metrics that reflect between-region interactions, such as coherence and phase amplitude coupling (PAC). To evaluate this hypothesis and understand how these interactions are modulated by state changes, we analyzed electrophysiological recordings in humans at different nodes of one well-studied brain network: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops of the motor system during loss of consciousness induced by anesthesia. We recorded simultaneous electrocorticography over primary motor cortex (M1) with local field potentials from subcortical motor regions (either basal ganglia or thalamus) in 15 movement disorder patients during anesthesia (propofol) induction as a part of their surgery for deep brain stimulation. We observed reduced coherence and PAC between M1 and the subcortical nuclei, which was specific to the beta band (∼18-24 Hz). The fact that this pattern occurs selectively in beta underscores the importance of this frequency band in the motor system and supports the idea that oscillatory interactions at specific frequencies are related to the capacity for normal brain function and behavior.

  17. Design and construction of a position-sensitive rotating implantation target system with beta-gamma discrimination capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Famiano, M A; Nishimura, S; Tanihata, I

    2003-01-01

    A rotating implantation target system has been designed for use at the RIKEN projectile fragment separator. While the original design is for the study of short beta-decay lifetimes, the versatility of the device is also noted. The ability of the position-sensitive detector system to distinguish beta and gamma rays is studied, and the correlation of implantation position to beam position for purposes of particle identification is also described. Future improvements and experiments are planned and described briefly. The target detector system represents a simple, inexpensive, yet efficient way of conducting online implantation experiments where particle identification and rapid measurements are desired.

  18. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  19. Elucidating the toxicity targets of {beta}-ionone on photosynthetic system of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843 (Cyanobacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Jihai, E-mail: shaojihai@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128 (China); Xu Yao [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210046 (China); Wang Zhongjie; Jiang Yongguang [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Yu Gongliang; Peng Xin [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Li Renhui, E-mail: reli@ihb.ac.cn [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China)

    2011-07-15

    In order to explore the potential targets of toxicity of {beta}-ionone on the photosynthetic system of Microcystis aeruginosa, the polyphasic rise in chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence transient and transcript expression for key genes in photosystem II (PSII) of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 were studied. The EC{sub 50} value of {beta}-ionone on M. aeruginosa NIES-843 was found to be 21.23 {+-} 1.87 mg/L. It was shown that {beta}-Ionone stress can lead to a decrease in pigment content of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 cells, and that carotenoids were more sensitive to {beta}-ionone stress than Chl a. The normalized Chl a fluorescence transients were slightly decreased at 6.67 and 10 mg/L {beta}-ionone, but significantly increased at 15, 22.5 and 33.75 mg/L. There was no significant variation on transcript expression of psbA and psbO at a concentration of 6.67 mg/L {beta}-ionone, but they were down-regulated at 22.5 mg/L. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated that the thylakoids were distorted, and the thylakoid membrane stacks began to collapse when M. aeruginosa NIES-843 was exposed to {beta}-ionone at a concentration of 22.5 and 33.75 mg/L. Our results indicate that the reaction centre of PS II and the electron transport at the acceptor side of PS II are the targets responsible for the toxicity of {beta}-ionone on the PS II of M. aeruginosa NIES-843.

  20. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  1. On how the motor cortices resolve an inter-hemispheric response conflict: an event-related EEG potential-guided TMS study of the flankers task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Kuniecki, Michal; Möller, Friderike

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of human motor control is the ability to resolve conflicting response tendencies. Here we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to track the time course of excitability changes in the primary motor hand areas (M1(HAND)) while the motor system resolved...... response conflicts. Healthy volunteers had to respond fast with their right and left index fingers to right- and left-pointing arrows. These central target stimuli were preceded by flanking arrows, inducing premature response tendencies which competed with correct response activation. The time point...... in the contralateral first dorsal interosseus muscle was taken as an index of corticospinal excitability. Guided by the previous LRP measurement, magnetic stimuli were applied 0-90 ms after the individual LRP peak, to cover the epoch of conflict resolution. When flankers were incompatible with the target, excitability...

  2. Beta band transcranial alternating (tACS and direct current stimulation (tDCS applied after initial learning facilitate retrieval of a motor sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eKrause

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary motor cortex (M1 contributes to the acquisition and early consolidation of a motor sequence. Although the relevance of M1 excitability for motor learning has been supported, the significance of M1 oscillations remains an open issue. This study aims at investigating to what extent retrieval of a newly learned motor sequence can be differentially affected by motor-cortical transcranial alternating (tACS and direct current stimulation (tDCS. Alpha (10 Hz, beta (20 Hz or sham tACS was applied in 36 right-handers. Anodal or cathodal tDCS was applied in 30 right-handers. Participants learned an eight-digit serial reaction time task (SRTT; sequential vs. random with the right hand. Stimulation was applied to the left M1 after SRTT acquisition at rest for ten minutes. Reaction times were analyzed at baseline, end of acquisition, retrieval immediately after stimulation and reacquisition after eight further sequence repetitions.Reaction times during retrieval were significantly faster following 20 Hz tACS as compared to 10 Hz and sham tACS indicating a facilitation of early consolidation. TDCS yielded faster reaction times, too, independent of polarity. No significant differences between 20 Hz tACS and tDCS effects on retrieval were found suggesting that 20 Hz effects might be associated with altered motor-cortical excitability. Based on the behavioural modulation yielded by tACS and tDCS one might speculate that altered motor-cortical beta oscillations support early motor consolidation possibly associated with neuroplastic reorganization.

  3. MeCP2 mutation results in compartment-specific reductions in dendritic branching and spine density in layer 5 motor cortical neurons of YFP-H mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Stuss

    Full Text Available Rett Syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder predominantly caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. A primary feature of the syndrome is the impaired maturation and maintenance of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system (CNS. Different RTT mouse models have shown that particular Mecp2 mutations have highly variable effects on neuronal architecture. Distinguishing MeCP2 mutant cellular phenotypes therefore demands analysis of specific mutations in well-defined neuronal subpopulations. We examined a transgenically labeled subset of cortical neurons in YFP-H mice crossed with the Mecp2(tm1.1Jae mutant line. YFP(+ Layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the motor cortex of wildtype and hemizygous mutant male mice were examined for differences in dendrite morphology and spine density. Total basal dendritic length was decreased by 18.6% due to both shorter dendrites and reduced branching proximal to the soma. Tangential dendrite lengths in the apical tuft were reduced by up to 26.6%. Spine density was reduced by 47.4% in the apical tuft and 54.5% in secondary apical dendrites, but remained unaffected in primary apical and proximal basal dendrites. We also found that MeCP2 mutation reduced the number of YFP(+ cells in YFP-H mice by up to 72% in various cortical regions without affecting the intensity of YFP expression in individual cells. Our results support the view that the effects of MeCP2 mutation are highly context-dependent and cannot be generalized across mutation types and cell populations.

  4. Studies of the Injection System in the Decay Ring of Beta-Beam Neutrino Souce Project

    CERN Document Server

    Payet, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    After being accelerated the beta radioactive ions are accumulated in a decay ring. The losses due to their decay are compensated with regular injections in presence of filled bucket. Without a damping mechanism, the new particles are injected at a different energy from the stored beam energy, then the old and the new buckets are merged with RF manipulation. This type of injection has to be done, in a dispersive region, in presence of closed orbit bump and a septum magnet. The sizes of the injected beam and of the stored beam have to be adjusted in order to minimize the losses on the septum and to maximize the stored intensity keeping small beam sizes. The dispersion has to be large enough in order to decrease the energy difference. The injection system may be located either in the arc or in a straight section, both possibilities have been studied.

  5. The slow control system of the GERDA double beta decay experiment at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnera, R; Garfagnini, A; Gigante, G; Hemmer, S; Zinato, D; Costa, F; Lippi, I; Michelotto, M; Ur, C

    2012-01-01

    GERDA is an experiment designed and built to study double beta decays of 76 Ge. It is currently in operation at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories (LNGS). A custom slow control system has been designed to monitor and control all the critical parameters for the proper functioning of the experiment. The main sub-components of the experiment (Cryostat, Clean Room, Water Tank, electronic crates and temperatures, High Voltage Systems, Radon Monitor and Source Insertion System) are constantly monitored by several distributed clients which write acquired data to a relational database (PostgreSQL). The latter allows to maintain a history of the whole experiment and, performing correlation between different and independent components, is useful to debug possible system malfunctions. The system is complemented by a Web server, a lightweight and efficient interface to the user on shifts and to the on-call experts, and by a dedicated Alarm dispatcher which distributes the errors generated by the components to the users allowing to react in short time. The whole project has been built around open source and custom software.

  6. Studies of metal-biomolecule systems in liquids with beta-detected NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Michal

    2017-01-01

    My internship took place within a small research team funded via the European Research Council (ERC Starting Grant: Beta-Drop NMR) at ISOLDE. It was devoted to laser spin-polarization and beta-detected NMR techniques and their future applications in chemistry and biology. I was involved in the design and tests of the beta-NMR spectrometer which will be used in the upcoming experiments. In this way I have been exposed to many topics in physics (atomic and nuclear physics), experimental techniques (vacuum technology, lasers, beta detectors, electronics, DAQ software), as well as chemistry and biology (NMR on metal ions, metal ion binding to biomolecules, quantum chemistry calculations).

  7. beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase-catalase for use as an antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppoor, R; Niebergall, P J

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4)-catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) (BDG-GO-CAT) as a new antioxidant system in solutions. A novel method for estimation of activity of the system was developed using a dissolved oxygen (DO) meter and an oxygen probe. The method can be used to determine the enzymatic activity of the system at GO concentrations of 0.005 to 0.030 unit/ml, with an r2 of 0.995 for the linearity of the standard curve, and can be adapted for analysis in any solution. At room temperature of 23.0 degrees +/- 2.0 degrees C, the maximum activity of the BDG-GO-CAT system was found to occur at pH 5.40. The half-life values for the stability of GO-CAT in 0.10 M phosphate buffer solutions of pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0 were 9.78, 49.43, 53.46, 36.51, 12.68, 1.84, and 0.80 weeks, respectively. Dextrose was used in place of beta-D(+) glucose for cost-saving purposes, and a standard curve for the activity of GO-CAT was obtained using 20 mg/ml dextrose. The BDG-GO-CAT was effective as a DO-scavenger in closed containers, when the containers were opened and exposed to atmosphere for 2 days between tests, and upon reclosing them. Pharmaceutical excipients such as ethanol, glycerin, propylene glycol, methylparaben, propylparaben, artificial strawberry flavor, and sodium benzoate did not show any adverse effect on the activity of BDG-GO-CAT. Sorbitol, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and polyethylene glycol 3350 increased the rate of DO removal. Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) at 2.0% w/v decreased the rate of DO removal. These studies indicate that the BDG(dextrose)-GO-CAT system warrants serious consideration for use an antioxidant system in aqueous formulations.

  8. Improving documentation of a beta-blocker quality measure through an anesthesia information management system and real-time notification of documentation errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bala G; Peterson, Gene N; Newman, Shu-Fang; Wu, Wei-Ying; Kolios-Morris, Vickie; Schwid, Howard A

    2012-06-01

    Continuation of perioperative beta-blockers for surgical patients who are receiving beta-blockers prior to arrival for surgery is an important quality measure (SCIP-Card-2). For this measure to be considered successful, name, date, and time of the perioperative beta-blocker must be documented. Alternately, if the beta-blocker is not given, the medical reason for not administering must be documented. Before the study was conducted, the institution lacked a highly reliable process to document the date and time of self-administration of beta-blockers prior to hospital admission. Because of this, compliance with the beta-blocker quality measure was poor (-65%). To improve this measure, the anesthesia care team was made responsible for documenting perioperative beta-blockade. Clear documentation guidelines were outlined, and an electronic Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS) was configured to facilitate complete documentation of the beta-blocker quality measure. In addition, real-time electronic alerts were generated using Smart Anesthesia Messenger (SAM), an internally developed decision-support system, to notify users concerning incomplete beta-blocker documentation. Weekly compliance for perioperative beta-blocker documentation before the study was 65.8 +/- 16.6%, which served as the baseline value. When the anesthesia care team started documenting perioperative beta-blocker in AIMS, compliance was 60.5 +/- 8.6% (p = .677 as compared with baseline). Electronic alerts with SAM improved documentation compliance to 94.6 +/- 3.5% (p < .001 as compared with baseline). To achieve high compliance for the beta-blocker measure, it is essential to (1) clearly assign a medical team to perform beta-blocker documentation and (2) enhance features in the electronic medical systems to alert the user concerning incomplete documentation.

  9. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2001-01-01

    investigation with determination of splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics. Arterial compliance was determined as the ratio of the stroke volume to the pulse pressure and compared to normal values. RESULTS: All the patients had significant portal hypertension, with a mean hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG......) of 17.8 mmHg, and responded to beta-blocker treatment with a significant reduction in the HVPG (-16%; P elevated (1.27 versus controls 1.01 ml/mmHg; P ... with beta-blockers increases small vessel (arteriolar) vascular tone towards the normal level, but does not affect the elevated compliance of the larger arteries in patients with cirrhosis....

  10. Interferon-beta increases systemic BAFF levels in multiple sclerosis without increasing autoantibody production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Sellebjerg, Finn; Krakauer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) increases B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) expression in multiple sclerosis (MS), raising the concern that treatment of MS patients with IFN-beta may activate autoimmune B cells and stimulate the production of MS-associated au......Background: Treatment with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) increases B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) expression in multiple sclerosis (MS), raising the concern that treatment of MS patients with IFN-beta may activate autoimmune B cells and stimulate the production of MS......-associated autoantibodies. Objective: To investigate whether BAFF levels are associated with disease severity/activity in untreated MS patients, and to assess the effect of IFN-beta therapy on circulating BAFF and anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) autoantibody levels. Results: Twenty-three patients with relapsing......-remitting MS (RRMS) were followed longitudinally from initiation of IFN-beta therapy. Their blood levels of BAFF correlated positively at baseline with the expanded disability status scale (p

  11. New additions to the National Plant Germplasm System's Beta collection: Southern Morocco collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service’s National Plant Germplasm System’s (NPGS) Beta collection is comprised of 2,541 accessions from 14 species. The largest number of accessions is from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris, (domesticated beet crops – table, leaf (Swiss chard), fodder and, primarily, sugar...

  12. Proceedings of the US-Japan workshop and the satellite meeting of ITC-9 on physics of high beta plasma confinement in innovative fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Satoru [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high {beta} plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high {beta} systems; Formation of high {beta} plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I: prevalence, clinical correlations, and importance of persistent positivity in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowski, Adriana; Kickler, Thomas S; Petri, Michelle

    2006-09-01

    Antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2-GPI) are found in a large percentage of patients with primary or secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Our aim was to identify the prevalence and clinical correlation of these antibodies in patients with APS and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in comparison to anticardiolipin (aCL) and the lupus anticoagulant (LAC). We investigated whether serial samples improve clinical utility. Serum samples for anti-beta2-GPI (IgG, IgM, IgA), aCL (IgG, IgM, IgA), and LAC (by dilute Russell viper venom time; RVVT) were collected from 418 consecutive patients with SLE or APS between October 2002 and March 2003. Clinical and serologic data of these patients were analyzed. A total of 185 (44.5%) patients were positive for anti-beta2-GPI, 55.3% were positive for aCL, and 31.1% for LAC. Anti-beta2-GPI was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans (p = 0.098). IgM and IgA were the most frequent isotypes of anti-beta2-GPI. aCL and anti-beta2-GPI were highly associated (p Pregnancy loss, seizures, and migraines were not associated with anti-beta2-GPI. IgA anti-beta2-GPI was not significantly associated with any manifestation of APS. The prevalence of anti-beta2-GPI IgM and IgA was very high in our population. Measurement of anti-beta2-GPI IgG is clinically useful in identifying patients with SLE at higher risk for venous and arterial thrombosis. Persistent positivity increased the association of IgG anti-beta2-GPI with venous thrombosis and anti-beta2-GPI IgM with arterial thrombosis. IgA anti-beta2-GPI was not significantly associated with APS manifestations.

  14. Influence of beta-cyclodextrin and chitosan in the formulation of a colon-specific drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, K; Amin, M C I M; Muda, S

    2013-12-01

    The increase in diseases of the colon underscores the need to develop cost-effective site-directed therapies. We formulated a polysaccharide-based matrix system that could release ibuprofen under conditions simulating those in the colon by employing a wet granulation method. Tablets were prepared in a series of formulations containing a polysaccharide (beta-cyclodextrin and chitosan) matrix system along with ethylcellulose. We characterized physicochemical properties and performed an in vitro drug release assay in the absence and presence of digestive enzymes to assess the ability of the polysaccharides to function as a protective barrier against the upper gastrointestinal environment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed no chemical interaction between ibuprofen and polysaccharides; however, spectrum analysis suggested the formation of an inclusion complex of beta-cyclodextrin with ibuprofen. The formulations contained 50% ethylcellulose and 50% beta-cyclodextrins (1:1) were proven to be the better formulation that slowly released the drug until 24 h (101.04 ± 0.65% maximum drug release in which 83.08 ± 0.89% drug was released in colonic medium) showed better drug release profiles than the formulations containing chitosan. We conclude that a beta-cyclodextrin drug carrier system may represent an effective approach for treatment of diseases of the colon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, N; Chatti, K; Coulon, P; Maitrejean, S; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.03.014

    2004-01-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of beta radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as /sup 99m/Tc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range gamma -rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm/sup 2/ for /sup 3/H and 0.01 for /sup 14/C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10/sup 4/) and spatial resolution (50 mu m for /sup 3/H or /sup 99m/Tc to 150 mu m for /sup 32/P or /sup 18/F ( beta /sup +/)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitte...

  16. Oral beta-stimulants can inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats through an indirect inhibitory mechanism: possible involvement of afferent and efferent nervous system via gastric beta2-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, H; Minami, E; Hirata, R; Nabe, T; Kohno, S

    2000-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that oral l-ephedrine exerts an extremely rapid (within 20 s) inhibition of 48-h passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction (PCA) in rats by a possibly unidentified mode of action. In the present experiments, we elucidated the mechanism of the PCA inhibition by l-ephedrine using adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists. Rat antiserum was prepared with dinitrophenylated Ascaris suum extract + Bordetella pertussis. Passively skin-sensitised Wistar rats were mainly used. l-Ephedrine, and adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists were orally administered immediately before PCA provocation. Catecholamine depleting (6-hydroxydopamine, 6-OHDA), amine depleting (reserpine) or ganglion blocking (hexamethonium) agent was intraperitoneally or intravenously administered before the provocation. The effects of the drugs on PCA were assessed by inhibition of the dye leakage. beta-(propranolol) and beta2-(butoxamine) blocking agents reduced the inhibition of PCA by l-ephedrine, while the inhibition was not altered by either an a-blocking agent (phentolamine) or a beta1-(atenolol) selective antagonist. On the other hand, beta-(isoproterenol) and beta2-selective (salbutamol) agonists showed extremely rapid inhibition of PCA. However, the beta-selective agonist (dobutamine) had no effect on the reaction. The pretreatment with hexamethonium, reserpine or 6-OH-DA substantially attenuated the inhibitory effect of l-ephedrine on PCA. The results strongly suggest that beta2-adrenoceptors locate in the stomach and that their receptor excitement finally may lead to the inhibition of PCA via the stimulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  17. Data on a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Knowles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates” (Knowles et al., 2018 [1]. This includes data from the as-cast alloy obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD as well as SEM data in the solution heat treated condition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM selected area diffraction patterns (SADPs are included from the alloy in the solution heat treated condition, as well as the aged condition that contained < 100 nm B2 TiFe precipitates [1], the latter of which was found to exhibit double diffraction owing to the precipitate and matrix channels being of a similar width to the foil thickness (Williams and Carter, 2009 [2]. Further details are provided on the macroscopic compression testing of small scale cylinders. Of the micropillar deformation experiment performed in [1], SEM micrographs of focused ion beam (FIB prepared 2 µm micropillars are presented alongside those obtained at the end of the in-situ SEM deformation as well as videos of the in-situ deformation. Further, a table is included that lists the Schmidt factors of all the possible slip systems given the crystal orientations and loading axis of the deformed micropillars in the solution heat treated and aged conditions.

  18. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the in vivo memory to glucose of pancreatic beta cell in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guyen, J M; Magnan, C; Laury, M C; Thibault, C; Leveteau, J; Gilbert, M; Pénicaud, L; Ktorza, A

    1994-01-01

    The fact that the potentiating effect of prolonged hyperglycemia on the subsequent insulin secretion is observed in vivo but not in vitro suggests the involvement of extrapancreatic factors in the in vivo memory of pancreatic beta cells to glucose. We have investigated the possible role of the autonomic nervous system. Rats were made hyperglycemic by a 48-h infusion with glucose (HG rats). At the end of glucose infusion as well as 6 h postinfusion, both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities were profoundly altered: parasympathetic and sympathetic activities, assessed by the firing rate either of the thoracic vagus nerve or the superior cervical ganglion, were dramatically increased and decreased, respectively. Moreover, 6 h after the end of glucose infusion, insulin secretion in response to a glucose load was dramatically increased in HG rats compared to controls. To determine whether these changes could be responsible for the increased sensitivity of the beta cell to glucose, insulin release in response to glucose was measured in HG and control rats, either under subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or after administration of the alpha 2A-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline. Both treatments partially abolished the hyperresponsiveness of the beta cell to glucose in HG rats. Therefore chronic hyperglycemia brings about changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which in turn are responsible, at least in part, for the generation of enhanced beta cell responsiveness to glucose in vivo. PMID:7929821

  19. {beta}-TCP porous pellets as an orthopaedic drug delivery system: ibuprofen/carrier physicochemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baradari, Hiba; Damia, Chantal; Dutreih-Colas, Maggy; Champion, Eric; Chulia, Dominique; Viana, Marylene, E-mail: hiva.baradari@etu.unilim.fr [SPCTS-Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 Rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges CEDEX (France)

    2011-10-15

    Calcium phosphate bone substitute materials can be loaded with active substances for in situ, targeted drug administration. In this study, porous {beta}-TCP pellets were investigated as an anti-inflammatory drug carrier. Porous {beta}-TCP pellets were impregnated with an ethanolic solution of ibuprofen. The effects of contact time and concentration of ibuprofen solution on drug adsorption were studied. The ibuprofen adsorption equilibrium time was found to be one hour. The adsorption isotherms fitted to the Freundlich model, suggesting that the interaction between ibuprofen and {beta}-TCP is weak. The physicochemical characterizations of loaded pellets confirmed that the reversible physisorption of ibuprofen on {beta}-TCP pellets is due to Van der Waals forces, and this property was associated with the 100% ibuprofen release.

  20. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, J. E. de; Granados, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    In 4π β-γ coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between theβ--and γ-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs

  1. Slow cortical potential and theta/beta neurofeedback training in adults: effects on attentional processes, and motor system excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eStuder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback (NF is being successfully applied, among others, in children with ADHD and as a peak performance training in healthy subjects. However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating a successful NF training have not yet been sufficiently uncovered for both theta/beta (T/B, and slow cortical potential (SCP training, two protocols established in NF in ADHD. In the present randomized controlled investigation in adults without a clinical diagnosis (n = 59, the specificity of the effects of these two NF protocols on attentional processes, and motor system excitability were to be examined, focusing on the underlying neuronal mechanisms. NF training consisted of 10 double sessions, and self-regulation skills were analyzed. Pre- and post-training assessments encompassed performance and event-related potential measures during an attention task, and motor system excitability assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some NF protocol specific effects have been obtained. However, due to the limited sample size medium effects didn’t reach the level of significance. Self-regulation abilities during negativity trials of the SCP training were associated with increased contingent negative variation amplitudes, indicating improved resource allocation during cognitive preparation. Theta/beta training was associated with increased response speed and decreased target-P3 amplitudes after successful theta/beta regulation suggested reduced attentional resources necessary for stimulus evaluation. Motor system excitability effects after theta/beta training paralleled the effects of methylphenidate. Overall, our results are limited by the non-sufficiently acquired self-regulation skills, but some specific effects between good and poor learners could be described. Future studies with larger sample sizes and sufficient acquisition of self-regulation skills are needed to further evaluate the protocol specific effects on attention and motor system excitability

  2. Beta and Gamma Human Herpesviruses: Agonistic and Antagonistic Interactions with the Host Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Cruz-Muñoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant and diverse biological entities in the planet. Historically, our main interest in viruses has focused on their pathogenic role, recognized by pandemics that have decimated the world population. However, viral infections have also played a major role in the evolution of cellular organisms, both through interchanging of genes with novel functions and shaping the immune system. Examples abound of infections that seriously compromise the host integrity, but evidence of plant and insect viruses mutualistic relationships have recently surfaced in which infected hosts are better suited for survival, arguing that virus-host interactions are initially parasitic but become mutualistic over years of co-evolution. A similar mutual help scenario has emerged with commensal gut bacteria. EBV is a herpesvirus that shares more than a hundred million years of co-evolution with humans, today successfully infecting close to 100% of the adult world population. Infection is usually acquired early in childhood persisting for the host lifetime mostly without apparent clinical symptoms. Disturbance of this homeostasis is rare and results in several diseases, of which the best understood are infectious mononucleosis and several EBV-associated cancers. Less understood are recently found inborn errors of the immune system that result in primary immunodeficiencies with an increased predisposition almost exclusive to EBV-associated diseases. Puzzling to these scenarios of broken homeostasis is the co-existence of immunosuppression, inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. Homologous to EBV, HCMV, HHV-6 and HHV-7 are herpesviruses that also latently infect most individuals. Several lines of evidence support a mutualistic equilibrium between HCMV/EBV and hosts, that when altered trigger diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. Interestingly, these beta and gamma herpesviruses persistently infect all immune lineages and early

  3. Effects of beta-escin and saponin on the transverse-tubular system and sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes of rat and toad skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    1999-05-01

    Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from rat and toad were exposed to the permeabilizing agents beta-escin and saponin. The effects of these agents on the sealed transverse tubular system (t-system) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were examined by looking at changes in the magnitude of the force responses to t-system depolarization, the time course of the fluorescence of fura-2 trapped in the sealed t-system, and changes in the magnitude of caffeine-induced contractures following SR loading with Ca2+ under defined conditions. In the presence of 2 microg ml-1 beta-escin and saponin, the response to t-system depolarization was not completely abolished, decreasing to a plateau, and a large proportion of fura-2 remained in the sealed t-system. At 10 microg ml-1, both agents abolished the ability of both rat and toad preparations to respond to t-system depolarization after 3 min of exposure, but a significant amount of fura-2 remained in sealed t-tubules even after exposure to 100 microg ml-1 beta-escin and saponin for 10 min. beta-Escin took longer than saponin to reduce the t-system depolarizations and fura-2 content of the sealed t-system to a similar level. The ability of the SR to load Ca2+ was reduced to a lower level after treatment with beta-escin than saponin. This direct effect on the SR occurred at much lower concentrations for rat (2 microg ml-1 beta-escin and 10 microg ml-1 saponin) than toad (10 microg ml-1 beta-escin and 150 microg ml-1 saponin). The reverse order in sensitivities to beta-escin and saponin of t-system and SR membranes indicates that the mechanisms of action of beta-escin and saponin are different in the two types of membrane. In conclusion, this study shows that: (1) beta-escin has a milder action on the surface membrane than saponin; (2) beta-escin is a more potent modifier of SR function; (3) simple permeabilization of membranes is not sufficient to explain the effects of beta-escin and saponin on muscle membranes; and (4) the t-system

  4. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  5. Global kink and ballooning modes in high-beta systems and stability of toroidal drift modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Rem, J.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Schep, T.J.; Venema, M.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical code (HBT) has been developed which solves for the equilibrium, global stability and high-n stability of plasmas with arbitrary cross-section. Various plasmas are analysed for their stability to these modes in the high-beta limit. Screw-pinch equilibria are stable to high-n ballooning modes up to betas of 18%. The eigenmode equation for drift waves is analysed numerically. The toroidal branch is shown to be destabilized by the non-adiabatic response of trapped and circulating particles. (author)

  6. Low-level multicounter {beta}/{gamma} systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsson, P. [Iceland Univ. (Iceland). Science Inst.

    1997-03-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level {beta}/{gamma} multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  7. [Comparative assessment of the Vitek 2 and Phoenix systems for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Mercedes; Martínez-Lamas, Lucía; Romero-Jung, Patricia; Varón, Carlos; Moldes, Luz; García-Riestra, Carlos; Regueiro, Benito J

    2009-12-01

    Detection of beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains is clinically relevant. Moreover, it is important to differentiate between extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production and other mechanisms of resistance to avoid inadequate treatment of infection caused by these strains. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the Vitek 2 and BD Phoenix automated systems for confirmatory testing of ESBL production. A total of 193 clinical isolates of phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers (174 E. coli and 19 K. pneumoniae) were assayed by the Vitek 2 and BD Phoenix systems using AST-N058 cards and UNMIC/ID-62 panels, respectively. The double-disk synergy test and the Etest were used as phenotype reference methods. Twelve strains characterized by genotyping were used as positive and negative controls. In the clinical isolates, the sensitivity of the tests was 99.5% for Vitek and 95.3% for Phoenix. There were no significant differences between the 2 systems in the control strains. Execution of the expert system raised the sensitivity of Phoenix to 100%. However, the Vitek 2 expert system considered the results obtained in 7 strains with ESBL-positive tests to be incoherent. Confirmatory testing for ESBL production with the Vitek 2 system (AST-N058 card) showed higher sensitivity than the Phoenix (UNMIC-ID 62 panel) system. Nevertheless, the performance of the expert systems in the 2 automated tests was similar for ESBL detection in E. coli and K. pneumoniae.

  8. Innovation design of beta test loop system for heat transfer experiments in single-phase and two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiswanta; Edy Sumarno; Joko Prasetio W; Ainur Rosidi; G B Heru K

    2013-01-01

    Innovation design of BETA test loop has been done. BETA test loop is a research facility used as a support for experiments of reactor accident simulation. The innovation was performed to prepare experimental facilities in order to study flow of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. The design was executed by modifying new piping of UUB's primary system, addition of heat flux measurements and imaging thermal for easiness of experimental result analysis. UUB development and experiments were carried out to understand heat transfer process in the narrow gap of two-phase flow considering this phenomenon is one of the conditions postulated in PWR typed nuclear power plant accident scenario. The innovation design of BETA test loop is still in the planning stages so that the design has not been constructed. Piping systems made of SS-304 with the ability to use a maximum pressure of 10 bar with a diameter of % inch pipe to, from the calculation of minimal design that is 7.27 mm. If the tube SS-304 - ASTM B88 is the wall thickness of 0.083 inches. From this design it is indicated that the design is able to be fabricated and used for experimental study of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. (author)

  9. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    prednisone, 5-20 mg/day. None of the patients had proteinuria as judged by the "Albustix" test, and all had normal serum creatinine. The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were nearly the same as those previously found by us in 27 adult control subjects with a mean age of 44 years...

  10. Stress-mediated increases in systemic and local epinephrine impair skin wound healing: potential new indication for beta blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja K Sivamani

    2009-01-01

    keratinocytes that are genetically depleted of the beta2AR, and is reproduced by incubation of keratinocytes with other beta2AR-specific agonists. Activation of the beta2AR in cultured keratinocytes signals the down-regulation of the AKT pathway, accompanied by a stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton and an increase in focal adhesion formation, resulting in a nonmigratory phenotype. Burn wound injury in excised human skin also rapidly up-regulates the intra-epithelial expression of the epinephrine synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, and tissue levels of epinephrine rise dramatically (15-fold in the burn wounded tissue (values of epinephrine expressed as pg/ug protein +/- standard error of the mean: unburned control, 0.6 +/- 0.36; immediately postburn, 9.6 +/- 1.58; 2 h postburn, 3.1 +/- 1.08; 24 h post-burn, 6.7 +/- 0.94. Finally, using an animal burn wound model (20% body surface in mice, we found that systemic treatment with betaAR antagonists results in a significant increase (44%, 95% CI 27%-61%, p < 0.00000001 in the rate of burn wound re-epithelialization.This work demonstrates an alternate pathway by which stress can impair healing: by stress-induced elevation of epinephrine levels resulting in activation of the keratinocyte beta2AR and the impairment of cell motility and wound re-epithelialization. Furthermore, since the burn wound locally generates epinephrine in response to wounding, epinephrine levels are locally, as well as systemically, elevated, and wound healing is impacted by these dual mechanisms. Treatment with beta adrenergic antagonists significantly improves the rate of burn wound re-epithelialization. This work suggests that specific beta2AR antagonists may be apt, near-term translational therapeutic targets for enhancing burn wound healing, and may provide a novel, low-cost, safe approach to improving skin wound repair in the stressed individual.

  11. Determination of the efficiency variation with the alpha and beta radiation energies for a hands and feet circulating gas proportional detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, M.M.; Moraes, M.A.P.V. de

    1994-01-01

    The alpha and beta efficiency calibrations of a gas flow detector have been performed in the energy range of 3-5.5 MeV for alpha radiation and 0.1-1.5 MeV for beta radiation. This detector is being used for laboratorial monitoring in a hand and foot monitor system. The results obtained showed a strong increase in efficiency as the alpha (α) energy or beta (β) energy increase. Values of efficiency 2-4 times larger were obtained in these energy ranges. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on beta adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system on surfaces of peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A; Tian, Y; Jin, S

    2000-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the level of CAMP, the ratio of cAPM to cGMP, IL-2R expression and IL-2 production in vitro in lymphocytes immediate and 2 weeks after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were significantly lower than those before anesthetics in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. These findings suggested that CPB could cause serious damage to adrenergic beta receptor-adenylate cyclase system on circulating lymphocytes surfaces, which might be one of the mechanisms resulting in immunosuppression after open heart surgery with CPB.

  13. Skylab ultraviolet stellar spectra - Emission lines from the Beta Lyrae system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Parsons, S. B.; Wray, J. D.; Benedict, G. F.; Henize, K. G.; Mccluskey, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of Beta Lyr with the Skylab S-019 ultraviolet objective-prism spectrograph show numerous emission lines in the region from 1400 to 2300 A. Some variations in line strength between phases 0.25 and 0.50 are seen, which probably explain the shallowness of the OAO-2 light curve at 1910 A. Many of the emission lines are probably due to intercombination transitions, thus confirming the concept that the emission is produced by collisional excitation in low-density clouds of hot gas.

  14. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  15. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  16. Primary 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for standardization of radionuclides by means of plastic scintillators; Sistema primario por coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a padronizacao de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, Aida Maria

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes a 4{pi}({alpha},{beta})-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute measurement of radionuclide activity using a plastic scintillator in 4{pi} geometry for charged particles detection and a Nal (Tl) crystal for gamma-ray detection. Several shapes and dimensions of the plastic scintillator have been tried in order to obtain the best system configuration. Radionuclides which decay by alpha emission, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +} and electron capture have been standardized. The results showed excellent agreement with other conventional primary system which makes use of a 4{pi} proportional counter for X-ray and charged particle detection. The system developed in the present work have some advantages when compared with the conventional systems, namely; it does not need metal coating on the films used as radioactive source holders. When compared to liquid scintillators, is showed the advantage of not needing to be kept in dark for more than 24 h to allow phosphorescence decay of ambient light. Therefore it can be set to count immediately after the sources are placed inside of it. (author)

  17. Affinity partitioning of a Cellulomonas fimi beta-mannanase with a mannan-binding module in galactomannan/starch aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, Mirjana; Anderson, Lars; Andersson, Alexandra; Tjerneld, Folke; Stålbrand, Henrik

    2006-08-04

    A new approach in affinity separations was studied by partitioning of Cellulomonas fimi beta-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78) containing a mannan-binding module in galactomannan/hydroxypropyl starch aqueous two-phase system. Comparison was made with a truncated version of C. fimi beta-mannanase which lacked the mannan-binding module. Results showed that affinity partitioning of the beta-mannanase was achieved due to biospecificity of the mannan-binding module towards the top phase containing galactomannan. Experiments were conducted at pH 8 to prevent enzyme degradation of the phase containing galactomannan. Removal of the top phase polymer was accomplished by beta-mannanase degradation allowed by shifting to the optimal pH 6. In the combination with the genetic fusion of any given protein to the mannan-binding module, the results envision a general procedure for primary affinity recovery of such fusion proteins.

  18. Study and design of a very high spatial resolution beta imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnard, J.

    2008-01-01

    The b autoradiography is a widely used technique in pharmacology or biological fields. It is able to locate in two dimensions molecules labeled with beta emitters. The development of a gaseous detector incorporating micro-mesh called PIM in the Subatech laboratory leads to the construction of a very high spatial resolution apparatus dedicated to b imaging. This device is devoted to small analysis surface of a half microscope slide in particular of 3 H or 14 C and the measured spatial resolution is 20 μm FWHM. The recent development of a new reconstruction method allows enlarging the field of investigation to high energy beta emitters such as 131 I, 18 F or 46 Sc. A new device with a large active area of 18*18 cm 2 has been built with a user friendly design. This allows to image simultaneously 10 microscope slides. Thanks to a multi-modality solution, it retains the good characteristics of spatial resolution obtained previously on a small surface. Moreover, different kinds of samples, like microscope slides or scotches can be analysed. The simulation and experimentation work achieved during this thesis led to an optimal disposition of the inner structure of the detector. These results and characterization show that the PIM structure has to be considered for a next generation of b-Imager. (author)

  19. Selectivity and stoichiometry boosting of beta-cyclodextrin in cationic/anionic surfactant systems: when host-guest equilibrium meets biased aggregation equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yu, Caifang; Deng, Manli; Jin, Changwen; Wang, Yilin; Yan, Yun; Huang, Jianbin

    2010-02-18

    Cationic surfactant/anionic surfactant/beta-CD ternary aqueous systems provide a platform for the coexistence of the host-guest (beta-CD/surfactant) equilibrium and the biased aggregation (monomeric/aggregated surfactants) equilibrium. We report here that the interplay between the two equilibria dominates the systems as follows. (1) The biased aggregation equilibrium imposes an apparent selectivity on the host-guest equilibrium, namely, beta-CD has to always selectively bind the major surfactant (molar fraction > 0.5) even if binding constants of beta-CD to the pair of surfactants are quite similar. (2) In return, the host-guest equilibrium amplifies the bias of the aggregation equilibrium, that is, the selective binding partly removes the major surfactant from the aggregates and leaves the aggregate composition approaching the electroneutral mixing stoichiometry. (3) This composition variation enhances electrostatic attractions between oppositely charged surfactant head groups, thus resulting in less-curved aggregates. In particular, the present apparent host-guest selectivity is of remarkably high values, and the selectivity stems from the bias of the aggregation equilibrium rather than the difference in binding constants. Moreover, beta-CD is defined as a "stoichiometry booster" for the whole class of cationic/anionic surfactant systems, which provides an additional degree of freedom to directly adjust aggregate compositions of the systems. The stoichiometry boosting of the compositions can in turn affect or even determine microstructures and macroproperties of the systems.

  20. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  1. Behaviour of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane in the soil-plant system of a contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvelo Pereira, R. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: edrobert@usc.es; Camps-Arbestain, M. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez Garrido, B. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Macias, F. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Monterroso, C. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    The behaviour of the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is investigated. The concentrations of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-HCH isomers were measured in soils, rhizosphere and vegetation in a contaminated area in Galicia (NW Spain). The total concentration of HCH in soils reached values close to 20 000 mg kg{sup -1}. The plants analysed (Avena sativa L., Chenopodium spp., Solanum nigrum L., Cytisus striatus (Hill) Roth, and Vicia sativa L.) accumulated HCH, especially the {beta}-HCH isomer, in their tissues. The most likely mechanisms of HCH accumulation in plants were sorption of soil HCH on roots and sorption of volatilized HCH on aerial plant tissues. The concentrations of HCH obtained from the bulk and rhizosphere soils of selected plant species suggest that roots tend to reduce levels of the HCH isomers in the rhizosphere. The results reflect the importance of vegetation in the distribution of organochlorine compounds in the soil-plant system. - This paper describes the soil-plant relationship of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a contaminated site, with special focus on the rhizosphere effect.

  2. Radioprotective action of beta-carotin and vitamin A, C and E complexes at reproductive system and indices of antioxidant system in male rat blood and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchako, G.G.; Konoplya, E.F.; Khodosovskaya, A.M.; Rutkovskaya, Zh.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of total irradiation in low dose at the state of rat mail reproductive system, lipid peroxidation processes and antioxidant system in rat blood and liver tissues as well as radioprotective capacity of beta-carotin with vitamin A, C and E complexes were investigated. It was established that injection of this substances to rat's organism one day before irradiation in 1.0 Gy dose led to normalization of spermatogenic cells number, increase of nucleic acids content in testes and significant improvement of antioxidant status of blood and liver tissue. (authors)

  3. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Rathbun, L.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This program focuses on the resolution of problems associated with the field measurement of the beta dose component at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The change in DOE programs, including increased efforts in improved waste management and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of facilities, coupled with beta measurement problems identified at Three Mile Island has increased the need to improve beta measurements. In FY 1982, work was initiated to provide a continuing effort to identify problems associated with beta dose assessment at DOE facilities. The problems identified resulted in the development of this program. The investigation includes (1) an assessment of measurement systems now in use, (2) development of improved calibration systems and procedures, (3) application of innovative beta dosimetry concepts, (4) investigation of new instruments or concepts for monitoring and spectroscopy, and (5) development of recommendations to assure an adequate beta measurement program within DOE facilities

  4. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, Na

  5. Self-organization of the ternary didecyldimethylammonium bromide/octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside/water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junquera, Elena; Del Burgo, Patricia; Boskovic, Jasminka; Aicart, Emilio

    2005-08-02

    The spontaneous and thermodynamically stable mixed vesicles constituted by a double-chain cationic surfactant with 10 carbon atoms hydrophobic tail, didecyldimethylammonium bromide (di-C(10)DMAB), and a nonionic single-chain surfactant, octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (OBG), have been characterized in aqueous media by means of a series of experimental techniques, as well as a theoretical approach. Conductivity data allow for the determination of the concentrations at which the monomer-to-vesicle (CVC) and/or vesicle-to-micelle (CMC) transitions occur. Electrophoretic mobilities, obtained from laser-doppler-electrophoresis experiments, permit the determination of zeta-potentials and, from them, the surface charge density of the vesicle aggregates. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) provides pictures of the vesicles, their size and shape being, thus, determined. Finally, the sensitivity of the emission spectra of some fluorescent probes, such as the cationic TNS and the nonionic PRODAN, to the polarity of the environment, allow for a complete study of different pre- and post-vesicle microdomains, of variable rigidity and micropolarity. This, in turn, yield interesting information about the vesicle surface and bilayer, as well as, about the existence of clusters and/or nanoaggregates prior to the formation of vesicles, as was proposed by us in a previous paper.

  6. Study of a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators; Estudo de um sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a medida absoluta de atividade de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio

    2007-07-01

    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  7. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  8. Beta2-adrenergic receptor genotype affects the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system response to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan S; Svetkey, Laura P; Kolatkar, Nikheel S; Conlin, Paul R

    2010-08-01

    Beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) is a susceptibility locus for hypertension, and polymorphisms at this site relate to salt sensitivity and low plasma renin activity (PRA). The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern lowers blood pressure and appears to interact with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). We hypothesized that the DASH diet associates with increased RAAS activity, and genotype status at beta2-AR G46A modifies this response. We genotyped participants in the DASH-Sodium study (n = 372) at beta2-AR G46A to determine the association with blood pressure, RAAS components, and consumption of the DASH diet. We used 2-way mixed linear regression and an additive model for all primary analyses. Mean (+/-SEM) PRA was significantly higher in participants in the DASH group than in participants in the control group (0.68 +/- 0.03 compared with 0.54 +/- 0.03 ng x mL(-1) x h(-1), P = 0.002). Serum aldosterone, urinary aldosterone, and urinary potassium concentrations were also significantly higher in the DASH group (P diet interactions for changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and concentrations of aldosterone and urinary potassium (P for interaction = 0.048, 0.017, and 0.001 for SBP and aldosterone and urinary potassium concentrations, respectively). There was an association between the A allele of beta2-AR G46A and greater blood pressure reduction and blunted aldosterone and PRA responses to the DASH diet. Our results indicate that the DASH diet lowers blood pressure and increases PRA and aldosterone concentrations. There is an association between the G46A polymorphism of beta2-AR and blood pressure and RAAS responses to the DASH diet, which suggests that beta2-AR may be a genetic modifier of DASH-diet responsiveness. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608.

  9. Systemic apomorphine alters HPA axis responses to interleukin-1 beta administration but not sound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, K M; Crane, J W; Spencer, S J; Day, T A

    2003-08-01

    Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor agonist that was recently licensed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, although sexual activity can be stressful, there has been little investigation into whether treatments for erectile dysfunction affect stress responses. We have examined whether a single dose of apomorphine, sufficient to produce penile erections (50 microg/kg, i.a.), can alter basal or stress-induced plasma ACTH levels, or activity of central pathways thought to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats. An immune challenge (interleukin-1 beta, 1 microg/kg, i.a.) was used as a physical stressor while sound stress (100 dB white noise, 30 min) was used as a psychological stressor. Intravascular administration of apomorphine had no effect on basal ACTH levels but did substantially increase the number of Fos-positive amygdala and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. Administration of apomorphine prior to immune challenge augmented the normal ACTH response to this stressor at 90 min and there was a corresponding increase in the number of Fos-positive paraventricular nucleus corticotropin-releasing factor cells, paraventricular nucleus oxytocin cells and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. However, apomorphine treatment did not alter ACTH or Fos responses to sound stress. These data suggest that erection-inducing levels of apomorphine interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibitory feedback mechanisms in response to a physical stressor, but have no effect on the response to a psychological stressor. Consequently, it is likely that apomorphine acts on a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis control pathway that is unique to physical stressors. A candidate for this site of action is the nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cell population and, in particular, A2 noradrenergic neurons.

  10. Modeling the effects of repeated systemic administrations of small activity amounts In radionuclide therapy with beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Carlos; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Cepero, Janet; Colom, Camila; Rodriguez, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Good results for radionuclide therapy treatments where repeated short time spaced systemic injection of small activity amounts are given have been reported. Bone marrow and kidneys are usually considered as dose-limiting organs in radionuclide therapy. The treatments in radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be optimized if irradiation effects in those one might be estimated. Xeno-grafted mice is the often biological model used during the evaluation of candidates for radionuclide therapy. A mathematical model of tumor cell kinetics was combined with another one reported for marrow cell kinetics which allows the calculation of marrow cell survival and proliferation in response to different irradiation schemes. Radionuclide therapy treatment with repeated administrations with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta emitters were simulated. The effects on fast-growing and slow-growing tumors were evaluated, as well as radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. For more realistic estimation of absorbed dose in mice organs the cross-irradiation due to high energy beta particles was included into the MIRD's formula. Tumor and kidneys responses to the irradiation were estimated on the linear-quadratic model framework which was adapted for a multi-exponential dose rate function describing radionuclide therapy treatments with repeated administrations. Published values for murine tumors kinetics, marrows cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivities were used during the calculations. Iso-effective schemes were also determined varying the interval between fractions and the number of administration. For a given tolerated level of thrombocytopenia and absorbed dose in kidneys an optimal regime of radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be found. The mathematical model presented here allows the prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia, the effects on kidneys and the tumor cell response to various treatment schemes

  11. Use of Beta-Blockers and Aspirin in Acute Coronary Syndromes by Patient Renal Function in the Military Healthcare Systems, National Capital Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbott, Kevin C

    2005-01-01

    ...) hospital system from 2001 through 2004. Use of beta-blockers (BB) and aspirin (ASA) at the time of discharge after AMI was assessed according to serum creatinine level, stratified by admission to the coronary care unit (CCU) vs. other wards...

  12. Beta activity in the premotor cortex is increased during stabilized as compared to normal walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking on two legs is inherently unstable. Still, we humans perform remarkable well at it, mostly without falling. To gain more understanding of the role of the brain in controlling gait stability we measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG during stabilized and normal walking.Subjects walked on a treadmill in two conditions, each lasting 10 minutes; normal, and while being laterally stabilized by elastic cords. Kinematics of trunk and feet, electro-myography (EMG of neck muscles, as well as 64-channel EEG were recorded. To assess gait stability the local divergence exponent, step width, and trunk range of motion were calculated from the kinematic data. We used independent component analysis to remove movement, EMG, and eyeblink artifacts from the EEG, after which dynamic imaging of coherent sources beamformers were determined to identify cortical sources that showed a significant difference between conditions. Stabilized walking led to a significant increase in gait stability, i.e. lower local divergence exponents. Beamforming analysis of the beta band activity revealed significant sources in bilateral pre-motor cortices. Projection of sensor data on these sources showed a significant difference only in the left premotor area, with higher beta power during stabilized walking, specifically around push-off, although only significant around contralateral push-off. It appears that even during steady gait the cortex is involved in the control of stability.

  13. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles

  14. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of pesticides used in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production systems in Khorasan provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Bazrgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental optimizing of pest management strategies and improving theirs trends towards minimum environmental risks programs is a matter of considerable concern of food scientists particularly in developing countries. This study evaluates the environmental impacts of pesticides consumption based on Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ model in different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production systems in Khorasan provinces as the largest producer of this strategic crop in Iran. For this purpose, information of pesticides used in 26 locations of 11 geographic regions in Khorasan provinces, (North, Razavi and South Khorasan provinces in three types of production systems was gathered: mechanized, semi-mechanized and traditional. In all three production systems, based on EIQ index which uses three risk components: farm worker, consumer and leaching and environment to estimate the relative potential risk of pesticide, the most negative effect of pesticide consumption was on ecosystem organisms as ecological component. Results showed that there is no relationship between sugar beet yield and increasing both diversity of pesticides types and quantity of active ingredients consumption as well. Moreover, granted that increasing in mechanization in sugar beet production caused more environmental load in farm, considering sugar beet yield, mechanized systems resulted in 33% less environmental damage per 1 ton sugar beet produced. Thus, it is expected that there is a possibility to improve ecological function of Khorasan sugar beet production systems without economic loss by substitution or decreasing the use of pesticides. Also, employing more mechanized and more productive systems may reduce environmental hazards in national scale and decrease environmental load due to transportation of non local production in international scale.

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein I in systemic lupus erythematosus and their association with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome criteria: a single center study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, I N; Clark-Soloninka, C A; Spitzer, K A; Gladman, D D; Urowitz, M B; Laskin, C A

    2000-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-beta2-GPI) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to assess their association with and predictive value for the clinical classification criteria of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). One hundred thirty-three consecutive patients with SLE were recruited from 2 lupus clinics in the University of Toronto. Serum and plasma samples were tested for IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT), a panel of lupus anticoagulant (LAC) assays, and anti-beta2-GPI (IgG, IgM, IgA). Normal ranges for the assays were established using 129 healthy controls. A literature review from 1992 to 2000 was performed using beta2-GPI, SLE, APS, thrombosis, and recurrent pregnancy loss as key search words. The distribution of anti-beta2-GPI antibodies (of any isotype) in each group were as follows: all patients with SLE, 36.8%; SLE with clinical features of APS, 40.4%; SLE without clinical features of APS, 34.9%; and healthy controls, 3%. The positive predictive values of prolonged PTT, IgG aCL, and anti-beta2-GPI for at least one clinical feature of APS in SLE were 59.3, 50.0, and 38.8%, respectively. There were 27 patients with SLE who had antibodies to beta2-GPI but a normal PTT and negative aCL and LAC. Six (20.7%) of these had a history of thrombosis and/or recurrent pregnancy loss. Twelve studies (including ours) were identified in which patient groups were similar and the same antibody isotype was measured. No agreement was apparent after reviewing the literature regarding an association of anti-beta2-GPI IgG and clinical features of APS in patients with SLE. Antibodies to beta2-GPI were frequently seen (35%) in our SLE population. The prevalence of anti-beta2-GPI was similar in those with (19/47) and without (39/86) APS. Anti-beta2-GPI did, however, identify 6 patients with clinical features of APS who were negative for aCL and prolonged PTT. Our

  16. Pulmonary cachexia, systemic inflammatory profile, and the interleukin 1beta -511 single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Roelinka; Grimble, Robert F; Howell, W Martin; Shale, Dennis J; Creutzberg, Eva C; Wouters, Emiel F; Schols, Annemie M

    2005-11-01

    Cachexia is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is thought to be linked to an enhanced systemic inflammatory response. We investigated differences in the systemic inflammatory profile and polymorphisms in related inflammatory genes in COPD patients. A cross-sectional study was performed in 99 patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages II-IV), who were stratified by cachexia based on fat-free mass index (FFMI; in kg/m2: leptin, and urinary pseudouridine (as a marker of cellular protein breakdown) were measured. Fat mass, leptin, and pseudouridine were significantly different (P COPD patients, who are characterized by an elevated systemic inflammatory response, cachexia is not discriminatory for the extent of increase in inflammatory status. This study, however, indicates a potential influence of genetic predisposition on the cachexia process.

  17. Cortical Amyloid Beta in Cognitively Normal Elderly Adults is Associated with Decreased Network Efficiency within the Cerebro-Cerebellar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Stefanie C; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton; Wyss, Michael; Schreiner, Simon; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Kälin, Andrea; Leh, Sandra; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M; Prüssmann, Klaas P; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of cortical amyloid beta (Aβ) is a correlate of aging and a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). While several higher order cognitive processes involve functional interactions between cortex and cerebellum, this study aims to investigate effects of cortical Aβ deposition on coupling within the cerebro-cerebellar system. We included 15 healthy elderly subjects with normal cognitive performance as assessed by neuropsychological testing. Cortical Aβ was quantified using (11)carbon-labeled Pittsburgh compound B positron-emission-tomography late frame signals. Volumes of brain structures were assessed by applying an automated parcelation algorithm to three dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo T1-weighted images. Basal functional network activity within the cerebro-cerebellar system was assessed using blood-oxygen-level dependent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging at the high field strength of 7 T for measuring coupling between cerebellar seeds and cerebral gray matter. A bivariate regression approach was applied for identification of brain regions with significant effects of individual cortical Aβ load on coupling. Consistent with earlier reports, a significant degree of positive and negative coupling could be observed between cerebellar seeds and cerebral voxels. Significant positive effects of cortical Aβ load on cerebro-cerebellar coupling resulted for cerebral brain regions located in inferior temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that brain amyloidosis in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with decreased network efficiency within the cerebro-cerebellar system. While the identified cerebral regions are consistent with established patterns of increased sensitivity for Aβ-associated neurodegeneration, additional studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between dysfunction of the cerebro-cerebellar system and risk for AD.

  18. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2001-01-01

    ) of 17.8 mmHg, and responded to beta-blocker treatment with a significant reduction in the HVPG (-16%; P beta-adrenergic blockade (1.27 versus 1.29 ml/mmHg, +2%, ns), whereas...... with beta-blockers, but the effect of this treatment on arterial compliance has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the effects of propranolol on the arterial compliance of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty patients with cirrhosis underwent a haemodynamic...... with beta-blockers increases small vessel (arteriolar) vascular tone towards the normal level, but does not affect the elevated compliance of the larger arteries in patients with cirrhosis....

  19. Critical Analysis on Characterization, Systemic Effect, and Therapeutic Potential of Beta-Sitosterol: A Plant-Derived Orphan Phytosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beta-sitosterol (BS is a phytosterol, widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and known to be involved in the stabilization of cell membranes. To compile the sources, physical and chemical properties, spectral and chromatographic analytical methods, synthesis, systemic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic potentials, toxicity, drug delivery and finally, to suggest future research with BS, classical as well as on-line literature were studied. Classical literature includes classical books on ethnomedicine and phytochemistry, and the electronic search included Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others. BS could be obtained from different plants, but the total biosynthetic pathway, as well as its exact physiological and structural function in plants, have not been fully understood. Different pharmacological effects have been studied, but most of the mechanisms of action have not been studied in detail. Clinical trials with BS have shown beneficial effects in different diseases, but long-term study results are not available. These have contributed to its current status as an “orphan phytosterol”. Therefore, extensive research regarding its effect at cellular and molecular level in humans as well as addressing the claims made by commercial manufacturers such as the cholesterol lowering ability, immunological activity etc. are highly recommended.

  20. Results from a 64-pixel PIN-diode detector system for low-energy beta-electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuestling, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.wuestling@kit.ed [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fraenkle, F.; Habermehl, F.; Renschler, P. [Universitaet Karlsruhe - TH, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Postfach 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Steidl, M [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-11

    The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment is based on a precise energy measurement ({Delta}E/E=5x10{sup -5}) of electrons emerging from tritium beta decay (E{sub max}=18.6 keV). This is done by a large electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E Filter), which is followed by an electron detector. Key requirements for this detector are a large sensitive area ({approx}80 cm{sup 2}), a certain energy resolution ({Delta}E=600 eV - 18.6 keV) but also a certain spatial resolution ({approx}3 mm), which leads to a multi-pixel design. As a tentative design on the way to the final detector, but also for operational service on the so-called pre-spectrometer experiment, a detector system with a reduced size (16 cm{sup 2}) and a reduced pixel number (64), making use of a monolithic segmented silicon PIN diode, was designed and built. While the design and very first measurements have been presented in Wuestling et al. , this publication shows the operational performance of the detector system. The robust concept of the electronics allowed adaptation to mechanically different experimental setups. The spacial resolution of the detector system proved to be essential in examining Penning trap induced background and other effects in the pre-spectrometer experiment. The detector performance test runs include energy resolution and calibration, background rates, correlation between pixels (crosstalk), spatially resolved rate analysis, and a dead-layer measurement . The detector allows for background searches with a sensitivity as low as 1.3x10{sup -3} cps/cm{sup 2} in the energy range of 20 keV. This allows the pre-spectrometer to be characterized with e-gun illumination with a signal to background ratio of better than 10{sup 5} and the search for ultra low Penning discharge emissions.

  1. Complex Self-Incompatibility Systems in Ranunculus acris L. and Beta vulgaris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, A.; Østerbye, U.; Larsen, K.

    1973-01-01

    The families Ranunculaceae and Chenopodiaceae, presumably belonging to a dicot evolutionary branch with ancestral basis shared with the monocots, both show a mechanism of self- and cross-incompatibility involving more than one incompatibility locus (S-locus) and requiring that all of the S...... ancestral basis of the monocots and the investigated dicot evolutionary branch. Self-incompatibility systems involving more than one S-locus may occur more frequently than hitherto expected. This has important implications for plant breeding which bear on the possibilities of reconstructing...

  2. Ignition of deuterium based fuel cycles in a high beta system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.

    1987-01-01

    A steady state self-consistent plasma modeling applied to a system having close to unity, such as FRC or like, is found to be quite effective in solving the problems independently of any anomalous process and proves the existence of ignited state of deuterium based fuel cycles. The temperature ranges that the plasma falls into ignited state are obtained as a function of relative feeding rates of tritium and 3 He to deuterium's. We find pure DD cycle will not ignite so that 3 He or/and tritium must be added as catalyzer to achieve ignition. Standing on the points to construct a cleaner system yielding smaller amount of 14 MeV neutrons and to burn the fuel in steady state for long periods of time, we have confirmed superiority of the complex composed of the master reactor of 3 He-Cat.D cycle (catalyzed DD cycle reinjecting only fusion produced 3 He) and the satellite reactor of 3 He enriched D 3 He cycle. In case storage of tritium for 3 He by β - decay is turned out not to be allowed environmentally, we may utilize conventional catalyzed DD cycle although 14 MeV neutron yields will be increased by 35 % over the complex. It is demonstrated that advanced fuel cycle reactors can be very simple in constructions and compact in size such that the field strength and the plasma volume of the order of JT-60's may be enough for 1000 MW power plant. (author)

  3. Expression of the TGF-beta1 system in human testicular pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomenech Elisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In non-obstructive azoospermia, histological patterns of Sertoli cell-only Syndrome (SCO and hypospermatogenesis (H are commonly found. In these pathologies, Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH is detected in some patients. Since TGF-β1 is involved in cellular proliferation/development, the aim of this work was to analyze the expression of TGF-β1, its receptors TGFBRII, TGFBRI (ALK-1 and ALK-5, and the co-receptor endoglin in human biopsies from patients with idiopathic infertility. Methods Specific immunostaining of TGF-β1, its receptors TGFBRII, TGFBRI (ALK-1 and ALK-5, co-receptor endoglin and Smads proteins, were carried out in testicular biopsies from normal and infertile men with SCO or H. Gene expression of TGF-β1 system were made in biopsies from infertile patients with semi-quantitative and quantitative PCR. Results Immunohistochemical studies revealed that TGF-β1 and its specific receptors are present in Leydig cells in biopsies from normal tissue or patients with SCO or H with or without LCH. Smad proteins, which are involved in TGF-β1 signaling, are also detected in both their phosphorylated (activated and dephosphorylated form in all samples TGF-β1, ALK-1 and endoglin gene expression are stronger in human biopsies with LCH than in those with SCO or H. Neither TGFBRII nor ALK-5 gene expression showed significant differences between pathologies. A significant correlation between ALK-1 and endoglin expression was observed. Conclusions In conclusion, the high levels of mRNA and protein expression of the TGF-β1 system in patients with LCH, particularly ALK1 and its correlation with endoglin, suggest that these proteins acting in concert might be, at least in part, committed actors in the Leydig cell hyperplasia.

  4. beta Phase Growth and Precipitation in the 5xxx Series Aluminum Alloy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto D'Antuono, Daniel

    The 5xxx series aluminum alloys are commonly used for structural applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and weldability. This material system is a non-heat treatable aluminum and derives its strength from a super saturation of magnesium (3%>), and from cold rolling. While these materials have many admiral properties, they can undergo a process known as sensitization when exposed to elevated temperatures (50-280°C) for extended periods of time. During this process, magnesium segregates toward the grain boundaries and forms the secondary precipitate β phase (Al3Mg2). When exposed to harsh environments such as sea water, a galvanic couple is formed between the Al matrix and the β phase precipitates. The precipitates become anodic to the matrix and preferentially dissolve leaving gaps along the boundary network, ultimately leading to stress corrosion cracking. While this problem has been known to occur for some time now, questions relating to nucleation sites, misorientation dependence, effect of prior strain, and preferred temperature regimes remain unanswered. The work contained in this thesis attempted to better understand the kinetics, growth, and misorientation dependence, of β phase precipitation using in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments which allowed for direct visualization of the precipitation process. Orientation imaging using a Nanomegas/ASTAR system (OIM in TEM) coupled with the in situ experiments, along with elemental STEM EELs mapping were used to better understand the diffusion of Mg and found low angle boundaries as potential sites for nucleation. The resulting STEM EELs experiments also showed that Mg is much more stable at the grain boundaries than previously thought. Concurrent bulk ex-situ studies were used to compare various heat treatments, as well as to failed in service material showing that the low temperature treatments yield the metastable β’ phase more readily than the

  5. Beta Testing of CFD Code for the Analysis of Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Emma; Wey, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary version of OpenNCC was tested to assess its accuracy in generating steady-state temperature fields for combustion systems at atmospheric conditions using three-dimensional tetrahedral meshes. Meshes were generated from a CAD model of a single-element lean-direct injection combustor, and the latest version of OpenNCC was used to calculate combustor temperature fields. OpenNCC was shown to be capable of generating sustainable reacting flames using a tetrahedral mesh, and the subsequent results were compared to experimental results. While nonreacting flow results closely matched experimental results, a significant discrepancy was present between the code's reacting flow results and experimental results. When wide air circulation regions with high velocities were present in the model, this appeared to create inaccurately high temperature fields. Conversely, low recirculation velocities caused low temperature profiles. These observations will aid in future modification of OpenNCC reacting flow input parameters to improve the accuracy of calculated temperature fields.

  6. Adult murine hematopoiesis can proceed without beta1 and beta7 integrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungartz, Gerd; Stiller, Sebastian; Bauer, Martina

    2006-01-01

    -C) progenitors in the bone marrow and, after phenylhydrazine-induced anemia, a decreased number of splenic erythroid colony-forming units in culture (CFUe's). Array gene expression analysis of CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) and CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) thymocytes and CD19(+) and CD4(+) splenocytes...... with a deletion of the beta1 and the beta7 integrin genes restricted to the hematopoietic system we show here that alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins are not essential for differentiation of lymphocytes or myelocytes. However, beta1beta7 mutant mice displayed a transient increase of colony-forming unit (CFU...

  7. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  8. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition.

  9. Phase relationships in the area of the beta aluminate of the system K{sub 2}O-MgO-AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Phasenbeziehungen im Bereich der Beta-Aluminate des Systems K{sub 2}O-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P. de

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work was to be able to make statements about the thermodynamic stability of K-{beta}``-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the pseudo-binary system K{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and in the pseudo-ternary system K{sub 2}O-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the adjacent phases of KAlO{sub 2} {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and K-{beta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Aussagen ueber die thermodynamische Stabilitaet von K-{beta}``-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} im pseudobinaeren System K{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} und im pseudoternaeren System K{sub 2}O-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relativ zu den benachbarten Phasen KAlO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} und K-{beta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} machen zu koennen. (orig./MM)

  10. Application of Monte Carlo method in study of the padronization for radionuclides with complex disintegration scheme in 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence System; Aplicacao do metodo de Monte Carlo no estudo da padronizacao de radionuclideos com esquema de desintegracao complexos em sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mauro Noriaki

    2006-07-01

    The present work described a new methodology for modelling the behaviour of the activity in a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system. The detection efficiency for electrons in the proportional counter and gamma radiation in the NaI(Tl) detector was calculated using the Monte Carlo program MCNP4C. Another Monte Carlo code was developed which follows the path in the disintegration scheme from the initial state of the precursor radionuclide, until the ground state of the daughter nucleus. Every step of the disintegration scheme is sorted by random numbers taking into account the probabilities of all {beta}{sup -} branches, electronic capture branches, transitions probabilities and internal conversion coefficients. Once the final state was reached beta, electronic capture events and gamma transitions are accounted for the three spectra: beta, gamma and coincidence variation in the beta efficiency was performed simulating energy cut off or use of absorbers (Collodion). The selected radionuclides for simulation were: {sup 134}Cs, {sup 72}Ga which disintegrate by {beta}{sup -} transition, {sup 133}Ba which disintegrates by electronic capture and {sup 35}S which is a beta pure emitter. For the latter, the Efficiency Tracing technique was simulated. The extrapolation curves obtained by Monte Carlo were filled by the Least Square Method with the experimental points and the results were compared to the Linear Extrapolation method. (author)

  11. Effects of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) preparations on the Maillard reaction products in milk and meat-protein model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackauskienea, I.; Pukalskas, A.; Rimantas Venskutonis, P.; Fiore, A.M.; Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of beetroots (Beta vulgaris) on the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products possessing health, nutritional and sensory implications were studied. The effect of dried beetroot juice on the formation of Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Ne-(2-furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine) was

  12. TLR9-dependent systemic interferon-beta production by intravenous injection of plasmid DNA/cationic liposome complex in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Yasuda, Sachiyo; Mizuno, Yumiko; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Kiyota, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Rei; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2009-08-01

    The type I interferon (IFN) response to DNA/cationic liposome complex, or lipoplex, has been reported in cultured cells, but little is known about the response in vivo. Studies of the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to lipoplex have shown the importance of the unmethylated CpG dinucleotide (CpG motif) and its receptor, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9. CpG- and non-CpG lipoplex consisting of CpG- or non-CpG plasmid DNA, respectively, and N-[1-(2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride/cholesterol liposomes were intravenously injected into mice. IFN-beta and interleukin (IL)-6 in the serum and organs were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The involvement of TLR9, phagocytic cells and the spleen in the responses was evaluated using TLR9(-/-), clodronate liposome-treated-, and splenectomized mice, respectively. Accumulation of blood cells in the lung was evaluated histologically. CpG lipoplex induced a large increase in the levels of IFN-beta and IL-6 in the serum, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, whereas non-CpG lipoplex scarcely had any effect. Neither formulation led to significant cytokine production in TLR9(-/-) mice. Clodronate liposome-treated mice showed a large reduction in both IFN-beta and IL-6 levels. Splenectomized mice receiving CpG lipoplex also showed a significantly low production of IL-6 but a similar level of IFN-beta production to that of unsplenectomized mice. A large number of monocytes were found in the capillary vessels around the pulmonary alveoli of mice receiving lipoplex. These findings indicate that, in contrast to the production of IL-6 from splenic macrophages, IFN-beta is produced from phagocytic cells other than splenic macrophages after the injection of CpG lipoplex through the TLR9-dependent pathway.

  13. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system; Informe preliminar del sistema Samar sistema automatico de medidas absolutas de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, J. E. de; Granados, C. E.

    1972-07-01

    In 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between the{beta}--and {gamma}-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs.

  14. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy; Um sistema de modulos NIM conjugados com entrada opcional por amplificador pHEMT para espectroscopia beta e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton, E-mail: barbarakonradmev@gmail.com, E-mail: eludke@smail.ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LAE/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Astrofisica e Eletronica

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles.

  15. Compartmentalized beta subunit distribution determines characteristics and ethanol sensitivity of somatic, dendritic, and terminal large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, P M; Puig, S I; Martin, G E; Treistman, S N

    2009-06-01

    Neurons are highly differentiated and polarized cells, whose various functions depend upon the compartmentalization of ion channels. The rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), in which cell bodies and dendrites reside in the hypothalamus, physically separated from their nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis, provides a particularly powerful preparation in which to study the distribution and regional properties of ion channel proteins. Using electrophysiological and immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in each of the three primary compartments (soma, dendrite, and terminal) of HNS neurons. We found that dendritic BK channels, in common with somatic channels but in contrast to nerve terminal channels, are insensitive to iberiotoxin. Furthermore, analysis of dendritic BK channel gating kinetics indicates that they, like somatic channels, have fast activation kinetics, in contrast to the slow gating of terminal channels. Dendritic and somatic channels are also more sensitive to calcium and have a greater conductance than terminal channels. Finally, although terminal BK channels are highly potentiated by ethanol, somatic and dendritic channels are insensitive to the drug. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of somatic and dendritic versus nerve terminal channels are consistent with the characteristics of exogenously expressed alphabeta1 versus alphabeta4 channels, respectively. Therefore, one possible explanation for our findings is a selective distribution of auxiliary beta1 subunits to the somatic and dendritic compartments and beta4 to the terminal compartment. This hypothesis is supported immunohistochemically by the appearance of distinct punctate beta1 or beta4 channel clusters in the membrane of somatic and dendritic or nerve terminal compartments, respectively.

  16. Prevalence and clinical associations of lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kwang-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Eun; Kim, Jeong Man; Han, Jin-Yeong; Chung, Won-Tae; Kim, Kyeong-Hee

    2010-02-01

    The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) is associated with the clinical features of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which comprises venous and arterial thrombosis and pregnancy loss, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The prevalence of aPLs has been reported to be different in patient populations affected by either of these conditions. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the prevalence and clinical associations of aPLs, including lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anticardiolipin (aCL), and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-beta2-GPI) in a cohort of Korean patients with SLE. This study included samples from 88 SLE patients for whom aPL testing had been advised between June 2006 and July 2009 at the Dong-A University Hospital. Serum and plasma samples were tested for LAC, aCL (IgG, IgM), and anti-beta2-GPI (IgG, IgM) antibodies. Clinical data from patients were obtained from a review of medical records. LAC was the most common (34.1% of total patients, 30/88) antibody, followed by IgM aCL (31.8%, 28/88), IgG aCL (18.2%, 16/88), and IgM and IgG anti-beta2-GPI (both 5.7%, 5/88 each). Positivity for LAC was strongly associated with venous/arterial thrombosis (P=0.002). LAC was the most common antibody detected in Korean SLE patients and is shown to have a significant association with the presence of venous/arterial thrombosis. The measurement of LAC may be clinically useful in identifying patients with SLE who are at a high risk for venous/arterial thrombosis.

  17. LHC $\\beta^*$ reach in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2012-01-01

    The available aperture in the LHC imposes a lower limit on the achievable $\\beta^*$ . The aperture must be protected by the collimation system, and the collimator families have to be ordered in a strict hierarchy for optimal performance, with large enough margins so that the hierarchy is not violated by machine imperfections such as closed orbit distortions or $\\beta$-beating. The achievable $\\beta^*$ is thus a function of both the aperture and the collimator settings. An overview of the run in 2011 is presented, as well as a review of the necessary margins between collimator families and the aperture. Finally an outlook towards possible scenarios for $\\beta^*$ in 2012 and at higher energies is given.

  18. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Beta Thalassemia What's in this ... it results in that type of thalassemia. About Beta Thalassemia Beta thalassemia happens when the gene that controls ...

  19. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  20. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing soluble...... protein, protofilaments and some fibrils or only fibrils in a solid phase system (ELISA) was modest with a slow kinetics compared to the positive delta IgG control. Soluble A beta induced no detectable CA in a liquid phase system (complement consumption assay) while fibrillar A beta caused CA at 200 mg....../ml and higher concentrations. Soluble beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) purified from peritoneal dialysates was found to be as potent a complement activator as A beta in both solid and liquid phase systems while beta 2M purified from urine exhibited lower activity, a difference which may be explained...

  1. Evaluation of Dicentrarchus labrax Meats and the Vegetable Quality of Beta vulgaris var. cicla Farmed in Freshwater and Saltwater Aquaponic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nozzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to exploit the euryhaline nature of commercially attractive species for their cultivation in freshwater aquaponic systems. This approach may increase the profitability of aquaponic production in coastal countries where the consumption of marine fish is traditional and of commercial relevance. For this purpose, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reared in an aquaponic freshwater (AFW system and an aquaponic saltwater (ASW system (salinity 20 ppt, in combination with chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla seedlings, a salt tolerant plant. At the end of the trial, nitrate and phosphate concentration in water significantly increased in the ASW system, suggesting that the ability of B. vulgaris to absorb these substances was limited by salinity. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the concentration of some oligoelements such as Fe remained lower with respect to the concentration in the freshwater hydroponic solution, in both AFW and ASW. FTIR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on plants showed that growth at high salinity affected their lipid content. In the case of fish, freshwater had no effects on mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acid profiles, although saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in D. labrax reared in AFW. Our results demonstrates that it is possible to increase aquaponic profitability by farming D. labrax juveniles in an aquaponic freshwater system together with Beta vulgaris, obtaining good quality products.

  2. Slow cortical potential and theta/beta neurofeedback training in adults: effects on attentional processes, and motor system excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Petra eStuder; Oliver eKratz; Holger eGevensleben; Aribert eRothenberger; Gunther H Moll; Martin eHautzinger; Hartmut eHeinrich; Hartmut eHeinrich

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) is being successfully applied, among others, in children with ADHD and as a peak performance training in healthy subjects. However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating a successful NF training have not yet been sufficiently uncovered for both theta/beta (T/B), and slow cortical potential (SCP) training, two protocols established in NF in ADHD. In the present randomized controlled investigation in adults without a clinical diagnosis (n = 59), the specificity of the effects of ...

  3. Slow cortical potential and theta/beta neurofeedback training in adults: effects on attentional processes and motor system excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Petra; Kratz, Oliver; Gevensleben, Holger; Rothenberger, Aribert; Moll, Gunther H.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) is being successfully applied, among others, in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as a peak performance training in healthy subjects. However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating a successful NF training have not yet been sufficiently uncovered for both theta/beta (T/B), and slow cortical potential (SCP) training, two protocols established in NF in ADHD. In the present, randomized, controlled investigation in adults without a clinical diagnosis...

  4. Motor cortical adaptations to 2 weeks of lower limb immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Christensen, Mark Schram; Petersen, Tue Hvass

    in a block design alternating between movement (20s) and rest (20s). Ankle joint position, torque and the EMG activity from m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior were monitored throughout all measurements. Following immobilization maximal voluntary plantarflexion and dorsiflexion torque decreased by 15% and 22......% respectively. Single pulse TMS revealed increased MEP amplitudes at matched torque levels, while paired pulse TMS showed decreased short-latency intracortical inhibition (ICI) and increased intracortical facilitation (ICF). Analysis of fMRI time-series showed signal increases in S1/M1 during active movement...

  5. Thermoresponsive .beta.-glucan-based polymers for bimodal immunoradiotherapy - Are they able to promote the immune system?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loukotová, Lenka; Kučka, Jan; Rabyk, Mariia; Höcherl, Anita; Venclíková, Kristýna; Janoušková, Olga; Páral, P.; Kolářová, V.; Heizer, T.; Šefc, L.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 268, 28 December (2017), s. 78-91 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02870S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03156S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB16FR042 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : beta-glucan * polyoxazoline * multimodal cancer therapy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 7.786, year: 2016

  6. Detailed measurements of the H beta line shape in a transient plasma using a fiber optics slit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickford, G. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Through the use of fiber optics, a series of very narrow slits have been constructed and placed at the exit plane of a spectrograph. Plasma radiation which is dispersed by the spectrograph is incident on the slits and is transmitted to separate phototubes via the quartz fibers. With this technique, time resolved measurements of the spectral shape of the hydrogen H beta line have been made and used to determine the electron density of a transient plasma. Data obtained in a shock tube indicated that the thermodynamic conditions behind the reflected shock in a mixture of 20 percent H 80 percent He correspond to theoretically predicted conditions.

  7. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  8. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  9. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    ]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...

  10. The chitinolytic system of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comprises a nonprocessive chitinase and a chitin-binding protein that promotes the degradation of alpha- and beta-chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Bunaes, Anne C; Mathiesen, Geir; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2009-04-01

    It has recently been shown that the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens produces an accessory nonhydrolytic chitin-binding protein that acts in synergy with chitinases. This provided the first example of the production of dedicated helper proteins for the turnover of recalcitrant polysaccharides. Chitin-binding proteins belong to family 33 of the carbohydrate-binding modules, and genes putatively encoding these proteins occur in many microorganisms. To obtain an impression of the functional conservation of these proteins, we studied the chitinolytic system of the Gram-positive Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403. The genome of this lactic acid bacterium harbours a simple chitinolytic machinery, consisting of one family 18 chitinase (named LlChi18A), one family 33 chitin-binding protein (named LlCBP33A) and one family 20 N-acetylhexosaminidase. We cloned, overexpressed and characterized LlChi18A and LlCBP33A. Sequence alignments and structural modelling indicated that LlChi18A has a shallow substrate-binding groove characteristic of nonprocessive endochitinases. Enzymology showed that LlChi18A was able to hydrolyse both chitin oligomers and artificial substrates, with no sign of processivity. Although the chitin-binding protein from S. marcescens only bound to beta-chitin, LlCBP33A was found to bind to both alpha- and beta-chitin. LlCBP33A increased the hydrolytic efficiency of LlChi18A to both alpha- and beta-chitin. These results show the general importance of chitin-binding proteins in chitin turnover, and provide the first example of a family 33 chitin-binding protein that increases chitinase efficiency towards alpha-chitin.

  11. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward-...

  12. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F 2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2 -/- Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Purificação de três diferentes beta-galactosidades microbianas por partição em sistemas de duas fases aquosas Purification of three different microbial beta-galactosidases by partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estela SILVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tratou da investigação do efeito do peso molecular de polietilenoglicol (PEG sobre a partição de enzimas beta-galactosidases de diferentes origens microbianas: Escherichia coli, Klueveromyces lactis e Aspergillus orizae em sistemas de duas fases aquosas (SDFA.Foi observado que os melhores sistemas para purificação da enzima de E. coli foram os formados por PEG 4000, 6000 e 8000/fosfato, fornecendo os mais elevados fatores de purificação da enzima. As enzimas de Klueveromyces lactis e Aspergillus orizae não foram eficientemente purificadas nestes sistemas sendo insensíveis à alterações do peso molecular do PEG. Portanto, um outro sistema de duas fases aquosas foi desenvolvido contendo um ligante específico, p-aminofenil 1-tio-beta-D-galactopiranosídeo (APGP, acoplado ao PEG para purificar a enzima de Klueveromyces lactis. Uma etapa simples de partição no SDFA formado por 6% APGP-PEG4000 + 12% dextrana T505.000 foi capaz de recuperar 83% da enzima na fase superior do sistema e de aumentar 1,6 vezes o fator de purificação.This work investigated the effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneglycol (PEG upon the partition coefficient of beta-galactosidases from three different microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klueveromyces lactis and Aspergillus orizae. It was found that PEG 6,000 and PEG 8,000/phosphate were the best systems for achieving the highest purification factors of E. coli beta-galactosidase. However, the other two yeast beta-galactosidases were not efficiently separated from their contaminants in any of the PEG/salt systems. In order to improve the separation of Klueveromyces lactis beta-galactosidase from the main protein contaminants, the biospecific ligand p-aminophenyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (APGP was attached to activated PEG 4000. The affinity PEG having APGP bound to its backbone was synthesized in two steps. The partitioning of Klueveromyces lactis beta-galactosidase in aqueous two

  14. Determination of alternative conditions for instruments calibration with beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, F.D.G.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of homogenization filter in the determination of chamber calibration factors and transmission factors of beta radiation in air, for obtaining different alternative conditions for beta-gamma portable monitors calibration was studied, using an extrapolation chamber and the beta secondary system at IPEN-CNEN-Brazil. (C.G.C.)

  15. Effects of cigarette smoke extract on A549 cells and human lung fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor-beta1 in a coculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Deping

    2010-09-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but the mechanism of the association remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on A549 cells and human lung fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor-beta1. A transwell two-chamber coculture system was used to study the proliferation, differentiation, morphologic changes and soluble factors production of A549 cells and myofibroblasts. Low concentrations of CSE promoted myofibroblasts proliferation; however, high concentrations of CSE inhibited their proliferation. Low concentrations of CSE also markedly increased extracellular secretion of hydrogen peroxide, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and produced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cocultured A549 cells. This cigarette smoke-induced A549 cells EMT may become a new pathophysiological concept in the development of IPF. CSE possibly takes part in the development and progress of IPF by increasing oxidative stress.

  16. Release of beta-lipotropin- and beta-endorphin-like material induced by angiotensin in the conscious rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; HERTTING, G.; KNEPEL, W.

    1982-01-01

    1 The influence of the renin-angiotensin system on plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-EI) was investigated in the conscious rat by use of a radioimmunoassay for beta-endorphin without prior extraction.2 Intravenous infusion of angiotensin I, II or (des-1-Asp)angiotensin II

  17. Application of gel dosimetry - A preliminary study on verification of uniformity of activity and length of source used in Beta-Cath system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, S.; Rabi Raja Singh, I.; Visalatchi, S.; Paul Ravindran, B.

    2002-01-01

    Recently the intraluminal irradiation of coronary arteries following balloon angioplasty is found to reduce proliferation of smooth muscle cells and restenosis. Among the isotopes used for the intracoronary irradiation, 90 Sr/Y appears to be ideal (H I Almos et al, 1996). In 1984 Gore et al proposed that radiation induced changes in the well-established Fricke solution could be probed with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements rather than using conventional spectrophotometry measurements. This was a major step in the development of gel dosimetry and since then gel dosimetry has been one of the major advances in the dosimetry of complex radiation fields has been in the area of gel dosimetry. In this preliminary work on gel dosimetry we present the verification of uniformity of activity along the length of the source train and verification of the length of the source used in the Beta-Cath system used for intracoronary brachytherapy with ferrous gel dosimeter. The Beta-Cath system obtained from Novoste, Norcross, GA was used in this study. It consists of a source train of 16 90 Sr/Y sources each of length 2.5mm. The total length of the source train is 40mm. For preparation of the Ferrous-Gelatin Gel, the recipe provided by the London Regional Cancer Center, London Ontario, Canada was used. Stock solutions of 50mM H 2 SO 4 , 0.3 mM ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.05mM Xylenol orange was first prepared. The gel was prepared by mixing 4% gelatin with distilled water while stirring in a water bath at 40-42 deg. C. Acid solution, Ferrous ammonium sulphate solution and Xylenol orange were added and stirred in the water bath for about an hour to allow aeration. The mixture was poured in to three 20ml syringes to form the gel and stored in the refrigerator at 5 deg. C. For irradiation with Beta-Cath, the gel was prepared in three cylindrical 20ml syringes. A nylon tube having the same dimension as that of the delivery catheter used in intra-coronary was placed

  18. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return......We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  19. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  20. The continuous monitoring of the artificial beta aerosol activity by measuring the alpha and beta activity in aerosol simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hironobu; Oonishi, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    We have constructed the system to monitor the artificial beta aerosol activity around the nuclear power plants continuously in real time. The smaller releases of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power plants can be lost in the fluctuations of the natural background of the beta aerosol activity, when only the beta activity of the aerosol is measured. This method to discriminate the artificial and the natural beta activity of the aerosol is based on the fact that the ratio of the natural alpha and beta activities of the aerosol is almost constant. The detection limit of this system is below 3 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  1. Beta-band intermuscular coherence: a novel biomarker of upper motor neuron dysfunction in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karen M; Zaaimi, Boubker; Williams, Timothy L; Baker, Stuart N; Baker, Mark R

    2012-09-01

    In motor neuron disease, the focus of therapy is to prevent or slow neuronal degeneration with neuroprotective pharmacological agents; early diagnosis and treatment are thus essential. Incorporation of needle electromyographic evidence of lower motor neuron degeneration into diagnostic criteria has undoubtedly advanced diagnosis, but even earlier diagnosis might be possible by including tests of subclinical upper motor neuron disease. We hypothesized that beta-band (15-30 Hz) intermuscular coherence could be used as an electrophysiological marker of upper motor neuron integrity in such patients. We measured intermuscular coherence in eight patients who conformed to established diagnostic criteria for primary lateral sclerosis and six patients with progressive muscular atrophy, together with 16 age-matched controls. In the primary lateral sclerosis variant of motor neuron disease, there is selective destruction of motor cortical layer V pyramidal neurons and degeneration of the corticospinal tract, without involvement of anterior horn cells. In progressive muscular atrophy, there is selective degeneration of anterior horn cells but a normal corticospinal tract. All patients with primary lateral sclerosis had abnormal motor-evoked potentials as assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, whereas these were similar to controls in progressive muscular atrophy. Upper and lower limb intermuscular coherence was measured during a precision grip and an ankle dorsiflexion task, respectively. Significant beta-band coherence was observed in all control subjects and all patients with progressive muscular atrophy tested, but not in the patients with primary lateral sclerosis. We conclude that intermuscular coherence in the 15-30 Hz range is dependent on an intact corticospinal tract but persists in the face of selective anterior horn cell destruction. Based on the distributions of coherence values measured from patients with primary lateral sclerosis and control

  2. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for...

  3. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  4. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2001-01-01

    investigation with determination of splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics. Arterial compliance was determined as the ratio of the stroke volume to the pulse pressure and compared to normal values. RESULTS: All the patients had significant portal hypertension, with a mean hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG......BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis exhibit a characteristic hyperdynamic circulation with increased cardiac output and heart rate and reduced systemic vascular resistance. The compliance of the arterial tree has recently been reported to be increased in these patients, who are often treated...... systemic vascular resistance increased substantially (1083 versus 1378 dyn x s x cm-5, +27%; P arterial blood pressure (-6%; P

  5. Beta2-microglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüeke, Tilman B; Massy, Ziad A

    2009-01-01

    Among the uremic toxins in the "middle molecule" range, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-M) is certainly one of the most frequently studied compounds. Its serum level increases with the progression of chronic kidney disease, to reach very high concentrations in patients with end-stage kidney disease. It is the major protein component of dialysis-related amyloidosis, a dramatic complication which results from high extracellular concentration and posttranslational modification of beta2-M and a number of other promoters of amyloid fibril formation and deposition in osteo-articular tissues. Effective removal of beta2-M can be achieved with highly effective hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration techniques but predialysis session serum levels cannot be normalized. The prevalence and severity of beta2-M amyloidosis appear to have decreased in the last 20 years, although its occurrence may simply be delayed.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Beta thalassemia Beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  7. In vivo impact of the MexAB-OprM efflux system on beta-lactam efficacy in an experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutoille, David; Jacqueline, Cédric; Le Mabecque, Virginie; Potel, Gilles; Caillon, Jocelyne

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the in vivo impact of the MexAB-OprM efflux system on antipseudomonal beta-lactam efficacy was investigated. The respective activities of human simulated regimens of ticarcillin (TIC), piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) and ceftazidime (CFZ) on two isogenic mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, namely PAO4098E overexpressing MexAB-OprM and PAO4098ET which is OprM-depleted, were evaluated in an experimental rabbit endocarditis model. The following human daily doses by intermittent administration or continuous infusion were simulated: 15 g and 18 g for TIC; 12 g and 16 g for PIP/TAZ; and 3g and 6g for CFZ. TIC, PIP/TAZ and CFZ exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations of 64, 8 and 2 microg/mL, respectively, against PAO4098E and 0.5, 0.5 and 1 microg/mL against PAO4098ET. Against PAO4098E, only the high-dose regimens of CFZ were effective, with the most significant effect being achieved by continuous infusion. In contrast, all the tested regimens were effective against PAO4098ET. In the most difficult-to-treat infections due to P. aeruginosa exhibiting the efflux system MexAB-OprM, CFZ at high doses and by continuous infusion should be preferred to TIC and PIP/TAZ.

  8. [Mechanisms of microorganism resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iachkova, V S; Bazhukova, T A

    2014-01-01

    Literature data on molecular mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics have been summarized. The following mechanisms are examined: appearance ofpenicillin-binding proteins (PBP) with lower affinity to beta-lactam antibiotics; production by microorganisms of enzymes (beta-lactamases) that hydrolyze beta-lactam ring; disruption of microbial cell outer membrane permeability and active secretion of antibiotics from the microbial cell (effiux-effect). Characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) as well as data on structure of SCCmec element of MRSA and bacterial efflux system (RND) is presented.

  9. Exacerbation of CNS inflammation and neurodegeneration by systemic LPS treatment is independent of circulating IL-1 beta and IL-6

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Carol L

    2011-05-17

    Abstract Background Chronic neurodegeneration comprises an inflammatory response but its contribution to the progression of disease remains unclear. We have previously shown that microglial cells are primed by chronic neurodegeneration, induced by the ME7 strain of prion disease, to synthesize limited pro-inflammatory cytokines but to produce exaggerated responses to subsequent systemic inflammatory insults. The consequences of this primed response include exaggerated hypothermic and sickness behavioural responses, acute neuronal death and accelerated progression of disease. Here we investigated whether inhibition of systemic cytokine synthesis using the anti-inflammatory steroid dexamethasone-21-phosphate was sufficient to block any or all of these responses. Methods ME7 animals, at 18-19 weeks post-inoculation, were challenged with LPS (500 μg\\/kg) in the presence or absence of dexamethasone-21-phosphate (2 mg\\/kg) and effects on core-body temperature and systemic and CNS cytokine production and apoptosis were examined. Results LPS induced hypothermia and decreased exploratory activity. Dexamethasone-21-phosphate prevented this hypothermia, markedly suppressed systemic IL-1β and IL-6 secretion but did not prevent decreased exploration. Furthermore, robust transcription of cytokine mRNA occurred in the hippocampus of both ME7 and NBH (normal brain homogenate) control animals despite the effective blocking of systemic cytokine synthesis. Microglia primed by neurodegeneration were not blocked from the robust synthesis of IL-1β protein and endothelial COX-2 was also robustly synthesized. We injected biotinylated LPS at 100 μg\\/kg and even at this lower dose this could be detected in blood plasma. Apoptosis was acutely induced by LPS, despite the inhibition of the systemic cytokine response. Conclusions These data suggest that LPS can directly activate the brain endothelium even at relatively low doses, obviating the need for systemic cytokine stimulation to

  10. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  11. Phase equilibria of microemulsion forming system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Heike; Quitzsch, Konrad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    of multicomponent system is the coexistence of a highly structural liquid phase enriched with amphiphilic compounds and an excess water or an excess oil phase or both of them. The phase behaviour was studied experimentally by use of turbidity titration and HPLC measurements and theoretically by application...... of the UNIQUAC-equation and the UNIFAC-method. The UNIFAC-method is able to describe the phase behaviour in the quaternary system qualitatively, without fitting parameters. However, by applying the UNIQUAC-method, with adjustable parameters, it was only possible to model the ternary subsystems. The modelling...

  12. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-01-01

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points (β*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of β* value and β-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for β-waist location control

  13. Phase equilibria of microemulsion forming system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Heike; Quitzsch, Konrad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    of the UNIQUAC-equation and the UNIFAC-method. The UNIFAC-method is able to describe the phase behaviour in the quaternary system qualitatively, without fitting parameters. However, by applying the UNIQUAC-method, with adjustable parameters, it was only possible to model the ternary subsystems. The modelling...

  14. Radiation-induced effects on the sensors of the Hydrostatic Leveling System for the LHC low-beta quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Dimovasili, E; Mainaud-Durand, H; Marin, A; Ossart, F; Wijnands, Thijs

    2005-01-01

    The dose rate dependence of the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) for the final focusing quadrupole magnets in the Large Hadron collider is discussed. At high dose rates, ionization of the air inside the sensors causes charge deposition and this perturbs the position measurement. A model is presented that corrects the HLS signal offset as a function of the dose rate. The model compares the HLS with condenser ionization chambers and in this note the results of the comparison are presented.

  15. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...... of the conditional beta series during the financial crises....

  16. High beta tokamak instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical predictions using the ideal MHD model indicable that large-scale ballooning modes should appear when the average beta is raised about 1 to 2% in present-day tokamak geometries or 5 to 10% in more optimized geometries. The onset of instability is predicted to be sudden and the behavior of ballooning modes to be strikingly different from the saw-tooth and Mirnov oscillations experimentally observed at low beta. Conditions close to the predicted onset were achieved in ORMAK with no noticeable change in plasma behavior. Experiments are planned for the ISX tokamak to test the beta limit. 15 references, 3 figures

  17. Neutrino Mass and an anomaly in the tritium beta-spectrum. Possible signs of a dense neutrino cloud in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Lobashev, V M

    1998-01-01

    Studying the shape of the tritium spectrum near the end point provides information about the properties of low energy neutrinos including their rest mass. The facility constructed at the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, operating in Troitsk since 1994, consists of an electrostatic integral spectrometer with adiabatic magnetic collimation, matched to a window less gaseous tritium source. This apparatus, named the "Troitsk nu-mass" has measured the tritium beta-spectrum to within a few eV of the end point. This gave the lowest upper limit on the electron antineutrino mass mn < 2.5 eV/c2, but revealed a strange narrow bump 5-15 eV below the end-point with branching ratio of about 10-10 of the total decay rate. Latest measurements reveal that the position of the bump varies periodically within 5-15 eV of the end-point with a period 0.504±0.003 year. Such periodicity gives rise to the speculation that this phenomenon might originate from some object within the Solar System, wh...

  18. Presence of chitinase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in the Aedes aegypti. a chitinolytic system involving peritrophic matrix formation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Benedito P D; Lemos, Francisco J A; Secundino, Nágila F C; Páscoa, Valéria; Pereira, Sheila T; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2002-12-01

    Measurement of the hydrolysis of specific fluorogenic substrates by spectrophotometry as well as the substrate activity-SDS-PAGE gel analysis of the chitinolytic activity in Aedes aegypti guts showed that both chitinase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase are present and physiologically active. Both enzymes were present even in guts from unfed insects, but the activities increased rapidly after feeding on blood or an artificial protein-free diet. Chitinase activity was predominantly of the 'endo'-type, reaching its maximum activity at 36 h and then declining to very low levels after the degradation of the peritrophic matrix (PM). Chitinase assay in gels after SDS-PAGE was a very sensitive method that allowed us to detect two chitinases with distinct molecular weights in the mosquito gut. Hydrolysis of a chitinase-specific substrate by chitinolytic activities in the mosquito guts was inhibited by allosamidin, a potent chitinase inhibitor. Allosamidin treatment led to the formation of an atypical thick PM, while the addition of exogenous chitinase completely blocked its formation. This chitinolytic system appears to operate both on the formation and degradation of the PM. Since the PM is involved in pathogen invasion, these results are important in facilitating a search for mechanisms that can block pathogen development in the mosquito vector.

  19. Systemic beta-Adrenergic Stimulation of Thermogenesis Is Not Accompanied by Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Vosselman, M. J.; van der Lans, A. A. J. J.; Brans, B.; Wierts, R.; van Baak, M. A.; Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is currently considered as a target to combat obesity and diabetes in humans. BAT is densely innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and can be stimulated by ?-adrenergic agonists, at least in animals. However, the exact role of the ?-adrenergic part of the SNS in BAT activation in humans is not known yet. In this study, we measured BAT activity by 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in 10 le...

  20. A microtiter plate-based system for the semiautomated growth and assay of bacterial cells for beta-galactosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, R

    1989-08-15

    The introduction of automated pipetting devices, microtiter readers, and microcomputers makes it possible to significantly increase the number of enzyme assays which can be performed as part of the analysis of a biological process. A number of difficulties must be overcome in any such integrated approach based on the microtiter plate. Among these are cell lysis, temperature control, the conversion of microtiter reader optical density values to standard 1-cm path length values, and data management. The utility of such a scheme can be extended to gene regulation and bacterial genetics studies, if bacterial cell culture techniques can be incorporated into the scheme. This paper addresses these issues in the application of a semiautomated system to the study of the induction of the gyrA promoter by treatment (of a gyrA-lac operon fusion-containing strain) with a gyrase inhibitor. This system is specific to the requirements of our studies into the modulation of gene expression by DNA relaxation. The general approach, however, can be readily adapted to other studies.

  1. Beta-blockers overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on how much and what type of this medicine the person took and how quickly they receive treatment. ... Aronson JK. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. In: Aronson JK, ed. ... Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 147.

  2. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  3. Beta-adducin and sodium-calcium exchanger 1 gene variants are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Lanzani, Chiara; Bozzolo, Enrica P; Zagato, Laura; Citterio, Lorena; Casamassima, Nunzia; Canti, Valentina; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manunta, Paolo; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2015-12-01

    Genetic research in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rapidly developing, and numerous sets of genes are being associated with specific clinical subphenotypes in the setting of SLE. On the other hand, basic science studies are revealing strong connections between salt-water balance and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether variants of genes known to influence the individual susceptibility to hypertension also influence the renal function in a cohort of SLE patients with and without lupus nephritis (LN). This study is a case-control study with candidate gene approach. A total of 111 patients with SLE (50 with SLE without nephritis, 55 with LN and 6 with simple urinary sediment abnormalities) and 62 healthy controls (HC) were genotyped for NCX1 rs11893826 (NCX1a) and rs434082 (NCX1b) and ADD2 rs4984 SNPs. Patients with ADD2 CT genotype were protected from LN and skin involvement; ADD2 CC | NCX1a AA/AG genotypes were associated with the presence of anti-cardiolipin antibodies; NCX1a AA genotype was slightly more frequent in lupus patients than in HC and associated with relapse risk and higher creatinine in patients with LN. NCX1b GG patients with LN had increased chances to reach complete remission. NCX1b GG | NCX1a GG genotype is associated with joint involvement. ADD2 and NCX1 variants influence the risk and the clinical features of SLE and LN, highlighting their potential role in regulating systemic inflammation and/or the local response to immune-mediated injury.

  4. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  5. Protective effect of systemic L-kynurenine and probenecid administration on behavioural and morphological alterations induced by toxic soluble amyloid beta (25-35) in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Fortoul-van Der Goes, Teresa I; Santamaría, Abel

    2010-07-11

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide exerts different toxic effects at a cellular level, including over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of NMDAr and alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Systemic administrations of both the immediate metabolic precursor of KYNA, L-kynurenine (L-KYN), and a proved inhibitor of KYNA's brain transport, probenecid (PROB), have shown to produce neuroprotective effects in a considerable number of experimental toxic conditions; however, this strategy has not been tested in the toxic model Abeta peptide so far. In this study we evaluated the effects of systemic administration of PROB (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days), L-KYN (75 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and their combination, on behavioural (locomotor activity and spatial memory) and morphological alterations induced by an intrahippocampal infusion of Abeta 25-35 to rats. An additional group was administered with the potent NMDAr antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801, 0.8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) for comparative purposes. A significant improvement of spatial memory was evident in Abeta-lesioned rats since post-lesion day 21 with all treatments tested and this effect was correlated with a reduction of cell damage and a decrease in reactive gliosis in hippocampal CA1 area. Neither L-KYN, nor PROB, or their combination, produced major alterations in motor function when given alone to rats. These results suggest that modulation of NMDAr activity by mean of therapeutic strategies designed to enhance KYNA in the brain may help to counteract neurodegenerative events coursing with Abeta toxicity and excitotoxic patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the beta amyloid precursor protein-like gene in the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus. Expression during memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fustiñana Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-amyloid, the main component in the neuritic plaques found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is generated by cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein. Beyond the role in pathology, members of this protein family are synaptic proteins and have been associated with synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity and memory, both in vertebrates and in invertebrates. Consolidation is necessary to convert a short-term labile memory to a long-term and stable form. During consolidation, gene expression and de novo protein synthesis are regulated in order to produce key proteins for the maintenance of plastic changes produced during the acquisition of new information. Results Here we partially cloned and sequenced the beta-amyloid precursor protein like gene homologue in the crab Chasmagnathus (cappl, showing a 37% of identity with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster homologue and 23% with Homo sapiens but with much higher degree of sequence similarity in certain regions. We observed a wide distribution of cappl mRNA in the nervous system as well as in muscle and gills. The protein localized in all tissues analyzed with the exception of muscle. Immunofluorescence revealed localization of cAPPL in associative and sensory brain areas. We studied gene and protein expression during long-term memory consolidation using a well characterized memory model: the context-signal associative memory in this crab species. mRNA levels varied at different time points during long-term memory consolidation and correlated with cAPPL protein levels Conclusions cAPPL mRNA and protein is widely distributed in the central nervous system of the crab and the time course of expression suggests a role of cAPPL during long-term memory formation.

  7. Characterization of the beta amyloid precursor protein-like gene in the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus. Expression during memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustiñana, Maria Sol; Ariel, Pablo; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2010-09-01

    Human β-amyloid, the main component in the neuritic plaques found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is generated by cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein. Beyond the role in pathology, members of this protein family are synaptic proteins and have been associated with synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity and memory, both in vertebrates and in invertebrates. Consolidation is necessary to convert a short-term labile memory to a long-term and stable form. During consolidation, gene expression and de novo protein synthesis are regulated in order to produce key proteins for the maintenance of plastic changes produced during the acquisition of new information. Here we partially cloned and sequenced the beta-amyloid precursor protein like gene homologue in the crab Chasmagnathus (cappl), showing a 37% of identity with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster homologue and 23% with Homo sapiens but with much higher degree of sequence similarity in certain regions. We observed a wide distribution of cappl mRNA in the nervous system as well as in muscle and gills. The protein localized in all tissues analyzed with the exception of muscle. Immunofluorescence revealed localization of cAPPL in associative and sensory brain areas. We studied gene and protein expression during long-term memory consolidation using a well characterized memory model: the context-signal associative memory in this crab species. mRNA levels varied at different time points during long-term memory consolidation and correlated with cAPPL protein levels cAPPL mRNA and protein is widely distributed in the central nervous system of the crab and the time course of expression suggests a role of cAPPL during long-term memory formation.

  8. Interactions between beta subunits of the KCNMB family and Slo3: beta4 selectively modulates Slo3 expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Yang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The pH and voltage-regulated Slo3 K(+ channel, a homologue of the Ca(2+- and voltage-regulated Slo1 K(+ channel, is thought to be primarily expressed in sperm, but the properties of Slo3 studied in heterologous systems differ somewhat from the native sperm KSper pH-regulated current. There is the possibility that critical partners that regulate Slo3 function remain unidentified. The extensive amino acid identity between Slo3 and Slo1 suggests that auxiliary beta subunits regulating Slo1 channels might coassemble with and modulate Slo3 channels. Four distinct beta subunits composing the KCNMB family are known to regulate the function and expression of Slo1 Channels.To examine the ability of the KCNMB family of auxiliary beta subunits to regulate Slo3 function, we co-expressed Slo3 and each beta subunit in heterologous expression systems and investigated the functional consequences by electrophysiological and biochemical analyses. The beta4 subunit produced an 8-10 fold enhancement of Slo3 current expression in Xenopus oocytes and a similar enhancement of Slo3 surface expression as monitored by YFP-tagged Slo3 or biotin labeled Slo3. Neither beta1, beta2, nor beta3 mimicked the ability of beta4 to increase surface expression, although biochemical tests suggested that all four beta subunits are competent to coassemble with Slo3. Fluorescence microscopy from beta4 KO mice, in which an eGFP tag replaced the deleted exon, revealed that beta4 gene promoter is active in spermatocytes. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that beta4 and Slo3 exhibit comparable mRNA abundance in both testes and sperm.These results argue that, for native mouse Slo3 channels, the beta4 subunit must be considered as a potential interaction partner and, furthermore, that KCNMB subunits may have functions unrelated to regulation of the Slo1 alpha subunit.

  9. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster ...

  10. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster nucleation rate. Furthermore, the emulsion system could stabilize the beta product and retarded its further transformation to ZSM-5 even under the high crystallization temperature at 453 K. Additionally, the beta particle size could be tuned by the adoption of different ...

  11. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed ...

  12. Improved hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of gene-corrected beta-thalassemia induced pluripotent stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Fan, Yong; He, Wenyin; Zhu, Detu; Niu, Xiaohua; Wang, Ding; Ou, Zhanhui; Luo, Min; Sun, Xiaofang

    2015-05-01

    The generation of beta-thalassemia (β-Thal) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), subsequent homologous recombination-based gene correction of disease-causing mutations/deletions in the β-globin gene (HBB), and their derived hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation offers an ideal therapeutic solution for treating this disease. However, the hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs has not been well evaluated in the previous studies. In this study, we used the latest gene-editing tool, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9), to correct β-Thal iPSCs; gene-corrected cells exhibit normal karyotypes and full pluripotency as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) showed no off-targeting effects. Then, we evaluated the differentiation efficiency of the gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs. We found that during hematopoietic differentiation, gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs showed an increased embryoid body ratio and various hematopoietic progenitor cell percentages. More importantly, the gene-corrected β-Thal iPSC lines restored HBB expression and reduced reactive oxygen species production compared with the uncorrected group. Our study suggested that hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of β-Thal iPSCs was greatly improved once corrected by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the information gained from our study would greatly promote the clinical application of β-Thal iPSC-derived HSCs in transplantation.

  13. GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) as electron donors: new wine in old bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D A; Peterson, D C; Reeve, H L; Archer, S L; Weir, E K

    1999-01-01

    G proteins are membrane-bound regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of ion channels and other effector systems. The GTP and GDP analogs GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) have been used to study the role of G proteins in numerous physiologic systems. The prolonged effects of these analogs have been thought to be due to the fact that they are nonhydrolyzable. However, in this paper we show that the GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) analogs are potent reducing agents at physiologic pH. This observation suggests that previous data obtained using these compounds may need to be reinterpreted.

  14. Beta-galactosidase of Propionibacterium shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, J C; Vedamuthu, E R

    1975-01-01

    Ten strains of Propionibacterium shermanii were tested for beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) activity. Of these ten strains, five yielded enhanced enzyme activity when cell suspensions were treated with toluene-acetone; on solvent treatment, the remaining five lost a considerable portion of the activity found in whole-cell suspensions. By using a strain yielding decreased activity upon solvent treatment, explanations for the loss in activity were sought through assays for possible alternative beta-galactoside utilization mechanisms. When this strain was assayed for beta-D-phosphogalactoside galactohydrolase by using orthonitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-6-P04 as a substrate, the activity was wither lower or indiffernt as compared with beta-gal activity determined simultaneously. Cell suspensions of P. shermanii 7 and 22 (strains chosen for further work) grown separately on the individual substrates (lactose, glucose, galactose, and sodium lactate) did not show significant differences in beta-gal activity. Optimal temperature for beta-gal activity in untreated and toluene-acetone-treated cell suspensions of strain 7 was 52 C. With strain 22, of the temperatures tested, maximal activity in untreated cell suspensions was noted at 58 C and with solvent-treated cells at 32 C. In the cell-free extract (CFE) system, both strains exhibited maximal activity at 52 C. Optimal pH for untreated and solvent-treated cell suspensions of both strains was around 7.5. In the P. shermanii 22 CFE system, maximal activity occurred at pH 7.0; pH had very little effect on enzyme activity in P. shermanii 7 CFE. Sodium or potassium phosphate buffers in the assay system yielded the best activity. In the CFE system of these two strains, Mn2+ was definitely stimulatory, but in untreated and solvent-treated cell systems of these strains presence or absence of Mn2+ in the assay system had variable effects on enzyme activity. Maximal beta-gal activity was noted in P. shermanii 7 cells harvested

  15. Treatment with non-selective beta blockers is associated with reduced severity of systemic inflammation and improved survival of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P; Pavesi, Marco; Thomsen, Karen Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) have been shown to have deleterious outcomes in patients with refractory ascites, alcoholic hepatitis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis leading many physicians to stop the drug in these cases. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is char......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) have been shown to have deleterious outcomes in patients with refractory ascites, alcoholic hepatitis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis leading many physicians to stop the drug in these cases. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF...

  16. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Concept of split beta. -lactamase protein fragment complementation assay. (A) and (B) are vector systems involved in the assay. As an example, a vector system for bacterial host is described here. (C) Co-transformation of complementation vectors in appropriate bacterial host. (D) and (E) are types of inter- actions expected ...

  17. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  18. High-level expression of Lactobacillus beta-galactosidases in Lactococcus lactis using the food-grade, nisin-controlled expression system NICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maischberger, T.; Mierau, I.; Peterbauer, C.K.; Hugenholtz, J.; Haltrich, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the overlapping genes (lacL and lacM) encoding heterodimeric beta-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. sakei, and Lb. plantarum were cloned into two different nisin-controlled expression (NICE) vectors and expressed using Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 and NZ3900

  19. Stress-induced sensitization of the limbic system in ovariectomized rats is partly restored by cyclic 17 beta-estradiol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Marjolein; Bakker, Petra L.; Koch, T; Ter Horst, Gert J.

    Chronic stress induces neurobiological alterations which have consequences for subsequent stress handling. In the current experiment, ovariectomized rats were subjected daily to a stressor for 21 days. Thereafter, the rats were treated for 21 days with 17 beta-estradiol benzoate (10 mu g/250 g, once

  20. Stereochemistry of the peroxisomal branched-chain fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation systems in patients suffering from different peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinandusse, S.; Rusch, H.; van Lint, A. E. M.; Dacremont, G.; Wanders, R. J. A.; Vreken, P.

    2002-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid derived from dietary sources and broken down in the peroxisome to pristanic acid (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid) via alpha-oxidation. Pristanic acid then undergoes beta-oxidation in peroxisomes. Phytanic

  1. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  2. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  3. Serum levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with systemic disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Data at enrollment in the prospective ASSESS cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Eric Gottenberg

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical and immunological characteristics at enrollment in a large prospective cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS and to investigate the association between serum BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins and systemic disease activity at enrollment.Three hundred and ninety five patients with pSS according to American-European Consensus Criteria were included from fifteen centers of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine in the "Assessment of Systemic Signs and Evolution of Sjögren's Syndrome" (ASSESS 5-year prospective cohort. At enrollment, serum markers were assessed as well as activity of the disease measured with the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI.Patient median age was 58 (25(th-75(th: 51-67 and median disease duration was 5 (2-9 years. Median ESSDAI at enrollment was 2 (0-7 with 30.9% of patients having features of systemic involvement. Patients with elevated BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and kappa, lambda FLCS had higher ESSDAI scores at enrollment (4 [2]-[11] vs 2 [0-7], P = 0.03; 4 [1]-[11] vs 2 [0-7], P< 0.0001; 4 [2]-[10] vs 2 [0-6.6], P< 0.0001 and 4 [2-8.2] vs 2 [0-7.0], P = 0.02, respectively. In multivariate analysis, increased beta2-microglobulin, kappa and lambda FLCs were associated with a higher ESSDAI score. Median BAFF and beta2-microglobulin were higher in the 16 patients with history of lymphoma (1173.3(873.1-3665.5 vs 898.9 (715.9-1187.2 pg/ml, P = 0.01 and 2.6 (2.2-2.9 vs 2.1 (1.8-2.6 mg/l, P = 0.04, respectively.In pSS, higher levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with increased systemic disease activity.

  4. Serum Levels of Beta2-Microglobulin and Free Light Chains of Immunoglobulins Are Associated with Systemic Disease Activity in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome. Data at Enrollment in the Prospective ASSESS Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Seror, Raphaèle; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Benessiano, Joelle; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valerie; Dieude, Philippe; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Goeb, Vincent; Hachulla, Eric; Hatron, Pierre Yves; Larroche, Claire; Le Guern, Véronique; Morel, Jacques; Perdriger, Aleth; Puéchal, Xavier; Rist, Stephanie; Saraux, Alain; Sene, Damien; Sibilia, Jean; Vittecoq, Olivier; Nocturne, Gaétane; Ravaud, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the clinical and immunological characteristics at enrollment in a large prospective cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and to investigate the association between serum BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins and systemic disease activity at enrollment. Methods Three hundred and ninety five patients with pSS according to American-European Consensus Criteria were included from fifteen centers of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine in the “Assessment of Systemic Signs and Evolution of Sjögren's Syndrome” (ASSESS) 5-year prospective cohort. At enrollment, serum markers were assessed as well as activity of the disease measured with the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI). Results Patient median age was 58 (25th–75th: 51–67) and median disease duration was 5 (2–9) years. Median ESSDAI at enrollment was 2 (0–7) with 30.9% of patients having features of systemic involvement. Patients with elevated BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and kappa, lambda FLCS had higher ESSDAI scores at enrollment (4 [2]–[11] vs 2 [0–7], P = 0.03; 4 [1]–[11] vs 2 [0–7], P< 0.0001); 4 [2]–[10] vs 2 [0–6.6], P< 0.0001 and 4 [2–8.2] vs 2 [0–7.0], P = 0.02, respectively). In multivariate analysis, increased beta2-microglobulin, kappa and lambda FLCs were associated with a higher ESSDAI score. Median BAFF and beta2-microglobulin were higher in the 16 patients with history of lymphoma (1173.3(873.1–3665.5) vs 898.9 (715.9–1187.2) pg/ml, P = 0.01 and 2.6 (2.2–2.9) vs 2.1 (1.8–2.6) mg/l, P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion In pSS, higher levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with increased systemic disease activity. PMID:23717383

  5. Interferon gamma, interleukin 4 and transforming growth factor beta in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats: dynamics of cellular mRNA expression in the central nervous system and lymphoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Mustafa, M; Ljungdahl, A

    1995-01-01

    to limit central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. In lymphoid organs, primed MBP 63-88 reactive T cells showed an interesting time-dependent evolution of their cytokine production in vitro. Thus, early after immunization there was a conspicuous MBP 63-88-induced production of both IFN-gamma and IL-4......-beta) both in sections of spinal cords and the antigen-induced expression of these cytokines by lymphoid cells after stimulation with a dominant encephalitogenic peptide of MBP (MBP 63-88) during the course of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. In spinal cords...... autoimmunity systemically....

  6. beta nur pratiwi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. BETA NUR PRATIWI. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 88 Issue 2 February 2017 pp 25 Regular. Asymptotic iteration method for the modified Pöschl–Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential in the Dirac equation spin symmetry.

  7. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  8. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce symptoms of breathing disorders such as asthma and exercise-induced asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... seem to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. Asthma attacks triggered by exercise. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to prevent ...

  9. Nuclear double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Mennrath, P.

    1985-01-01

    The processes of double beta decay with and without emission of neutrinos are briefly reviewed. After the definitions of the processes and implications for the neutrino properties, the present status of the experimental results is discussed. We conclude with a description of the Bordeaux-Zaragoza-Strasbourg experimental which will run in the Frejus tunnel

  10. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  11. Beta thalassemia - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a globin gene disorder that results in a diminished rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin chains. About 1.5% of the global population (80 to 90 million people are carriers of beta Thalassemia. More than 200 mutations are described in beta thalassemia. However not all mutations are common in different ethnic groups. The only effective way to reduce burden of thalassemia is to prevent birth of homozygotes. Diagnosis of beta thalassemia can be done by fetal DNA analysis for molecular defects of beta thalassemia or by fetal blood analysis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available curative approach for Thalassemia. Many patients with thalassemia in underdeveloped nations die in childhood or adolescence. Programs that provide acceptable care, including transfusion of safe blood and supportive therapy including chelation must be established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11609 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 663-671

  12. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peginterferon beta-1a injection is used to treat people who have relapsing-remitting forms (course of disease where symptoms ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Peginterferon beta-1a injection is in a class of medications ...

  13. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course of disease ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  14. The biology of beta human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-03-02

    The beta genus comprises more than 50 beta human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are suspected to be involved, together with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common form of human cancer. Two members of the genus beta, HPV5 and HPV8, were first identified in patients with a genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), that confers high susceptibility to beta HPV infection and NMSC development. The fact that organ transplant recipients (OTRs) with an impaired immune system have an elevated risk of NMSC raised the hypothesis that beta HPV types may also be involved in skin carcinogenesis in non-EV patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that serological and viral DNA markers are weakly, but significantly, associated with history of NMSC in OTRs and the general population. Functional studies on mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV types have clearly demonstrated that the products of two early genes, E6 and E7, are the main viral oncoproteins, which are able to deregulate events closely linked to transformation, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Studies on a small number of beta HPV types have shown that their E6 and E7 oncoproteins also have the ability to interfere with the regulation of key pathways/events associated with cellular transformation. However, the initial functional data indicate that the molecular mechanisms leading to cellular transformation are different from those of mucosal HR HPV types. Beta HPV types may act only at early stages of carcinogenesis, by potentiating the deleterious effects of other carcinogens, such as UV radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Scintigraphic evaluation of bone involvement in beta thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, Soledad; Hidalgo, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a 19 year old man with beta-thalassemia major and back pain, who was studied with a Tc99m Metilendiphosphonate (Tc99m MDP) bone scan. This case shows many of the complications of beta-thalassemia major in the skeletal system. Also we can see some indirect signs of endocrinopathies associated (Au)

  16. Expression and Function of Transforming Growth Factor beta in Melioidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Wieland, Catharina W.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Duitman, Jan-Willem; Boon, Louis; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2012-01-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an important cause of community-acquired sepsis in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. An important controller of the immune system is the pleiotropic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), of which

  17. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  18. [Beta thalassemia major in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Feliu Aurora; Bonduel, Mariana; Sciuccati, Gabriela; del Pozo, Ana; Roldán, Ariel; Ciaccio, Marta; Orazi, Virginia; Fano, Virginia; Ozuna, Blanca; Lejarraga, Horacio; Muriel, Sackmann Federico

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of beta thalassemia major patients seen at Hospital Juan P. Garrahan was carried out in order to determine the characteristics and outcome of the population. From August 1987 to July 2000, 45 patients were admitted (27 males-18 females). The most common beta globin gene defects were C-39 (30.7%); IVS-I nt 110 (20%); IVS-I nt 6 (13.3%); IVS-I nt 1(4%). alpha globin genes were normal in 42 patients, 1 patient had triplicate and cuadriplicate alpha globin genes and 2 patients were not analyzed. Six patients of 5 families were heterozygous for -158G gamma mutation. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed in 7 patients, with an identical sibling. Transfusion-related infections and alloantibodies were detected in 6.7% patients. Growth assessment showed no significant difference in the stature of girls compared to the reference population, but 5 boys had short stature. There is a tendency to short trunk. Growth velocity was normal at prepubertal age. No X-ray lesions related to desferrioxamine were observed. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were found in 35.7% and abnormalities in GH/IGF-I axis in 12.5% of the patients. Impaired glucose tolerance was found in 2 patients. No patient developed diabetes mellitus, thyroid or adrenal insufficiency. One patient had cardiac complications. Forty-two patients are alive and 3 died (cardiac failure 1, central nervous system bleeding 1, sepsis 1). We conclude that beta thalassemia major, originated mainly from Italian immigrants, has a cumbersome treatment and is severely hindered by the lack of adequate economic resources in our patients.

  19. Collagen V-induced nasal tolerance downregulates pulmonary collagen mRNA gene and TGF-beta expression in experimental systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Edwin R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate collagen deposition, mRNA collagen synthesis and TGF-beta expression in the lung tissue in an experimental model of scleroderma after collagen V-induced nasal tolerance. Methods Female New Zealand rabbits (N = 12 were immunized with 1 mg/ml of collagen V in Freund's adjuvant (IM. After 150 days, six immunized animals were tolerated by nasal administration of collagen V (25 μg/day (IM-TOL daily for 60 days. The collagen content was determined by morphometry, and mRNA expressions of types I, III and V collagen were determined by Real-time PCR. The TGF-beta expression was evaluated by immunostaining and quantified by point counting methods. To statistic analysis ANOVA with Bonferroni test were employed for multiple comparison when appropriate and the level of significance was determined to be p Results IM-TOL, when compared to IM, showed significant reduction in total collagen content around the vessels (0.371 ± 0.118 vs. 0.874 ± 0.282, p p p = 0.026. The lung tissue of IM-TOL, when compared to IM, showed decreased immunostaining of types I, III and V collagen, reduced mRNA expression of types I (0.10 ± 0.07 vs. 1.0 ± 0.528, p = 0.002 and V (1.12 ± 0.42 vs. 4.74 ± 2.25, p = 0.009 collagen, in addition to decreased TGF-beta expression (p Conclusions Collagen V-induced nasal tolerance in the experimental model of SSc regulated the pulmonary remodeling process, inhibiting collagen deposition and collagen I and V mRNA synthesis. Additionally, it decreased TGF-beta expression, suggesting a promising therapeutic option for scleroderma treatment.

  20. Beta secretase activity in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Tallon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the peripheral nervous system has the capacity to regenerate following a nerve injury, it is often at a slow rate and results in unsatisfactory recovery, leaving patients with reduced function. Many regeneration associated genes have been identified over the years, which may shed some insight into how we can manipulate this intrinsic regenerative ability to enhance repair following peripheral nerve injuries. Our lab has identified the membrane bound protease beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, or beta secretase, as a potential negative regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration. When beta secretase activity levels are abolished via a null mutation in mice, peripheral regeneration is enhanced following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Conversely, when activity levels are greatly increased by overexpressing beta secretase in mice, nerve regeneration and functional recovery are impaired after a sciatic nerve crush injury. In addition to our work, many substrates of beta secretase have been found to be involved in regulating neurite outgrowth and some have even been identified as regeneration associated genes. In this review, we set out to discuss BACE1 and its substrates with respect to axonal regeneration and speculate on the possibility of utilizing BACE1 inhibitors to enhance regeneration following acute nerve injury and potential uses in peripheral neuropathies.

  1. Beta-glucuronidase-mediated drug release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, E; Scheeren, HW; Haisma, HJ; Pinedo, HM

    2002-01-01

    The selective activation of a relatively non-toxic prodrug by an enzyme present only in the tumour should enhance the drug concentration at the tumour site and result in a better anti-tumour effect and a reduction in systemic toxicity as compared to conventional chemotherapy. beta-Glucuronidase is

  2. Low-beta investment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Kuntz, Laura-Chloé

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates investment strategies that exploit the low-beta anomaly. Although the notion of buying low-beta stocks and selling high-beta stocks is natural, a choice is necessary with respect to the relative weighting of high-beta stocks and low-beta stocks in the investment portfolio. Our empirical results for US large-cap stocks show that this choice is very important for the risk-return characteristics of the resulting portfolios and their sensitivities to common risk factors. W...

  3. The central adrenergic system. An immunofluorescence study of the location of cell bodies and their efferent connections in the rat utilizing dopamine-beta-hydroxylase as a marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L W; Hartman, B K

    1975-10-15

    A sensitive immunofluorescence technique was used to describe systematically the distrubution of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH)-containing cell bodies, non-terminal fiber pathways, and terminal fields in the brain of the male albino rat. DBH is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline, and as such is useful as an anatomical marker for noradrenaline and possibly adrenaline neurons. The enzyme is not present in dopamine- or indolamine-containing neurons. Ten micron frozen sections (1-in 20 series) were prepared in the frontal, sagittal, and horizontal planes from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical segments of the spinal cord; adjacent sections in each plane were stained for DBH and for cells (toluidine blue=azure II). An atlas consisting of 40 projection drawings of selected frontal sections illustrates the results of the investigation. DBH perikarya are confined to three groups in the pons and medulla: the well defined locus coeruleus, a more diffuse but continuous subcoeruleus group that arches through the pons and ventral medulla, and a third dorsal medullary group centered in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. A single principal adrenergic fiber system distributes a great many of the axons from these neuron groups to a majority of nuclear areas in the brain. In the pons and medulla two components of the fiber system may be distinguished. A medullary branch may be followed from the posterior aspect of the subcoeruleus group dorsally and then anteriorly through the lateral tegmental field and ventral aspect of the vestibular complex to a position subjacent to the locus coeruleus, where it is joined by a subcoeruleus branch consisting of a large number of fibers coursing among cells along the length of the subcoeruleus group, and by fibers arising from the locus coeruleus. Anterior to the locus coeruleus the principal adrenergic bundle courses as a single fiber tract immediately ventrolateral to the central gray in the

  4. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  5. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  6. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  7. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.

    1967-07-01

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... nuclear decay of neutrinoless double beta decay typically leading to sub-eV values as well. (Z, A) → (Z + 2, A) + 2e .... Here again energy resolution matters, because of the continuous spectrum of the 2νββ- decay mode, its high .... The benefit of using Te is its high natural abundance. This experiment is in ...

  9. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting ...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  10. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  11. The effect of Leiber Beta-S on selected immunity indicators in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Wójcik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of dietary supplements containing polysaccharides are being introduced on the market. One of them is Leiber Beta-S (β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan whose immunostimulatory effects have not yet been fully evaluated, in particular in polygastric animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this supplement on selected indicators of cellular and humoral immunity in calves. The experiment was performed on 14 calves aged 30 ± 2 days, divided into two equal groups of control and experimental animals. The feed administered to calves of the experimental group was supplemented with Leiber Beta-S at 50 mg/kg body weight, whereas control calves were administered standard farm-made feed without supplementation. Blood was sampled before the experiment (day 0 and on days 15, 30 and 60 to determine the immunity indicators (proliferative response of lipopolysaccharide- and concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes, respiratory burst activity, potential killing activity of phagocytes, gamma globulin concentrations, lysozyme activity, ceruloplasmin activity and biochemical indicator (total protein concentrations. Diet supplemented with Leiber Beta-S stimulated the immune system of calves. Significant differences between the experimental and the control group were found in lysozyme and ceruloplasmin activity, gamma globulin concentrations, potential killing activity of phagocytes, proliferative response of lymphocytes (P P < 0.05. No differences were found in the serum total protein between the experimental and the control group. This study reports for the first time the effect of Leiber Beta-S (β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan on selected biochemical and immunity indicators in calves.

  12. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  13. Braquiterapia intracoronariana. Tratamento da reestenose intra-stent com o sistema Beta-Cath: experiência inicial na América Latina Intracoronary brachytherapy. Treatment of in-stent restenosis with the Beta-Cath system: initial experience in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Simon Muñoz

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a segurança e eficácia da braquiterapia intracoronariana usando o sistema Beta-CathTM na prevenção da recorrência de restenose intra-stent (RIS, por meio da análise dos resultados clínicos, angiográficos e pelo ultra-som intracoronariano (USIC. MÉTODO: Foram submetidos à angioplastia com cateter-balão, seguida de beta-radiação intracoronariana com o sistema Beta-CathTM (90Sr/Y 30 pacientes com RIS em artérias coronárias nativas e, posteriormente, avaliados. RESULTADOS: Incluíram-se lesões reestenóticas complexas (77% do tipo difuso-proliferativo com extensão elevada (18,66±4,15 mm. O sucesso da braquiterapia foi de 100%. A dose média utilizada foi de 20,7±2,3 Gy, liberada em um período médio de 3,8±2,1 min. No seguimento tardio, o diâmetro luminal mínimo (DLM intra-stent diminuiu discretamente (1,98±0,30mm para 1,84±0,39 aos 6 meses, p=0,13, com uma perda tardia de 0,14±0,18 mm. O DLM intra-segmentar foi significativamente menor do que o intra-stent (1,55±0,40mm vs.1,84±0,39mm, p=0,008, associando-se à perda tardia (0,40±0,29mm vs. 0,14±0,18mm; p=0,0001. No USIC, observou-se discreto incremento do tecido neointimal em 6,8±14,3 mm³ aos 6 meses (p=0,19 e a percentagem de obstrução volumétrica aumentou em 4,7±7,5%. A reestenose binária e a revascularização do vaso-alvo recorreram em 17% dos casos; houve 1 caso (3% de oclusão tardia, associada a infarto do miocárdio. A sobrevida livre de eventos foi de 80%. CONCLUSÃO: O manejo da reestenose intra-stent com a beta-radiação intracoronariana mostrou-se procedimento seguro e eficaz, com alta taxa de sucesso imediato, representando uma opção terapêutica para a inibição da hiperplasia neointimal.OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of intracoronary brachytherapy using the Beta-Cath systemTM for preventing recurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR, by analyzing clinical, angiographic, and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS results

  14. Skin and hair follicle integrity is crucially dependent on beta 1 integrin expression on keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, C; Grose, R; Quondamatteo, F

    2000-01-01

    beta 1 integrins are ubiquitously expressed receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. To analyze the function of beta1 integrin in skin we generated mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the beta 1 integrin gene using the cre-loxP system. Mutant mice...

  15. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-11-05

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  16. Beta-endorphin and ACTH in plasma during attacks of common and classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F W; Jensen, K; Blegvad, N

    1985-01-01

    Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH were measured during and outside migraine attacks in 17 patients with common migraine and 11 patients with classic migraine. Specific radioimmunoassays for beta-endorphin and ACTH were used. The beta-endorphin assay did not cross-react with beta-lipotropin...... migraine. Accordingly, we could not add evidence to the theory of a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system in migraine....

  17. Expression and functional importance of collagen-binding integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, on virus-activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Susanne Ø; Thomsen, Allan R; Koteliansky, Victor E

    2003-01-01

    decreased responses were seen upon transfer of alpha(1)-deficient activated/memory T cells. Thus, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins on activated T cells is directly functionally important for generation of inflammatory responses within tissues. Finally, the inhibitory effect......Adhesive interactions are crucial to cell migration into inflammatory sites. Using murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus as an Ag model system, we have investigated expression and function of collagen-binding integrins, alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1), on activated and memory T cells. Using...... this system and MHC tetramers to define Ag-specific T cells, we demonstrate that contrary to being VLAs, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) can be rapidly induced on acutely activated T cells, that expression of alpha(1)beta(1) remains elevated on memory T cells, and that expression of alpha(1...

  18. Defining beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart with iodocyanopindolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Normolle, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Beta adrenoreceptors in the heart are integral to the regulation of myocardial function by the sympathetic nervous system and are important in adaptations to physiologic stress and disease. However, these adrenoreceptors have not been defined throughout the living heart. Iodocyanopindolol (ICYP), a nonselective beta antagonist, binds with high affinity to beta adrenoreceptors and, when radiolabeled, offers a method for portraying the receptors quantitatively. When administered intravenously to rats, [ 125 I]ICYP in the heart was fitted with a mathematical model. The T 1/2 of offset of binding from the heart was several hours, and metabolism of ICYP in blood and heart was modest. ICYP in the heart fulfilled the following criteria for binding to beta adrenoreceptors: Patterns of inhibition produced by a beta agonist and beta antagonists were according to dose and potency; binding of (-)ICYP and (±)ICYP were stereospecific; and binding was saturable. When administered intravenously to dogs at 3-5 mCi, [ 123 I]ICYP distributed diffusely in the myocardium, as seen in scintigraphic tomographs of the heart. A small quantity of another beta antagonist selectively reduced lung binding to improve image quality. Thus, [ 123 I]ICYP portrays beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart. With newer detection instruments, dynamic data of [ 123 I]ICYP can be acquired to quantify the adrenoreceptors

  19. Conditional Betas and Investor Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando D. Chague

    2013-01-01

    We derive theoretical expressions for market betas from a rational expectation equilibrium model where the representative investor does not observe if the economy is in a recession or an expansion. Market betas in this economy are time-varying and related to investor uncertainty about the state of the economy. The dynamics of betas will also vary across assets according to the assets' cash-flow structure. In a calibration exercise, we show that value and growth firms have cash-flow structures...

  20. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  1. Supersymmetry Inspired QCD Beta Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We propose an all orders beta function for ordinary Yang-Mills theories with or without fermions inspired by the Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov beta function of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The beta function allows us to bound the conformal window. When restricting to one adjoint Weyl...... fermion we show how the proposed beta function matches the one of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The running of the pure Yang-Mills coupling is computed and the deviation from the two loop result is presented. We then compare the deviation with the one obtained from lattice data also with respect...

  2. Dynamic returns of beta arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the patterns of the abnormal returns of the beta strategy. The topic can be helpful for professional investors, who intend to achieve a better performance in their portfolios. Following the methodology of Lou, Polk, & Huang (2016), the COBAR measure is computed in order to determine the levels of beta arbitrage in the market in each point in time. It is argued that beta arbitrage activity can have impact on the returns of the beta strategy. In fact, it is demonstrated that...

  3. Improved limits on beta(-) and beta(-) decays of Ca-48

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakalyarov, A.; Balysh, A.; Barabash, AS.; Beneš, P.; Briancon, C.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V.; Hubert, F.; Hubert, P.; Korolev, NA.; Kosjakov, VN.; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebedev, NA.; Novgorodov, A. F.; Rukhadze, NI.; Štekl, NI.; Timkin, VV.; Veleshko, IE.; Vylov, T.; Umatov, VI.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2002), s. 545-547 ISSN 0021-3640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : beta decay * double beta decay * Ca-48 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  4. Taxonomic, spatial and adaptive genetic variation of Beta section Beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrello, Marco; Henry, Karine; Devaux, Pierre; Desprez, Bruno; Manel, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    The genetic variation of Beta section Beta is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters. There are significant associations between molecular markers and environmental variables. We investigated the genetic diversity of Beta section Beta, which includes the wild and cultivated relatives of the sugar beet. The taxa included in the study were: Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, B. vulgaris subsp. adanensis, B. macrocarpa, B. patula and B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (garden beet, leaf beet and swiss chards). We collected 1264 accessions originating from the entire distribution area of these taxa and genotyped them for 4436 DArT markers (DArTs). We showed that the genetic variation of these accessions is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters: (1) samples of Beta macrocarpa, (2) samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis, (3) Mediterranean and Asian samples and (4) Atlantic and Northern European samples. These last two clusters were mainly composed of samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. We investigated in deeper detail the genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima, which constituted the majority (80%) of the wild samples. This subspecies exhibited a clinal genetic variation from South-East to North-West. We detected some markers significantly associated to environmental variables in B. vulgaris subsp. maritima. These associations are interpreted as results of natural selection. The variable most often involved in the associations was annual mean temperature. Therefore, these markers can be useful for the development of frost-tolerant winter beets and drought-tolerant rain-fed beets.

  5. Beta2-adrenoceptors: mechanisms of action of beta2-agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M

    2001-03-01

    The human beta2-adrenoceptor is a member of the 7 transmembrane family of receptors. It is encoded by a gene on chromosome 5 and is widely distributed in the respiratory tract. Following beta2-adrenoceptor activation, intracellular signalling is mainly produced by inducing cyclic AMP. This produces airway relaxation through phosphorylation of muscle regulatory proteins and modification of cellular Ca2+concentrations. Beta2-agonists have been characterised into those which directly activate the receptor (salbutamol/terbutaline), those which are taken up into a membrane depot (formoterol) and those which interact with a receptor-specific, auxiliary binding site (salmeterol). These differences in mechanism of action are reflected in the kinetics of airway smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation in asthmatic patients. Beta-adrenoceptor desensitisation is associated with beta2-agonist activation and differs depending on the cell type. It is reflected in the different profiles of clinical tolerance to chronic beta2-agonist therapy. A number of polymorphisms of the beta2-receptor have been described which appear to alter the behaviour of the receptor, including the degree of downregulation and response to beta2-agonists.

  6. Identification of active anti-inflammatory principles of beta- beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography. Components of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanner and UV-visible spectroscopy, using scopoletin as standard. Results: ... basic coumarin skeleton ring structure reduce ... Figure 2: Thin-layer chromatogram: (1) Ethanol extract; (2) Dichloromethane fraction; (3) Beta-beta.

  7. Consequence of beta 16 and beta 112 replacements on the kinetics of hemoglobin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K; Yang, Y; Joshi, A A; Vasudevan, G; Morris, A; McDonald, M J

    2001-11-23

    The rates of alpha/beta monomer combination of four beta(A) variants (beta 112C --> S, beta 112C --> D, beta 112C --> T, and beta 112C --> V) in the presence and absence of beta 16G --> D (beta(J)) were measured in an attempt to assess the consequences of amino acid substitution at both a surface (beta 16) and an alpha(1)beta(1) interface (beta 112) residue on oxyhemoglobin assembly. Rates of alpha/beta monomer combination determined spectrally in 0.1 M Tris-HCl, 0.1 M NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.4, at 21.5 degrees C differed by over 40-fold (22 +/- 2.0 to 0.49 +/- 0.1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), and were in the order: HbA beta 112S = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112S > HbA beta 112D = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112D > HbA > Hb J > HbA beta 112T = HbJ beta 16D, beta 112T > HbJ beta 16D, beta 112V > HbA beta 112V. This extensive kinetic investigation of single/double amino acid-substituted recombinant hemoglobin molecules, in conjunction with molecular modeling studies, has allowed examination of an array of unique alpha/beta subunit interactions and assembly processes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. TGF-Beta and Breast Cancer Induction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dabovic, Branka

    2001-01-01

    .... We study the molecule TGF-beta, which blocks cell growth. TGF-beta is produced as latent complex consisting of the TGF-beta homodimer, the TGF-beta propeptide dimmer, and a second gene product, the latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP...

  9. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  10. The selective action of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs and the nature of beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A J; Somerville, A R

    1977-01-01

    1 Purified membranes retaining a catecholamine responsive adenylate cyclase have prepared from rabbit heart, lung and (pseudo-pregnant) uterus. 2 These preparations have the characteristics of plasma membranes and both heart and lung respond to beta-adrenoceptor agonists in the order: (+/-)-isoprenaline greater than (-)-noradrenaline greater than (-)-adrenaline greater than (+)-isoprenaline greater than salbutamol. The sensitivity of the adenylate cyclase to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation is improved by pre-treatment of the animals with reserpine and syrosingopine. 3 Dose-ratios for several concentrations of propranolol (non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blocker), practolol and atenolol (cardio-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockers) have been measured on all three membrane preparations. Schild plots of log (dose ratio -1) vs. log dose were virtually coincident for heart and lung with a dissociation constant (Kb) for propranolol very close to the pharmacological value. The ratio of Kb values was 0.65 for practolol and 1.23 for atenolol compared with pharmacological cardio-selectivity ratios (measured on isolated atria and tracheal chain) of 67.6 and 110 respectively. The uterus/heart Kb ratio was 51.5 for atenolol. Inhibition of the uterus by practolol gave a Schild plot with slope significantly less than 1, indicating a different mechanism of action from the heart. 4 Kb values obtained by measuring adenylate cyclase stimulation in chopped tissue (including preparations of bronchial tree and alveolar tissue as well as whole lung) resembled the membrane values rather than those found in whole organs. 5 The results show that the pharmacological selectivity of practolol and atenolol is maintained at the receptor-adenylate cyclase level, at least as far as heart and uterus are concerned, though the smaller selectivity ratios in the biochemical system suggest that receptor differences is not the only factor and that phase distribution of the drug may also be important

  11. Review of the beta situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    This note lists some of the possible causes of beta limitation in tokamak and discusses what is known and what is involved in investigating them. The motivation for preparing this note is the observed degradation of confinement with increasing beta poloidal β/sub p/ and beam power P/sub b/ in ISX-B

  12. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  13. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particula...

  14. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  15. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  16. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  17. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  18. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  19. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta blockers: Do they cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol ( ...

  20. Rearrangements of the beta-globin gene cluster in apparently typical betaS haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Gualandro, S; Yokomizu, I K; Araujo, A G; Tavela, M H; Gerard, N; Krishnamoorthy, R; Elion, J

    2001-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the betaS gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as atypical haplotypes. We have demonstrated that most atypical haplotypes are generated by recombinations. The present study was carried out in order to explore whether recombination also occurs in chromosomes with the common (or typical) haplotypes. We screened the HS-2 region of the beta-globin gene locus control region (LCR) in 244 sickle cell patients who had typical restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-defined haplotypes of the betaS-gene cluster. For 14 cases in which the expected and the observed LCR repeat-sequence sizes were discrepant, the analysis was extended to other unexplored polymorphic markers of the bS-globin gene cluster, i.e.: pre-Ggamma framework, pre-Ggamma 6-bp deletion, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta(AT)xTy repeats, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. In all 14 cases (15 chromosomes) in which the LCR repeat-sequence sizes were discrepant, a recombination involving a typical 3' segment of the betaS globin gene cluster was demonstrated. In most of the cases, the recombination site was located between the beta-globin gene and the betaLCR. Nine cases involving recombination were detected among 156 Brazilian HbS homozygotes and five among 88 African patients homozygotes for the Benin haplotype. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS. Thus, 3.1% of apparently typical haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene involve recombinations similar to those that generate the atypical haplotypes, a finding that reinforces the picture of the beta-globin gene cluster as highly dynamic.

  1. Beta-lactamase induction and cell wall metabolism in Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Production of beta-lactamases, the enzymes that degrade beta-lactam antibiotics, is the most widespread and threatening mechanism of antibiotic resistance. In the past, extensive research has focused on the structure, function, and ecology of beta-lactamases while limited efforts were placed on the regulatory mechanisms of beta-lactamases. Recently, increasing evidence demonstrate a direct link between beta-lactamase induction and cell wall metabolism in Gram-negative bacteria. Specifically, expression of beta-lactamase could be induced by the liberated murein fragments, such as muropeptides. This article summarizes current knowledge on cell wall metabolism, beta-lactam antibiotics, and beta-lactamases. In particular, we comprehensively reviewed recent studies on the beta-lactamase induction by muropeptides via two major molecular mechanisms (the AmpG–AmpR–AmpC pathway and BlrAB-like two-component regulatory system) in Gram-negative bacteria. The signaling pathways for beta-lactamase induction offer a broad array of promising targets for the discovery of new antibacterial drugs used for combination therapies. Therefore, to develop effective mitigation strategies against the widespread beta-lactam resistance, examination of the molecular basis of beta-lactamase induction by cell wall fragment is highly warranted. PMID:23734147

  2. The mode of action of 2-(thiazol-2-ylthio)-1beta-methylcarbapenems against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the impact of outer membrane permeability and the contribution of MexAB-OprM efflux system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Ken; Ueda, Yutaka; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Gotoh, Naomasa

    2007-02-01

    The mode of action of a series of 2-(4-dihydropyrrolylthiazol-2-ylthio) and 2-(4-tetrahydropyridinylthiazol-2-ylthio)-1beta-methylcarbapenem analogues against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated with regard to contributions of the affinity for penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), the outer membrane permeability, and the effect of the MexAB-OprM efflux system. In this series of carbapenems, the introduction of a substituent in C-2 side chain with a change in physicochemical properties affected the antipseudomonal activity depending on the molecular weight. However, these structural modifications did not affect the affinity for pseudomonal PBPs significantly. It was confirmed that the affinity for PBPs was not an important determinant of the antipseudomonal activity of this series of carbapenems. OprD porin-deficiency did not affect antipseudomonal activity either. On the other hand, the MIC of these carbapenems against P. aeruginosa significantly decreased in the presence of outer membrane permeabilizer. This result strongly suggests that the cause of the relatively low antipseudomonal activity of these carbapanems is their low permeability through the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa. And also, in the presence of outer membrane permeabilizer, the MICs against MexAB-OprM deficient mutants remarkably decreased and were very close to the value of the IC(50) for pseudomonal PBPs. From this result, it was clear that the effect of the MexAB-OprM efflux system was also an important determinant of antipseudomonal activity of these carbapenems. In conclusion, the major determinants of the antipseudomonal activity of the 2-(thiazol-2-ylthio)-1beta-methylcarbapenems are the outer membrane permeability and the effect of the MexAB-OprM efflux system, not the affinity for pseudomonal PBPs.

  3. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  4. The interaction between beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and purified class-I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L O; Hansen, A S; Olsen, A C

    1994-01-01

    The function of MHC class-I molecules is to sample peptides from the intracellular environment and present them to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. To understand the molecular details of the assembly (and disassembly) of peptide-beta 2m-class-I complexes a biochemical peptide-class-I binding assay has...... been generated recently and this paper reports on a similar assay for the interaction between beta 2m and class I. As a model system human beta 2m binding to mouse class I was used. The assay is strictly biochemical using purified reagents which interact in solution and complex formation is determined...

  5. Two betas or not two betas: regulation of asymmetric division by beta-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kota; Sawa, Hitoshi

    2007-10-01

    In various organisms, cells divide asymmetrically to produce distinct daughter cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, asymmetric division is controlled by the asymmetric activity of a Wnt signaling pathway (the Wnt/beta-catenin asymmetry pathway). In this process, two specialized beta-catenin homologs have crucial roles in the transmission of Wnt signals to the asymmetric activity of a T-cell factor (TCF)-type transcription factor, POP-1, in the daughter cells. One beta-catenin homolog regulates the distinct nuclear level of POP-1, and the other functions as a coactivator of POP-1. Both beta-catenins localize asymmetrically in the daughter nuclei using different mechanisms. The recent discovery of reiterative nuclear asymmetries of a highly conserved beta-catenin in an annelid suggests that similar molecular mechanisms might regulate asymmetric cell divisions in other organisms.

  6. A three-dimensional cell-loading system using autologous plasma loaded into a porous {beta}-tricalcium-phosphate block promotes bone formation at extraskeletal sites in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Nobutaka [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Sotome, Shinichi [Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Marukawa, Eriko [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Omura, Ken [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Shinomiya, Kenichi [Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) and Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) and Advanced Bone and Joint Science (Japan)]. E-mail: shinomiya.orth@tmd.ac.jp

    2007-05-16

    The effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) with respect to proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and bone formation capability were investigated. MSCs derived from rats were cultured in medium containing mixtures of PRP and PPP. Fibrinogen was eliminated prior to the experiment. The DNA content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. PRP stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. To examine the effects of fibrin in plasma, MSCs were cultured in PRP or PPP fibrin gels formed both on a cell culture insert installed in a culture well and on the bottom surface of the same culture well. The ALP activities of the MSCs in both of the gels were higher than those on the surface of the culture wells. The MSCs cultured on the PPP gel showed the highest ALP activity. The effects of PRP and PPP used as scaffolds for bone formation were also investigated. MSCs were suspended in PRP or PPP, introduced into porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate blocks, and then implanted into subcutaneous sites. Subsequently, bone formation was quantified. Further in vivo studies found that implants prepared using PPP had a greater osteoinductive capability than implants prepared with PRP.

  7. Amino acid 489 is encoded by a mutational "hot spot" on the beta 3 integrin chain: the CA/TU human platelet alloantigen system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; McFarland, J G; Kekomaki, R; Newman, P J

    1993-12-01

    A new platelet alloantigen, termed CA, has recently been implicated in a case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NATP) in a Filipino family in Canada. Maternal anti-CA serum reacted with glycoprotein (GP) IIIa and maintained its reactivity after removal of high mannose carbohydrate residues from GPIIIa. The monoclonal antibody (MoAb) AP3 partially blocked binding of anti-CA to GPIIIa, suggesting that the CA polymorphism is proximal to the AP3 epitope. Platelet RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the region of GPIIIa cDNA that encodes this region of the protein. DNA sequence analysis showed a GA nucleotide substitution at base 1564 that results in an arginine (Arg) (CGG)glutamine (Gln) (CAG) polymorphism in amino acid (AA) 489. Further analysis of PCR-amplified genomic DNA from 27 normal individuals showed that AA 489 is encoded by a mutational "hot spot" of the GPIIIa gene, as three different codons for the wild-type Arg489 of GPIIIa were also found. The codon usage for Arg489 was found to be: CGG (63%), CGA (37%), and CGC (Definition of these new molecular variants of the beta 3 integrin chain should prove valuable in the diagnosis of NATP in these two geographically disparate populations, and it may also provide useful genetic markers for examining other pathologic variations of the GPIIb-IIIa complex.

  8. Background radiation accumulation and lower limit of detection in thermoluminescent beta-gamma dosimeters used by the centralized external dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonder, E.; Ahmed, A.B.

    1991-12-01

    A value for ''average background radiation'' of 0.75 mR/week has been determined from a total of 1680 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) exposed in 70 houses for periods up to one year. The distribution of results indicates a rather large variation among houses, with a few locations exhibiting backgrounds double the general average. Some discrepancies in the short-term background accumulation of TLD's have been explained as being due to light leakage through the dosimeter cases. In addition the lower limit of detection (L D ) for deep and shallow dose equivalents has been determined for these dosimeters. The L D for occupational exposure depends strongly on the time a dosimeter is exposed to background radiation in the field. The L D can vary from a low of 2.4 mrem for high energy gamma rays when the background accumulation period is less than a few weeks to values as high as 66 mrem for uranium beta particles when background has been allowed to accumulate for more than 21 weeks

  9. Beta-endorphin Cell Therapy for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Changqing; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Jabbar, Shaima; Shrivastava, Pallavi; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    Beta-endorphin (BEP) producing neuron in the hypothalamus plays a key role in brining the stress axis to a state of homeostasis and maintaining body immune defense system. Long-term delivery of BEP to obtain beneficial effect on chemoprevention is challenging, since the peptide rapidly develop tolerance. Using rats as animal model, we show here that transplantation of beta-endorphin neurons into the hypothalamus suppressed carcinogens- and hormone-induced cancers in various tissues and preven...

  10. First Detection of Hydrogen in the \\beta\\ Pictoris Gas Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, P. A.; Etangs, A. Lecavelier des; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Bourrier, V.; Hébrard, G.; Kiefer, F.; Beust, H.; Ferlet, R.; Lagrange, A. -M.

    2016-01-01

    The young and nearby star \\beta\\ Pictoris (\\beta\\ Pic) is surrounded by a debris disk composed of dust and gas known to host a myriad evaporating exocomets, planetesimals and at least one planet. At an edge-on inclination, as seen from Earth, this system is ideal for debris disk studies providing an excellent opportunity to use absorption spectroscopy to study the planet forming environment. Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) we observe ...

  11. The role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta during ovarian follicular development in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirke Laurel D

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta superfamily have been shown to be essential for regulating the growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles and thus fertility. Methods Ovaries of neonatal and adult sheep were examined for expression of the TGF-betas 1–3 and their receptors (RI and RII by in situ hybridization using ovine cDNAs. The effects of TGF-beta 1 and 2 on proliferation and differentiation of ovine granulosa cells in vitro were also studied. Results The expression patterns of TGF-beta 1 and 2 were similar in that both mRNAs were first observed in thecal cells of type 3 (small pre-antral follicles. Expression of both mRNAs continued to be observed in the theca of larger follicles and was also present in cells within the stroma and associated with the vascular system of the ovary. There was no evidence for expression in granulosa cells or oocytes. Expression of TGF-beta 3 mRNA was limited to cells associated with the vascular system within the ovary. TGFbetaRI mRNA was observed in oocytes from the type 1 (primordial to type 5 (antral stages of follicular growth and granulosa and thecal cells expressed this mRNA at the type 3 (small pre-antral and subsequent stages of development. The TGFbetaRI signal was also observed in the ovarian stroma and vascular cells. In ovarian follicles, mRNA encoding TGFbetaRII was restricted to thecal cells of type 3 (small pre-antral and larger follicles. In addition, expression was also observed in some cells of the surface epithelium and in some stromal cells. In granulosa cells cultured for 6 days, both TGF-beta 1 and 2 decreased, in a dose dependent manner, both the amount of DNA and concentration of progesterone. Conclusion In summary, mRNA encoding both TGF-beta 1 and 2 were synthesized by ovarian theca, stroma and cells of the vascular system whereas TGF-beta 3 mRNA was synthesized by vascular cells. Luteinizing granulosa cells also

  12. Speech processing system demonstrated by positron emission tomography (PET). A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Kojima, Hisayoshi

    1996-01-01

    We review the literature on speech processing in the central nervous system as demonstrated by positron emission tomography (PET). Activation study using PET has been proved to be a useful and non-invasive method of investigating the speech processing system in normal subjects. In speech recognition, the auditory association areas and lexico-semantic areas called Wernicke's area play important roles. Broca's area, motor areas, supplementary motor cortices and the prefrontal area have been proved to be related to speech output. Visual speech stimulation activates not only the visual association areas but also the temporal region and prefrontal area, especially in lexico-semantic processing. Higher level speech processing, such as conversation which includes auditory processing, vocalization and thinking, activates broad areas in both hemispheres. This paper also discusses problems to be resolved in the future. (author) 42 refs

  13. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) constitutes the light invariant chain of HLA class I antigen, and is a constituent of mobilizable compartments of neutrophils. Two forms of beta 2m exist: native beta 2m and proteolytically modified beta 2m (Des-Lys58-beta 2m), which shows alpha mobility in crossed...... radioimmuno-electrophoresis. The modification of native beta 2m can be executed by membrane-associated activity of mononuclear cells, and Des-Lys58-beta 2m augments the production of interleukin 2. In this study we present evidence that human neutrophils contain native beta 2m in specific granules, secretory...... vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...

  14. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  15. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  16. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidantsef, Ana [Davis, CA; Lamsa, Michael [Davis, CA; Gorre-Clancy, Brian [Elk Grove, CA

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  17. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  18. Redox-mediated activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Dix, T. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta) is a multifunctional cytokine that orchestrates response to injury via ubiquitous cell surface receptors. The biological activity of TGF beta is restrained by its secretion as a latent complex (LTGF beta) such that activation determines the extent of TGF beta activity during physiological and pathological events. TGF beta action has been implicated in a variety of reactive oxygen-mediated tissue processes, particularly inflammation, and in pathologies such as reperfusion injury, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. It was recently shown to be rapidly activated after in vivo radiation exposure, which also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present studies, the potential for redox-mediated LTGF beta activation was investigated using a cell-free system in which ROS were generated in solution by ionizing radiation or metal ion-catalyzed ascorbate reaction. Irradiation (100 Gray) of recombinant human LTGF beta in solution induced 26% activation compared with that elicited by standard thermal activation. Metal-catalyzed ascorbate oxidation elicited extremely efficient recombinant LTGF beta activation that matched or exceeded thermal activation. The efficiency of ascorbate activation depended on ascorbate concentrations and the presence of transition metal ions. We postulate that oxidation of specific amino acids in the latency-conferring peptide leads to a conformation change in the latent complex that allows release of TGF beta. Oxidative activation offers a novel route for the involvement of TGF beta in tissue processes in which ROS are implicated and endows LTGF beta with the ability to act as a sensor of oxidative stress and, by releasing TGF beta, to function as a signal for orchestrating the response of multiple cell types. LTGF beta redox sensitivity is presumably directed toward recovery of homeostasis; however, oxidation may also be a mechanism of LTGF beta activation that can be deleterious during

  19. [Study on TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, TGF beta 3 expression in the chick basilar papilla following gentamicin toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Wang, J

    1998-10-01

    The beta-type transforming growth factors (TGF beta s) are secreted proteins, which play an important role in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic inner ear. In order to probe into the effect of TGF beta s on the hair cell regeneration, expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins were examined by using immunohistochemistry in the chicken basilar papilla during hair cell regeneration following gentamicin ototoxicity. Ten-day-old chickens received daily subcutaneous injection of gentamicin sulfate 50 mg/kg of ten consecutive days. The animals were allowed to survive 1,3,7,14,21 and 28 days before sacrifice and preparation for examination of the expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins. Immunostaining results demonstrated that TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins were observed in the damaged region of basilar papilla. TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins positive cells were limited to the lumenal nuclear layer within the damaged region. TGF beta 1 protein positive cell was not found in our study. These results indicated that TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 proteins might play a role in regulating proliferation of the supporting cells immigrated into the lumenal nuclear layer during hair cell regeneration.

  20. Subtype-selective modulation of human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor function by beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodde, O. E.; Daul, A.; Michel, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    In healthy volunteers a 14-day treatment with the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist xamoterol (2 x 200 mg/day) desensitized beta 1-adrenoceptor-mediated physiological effects, but did not affect beta 2-adrenoceptor-mediated effects; in contrast, a 9-day treatment with the selective beta

  1. Selective regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the human heart by chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Pingsmann, A.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Doetsch, N.; Brodde, O. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. In 44 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the effect of chronic administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists sotalol, propranolol, pindolol, metoprolol and atenolol on beta-adrenoceptor density in right atria (containing 70% beta 1- and 30% beta 2-adrenoceptors) and in

  2. Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic beta-cells activates the calcium and cyclic AMP signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](c and cAMP ([cAMP](c were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca(2+](c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca(2+](c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca(2+](c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a G(q inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP](c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in beta-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca(2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

  3. Beta-glucans and cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Petr; Vannucci, Luca; Větvička, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2017), s. 1799-1808 ISSN 1107-3756 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cholesterol * beta-glucans * diet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2016

  4. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  5. Beta-Testing Agreement | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-Testing Agreements are appropriate forlimited term evaluation and applications development of new software, technology, or equipment platforms by the Frederick National Laboratory in collaboration with an external commercial partner. It ma

  6. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003571.htm Beta-carotene blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Carotene test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Carotene - serum. In: ...

  7. [Effect of sulfonation of polyethersulfone sheets on the adsorption of beta2-microglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liping; Sun, Shudong; Yue, Yilun; Huang, Jia; Mao, Huayi; Liang, Bo

    2005-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the adsorption of beta2-microglobulin(beta2 M) by blood dialysis membrane materials which are polyethersulfone (PES), sulfonated polyethersulfones, (PES-SO3Na-I and PES-SO3Na-I ) in vitro incubated in human serum and radiolabeled beta2M (125I-beta2 M) solution respectively. In these experiments, the materials were incubated in 125I-beta2 M solution and human serum at the appointed time ranging from 15 minutes to four hours at 37 degrees C, and then the amounts of 125I-beta2M and serum beta2M adsorbed by materials were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In the 125I-beta2 M system, amounts of 125I-beta2M adsorbed by the materials decreased in sequence of PES-SO3 Na-II > PES-SO3Na-I > PES. In the serum system, amounts of beta2M adsorbed reached maximums at 30 minutes and the final adsorptions decreased in sequence of PES-SO3Na-II > PES-SO3Na-I > PES. Sulfonated PES removes beta2M more than PES does and the adsorption of beta2M increases with the increase in the degree of sulfonation. Its ability to remove significant amount of beta2M may result in less beta2M available for incorporation into amyloid. The use of PES-SO3Na membranes lessens the likelihood of dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) development, which remains a major source of morbidity for patients treated with long-term hemodialysis.

  8. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...... in the proteolysis of beta 2m. However, we demonstrated that native beta 2m following degranulation may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m by lymphocytes. We suggest that neutrophil beta 2m following exocytosis may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m, acting as an extracellular messenger between granulocytes...

  10. Are calculated betas good for anything?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    We calculate betas of 3,813 companies using 60 monthly returns each day of December 2001 and January 2002. The median (average) of the maximum beta divided by the minimum beta was 3.07 (15.7). The median of the percentage daily change (in absolute value) of the betas was 20%. Industry betas are also unstable. On average, the maximum beta of an industry was 2.7 times its minimum beta in December 2001 and January 2002. The median (average) of the percentage daily change (in absolute value) of t...

  11. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Beta Instability and Stochastic Market Weights

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Goldenberg

    1985-01-01

    An argument is given for individual firm beta instability based upon the stochastic character of the market weights defining the market portfolio and the constancy of its beta. This argument is generalized to market weighted portfolios and the form of the stochastic process generating betas is linked to that of the market return process. The implications of this analysis for adequacy of models of beta nonstationarity and estimation of betas are considered in light of the available empirical e...

  13. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  14. Evaluation of Dicentrarchus labrax meats and the vegetable quality of Beta vulgaris var. Cicla farmed in freshwater and saltwater aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nozzi, Valentina; Parisi, Giuliana; Di Crescenzo, Davide; Giordano, Mario; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to exploit the euryhaline nature of commercially attractive species for their cultivation in freshwater aquaponic systems. This approach may increase the profitability of aquaponic production in coastal countries where the consumption of marine fish is traditional and of commercial relevance. For this purpose, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were reared in an aquaponic freshwater (AFW) system and an aquaponic saltwater (ASW) system (salinity 20 p...

  15. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  16. Endotoxin-induced liver damage in rats is minimized by beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izeboud, C.A.; Hoebe, K.H.; Grootendorst, A.F.; Nijmeijer, S.M.; Miert, A.S. van; Witkamp, R.R.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To investigate the effects of beta(2)-adrenoceptor (beta(2)-AR) stimulation on endotoxin-induced liver damage and systemic cytokine levels in rats. SUBJECTS: Standard male Wistar rats. TREATMENT: A disease-model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute systemic inflammation

  17. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjork, C.W.; Olsher, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration.

  18. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  19. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase modulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-dependent metabolism of 7-keto- and 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir G Nashev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 in the regulation of energy metabolism and immune system by locally reactivating glucocorticoids has been extensively studied. Experiments determining initial rates of enzyme activity revealed that 11beta-HSD1 can catalyze both the reductase and the dehydrogenase reaction in cell lysates, whereas it predominantly catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol in intact cells that also express hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH, which provides cofactor NADPH. Besides its role in glucocorticoid metabolism, there is evidence that 11beta-HSD1 is involved in the metabolism of 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-steroids; however the impact of H6PDH on this alternative function of 11beta-HSD1 has not been assessed. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the 11beta-HSD1-dependent metabolism of the neurosteroids 7-keto-, 7alpha-hydroxy- and 7beta-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 7-keto- and 7beta-hydroxy-pregnenolone, respectively, in the absence or presence of H6PDH in intact cells. 3D-structural modeling was applied to study the binding of ligands in 11beta-HSD1. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated that 11beta-HSD1 functions in a reversible way and efficiently catalyzed the interconversion of these 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-neurosteroids in intact cells. In the presence of H6PDH, 11beta-HSD1 predominantly converted 7-keto-DHEA and 7-ketopregnenolone into their corresponding 7beta-hydroxy metabolites, indicating a role for H6PDH and 11beta-HSD1 in the local generation of 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids. 3D-structural modeling offered an explanation for the preferred formation of 7beta-hydroxy-neurosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Our results from experiments determining the steady state concentrations of glucocorticoids or 7-oxygenated neurosteroids suggested that the equilibrium between cortisone and cortisol and between 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-neurosteroids is regulated by 11beta-HSD1 and greatly

  20. Beta-Glucan Synthase Gene Expression in Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus sp. is a popular edible mushroom, containing various functional component, in particular, Beta-glucan. Beta-glucans is a part of glucan family of polysaccharides and supposedly contribute to medicinal and nutritional value of Pleurotus.sp. In order to understand the distribution of Beta-glucan in Pleurotus.sp, the Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was determined and compared in different part of Pleurotus, namely mycelium, stripe and cap. The Pleurotus.sp RNA was extracted using commercial kit, employing Tissuelyser ll (Qiagen, USA) to disrupt the cell walls. Then the RNA was quantified by Nano drop (Thermo Fisher, USA) and visualized using denaturing agarose gel. RNA with good OD 260.280 reading (∼2.0) was chosen and converted to cDNA. Using Laccase synthase gene as home keeping gene, Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was quantified using CFX 96 Real Time PCR detection system (Biorad, USA). Preliminary result shows that Beta-glucan synthase was relatively expressed the most in stripe, followed by mycelium and barely in cap. (author)

  1. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  2. Design of a neutrino source based on beta beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wildner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available “Beta beams” produce collimated pure electron (antineutrino beams by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a racetrack shaped storage ring of 7 km circumference, the decay ring. EUROnu beta beams are based on CERN infrastructures and existing machines. Using existing machines may be an advantage for the cost evaluation, but will also constrain the physics performance. The isotope pair of choice for the beta beam is ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne. However, before the EUROnu studies one of the required isotopes, ^{18}Ne, could not be produced in rates that satisfy the needs for physics of the beta beam. Therefore, studies of alternative beta emitters, ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, with properties interesting for a beta beam have been proposed and have been studied within EUROnu. These alternative isotopes could be produced by using a small storage ring, in which the beam traverses a target, creating the ^{8}Li and ^{8}B isotopes. This production ring, the injection linac and the target system have been evaluated. Measurements of the cross section of the reactions to produce the beta beam isotopes show interesting results. A device to collect the produced isotopes from the target has been developed and tested. However, the yields of ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, using the production ring for production of ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, is not yet, according to simulations, giving the rates of isotopes that would be needed. Therefore, a new method of producing the ^{18}Ne isotope has been developed and tested giving good production rates. A 60 GHz ECRIS prototype, the first in the world, was developed and tested for ion production with contributions from EUROnu. The decay ring lattices for the ^{8}Li and ^{8}B have been developed and the lattice for ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne has been optimized to ensure the high intensity ion beam stability.

  3. The Technology and Applications of Large Fission Product Beta Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, Joseph

    1960-01-01

    Beta emitters have not received consideration as large sources of radiation power because in the past, the radiation processes of interest have been based on particles with high penetration power; hence the great emphasis on gammas and artificially accelerated electrons. About four years ago, it became apparent that a broad field of potential applications involving surface radiation treatment was developing, e. g. surface modification of formed plastics by graft copolymerization and surface pasteurization of food. For these applications, penetration in depth is wasteful and potentially harmful. Also there are two other areas for which machine electrons were not well suited: radiation-induced chemical syntheses in pressure vessels, and certain types of free radical chain reactions for which the production rate per kilowatt decreases with the square root of the dose rate. Broad area beta sources showed obvious potential advantages in all these categories and, since they are available in good yield from the fission process, merited a careful re-appraisal. On the basics of these considerations an AEC sponsored study of the applications and technology of fission product beta sources was performed. The results indicate the following: 1. There are promising areas for commercial application of fission product beta emitters in the radiation processing field, particularly in the graft copolymerization modification of formed plastic surfaces and textiles. 2. Massive, rugged, inert, safe, inexpensive beta sources may be fabricated by suitable extensions of existing techniques. Source-bearing glass formulations show particular promise. 3. Beta absorption calculations indicate that extended sources can be designed with power utilization efficiencies as high as 20 per cent. Equations and curves describing dosage and beta utilization efficiency as a function of the geometry and composition of various source-target systems were developed. An experimental program is in progress to

  4. Onset Latency of Motor Evoked Potentials in Motor Cortical Mapping with Neuronavigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Elisa; Pitkänen, Minna; Säisänen, Laura; Julkunen, Petro

    2015-01-01

    Cortical motor mapping in pre-surgical applications can be performed using motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes evoked with neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation. The MEP latency, which is a more stable parameter than the MEP amplitude, has not so far been utilized in motor mapping. The latency, however, may provide information about the stress in damaged motor pathways, e.g. compression by tumors, which cannot be observed from the MEP amplitudes. Thus, inclusion of this parameter could add valuable information to the presently used technique of MEP amplitude mapping. In this study, the functional cortical representations of first dorsal interosseous (FDI), abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were mapped in both hemispheres of ten healthy righthanded volunteers. The cortical muscle representations were evaluated by the area and centre of gravity (CoG) by using MEP amplitudes and latencies. As expected, the latency and amplitude CoGs were congruent and were located in the centre of the maps but in a few subjects, instead of a single centre, several loci with short latencies were observed. In conclusion, MEP latencies may be useful in distinguishing the cortical representation areas with the most direct pathways from those pathways with prolonged latencies. However, the potential of latency mapping to identify stressed motor tract connections at the subcortical level will need to be verified in future studies with patients.

  5. Laterality of motor cortical function measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation threshold tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kazumoto; Park, Susanna B; Howells, James; Huynh, William; Noto, Yu-Ichi; Shahrizaila, Nortina; Matamala, José M; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2017-03-01

    Threshold tracking paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TTTMS) examines cortical function and is useful for diagnosis of motor neuron disorders. Differences in cortical function have been identified between dominant and non-dominant limbs using constant stimulus methods, but they remain unclear, potentially due to methodological differences. In this study we aimed to clarify differences in cortical function between dominant and non-dominant limbs using TTTMS. Single-pulse TMS, TTTMS, and nerve conduction studies were performed in 25 healthy, right-handed participants by recording from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. There were no side-to-side differences observed in resting motor threshold, motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, MEP latency, central motor conduction time, cortical silent period, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude, CMAP latency, F-wave latency, or neurophysiological index. These findings suggest that, when using TTTMS, there are no differences in cortical function between dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Muscle Nerve 55: 424-427, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Suppression of motor cortical excitability in anesthetized rats by low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Muller

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a widely-used method for modulating cortical excitability in humans, by mechanisms thought to involve use-dependent synaptic plasticity. For example, when low frequency rTMS (LF rTMS is applied over the motor cortex, in humans, it predictably leads to a suppression of the motor evoked potential (MEP, presumably reflecting long-term depression (LTD -like mechanisms. Yet how closely such rTMS effects actually match LTD is unknown. We therefore sought to (1 reproduce cortico-spinal depression by LF rTMS in rats, (2 establish a reliable animal model for rTMS effects that may enable mechanistic studies, and (3 test whether LTD-like properties are evident in the rat LF rTMS setup. Lateralized MEPs were obtained from anesthetized Long-Evans rats. To test frequency-dependence of LF rTMS, rats underwent rTMS at one of three frequencies, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 Hz. We next tested the dependence of rTMS effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR, by application of two NMDAR antagonists. We find that 1 Hz rTMS preferentially depresses unilateral MEP in rats, and that this LTD-like effect is blocked by NMDAR antagonists. These are the first electrophysiological data showing depression of cortical excitability following LF rTMS in rats, and the first to demonstrate dependence of this form of cortical plasticity on the NMDAR. We also note that our report is the first to show that the capacity for LTD-type cortical suppression by rTMS is present under barbiturate anesthesia, suggesting that future neuromodulatory rTMS applications under anesthesia may be considered.

  7. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13420.001 PMID:26880543

  8. Visual and motor cortices differentially support the translation of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M; Yildiz, Izzet B; Macedonia, Manuela; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-02-16

    At present, it is largely unclear how the human brain optimally learns foreign languages. We investigated teaching strategies that utilize complementary information ("enrichment"), such as pictures or gestures, to optimize vocabulary learning outcome. We found that learning while performing gestures was more efficient than the common practice of learning with pictures and that both enrichment strategies were better than learning without enrichment ("verbal learning"). We tested the prediction of an influential cognitive neuroscience theory that provides explanations for the beneficial behavioral effects of enrichment: the "multisensory learning theory" attributes the benefits of enrichment to recruitment of brain areas specialized in processing the enrichment. To test this prediction, we asked participants to translate auditorily presented foreign words during fMRI. Multivariate pattern classification allowed us to decode from the brain activity under which enrichment condition the vocabulary had been learned. The visual-object-sensitive lateral occipital complex (LOC) represented auditory words that had been learned with pictures. The biological motion superior temporal sulcus (bmSTS) and motor areas represented auditory words that had been learned with gestures. Importantly, brain activity in these specialized visual and motor brain areas correlated with behavioral performance. The cortical activation pattern found in the present study strongly supports the multisensory learning theory in contrast to alternative explanations. In addition, the results highlight the importance of learning foreign language vocabulary with enrichment, particularly with self-performed gestures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute changes in motor cortical excitability during slow oscillatory and constant anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Groppa, Sergiu; Seeger, Markus

    2009-01-01

    at 20 min) of either anodal so-tDCS or constant tDCS (c-tDCS) to the primary motor hand area during quiet wakefulness. Simultaneously and time-locked to different phase angles of the slow oscillation, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as an index of corticospinal excitability were obtained...... individuals we used on-line single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to search for systematic shifts in corticospinal excitability during anodal sleeplike 0.8-Hz slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS). In separate sessions, we repeatedly applied 30-s trials (two blocks...... in the contralateral hand muscles 10, 20, and 30 s after the onset of tDCS. MEPs were also measured off-line before, between, and after both stimulation blocks to detect any lasting excitability shifts. Both tDCS modes increased MEP amplitudes during stimulation with an attenuation of the facilitatory effect toward...

  10. Early and unintentional release of planned motor actions during motor cortical preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colum D MacKinnon

    Full Text Available Voluntary movements are often preceded by a movement-related potential beginning as much as two seconds prior to the onset of movement. In light of evidence that motor actions can be prepared and initiated in less than 200 ms, the function of this early activity has remained enigmatic. We hypothesized that the movement-related potential reflects the state of preparation of the planned movement. This was tested by delivering a startling acoustic stimulus during the preparation phase of a load-release task. The cue to release the load was presented either 3.5 seconds after a warning cue (PREDICT condition or randomly between 4-12 seconds (REACT condition. Electroencephalographic, electromyographic and limb and load kinematic signals were recorded. In a subset of trials, a startle stimulus was delivered at -1500, -1000, -500, -250, -100 or 0 ms before the release cue. A contingent-negative variation (CNV waveform, with a late phase of slow-rising negativity beginning an average of 1459 ms prior to movement, was observed for the PREDICT condition but not the REACT condition. For both conditions, the startle stimulus frequently evoked the early and unintentional release of the load-release sequence. The incidence of release was significantly (p<0.001 correlated with the late phase of the CNV for the PREDICT condition but not the REACT condition. For the REACT condition, the incidence of movement release was subject-specific, constant across the preparation interval, and uncorrelated with cortical activity. The onset of movement release by the startle stimulus was significantly shorter (p<0.001 for the PREDICT compared to the REACT condition. These findings provide evidence that the late phase of the CNV reflects cortical activity mediating the progressive preparation and storage of the forthcoming movement and that during this phase an intense sensory stimulus can evoke early and unintentional release of the planned action.

  11. Promoting Motor Cortical Plasticity with Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Role for Cerebellar Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Cameron S; Brown, Katlyn E; Neva, Jason L; Snow, Nicholas J; Campbell, Kristin L; Boyd, Lara A

    2016-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise facilitated long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years). In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Experiment   2, we evaluated the facilitatory effects of aerobic exercise on responses to paired associative stimulation, delivered with a 25 ms (PAS25) or 21 ms (PAS21) interstimulus interval (n = 16 per group). Increased M1 excitability evoked by PAS25, but not PAS21, relies on trans-cerebellar sensory pathways. The magnitude of the aerobic exercise effect on PAS response was not significantly different between PAS protocols (interaction effect: p = 0.30); however, planned comparisons indicated that, relative to a period of rest, acute aerobic exercise enhanced the excitatory response to PAS25 (p = 0.02), but not PAS21 (p = 0.30). Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity. The findings have implications for developing aerobic exercise strategies to "prime" M1 plasticity for enhanced motor skill learning in applied settings.

  12. Promoting Motor Cortical Plasticity with Acute Aerobic Exercise: A Role for Cerebellar Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Cameron S.; Brown, Katlyn E.; Neva, Jason L.; Snow, Nicholas J.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise facilitated long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cerebellar circuits, and their potential contribution to altered M1 plasticity in healthy individuals (age: 24.8 ± 4.1 years). In Experiment   1, acute aerobic exercise reduced cerebellar inhibition (CBI) (n = 10, p = 0.01), elicited by dual-coil paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. In Experiment   2, we evaluated the facilitatory effects of aerobic exercise on responses to paired associative stimulation, delivered with a 25 ms (PAS25) or 21 ms (PAS21) interstimulus interval (n = 16 per group). Increased M1 excitability evoked by PAS25, but not PAS21, relies on trans-cerebellar sensory pathways. The magnitude of the aerobic exercise effect on PAS response was not significantly different between PAS protocols (interaction effect: p = 0.30); however, planned comparisons indicated that, relative to a period of rest, acute aerobic exercise enhanced the excitatory response to PAS25 (p = 0.02), but not PAS21 (p = 0.30). Thus, the results of these planned comparisons indirectly provide modest evidence that modulation of cerebellar circuits may contribute to exercise-induced increases in M1 plasticity. The findings have implications for developing aerobic exercise strategies to “prime” M1 plasticity for enhanced motor skill learning in applied settings. PMID:27127659

  13. Motor cortical representation in two different strength-training modalities revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Refsgaard; Osuna-Florentz, Patrick; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    focused on minor distal muscles (4,5,6). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate which of two commonly used resistance-training regimes, explosive and non-explosive, yielded the largest cortical representations in vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). Methods Eighteen participants...... were recruited and divided into two groups based on their training experience (explosive and non-explosive resistance trained). The participants had a minimum of two years of experience with either weightlifting (snatch and clean and jerk) or conventional resistance training. Transcranial magnetic......Introduction One of the sites that can be affected by motor training is the primary motor cortex (1,2,3), but sometimes learning a movement is only the beginning of a training regime. The effect of resistance training on corticospinal function is still unclear, and previous studies have often...

  14. The influence of motor cortical stimulus intensity on the relaxation rate of human lower limb muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNeil, C.J.; Bredius, M.S.; Molenaar, J.P.F.; Gandevia, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows an in vivo assessment of the rate of muscle relaxation during a voluntary contraction. It is unknown if this method can be applied to lower limb muscles, and the effect of stimulus intensity on relaxation rate has not been investigated in any muscle

  15. The influence of motor cortical stimulus intensity on the relaxation rate of human lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Chris J; Bredius, Marlous S; Molenaar, Joery P; Gandevia, Simon C

    2013-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows an in vivo assessment of the rate of muscle relaxation during a voluntary contraction. It is unknown if this method can be applied to lower limb muscles, and the effect of stimulus intensity on relaxation rate has not been investigated in any muscle group. The present study sought to address these unknowns. A secondary aim was to test the sensitivity of the method to a change in muscle length by comparing the relaxation rate of the plantar flexor muscles with the gastrocnemius at short and long lengths. Seven subjects performed 21 maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) of the dorsiflexors (DF) and plantar flexors with a knee angle of either 90° or 180° (PF90 and PF180, respectively). TMS intensity ranged from 40 to 100% stimulator output in intervals of 10%. Relaxation rates increased with stimulus intensity but were equivalent to maximal output at 50 (DF and PF90) or 60% (PF180). MVC torque was greater, and the rate of relaxation was faster for PF180 compared to PF90. The main findings are that TMS can be used to measure relaxation rates of lower limb muscles, and these rates are robust provided the stimulus intensity is above a critical threshold. The dependency of plantar flexor relaxation rate on the length of the fast-twitch gastrocnemius fibers reinforces published temperature and fatigue data which show that the method is sensitive to the contractile properties of the muscle fibers which are actively contributing to torque production.

  16. Motor Cortical Networks for Skilled Movements Have Dynamic Properties That Are Related to Accurate Reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Putrino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex (MI are known to form functional ensembles with one another in order to produce voluntary movement. Neural network changes during skill learning are thought to be involved in improved fluency and accuracy of motor tasks. Unforced errors during skilled tasks provide an avenue to study network connections related to motor learning. In order to investigate network activity in MI, microwires were implanted in the MI of cats trained to perform a reaching task. Spike trains from eight groups of simultaneously recorded cells (95 neurons in total were acquired. A point process generalized linear model (GLM was developed to assess simultaneously recorded cells for functional connectivity during reaching attempts where unforced errors or no errors were made. Whilst the same groups of neurons were often functionally connected regardless of trial success, functional connectivity between neurons was significantly different at fine time scales when the outcome of task performance changed. Furthermore, connections were shown to be significantly more robust across multiple latencies during successful trials of task performance. The results of this study indicate that reach-related neurons in MI form dynamic spiking dependencies whose temporal features are highly sensitive to unforced movement errors.

  17. Attention modulates specific motor cortical circuits recruited by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, J L; Suzuki, L Y; Meehan, S K

    2017-09-17

    Skilled performance and acquisition is dependent upon afferent input to motor cortex. The present study used short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to probe how manipulation of sensory afference by attention affects different circuits projecting to pyramidal tract neurons in motor cortex. SAI was assessed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while participants performed a low or high attention-demanding visual detection task. SAI was evoked by preceding a suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulus with electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. To isolate different afferent intracortical circuits in motor cortex SAI was evoked using either posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (PA) monophasic current. In an independent sample, somatosensory processing during the same attention-demanding visual detection tasks was assessed using somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by median nerve stimulation. SAI elicited by AP TMS was reduced under high compared to low visual attention demands. SAI elicited by PA TMS was not affected by visual attention demands. SEPs revealed that the high visual attention load reduced the fronto-central P20-N30 but not the contralateral parietal N20-P25 SEP component. P20-N30 reduction confirmed that the visual attention task altered sensory afference. The current results offer further support that PA and AP TMS recruit different neuronal circuits. AP circuits may be one substrate by which cognitive strategies shape sensorimotor processing during skilled movement by altering sensory processing in premotor areas. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Repeatability and reliability of muscle relaxation properties induced by motor cortical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Joery P; Voermans, Nicol C; de Jong, Lysanne A; Stegeman, Dick F; Doorduin, Jonne; van Engelen, Baziel G

    2018-03-15

    Impaired muscle relaxation is a feature of many neuromuscular disorders. However, there are few tests available to quantify muscle relaxation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex can induce muscle relaxation by abruptly inhibiting corticospinal drive. The aim of our study is to investigate if repeatability and reliability of TMS-induced relaxation is greater than voluntary relaxation. Furthermore, effects of sex, cooling and fatigue on muscle relaxation properties were studied. Muscle relaxation of deep finger flexors was assessed in twenty-five healthy subjects (14 M and 11 F, aged 39.1{plus minus}12.7 and 45.3{plus minus}8.7 years old, respectively) using handgrip dynamometry. All outcome measures showed greater repeatability and reliability in TMS-induced relaxation compared to voluntary relaxation. The within-subject coefficient of variability of normalized peak relaxation rate was lower in TMS-induced relaxation than in voluntary relaxation (3.0 vs 19.7% in men, and 6.1 vs 14.3% in women). The repeatability coefficient was lower (1.3 vs 6.1 s -1 in men and 2.3 vs 3.1 s -1 in women), and the intraclass correlation coefficient was higher (0.95 vs 0.53 in men and 0.78 vs 0.69 in women), for TMS-induced relaxation compared to voluntary relaxation. TMS enabled to demonstrate slowing effects of sex, muscle cooling, and muscle fatigue on relaxation properties that voluntary relaxation could not. In conclusion, repeatability and reliability of TMS-induced muscle relaxation was greater compared to voluntary muscle relaxation. TMS-induced muscle relaxation has the potential to be used in clinical practice for diagnostic purposes and therapy effect monitoring in patients with impaired muscle relaxation.

  19. Changes in presumed motor cortical activity during fatiguing muscle contraction in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2010-01-01

    AIM: Changes in sensory information from active muscles accompany fatiguing exercise and the force-generating capacity deteriorates. The central motor commands therefore must adjust depending on the task performed. Muscle potentials evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) change during...... the course of fatiguing muscle activity, which demonstrates activity changes in cortical or spinal networks during fatiguing exercise. Here, we investigate cortical mechanisms that are actively involved in driving the contracting muscles. METHODS: During a sustained submaximal contraction (30% of maximal...... voluntary contraction) of the elbow flexor muscles we applied TMS over the motor cortex. At an intensity below motor threshold, TMS reduced the ongoing muscle activity in biceps brachii. This reduction appears as a suppression at short latency of the stimulus-triggered average of rectified electromyographic...

  20. Structural Organization of the Laryngeal Motor Cortical Network and Its Implication for Evolution of Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Veena; Croxson, Paula L; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-04-13

    The laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) is essential for the production of learned vocal behaviors because bilateral damage to this area renders humans unable to speak but has no apparent effect on innate vocalizations such as human laughing and crying or monkey calls. Several hypotheses have been put forward attempting to explain the evolutionary changes from monkeys to humans that potentially led to enhanced LMC functionality for finer motor control of speech production. These views, however, remain limited to the position of the larynx area within the motor cortex, as well as its connections with the phonatory brainstem regions responsible for the direct control of laryngeal muscles. Using probabilistic diffusion tractography in healthy humans and rhesus monkeys, we show that, whereas the LMC structural network is largely comparable in both species, the LMC establishes nearly 7-fold stronger connectivity with the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortices in humans than in macaques. These findings suggest that important "hard-wired" components of the human LMC network controlling the laryngeal component of speech motor output evolved from an already existing, similar network in nonhuman primates. However, the evolution of enhanced LMC-parietal connections likely allowed for more complex synchrony of higher-order sensorimotor coordination, proprioceptive and tactile feedback, and modulation of learned voice for speech production. The role of the primary motor cortex in the formation of a comprehensive network controlling speech and language has been long underestimated and poorly studied. Here, we provide comparative and quantitative evidence for the significance of this region in the control of a highly learned and uniquely human behavior: speech production. From the viewpoint of structural network organization, we discuss potential evolutionary advances of enhanced temporoparietal cortical connections with the laryngeal motor cortex in humans compared with nonhuman primates that may have contributed to the development of finer vocal motor control necessary for speech production. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364170-12$15.00/0.

  1. Seeking a bridge between language and motor cortices: a PPI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMaieron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the sensorimotor cortex and the language network has been widely discussed but still remains controversial. Two independent theories compete to explain how this area is involved during action-related verbs processing. The embodied view assumes that action word representations activate sensorimotor representations which are accessed when an action word is processed or when an action is observed. The abstract hypothesis states that the mental representations of words are abstract and independent of the objects’ sensorimotor properties they refer to. We combined neuropsychological and fMRI-PPI connectivity data, to address action-related verbs processing in neurosurgical patients with lesions involving (N=5 or sparing (N=5 the primary motor cortex and healthy controls (N=12. A lack of significant changes in the functional coupling between the left M1 cortex and functional nodes of the linguistic network during the verb generation task was found for all the groups. In addition, we found that the ability to perform an action verb naming task was not related to a damaged M1. These data showed that there was not a task-specific functional interaction active between M1 and the inferior frontal gyrus. We will discuss how these findings indicate that action words do not automatically activate the M1 cortex; we suggest rather that its enrolment could be related to other not strictly linguistic processing.

  2. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    taining OP to obtain the emulsion system. Finally, the emulsion system was transferred to Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves and crystallized at 413 K for 48 h and then 443 K for 48 h. For comparison, the conventional zeolite beta synthesis was also carried out under the same crystallization conditions. Notably, when the ...

  3. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    -documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented...... that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well...

  4. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi Kai; Wu, Yuan Kui [Nan fang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tamrakar, Karuna [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-15

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  5. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi Kai; Wu, Yuan Kui; Tamrakar, Karuna

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  6. Intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis in beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi-Kai; Tamrakar, Karuna; Wu, Yuan-Kui

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  7. Aberrant Hyperconnectivity in the Motor System at Rest Is Linked to Motor Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Wiest, Roland; Viher, Petra V

    2017-09-01

    Motor abnormalities are frequently observed in schizophrenia and structural alterations of the motor system have been reported. The association of aberrant motor network function, however, has not been tested. We hypothesized that abnormal functional connectivity would be related to the degree of motor abnormalities in schizophrenia. In 90 subjects (46 patients) we obtained resting stated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for 8 minutes 40 seconds at 3T. Participants further completed a motor battery on the scanning day. Regions of interest (ROI) were cortical motor areas, basal ganglia, thalamus and motor cerebellum. We computed ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity. Principal component analyses of motor behavioral data produced 4 factors (primary motor, catatonia and dyskinesia, coordination, and spontaneous motor activity). Motor factors were correlated with connectivity values. Schizophrenia was characterized by hyperconnectivity in 3 main areas: motor cortices to thalamus, motor cortices to cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex to the subthalamic nucleus. In patients, thalamocortical hyperconnectivity was linked to catatonia and dyskinesia, whereas aberrant connectivity between rostral anterior cingulate and caudate was linked to the primary motor factor. Likewise, connectivity between motor cortex and cerebellum correlated with spontaneous motor activity. Therefore, altered functional connectivity suggests a specific intrinsic and tonic neural abnormality in the motor system in schizophrenia. Furthermore, altered neural activity at rest was linked to motor abnormalities on the behavioral level. Thus, aberrant resting state connectivity may indicate a system out of balance, which produces characteristic behavioral alterations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of male and female mice : Relationships to monoaminergic, cholinergic, and spinal projection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM; Gustafsson, JA; Ulfhake, B

    2005-01-01

    For many populations of estrogen-sensitive neurons it remains unknown how they are associated with central nervous system circuitries that mediate estrogen-induced modulation of behavioral components. With the use of double-labeling immunohistochemistry and tracing techniques, the relationships of

  9. Beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  10. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Dynamic T-lymphocyte chemokine receptor expression induced by interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M; Sorensen, P S; Khademi, M

    2006-01-01

    and immunoregulatory genes. In conclusion, IFN-beta treatment caused 'steady-state' increases of several chemokine receptors relevant for CD4(+) T-lymphocyte trafficking and function, possibly facilitating lymphocyte migration into the CNS. An important therapeutic effect of IFN-beta treatment may be the normalization......Treatment with interferon (IFN)-beta reduces clinical disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Using flow cytometry, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a real-time polymerase chain reaction, we studied in vivo IFN-beta-induced effects on CD4(+) T-lymphocyte chemokine receptor expression...... as these influence central nervous system (CNS) transmigration and inflammation. At 'steady state' (>/=1 day after the most recent IFN-beta injection), IFN-beta treatment increased CD4(+) T-cell surface expression of CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4, CCR5 and CCR7 after 3 months of treatment, whereas that of CXC...

  12. Do post-translational beta cell protein modifications trigger type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Overgaard, Anne Julie; Brorsson, Caroline Anna

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease characterised by specific T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Yet, except for insulin, no beta cell-specific antigens have been discovered. This may imply that the autoantigens in type 1 diabetes exist in modified...... forms capable of specifically triggering beta cell destruction. In other immune-mediated diseases, autoantigens targeted by the immune system have undergone post-translational modification (PTM), thereby creating tissue-specific neo-epitopes. In a similar manner, PTM of beta cell proteins might create...... beta cell-specific neo-epitopes. We suggest that the current paradigm of type 1 diabetes as a classical autoimmune disease should be reconsidered since the immune response may not be directed against native beta cell proteins. A modified model for the pathogenetic events taking place in islets leading...

  13. Comparison of Theta/Beta, Slow Cortical Potential, and Adaptive Neurofeedback Training in Adults: Training Effects on Attentional Processes, Motor System, and Mood

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) training is being applied in an increasing number of clinical and peak performance fields. The aim oft he present investigation in adults was three-fold: 1) to shed further light on the neuronal mechanisms underlying different NF protocols with respect to attentional processes and motor system excitability, 2) to examine the effects of different neurofeedback protocols on well-being / mood, 3) to evaluate the effects of an adaptive type of NF training. Neurof...

  14. Static friction of porous bioceramic beta-TCP on intestinal mucus films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Ying-Chao; Jiang, Xin; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2006-09-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the beta-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous beta-TCP material.

  15. Study of the $\\beta^{+}$ decay of the nucleus $^{75}Rb$

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, B; García-Borge, M J; Fernández, C; Fogelberg, B; Giannatiempo, A; Gulda, K; Mach, H; Nannini, A; Rubio, B; Sona, P; Tengblad, O

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate complementary aspects brought up by beta - decay studies, an experiment dedicated to study /sup 75/Kr by the beta /sup +/ decay of /sup 75/Rb was done at the mass separator ISOLDE (CERN). The experimental setup consisted of two independent but simultaneously operated measurement stations interconnected by a tape transport system. The system at the beam deposition point was designed for fast timing measurements by the p gamma gamma (t) method and included four detectors: a beta detector, two HPGe detectors and a BaF/sub 2/ crystal. They allowed gamma gamma coincidence measurements and determination of half-lives of excited states in the ns and ps ranges. The second station was specially designed for internal conversion coefficient measurements. (4 refs).

  16. Efflux system overexpression and decreased OprD contribute to the carbapenem resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a Chinese university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Xiang-Yang; Wan, La-Gen; Jiang, Wei-Yan; Li, Fang-Qu; Yang, Jing-Hong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the combinations of carbapenem resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Chinese hospital. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of eight clonal types among the 15 ESBL producers. Multilocus sequence typing of two isolates harboured blaIMP-1 identified the clonal strain as ST325. All these genes were found either alone or simultaneously in the strains in the following five different arrangements:; ; ; ; . Regarding mutation-driven resistance, all, but four of the isolates had a relevant decrease of oprD expression. In addition, 73.3% of the isolates overexpressed mexB, 40% mexD, and 33.3% mexY. A specific combination of overexpressed mexB or mexY and alteration in loop L710 of OprD were significantly associated with meropenem resistance. In conclusion, combination of several mutation-driven mechanisms leading to OprD inactivation and overexpression of efflux systems was the main carbapenem resistance mechanism among the ESBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates, but acquisition of a transferable resistance determinant such as metallo-β-lactamase could be problematic in clinical settings in China.

  17. Phylogenetic beta diversity metrics, trait evolution and inferring the functional beta diversity of communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G Swenson

    Full Text Available The beta diversity of communities along gradients has fascinated ecologists for decades. Traditionally such studies have focused on the species composition of communities, but researchers are becoming increasingly interested in analyzing the phylogenetic composition in the hope of achieving mechanistic insights into community structure. To date many metrics of phylogenetic beta diversity have been published, but few empirical studies have been published. Further inferences made from such phylogenetic studies critically rely on the pattern of trait evolution. The present work provides a study of the phylogenetic dissimilarity of 96 tree communities in India. The work compares and contrasts eight metrics of phylogenetic dissimilarity, considers the role of phylogenetic signal in trait data and shows that environmental distance rather than spatial distance is the best correlate of phylogenetic dissimilarity in the study system.

  18. Novel anthracycline-spacer-beta-glucuronide, -beta-glucoside, and -beta-galactoside prodrugs for application in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RGG; Damen, EWP; Bijsterveld, EJA; Scheeren, HW; Houba, PHJ; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Boven, E; Haisma, HJ

    A series of anthracycline prodrugs containing an immolative spacer was synthesized for application in selective chemotherapy. The prodrugs having the general structure anthracycline-spacer-beta-glycoside were designed to be activated by beta-glucuronidase or beta-galactosidase. Prodrugs with

  19. Contra omega\\ beta-continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiam H. Aljarrah

    2014-09-01

    sets in topological spaces to present and study a new class of functions called contra omega\\beta-continuous functions. This notion is a weak form of contra-continuity. We also discuss the relationships between this new class and other classes of functions and some examples of applications are shown.

  20. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  1. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  2. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  3. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  4. Beta limits of a completely bootstrapped tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weening, R.H.; Bondeson, A.

    1992-03-01

    A beta limit is given for a completely bootstrapped tokamak. The beta limit is sensitive to the achievable Troyon factor and depends directly upon the strength of the tokamak bootstrap effect. (author) 16 refs

  5. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 22,2017 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  6. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of disability in ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow the development ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Improvement of hypertension, endothelial function and systemic inflammation following short-term supplementation with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) juice: a randomized crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Afshani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Keshvari, M; Taheri, M; Jahanian, E; Rafieian-Kopaei, M; Malekian, F; Sarrafzadegan, N

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a prevalence of about one billion people worldwide. It has been shown that adherence to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables helps in decreasing blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to investigate the effect of raw beet juice (RBJ) and cooked beet (CB) on BP of hypertensive subjects. In this randomized crossover study, 24 hypertensive subjects aged 25-68 years old were divided into two groups. One group took RBJ for 2 weeks and the other group took CB. After 2 weeks of treatment, both groups had a washout for 2 weeks then switched to the alternate treatment. Each participant consumed 250 ml day(-1) of RBJ or 250 g day(-1) of CB each for a period of 2 weeks. Body weight, BP, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), lipid profile and inflammatory parameters were measured at baseline and after each period. According to the results, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly lower and FMD was significantly higher after treatment with RBJ compared with CB (Pbeetroot were effective in improving BP, endothelial function and systemic inflammation, the raw beetroot juice had greater antihypertensive effects. Also more improvement was observed in endothelial function and systemic inflammation with RBJ compared with CB.

  9. Beta-Thioxoketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Duus, Fritz

    1980-01-01

    ,π*), 415 (OC=CC=S π,π*), and 520 nm (C=S n,π*), respectively. The β-thioxoketones are converted by sodium hydroxide into the corresponding anions. CNDO/B Calculations predict that the negative charge in the β-thioxoketonates is delocalized over the OCCCS system, suggesting simultaneously sickles or W...

  10. HAWQS Beta Flyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAWQS is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that provides users with interactive web interfaces and maps; pre-loaded input data; outputs that include tables, charts, graphs and raw output data; and a user guide.

  11. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  12. Comparison of dynamic of autonomic control indices in cardiovascular system under the treatment by ACE inhibitor (Enalapril and beta-blocker (Metoprolol in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Kiselev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to compare the influence of Enalapril and Metoprolol on synchronization of 0.1 Hz-regulation of heart and blood microcirculation. 42 patients aged 49±9 years old with hypertension I, II were included in the study. 0.1 Hz-oscillations in heart rate variability (HRV and blood microcirculation were registered during the passive orthostatic sign while breathing spontaneously. The duration of each test was 10 minutes. Synchronization was estimated as a phase difference between 0.1 Hz-rhythms in heart rate and in filling of blood microcirculation. Quantitative measures of synchronization were also estimated. In addition frequency values of HRV spectrum in LF- and HF-ranges were assessed. Enalapril and Metoprolol had comparable effect on blood pressure reduction. Treatment with both Enalapril and Metoprolol in patients with significant vegetative dysfunction resulted in repair of functional interaction between 0.1 Hz-regulation of heart and blood microcirculation. Enalapril was preferred in hypertensive patients with prevalence of disorders of vegetative regulation of blood microcirculation. Metoprolol influenced positively on 0,1 Hz-rhythm synchronization in patients with predominance of heart vegetative regulation dysfunction and in patients with sympathicotonia. In patients with hypertension and initially normal level of synchronization of 0.1 Hz-mechanisms treatment with Enalapril or Metoprolol caused functional dissociation. Differentiated approach to the choice of hypertensive therapy should consider individual peculiarities of system vegetative dysfunction. The level of synchronization of 0.1 Hz-rhythms in cardiovascular system should especially be evaluated initially and during the treatment

  13. Relativistic pn-QRPA to the double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Claudio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental de Itapeva; Krmpotic, F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas; Carlson, Brett Vern [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In nature there are about 50 nuclear systems where the single beta-decay is energetically forbidden, and double- beta decay turns out to be only possible mode of disintegration. It is the nuclear pairing force which causes such an 'anomaly', by making the mass of the odd-odd isobar, (N - 1;Z + 1), to be greater than the masses of its even-even neighbors, (N;Z) and (N - 2;Z +2). The modes by which the double-beta decay can take place are connected with the neutrino and antineutrino distinction. In case the lepton number is strictly conserved the neutrino is a Dirac fermion and the two-neutrino mode is the only possible mode of disintegration. On the other hand, if this conservation is violated, the neutrino is a Majorana particle and neutrinoless double-beta decay also can occur. Both two-neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay processes have attracted much attention, because a comparison between experiment and theory for the first, provides a measure of confidence one may have in the nuclear wave function employed for extracting the unknown parameters from neutrinoless lifetime measurements. The proton-neutron (pn) quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) has turned out be the most simple model for calculating the nuclear wave function involved in the double-beta decay transitions. In this work the transition matrix elements for 0{sup +} -> 0{sup +} double-beta decay are calculated for {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Te nuclei, using a relativistic pn-QRPA based on Hartree-Bogoliubov approximation to the single-particle motion. (author)

  14. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1997-01-01

    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposited...

  15. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1997-01-01

    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposite...

  16. High Beta Tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, G.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Ivers, T.H.; Sankar, M.K.V.; Eisner, E.; Gates, D.; Garofalo, A.; Kombargi, R.; Maurer, D.; Nadle, D.; Xiao, Q.

    1993-01-01

    During the past 6 months, experiments have been conducted with the HBT-EP tokamak in order to (1) test and evaluate diagnostic systems, (2) establish basic machine operation, (3) document MHD behavior as a function of global discharge parameters, (4) investigate conditions leading to passive stabilization of MHD instabilities, and (5) quantify the external saddle coil current required for DC mode locking. In addition, the development and installation of new hardware systems has occurred. A prototype saddle coil was installed and tested. A five-position (n,m) = (1,2) external helical saddle coil was attached for mode-locking experiments. And, fabrication of the 32-channel UV tomography and the multipass Thomson scattering diagnostics have begun in preparation for installation later this year

  17. On Fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets and Fuzzy {beta}-I-continuous functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Aynur [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: akeskin@selcuk.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, first of all we obtain some properties and characterizations of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets. After that, we also define the notion of {beta}-I-closed sets and obtain some properties. Lastly, we introduce the notions of fuzzy {beta}-I-continuity with the help of fuzzy {beta}-I-open sets to obtain decomposition of fuzzy continuity.

  18. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Drug- and disease-induced changes of human cardiac beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodde, O. E.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Borst, H. G.; Maier, W.; Michel, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor density and subtype distribution has been determined in different kinds of heart failure. A decrease in cardiac beta-adrenoceptor function appears to be a general phenomenon in all kinds of heart failure. However, cardiac beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors seem to be

  1. Sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase.

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, P; Huovinen, S; Jacoby, G A

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase, an enzyme that readily hydrolyzes both carbenicillin and oxacillin, has been determined. The deduced sequence of 266 amino acids contained 93 residues identical to those of OXA-2 beta-lactamase and the Ser-Thr-Phe-Lys tetrad also found in the active site of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

  2. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  3. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  4. Modulatory role of endogenous androgens on airway smooth muscle tone in isolated guinea-pig and bovine trachea; involvement of beta2-adrenoceptors, the polyamine system and external calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordallo, Javier; de Boto, María José García; Meana, Clara; Velasco, Lucía; Bordallo, Carmen; Suárez, Lorena; Cantabrana, Begoña; Sánchez, Manuel

    2008-12-28

    Androgens relax several smooth muscles, including the airways. They also contract ileum and myocardium via nongenomic mechanisms. To find out whether androgens modulate airway smooth muscles in different species and further assess their mechanism of action, regarding the role of beta-adrenoceptors, polyamines and extracellular Ca(2+), and the modulation of contraction, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone were used. A preliminary study was performed to evaluate the effect of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, a non-aromatisable derivate of testosterone, in isolated guinea-pig trachea and a more exhaustive characterisation was followed in bovine trachea, to also characterise the effect of testosterone and 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone. The androgens elicited a nongenomic epithelium-independent relaxation of the trachea which had been precontracted. In the bovine trachea, the order of potency was: testosterone>5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone=5 beta-dihydrotestosterone. This effect was inversely proportional to the magnitude of carbachol-raised tone and was independent of beta(2)-adrenoceptors, since the beta-blockers, propranolol and ICI-118,551, and beta(2)-adrenoceptor desensitisation did not modify 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone-elicited relaxation. 5 alpha-Dihydrotestosterone was unable to displace the radiolabel, [(3)H]dihydroalprenolol, from these receptors in the binding assay. Polyamine synthesis was not involved in this androgen effect, since an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine, was ineffective. The androgens were more effective relaxing bovine trachea precontracted by KCl (80 mM), suggesting a calcium entry blockade, as reported for several smooth muscles. This mechanism might be involved in the observed 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone facilitation of salbutamol-relaxation. Androgens facilitated carbachol-elicited contraction independently of polyamine synthesis, contrary to what has been reported in the ileum

  5. Control of lactose transport, beta-galactosidase activity, and glycolysis by CcpA in Streptococcus thermophilus: evidence for carbon catabolite repression by a non-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogaard, P T; Kleerebezem, M; Kuipers, O P; de Vos, W M

    2000-11-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus, unlike many other gram-positive bacteria, prefers lactose over glucose as the primary carbon and energy source. Moreover, lactose is not taken up by a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) but by the dedicated transporter LacS. In this paper we show that CcpA plays a crucial role in the fine-tuning of lactose transport, beta-galactosidase (LacZ) activity, and glycolysis to yield optimal glycolytic flux and growth rate. A catabolite-responsive element (cre) was identified in the promoter of the lacSZ operon, indicating a possible role for regulation by CcpA. Transcriptional analysis showed a sevenfold relief of repression in the absence of a functional CcpA when cells were grown on lactose. This CcpA-mediated repression of lacSZ transcription did not occur in wild-type cells during growth on galactose, taken up by the same LacS transport system. Lactose transport during fermentation was increased significantly in strains carrying a disrupted ccpA gene. Moreover, a ccpA disruption strain was found to release substantial amounts of glucose into the medium when grown on lactose. Transcriptional analysis of the ldh gene showed that expression was induced twofold during growth on lactose compared to glucose or galactose, in a CcpA-dependent manner. A reduced rate of glycolysis concomitant with an increased lactose transport rate could explain the observed expulsion of glucose in a ccpA disruption mutant. We propose that CcpA in S. thermophilus acts as a catabolic regulator during growth on the preferred non-PTS sugar lactose. In contrast to other bacteria, S. thermophilus possesses an overcapacity for lactose uptake that is repressed by CcpA to match the rate-limiting glycolytic flux.

  6. Contributions of IMP-10 metallo-beta-lactamase, the outer membrane barrier and the MexAB-OprM efflux system to high-level carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Hu, Zhuting; Chen, Gelin; Ito, Ribu; Hu, Zhi-Qing

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) is a serious threat to clinical medication of carbapenems. We evaluated the contributions of IMP-10 MBL, the outer membrane barrier and the MexAB-OprM efflux system to high-level carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. MBL-producing strains were screened by ceftazidime and mercaptoacetic acid double-disk synergy testing. Genes were determined by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing. IMP-10 MBL activity was assayed using nitrocefin as a substrate. The bla(IMP-10)+ strains showed high-level resistance to carbapenems, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 to >4,096 microg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were decreased by the inhibitors of MBLs, sodium mercaptoacetate (SMA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 16 and 64 fold, respectively. However, against the activity of the prepared IMP-10 MBL, the 50% inhibitory concentrations of SMA and EDTA were 5.5 and 211.6 microM, respectively, indicating that SMA was much more effective than EDTA in blocking the enzyme activity. The contradictory results may be explained by the additional effect of EDTA as an outer membrane permeabilizer because the susceptibility of the bla(IMP)- strains to carbapenems was increased 2 fold by EDTA, but not by SMA. In the presence of carbonyl cyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone, a proton motive force inhibitor, the susceptibility of the P. aeruginosa isolates to carbapenems was increased 1-4 fold. The acquired IMP-10 MBL is a crucial factor in the high-level resistance to carbapenems in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, while the outer membrane barrier and the MexAB-OprM efflux system play a basic and minor role, respectively. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Multielement analysis of swiss mice brains with Alzheimer's disease induced by beta amyloid oligomers using a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Danielle S.; Brigido, Matheus M.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Ferreira, Sergio S.; Souza, Amanda S.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive dementia that, in early stages, manifests as a profound inability to form new memories. The pathological features of AD include β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, loss of neurons and synapses, and activation of glia cells. Recently, several groups have raised the 'metal hypothesis' of AD. Metal ions, such as Cu and Zn, have been demonstrated to modulate amyloid aggregation along different pathways. Extensive research has been conducted on the effects of metals on Aβ aggregation and all of them have shown that both Cu and Zn accelerate the aggregation by shortening, or eliminating, the lag phase associated with the amyloid fibrillation process. The metal ions mentioned previously may have an important impact on the protein misfolding and the progression of the neurodegenerative process. The TXRF technique is very important, because can be used to identify and quantify trace elements present in the sample at very low concentrations (μg.g -1 ). In this work, three groups of females were studied: control, AD10 and AD100. The groups AD10 and AD100 were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of 10 pmol and 100 pmol of oligomers of β-amyloid peptide respectively to be induced AD. The TXRF measurements were performed using a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence system developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Instrumentation (LIN/UFRJ) that uses an X-ray tube with a molybdenum anode operating at 40 kV and 500 mA used for the excitation and a detector Si-PIN with energy resolution of 145 eV at 200 eV. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rubidium. Results showed differences in the elemental concentration in some brain regions between the AD groups and the control group. (author)

  8. Multielement analysis of swiss mice brains with Alzheimer's disease induced by beta amyloid oligomers using a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Danielle S.; Brigido, Matheus M.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Ferreira, Sergio S.; Souza, Amanda S.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br, E-mail: amandass@bioqmed.ufrj.br, E-mail: ferreira@bioqmed.ufrj.br, E-mail: amandass@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive dementia that, in early stages, manifests as a profound inability to form new memories. The pathological features of AD include β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, loss of neurons and synapses, and activation of glia cells. Recently, several groups have raised the 'metal hypothesis' of AD. Metal ions, such as Cu and Zn, have been demonstrated to modulate amyloid aggregation along different pathways. Extensive research has been conducted on the effects of metals on Aβ aggregation and all of them have shown that both Cu and Zn accelerate the aggregation by shortening, or eliminating, the lag phase associated with the amyloid fibrillation process. The metal ions mentioned previously may have an important impact on the protein misfolding and the progression of the neurodegenerative process. The TXRF technique is very important, because can be used to identify and quantify trace elements present in the sample at very low concentrations (μg.g{sup -1}). In this work, three groups of females were studied: control, AD10 and AD100. The groups AD10 and AD100 were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of 10 pmol and 100 pmol of oligomers of β-amyloid peptide respectively to be induced AD. The TXRF measurements were performed using a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence system developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Instrumentation (LIN/UFRJ) that uses an X-ray tube with a molybdenum anode operating at 40 kV and 500 mA used for the excitation and a detector Si-PIN with energy resolution of 145 eV at 200 eV. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rubidium. Results showed differences in the elemental concentration in some brain regions between the AD groups and the control group. (author)

  9. Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proia, R.L. (National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.

  10. DNA damage: beta zero versus beta plus thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Chandan S; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Dharmesh C; Kishor, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    β thalassemia results in an increase in the α to non-α chain ratio. Iron released from unpaired α chains in RBCs and that ensuing from regular transfusions is the major cause of cellular damage. The use of iron chelators to counter the iron overload is accompanied by side-effects. The extent of iron toxicity could vary from one patient to another and could help in determining the optimal chelator dose for each patient. To observe the pro-oxidant/antioxidant disturbance and the extent of DNA damage in β thalassemia patients with different β globin gene anomalies. The formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS ) was observed by incubation of cell suspensions with 2',7', dichlorofluorescin-diacetate (DCFH DA) and DNA damage was demonstrated by single cell gel electrophoresis. Heinz bodies were observed by staining blood smears. The study group comprised 50 regularly transfused beta thalassemia patients and 40 non thalassemic controls. While Heinz bodies and nucleated RBCs were seen in all the patients, oxidation of DCFH and DNA damage were seen to be associated with the β globin gene defect. DNA damage was found to be greater in β(0) homozygotes as compared to the β(+) homozygotes, and was maximum in patients presenting with the 619 base pair deletion. In the present study, iron toxicity, as indicated by DNA damage, has been seen to vary in the patients. Thus, monitoring of the dose of iron chelators, according to the type of mutation in the beta globin gene, may help improve the compliance of beta thalassemics to chelation therapy and prevent side-effects in patients with beta plus mutations.

  11. A Beta-Beta Achievability Bound with Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wei; Collins, Austin; Durisi, Giuseppe; Polyanskiy, Yury; Poor, H. Vincent

    2016-01-01

    A channel coding achievability bound expressed in terms of the ratio between two Neyman-Pearson $\\beta$ functions is proposed. This bound is the dual of a converse bound established earlier by Polyanskiy and Verd\\'{u} (2014). The new bound turns out to simplify considerably the analysis in situations where the channel output distribution is not a product distribution, for example due to a cost constraint or a structural constraint (such as orthogonality or constant composition) on the channel...

  12. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  13. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jeremy [Laboratory for Threat Material Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Hussein, Esam M.A. [Laboratory for Threat Material Detection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)], E-mail: hussein@unb.ca

    2007-10-15

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in {sup 40}K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  14. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Jeremy; Hussein, Esam M.A.

    2007-01-01

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in 40 K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials

  15. Development and applications of beta and near beta titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, A.; Ohyama, H.; Nishimura, T.; Abumiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this report the authors introduced application of beta and near beta titanium alloys also development and processing of these alloys at Kobe Steel LTD. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al is an alloy developed by Kobe Steel which has been applied for variety of sporting goods, also used as an erosion shield of steam turbine blades. Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al high strength wire for valve springs is under development. New beta alloys(Ti-V-Nb-Sn-Al) are under development which have lower flow stress at room temperature than Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, expected to improve productivity of cold forging. NNS forging and thermo mechanical treatment of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al were studied. Ti-10V-2Fe3Al steam turbine blades and structural parts for aircraft were developed. Fine grain cold strips of Ti 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al are produced by annealing and pickling process. These cold strips are used for parts of a fishing rod

  16. Response to delivery stress is not mediated by beta-endorphin (1-31).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbach, Heinz; Antrecht, Kerstin; Boedeker, Rolf-Hasso; Hempelmann, Gunter; Markart, Philipp; Matejec, Reginald; Muehling, Joerg; Welters, Ingeborg; Zygmunt, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the reaction of the melanotroph and corticotroph-type pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) response to vaginal delivery and caesarean section stress. Furthermore, the relationship between the release of pituitary POMC fragments, gonadotropins and sexual steroids were examined. Blood samples were obtained from 10 women in labour on arrival in the birth room (t(A)), at cervix dilatation of 5 cm (t(B)) and immediately after spontaneous delivery (t(C)) and in 16 patients undergoing elective caesarean section before induction of anaesthesia (t(B)) and immediately after delivery (t(C)). Samples were analysed for cortisol, ACTH, authentic beta-endorphin, beta-endorphin immunoreactive material (IRM), acetyl-N-beta-endorphin IRM (NAC), beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH) IRM, oestradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P), prolactin (PRL), FSH and LH. NAC representing the melanotroph-type pituitary POMC system did not increase during the course of caesarean section or spontaneous labour. In contrast, a significant increase of beta-endorphin IRM, beta-LPH IRM and ACTH were observed, representing an activation of the corticotroph-type POMC system. Highly significant correlations between POMC fragment concentrations during caesarean section and spontaneous labour were also observed. Sexual steroids (E(2) and P) decreased significantly. Except for beta-endorphin IRM and E(2) in course of spontaneous delivery no significant correlation was observed between POMC fragment and gonadotropins or sexual steroids. Caesarean section and spontaneous delivery activated the corticotroph but not the melanotroph POMC system.

  17. Specific Triazine Herbicides Induce Amyloid-beta(42) Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portelius, Erik; Durieu, Emilie; Bodin, Marion; Cam, Morgane; Pannee, Josef; Leuxe, Charlotte; Mabondzo, Aloise; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Herve; Lee, Jung Yeol; Chang, Young-Tae; Stuber, Kathrin; Koch, Philipp; Fontaine, Gaelle; Potier, Marie-Claude; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garbis, Spiros D.; Covaci, Adrian; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter; Karg, Frank; Flajolet, Marc; Omori, Chiori; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Meijer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) ecretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides. Increased production of A beta(42) over A beta(40) and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark.

  18. $\\beta$-NMR of copper isotopes in ionic liquids

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to test the feasibility of spin-polarization and $\\beta$-NMR studies on several short-lived copper isotopes, $^{58}$ Cu, $^{74}$Cu and $^{75}$Cu in crystals and liquids. The motivation is given by biological studies of Cu with $\\beta$-NMR in liquid samples, since Cu is present in a large number of enzymes involved in electron transfer and activation of oxygen. The technique is based on spin-polarization via optical pumping in the new VITO beamline. We will use the existing lasers, NMR magnet and NMR chambers and we will prepare a new optical pumping system. The studies will be devoted to tests of achieved $\\beta$-asymmetry in solid hosts, the behaviour of asymmetry when increasing vacuum, and finally NMR scans in ionic liquids. The achieved spin polarization will be also relevant for the plans to measure with high precision the magnetic moments of neutron-rich Cu isotopes.

  19. Alpha9beta1 integrin in melanoma cells can signal different adhesion states for migration and anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydolph, Magnus C; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Høye, Anette M

    2009-01-01

    Cell surface integrins are the primary receptors for cell migration on extracellular matrix, and exist in several activation states regulated in part by ectodomain conformation. The alpha9 integrin subunit, which pairs only with beta1, has specific roles in the immune system and may regulate cell...... migration. Melanoma cells express abundant alpha9beta1 integrin, and its role in cell migration was assessed. Ligands derived from Tenascin-C and ADAM12 supported alpha9beta1 integrin-mediated cell attachment and GTP-Rac dependent migration, but not focal adhesion formation. Manganese ions induced alpha9......beta1 integrin- and Rho kinase-dependent focal adhesion and stress fibre formation, suggesting that the activation status of alpha9beta1 integrin was altered. The effect of manganese ions in promoting focal adhesion formation was reproduced by beta1 integrin activating antibody. The alpha9beta1...

  20. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns); Elaboracion de soportes para fuentes emisoras beta (con vyns)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Torre O, J. De la; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Bribiesca S, L

    1990-04-15

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of {beta} particles ({approx} 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of apomictic monosomic addition line of Beta corolliflora and Beta vulgaris L. in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Bi, Ying-Dong; Yu, Li-Jie; Guo, De-Dong; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2009-11-01

    Apomixis refers to a process in which plants produce seed without fertilization through female syngamy that produces embryos genetically identical to the maternal parent. In sugar beet, interspecific hybrids between diploid Beta vulgaris and tetraploid Beta corolliflora were established and monosomic addition line M14 was selected because of the apomictic phenotype. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis gels we identified the proteins which were differently expressed between the M14 and B. vulgaris. A total of 27 protein spots which varied expressed between lines were isolated and successfully identified with MALDI-TOF MS. Among them five protein spots were found to be only presented in M14 and two protein spots only expressed in Beta. According to their functional annotations described in Swissprot database, these proteins were, respectively, involved in important biological pathways, such as cell division, functionally classified using the KEGG functional classification system. The result may be useful for us to better understand the genetic mechanism of apomixes.

  2. Amyloid Beta Peptide Folding in Reverse Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Gözde; Axelsen, Paul H

    2017-07-19

    Previously published experimental studies have suggested that when the 40-residue amyloid beta peptide is encapsulated in a reverse micelle, it folds into a structure that may nucleate amyloid fibril formation (Yeung, P. S.-W.; Axelsen, P. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 6061 ). The factors that induce the formation of this structure have now been identified in a multi-microsecond simulation of the same reverse micelle system that was studied experimentally. Key features of the polypeptide-micelle interaction include the anchoring of a hydrophobic residue cluster into gaps in the reverse micelle surface, the formation of a beta turn at the anchor point that brings N- and C-terminal segments of the polypeptide into proximity, high ionic strength that promotes intramolecular hydrogen bond formation, and deformation of the reverse micelle surface to facilitate interactions with the surface along the entire length of the polypeptide. Together, these features cause the simulation-derived vibrational spectrum to red shift in a manner that reproduces the red-shift previously reported experimentally. On the basis of these findings, a new mechanism is proposed whereby membranes nucleate fibril formation and facilitate the in-register alignment of polypeptide strands that is characteristic of amyloid fibrils.

  3. Cleavage of beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, H; Langhoff, S; Scheibner, M; Berger, R G

    2003-09-01

    More than 50 filamentous fungi and yeasts, known for de novo synthesis or biotransformation of mono-, sesqui-, tri-, or tetraterpenes, were screened for their ability to cleave beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds. Ten strains discolored a beta,beta-carotene-containing growth agar, indicating efficient degradation of beta,beta-carotene. Dihydroactinidiolide was formed as the sole conversion product of beta,beta-carotene in submerged cultures of Ganoderma applanatum, Hypomyces odoratus, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, and Trametes suaveolens. When mycelium-free culture supernatants from five species were applied for the conversions, nearly complete degradation of beta,beta-carotene was observed after 12 h. Carotenoid-derived volatile products were detected in the media of Ischnoderma benzoinum, Marasmius scorodonius, and Trametes versicolor. beta-Ionone proved to be the main metabolite in each case, whereas beta-cyclocitral, dihydroactinidiolide, and 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone were formed in minor quantities. Using a photometric bleaching test, the beta,beta-carotene cleaving enzyme activities of M. scorodonius were partially characterized.

  4. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  5. Some methods for calibration and beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Linda V. Ehlin

    1980-01-01

    The calibration of beta radiation was studied from the point of view of primary and secondary standardization, using extrapolation chambers and examining several effects. The properties of a commercial ionization chamber were investigated, and the possibility of its use in calibration and dosimetry of 90 Sr- 90 Y beta radiation was demonstrated . A secondary standard calibration facility was developed and the results obtained with this facility were compared with those obtained from a primary system directly or indirectly. Nearly energy independent response was obtained in.the range 60 keV to 0,8 MeV with this secondary standard. Two solid state techniques namely thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) were also used for beta dosimetry. Various characteristics like reproducibility, response with dose,energy dependence, etc. were studied for the materials: LiF, CaF 2 ,Li 2 B 4 O 7 , Be O, CaSO 4 and Al 2 O 3 . TL detectors of thickness 0,9 mm underestimate the dose 60 μm thick CaSO 4 :Tm embedded on a thin aluminium plate gave energy independent response behind skin layers of 7 mg/cm 2 . Mixed field of beta, X and gamma radiation was analysed using this detector. Quartz based Be O and graphite based alpha beta-Al 2 O 3 were found to be good beta radiation detectors when the TSEE technique is used. Energy independent CaSO 4 :Tm TL dosimeters were used in international comparison for dose measurements and the results obtained were in agreement with the actual given doses within 10%. The TL detectors were also used for dose rate measurements from glazed painted tiles used in construction industry and a 85 Kr source used in textile and metal industries. Results obtained in the later case were Q compared with those using the secondary standard facility. (author)

  6. Amoxicillin resistance with beta-lactamase production in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y-S; Wu, D-C; Chang, C-Y; Kuo, C-H; Yang, Y-C; Jan, C-M; Su, Y-C; Kuo, F-C; Chang, L-L

    2009-09-01

    Amoxicillin-resistant Helicobacter pylori with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) >or= 256 mg L(-1) was isolated from a gastritis patient. The aims were to investigate the mechanism of high-level amoxicillin resistance in H. pylori. The beta-lactamase production was determined by means of nitrocefin sticks and the presence of gene encoding the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance enzyme TEM beta-lactamase was analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing and dot-blot hybridization. Sequencing analysis of pbp1A gene was performed and amoxicillin-susceptible isolate was transformed with pbp1A PCR products from the resistant isolate. The expression of hefC efflux system was analysed using real-time quantitative PCR. Activity of beta-lactamase was detected. Sequence analysis showed that the PCR product derived from H. pylori 3778 was identical to the bla(TEM-1) (GenBank accession EU726527). Dot-blot hybridization confirmed the presence of beta-lactamase gene bla(TEM-1.) By transformation of PCR product of mutated pbp1A gene from H. pylori 3778 into amoxicillin-susceptible strain showed that substitutions in Thr(556)-->Ser, Lys(648)-->Gln, Arg(649)-->Lys and Arg(656)-->Pro contribute to low-level amoxicillin resistance. The MIC of amoxicillin for the transformants was 0.75 mg L(-1). Over-expression of hefC was not found. High-level amoxicillin resistance is associated with beta-lactamase production in H. pylori. Low-level amoxicillin resistance is linked to a point mutation on pbp1A. Because H. pylori can exchange DNA through natural transformation, spreading of bla(TEM-1) amoxicillin resistance gene among H. pylori is a potential threat when treating H. pylori infection.

  7. Foodborne cereulide causes beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Vangoitsenhoven

    Full Text Available To study the effects of cereulide, a food toxin often found at low concentrations in take-away meals, on beta-cell survival and function.Cell death was quantified by Hoechst/Propidium Iodide in mouse (MIN6 and rat (INS-1E beta-cell lines, whole mouse islets and control cell lines (HepG2 and COS-1. Beta-cell function was studied by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. Mechanisms of toxicity were evaluated in MIN6 cells by mRNA profiling, electron microscopy and mitochondrial function tests.24 h exposure to 5 ng/ml cereulide rendered almost all MIN6, INS-1E and pancreatic islets apoptotic, whereas cell death did not increase in the control cell lines. In MIN6 cells and murine islets, GSIS capacity was lost following 24 h exposure to 0.5 ng/ml cereulide (P<0.05. Cereulide exposure induced markers of mitochondrial stress including Puma (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis, P<0.05 and general pro-apoptotic signals as Chop (CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein. Mitochondria appeared swollen upon transmission electron microscopy, basal respiration rate was reduced by 52% (P<0.05 and reactive oxygen species increased by more than twofold (P<0.05 following 24 h exposure to 0.25 and 0.50 ng/ml cereulide, respectively.Cereulide causes apoptotic beta-cell death at low concentrations and impairs beta-cell function at even lower concentrations, with mitochondrial dysfunction underlying these defects. Thus, exposure to cereulide even at concentrations too low to cause systemic effects appears deleterious to the beta-cell.

  8. Effect of destruction of central noradrenergic and serotonergic nerve terminals by systemic neurotoxins on the long-term effects of antidepressants on. beta. -adrenoceptors and 5-HT/sub 2/ binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, H.; Ross, S.B.; Saellemark, M. (Astra Pharmaceuticals AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden))

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of intact noradrenergic and serotonergic nerve terminals for the decrease in the number of ..beta..-adrenoceptors and 5-HT/sub 2/ binding sites in the cerebral cortex produced by long-term treatment of rats with antidepressant drugs was examined. Noradrenergic nerve terminals were destroyed with the selective noradrenaline neurotoxin DSP4, and serotonergic nerve terminals were destroyed with p-chloroamphetamine (PCA). It was found that lesioning of the noradrenergic nerve terminals abolished the decrease in ..beta..-adrenoceptors produced by desipramine, mianserin and zimeldine and partially antagonized that of the ..beta..-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol. PCA pretreatment did not antagonize the long-term effects on the ..beta..-adrenoceptor produced by these compounds. Lesioning of serotonergic nerve terminals affected the down-regulation of 5-HT/sub 2/ binding sites produced by long-term treatment with mianserin, desipramine and amiflamine. DSP4 pretreatment partially abolished the down-regulation of 5-HT/sub 2/ binding sites produced by long-term treatment with desipramine, while the effects of mianserin and amiflamine were inaffected by pretreatment with DSP4.

  9. Characterization of a beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase and a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase/beta-glucosidase from Cellulomonas fimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christoph; Vocadlo, David J; Mah, Melanie; Rupitz, Karen; Stoll, Dominik; Warren, R A J; Withers, Stephen G

    2006-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is shown to produce at least two intracellular beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases, a family 20 beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex20), and a novel family 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase/beta-glucosidase (Nag3), through screening of a genomic expression library, cloning of genes and analysis of their sequences. Nag3 exhibits broad substrate specificity for substituents at the C2 position of the glycone: kcat/Km values at 25 degrees C were 0.066 s(-1) x mM(-1) and 0.076 s(-1) x mM(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide and 4'-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside, respectively. The first glycosidase with this broad specificity to be described, Nag3, suggests an interesting evolutionary link between beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases and beta-glucosidases of family 3. Reaction by a double-displacement mechanism was confirmed for Nag3 through the identification of a glycosyl-enzyme species trapped with the slow substrate 2',4'-dinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Hex20 requires the acetamido group at C2 of the substrate, being unable to cleave beta-glucosides, since its mechanism involves an oxazolinium ion intermediate. However, it is broad in its specificity for the D-glucosyl/D-galactosyl configuration of the glycone: Km and kcat values were 53 microM and 482.3 s(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide and 66 microM and 129.1 s(-1) for 4'-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide.

  10. Beta-galactosidase deficiency: an approach to chaperone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new molecular therapeutic approach to lysosomal diseases with severe neurological manifestations. Some low-molecular-weight compounds, acting as competitive inhibitors of a lysosomal enzyme in vitro, were found to stabilize and restore catalytic activities of the enzyme molecule as a molecular chaperone. We started this trial first in Fabry disease (generalized vasculopathy) using galactose and 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, and then in beta-galactosidase deficiency disorders (beta-galactosidosis) with generalized neurosomatic and/or systemic skeletal manifestations (GM(1)-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease), using a newly developed chemical compound N-octyl-4-epi-beta-valienamine (NOEV). Administration of this chaperone compound resulted in elevation of intracellular enzyme activity in cultured fibroblasts from patients and genetically engineered model mice. In addition, substrate storage was improved after NOEV had been transported into the brain tissue via the blood-brain barrier. We hope this new approach (chemical chaperone therapy) will be useful for certain patients with beta-galactosidosis and potentially other lysosomal storage diseases with central nervous system involvement.

  11. Lack of beta1 integrins in enteric neural crest cells leads to a Hirschsprung-like phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breau, Marie A; Pietri, Thomas; Eder, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    The enteric nervous system arises mainly from vagal and sacral neural crest cells that colonise the gut between 9.5 and 14 days of development in mice. Using the Cre-LoxP system, we removed beta1 integrins in the neural crest cells when they emerge from the neural tube. beta1-null enteric neural...

  12. Beta Stability Over Bull and Bear Market on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębski Wiesław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beta parameter is one of the commonly used measures of the investment risk of individual stock or portfolio. It plays a crucial role in modern portfolio theory particularly in management of financial investment portfolios. In the field of beta parameter, numerous studies have been conducted, especially beta properties stability in the context of the stock market cycle phases, measuring frequency of rate of return, and the length of a sample period. There are much fewer studies concerned beta parameter in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe which have undergone systemic transformation at the end of the previous century. From a scientific point of view, it is interesting to know how the beta parameter behaves in these countries.

  13. Rhabdomyolysis following interferon-beta treatment in a patient with multiple sclerosis - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbjerg, Sara Maria; Tsakiri, Anna; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system for which there is currently no cure. Interferon-beta-1-alpha is worldwide one of the most widely used treatments in multiple sclerosis. To our knowledge there is one previous reported case of rhabdomyolysis associated with Interferon-beta treatment. We describe a 30 year old man with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who developed rhabdomyolysis and increased creatine kinase following Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy. After the medication was discontinued, the patient rapidly improved. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of rhabdomyolysis occurring during Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy. In cases where patients complain of severe myalgia, and in particular if weakness is reported, creatine kinase activity should be measured to prevent irreversible rhabdomyolysis during Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao

    2017-04-15

    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×10 3 , 6.624×10 3 and 2.244×10 3 (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adjusting the IP $\\beta$ Functions in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, W; Pilat, F; Ptitsyn, V; Van Zeijts, J

    2004-01-01

    The beta functions at the IP can be adjusted without perturbation of other optics functions via several approaches. In this paper we describe a scheme based on a vector knob, which assigns fixed values to the different tuning quadrupoles and scales them by a common multiplier. The values for the knob vector were calculated for a lattice without any errors using MADX. Previous studies for the LHC [1] have shown that this approach can meet the design goals. A specific feature of the RHIC lattice is the nested power supply system. To cope with the resulting problems a detailed response matrix analysis has been carried out and different sets of knobs were calculated and compared. The knobs were tested at RHIC during the 2004 run and preliminary results are discussed. Simultaneously a new approach to measure the beam sizes of both colliding beams at the IP, based on the tunability provided by the knobs, was developed and tested.

  16. Beta-Catenin: A Potential Survival Marker of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Mercy S; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2005-01-01

    .... It has been established that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates the self renewal of normal stem cells in the hematopoietic system, the epidermis, as well as many other organs, but the importance...

  17. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  18. beta decay of (78)Sr

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Cerdán, Ana Belén; Rubio, Berta; Gelletly, W.; Algora, Alejandro; Agramunt, Jorge; Burkard, K.; Huller W.; Nácher, Enrique; Sarriguren, Pedro; Caballero Ontanaya, Luis; Molina Palacios, Francisco Gabriel; Fraile, Luis M.; Reillo, E.; García Borge, María José; Dessagne, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The gamma rays and conversion electrons emitted in the beta decay of (78)Sr to levels in (78)Rb have been studied using Ge detectors and a mini-orange spectrometer. A reliable level scheme based on the results of these experiments has been established. The properties of the levels in (78)Rb have been compared with calculations based on deformed Hartree-Fock with Skyrme interactions and pairing correlations in the BCS approximation. This has allowed an interpretation of the nature of the obser...

  19. [Heterocygous beta thalassaemia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Aparicio, F

    1978-01-01

    Two girls with an heterocigotic beta-thalassemy are presented in this study. Case 1 has an hypochromic and microtic anaemia with an enormous splenomegaly, increased osmotic resistence of red blood cells in salted solution and increase of A2 hemoglobin. This situation is associated with an increase of the glucolitic intraerythrocitic enzimes. Case 2 showed increase of A2 hemoglobine, but this anomaly was associated with decrease of intraerythrocitic enzimatic rate. First clinical signs of erythrocitic disturbances was an acute hemolytic crisis developed by the supply of the sulphometoxipiridacine. The erythroquinetic study showed a decrease of the average life of the red blood cells in both patients.

  20. Enhancement of solubility of albendazole by complexation with {beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriwaki, C.; Costa, G.L.; Ferracini, C.N.; Matioli, G. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: gmatioli@uem.br; Moraes, F.F. de; Zanin, G.M. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pineda, E.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-04-15

    A high dosage of albendazole (ABZ) is required for treating systemic helminth infections because of its low solubility. Aiming at increasing ABZ solubility, complexation with beta-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) using aqueous and acetic acid solutions as ABZ solubiliser was studied. In aqueous {beta}-CD, complexation increased solubility 53.4 times, giving a complex equilibrium constant of 1266 L mol{sup -1} with a maximum ABZ concentration of 276 {mu}mol L{sup -1} for 16.3 mmol L{sup -1} {beta}-CD. For complexation in 1.05 mol L{sup -1} acetic acid, UV absorbance spectra and {sup 1}H-NMR analysis confirmed complex formation. The UV absorbance of ABZ/acid acetic/{beta}-CD solutions was modeled by the formation of two complexes with molar ratios 1:1 and 1:2 ABZ:{beta}-CD. When neutralized with NaOH these solutions did not form precipitates only for the ABZ:{beta}-CD molar ratios of 1:8 and 1:10, showing that ABZ solubility could be increased 306 times. Results show that high {beta}-CD molar ratios hold ABZ in solution by complexation enhanced by the acetate anion. (author)

  1. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved...... in beta cell differentiation and proliferation may lead to new ways of forming beta cells for treatment of diabetes in man....

  2. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody resp...... against the infection. On the other hand, immune complexes between the beta-lactamase and corresponding antibodies could play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary injury in CF by mediating hyperimmune reactions....

  3. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  4. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit

  5. The transforming growth factor-betas: multifaceted regulators of the development and maintenance of skeletal muscles, motoneurons and Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Ian S; Koishi, Kyoko

    2002-01-01

    This review discusses the roles of the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) as part of a complex network that regulates the development and maintenance of the neuromuscular system. The actions of the TGF-betas often vary depending on which other growth factors are present, making it difficult to extrapolate results from in vitro experiments to the in vivo situation. A new approach has therefore been needed to understand the physiological functions of the TGF-betas. The behaviours (proliferation, fusion, apoptosis) of many of the cells in the neuromuscular system have a complex pattern which varies in space and time. The actions of growth factors in this system can thus be deduced based on how well their pattern of expression correlates with known cellular behaviours. Hypotheses based on this molecular anatomical evidence can then be further tested with genetically modified mice. From this type of evidence, we suggest that: (1) TGF-beta1 is an autocrine regulator of Schwann cells; (2) maternally-derived TGF-beta1 helps to suppress self and maternal immune attack; (3) TGF-beta2 regulates when and where myoblasts fuse to myotubes; (4) motoneuron survival is regulated by multiple sources of TGF-betas, with TGF-beta2 being the more important isoform. The concept of TGF-beta1 as a regulator of secondary myotube formation is not supported by either the location of the TGF-beta1 in developing muscles or by the phenotype of TGF-beta1-/- mice. The review concludes with a discussion of whether all of these of postulated functions can occur independently of each other, within the confines of the neuromuscular system.

  6. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  7. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...... that beta-decay directly to the continuum should be considered as a possible contributing mechanism in many decays close to the driplines. The signatures in R-matrix fits for such decays directly to continuum states are discussed and illustrated through an analysis of the beta-decay of $^8$B into $2...

  8. MOPITT Beta Level 1 Radiances V107

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Beta Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  9. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  11. beta-Lactamases and beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, G A; Sutton, L

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains determining 17 different plasmid-determined beta-lactamases were tested for resistance to new broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. Several beta-lactamases demonstrated enhanced resistance to cefamandole but only low-level resistance to other agents. High production of cloned E. coli chromosomal beta-lactamase, however, provided resistance to cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam but not to BMY-28142 or imipenem.

  12. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  13. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...

  14. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    component nor heparan sulfate did significantly alter the A beta-induced CA. The results indicate that not only fibrillar A beta but also oligomers of, in particular, beta 2M from patients with dialysis-associated amyloidosis are capable of inducing CA at supra-physiological concentrations....

  15. Beta globin messenger RNA content of bone marrow erythroblasts in heterozygous beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, E J; Pritchard, J; Hillman, D; Glass, J; Forget, B G

    1984-01-01

    RNA from bone marrow erythroblasts and peripheral blood reticulocytes of patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia was analyzed for relative content of alpha and beta globin messenger RNA by molecular hybrization. Erythroblasts from nonthalassemic patients exhibited approximately the same alpha and beta globin mRNA content (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.8-1.0) as circulating reticulocytes (beta/alpha mRNA ratio = 0.74-1.2). The mRNA ratios corresponded well to levels of globin synthesis observed in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Erythroblasts from four patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia also exhibited approximately the same beta/alpha mRNA ratios in bone marrow erythroblasts (0.34-0.59) as in reticulocytes (0.34-0.4): beta globin mRNA was clearly deficient in bone marrow erythroblasts. Globin biosynthesis by erythroblasts of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes was balanced despite the mRNA deficiency (beta/alpha = 0.9-1.0), suggesting that post-translational phenoma (eg, proteolysis of free globin chains), rather than instability of beta mRNA, accounts for the balanced globin chain synthesis frequently observed in bone marrow erythroblasts of patients with beta-thalassemia trait.

  16. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  17. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  18. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors mirror precisely beta 2-adrenoceptor, but poorly beta 1-adrenoceptor changes in the human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Ikezono, K.; Kretsch, R.; Brodde, O. E.

    1986-01-01

    To study the relationship of changes in human lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptors to changes potentially occurring in solid tissues we studied 16 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting and determined the density of lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors [by (-)125I-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP)

  19. Deliverable D3 - Low- and Medium-beta linac

    CERN Document Server

    A. Facco, A. Balabin, R. Paparella, D. Zenere, INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova, Italy; D. Berkovits, J. Rodnizki, SOREQ, Yavne, Israel; J. L. Biarrotte, S. Bousson, A. Ponton, G. Olry, IPN Orsay, France; R. Duperrier, D. Uriot, CEA/Saclay, France; V. Zvyagintsev, TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada.

    The present document describes the Low- and Medium-beta section of the EURISOL DS Driver Accelerator. This section consists of a superconducting linac, based on Half-Wave (HWR) and SPOKE type resonators, preceded by a short, normal-conducting MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) section that performs input beam matching. The scope of this linac is to bring the beams of H-, D+ and 3He++ produced by the Ion Injector (Deliverable D-5) to the energy and beam parameters required for injection in the superconducting High-beta linac (Deliverable D4-High beta linac). The present beam dynamics design reaches the goal of accelerating the required high current beams to the design energy (about 100 MeV/A, depending on the ion species), with minimum emittance growth and with low losses, using realistic and cost-effective, although innovative, technological solutions. The Low- and Medium-beta linac layout is described, together with the fundamental parameters and characteristics of its components and the system performanc...

  20. Deliverable D3 - Low- and Medium-beta linac

    CERN Document Server

    A. Facco, A. Balabin, R. Paparella, D. Zenere, INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova, Italy; D. Berkovits, J. Rodnizki, SOREQ, Yavne, Israel; J. L. Biarrotte, S. Bousson, A. Ponton, G. Olry, IPN Orsay, France; R. Duperrier, D. Uriot, CEA/Saclay, France; V. Zvyagintsev, TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada.

    The present document describes the Low- and Medium-beta section of the EURISOL DS Driver Accelerator. This section consists of a superconducting linac, based on Half-Wave (HWR) and SPOKE type resonators, preceded by a short, normal-conducting MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) section that performs input beam matching. The scope of this linac is to bring the beams of H-, D+ and 3He++ produced by the Ion Injector (Deliverable D-5) to the energy and beam parameters required for injection in the superconducting High-beta linac (Deliverable D4-High beta linac). The present beam dynamics design reaches the goal of accelerating the required high current beams to the design energy (about 100 MeV/A, depending on the ion species), with minimum emittance growth and with low losses, using realistic and cost-effective, although innovative, technological solutions. The Low- and Medium-beta linac layout is described, together with the fundamental parameters and characteristics of its components and the system performance.

  1. Modeling the mechanism of CLN025 beta-hairpin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Keri A.; Husic, Brooke E.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2017-09-01

    Beta-hairpins are substructures found in proteins that can lend insight into more complex systems. Furthermore, the folding of beta-hairpins is a valuable test case for benchmarking experimental and theoretical methods. Here, we simulate the folding of CLN025, a miniprotein with a beta-hairpin structure, at its experimental melting temperature using a range of state-of-the-art protein force fields. We construct Markov state models in order to examine the thermodynamics, kinetics, mechanism, and rate-determining step of folding. Mechanistically, we find the folding process is rate-limited by the formation of the turn region hydrogen bonds, which occurs following the downhill hydrophobic collapse of the extended denatured protein. These results are presented in the context of established and contradictory theories of the beta-hairpin folding process. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the AMBER-FB15 force field, at this temperature, best describes the characteristics of the full experimental CLN025 conformational ensemble, while the AMBER ff99SB-ILDN and CHARMM22* force fields display a tendency to overstabilize the native state.

  2. Directional and balancing selection in human beta-defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armour John AL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primates, infection is an important force driving gene evolution, and this is reflected in the importance of infectious disease in human morbidity today. The beta-defensins are key components of the innate immune system, with antimicrobial and cell signalling roles, but also reproductive functions. Here we examine evolution of beta-defensins in catarrhine primates and variation within different human populations. Results We show that five beta-defensin genes that do not show copy number variation in humans show evidence of positive selection in catarrhine primates, and identify specific codons that have been under selective pressure. Direct haplotyping of DEFB127 in humans suggests long-term balancing selection: there are two highly diverged haplotype clades carrying different variants of a codon that, in primates, is positively selected. For DEFB132, we show that extensive diversity, including a four-state amino acid polymorphism (valine, isoleucine, alanine and threonine at position 93, is present in hunter-gatherer populations, both African and non-African, but not found in samples from agricultural populations. Conclusion Some, but not all, beta-defensin genes show positive selection in catarrhine primates. There is suggestive evidence of different selective pressures on these genes in humans, but the nature of the selective pressure remains unclear and is likely to differ between populations.

  3. Directional and balancing selection in human beta-defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollox, Edward J; Armour, John A L

    2008-04-16

    In primates, infection is an important force driving gene evolution, and this is reflected in the importance of infectious disease in human morbidity today. The beta-defensins are key components of the innate immune system, with antimicrobial and cell signalling roles, but also reproductive functions. Here we examine evolution of beta-defensins in catarrhine primates and variation within different human populations. We show that five beta-defensin genes that do not show copy number variation in humans show evidence of positive selection in catarrhine primates, and identify specific codons that have been under selective pressure. Direct haplotyping of DEFB127 in humans suggests long-term balancing selection: there are two highly diverged haplotype clades carrying different variants of a codon that, in primates, is positively selected. For DEFB132, we show that extensive diversity, including a four-state amino acid polymorphism (valine, isoleucine, alanine and threonine at position 93), is present in hunter-gatherer populations, both African and non-African, but not found in samples from agricultural populations. Some, but not all, beta-defensin genes show positive selection in catarrhine primates. There is suggestive evidence of different selective pressures on these genes in humans, but the nature of the selective pressure remains unclear and is likely to differ between populations.

  4. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...... lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs....

  5. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  6. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  7. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani

    2008-01-01

    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  8. Interaction between serotonin 5-HT1A receptors and beta-endorphins modulates antidepressant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navinés, Ricard; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Martínez de Osaba, María J; Gastó, Cristòbal

    2008-12-12

    Interactions between serotonergic and the endogenous opioid systems have been suggested to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of depression and in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. Activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors has been shown to increase plasma beta-endorphin (beta-END) levels in animal studies and in healthy humans. To assess interaction abnormalities between 5-HT1A receptors and the endogenous opioid system in patients with major depression and the possible modulating effect of citalopram. The beta-END response to the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, buspirone (30 mg), was measured in 30 patients with major depression and in 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls before and after an 8-week treatment with citalopram. Pre-treatment score of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) was >or=17. Antidepressant response was defined by a 50% decrease in the HRSD. Pre- and post-treatment maximum peak response (Deltamax) and the area under the curve (AUC) of beta-END response were compared. Three time points were measured (60, 90 and 120 min). We also examined the correlations between the beta-END response and the antidepressant response. Buspirone plasma levels were not measured. At baseline, beta-END response was similar in patients and controls. After 8 weeks of citalopram treatment depressed patients showed a significant decrease in the beta-END response (Deltamax: pmechanism of action and response to antidepressant drugs.

  9. Biological impact of the TSH-beta splice variant in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Klein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, a glycoprotein hormone composed of alpha and beta chains, is produced by thryrotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. Within the conventional endocrine loop, pituitary-derived TSH binds to receptors in the thyroid, resulting in the release of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. T4 and T3 in turn regulate nearly every aspect of mammalian physiology, including basal metabolism, growth and development, and mood and cognition. Although TSH-beta has been known for years to be produced by cells of the immune system, the significance of that has remained largely unclear. Recently, a splice variant of TSH-beta (TSH-beta-v, which consists of a truncated but biologically functional portion of the native form of TSH-beta, was shown to be produced by bone marrow cells and peripheral blood leukocytes, particularly cells of the myeloid/monocyte lineage. In contrast, full-length native TSH-beta is minimally produced by cells of the immune system. The present article will describe the discovery of the TSH-beta-v and will discuss its potential role in immunity and autoimmunity, inflammation, and bone remodeling.

  10. Protection by anti-beta-glucan antibodies is associated with restricted beta-1,3 glucan binding specificity and inhibition of fungal growth and adherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Torosantucci

    Full Text Available Anti-beta-glucan antibodies elicited by a laminarin-conjugate vaccine confer cross-protection to mice challenged with major fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. To gain insights into protective beta-glucan epitope(s and protection mechanisms, we studied two anti-beta-glucan monoclonal antibodies (mAb with identical complementarity-determining regions but different isotypes (mAb 2G8, IgG2b and mAb 1E12, IgM. C. albicans, the most relevant fungal pathogen for humans, was used as a model.Both mAbs bound to fungal cell surface and to the beta1,3-beta1,6 glucan of the fungal cell wall skeleton, as shown by immunofluorescence, electron-microscopy and ELISA. They were also equally unable to opsonize fungal cells in a J774 macrophage phagocytosis and killing assay. However, only the IgG2b conferred substantial protection against mucosal and systemic candidiasis in passive vaccination experiments in rodents. Competition ELISA and microarray analyses using sequence-defined glucan oligosaccharides showed that the protective IgG2b selectively bound to beta1,3-linked (laminarin-like glucose sequences whereas the non-protective IgM bound to beta1,6- and beta1,4-linked glucose sequences in addition to beta1,3-linked ones. Only the protective IgG2b recognized heterogeneous, polydisperse high molecular weight cell wall and secretory components of the fungus, two of which were identified as the GPI-anchored cell wall proteins Als3 and Hyr1. In addition, only the IgG2b inhibited in vitro two critical virulence attributes of the fungus, hyphal growth and adherence to human epithelial cells.Our study demonstrates that the isotype of anti-beta-glucan antibodies may affect details of the beta-glucan epitopes recognized, and this may be associated with a differing ability to inhibit virulence attributes of the fungus and confer protection in vivo. Our data also suggest that the anti-virulence properties of the Ig

  11. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  12. Nebivolol : third-generation beta-blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Rudolf A.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    Nebivolol is a third generation beta-blocker. It is highly selective for the beta 1-adrenoceptor, and has additional nitric oxide-mediated vasodilating and antioxidant properties, along with a favourable metabolic profile. Nebivolol is well tolerated by patients with hypertension and heart failure.

  13. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo...

  14. Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1991-01-01

    , and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta...

  16. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors, TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 production and autocrine growth control in osteosarcoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Jennings, C. L.; Gebhardt, M. C.; Springfield, D. S.; Mankin, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a polypeptide with multiple physiological functions. Isoforms of this growth factor have important roles in control of the cell cycle, in regulation of cell-cell interactions and in growth and development. Malignant transformation has been shown to be

  17. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations of...

  18. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order matching is a special case of unification of simply-typed lambda-terms: in a matching equation, one of the two sides contains no unification variables. Loader has recently shown that higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is undecidable, but decidability of higher-order matching...... up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  19. Purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase and beta-galactosidase from ram testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J C; Roston, C P; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. The presence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of beta-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the beta-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the beta-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated.

  20. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  1. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2011-01-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  2. Realized Beta GARCH: A Multivariate GARCH Model with Realized Measures of Volatility and CoVolatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri

    the model to market returns in conjunction with an individual asset yields a model for the conditional regression coefficient, known as the beta. We apply the model to a set of highly liquid stocks and find that conditional betas are much more variable than usually observed with rolling-window OLS...... regressions with dailty data. In the empirical part of the paper we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation of the conditional beta series. The model links the conditional and realized second moment measures in a self-contained system of equations, making it amenable to extensions and easy...

  3. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  4. Beta-blocker therapy and cardiac events among patients with newly diagnosed coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Shilane, David; Go, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of beta-blockers for preventing cardiac events has been questioned for patients who have coronary heart disease (CHD) without a prior myocardial infarction (MI). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the association of beta-blockers with outcomes among...... patients with new-onset CHD. METHODS: We studied consecutive patients discharged after the first CHD event (acute coronary syndrome or coronary revascularization) between 2000 and 2008 in an integrated healthcare delivery system who did not use beta-blockers in the year before entry. We used time...

  5. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    in colorectal carcinomas. The degree of staining of breast cancer cells for thymosin beta-4 correlated neither to histological grade nor to endothelial cell staining. However, there was a tendency toward correlation (P = 0.07) between staining of endothelial cells and histological grade. Treatment of cultured......Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) with 1-4 microg thymosin beta-4/mL significantly increased cell numbers, as determined by MTT-assays. These data reveal an unexpected cellular heterogeneity of thymosin beta-4 expression in breast and colonic carcinomas and suggest that local release of this polypeptide...

  6. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... response was studied with serum samples collected in 1992 from 56 CF patients in a cross-sectional study and with serum samples from 18 CF patients in a longitudinal study. Anti-beta-lactamase immunoglobulin G antibodies were present in all of the serum samples from the patients with chronic...... bronchopulmonary P. aeruginosa infection (CF + P) but in none of the CF patients with no or intermittent P. aeruginosa infection. Anti-beta-lactamase antibodies were present in serum from CF + P patients after six antipseudomonal courses (median) and correlated with infection with a beta-lactam-resistant strain...

  7. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Dopamine beta (β)-hydroxylase deficiency is a condition that ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type is a condition that affects the ...

  10. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended

  11. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  12. Biotinylated human. beta. -endorphins as probes for the opioid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhaus, G.; Gibson, B.W.; Sadee, W.

    1988-01-05

    The reaction of human ..beta..-endorphin and biotinyl N-hydroxysuccinimide with or without spacer arm, afforded a series of products that were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry of the biotinylated products and their tryptic digests produced abundant protonated molecular ions (MH/sup +/), which specified the number and location of biotinylation. Between 1 and 4 biotinyl residues were incorporated per human ..beta..-endorphin molecule, at Lys-9, -19, -24, -28, and -29, but not at the amino-terminal Try-1. Three HPLC fractions were isolated for receptor binding studies monobiotinylation of Lys-9, Lys-19, and a mixture of Lys-24, Lys-28, and Lys-29 derivatives. IC/sub 50/ values for binding to ..mu.. and delta opioid receptor sites were 3-8 times higher for monobiotinylated derivatives than for the parent human ..beta..-endorphin. Association with avidin decreased opioid receptor affinities for the C/sub 6/ spacer derivative biotinylated at position Lys-9, which is close to the (1-5) enkephalin receptor region. In contrast, avidin did not affect or even increased apparent affinities to ..mu.. and delta sites for derivatives biotinylated at the ..cap alpha..-helical part of the molecule (Lys-19, -24, -28, and -29). Biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphins also bound to low affinity nonopioid binding sites on NG-108-15 cells; however, affinities to these sites were considerably reduced when derivatives were bound to avidin. The ability of biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphin to cross-link the ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors to avidin allows application of the biotin-avidin system as a molecular probe of the opioid receptor.

  13. BENIGN EPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA ASSOCIATED WITH BETA-HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Molochkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study an association between acrochordon and human papilloma virus (HPV using quantitative analysis of viral desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; to detect different phenotypes of beta-HPV. Materials and methods: We examined 52  patients (22 immuno-suppressed patients and 30 immunocompetent subjects in the Dermatovenereology and Dermato-Oncology Department and Chronic Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Department of the Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI. Control group included 49 healthy donors. Burr biopsy samples (micro-samples of acrochordon and intact skin (apper arm were collected in sterile conditions. After sample procession and DNA isolation using DNK-sorb-C kit (Central Research Institute for Epidemiology – CRIE, polymerase chain reaction for HPV was performed with real-time fluorescent hybridization detection. For DNA amplification and detection we used RotorGene 3000 analyzer (Corbett Research, Australia. In the beta-HPV assay, recombinant plasmids were used as positive controls and control human beta-globin gene fragments (CRIE. 4 oligo-nucleotide systems (group-specific primers and probes were used for the detection of beta-HPV DNA. Results: Preliminary data indicated that acrochordons of open and covered skin regions were common in renal transplant recipients. Beta-HPV DNA was more frequent in acrochordons and intact skin (64% and 54% of renal transplant recipients compared to healthy donors (47%. 57% of renal transplant recipients demonstrated mixed infection in acrochordons. Conclusion: HPV DNA was frequently detected in acrochordons and intact skin of renal transplant recipients. In immunocompetent patients prevalence of HPV DNA in acrochordons was significantly higher compared to intact skin.

  14. Dimers of beta 2-glycoprotein I mimic the in vitro effects of beta 2-glycoprotein I-anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibody complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, B. C.; Meijers, J. C.; Derksen, R. H.; Arnout, J.; de Groot, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies are thought to cause lupus anticoagulant activity by forming bivalent complexes with beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI). To test this hypothesis, chimeric fusion proteins were constructed of the dimerization domain (apple 4) of factor XI and beta(2)GPI. Both a

  15. High-precision thickness measurements using beta backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.V.

    1978-11-01

    A two-axis, automated fixture for use with a high-intensity Pm-147 source and a photomultiplier-scintillation beta-backscatter probe for making thickness measurements has been designed and built. A custom interface was built to connect the system to a minicomputer, and software was written to position the tables, control the probe, and make the measurements. Measurements can be made in less time with much greater precision than by the method previously used

  16. Involvement of dying beta cell originated messenger molecules in differentiation of pancreatic mesenchymal stem cells under glucotoxic and glucolipotoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginci-Oktayoglu, Selda; Onay-Ucar, Evren; Sancar-Bas, Serap; Karatug-Kacar, Ayse; Arda, Emine S N; Bolkent, Sehnaz

    2018-05-01

    Beta cell mass regulation represents a critical issue for understanding and treatment of diabetes. The most important process in the development of diabetes is beta cell death, generally induced by glucotoxicity or glucolipotoxicity, and the regeneration mechanism of new beta cells that will replace dead beta cells is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the generation mechanism of new beta cells by considering the compensation phase of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, pancreatic islet derived mesenchymal stem cells (PI-MSCs) were isolated from adult rats and characterized. Then, beta cells isolated from rats were co-cultured with PI-MSCs and they were exposed to glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity and glucolipotoxicity conditions for 72 hr. As the results apoptotic and necrotic cell death were increased in both PI-MSCs and beta cells especially by the exposure of glucotoxic and glucolipotoxic conditions to the co-culture systems. Glucotoxicity induced-differentiated beta cells were functional due to their capability of insulin secretion in response to rising glucose concentrations. Moreover, beta cell proliferation was induced in the glucotoxicity-treated co-culture system whereas suppressed in lipotoxicity or glucolipotoxicity-treated co-culture systems. In addition, 11 novel proteins, that may release from dead beta cells and have the ability to stimulate PI-MSCs in the direction of differentiation, were determined in media of glucotoxicity or glucolipotoxicity-treated co-culture systems. In conclusion, these molecules were considered as important for understanding cellular mechanism of beta cell differentiation and diabetes. Thus, they may be potential targets for diagnosis and cellular or therapeutic treatment of diabetes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali Alexeev; Mardi Dungey; Wenying Yao

    2016-01-01

    Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous be...

  18. Assessment of affinities of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for monoamine transporters permanently expressed in cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tomoya; Fujita, Masahiro; Shimada, Shoichi; Sato, Kohji; Schloss, Patrick; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yasushi; Tohyama, Masaya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three cocaine analogs, beta-CIT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane), beta-CIT-FE (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane), and beta-CIT-FP (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane), on the uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine(DA), serotonin(5-HT), and 1-norepinephrine (NE) using cell lines permanently expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, to determine their affinities for these three transporters. We generated cell lines stably expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, by the Chen-Okayama method, and then tested the abilities of (-)cocaine, beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, beta-CIT-FP, and clomipramine to inhibit the uptake of [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, and 1-NE. Ki values of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, 1-NE uptake were 6, 29, and 33 nM, 91, 133, and 130 nM, and 28, 113 and 70 nM, respectively, whereas those of cocaine and clomipramine were 316, 581, and 176 nM and > 10,000, 437, and 851 nM, respectively. Beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP were shown to be potent DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake inhibitors. Beta-CIT and beta-CIT-FP were highly potent and selective dopamine uptake inhibitors, and therefore might be useful for imaging of DA transporter with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET)

  19. Turnover of beta-galactosidase in fibroblasts from patients with genetically different types of beta-galactosidase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Diggelen, O P; Schram, A W; Sinnott, M L; Smith, P J; Robinson, D; Galjaard, H

    1981-01-01

    The turnover of lysosomal beta-galactosidase was studied in fibroblast cultures from patients with Gm1-gangliosidosis and combined beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase deficiency, which had 5-10% residual beta-galactosidase activity. beta-Galactosidase was specifically inactivated with the suicide substrate beta-D-galactopyranosylmethyl-p-nitro-phenyltriazene (beta-Gal-MNT) and from the subsequent restoration of enzyme activity in cell cultures turnover times were calculated. By using [3H]bet...

  20. Synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites with high adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Haojie, E-mail: shj6922@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Liu Lei [Pharmaceutic College of Henan University (China); Jia Xiaohua; Min Chunying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University (China)

    2012-12-15

    A hybrid nanostructure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and {beta}-ferric oxyhydroxide ({beta}-FeOOH) nanoparticles is synthesized by ultrasonic-assisted in situ hydrolysis of the precursor ferric chloride and CNTs. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy , and transmission electron microscopy establishes the nanohybrid structure of the synthesized sample. The results revealed that the surface of CNTs was uniformly assembled by numerous {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles and had an average diameter of 3 nm. The formation route of anchoring {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles onto CNTs was proposed as the intercalation and adsorption of iron ions onto the wall of CNTs, followed by the nucleation and growth of {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles. The values of remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of the as-synthesized CNTs/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites were 0.1131 emu g, and 490.824 Oe, respectively. Furthermore, CNTs/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites showed a very high adsorption capacity of Congo red and thus these nanocomposites can be used as good adsorbents and can be used for the removal of the dye of Congo red from the waste water system.